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Sample records for atlantic menhaden brevoortia

  1. Infectivity and pathogenicity of the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Yasunari; Shields, Jeffrey D; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Kator, Howard; Blazer, Vicki S

    2003-03-31

    Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus develop characteristic skin ulcers in response to infection by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans. To investigate pathogenicity, we conducted a dose response study. Juvenile menhaden were inoculated subcutaneously with 0, 1, 5, 10, 100, and 500 secondary zoospores per fish and monitored for 37 d post-injection (p.i.). Survival rates declined with increasing zoospore dose, with significantly different survivorship curves for the different doses. Moribund and dead fish exhibited characteristic ulcerous lesions at the injection site starting at 13 d p.i. None of the sham-injected control fish (0 zoospore treatment) died. The LD50 (lethal dose killing 50% of exposed menhaden) for inoculated fish was estimated at 9.7 zoospores; however, some fish receiving an estimated single zoospore developed infections that resulted in death. Menhaden were also challenged by aqueous exposure and confirmed that A. invadans was highly pathogenic by this more environmentally realistic route. Fish that were acclimated to culture conditions for 30 d, and presumably free of skin damage, then aqueously exposed to 100 zoospores ml(-1), exhibited 14% lesion prevalence with 11% mortality. Net-handled fish that were similarly infected had a significantly higher lesion prevalence (64%) and mortality (64%). Control fish developed no lesions and did not die. Scanning electron microscopy of fish skin indicated that zoospores adhered to intact epidermis, germinated and penetrated the epithelium with a germ tube. Our results indicate that A. invadans is a primary pathogen of menhaden and is able to cause disease at very low zoospore concentrations. PMID:12747639

  2. Infectivity and pathogenicity of the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiryu, Y.; Shields, J.D.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Kator, H.; Blazer, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus develop characteristic skin ulcers in response to infection by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans. To investigate pathogenicity, we conducted a dose response study. Juvenile menhaden were inoculated subcutaneously with 0, 1, 5, 10, 100, and 500 secondary zoospores per fish and monitored for 37 d post-injection (p.i.). Survival rates declined with increasing zoospore dose, with significantly different survivorship curves for the different doses. Moribund and dead fish exhibited characteristic ulcerous lesions at the injection site starting at 13 d p.i. None of the sham-injected control fish (0 zoospore treatment) died. The LD50 (lethal dose killing 50% of exposed menhaden) for inoculated fish was estimated at 9.7 zoospores; however, some fish receiving an estimated single zoospore developed infections that resulted in death. Menhaden were also challenged by aqueous exposure and confirmed that A. invadans was highly pathogenic by this more environmentally realistic route. Fish that were acclimated to culture conditions for 30 d, and presumably free of skin damage, then aqueously exposed to 100 zoospores ml-1, exhibited 14% lesion prevalence with 11% mortality. Net-handled fish that were similarly infected had a significantly higher lesion prevalence (64%) and mortality (64%). Control fish developed no lesions and did not die. Scanning electron microscopy of fish skin indicated that zoospores adhered to intact epidermis, germinated and penetrated the epithelium with a germ tube. Our results indicate that A. invadans is a primary pathogen of menhaden and is able to cause disease at very low zoospore concentrations.

  3. Etiology of ulcerative lesions of Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) from James River, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Webb, Stanley R; Garman, Gregory C; McIninch, Stephen P; Nerad, Thomas A; Peglar, Michael T; Gillevet, Patrick M; Brown, Bonnie L

    2005-11-01

    We observed ulcerative lesions on live Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, during ichthyofaunal sampling in the tidal James River in October 1999 (near Jamestown, VA, USA). Other synoptically collected fishes exhibited no signs of lesions or pre-ulcerative tissues. Live fish were classified as unremarkable (no dermal anomalies), pre-ulcerative (integument intact with boil-like swelling), and ulcerative (severe focal lesions). Specimens were analyzed for bacteria, fungi, and pathogenic protozoans including amphizoic amoebae, Pfiesteria piscicida, and Kudoa sp. No Pfiesteria were detected in any tissue specimen. All B. tyrannus examined, including tissues from unremarkable fish, tested positive for presence of the known fish parasite Kudoa. Only ulcerative lesions were also colonized by bacteria, fungi, and amphizoic amoebae. The absence of bacteria, fungi, and protozoans from unremarkable and pre-ulcerative fish suggests that association of other potential pathogens with B. tyrannus ulcers was due to secondary colonization following lesion formation as a result of Kudoa infection. PMID:16133297

  4. Ontogeny of visual and mechanosensory structure and function in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus

    PubMed

    Higgs; Fuiman

    1996-01-01

    The importance of visual, mechanoreceptive and auditory inputs to escape responses was examined in larvae of the Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) presented with a simulated predatory stimulus. Ontogenetic changes in the retina, superficial neuromasts and auditory bullae were examined in concert with behavioral trials in which sensory inputs were selectively blocked. Menhaden larvae showed a decrease in cone photoreceptor density and first developed rod photoreceptors when their total length (TL) reached 8­10 mm; they began summing photoreceptive inputs at 12­14 mm TL. Inflation of the auditory bullae was complete by 15 mm TL. The proliferation of superficial neuromasts varied depending on their location, with cephalic superficial neuromasts decreasing in number beginning at 19 mm TL and numbers of trunk neuromasts continuing to increase throughout the larval period. In behavioral trials, responsiveness and the reactive distance to the approaching probe increased with increasing larva total length when all sensory inputs were available (control larvae). When visual inputs were blocked, responsiveness was lower than in control larvae, but still increased ontogenetically, while reactive distance showed no difference between control larvae and those lacking visual information. When neuromasts were ablated, ontogenetic increases in responsiveness and reactive distance were absent. Inflation of the auditory bullae had no discernible effect on behavior. The anatomical and behavioral results suggest that both vision and mechanoreception are used to trigger a response to a looming predatory stimulus and that mechanoreception, but not vision, contributes to the timing of the response. Ontogenetic improvements in performance are attributed mainly to neuromast proliferation and not to ontogenetic changes in the retina. PMID:9320556

  5. Juvenile atlantic menhaden ( Brevoortia tyrannus) in Delaware Bay, USA are the result of local and long-distance recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Phillip R.; Able, Kenneth W.

    2003-08-01

    We examined patterns of abundance, age, and spawning date distribution for juvenile Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, collected during monthly sampling in Delaware Bay salt marshes during 1996 and 1997 in order to determine temporal patterns of recruitment and their spawning locations. Two distinct cohorts were present during both years of the study; the first cohort appeared in April-May and persisted throughout the summer, while the second cohort appeared in July but was only represented in subsequent collections during 1997. Back-calculated birth dates indicated that some fish had spawned during the fall (September and October) during both years, probably in the vicinity of Delaware Bay. However, the majority of individuals were spawned during winter months (primarily December and January) when water temperatures were too cold to permit local spawning. These winter-spawned individuals probably originated south of Cape Hatteras where winter water temperatures are warm enough (>16 °C) to allow spawning and larval development. These winter-spawned fish were an important but variable fraction of the fish surviving to the juvenile stage in Delaware Bay fish (92 and 73% during 1996 and 1997, respectively). The pattern of fall and winter-spawned juvenile Atlantic menhaden using Delaware Bay is consistent with an earlier study of larval Atlantic menhaden in another southern New Jersey estuary and thus suggests that contributions of spawning from both the Middle Atlantic States and south of Cape Hatteras may occur consistently for Atlantic menhaden and other species.

  6. Toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and Juvenile Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus)

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, L.B.; Burton, D.T.

    1981-02-01

    Large quantitites of estuarine and marine water are treated with chlorine to prevent condenser system fouling at power plants. Chlorine and its residual by-products, however, are toxic to many forms of aquatic life. Ozone is one alternative oxidant which has proven to be an effective biocide and disinfectant in many fresh water applications. Ozonation of estuarine and marine waters, however, may produce residual compounds similar to those produced by chlorination. This study was initiated to provide baseline information on the toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to two representative estuarine species. The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, and the Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe, were selected because of their wide distribution and commercial importance. The toxicity of ozone has been compared with chlorine toxicity data from the literature in an effort to examine possible similarities in toxicity.

  7. Factors contributing to variability in larval ingress of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, C.; Houde, E. D.

    2013-02-01

    Annual recruitment levels of age-0 juvenile Atlantic menhaden to Chesapeake Bay, which historically supported >65% of coastwide recruitment, have been consistently low since the 1980s. Diminished larval supply to the Bay is one hypothesized explanation. In a three-year ichthyoplankton survey at the Chesapeake Bay mouth, abundance of ingressing larvae varied nine-fold among years. Larvae were most abundant in 2007-2008 and less abundant in 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. High month-to-month variability in larval concentrations was attributable primarily to seasonality of occurrences. There was no defined spatial pattern in distribution of larvae across the 18-km-wide Bay mouth, but larvae at the south side were longer and older on average than larvae at the middle and north side. Environmental variables measured at the times of larval collections were not correlated consistently with temporal and spatial variability in abundance of larvae at ingress, highlighting complexity and suggesting that abundance may be controlled by processes occurring offshore during the pre-ingress phase. Moreover, the substantial differences in inter-annual abundances of larvae at the Bay mouth were not concordant with subsequent abundances of age-0 juveniles in the three survey years, indicating that important processes affecting recruitment of Atlantic menhaden operate after ingress, during the larval to juvenile transition stage.

  8. Factors influencing the sporulation and cyst formation of Aphanomyces invadans, etiological agent of ulcerative mycosis in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiryu, Y.; Blazer, V.S.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Kator, H.; Shields, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Oomycete infections caused by Aphanomyces invadans occur in freshwater and estuarine fishes around the world. Along the east coast of the USA, skin ulcers caused by A. invadans are prevalent in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus. From laboratory observations low salinities appear crucial to transmission of the pathogen. To better understand aspects of transmission, we characterized sporulation and cyst formation of secondary zoospores of two isolates of A. invadans at different salinities and temperatures. Sporulation occurred only at low salinities. At room temperature (ca. 20-22 C), using "pond water" augmented with artificial sea salts, the endemic strain WIC and the Thailand strain PA7 of A. invadans produced free-swimming secondary zoospores at salinities of 0, 1 and 2 psu (practical salinity unit = ???), but not at 4 psu or higher. Secondary zoospores of another species, ATCC-62427 (Aphanomyces sp.), were observed at 1, 2, 4 and 8 psu but not at 0 and 12 psu. Secondary zoospores of all three isolates, especially WIC, were abundant and motile 1-2 d post-sporulation. Sporulation was temperature dependent and occurred over a relatively narrow range. No sporulation occurred at 4, 30 or 35 C for either WIC or PA7. For both strains zoospore production within 1-3 d after the initiation of sporulation was more prolific at 25 C than at 20 and 15 C. At 15 C production of zoospores was sustained over 11 d for WIC and 5 d for PA7. At room temperature single WIC secondary zoospores remained motile 12-18 h. Salinities exceeding 4 psu or vigorous shaking caused immediate cyst formation of WIC secondary zoospores. Exposure to menhaden tissue, but not tissues of other fishes to secondary zoospores (WIC), caused rapid (2 h) cyst formation. Cysts were capable of excysting when transferred to 1 psu water within 2-3 h of cyst formation. Cysts that had remained encysted in 6.5 psu for 24 h did not excyst when transferred to 1 psu water. Salinity and temperature requirements

  9. Factors influencing the sporulation and cyst formation of Aphanomyces invadans, etiological agent of ulcerative mycosis in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Yasunari; Blazer, Vicki S; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Kator, Howard; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2005-01-01

    Oomycete infections caused by Aphanomyces invadans occur in freshwater and estuarine fishes around the world. Along the east coast of the USA, skin ulcers caused by A. invadans are prevalent in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus. From laboratory observations low salinities appear crucial to transmission of the pathogen. To better understand aspects of transmission, we characterized sporulation and cyst formation of secondary zoospores of two isolates of A. invadans at different salinities and temperatures. Sporulation occurred only at low salinities. At room temperature (ca. 20-22 C), using "pond water" augmented with artificial sea salts, the endemic strain WIC and the Thailand strain PA7 of A. invadans produced free-swimming secondary zoospores at salinities of 0, 1 and 2 psu (practical salinity unit = per thousand), but not at 4 psu or higher. Secondary zoospores of another species, ATCC-62427 (Aphanomyces sp.), were observed at 1, 2, 4 and 8 psu but not at 0 and 12 psu. Secondary zoospores of all three isolates, especially WIC, were abundant and motile 1-2 d postsporulation. Sporulation was temperature dependent and occurred over a relatively narrow range. No sporulation occurred at 4, 30 or 35 C for either WIC or PA7. For both strains zoospore production within 1-3 d after the initiation of sporulation was more prolific at 25 C than at 20 and 15 C. At 15 C production of zoospores was sustained over 11 d for WIC and 5 d for PA7. At room temperature single WIC secondary zoospores remained motile 12-18 h. Salinities exceeding 4 psu or vigorous shaking caused immediate cyst formation of WIC secondary zoospores. Exposure to menhaden tissue, but not tissues of other fishes to secondary zoospores (WIC), caused rapid (2 h) cyst formation. Cysts were capable of excysting when transferred to 1 psu water within 2-3 h of cyst formation. Cysts that had remained encysted in 6.5 psu for 24 h did not excyst when transferred to 1 psu water. Salinity and temperature

  10. Age, growth and hatch dates of ingressing larvae and surviving juveniles of Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus.

    PubMed

    Lozano, C; Houde, E D; Wingate, R L; Secor, D H

    2012-10-01

    Ages, growth and hatch dates of ingressing Brevoortia tyrannus larvae were determined in a 3 year sampling survey at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. To determine if otolith-aged cohorts had variable relative survival, hatch dates of summer-caught young-of-the-year (YOY) juveniles collected throughout the Chesapeake Bay were compared with hatch dates of ingressing larvae. Modal total length of ingressing larvae was similar among years: 28 mm in 2005-2006 and 2007-2008, and 30 mm in 2006-2007. Ages of ingressing larvae ranged from 9 to 96 days post hatch (dph); mean ages were similar among years, but significantly older in 2006-2007 (50 dph) than in 2005-2006 (44 dph) and 2007-2008 (46 dph). Larval growth rates differed among years. Earliest growth, when larvae were offshore (0-20 dph), was faster in 2006-2007 (0·62 mm day(-1)), than in 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 (0·55 mm day(-1) in these years). Subsequently, from 30 to 80 dph, growth was slowest in 2006-2007. Hatch dates of ingressing larvae occurred from September to March and 90% (2007-2008) to 98% (2006-2007) had hatched prior to 31 December. In contrast, most surviving YOY juvenile B. tyrannus had hatched in January to February, suggesting selective mortality of early-hatched individuals, apparently during the overwinter, larval to juvenile transition period. PMID:23020567

  11. A comparison of the avoidance responses of individual and schooling juvenile Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus subjected to simultaneous chlorine and delta T conditions.

    PubMed

    Hall, L W; Burton, D T; Margrey, S L; Graves, W C

    1982-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the avoidance responses of individual and groups of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, exposed to simultaneous elevated temperature (0, 2, 4, and 6 degrees C) and total residual chlorine (TRC) (0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mg/l) conditions. An unbalanced three-factor factorial design was used to develop predictive avoidance models with this species at a test temperature of 25 degrees C. Fish tested in groups elicited the following avoidance responses: (1) a high avoidance response occurred at 0.10 and 0.15 mg/l TRC regardless of delta T; (2) avoidance increased with increasing delta T values at 0.00 mg/l TRC; and (3) TRC was the most important factor influencing avoidance. Atlantic menhaden tested individually demonstrated the following responses: (1) avoidance increased with increasing delta T at 0.15 mg/l TRC; (2) minimal increase in avoidance at 0.00, 0.05, and 0.10 mg/l TRC as delta T increased; (3) greatest avoidance occurred at 0.10 mg/l TRC and 6 degrees C delta T; and (4) TRC was the most important factor influencing avoidance. A significant difference was found between avoidance models of the group and individual tests: greater avoidance generally occurred at most test conditions during the group tests. The data collected in this study showed the importance of testing methods when evaluating the avoidance responses of a strongly schooling species exposed to simultaneous chlorine and delta T conditions simulating a power-plant effluent. PMID:7161833

  12. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  13. A quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay to measure TGF-beta mRNA and its correlation with hematologic, plasma chemistry and organo-somatic indices responses in triamcinolone-treated Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A K; Harms, C A; Levine, J F; Law, J McHugh

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to measure transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), an estuarine-dependent species plagued by ulcerative skin lesions in the estuaries along the eastern United States. Atlantic menhaden were acclimated in a closed system for two weeks prior to initiation of the study. The synthetic glucocorticoid, triamcinolone acetonide (10mg/kg body weight) was administered by intracoelomic injection and its effect on the splenic mononuclear cell TGF-beta mRNA transcription, liver-somatic index, spleno-somatic index, hematology, and plasma chemistry were compared to untreated fish at 48 and 96h post-treatment. Triamcinolone-treated Atlantic menhaden showed suppression of TGF-beta mRNA production, neutrophilia, monocytosis, lymphopenia, and an increase in blood glucose concentrations. The health indices used in this study may help us interpret some of the changes observed during the development of ulcerative skin lesions in wild-caught menhaden. PMID:16139358

  14. Etiology and pathogenesis of skin ulcers in menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannis: does Pfiesteria piscicida play a role?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Densmore, C.; Kator, H.; Zwerner, D.; Lilley, J.

    2000-01-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, is widely blamed for adverse human health effects, acute fish kills and skin lesion events in fishes, particularly menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannis, inhabiting coastal waters from Delaware to North Carolina, USA. In response, we initiated studies to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of presumed 'Pfiesteria-specific' menhaden skin lesions. Histopathologically, all lesions (>150 fish examined) were associated with a highly invasive and pathogenic fungus eliciting severe tissue necrosis and intense granulomatous inflammation. Severity and extent of the host response indicates that ulcers were at least 1 week old or older. Maryland and Virginia currently use menhaden ulcers as one of several indicators of local Pfiesteria activity. However, their chronic nature, advanced age, and consistent fungal involvement suggest that their use for this purpose may not be valid. We recently isolated an Aphanomyces sp. from the menhaden lesions which by appearance in culture, temperature growth curves, pathogenicity studies in snakehead and positive immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal antibodies suggest the infectious agent is A. invadans (cause of epizootic ulcerative syndrome in Asia, Japan and Australia) or a very closely related species. Ongoing research will address pathogenicity of the fungus in menhaden, genetic comparisons of isolates, and the role of environmental stressors, including P. piscicida, in initiation of the infection. Copyright (C) 2000.

  15. Assessing the trophic role and ecosystem impact of Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) with carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) are an important component species of the coastal ecosystem and the target of the largest fishery by landings in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). As filter feeders, they forage on a variety of plankton and detritus and, by grazing plankton stocks, ma...

  16. Trace metal concentrations in menhaden larvae Brevoortia patronus from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Peter J.; Hoss, Donald E.

    1986-09-01

    Whole body concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe were measured in individual gulf menhaden larvae, Brevoortia patronus (11-18 mm standard length) from coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico as part of a continuing project investigating the mechanisms of biological interaction and effect of trace metals in marine food webs. Larvae were collected at three different times between February 1981 and 1982 at two locations, offshore of Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River and offshore of Galveston, Texas. Fish at the Mississippi location had significantly ( P≤0·05) greater concentrations of all metals compared with those from the Galveston location. No significant ( P>0·05) differences in concentration were detected among the three sampling periods. Menhaden larvae had metal conentrations comparabe to other species of larval fish and zooplankton from the Gulf of Mexico and other coastal waters. Differences in metal concentrations in larvae from the two locations appear to be a subtle response of the fish to differences in the trace metal chemistries of the two coastal areas. Processes influencing metal concentrations are discussed.

  17. Multitiered health assessment of Atlantic menhaden in the Pamlico River, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A K; Law, J M; Harms, C A; Levine, J F

    2007-12-01

    During the fall of 2001 and 2002, Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus were collected from several creeks in the Pamlico River, North Carolina, to investigate recent fish kills and ulcerative skin lesions. High skin lesion prevalence (>50%) was associated with the Atlantic menhaden kills in fall 2001, whereas there were no fish kills in fall 2002 and skin lesion prevalence was lower (< or =50%). Indicators of tissue damage (histopathological analyses of gills, heart, liver, intestine, and anterior kidney), body condition (liver somatic index), and immune status (transforming growth factor-beta [TGF-beta] messenger RNA [mRNA] production, hematology, plasma chemistry, and splenosomatic index) were compared between Atlantic menhaden with and without ulcerative skin lesions in fall. Atlantic menhaden with ulcerative skin lesions had significantly higher liver somatic indices, neutrophil and monocyte percentages, and splenic mononuclear cell TGF-beta mRNA levels than did fish without lesions. Hematocrit values, plasma protein, and Ca concentrations were significantly lower in fish with ulcerative skin lesions than in those without. The indicators used in this study at multiple levels of biological organization have provided valuable baseline data for understanding the health status of lesioned and nonlesioned Atlantic menhaden in the Pamlico River. PMID:18333477

  18. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic). Atlantic Menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.G.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1983-10-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, range, life history, environmental requirements, and significance of coastal aquatic species. The Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, contributes 25% to 40% of the landings of the largest commercial fishery (by weight) in the United States. Landings for 1979 to 1981 averaged about 400,000 mt (440,920 t) and $38 million annually. All ages are important prey for many fishes and birds; the species is a seasonally important and migratory component of estuarine and shelf fish assemblages. In the South Atlantic, major spawning occurs from December through February near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in shelf waters that are 100 to 200 m (328 to 655 ft) deep. Larval Atlantic menhaden feed on zooplankton and move shoreward to estuaries after 1 to 3 months at sea. With growth, the juveniles gradually change to a less-selective, filter-feeding mode and generally migrate from estuaries to open shelf areas during late fall. Fish that exit estuaries everywhere along the Atlantic seaboard eventually disperse throughout the species' range. Atlantic menhaden occur in a broad range of temperatures and salinities. Larvae move toward low-salinity areas upon entering estuaries, and prejuveniles are dependent on low-salinity marsh habitats and river shoals for nurseries. 88 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  19. A sampler for capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.D.; Hedrick, L.R.; Margraf, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus for use in laboratory studies required the design and construction of a sampling device that would allow us to make collections of live fish from open-water areas. Our device for capturing 1-2.5-in larval-juvenile fish was constructed of a stainless steel frame that supported a 9.84-ft-long (3-m-long)5 cone plankton net with a 3.28-ft-diameter (1-m-diameter) opening and a 0.04-in (1-mm) mesh size. Although the plankton net was similar to that used during typical larval fish collections, the cod end was constructed of Plexiglas and was nearly watertight; this prevented impingement and injury to larval fish and provided a calm-water environment. The cod end was designed for quick release from the plankton net, and the entire cod end could be submerged into a 75-gal onboard holding tank. This design and technique obviated the netting or emerging of fish from the water until they were returned to the laboratory. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  20. Physical properties and oxidation rates of unrefined menhaden oil (Brevoortia patronus).

    PubMed

    Yin, Huaixia; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2010-04-01

    Unrefined menhaden oil was evaluated for thermal and rheological properties and its temperature-dependent viscosity and lipid oxidation rate were determined. Peroxide value, free fatty acids, density, specific gravity, water activity, moisture content, and enthalpy of the unrefined menhaden oil were 5.70 meq/kg, 3.80%, 0.93 g/mL, 0.93%, 0.52%, 0.15%, and 20.2 kJ/kg, respectively. The melting point range of unrefined menhaden oil was found to be -69.5 to 27.21 degrees C. The menhaden oil exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior at lower temperatures (5 to 25 degrees C), while it behaved like a Newtonian fluid at 30 degrees C. The oil apparent viscosity at 5 degrees C (0.22 Pa.s) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that at 30 degrees C (0.033 Pa.s). The average magnitude of activation energy for viscosity of the unrefined menhaden oil was 50.37 kJ/mol. The predicted apparent viscosity agreed (R(2)= 0.9837) satisfactorily with the experimental apparent viscosity. The minimal lipid oxidation rate of the oil was found at 25 and 35 degrees C for 6 h, higher lipid oxidation rates were observed when the oil was heated for 6 h at 45 to 85 degrees C. The rate of lipid oxidation for unrefined menhaden oil was temperature dependent (R(2)= 0.9425). This study showed that the magnitude of the apparent viscosity and oxidation rate of the unrefined menhaden oil was greatly influenced by temperature. PMID:20492290

  1. Assessment of the toxic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affecting Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) harvested from waters impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon Spill.

    PubMed

    Olson, Gregory M; Meyer, Buffy M; Portier, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil and gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. This resulted in the possible contamination of marine organisms with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), USEPA identified constituents of concern. To determine the impact of the DWH oil spill, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), a commercially harvested and significant trophic grazing species, was sampled from two Louisiana coastal regions between the years 2011-2013. Tissue extraction and GC/MS analysis demonstrated measurable concentrations of PAH within menhaden. Analysis yielded total PAHs, carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ), and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) which provided an initial toxic potential assessment of this GoM Fishery. Gulf menhaden contained less total PAH concentrations in 2012 and significantly less in 2013 as compared to 2011 (p < 0.05) ranging from 7 ug/g tissue dry weight to 3 ng/g tissue dry weight. Carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs were also significantly reduced (p < 0.05) over the three year period. The reduction of total PAH concentrations and the reduction of BaP-TEQs and MEQs between 2011 and 2013 indicates a diminished input of new source PAHs along with a reduction of carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in menhaden populations. The use of Gulf menhaden was successful in determining the acute toxic potential of PAHs contaminating the GoM in the years directly following the DWH spill event. PMID:26692508

  2. Mass spectrometric elucidation of triacylglycerol content of Brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil using non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography under ultra high pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Dugo, Paola; Beccaria, Marco; Fawzy, Nermeen; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Mondello, Luigi

    2012-10-12

    A non-aqueous reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed, and optimized for triacylglycerol analysis in a Brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil sample. Four columns were serially coupled to tackle such a task, for a total length of 60 cm of shell-packed stationary phase, and operated under ultra high pressure conditions. As detection, positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to attain identification of the analyzed sample components. A number of 137 triacylglycerols containing up to 19 fatty acids, with 14-22 carbon atom alkyl chain length and 0-6 double bonds, were positively identified in the complex lipidic sample. This is the first work that reports an extensive characterization of the triacylglycerol fraction of menhaden oil. PMID:22503927

  3. Separation and characterization of Menhaden hemoglobin components.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, G S; Gold, F

    1980-01-01

    Hemolysate from Brevoortia tyrannus (Atlantic Menhaden) consists of two major and two minor components, as determined by ion-exchange chromatography. Oxygen equilibria, flash photolysis and rapid mixing techniques are used to detect functional differences between the two major components, revealing a system analogous to the Trout I-IV system. Menhaden IV exhibits a moderate Root effect and is sensitive to organic phosphate inhibition. Menhaden I exhibits little sensitivity to pH changes or the presence of organic phosphates. These differences are probably based on contrasting kinetic behavior, subunit heterogeneity and replacement of a COOH-terminal histidine residue. Theories accounting for the significance of functional hemoglobin multiplicity are reviewed. By bypassing the normal physiological unloading mechanisms, Menhaden I may be functioning as an oxygen reservoir, perhaps for red muscle during periods of high activity. PMID:7353958

  4. Chemical and histological comparisons between Brevoortia sp. (menhaden) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA and Delaware Bay, NJ following the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R; Olson, Gregory; Pena, Edwin A; Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    Body burdens of PAHs were compared to histological effects in menhaden (Family: Clupeidae, Genus: Brevoortia) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA (BBLA) and Delaware Bay, NJ (DBNJ). Barataria Bay was heavily oiled during the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, while Delaware Bay although urbanized had no reported recent oil spills. GCMS analyses of pre-spill 2009, BBLA and DBNJ fish found predominantly C2/C3 phenanthrene (1.28-6.52 ng/mg). However, BBLA also contained five higher molecular weight PAHs (0.06-0.34 ng/mg DW). Fluorescent aromatic compound spectroscopy (FACS) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue showed statistically higher levels of hydroxypyrene-like PAHs in DBNJ than BBLA fish. Histopathologic lesions were more prevalent in BBLA than DBNJ fish. The lesion prevalence (gill, trunk kidney, epidermis, stomach) in the BBLA menhaden were significantly higher and more severe than observed in the DBNJ menhaden. Reversible lesions included gill lamellar hyperplasia, adhesions, edema, and epidermal hyperplasia. The increased pigmented macrophage centers were indicative of activated macrophages responding to connective tissue damage or other antigens. The liver hepatic necrosis and renal tissue mineralization may well have undergone repair, but damage to the kidney nephrons and hepatic/biliary regions of the liver would be slower to resolve and apparently remained after elimination of PAHs. Therefore, a direct cause and effect between DWH oil spill and increased lesion prevalence in BBLA menhaden could not be established.

  5. Chemical and histological comparisons between Brevoortia sp. (menhaden) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA and Delaware Bay, NJ following the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R; Olson, Gregory; Pena, Edwin A; Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    Body burdens of PAHs were compared to histological effects in menhaden (Family: Clupeidae, Genus: Brevoortia) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA (BBLA) and Delaware Bay, NJ (DBNJ). Barataria Bay was heavily oiled during the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, while Delaware Bay although urbanized had no reported recent oil spills. GCMS analyses of pre-spill 2009, BBLA and DBNJ fish found predominantly C2/C3 phenanthrene (1.28-6.52 ng/mg). However, BBLA also contained five higher molecular weight PAHs (0.06-0.34 ng/mg DW). Fluorescent aromatic compound spectroscopy (FACS) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue showed statistically higher levels of hydroxypyrene-like PAHs in DBNJ than BBLA fish. Histopathologic lesions were more prevalent in BBLA than DBNJ fish. The lesion prevalence (gill, trunk kidney, epidermis, stomach) in the BBLA menhaden were significantly higher and more severe than observed in the DBNJ menhaden. Reversible lesions included gill lamellar hyperplasia, adhesions, edema, and epidermal hyperplasia. The increased pigmented macrophage centers were indicative of activated macrophages responding to connective tissue damage or other antigens. The liver hepatic necrosis and renal tissue mineralization may well have undergone repair, but damage to the kidney nephrons and hepatic/biliary regions of the liver would be slower to resolve and apparently remained after elimination of PAHs. Therefore, a direct cause and effect between DWH oil spill and increased lesion prevalence in BBLA menhaden could not be established. PMID:26385175

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Gulf menhaden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christmas, J.Y.; McBee, James T.; Waller, Richard S.; Sutter, Frederick C.

    1982-01-01

    The gulf menhaden is an estuarine-dependent marine species that inhabits northern Gulf of ~1exico waters. The species is generally replaced at the southernmost extent of its range by the finescale menhaden (Brevoortia gunteri) in Texas and the yellowfin menhaden (~. smithi) in Florida. According to mark and recapture studies, there is little along-shore movement of gulf menhaden. Few gulf menhaden cross from one side of the Mississippi River Delta to the other (Kroger and Pristas 1979).

  7. Myxosporean plasmodial infection associated with ulcerative lesions in young-of-the-year Atlantic menhaden in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, and possible links to Kudoa clupeidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimschuessel, R.; Gieseker, C.M.; Driscoll, C.; Baya, A.; Kane, A.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Evans, J.J.; Kent, M.L.; Moran, J.D.W.; Poynton, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) (Clupeidae), observed along the USA east coast, have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal and, recently, harmful algal blooms. To understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile Atlantic menhaden collected during their seasonal presence in Chesapeake Bay tributaries from April to October 1999 and from March to August 2000. We conducted histopathological examinations of young-of-the-year fish from the Pocomoke River tributary, which has a history of fish mortalities and high lesion prevalence. Kudoa clupeidae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) spores were present in the muscles of fish collected in both years. Of the fish assessed by histology in April, 5 to 14% were infected, while in May 90 to 96% were infected. Infection rates remained high during the summer. Mature spores were primarily located within myomeres and caused little or no observable pathological changes. Ultrastructure showed spores with capsulogenic cells bearing filamentous projections, and a basal crescentic nucleus with mottled nucleoplasm containing cleaved, condensed chromatin. Also, a highly invasive plasmodial stage of a myxozoan was found in the lesions of juvenile Atlantic menhaden. The plasmodia were observed in fish collected between May and July, with the maximum occurrence in late June 1999 and late May 2000. Plasmodia penetrated and surrounded muscle bundles, causing grossly observable raised lesions in 73% of all fish infected with this invasive stage. Plasmodia were also detected in the visceral organs, branchial arches, and interocular muscles of some fish. Some of the invasive extrasporogonic plasmodial lesions were associated with ulcers and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. The plasmodial stage appeared to slough out of the tissue with subsequent evidence of wound healing. Ultrastructure showed plasmodia with an elaborate irregular surface, divided into distinct ectoplasm and

  8. Behavorial responses to two estuarine fish species subjected to bis (tri-n-butyltin) oxide. [Morone saxatilis; Brevoortia tyrannus

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Pinkney, A.E.; Zeger, S.; Burton, D.T.; Lenkevich, M.J.

    1984-04-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the avoidance response of juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis and Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus to bis (tri-n-butyltin) oxide. An avoidance responses was exhibited by striped bass at a total organic tin concentration of 24.9 ..mu..g/L. Atlantic menhaden exhibited avoidance to total organic tin concentrations of 5.5 ..mu..g/L and greater. Atlantic menhaden are generally more sensitive to toxicants than striped bass; therefore, avoidance responses reported in this study are not surprising. It is highly likely that the concentrations of total organic tin that were avoided by the test species in this study were much higher than expected environmental concentrations. Ecologically significant hazards may occur due to potential effects that unperceived or non-avoided organotin concentrations may have on behavioral responses mediated by chemosensory systems.

  9. INFECTIVITY AND PATHOGENICITY OF THE OOMYCETE APHANOMYCES INVADANS IN ATLANTIC MENHADEN BREVOORTIA TYRANNUS. (R828225)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.G.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1989-08-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. The Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) is an important commercial fish along the Atlantic coast. In the South Atlantic Region, Atlantic menhaden spawn during winter in continental shelf waters. Adults then move inshore and northward in spring; some move into estuaries as far as the brackish-freshwater boundary. Atlantic menhaden larvae in the South Atlantic Region enter estuaries after 1 to 3 months at sea. Young fish move into the shallow regions of estuaries and seem to prefer vegetated marsh habitats. Atlantic menhaden are size-selective plankton feeders as larvae, and filter feeders as juveniles and adults. Due to their large population size, individual growth rates, and seasonal movements, Atlantic menhaden annually consume and redistribute large amounts of energy and materials. They are also important prey for large game fishes such as bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). The Atlantic menhaden is associated with estuarine and nearshore systems during all phases of its life cycle. Young menhaden require these food-rich habitats to survive and grown. Destruction of estuarine wetlands has decreased nursery habitat available to Atlantic menhaden and other estuarine wetlands has decreased nursery habitat available to Atlantic menhaden and other estuarine-dependent species. 115 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Myxosporean plasmodial infection associated with ulcerative lesions in young-of-the-year Atlantic menhaden in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, and possible links to Kudoa clupeidae.

    PubMed

    Reimschuessel, R; Gieseker, C M; Driscoll, C; Baya, A; Kane, A S; Blazer, V S; Evans, J J; Kent, M L; Moran, J D W; Poynton, S L

    2003-02-13

    Ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) (Clupeidae), observed along the USA east coast, have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal and, recently, harmful algal blooms. To understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile Atlantic menhaden collected during their seasonal presence in Chesapeake Bay tributaries from April to October 1999 and from March to August 2000. We conducted histopathological examinations of young-of-the-year fish from the Pocomoke River tributary, which has a history of fish mortalities and high lesion prevalence. Kudoa clupeidae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) spores were present in the muscles of fish collected in both years. Of the fish assessed by histology in April, 5 to 14% were infected, while in May 90 to 96% were infected. Infection rates remained high during the summer. Mature spores were primarily located within myomeres and caused little or no observable pathological changes. Ultrastructure showed spores with capsulogenic cells bearing filamentous projections, and a basal crescentic nucleus with mottled nucleoplasm containing cleaved, condensed chromatin. Also, a highly invasive plasmodial stage of a myxozoan was found in the lesions of juvenile Atlantic menhaden. The plasmodia were observed in fish collected between May and July, with the maximum occurrence in late June 1999 and late May 2000. Plasmodia penetrated and surrounded muscle bundles, causing grossly observable raised lesions in 73% of all fish infected with this invasive stage. Plasmodia were also detected in the visceral organs, branchial arches, and interocular muscles of some fish. Some of the invasive extrasporogonic plasmodial lesions were associated with ulcers and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. The plasmodial stage appeared to slough out of the tissue with subsequent evidence of wound healing. Ultrastructure showed plasmodia with an elaborate irregular surface, divided into distinct ectoplasm and

  12. Adaptation of Sonication-Assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion of Tissues for the Subsequent Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus)

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Gregory M.; Meyer, Buffy M.; Portier, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    A new adaptation based on matrix solid phase dispersion of tissue for the subsequent isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was developed and used for extractions of Gulf menhaden caught during the summer of 2011. Many Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) methods require specific cartridges and other clean-up materials in order to achieve proper extraction. For this study, the tissues were lyophilized prior to applying the adapted MSPD method allowing for a much more complete homogenization with the C18 silica. The tissue was spiked with phenanthrene d10 as a surrogate as a measure of PAH recovery prior to the lyophilisation process to determine if any target compounds were lost and prior to sonication as per the finalized adaptation procedure to determine method efficiency. This technique used C18 silica in a 1 : 1 ratio as the primary homogenizing material for the menhaden tissue matrix and was eluted with dichloromethane (DCM) until visibly clear. The overall study mean recovery was 88% ± 5% with method detection limits between 0.4 ng/g and 4.4 ng/g tissue dry weight. This adapted protocol has been used exclusively on the analysis of high lipid content fish stocks affected by dispersed and weathered oil from the BP Horizon incident. PMID:24738032

  13. Excitation-emission matrix scan analysis of raw fish oil from coastal New Jersey menhaden collected before and after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; DeFelice, Chelsea R; Murphy, Wyatt R

    2016-06-30

    The impact of Hurricane Sandy (October 29, 2012) on PAH exposure was investigated in adult Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) collected along the NJ coast. Collections were made in August, September and/or October of 2011, 2012 and 2013. PAHs were monitored in raw fish oil using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Results showed that raw fish oils had relatively high levels of high molecular weight, PAH-like compounds (173 to 24,421ng/mL) compared to values reported for bile in other species. EEM profiles resembled that of crude oil and excluded matrix interference by some common biological molecules that also fluoresce. Concentrations and EEM profiles varied by collection; however, collection ship, month, year and fish size did not account for the data. Replicates showed that fish from the same catch had similar PAH exposure. Overall, Hurricane Sandy did not alter body burdens of PAHs in raw fish oil of menhaden.

  14. Excitation-emission matrix scan analysis of raw fish oil from coastal New Jersey menhaden collected before and after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; DeFelice, Chelsea R; Murphy, Wyatt R

    2016-06-30

    The impact of Hurricane Sandy (October 29, 2012) on PAH exposure was investigated in adult Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) collected along the NJ coast. Collections were made in August, September and/or October of 2011, 2012 and 2013. PAHs were monitored in raw fish oil using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Results showed that raw fish oils had relatively high levels of high molecular weight, PAH-like compounds (173 to 24,421ng/mL) compared to values reported for bile in other species. EEM profiles resembled that of crude oil and excluded matrix interference by some common biological molecules that also fluoresce. Concentrations and EEM profiles varied by collection; however, collection ship, month, year and fish size did not account for the data. Replicates showed that fish from the same catch had similar PAH exposure. Overall, Hurricane Sandy did not alter body burdens of PAHs in raw fish oil of menhaden. PMID:26849916

  15. Regression analyses of stock-recruitment relationships in three fish populations. [Morone saxatilis; Brevoortia tyrannus; Alosa sapidissima

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiyama, R.M.; Van Winkle, W.; Kirk, B.L.; Stevens, D.E.

    1981-06-01

    The statistical dependence of recruitment level upon stock size and selected environmental variables was examined for three fish stocks: California striped bass (Morone saxatilis), Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), and American shad (Alosa sapidissima). The analysis involved: (1) single and multiple linear regressions of recruitment against stock size and environmental variables; (b) nonlinear regressions of recruitment against stock size using unmodified Ricker and Beverton-Holt stock-recruitment models, followed by linear regression of residuals on environmental variables; and (c) nonlinear regressions using Ricker and Beverton-Holt models modified to include an environmental variable. The relative effectiveness of these three regression approaches in describing variation in recruitment level of the three fish stocks was evaluated, with effectiveness of regression models gauged by the magnitude of residual mean square values and by whether or not regression models reduced to simpler forms (due to parameter estimates not significantly different from 0.0) after being fitted to data. No single regression approach was consistently superior to the others in explaining variation in recruitment for all three fish stocks. Linear models appeared more effective than the other two regression approaches for striped bass, while modified stock-recruitment models showed the best fit to data for Atlantic menhaden and American shad. Although detailed aspects of the results may be specific to the analytical procedures and time series of data utilized, general features are still evident. Striped bass and Atlantic menhaden recruitment showed stronger statistical relationships to environmental variables than to stock size, whereas stock size apparently has been an important determinant of recruitment variation in American shad. 24 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Atlantic coast feeding habits of striped bass: A synthesis supporting a coast-wide understanding of trophic biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, J. F.; Overton, A.S.; Ferry, K.H.; Mather, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increase in the Atlantic coast population of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), prompted managers to re-evaluate their predatory impact. Published and unpublished diet data for striped bass on the Atlantic Coast of North America were examined for geographical, ontogenetic and seasonal patterns in the diet and to assess diet for this species. Diets of young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass were similar across the Upper Atlantic (UPATL), Chesapeake and Delaware Bays (CBDEL) and North Carolina (NCARO) areas of the Atlantic coast where either fish or mysid shrimp dominate the diet. For age one and older striped bass, cluster analysis partitioned diets based on predominance of either Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe), characteristic of striped bass from the CBDEL and NCARO regions, or non-menhaden fishes or invertebrates, characteristic of fish from the UPATL, in the diet. The predominance of invertebrates in the diets of striped bass in the UPATL region can be attributed to the absence of several important species groups in Northern waters, particularly sciaenid fishes, and to the sporadic occurrences of Atlantic menhaden to UPATL waters. In all regions, across most seasons and in most size classes of striped bass, the clupeiod fishes; menhaden, anchovies (Anchoa spp.) and river herrings (Alosa spp,) and Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., dominated the diets of striped bass above the first year of life.

  17. Avoidance responses of estuarine fish exposed to heated-dechlorinated power plant effluents. [Morone saxatilis; Brevoortia tyrannus

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.; Graves, W.C.; Margrey, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Avoidance responses of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to simultaneous dechlorinated waters (using SO/sub 2/ to dechlorinate total residual chlorine (TRC) concentrations of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mg/L TRC) and elevated temperatures (0, 2, 4 and 6 /sup 0/C) were evaluated at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C. Both species showed minimal avoidance to dechlorinated estuarine water (no ..delta..T) at all acclimation temperatures. Elevated temperature (..delta..T) or a combination of ..delta..T and dechlorination were the most important factors influencing avoidance of the test species. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance behavior of both species exposed to heated-dechlorinated power plant conditions. Greatest avoidance of all test conditions generally occurred at an acclimation temperature of 30/sup 0/C. Both species avoided 34/sup 0/C when acclimated to 30/sup 0/C regardless of the dechlorinated condition.

  18. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    PubMed

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally.

  19. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    PubMed

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally. PMID:25867932

  20. PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

  1. Avoidance responses of estuarine fish subjected to heated chlorinated and dechlorinated power plant effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The avoidance responses of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to simultaneous total residual chlorine (TRC) and dechlorinated conditions were evaluated at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30C.

  2. Particulate accumulations in the vital organs of wild Brevoortia patronus from the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J; Olson, Gregory; Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R

    2015-11-01

    Histopathologic lesions were observed in the commercially important filter-feeding fish, Brevoortia patronus (Gulf menhaden), along the Louisiana Gulf Coast. Menhaden collected from Louisiana waters in 2011 and 2012, 1 and 2 years following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, showed varying severities of gill lesions as well as an unusual accumulation of black particulates visible at necropsy in the heart and stomach vasculature. The PAH derived particulates were typically 1-4 µm in diameter, but larger aggregates were observed in the coronary vessels on the ventricle surfaces and their location and size was confirmed by light microscopy. Composited particulate composition was consistent with weathered petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures based on GC-MS analysis. Particulates were present in 63 and 80% of fish hearts and 70 and 89% of stomach muscularis collected in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Tissue embedded particulates can lead to localized cellular damage from bioavailable compounds, as well as chronic effects from occlusion of sensitive tissues' blood flow. The PAH derived particulates appeared to act as emboli in small capillaries, and could associated with localized inflammation, focal necrosis and inappropriate collagen and fibroblast tissue repair. We believe large volume filter feeding teleosts, such as menhaden (up to 3 million gallons per year/fish) with high lipid content, have a higher exposure risk and greater potential for toxicity from toxic particulates than other higher trophic level finfish. Suspended PAH derived particulates following an oil spill therefore, should be considered when assessing long-term ecological impacts and not be limited to physical contact (coating) or water soluble fractions for assessing toxicity (gill and neurologic). PMID:26209168

  3. Particulate accumulations in the vital organs of wild Brevoortia patronus from the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J; Olson, Gregory; Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R

    2015-11-01

    Histopathologic lesions were observed in the commercially important filter-feeding fish, Brevoortia patronus (Gulf menhaden), along the Louisiana Gulf Coast. Menhaden collected from Louisiana waters in 2011 and 2012, 1 and 2 years following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, showed varying severities of gill lesions as well as an unusual accumulation of black particulates visible at necropsy in the heart and stomach vasculature. The PAH derived particulates were typically 1-4 µm in diameter, but larger aggregates were observed in the coronary vessels on the ventricle surfaces and their location and size was confirmed by light microscopy. Composited particulate composition was consistent with weathered petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures based on GC-MS analysis. Particulates were present in 63 and 80% of fish hearts and 70 and 89% of stomach muscularis collected in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Tissue embedded particulates can lead to localized cellular damage from bioavailable compounds, as well as chronic effects from occlusion of sensitive tissues' blood flow. The PAH derived particulates appeared to act as emboli in small capillaries, and could associated with localized inflammation, focal necrosis and inappropriate collagen and fibroblast tissue repair. We believe large volume filter feeding teleosts, such as menhaden (up to 3 million gallons per year/fish) with high lipid content, have a higher exposure risk and greater potential for toxicity from toxic particulates than other higher trophic level finfish. Suspended PAH derived particulates following an oil spill therefore, should be considered when assessing long-term ecological impacts and not be limited to physical contact (coating) or water soluble fractions for assessing toxicity (gill and neurologic).

  4. Variability of sea-surface temperature in the South Atlantic bight as observed from satellite: Implications for offshore-spawning fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, P. M.; Yoder, J. A.

    1996-06-01

    We examined full-resolution (1 × 1 km) satellite images of sea-surface temperature (SST) over five consecutive years (1981-1986) covering the Atlantic menhaden ( Brevoortia tyrannus) recruitment period (November-April) in the SABRE (South Atlantic Bight recruitment experiment) study site. The results of our image time series indicated two processes which could be possible mechanisms for the onshore transport of fish larvae into coastal regions. One is the influx of warm Gulf Stream water that oscillates in and out of the Carolina Bays. These oscillations occurred throughout the study period over distances of 20-40 km and on time-scales as short as two days. The other is a tongue of relatively cold water located adjacent to the Virginia coast that moved southward and penetrated into Onslow Bay between January and March. Previous studies showed that Atlantic menhaden preferentially spawn in 18-22°C waters on the outer shelf. On the assumption that the 18°C isotherm (18DI) indicates where high larval abundance may occur, we used AVHRR-SST imagery to track the onshore-offshore movement of the 18DI along a transect extending onshore-offshore in Onslow Bay. Owing to seasonal warming and cooling, this isotherm was always found closest to the coast in early November, reached maximum offshore displacement by January/March, and then moved onshore again in April/May. Our results also showed that the position of this isotherm can move offshore or onshore in a matter of a few days. An important influence and possibly the major cause of the higher frequency displacements of the 18DI are Gulf Stream meanders or filaments moving through Onslow Bay. Our estimates of onshore isotherm speeds as determined from satellite SST ranged from 2 to 25 cm s -1 and are within the same order as those calculated by physical models or larval age determinations. If the onshore pulses of warm Gulf Stream water are indeed a mode by which menhaden larvae are transported cross-shelf, then the use

  5. Investigation to improve menhaden fishery prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. There are sufficient data to indicate that in at least one instance menhaden were found in a deepwater plume apparent from ERTS imagery. This association, discovered from an image acquired on 29 September, was retrospectively seen to have persisted for three days. Neither the prior history of the plume nor its persistence after the last day of fishing is known at this time. Some information may be forthcoming from examination of data taken by other participants in the experiment.

  6. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Leming, T.; Holley, H.; Faller, K. H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievements thus far include the successful charting of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data and the successful simulation of an operational satellite system to provide tactical information for the commercial harvest of menhaden.

  7. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Leming, T.; Holley, H.; Faller, K. H.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievement thus far includes the successful charting of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data and the successful simulation of an operational satellite system to provide tactical information for the commercial harvest of menhaden.

  8. A summary of selected early results from the ERTS-1 menhaden experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Benigno, J. A.; Reese, G. B.; Minkler, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Imagery from ERTS-1 satellite was used in conjunction with aerial photographically-sensed menhaden distribution information, sea truth oceanographic measurements, and commercial fishing information from a 8685 square kilometer study area in the north-central portion of the Gulf of Mexico to demonstrate relationships between selected oceanographic parameters and menhaden distribution, ERTS-1 imagery and menhaden distribution, and ERTS-1 imagery and oceanographic parameters. ERTS-1, MSS band 5 imagery density levels correlated with photographically detected menhaden distribution patterns and could be explained based on sea truth Secchi disc transparency and water depth measurements. These two parameters, together with surface salinity, Forel-Ule color, and chlorophyll-a also were found to correlate significantly with menhaden distribution. Eight empirical models were developed which provided menhaden distribution predictions for the study area on combinations of Secchi disc transparency, water depth, surface salinity, and Forel-Ule color measurements.

  9. Bacillus licheniformis isolated during a fishkill is non-pathogenic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When a fish kill occurred in October 2006 in the Corsica River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay located near Centreville, Maryland, USA, the event affected mostly white perch (Morone americana) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), and a study was performed to determine whether pathogenic o...

  10. Short-term menhaden oil rich diet changes renal lipid profile in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ossani, Georgina P; Denninghoff, Valeria C; Uceda, Ana M; Díaz, Maria L; Uicich, Raúl; Monserrat, Alberto J

    2015-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient diet develop acute kidney injury. Menhaden oil, which is a very important source of omega-3 fatty acids, has a notorious protective effect. The mechanism of this protection is unknown; one possibility could be that menhaden oil changes renal lipid profile, with an impact on the functions of biological membranes. The aim of this work was to study the renal lipid profile in rats fed a choline-deficient diet with menhaden oil or vegetable oil as lipids. Rats were divided into 4 groups and fed four different diets for 7 days: choline-deficient or choline-supplemented diets with corn and hydrogenated oils or menhaden oil. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid were analyzed. Renal lipid profile, as well as the fatty acid composition of the three oils, was measured. Choline-deficient rats fed vegetable oils showed renal cortical necrosis. Renal omega-6 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a cholinedeficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with vegetable oils, while renal omega-3 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a choline-deficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with menhaden oil. Rats fed menhaden oil diets had higher levels of renal eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Renal myristic acid was increased in rats fed menhaden oil. The lipid renal profile varied quickly according to the type of oil present in the diet.

  11. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerer, A. J. (Principal Investigator); Brucks, J. T.; Butler, J. A.; Faller, K. H.; Holley, H. J.; Leming, T. D.; Savastano, K. J.; Vanselous, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The relationship between the distribution of menhaden and selected oceanographic parameters (water color, turbidity, and possibly chlorophyll concentrations) was established. Similar relationships for thread herring were not established nor were relationships relating to the abundance of either species. Use of aircraft and LANDSAT remote sensing instruments to measure or infer a set of basic oceanographic parameters was evaluated. Parameters which could be accurately inferred included surface water temperature, salinity, and color. Water turbidity (Secchi disk) was evaluated as marginally inferrable from the LANDSAT MSS data and chlorophyll-a concentrations as less than marginal. These evaluations considered the parameters only as experienced in the two test areas using available sensors and statistical techniques.

  12. Influence of dietary menhaden oil on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.P.; Peterson, F.; Campbell, T.C.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of dietary menhaden oil on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) induced mammary tumorigenesis was examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were obtained at age 28 days and acclimated until age 50 days when they received a single i.g. dose of 5 mg DMBA dissolved in 1 ml corn oil. Rats were then randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups with 25 rats per group. One group was fed a diet based on fish protein (freeze-dried cod) and corn oil (F/C). The second group received a diet based on fish protein and menhaden oil (F/M). The third group received a casein based diet with corn oil as the lipid source (C/C). The fourth group was fed a casein based diet with menhaden oil as the lipid source (C/M). Both the protein and lipid sources were fed at a level of 20% by weight of the diets. Rats were palpated weekly to check for mammary tumor development and the experiment was terminated 24 weeks after DMBA administration. Rats fed menhaden oil as a lipid source (F/M and C/M groups) developed significantly fewer mammary tumors than animals on the corn oil based diets (F/C and C/C groups, respectively). Thus, menhaden oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, significantly inhibited the development of DMBA induced mammary tumors in this experiment.

  13. Avoidance responses of estuarine fish to sulfur dioxide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr; Margrey, S.L.; Graves, W.C.

    1983-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, and Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentration of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30C.

  14. Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

    1994-08-01

    Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

  15. Enriching the diet with menhaden oil improves peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Obrosov, Alexander; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease and other morbidities. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of supplementing their diet with 25% menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Both prevention and intervention protocols were used. Endpoints included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal and mechanical sensitivity, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and hindpaw. Diabetic neuropathy as evaluated by the stated endpoints was found to be progressive. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels. Diabetic rats at 16-wk duration were thermal hypoalgesic and had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and skin were impaired. These endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil treatment following the prevention or intervention protocol. We found that supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil improved a variety of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy. These results suggest that enriching the diet with n-3 fatty acids may be a good treatment strategy for diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Effect of oxygen reduction rate and constant low dissolved oxygen concentrations on two estuarine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Richardson, L.B.; Moore, C.J.

    1980-09-01

    The relationship between mean lethal oxygen concentration and rate of reduction of dissolved oxygen that induces fish kills was determined for Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus). Reduction of dissolved oxygen at hourly rates of 1.00 to 0.08 mg/liter had no effect on the mean lethal oxygen concentrations. There was an inverse relationship between the median time to death (LT50) and rate of oxygen reduction that can be used to estimate how quickly a fish kill may occur when oxygen concentrations decrease at a constant rate. Atlantic menhaden were less resistant than spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) when both species were exposed to constant low concentrations of oxygen. The lethal threshold concentrations for Atlantic menhaden and spot at 28/sup 0/C were approximately 1.1 and 0.7 mg/liter, respectively, whereas, the 96-hour, 5% lethal concentrations were approximately 1.6 and 0.8 mg/liter, respectively.

  17. The diet of Chesapeake Bay striped bass in the late 1950s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, J.C.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    The diet of Chesapeake Bay striped bass, (Morone saxatilis) Walbaum, based on unpublished stomach content data from 916 fish collected between 1955 and 1959 was described. The diet in the late 1950s, quantified using an index of relative importance (IRI), was dominated by Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe. Atlantic menhaden (66%) and bay anchovy, Anchoa mitchilli Valenciennes, (19%) had the highest IRI value overall. Small striped bass ( <600 mm total length) ate predominantly bay anchovy (IRI = 67%). Large striped bass (??? 600 mm total length) ate predominantly Atlantic menhaden (IRI = 93%). Since 1990 small striped bass rely more on invertebrate prey and larger fish now rely more on small pelagic prey, such as bay anchovy and 0-age clupeids. Analysis of historical data using current techniques provided a valuable tool for comparison to help in understanding the current striped bass predator-prey relationship in Chesapeake Bay.

  18. Infection experiments with Aphanomyces invadans in four species of estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.A.; Zabrecky, J.; Kiryu, Y.; Shields, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Along the eastern seaboard of the US, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, develop characteristic ulcerative lesions, a condition termed ulcerative mycosis. These lesions are identical to those seen across Asia in fish affected by epizootic ulcerative syndrome, a condition caused by the fungus-like oomycete Aphanomyces Invadans. Young-of-the-year menhaden inhabiting estuarine environments are the primary species affected in the USA and little is known about the factors involved in the initiation of the lesions, or why menhaden are predominantly infected. Atlantic menhaden, hogchoker, Trinectus maculatus, striped killifish, Fundulus majalis, and mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were inoculated with A. invadans (80 zoospores per fish) to explore species differences in infection and lesion development. All four species developed lesions. Killifish developed frank lesions similar to those observed in menhaden but the gross lesions occurred later, approximately 5-10 days after those on menhaden. Hogchoker and mummichog did not develop gross skin ulcers; rather, their lesions appeared as reddened areas under the epidermis. Mummichogs also showed evidence of significant healing with a well-developed granuloma and significant myocyte regeneration. These experiments show that species barriers as well as ecological barriers can explain some of the factors involved in the development of lesions in, and specificity of the water mould for, menhaden.

  19. Infection experiments with Aphanomyces invadans in four species of estuarine fish.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R A; Zabrecky, J; Kiryu, Y; Shields, J D

    2004-05-01

    Along the eastern seaboard of the US, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, develop characteristic ulcerative lesions, a condition termed ulcerative mycosis. These lesions are identical to those seen across Asia in fish affected by epizootic ulcerative syndrome, a condition caused by the fungus-like oomycete Aphanomyces invadans. Young-of-the-year menhaden inhabiting estuarine environments are the primary species affected in the USA and little is known about the factors involved in the initiation of the lesions, or why menhaden are predominantly infected. Atlantic menhaden, hogchoker, Trinectus maculatus, striped killifish, Fundulus majalis, and mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were inoculated with A. invadans (80 zoospores per fish) to explore species differences in infection and lesion development. All four species developed lesions. Killifish developed frank lesions similar to those observed in menhaden but the gross lesions occurred later, approximately 5-10 days after those on menhaden. Hogchoker and mummichog did not develop gross skin ulcers; rather, their lesions appeared as reddened areas under the epidermis. Mummichogs also showed evidence of significant healing with a well-developed granuloma and significant myocyte regeneration. These experiments show that species barriers as well as ecological barriers can explain some of the factors involved in the development of lesions in, and specificity of the water mould for, menhaden. PMID:15139907

  20. Effect of enzymatic randomization on positional distribution and stability of seal blubber and menhaden oils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-04-27

    In an effort to investigate the effect of positional distribution on oxidative stability of menhaden and seal blubber oils, Novozyme 435 was used as a random biocatalyst. Positional distribution of fatty acids was determined using gas chromatography. As some of the α-tocopherol was lost during randomization, its content was adjusted to the level prior to the process to eliminate this effect on oxidative stability of oils tested. Conjugated dienes (CD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were used as indicators of oxidative stability. The results showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids were distributed predominantly at terminal positions in randomized menhaden oil, whereas they were distributed more evenly among all positions in enzymatically randomized seal blubber oil, compared to their unrandomized counterparts. Results of CD and TBARS values indicated that randomized menhaden oil was more stable than the original oil, whereas randomized seal blubber oil was more vulnerable to oxidation compared to its counterpart. Changes of oxidative stability after randomization were mainly due to positional redistribution of fatty acids, especially those of the polyunsaturated types.

  1. Effect of Treatment with Salsalate, Menhaden Oil, Combination of Salsalate and Menhaden Oil, or Resolvin D1 of C57Bl/6J Type 1 Diabetic Mouse on Neuropathic Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Yorek, Matthew S.; Coppey, Lawrence J.; Obrosov, Alexander; Kardon, Randy H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. In this study a streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of salsalate, menhaden oil, the combination of salsalate and menhaden oil, or resolvin D1 on neuropathic endpoints. Materials and Methods. Changes in body weight, blood glucose, serum markers for triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and resolvin D1, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities and thermal sensitivity were assessed, as well as performing in vivo confocal microscopy of subepithelial corneal nerves and immunohistochemistry of nerves in the cornea and foot pad. Results. Diabetic animals failed to gain weight and had elevated blood glucose levels. Diabetic mice had slowed nerve conduction velocity, reduced innervation of the foot pad and cornea subepithelial and epithelial layers, and reduced thermal sensitivity. Monotherapy treatment with salsalate, menhaden oil, and resolvin D1 reduced the pathological signs of diabetic neuropathy. The combination of salsalate and menhaden oil also reduced signs of pathology and generated elevated plasma levels of resolvin D1 compared to other groups. Conclusions. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the combination of salsalate and menhaden oil may be more efficacious than monotherapy alone for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:27774316

  2. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerer, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievement realized thus far has been the successful completion of the data acquisition phase. This success must be attributed to the interest, support, and competency of the participants. The apparent consistency of water color and turbidity condition over time and between test sites at sites of menhaden capture is significant especially since color is readily measured with satellite and aircraft sensors and a LANDSAT MSS based computer model for inferring tubidity has been developed.

  3. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in diets for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing menhaden fish meal and oil with APVM in practical diets of largemouth bass (LMB) to sustain or improve general performance while maintaining substantial amounts of the n-3 fatty acids in the fillets. The n-3 highly unsaturated fat...

  4. Menhaden-fish oil in a vitamin E-deficient diet: protection against chloroquine-resistant malaria in mice.

    PubMed

    Levander, O A; Ager, A L; Morris, V C; May, R G

    1989-12-01

    Feeding a vitamin E-deficient diet containing 5% menhaden oil to mice affords significant protection against both a chloroquine-sensitive and a chloroquine-resistant line of the malarial parasite. Nutritional manipulation may offer a new approach to the problem of drug-resistant malaria, a rapidly emerging global threat to public health. PMID:2688393

  5. LANDSAT follow-on experiment: Gulf of Mexico menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. J. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Leming, T. D.; Holley, H.; Faller, K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievements realized thus far include the successful charting of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data and the successful simulation of an operational satellite system to provide tactical information for the commercial harvest of menhaden.

  6. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to the harvest model of the US Menhaden fishery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, P. M.; Marmelstein, A. D.; Temple, O. R.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results of an experiment to demonstrate the utility of ERTS-1 imagery for providing significant information to the harvest model of the menhaden industry are reported. Fisheries and related environmental data were obtained discontinuously throughout the 1973 menhaden (a surface schooling, coastal species) fishing season in Mississippi Sound. The unexpected complexity of the physical environment in Mississippi Sound precluded simplistic analysis of fish/environment relationships. Preliminary indications are that an association does exist between fish availability and differences in water transparency (turbidity) within the Sound. A clearer relationship is developing between major turbid features, imaged by ERTS-1 and location of successful fishing attempts. On all occasions where relatively cloudfree ERTS-1 overflight days coincided with fishery activity, overlays of catch location of ERTS-1 images show an association of school position with interfaces between imaged turbid features. Analysis is currently underway to determine persistence of such associations in an attempt to define minimum satellite return time necessary to maintain continuity of associations.

  7. Behavioral modification of estuarine fish exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.; Graves, W.C.; Margrey, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Striped bass avoided 2.2, 2.3, 3.0, and 3.5 mg sulfite/l at 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C, respectively. Atlantic menhaden avoided 3.2, 3.6, 2.9, and 3.0 mg sulfite/l at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C, respectively. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Striped bass avoided lower concentrations of sulfite than Atlantic menhaden at 15 and 20/sup 0/C. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25/sup 0/C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentrations of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30/sup 0/C. 24 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Behavioral modification of estuarine fish exposed to sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hall, L W; Burton, D T; Graves, W C; Margrey, S L

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Striped bass avoided 2.2, 2.3, 3.0, and 3.5 mg sulfite/l at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Atlantic menhaden avoided 3.2, 3.6, 2.9, and 3.0 mg sulfite/l at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Striped bass avoided lower concentrations of sulfite than Atlantic menhaden at 15 and 20 degrees C. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25 degrees C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentrations of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30 degrees C. PMID:6492212

  9. Investigation using data from ERTS-1 to develop and implement utilization of living marine resources. [availability and distribution of menhaden fish in Mississippi Sound and Gulf waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This 15-month ERTS-1 investigation produced correlations between satellite, aircraft, menhaden fisheries, and environmental sea truth data from the Mississippi Sound. Selected oceanographic, meteorological, and biological parameters were used as indirect indicators of the menhaden resource. Synoptic and near real time sea truth, fishery, satellite imagery, aircraft acquired multispectral, photo and thermal IR information were acquired as data inputs. Computer programs were developed to manipulate these data according to user requirements. Preliminary results indicate a correlation between backscattered light with chlorophyll concentration and water transparency in turbid waters. Eight empirical menhaden distribution models were constructed from combinations of four fisheries-significant oceanographic parameters: water depth, transparency, color, and surface salinity. The models demonstrated their potential for management utilization in areas of resource assessment, prediction, and monitoring.

  10. The effects of menhaden oil, flaxseed oil and a dairy-yeast prebiotic on growth , health , feed conversion , survival , critical maximum temperature, and body composition of sunshine bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with juvenile "sunshine bass" female Morone chrysops x male M. saxatilis using four diets containing two levels of a dairy-yeast prebiotic (0 or 2%) and either menhaden fish oil or flaxseed oil as a lipid source. The objective was to determine the main and inte...

  11. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  12. An investigation to improve the Menhaden fishery prediction and detection model through the application of ERTS-A data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analyses indicate that several important relationships have been observed utilizing ERTS-1 imagery. Of most significance is that in the Mississippi Sound, as elsewhere, considerable detail exists as to turbidity patterns in the water column. Simple analysis is complicated by the apparent interaction between actual turbidity, turbidity induced by shoal water, and actual imaging of the bottom in extreme shoal water. A statistical approach is being explored which shows promise of at least partially separating these effects so that partitioning of true turbid plumes can be accomplished. This partitioning is of great importance to this program in that supportive data seem to indicate that menhaden occur more frequently in turbid areas. In this connection four individual captures have been associated with a major turbid feature imaged on 6 August. If a significant relationship between imaged turbid features and catch distribution can be established, for example by graphic and/or numeric analysis, it will represent a major advancement for short term prediction of commercially accessible menhaden.

  13. Chronic inflammatory cells with epithelial cell characteristics in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Noga, E J; Dykstra, M J; Wright, J F

    1989-09-01

    Certain cells that participate in the chronic inflammatory response of teleost fishes have many features typical of epithelioid cells of mammals. Such features include high metabolic activity, frequent phagolysosomes, and cytoplasmic interdigitations between adjacent cells; however, the epithelioid granulomas formed in response to certain diseases in teleost fishes also have several features associated with epithelial cells. Cases of ulcerative mycosis or acid-fast bacterial infection in Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), fungal infection in silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), and mycobacteriosis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) had epithelioid cells that were joined together by well-formed desmosomes with tonofilaments. "Mature granulomas" of the ulcerative mycosis-infected menhaden stained positively for cytokeratin, a cytoskeletal protein that is considered to be highly specific for epithelial cells. The consistent presence of these heretofore unrecognized epithelial features suggest that they may be characteristic of certain types of cells participating in piscine chronic inflammation. PMID:2686148

  14. Origin of resources and trophic pathways in a large SW Atlantic estuary: An evaluation using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botto, Florencia; Gaitán, Esteban; Mianzan, Hermes; Acha, Marcelo; Giberto, Diego; Schiariti, Agustín; Iribarne, Oscar

    2011-03-01

    The Río de la Plata (34° 36' S, 55° 58' W; Argentina and Uruguay) estuary, one of the most important South American estuarine environments, is characterized by weak seasonal freshwater discharge, low tidal amplitude (<1 m), a wide and permanent connection to the sea, and a salt-wedge regime. Using stable isotope analysis, we explored the relative importance of the different sources of primary production in the food web. Our results show that phytoplankton and macrodetritus from terrestrial salt and freshwater marshes both contribute to the food web of the Río de la Plata estuary. On the basis of the sampled species, we identified four trophic levels. The clam Mactra isabelleana, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, and the opossum shrimp Neomysis americana are the primary consumers. The rays Atlantoraja castelnaui and Squatina guggenheim and the shark Galeorhinus galeus are the top predators. The Río de la Plata food web shows an important input of nutrients derived from phytoplankton. Rays, sharks, and predatory gastropods reveal an important contribution of C4 plants (likely Spartina spp.). However, production derived from C3 plants is also important for some species. The fishes Brazilian menhaden, Brevoortia aurea; the stripped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa; and the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri, showed differences in their isotopic signatures as juveniles and adults, indicating different food sources, and they were therefore treated as different components of the food web. Our data suggest that detritus from salt and freshwater marshes is reaching the Río de la Plata estuary and can be an important allocthonous source of energy to this environment.

  15. Providing Flaxseed Oil but Not Menhaden Oil Protects against OVX Induced Bone Loss in the Mandible of Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Longo, Amanda B; Ward, Wendy E

    2016-01-01

    Higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with benefits at several skeletal sites in postmenopausal women and in rodent models, but the effect of PUFA-containing oils on tooth-supporting alveolar bone of the mandible has not been studied. Moreover, direct comparison of the effect of flaxseed oil (a source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) and menhaden oil (a source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) is unknown. One-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were randomized to and fed a diet containing flaxseed oil or menhaden oil from one to six months of age. At three months of age, rats were randomized to receive SHAM or ovariectomy (OVX) surgery (n = 12/diet). The inter-radicular septum below the first molar of the mandible was imaged at 6 months of age (study endpoint) using micro-computed tomography (μCT) at a resolution of 9 μm. As expected, OVX significantly reduced percent bone volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn. D.), trabecular number (Tb. N.), and increased trabecular separation (Tb. Sp.) compared to SHAM rats (p < 0.001). However, post hoc analysis revealed these differences were present in rats fed menhaden oil but not those fed flaxseed oil. These results suggest that providing flaxseed oil, possibly through its high ALA content, provides protection against the OVX-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. PMID:27669296

  16. Providing Flaxseed Oil but Not Menhaden Oil Protects against OVX Induced Bone Loss in the Mandible of Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Amanda B.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2016-01-01

    Higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with benefits at several skeletal sites in postmenopausal women and in rodent models, but the effect of PUFA-containing oils on tooth-supporting alveolar bone of the mandible has not been studied. Moreover, direct comparison of the effect of flaxseed oil (a source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) and menhaden oil (a source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) is unknown. One-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were randomized to and fed a diet containing flaxseed oil or menhaden oil from one to six months of age. At three months of age, rats were randomized to receive SHAM or ovariectomy (OVX) surgery (n = 12/diet). The inter-radicular septum below the first molar of the mandible was imaged at 6 months of age (study endpoint) using micro-computed tomography (μCT) at a resolution of 9 μm. As expected, OVX significantly reduced percent bone volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn. D.), trabecular number (Tb. N.), and increased trabecular separation (Tb. Sp.) compared to SHAM rats (p < 0.001). However, post hoc analysis revealed these differences were present in rats fed menhaden oil but not those fed flaxseed oil. These results suggest that providing flaxseed oil, possibly through its high ALA content, provides protection against the OVX-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. PMID:27669296

  17. Providing Flaxseed Oil but Not Menhaden Oil Protects against OVX Induced Bone Loss in the Mandible of Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Longo, Amanda B; Ward, Wendy E

    2016-01-01

    Higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with benefits at several skeletal sites in postmenopausal women and in rodent models, but the effect of PUFA-containing oils on tooth-supporting alveolar bone of the mandible has not been studied. Moreover, direct comparison of the effect of flaxseed oil (a source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) and menhaden oil (a source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) is unknown. One-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were randomized to and fed a diet containing flaxseed oil or menhaden oil from one to six months of age. At three months of age, rats were randomized to receive SHAM or ovariectomy (OVX) surgery (n = 12/diet). The inter-radicular septum below the first molar of the mandible was imaged at 6 months of age (study endpoint) using micro-computed tomography (μCT) at a resolution of 9 μm. As expected, OVX significantly reduced percent bone volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn. D.), trabecular number (Tb. N.), and increased trabecular separation (Tb. Sp.) compared to SHAM rats (p < 0.001). However, post hoc analysis revealed these differences were present in rats fed menhaden oil but not those fed flaxseed oil. These results suggest that providing flaxseed oil, possibly through its high ALA content, provides protection against the OVX-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

  18. Daily variation in ingress of fall-spawned larval fishes into Delaware Bay in relation to alongshore and along-estuary wind components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieler, Brittany M.; Hale, Edward A.; Targett, Timothy E.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying factors that affect ingress of larval fishes from offshore spawning areas into estuarine nurseries is important to improve understanding of variability in recruitment of many coastal marine species. This study investigated the ingress of larval Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) at Roosevelt Inlet, near the mouth of Delaware Bay, USA in relation to short-term wind events. Nightly abundances, from November 15 to December 15, 2010, were analyzed with alongshore and along-estuary wind components (direction and speed) using cross-correlation analysis to determine if winds affect larval ingress. Ingress of Atlantic croaker and summer flounder correlated with along-estuary winds, whereas Atlantic menhaden showed no significant correlations with either alongshore or along-estuary winds. Although along-estuary winds during this period were predominantly down-estuary, Atlantic croaker ingress was correlated with positive along-estuary winds (blowing up-estuary), with a three-day lag; and a particularly large ingress peak occurred following the largest up-estuary wind peak. Ingress of summer flounder was correlated with negative along-estuary winds (blowing down-estuary), with a two-day lag. These results suggest that species-specific vertical position in the water column influenced ingress into Delaware Bay. The lag results also suggest that ingressing Atlantic croaker and summer flounder may have a pooling stage outside the mouth of Delaware Bay.

  19. Prey selectivity and diet of striped bass in Western Albemarle Sound, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudershausen, P.J.; Tuomikoski, J.E.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    We collected 1,399 striped bass Morone saxatilis from western Albemarle Sound, North Carolina, during May through October of 2002 and 2003 to characterize diet, prey type selectivity, and prey size selectivity. Herrings Alosa spp., Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus, bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, silversides Menidia spp., and yellow perch Perca flavescens dominated the diets of age-1 striped bass, while Atlantic menhaden dominated the diets of older striped bass. Selectivity was calculated for three categories of striped bass (ages 1, 2, and 3 + [3-7]) based on fish prey collections from a 61-m beach seine and a 76-m purse seine. Striped bass of all ages primarily consumed fish prey regardless of the month or year. Each age category of striped bass selected for one or more species of prey from the suborder Clupeoidei. Age-1 striped bass selectivity of Alosa spp. generally increased with the progression of each sampling season, whereas selectivity for Atlantic menhaden, Menidia spp., and yellow perch decreased over time within each season. Striped bass of all ages displayed strong selection for Atlantic menhaden and strong selection against spiny-rayed fish prey. Striped bass displayed selection for specific prey, although the mechanisms responsible for selection appear to vary through time and may differ for different prey types. Striped bass either displayed neutral size selectivity or selected for relatively small prey. The mean and maximum sizes of fish prey increased with increases in striped bass size, but the minimum prey size changed little. Our results of seasonal and age-specific changes in selectivity will be valuable for modeling the impact of striped bass predation on resource prey species. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  20. Effect of combination therapy consisting of enalapril, α-lipoic acid, and menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in a high fat/low dose streptozotocin treated rat.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric P; Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-10-15

    We have previously demonstrated that treating diabetic rats with enalapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, α-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, or menhaden oil, a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids can partially improve diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In this study we sought to determine the efficacy of combining these three treatments on vascular and neural complications in a high fat fed low dose streptozotocin treated rat, a model of type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks followed by a 30 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin. Eight weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia diabetic rats were treated with a combination of enalapril, α-lipoic acid and menhaden oil. Diabetic rats not receiving treatment were continued on the high fat diet. Glucose clearance was impaired in diabetic rats and significantly improved with treatment. Diabetes caused steatosis, elevated serum lipid levels, slowing of motor and sensory nerve conduction, thermal hypoalgesia, reduction in intraepidermal nerve fiber profiles, decrease in cornea sub-basal nerve fiber length and corneal sensitivity and impairment in vascular relaxation to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide in epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. Treating diabetic rats with the combination of enalapril, α-lipoic acid and menhaden oil reversed all these deficits to near control levels except for motor nerve conduction velocity which was also significantly improved compared to diabetic rats but remained significantly decreased compared to control rats. These studies suggest that a combination therapeutic approach may be most effective for treating vascular and neural complications of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Larval Transport on the Atlantic Continental Shelf of North America: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifanio, C. E.; Garvine, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review considers transport of larval fish and crustaceans on the continental shelf. Previous reviews have contained only limited treatments of the physical processes involved. The present paper provides a physical background that is considerably more comprehensive. It includes a discussion of three principal forcing agents: (1) wind stress; (2) tides propagating from the deep ocean; and (3) differences in density associated with the buoyant outflow of estuaries, surface heat flux, or the interaction of coastal and oceanic water masses at the seaward margin of the shelf. The authors discuss the effects of these forcing agents on transport of larvae in the Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic Bights along the east coast of North America. The discussion concentrates on three species (blue crab, menhaden, bluefish) that have been the subject of a very recent multi-disciplinary study. Taken as a whole, the reproductive activities of these three species span the entire year and utilize the entire shelf, from the most seaward margin to the estuarine nursery. The blue crab is representative of species affected by physical processes occurring during summer and early autumn on the inner and mid-shelf. Menhaden are impacted by processes occurring in winter on the outer and mid-shelf. Bluefish are influenced primarily by processes occurring during early spring at the outer shelf margin near the western boundary current. The authors conclude that alongshore wind stress and density differences, i.e. buoyancy-driven flow, are the primary agents of larval transport in the region. Circulation associated with the western boundary current is only important at the shelf margin and tidally driven processes are generally inconsequential.

  2. Lack of a protective effect of menhaden oil on skin tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

    PubMed

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1990-09-01

    Fish oil has been shown to have a protective effect in some cancer models. To determine whether fish oil alters skin tumorigenesis, a study was designed using the initiation-promotion mouse skin carcinogenesis model, feeding mice during the promotion stage a constant overall amount of dietary fat (10%) in which the levels of menhaden oil (MO) varied from 0 to 8.5% or corn oil (CO) at 10%. SENCAR mice were initiated with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Two weeks later mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following AIN-76 based diets consisting of: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% CO (diet A); 1% MO/7.5% CT/1.5% CO (diet B); 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO (diet C); 8.5% MO/1.5% CO (diet D); or 10% CO (diet E). Two weeks later, promotion with twice weekly applications of 1 micrograms 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was begun and continued for 24 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body wts were observed between diet groups during the study. The final papilloma and carcinoma incidence was not different among the diet groups. However, differences were seen in the rate of papilloma appearance with the group fed diet E (10% CO) being the slowest and diet B being the most rapid. In a parallel study, ornithine decarboxylase activity, a suggested marker of promotion, was greatly elevated in the epidermis of all TPA-treated mice and the effect of diet tended to reflect the different rates of tumor formation observed among the groups. These data indicate that the diets containing fish oil were not protective in the final incidence of tumor formation and suggest that a better understanding of the complex interactions is warranted before recommendations are made to alter the human diet for cancer prevention.

  3. Membrane physical properties do not explain increased cyclic AMP production in hepatocytes from rats fed menhaden oil.

    PubMed

    Bizeau, M E; Hazel, J R

    2000-06-01

    To study the effect of altering plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the glucagon signal transduction pathway, cAMP accumulation was measured in hepatocytes from rats fed diets containing either menhaden oil (MO) or coconut oil (CO). Hepatocytes from MO-fed animals produced significantly more cAMP in response to glucagon and forskolin compared to CO-fed animals. Glucagon receptor number and affinity were similar in MO- and CO-fed rats. Liver plasma membranes from MO-fed animals were enriched in long-chain n-3 fatty acids and contained significantly lower amounts of saturated C10-C16 and 18:1n-9 than CO-fed animals. Membrane physical properties were examined using both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). FTIR analysis revealed that below 34 degrees C, CO membranes were more ordered than MO membranes. However, as assay temperature approached 37 degrees C, MO and CO membranes became similarly ordered. DPH polarization values indicated no differences in membrane order at 37 degrees C, whereas membrane order was decreased in CO-fed animals at 25 degrees C. These data indicate the importance of assay temperature in assessing the influence of membrane physical properties on the activity of signal transduction pathways. Whereas increased signal transduction activity has been correlated to reduced membrane order in MO-fed animals, these data indicate that at physiological temperatures membrane order did not vary between groups. Enhanced cAMP accumulation in response to forskolin indicates that adenylate cyclase activity or content may be elevated in MO- vs. CO-fed rats. Enhanced adenylate cyclase activity may result, in part, from changes in specific fatty acids in hepatocyte plasma membranes without demonstrable changes in membrane physical properties.

  4. Lack of a protective effect of menhaden oil on skin tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

    PubMed

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1990-09-01

    Fish oil has been shown to have a protective effect in some cancer models. To determine whether fish oil alters skin tumorigenesis, a study was designed using the initiation-promotion mouse skin carcinogenesis model, feeding mice during the promotion stage a constant overall amount of dietary fat (10%) in which the levels of menhaden oil (MO) varied from 0 to 8.5% or corn oil (CO) at 10%. SENCAR mice were initiated with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Two weeks later mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following AIN-76 based diets consisting of: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% CO (diet A); 1% MO/7.5% CT/1.5% CO (diet B); 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO (diet C); 8.5% MO/1.5% CO (diet D); or 10% CO (diet E). Two weeks later, promotion with twice weekly applications of 1 micrograms 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was begun and continued for 24 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body wts were observed between diet groups during the study. The final papilloma and carcinoma incidence was not different among the diet groups. However, differences were seen in the rate of papilloma appearance with the group fed diet E (10% CO) being the slowest and diet B being the most rapid. In a parallel study, ornithine decarboxylase activity, a suggested marker of promotion, was greatly elevated in the epidermis of all TPA-treated mice and the effect of diet tended to reflect the different rates of tumor formation observed among the groups. These data indicate that the diets containing fish oil were not protective in the final incidence of tumor formation and suggest that a better understanding of the complex interactions is warranted before recommendations are made to alter the human diet for cancer prevention. PMID:2401054

  5. A comparison of two fecal collection methods for protein and amino acid digestibility coefficients for menhaden fish meal and two grades of pultry-by-product meals in market-size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent digestibility and availability coefficients for protein and amino acids in menhaden fish meal (MEN), pet-food grade (PBM-pet,) and feed-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM-feed) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass using passive netting or manual stripping of feces. A refer...

  6. Fish lesions in the Chesapeake Bay: Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates and other etiologies.

    PubMed

    Kane, A S; Oldach, D; Reimschuessel, R

    1998-05-01

    Ulcerative lesions and mass mortalities of Atlantic estuarine fish, particularly menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), have been associated with exposure to Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates and their toxins. We collected fish from the Chicamacomico River, Maryland, and observed solitary ulcerative lesions on the majority of menhaden sampled. One striped bass (Morone saxatilis) had an area of reddening around the base of the dorsal fin. Bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were externally nonremarkable. Histologically ulcerative menhaden lesions demonstrated marked chronic inflammatory infiltrate in large areas of exposed necrotic muscle. The ulcers contained granulomata with fungal hyphae in the necrotic tissue. Gram negative rod-shaped bacteria were also observed in the lesions, a common finding in ulcers of aquatic organisms. Our data suggest that typical ulcerative lesions observed on fish from areas of Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate blooms are reflective of dermatosis, which may be related to a variety of individual or combined environmental stressors. Exposure to dinoflagellate toxin)s) potentially represents one such stressor. The role of Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate toxin in fish primary lesion development is currently under investigation. PMID:9601194

  7. Uterine, ovarian, and production responses of lactating dairy cows to increasing dietary concentrations of menhaden fish meal.

    PubMed

    Mattos, R; Staples, C R; Williams, J; Amorocho, A; McGuire, M A; Thatcher, W W

    2002-04-01

    The primary objective was to determine whether the dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, C20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6, n-3), present in fish meal (FM) can attenuate uterine secretion of PGF2alpha in response to a challenge with estradiol and oxytocin in lactating dairy cows. Cycling multiparous cows (n = 32) were fed diets containing 0 (OFM), 2.6 (2.6FM), 5.2 (5.2FM), or 7.8% menhaden FM (7.8FM). The diet consisting of 7.8FM also contained fish oil (0.28% of dietary dry matter) to increase intake of EPA and DHA. Average dry matter intake was 24.9 kg/d and unaffected by diet. Combined intakes of EPA and DHA averaged 0, 12.8, 24.1, and 54.0 g/d from the OFM, 2.6FM, 5.2FM, and 7.8FM diets, respectively. At 30 to 34 d after initiation of dietary treatments, cows received an i.m. injection of 100 microg of GnRH followed by i.m. administration of 25 and 15 mg of PGF2alpha after 7 and 8 d, respectively. Synchronous ovulation was induced by an injection of 3000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) given 24 h later on d 9. Subsequent luteal phase increases in plasma progesterone concentrations did not differ (0.88 ng/ml per day). At 15 d after hCG injection, cows were injected with estradiol-17beta (3 mg, i.v.) at 0900 h and oxytocin (100 IU, i.v.) at 1300 h. Plasma PGF2alpha metabolite concentrations after oxytocin injection were reduced in cows fed diets containing FM compared with those fed OFM. Milk production (39.1 kg/d) and concentrations of fat, protein, or urea nitrogen in milk were not affected by diet. Feeding fish meal and fish oil containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduced the proportion of n-6 fatty acids and increased that of n-3 fatty acids in milk in a dose-responsive manner. PMID:12018420

  8. Dietary olive oil and menhaden oil mitigate induction of lipogenesis in hyperinsulinemic corpulent JCR:LA-cp rats: microarray analysis of lipid-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiong; Elam, Marshall B; Wilcox, Henry G; Cagen, Lauren M; Park, Edwards A; Raghow, Rajendra; Patel, Divyen; Kumar, Poonam; Sheybani, Ali; Russell, James C

    2004-12-01

    In the corpulent James C. Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rat, hyperinsulinemia leads to induction of lipogenic enzymes via enhanced expression of sterol-regulatory-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. This results in increased hepatic lipid production and hypertriglyceridemia. Information regarding down-regulation of SREBP-1c and lipogenic enzymes by dietary fatty acids in this model is limited. We therefore assessed de novo hepatic lipogenesis and hepatic and plasma lipids in corpulent JCR rats fed diets enriched in olive oil or menhaden oil. Using microarray and Northern analysis, we determined the effect of these diets on expression of mRNA for lipogenic enzymes and other proteins related to lipid metabolism. In corpulent JCR:LA-cp rats, both the olive oil and menhaden oil diets reduced expression of SREBP-1c, with concomitant reductions in hepatic triglyceride content, lipogenesis, and expression of enzymes related to lipid synthesis. Unexpectedly, expression of many peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-dependent enzymes mediating fatty acid oxidation was increased in livers of corpulent JCR rats. The menhaden oil diet further increased expression of these enzymes. Induction of SREBP-1c by insulin is dependent on liver x receptor (LXR)alpha. Although hepatic expression of mRNA for LXR itself was not increased in corpulent rats, expression of Cyp7a1, an LXR-responsive gene, was increased, suggesting increased LXR activity. Expression of mRNA encoding fatty acid translocase and ATP-binding cassette subfamily DALD member 3 was also increased in livers of corpulent JCR rats, indicating a potential role for these fatty acid transporters in the pathogenesis of disordered lipid metabolism in obesity. This study clearly demonstrates that substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid for carbohydrate in the corpulent JCR:LA-cp rat reduces de novo lipogenesis, at least in part, by reducing hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and that strategies directed toward reducing

  9. Spatial and Temporal Entry Patterns of Fish Larvae into North Carolina Estuaries: Comparisons Among One Pelagic and Two Demersal Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyeux, J.-C.

    1998-12-01

    A sampling programme targeting larvae of winter spawning fishes immigrating from the oceanic domain into the Pamlico-Albemarle Sounds system (NC, U.S.A.) was performed at the four major inlets of the lagoon system. Sampling yielded abundant catches of three species, a Clupeid (Atlantic menhaden,Brevoortia tyrannus) and two Sciaenids (Atlantic croaker,Micropogonias undulatusand spot,Leiostomus xanthurus). In this article, the author documents the differences in the mechanisms developed for estuarine recruitment among the three species. Abundance at the tidal inlets was dependent upon numerous factors, such as sampling month, inlet, luminosity, tide flow direction and depth. The spatial and temporal positioning of the larvae differed among the species and affected their capabilities to be transported through the inlets. More specifically, spot and croaker migrated vertically within the water column in accordance with the direction of the water flow. Sciaenids minimized the outwelling effects of ebb tides by migrating into the slowest ebbing currents, near the bottom. Menhaden did not rely on vertical migrations for estuarine transport and retention. For this species, landward transport is provided either when dusk and flood onset are coincident or through non-tidal flows developing under meteorological forcing. The Sciaenids were less, or not, dependent upon these conditions. In one inlet, the retention was dependent upon the strength of the flooding and ebbing flows. In this case, the retention of the pelagic species was lower than the retention of demersal species.

  10. Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters from Menhaden Oil Using Proteus vulgaris Lipase-Mediated One-Step Transesterification and Urea Complexation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2016-05-01

    An organic solvent-stable lipase from Proteus vulgaris K80 was used to produce the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters (ω-3 PUFA EEs). First, the lyophilized recombinant lipase K80 (LyoK80) was used to perform the transesterification reaction of menhaden oil and ethanol. LyoK80 produced the ω-3 PUFA EEs with a conversion yield of 82 % in the presence of 20 % water content via a three-step ethanol-feeding process; however, in a non-aqueous condition, LyoK80 produced only a slight amount of the ω-3 PUFA EEs. To enhance its reaction properties, the lipase K80 was immobilized on a hydrophobic bead to derive ImmK80; the biochemical properties and substrate specificity of ImmK80 are similar to those of LyoK80. ImmK80 was then used to produce ω-3 PUFA EEs in accordance with the same transesterification reaction. Unlike LyoK80, ImmK80 achieved a high ω-3 PUFA EE conversion yield of 86 % under a non-aqueous system via a one-step ethanol-feeding reaction. The ω-3 PUFA EEs were purified up to 92 % using a urea complexation method.

  11. Skin ulcers in estuarine fishes: a comparative pathological evaluation of wild and laboratory-exposed fish.

    PubMed

    Vogelbein, W K; Shields, J D; Haas, L W; Reece, K S; Zwerner, D E

    2001-10-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder has recently been implicated as the etiologic agent of acute mass mortalities and skin ulcers in menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, and other fishes from mid-Atlantic U.S. estuaries. However, evidence for this association is largely circumstantial and controversial. We exposed tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) to Pfiesteria shumwayae Glasgow & Burkholder (identification based on scanning electron microscopy and molecular analyses) and compared the resulting pathology to the so-called Pfiesteria-specific lesions occurring in wild menhaden. The tilapia challenged by high concentrations (2,000-12,000 cells/mL) of P. shumwayaeexhibited loss of mucus coat and scales plus mild petecchial hemorrhage, but no deeply penetrating chronic ulcers like those in wild menhaden. Histologically, fish exhibited epidermal erosion with bacterial colonization but minimal associated inflammation. In moribund fish, loss of epidermis was widespread over large portions of the body. Similar erosion occurred in the mucosa lining the oral and branchial cavities. Gills exhibited epithelial lifting, loss of secondary lamellar structure, and infiltration by lymphoid cells. Epithelial lining of the lateral line canal (LLC) and olfactory organs exhibited severe necrosis. Visceral organs, kidney, and neural tissues (brain, spinal cord, ganglia, peripheral nerves) were histologically normal. An unexpected finding was the numerous P. shumwayae cells adhering to damaged skin, skin folds, scale pockets, LLC, and olfactory tissues. In contrast, histologic evaluation of skin ulcers in over 200 wild menhaden from Virginia and Maryland portions of the Chesapeake Bay and the Pamlico Estuary, North Carolina, revealed that all ulcers harbored a deeply invasive, highly pathogenic fungus now known to be Aphanomyces invadans. In menhaden the infection always elicited severe myonecrosis and intense granulomatous myositis. The consistent occurrence of this

  12. Quantitative PCR assay for Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and Mycobacterium shottsii and application to environmental samples and fishes from the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Reece, K S; Xiao, J; Rhodes, M W; Kator, H I; Latour, R J; Bonzek, C F; Hoenig, J M; Vogelbein, W K

    2010-09-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay are currently experiencing a very high prevalence of mycobacteriosis associated with newly described Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii. The ecology of these mycobacteria outside the striped bass host is currently unknown. In this work, we developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii and applied these assays to DNA extracts from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment samples, as well as to tissues from two dominant prey of striped bass, Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) and bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii was found to be ubiquitous in water samples from the main stem of the Chesapeake Bay and was also present in water and sediments from the Rappahannock River, Virginia. M. pseudoshottsii was also detected in menhaden and anchovy tissues. In contrast, M. shottsii was not detected in water, sediment, or prey fish tissues. In conjunction with its nonpigmented phenotype, which is frequently found in obligately pathogenic mycobacteria of humans, this pattern of occurrence suggests that M. shottsii may be an obligate pathogen of striped bass. PMID:20656856

  13. Molecular assays for detecting Aphanomyces invadans in ulcerative mycotic fish lesions.

    PubMed

    Vandersea, Mark W; Litaker, R Wayne; Yonnish, Bryan; Sosa, Emilio; Landsberg, Jan H; Pullinger, Chris; Moon-Butzin, Paula; Green, Jason; Morris, James A; Kator, Howard; Noga, Edward J; Tester, Patricia A

    2006-02-01

    The pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is the primary etiological agent in ulcerative mycosis, an ulcerative skin disease caused by a fungus-like agent of wild and cultured fish. We developed sensitive PCR and fluorescent peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization (FISH) assays to detect A. invadans. Laboratory-challenged killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were first tested to optimize and validate the assays. Skin ulcers of Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) from populations found in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries in North Carolina were then surveyed. Results from both assays indicated that all of the lesioned menhaden (n = 50) collected in September 2004 were positive for A. invadans. Neither the FISH assay nor the PCR assay cross-reacted with other closely related oomycetes. These results provided strong evidence that A. invadans is the primary oomycete pathogen in ulcerative mycosis and demonstrated the utility of the assays. The FISH assay is the first molecular assay to provide unambiguous visual confirmation that hyphae in the ulcerated lesions were exclusively A. invadans. PMID:16461710

  14. Quantitative PCR assay for Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and Mycobacterium shottsii and application to environmental samples and fishes from the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Reece, K S; Xiao, J; Rhodes, M W; Kator, H I; Latour, R J; Bonzek, C F; Hoenig, J M; Vogelbein, W K

    2010-09-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay are currently experiencing a very high prevalence of mycobacteriosis associated with newly described Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii. The ecology of these mycobacteria outside the striped bass host is currently unknown. In this work, we developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii and applied these assays to DNA extracts from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment samples, as well as to tissues from two dominant prey of striped bass, Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) and bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii was found to be ubiquitous in water samples from the main stem of the Chesapeake Bay and was also present in water and sediments from the Rappahannock River, Virginia. M. pseudoshottsii was also detected in menhaden and anchovy tissues. In contrast, M. shottsii was not detected in water, sediment, or prey fish tissues. In conjunction with its nonpigmented phenotype, which is frequently found in obligately pathogenic mycobacteria of humans, this pattern of occurrence suggests that M. shottsii may be an obligate pathogen of striped bass.

  15. Molecular Assays for Detecting Aphanomyces invadans in Ulcerative Mycotic Fish Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vandersea, Mark W.; Litaker, R. Wayne; Yonnish, Bryan; Sosa, Emilio; Landsberg, Jan H.; Pullinger, Chris; Moon-Butzin, Paula; Green, Jason; Morris, James A.; Kator, Howard; Noga, Edward J.; Tester, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is the primary etiological agent in ulcerative mycosis, an ulcerative skin disease caused by a fungus-like agent of wild and cultured fish. We developed sensitive PCR and fluorescent peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization (FISH) assays to detect A. invadans. Laboratory-challenged killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were first tested to optimize and validate the assays. Skin ulcers of Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) from populations found in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries in North Carolina were then surveyed. Results from both assays indicated that all of the lesioned menhaden (n = 50) collected in September 2004 were positive for A. invadans. Neither the FISH assay nor the PCR assay cross-reacted with other closely related oomycetes. These results provided strong evidence that A. invadans is the primary oomycete pathogen in ulcerative mycosis and demonstrated the utility of the assays. The FISH assay is the first molecular assay to provide unambiguous visual confirmation that hyphae in the ulcerated lesions were exclusively A. invadans. PMID:16461710

  16. Optimizing dietary levels of menhaden and soybean oils and soybean lecithin for pre-gonadal somatic growth in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Victoria K.; Heflin, Laura E.; Jones, Warren T.; Powell, Mickie L.; Lawrence, Addison L.; Makowsky, Robert; Watts, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary lipids serve as important sources of energy and essential fatty acids for aquatic animals. Sources of animal and plant oils are increasingly limited as well as expensive, and dietary requirements associated with the inclusion of these oils must be carefully evaluated to facilitate sustainable and affordable formulations. In this study, we investigated quantities of menhaden oil (MO) with and without soybean lecithin or soybean oil (SO) to determine appropriate levels for optimal somatic growth for pre-gonadal juvenile Lytechinus variegatus. We prepared semi-purified diets that varied in neutral lipid content (0, 2, 4, or 8% dry matter) and soy lecithin (0 or 2%) and exchanged lipids reciprocally with purified starch while holding constant all other nutrients. We maintained laboratory-reared juvenile L. variegatus (average initial wet weight 82 ± 0.7 mg, mean ± SE , n = 9 treatment−1) in recirculating seawater systems and fed each daily a sub-satiation ration for five weeks. We assessed wet weights and test diameters every two weeks and at the end of the experiment (5 wk). Level of MO with or without soybean lecithin did not significantly affect wet weight gain; however, increasing levels of SO in the diet reduced wet weight gain and dry matter production efficiency and increased feed conversion ratio. Dry gut weight was positively correlated with level of MO. Lipid level in the gut increased with increasing dietary lipid level, regardless of source. These data suggest the composition of the SO is inhibitory for either nutrient absorption or metabolic processes associated with growth at this life stage. Diets containing total lipid levels of approximately 5 to 6% that include sources of n-3 fatty acids may support optimal growth for pre-gonadal juvenile L. variegatus. PMID:26146422

  17. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26229968

  18. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  19. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC OCEAN IN THE FOREGROUND. DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL, AND MARLBOROUGH HOTEL (LEFT TO RIGHT) ARE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CLARIDGE HOTEL IS THE HIGHRISE IMMEDIATELY TO THE RIGHT OF THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  20. Chronicling long-term predator responses to a shifting forage base in Chesapeake Bay: an energetics approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Anthony S.; Griffin, Jennifer C.; Margraf, F. Joseph; May, Eric B.; Hartman, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Striped Bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay has increased significantly since the 1980s because of management efforts while the relative abundance of some key prey fish has declined since the 1970s. We examined the trophic interactions and prey consumption patterns of Striped Bass in Chesapeake Bay to determine how Striped Bass have responded to changing prey resources. Seasonal diet, growth, and thermal data were collected from 1955 to 1959, 1990 to 1992, and 1998 to 2001; these data were coupled with a bioenergetics model approach to characterize temporal patterns in prey consumption for Striped Bass. The estimates were compared across each period to build a historical prey consumption profile from 1955 to 2001. Prey consumption dynamics for Striped Bass have changed dramatically between 1955 and 2001. In general, Striped Bass in the early and late 1990s consumed less Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia tyranus and more Bay Anchovy Anchoa mitchilli than during the 1950s. The largest differences in consumption were observed in the younger age-classes. During 1998–2001, age-1 and age-2 Striped Bass consumed, respectively, 15.5 and 11.9 times less Atlantic Menhaden than during the 1950sand 12.2 and 7.2 less than during 1990–1992. Bay Anchovy were almost absent in the diet of bass age 3 and older during the 1950s but were consumed by the age-3+ group during 1990–1992 and to a greater extent during 1998–2001. Age-3+ Striped Bass during 1998–2001, on average, consumed twice as much Bay Anchovy than during 1990–1992. Blue crab Callinectes sappidus were consumed only by age 2 in the 1950s and 1990–1992 and by ages 2 and older in 1998–2001. Age-2 bass consumed 8.8 more blue crab in 1990–1992 and 7.5 times more in 1998–2001 than during the 1950s. The patterns in the consumption of Atlantic Menhaden coincided with increased consumption of Bay Anchovy and blue crab, possibly as a result of the declines in Atlantic Menhaden

  1. South Atlantic interbasin exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, Stephen Rich

    1991-01-01

    The exchange of mass and heat between the South Atlantic and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the Atlantic and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the Atlantic ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.

  2. Tectonics of Atlantic Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, H.; Dehler, S.A.; Grant, A.C.; Oakey, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    The tectonic history of Atlantic Canada is summarized according to a model of multiple ocean opening-closing cycles. The modern North Atlantic Ocean is in the opening phase of its cycle. It was preceded by an early Paleozoic lapetus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Appalachian Orogen. lapetus was preceded by the Neoproterozoic Uranus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Grenville Orogen. The phenomenon of coincident, or almost coincident orogens and modern continental margins that relate to repeated ocean opening-closing cycles is called the Accordion Effect. An understanding of the North Atlantic Ocean and its continental margins provides insights into the nature of lapetus and the evolution of the Appalachian Orogen. Likewise, an understanding of lapetus and the Appalachian Orogen raises questions about Uranus and the development of the Grenville Orogen. Modern tectonic patterns in the North Atlantic may have been determined by events that began before 1000 m.y.

  3. North Atlantic Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  4. Atlantic Telehealth Knowledge Exchange.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Patricia; Hagerman, Valerie; Ingram, Chris-Anne; MacFarlane, Ron; McCourt, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Atlantic Canada has some of the earliest, most comprehensive, well-established networks, and innovative applications for telehealth in the country. The region offers a range of models for telehealth, in terms of management structure, coordination, funding, equipment, utilization, and telehealth applications. Collectively, this diversity, experience, and wealth of knowledge can significantly contribute to the development of a knowledge base for excellence in telehealth services. There is no formal process in place for the sharing of information amongst the provinces. Information sharing primarily occurs informally through professional contacts and participation in telehealth organizations. A core group of organizations partnered to develop a process for knowledge exchange to occur. This type of collaborative approach is favored in Atlantic Canada, given the region's economy and available resources. The Atlantic Telehealth Knowledge Exchange (ATKE) project centred on the development of a collaborative structure, information sharing and dissemination, development of a knowledge repository and sustainability. The project is viewed as a first step in assisting telehealth stakeholders with sharing knowledge about telehealth in Atlantic Canada. Significant progress has been made throughout the project in increasing the profile of telehealth in Atlantic Canada. The research process has captured and synthesized baseline information on telehealth, and fostered collaboration amongst telehealth providers who might otherwise have never come together. It has also brought critical awareness to the discussion tables of governments and key committees regarding the value of telehealth in sustaining our health system, and has motivated decision makers to take action to integrate telehealth into e-health discussions.

  5. 78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... to only one recurring marine event, held on the Atlantic Ocean, offshore of Atlantic City, New Jersey... Atlantic Ocean near Atlantic City, New Jersey, during the event. DATES: This rule will be effective on...

  6. Distribution and Abundance of Larval Fishes at Two North Carolina Inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettler, W. F.; Barker, D. L.

    1993-08-01

    Two major barrier island inlets that connect Pamlico Sound with the Atlantic Ocean were quantitatively sampled for larvae at new moon monthly intervals during 1988-89. Simultaneous tows of bottom and surface 1 m, 500 micron mesh nets were made day and night at single stations inside of Oregon Inlet and Ocracoke Inlet. Oregon Inlet, located in a more temperate marine province, was expected to have a different taxonomic community than Ocracoke Inlet, but, of 77 taxa collected from both inlets, 54 occurred at both inlets. Clupeoids and sciaenids were the dominant taxa in both inlets. At Oregon Inlet the lowest abundance of larvae occurred in February and the highest occurred in late August, whereas at Ocracoke Inlet, November and June were the lowest and highest months of larval abundance. At Oregon Inlet, 63% of the total number of larvae were caught near the bottom, but at Ocracoke Inlet, only 38% were caught near the bottom. Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, were 40 times more abundant at the surface than at the bottom at Ocracoke Inlet. Most larvae were caught at night at both inlets. The times of occurrence and peak abundance for most species did not appear linked between inlets. Twenty-one species were significantly different in mean length between the two inlets.

  7. Spatial and temporal variabilities of pelagic fish community structure and distribution in Chesapeake Bay, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sukgeun; Houde, Edward D.

    2003-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in assemblages of pelagic fish in Chesapeake Bay from 1995 to 2000 was documented based on midwater trawl surveys conducted three times annually (April, July, and October). Numerically dominant pelagic and benthopelagic fishes, 30-256 mm TL, were included in the analysis. Species assemblages, diversity indices, biomass distributions, and a correspondence analysis revealed that physical forcing, primarily driven by freshwater input, shaped the structure of fish communities, both annually and regionally. But, seasonal succession occurred, with adults dominating in the spring and recruited juveniles dominating in the fall. The dominant species were bay anchovy ( Anchoa mitchilli), Atlantic croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus), white perch ( Morone americana), spot ( Leiostomus xanthurus), weakfish ( Cynoscion regalis), and Atlantic menhaden ( Brevoortia tyrannus). Young-of-the-year (YOY) and age-1+ fish were concentrated in different regions and different seasons. A correspondence analysis showed that salinity was the most important environmental factor explaining annual differences in the upbay-downbay gradients in fish community structure. In 1997-2000, following a surge of freshwater input and nutrient loadings in 1996, October baywide fish biomass increased by 120% and mean baywide dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration below the pycnocline in summer decreased by 30%. These interannual variabilities in baywide fish biomass and mean DO suggest a relationship between bay plankton productivity and fish production. Species composition shifted markedly in 1996 when YOY and age-1+ anadromous fishes became dominant, but returned progressively in subsequent years to the usual structure in which bay anchovy and other polyhaline species were dominant.

  8. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  9. North Atlantic Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North Atlantic with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North Atlantic come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  10. Dual Hurricanes in the Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cameras on the International Space Station show views of Hurricane Julia and Hurricane Igor, both moving west-northwest across the Atlantic on Sept. 14, 2010. At the time the video was captured, Ju...

  11. The Atlantic Climate Change Program

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, R.L. ); Battisti, D. ); Bryan, K. ); Walsh, J. )

    1994-07-01

    The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Seafloor methane: Atlantic bubble bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, John

    2014-09-01

    The release of large quantities of methane from ocean sediments might affect global climate change. The discovery of expansive methane seeps along the US Atlantic margin provides an ideal test bed for such a marine methane-climate connection.

  13. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  14. North Atlantic Deep Water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North Atlantic are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.

  15. 77 FR 25144 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    .... Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N... Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC, 29405;...

  16. On the North Atlantic circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, W.J. Jr.; McCartney, M.S. )

    1993-02-01

    A summary for North Atlantic circulation is proposed to replace the circulation scheme hypothesized by Worthington in 1976. Divergences from the previous model are in thermohaline circulation, cross-equatorical transport and Florida Current sources, flow in the eastern Atlantic, circulation in the Newfoundland Basin, slope water currents, and flow pattern near the Bahamas. The circulation patterns presented here are consistent with the majority of of published accounts of flow components. 77 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific. PMID:19909394

  18. Wildlife hazards from Furadan 3G applications to rice in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; King, K.A.; Stout, W.F.; Mohn, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Mortality of birds, fish, frogs, crayfish, earthworms, and nontarget insects occurred in rice fields after treatments of Furadan 3G granules in 3 Texas counties in 1970 and 1973-75. Three western sandpipers (Ereunetes mauri), 1 pectoral sandpiper (Erolia melanotos), and 2 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were found dead or moribund between 17 and 24 hours after treatment. Cricket frogs (Acris crepitans blanchardi) were intoxicated 15 minutes post-treatment, and mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) showed effects 1 hour post-treatment. Mortality of mosquito fish, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus), and European carp (Cyprinus carpio) usually occurred between 24 and 28 hours after treatment. Mortality of frogs, crayfish, and nontarget insects generally occurred in rice field water between 1 and 45 hours after treatment. Mortality of earthworms in soil persisted for 52 hours. As a replacement for aldrin in Texas rice fields, Furadan 3G appeared to cause Iess mortality of birds than aldrin, but Furadan 3G was toxic to birds, fish, and invertebrates.

  19. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific.

  20. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... management groups is closed, even across fishing years. On July 3, 2013 (78 FR 40318), NMFS announced the... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY:...

  1. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  2. Climatic Variability over the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurrell, J.; Hoerling, M. P.; Folland, C. K.

    INTRODUCTION WHAT IS THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION AND HOW DOES IT IMPACT REGIONAL - CLIMATE? WHAT ARE THE MECHANISMS THAT GOVERN NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION VARIABILITY? Atmospheric Processes Ocean Forcing of the Atmosphere CONCLUDING COMMENTS ON THE OTHER ASPECTS OF NORTH ATLANTIC CLIMATE - VARIABILITY REFERENCES

  3. Atlantic opportunities for ENSO prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rey, Marta Martin; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Polo, Irene

    2015-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of tropical climate variability with worldwide impacts. Major advances in ENSO research have been done in the last decades, focusing on the mechanisms involved in its onset and development, as well as, its global climate teleconnections. Although modelling efforts have been made in ENSO forecast, the prediction of these episodes still remains a challenge for the scientific community. Recent studies put forward the role of extra-tropical and tropical regions as precursors of ENSO, but these teleconnections have changed along the 20th century. In particular, an Atlantic Niño precedes the development of a Pacific La Niña (and vice versa) 6 months in advance, taking part of an air-sea coupled mode of variability which only shows up during negative phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The non-stationarity of this mode opens window opportunities for ENSO forecast, using the Tropical Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) as the predictor field. Here, we present for the first time a statistical crossvalidated hindcast of ENSO events based on an Extended Multiple Maximum Covariance Analysis (EMMCA). This method considers a unique predictor field, the summer Atlantic SSTs, and a set of predictant fields in different regions and seasons, according to the Atlantic-Pacific mechanism. The predicted tropical Pacific variables involved in ENSO development, show a good agreement with the observed ones during negative AMO phases, with a remarkable increase of the predictability skill based on correlations. During those negative AMO decades, the hindcast reproduces quite well the observed Atlantic-modulated ENSO episodes, but with stronger signal than observations. This AMO-dependency of the ENSO predictability could help to resolve some open questions about the seasonal to decadal ENSO forecast and its impacts.

  4. On the North Atlantic Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, William J.; McCartney, Michael S.

    1993-02-01

    A new, speculative, and, we hope, provocative summary of the North Atlantic circulation is described, including both horizontal currents (wind-driven) and the primarily (thermohaline) meridional flows that involve the transformation of warm to cold water at high latitudes. Our picture is based on a synthesis of a variety of independent investigations that are contained in the literature as opposed to a presentation of the results of one technique or the point of view of one author. We describe a thermohaline cell (the so-called thermohaline conveyor belt) that is concentrated within the Atlantic and Southern oceans (rather than essentially global), with the most important upwelling sites being in the circumpolar and the equatorial current regimes. We concentrate on deep water formation and its replacement relative to intermediate-water formation. It has been pointed out recently that the formation of 13 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m³ s-1) of southward flowing North Atlantic Deep Water is compensated for in the upper ocean by northward cross-equatorial transport. We suggest that this thermocline layer flow passes through the Straits of Florida, transits the Gulf Stream system on its inshore side, and exits through the North Atlantic Current system after recirculation and modification. There is now a clear observational basis for the structure of recirculating gyres on the southern and northern sides of the Gulf Stream. We suggest a recirculation for the North Atlantic Current as well. We also describe a C-shaped component to the southern Gulf Stream recirculation and identify a roughly 10-Sv circulation in the eastern North Atlantic associated with the Azores Current. Recirculations play an important role in deep boundary current regimes and in water mass formation and modification. The transport of the deep western and northern boundary currents in the North Atlantic Ocean may be boosted (roughly doubled or tripled) by counterclockwise recirculating gyres and by additions of

  5. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  6. Spatial and temporal diet patterns of subadult and small adult striped bass in Massachusetts estuaries: Data, a synthesis, and trends across scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferry, K.H.; Mather, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Subadult and small adult (375–475 mm total length) striped bass Morone saxatilis are abundant and represent an important component of the recovered U.S. Atlantic coast stocks. However, little is known about these large aggregations of striped bass during their annual foraging migrations to New England. A quantitative understanding of trends in the diets of subadult and small adult migrants is critical to research and management. Because of the complexity of the Massachusetts coast, we were able to compare diets at multiple spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales and evaluate which of these provided the greatest insights into the foraging patterns of this size of fish. Specifically, during spring through autumn, we quantified the diets of 797 migratory striped bass collected from 13 Massachusetts estuaries distributed among three geographic regions in two biogeographic provinces. Our data provided three useful results. First, subadult and young adult striped bass ate a season-specific mixture of fish and invertebrates. For example, more juvenile Atlantic herring Clupea harengus were eaten in spring than in summer or autumn, more juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus were eaten in autumn than in spring or summer, amphipods were eaten primarily in the southern biogeographic province, and shrimp Crangon sp. were eaten in all locations and seasons. Second, examining diets by season was essential because of the temporal variability in striped bass prey. Grouping prey by fish and invertebrates revealed the potential for predictable differences in growth across geographic locations and seasons, based on the output from simple bioenergetics simulations. Third, of the three spatial scales examined, region provided the most quantitative and interpretable ecological trends. Our results demonstrate the utility of comparing multiple scales to evaluate the best way to depict diet trends in a migrating predator that seasonally uses different geographic locations.

  7. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ..., used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea... sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. While the SEDAR Pool was...

  8. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic Red Snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 24 Assessment Stage 2, Webinar 3. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the South Atlantic stock of...

  9. 77 FR 3393 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... blue sharks) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea... northwestern Atlantic, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. DATES: The 2012 Atlantic commercial shark... implemented by regulations at 50 CFR part 635. On October 31, 2011, NMFS published a rule (76 FR 67121)...

  10. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ..., and billfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action... Caribbean Sea, to a North Atlantic swordfish taken from or possessed in the Atlantic Ocean, and to bluefin... published in the Federal Register (71 FR 58058) final regulations, effective November 1, 2006...

  11. 76 FR 56322 - Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; 2012 Fishing Quotas for Atlantic Surfclams and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs from the Exclusive Economic Zone if the previous year's quota... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA529 Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; 2012 Fishing Quotas for Atlantic Surfclams and Ocean Quahogs; and Suspension of...

  12. 75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic red snapper. AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 24 Assessment Webinars 3 & 4 and Review Workshop for South Atlantic red snapper. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the South Atlantic stock of red snapper will consist of a series of workshops and webinars:...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication are... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The availability of this incorporation by reference is... 1989), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication are available from the Office of Food... CFR part 51. The availability of this incorporation by reference is given in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of... by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The availability of...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication are... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The availability of this incorporation by reference is... 1989), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....

  16. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication are... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The availability of this incorporation by reference is... 1989), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication are... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The availability of this incorporation by reference is... 1989), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....

  18. 76 FR 37788 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Catch (ABC) recommendation for Atlantic Migratory Group Spanish mackerel and assessment priorities for... deriving ABC for Atlantic Migratory Group Spanish Mackerel and SEDAR assessment priorities for...

  19. Atlantic Air-Sea Interaction Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodwell, M. J.

    INTRODUCTION DATA AND MODELS THE ANALYSIS METHOD ATMOSPHERIC FORCING OF NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FORCING OF THE ATMOSPHERE Observational Evidence Model Results POTENTIAL SEASONAL PREDICTABILITY BASED ON THE ATMOSPHERE GENERAL - CIRCULATION MODEL CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION REFERENCES

  20. Ecosystem Effects of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and its importance to the Earth’s climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillati...

  1. Teaching Atlantic Studies in American High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Charles R.

    1980-01-01

    Stresses the importance of Atlantic studies within the framework of United States history, European history, and the contemporary world scene. Ways of integrating Atlantic studies into the high school social studies curriculum are suggested. Topics discussed include objectives, audiovisual aids, supplementary reading material, and global political…

  2. 50 CFR 223.211 - Atlantic sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic sturgeon. 223.211 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Atlantic sturgeon. (a) Prohibitions. The... sturgeon listed in § 223.102(c)(29). (b)...

  3. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Jace

    2011-01-01

    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads his review of Peter Linebaugh and…

  4. Origin of the northern Atlantic`s Heinrich events

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.; Bond, G.; Klas, M.

    1992-01-01

    As first noted by Heinrich, 1988, glacial age sediments in the eastern part of the northern Atlantic contain layers with unusually high ratios of ice-rafted lithic fragments of foraminifera shells. He estimated that these layers are spaced at intervals of roughly 10000 years. In this paper we present detailed information documenting the existence of the upper five of these layers in ODP core 609 from 50{degrees}N and 24{degrees}W. Their ages are respectively 15000 radiocarbon years, 20000 radiocarbon years, 27000 radiocarbon years, about 40000 years, and about 50000 years. We also note that the high lithic fragment to foram ratio is the result of a near absence of shells in these layers. Although we are not of one mind regarding the origin of these layers, we lean toward an explanation that the Heinrich layers are debris released during the melting of massive influxes of icebergs into the northern Atlantic. These sudden inputs may be the result of surges along the eastern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Juvenile Atlantic Croaker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Robert J.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1982-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Atlantic croaker is an important commercial and recreational species. In the 1940's, the foodfish catch of Atlantic croakers was concentrated in Chesapeake Bay; in the 1950's and early 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico; and in the late 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the South Atlantic States (Wilk 1981). Industrial and recreational catches of Atlantic croakers have been concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico, where the Atlantic croaker is the most important species of bottomfish for industrial uses (Knudsen and Herke 1978), and has ranked first, second, or third in number caught by recreational anglers, depending on survey year (Nakamura 1981). Today, Virginia or Delaware is considered to be the northern extent of the species. During climatically warmer periods, such as the 1930's and 1940's, the croaker extended its range north at least to New York, where it was commercially fished. The southern extent of its range is Argentina.

  6. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  7. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  8. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  9. Atlantic forcing of Pacific decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharski, Fred; Ikram, Farah; Molteni, Franco; Farneti, Riccardo; Kang, In-Sik; No, Hyun-Ho; King, Martin P.; Giuliani, Graziano; Mogensen, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the Atlantic Ocean influence on equatorial Pacific decadal variability. Using an ensemble of simulations, where the ICTPAGCM ("SPEEDY") is coupled to the NEMO/OPA ocean model in the Indo-Pacific region and forced by observed sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic region, it is shown that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) has had a substantial influence on the equatorial Pacific decadal variability. According to AMO phases we have identified three periods with strong Atlantic forcing of equatorial Pacific changes, namely (1) 1931-1950 minus 1910-1929, (2) 1970-1989 minus 1931-1950 and (3) 1994-2013 minus 1970-1989. Both observations and the model show easterly surface wind anomalies in the central Pacific, cooling in the central-eastern Pacific and warming in the western Pacific/Indian Ocean region in events (1) and (3) and the opposite signals in event (2). The physical mechanism for these responses is related to a modification of the Walker circulation because a positive (negative) AMO leads to an overall warmer (cooler) tropical Atlantic. The warmer (cooler) tropical Atlantic modifies the Walker circulation, leading to rising (sinking) and upper-level divergence (convergence) motion in the Atlantic region and sinking (rising) motion and upper-level convergence (divergence) in the central Pacific region.

  10. Anisotropic tomography of the Atlantic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, G.; Stutzmann, E.

    2003-04-01

    We present a regional tri-dimensional model of the Atlantic Ocean with anisotropy. The model, derived from Rayleigh and Love phase velocity measurements, is defined from the Moho down to 300 km depth with a lateral resolution of about 500 km and is presented in terms of average isotropic S-wave velocity, azimuthal anisotropy and transverse isotropy. The cratons beneath North America, Brazil and Africa are clearly associated with fast S-wave velocity anomalies. The Mid Atlantic Ridge is a shallow structure in the North Atlantic corresponding to a negative velocity anomaly down to about 150 km depth. In contrast, the ridge negative signature is visible in the South Atlantic down to the deepest depth inverted, that is 300~km depth. This difference is probably related to the presence of hot-spots along or close to the ridge axis in the South Atlantic and may indicate a different mechanism for the ridge between the North and South Atlantic. Negative velocity anomalies are clearly associated with hot-spots from the surface down to at least 300km depth, they are much broader that the supposed size of the hot-spots and seem to be connected along a North-South direction. Down to 100 km depth, a fast S-wave velocity anomaly is extenting from Africa into the Atlantic Ocean within the zone defined as the Africa superswell area. This result indicates that the hot material rising from below does not reach the surface in this area but may be pushing the lithosphere upward. In most parts of the Atlantic, the azimuthal anisotropy directions remain stable with increasing depth. Close to the ridge, the fast S-wave velocity direction is roughly parallel to the sea floor spreading direction. The hot-spot anisotropy signature is striking beneath Bermuda, Cape Verde and Fernando Noronha islands where the fast S-wave velocity direction seems to diverge radially from the hot-spots. The Atlantic average radial anisotropy is similar to that of the PREM model, that is positive down to about

  11. 78 FR 64199 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ...The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee will hold a wreckfish assessment workshop November 12-14, 2013 in North Charleston, SC. See SUPPLEMENTARY...

  12. 78 FR 62587 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Habitat and Environmental Protection (Habitat) Advisory Panel (AP... information systems. The AP will receive an update on regional habitat and ecosystem modelling efforts...

  13. North Atlantic summer to winter rainfall response to the Atlantic-Pacific tropical connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belen; Losada Doval, Teresa; Mohino Harris, Elsa; Polo Sánchez, Irene; Garcia Serrano, Javier

    2010-05-01

    Recent observational and GCM studies have shown, following the results of Polo et al. (2008), how the Atlantic and Pacific Niños present a dynamical link during the last decades of the XX century (Rodriguez-Fonseca et al., 2009). In this way, the positive (negative) phase of the summer Pacific Niño signal has been found to be connected with a negative (positive) phase of the Equatorial Atlantic mode (EM or Atlantic Niño, Polo et al., 2008); a pattern which leads the summer Atlantic variability. The determinant impact of this connection on the WA monsoon has been addressed by defining a global summer tropical mode accounting for more than the 60% of the rainfall variance. The rainfall response to an isolated Pacific forcing has been documented to be a decrease of rainfall over Sahel whilst, the response associated to an isolated EM is a Guinean-Sahel rainfall dipolar pattern. Nevertheless, the rainfall response to the Pacific ENSO- Atlantic Niña forcing observed from the 70's has a unified behavior in the WA region. In order to deeply analyse the dynamics involved in the concomitant action of the Atlantic and Pacific in summer and in the subsequent months, different sensitivity experiments have been performed separating the global Atlantic-IndoPacific contribution to the independent Pacific and Atlantic ones. Some dynamical aspects in relation to the extratropical North Atlantic teleconnections in the following seasons are also included.

  14. Ocean science: Vagaries of Atlantic overturning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, Thomas W. N.

    2016-07-01

    A weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation has emerged from noise after years of painstaking measurements. Three independent lines of evidence suggest that an anthropogenic influence on this overturning is not yet detectable.

  15. MID-ATLANTIC LANDCOVER CHANGE DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic region is comprised of southern New York, southern and western New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, northeastern North Carolina, Delaware, and Washington, DC. It is an ecosystem rich in streams, wetlands, forests, estuaries, breeding birds...

  16. Millennial changes in North Atlantic oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.

    2015-08-01

    Glacial-interglacial changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations [O2] in the deep Northeast Atlantic have been linked to decreased ventilation relating to changes in ocean circulation and the biological pump (Hoogakker et al., 2015). In this paper we discuss seawater [O2] changes in relation to millennial climate oscillations in the North Atlantic ocean over the last glacial cycle, using bottom water [O2] reconstructions from 2 cores: (1) MD95-2042 from the deep northeast Atlantic (Hoogakker et al., 2015), and (2) ODP 1055 from the intermediate northwest Atlantic. Deep northeast Atlantic core MD95-2042 shows decreased bottom water [O2] during millennial scale cool events, with lowest bottom water [O2] of 170, 144, and 166 ± 17 μmol kg-1 during Heinrich ice rafting events H6, H4 and H1. Importantly, at intermediate core ODP 1055 bottom water [O2] was lower during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 4 and millennial cool events, with lowest values of 179 and 194 μmol kg-1 recorded during millennial cool events C21 and a cool event following Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19. Our reconstructions agree with previous model simulations suggesting that glacial cold events may be associated with lower seawater [O2] across the North Atlantic below ~1 km (Schmittner et al., 2007), although in our reconstructions the changes are less dramatic. The decreases in bottom water [O2] during North Atlantic Heinrich events and earlier cold events at the deep site can be linked to water mass changes in relation to ocean circulation changes, and possibly productivity changes. At the intermediate depth site a strong North Atlantic Intermediate Water cell precludes water mass changes as a cause for decreased bottom water [O2]. Instead we propose that the lower bottom [O2] there can be linked to productivity changes through increased export of organic material from the surface ocean.

  17. 75 FR 33731 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-AY77 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications Correction In rule document 2010-13207...

  18. 77 FR 31546 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Species Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and subsequent... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... area fishery for large medium and giant Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2012....

  19. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Sharks (43 FR 3818), which was supported by an Environmental Impact Statement (42 FR 57716). The... Billfishes (53 FR 21501). This plan was jointly developed by five Atlantic Regional Fishery Management... (53 FR 37765). The 1988 FMP defined the Atlantic billfish management unit to include sailfish from...

  20. 76 FR 62042 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Coral Advisory... INFORMATION: Members of the Coral AP will meet from 8:30 a.m. until 5 p.m. on October 25, 2011 and from 8:30 a... coral research and activity in the South Atlantic region; a discussion of measures to be included in...

  1. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Register (75 FR 9158, March 1, 2010). NMFS received one comment in response to that notice. The comment... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce...

  2. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... on April 27, 2010 (75 FR 22103), and are not repeated here. Activities Pursuant to the Atlantic... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the moratorium, as required by...

  3. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... accompanied the 2011 shark quota specifications rule (75 FR 76302; December 8, 2010). Thus, NMFS proposes to... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on...

  4. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393... rule implementing the Atlantic HMS electronic dealer ] reporting system (76 FR 37750; June 28, 2011) or...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National...

  5. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    .... As outlined in the September 20, 2010, ANPR (75 FR 57235), sharks have been federally managed since... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine...

  6. 77 FR 65498 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). Due to an over-harvest in Area 1A in 2010, the FY 2012 sub-ACL in Area 1A was revised to 24,668 mt on February 24, 2012 (77 FR 10978, February 24, 2012). An additional 295... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the Atlantic Herring Management Area 1A...

  7. 75 FR 35432 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929). The proposed adjusted quota for the South Atlantic swordfish, after... certification reads: NMFS published a final rule on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929) that established the...

  8. 78 FR 12705 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT... coastal states on the Atlantic including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Pursuant to 15 CFR 930... prepared for the 2012 Swordfish Quota Specifications Final Rule (July 31, 2012; 77 FR 45273). The...

  9. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... and Caribbean Sea. DATES: This rule is effective on January 1, 2014. The 2014 Atlantic commercial...) management groups in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea... practicable, for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. On August 23, 2013 (78 FR 52487),...

  10. 76 FR 53652 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ..., including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT recommendations, consistent... in the Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, to a North Atlantic swordfish... Administrator for Fisheries (AA), NOAA. On October 2, 2006, NMFS published in the Federal Register (71 FR...

  11. 78 FR 4129 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    .... Receive an update on the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Communication Group Social Media Workshop. 3... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC445 Fisheries of the South Atlantic;...

  12. 75 FR 11133 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Wreckfish Shareholders for the South Atlantic region to discuss draft Amendment 20 to the Snapper Grouper... Shareholders for the South Atlantic region. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES: The meeting will take place... Wreckfish Shareholders on changes the Council is considering for the current ITQ program in Amendment 20...

  13. Influence of the Atlantic subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation.

    PubMed

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Sandø, Anne Britt; Drange, Helge; Hansen, Bogi; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2005-09-16

    During the past decade, record-high salinities have been observed in the Atlantic Inflow to the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, which feeds the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). This may counteract the observed long-term increase in freshwater supply to the area and tend to stabilize the North Atlantic THC. Here we show that the salinity of the Atlantic Inflow is tightly linked to the dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre circulation. Therefore, when assessing the future of the North Atlantic THC, it is essential that the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its influence on the salinity are taken into account.

  14. Influence of the Atlantic subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation.

    PubMed

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Sandø, Anne Britt; Drange, Helge; Hansen, Bogi; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2005-09-16

    During the past decade, record-high salinities have been observed in the Atlantic Inflow to the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, which feeds the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). This may counteract the observed long-term increase in freshwater supply to the area and tend to stabilize the North Atlantic THC. Here we show that the salinity of the Atlantic Inflow is tightly linked to the dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre circulation. Therefore, when assessing the future of the North Atlantic THC, it is essential that the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its influence on the salinity are taken into account. PMID:16166513

  15. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  16. Atlantic reef fish biogeography and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Floeter, S.R.; Rocha, L.A.; Robertson, D.R.; Joyeux, J.C.; Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Wirtz, P.; Edwards, A.J.; Barreiros, J.P.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Gasparini, J.L.; Brito, A.; Falcon, J.M.; Bowen, B.W.; Bernardi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand why and when areas of endemism (provinces) of the tropical Atlantic Ocean were formed, how they relate to each other, and what processes have contributed to faunal enrichment. Location: Atlantic Ocean. Methods: The distributions of 2605 species of reef fishes were compiled for 25 areas of the Atlantic and southern Africa. Maximum-parsimony and distance analyses were employed to investigate biogeographical relationships among those areas. A collection of 26 phylogenies of various Atlantic reef fish taxa was used to assess patterns of origin and diversification relative to evolutionary scenarios based on spatio-temporal sequences of species splitting produced by geological and palaeoceanographic events. We present data on faunal (species and genera) richness, endemism patterns, diversity buildup (i.e. speciation processes), and evaluate the operation of the main biogeographical barriers and/or filters. Results: Phylogenetic (proportion of sister species) and distributional (number of shared species) patterns are generally concordant with recognized biogeographical provinces in the Atlantic. The highly uneven distribution of species in certain genera appears to be related to their origin, with highest species richness in areas with the greatest phylogenetic depth. Diversity buildup in Atlantic reef fishes involved (1) diversification within each province, (2) isolation as a result of biogeographical barriers, and (3) stochastic accretion by means of dispersal between provinces. The timing of divergence events is not concordant among taxonomic groups. The three soft (non-terrestrial) inter-regional barriers (mid-Atlantic, Amazon, and Benguela) clearly act as 'filters' by restricting dispersal but at the same time allowing occasional crossings that apparently lead to the establishment of new populations and species. Fluctuations in the effectiveness of the filters, combined with ecological differences among provinces, apparently provide a mechanism

  17. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  18. Sequencing the genome of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Collaboration to Sequence the Atlantic Salmon Genome (ICSASG) will produce a genome sequence that identifies and physically maps all genes in the Atlantic salmon genome and acts as a reference sequence for other salmonids. PMID:20887641

  19. 75 FR 2856 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... for sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Nominations are being sought for..., used in stock assessments for sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea....

  20. Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and the prediction of North Atlantic sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöwer, M.; Latif, M.; Ding, H.; Greatbatch, R. J.; Park, W.

    2014-11-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), a major current system in the Atlantic Ocean, is thought to be an important driver of climate variability, both regionally and globally and on a large range of time scales from decadal to centennial and even longer. Measurements to monitor the AMOC strength have only started in 2004, which is too short to investigate its link to long-term climate variability. Here the surface heat flux-driven part of the AMOC during 1900-2010 is reconstructed from the history of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the most energetic mode of internal atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector. The decadal variations of the AMOC obtained in that way are shown to precede the observed decadal variations in basin-wide North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) which strongly impacts societally important quantities such as Atlantic hurricane activity and Sahel rainfall. The future evolution of the AMO is forecast using the AMOC reconstructed up to 2010. The present warm phase of the AMO is predicted to continue until the end of the next decade, but with a negative tendency.

  1. Observed Influence of Amazon rainfall on the Atlantic ITCZ and Atlantic Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R.; Wang, H.

    2007-05-01

    Most of previous studies on climate variabilities of the tropical Atlantic Ocean have been focused on remote and internal oceanic processes or atmosphere-ocean interaction. In comparison, relatively few studies have examined the influences from adjacent continents, especially the influence of rainfall over the South American continent. Using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) daily rain-rate dada, the QuikSCAT ocean surface wind and PIRATA buoy data, we have found that convection developed over the Amazonia appears to propagate eastward across the Atlantic and then into Africa. Such changes modulate the intensity and location of the convection within the Atlantic ITCZ and result in a zonal oscillation of the ITCZ between the west and east equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The eastward propagating disturbances appear to be an atmospheric Kelvin wave with a period of 6 to 7 days and a phase speed of around 12 m s-1. Such convectively coupled Kelvin wave is particularly strong during boreal spring and dominates the synoptic variations of the lower and upper troposphere winds. Our results further suggest that the interannual changes of these convective coupled Kelvin waves have an important influence on trigging the onset of Atlantic Ninos. In particular, anomalously late northward withdraw of the South American rainfall in boreal spring lead to stronger Kelvin wave activities and stronger westerly wind anomalies in the western equatorial Atlantic. The latter triggers a change of the slope of the thermocline in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean and induces sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern Atlantic. These changes contribute to the onset of the Atlantic Nino in earlier boreal summer.

  2. PRISM3 DOT1 Atlantic Basin Reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry; Robinson, Marci; Dwyer, Gary; Chandler, Mark; Cronin, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    PRISM3 DOT1 (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping 3, Deep Ocean Temperature 1) provides a three-dimensional temperature reconstruction for the mid-Pliocene Atlantic basin, the first of several regional data sets that will comprise a global mid-Pliocene reconstruction. DOT1 is an alteration of modern temperature values for the Atlantic Ocean in 4 degree x 5 degree cells in 13 depth layers for December 1 based on Mg/Ca-derived BWT estimates from seventeen DSDP and ODP Sites and SST estimates from the PRISM2 reconstruction (Dowsett et al., 1999). DOT1 reflects a vaguely modern circulation system, assuming similar processes of deep-water formation; however, North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production is increased, and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production is decreased. Pliocene NADW was approximately 2 degreesC warmer than modern temperatures, and Pliocene AABW was approximately 0.3 degreesC warmer than modern temperatures.

  3. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  4. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Coast Guard Areas § 3.04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised...

  5. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Coast Guard Areas § 3.04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised...

  6. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Coast Guard Areas § 3.04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised...

  7. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Coast Guard Areas § 3.04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised...

  8. 33 CFR 3.04-1 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 3.04-1 Section 3... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Coast Guard Areas § 3.04-1 Atlantic Area. (a) The Area Office is in Portsmouth, VA. (b) The Atlantic Area is comprised...

  9. Climatology and Interannual Variability of North Atlantic Hurricane Tracks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lian; Yan, Tingzhuang; Pietrafesa, Leonard J.; Morrison, John M.; Karl, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of North Atlantic hurricane tracks and its possible association with the annual hurricane landfall frequency along the U.S. East Coast are studied using principal component analysis (PCA) of hurricane track density function (HTDF). The results show that, in addition to the well-documented effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and vertical wind shear (VWS), North Atlantic HTDF is strongly modulated by the dipole mode (DM) of Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO). Specifically, it was found that Atlantic SST DM is the only index that is associated with all top three empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of the Atlantic HTDF. ENSO and tropical Atlantic VWS are significantly correlated with the first and the third EOF of the HTDF over the North Atlantic Ocean. The second EOF of North Atlantic HTDF, which represents the “zonal gradient” of North Atlantic hurricane track density, showed no significant correlation with ENSO or with tropical Atlantic VWS. Instead, it is associated with the Atlantic SST DM, and extratropical processes including NAO and AO. Since for a given hurricane season, the preferred hurricane track pattern, together with the overall basinwide hurricane activity, collectively determines the hurricane landfall frequency, the results provide a foundation for the construction of a statistical model that projects the annual number of hurricanes striking the eastern seaboard of the United States.

  10. 2. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROUGH, BLENHEIM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROUGH, BLENHEIM AND DENNIS HOTELS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE LFET OF THE HIGHROSE CLARIDGE HOTEL IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  11. 1. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROGH, BLENHEIM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROGH, BLENHEIM, AND DENNIS HOTELS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE LEFT OF THE HIGHRISE CLARIDGE HOTEL IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  12. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  13. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  14. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  15. 76 FR 45780 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... should be sent to Bob Mahood, Executive Director, South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber..., Public Information Officer, ] South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite... CONTACT: Kim Iverson, South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201,...

  16. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  17. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  18. Recent changes in the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert R; Curry, Ruth; Yashayaev, Igor

    2003-09-15

    It has long been recognized that the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is potentially sensitive to greenhouse-gas and other climate forcing, and that changes in the MOC have the potential to cause abrupt climate change. However, the mechanisms remain poorly understood and our ability to detect these changes remains incomplete. Four main (interrelated) types of ocean change in particular are associated in the literature with greenhouse-gas forcing. These are: a slowing of MOC overturning rate; changes in northern seas which might effect a change in Atlantic overturning, including changes in the freshwater flux from the Arctic, and changes in the transport and/or hydrographic character of the northern overflows which ventilate the deep Atlantic; a change in the trans-ocean gradients of steric height (both zonal and meridional) which might accompany a change in the MOC; and an intensification of the global water cycle. Though as yet we have no direct measure of the freshwater flux passing from the Arctic to the Atlantic either via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or along the East Greenland Shelf, and no direct measure yet of the Atlantic overturning rate, we examine a wide range of time-series from the existing hydrographic record for oceanic evidence of the other anticipated responses. Large amplitude and sustained changes are found (or indicated by proxy) over the past three to four decades in the southward transport of fresh waters along the Labrador shelf and slope, in the hydrography of the deep dense overflows from Nordic seas, in the transport of the eastern overflow through Faroe Bank Channel, and in the global hydrologic cycle. Though the type and scale of changes in ocean salinity are consistent with an amplification of the water cycle, we find no convincing evidence of any significant, concerted slowdown in the Atlantic overturning circulation.

  19. Millennial changes in North Atlantic oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.

    2016-01-01

    Glacial-interglacial changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations [O2] in the deep northeast Atlantic have been linked to decreased ventilation relating to changes in ocean circulation and the biological pump (Hoogakker et al., 2015). In this paper we discuss seawater [O2] changes in relation to millennial climate oscillations in the North Atlantic over the last glacial cycle, using bottom water [O2] reconstructions from 2 cores: (1) MD95-2042 from the deep northeast Atlantic (Hoogakker et al., 2015) and (2) ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 1055 from the intermediate northwest Atlantic. The deep northeast Atlantic core MD95-2042 shows decreased bottom water [O2] during millennial-scale cool events, with lowest bottom water [O2] of 170, 144, and 166 ± 17 µmol kg-1 during Heinrich ice rafting events H6, H4, and H1. Importantly, at intermediate depth core ODP Site 1055, bottom water [O2] was lower during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 4 and millennial cool events, with the lowest values of 179 and 194 µmol kg-1 recorded during millennial cool event C21 and a cool event following Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19. Our reconstructions agree with previous model simulations suggesting that glacial cold events may be associated with lower seawater [O2] across the North Atlantic below ˜ 1 km (Schmittner et al., 2007), although in our reconstructions the changes are less dramatic. The decreases in bottom water [O2] during North Atlantic Heinrich events and earlier cold events at the two sites can be linked to water mass changes in relation to ocean circulation changes and possibly productivity changes. At the intermediate depth site a possible strong North Atlantic Intermediate Water cell would preclude water mass changes as a cause for decreased bottom water [O2]. Instead, we propose that the lower bottom [O2] there can be linked to productivity changes through increased export of organic material from the surface ocean and its subsequent remineralization in the water column

  20. Philadelphia-Atlantic City: highballing the highrollers

    SciTech Connect

    Kizzia, T.

    1980-12-08

    An existing 65 mi rail corridor from Philadelphia, Pa., to Atlantic City, N.J., is being studied for redevelopment. The French Compagnie General d'Electricite wants to develop this route for a high speed electric system. Trains would cover the distance in 40 minutes, with top speeds hitting 125 mph. Potential ridership includes casino visitors to Atlantic City and commuters into Philadelphia. The status of the project and its future are outlined. Several other foreign companies are interested in developing some rail lines in the U.S. Congress is taking steps to encourage these private investments in the U.S. rail system. (1 photo)

  1. Correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity biases in the Kiel Climate Model: influences on ocean circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2016-10-01

    A long-standing problem in climate models is the large sea surface salinity (SSS) biases in the North Atlantic. In this study, we describe the influences of correcting these SSS biases on the circulation of the North Atlantic as well as on North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal to multidecadal variability. We performed integrations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) with and without applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  2. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on ligand binding to hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Carey, F G; Knowles, F; Gibson, Q H

    1977-06-25

    Increase in hydrostatic pressure to 1000 atm increased the affinity of human and menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) hemoglobins for oxygen. With necessary assumptions about the form of the equilibrium curve, and after correction for changes in pH and volume due to pressure, the increase in affinity is about 2-fold for both hemoglobins. At pH 6.5, Hill's n for menhaden hemoglobin is near 1, and it is believed to remain in the T state, whereas human hemoglobin undergoes a T to R transition. This suggests that the R-T equilibrium is not disturbed by pressure. In direct experiments the binding of a fluorescent effector (8 hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene (trisulfonic acid) to deoxyhemoglobin was not changed by pressure. The binding of n-butylisocyanide to hemoglobin and to myoglobin is also greater at high pressures, similarly suggesting that the R-T transition is not involved in the pressure effect. PMID:16924

  3. 76 FR 45781 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... items contained in the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that published June 1, 2009 (74 FR 26174... views of AP members when preparing and implementing FMPs or FMP amendments for Atlantic tunas,...

  4. 76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC 29405... Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC 29405; telephone: (843) 571-4366...

  5. 76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC 29405. FOR... Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC 29405; telephone: (843) 571-4366 or...

  6. 75 FR 65298 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... but are not limited to: The draft Comprehensive Ecosystem Based Amendment 2, a five-year Essential Fish Habitat review, the Governor's South Atlantic Alliance Action Plan, a status report on Gulf...

  7. 77 FR 69596 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Nominations are being sought for a 3-year appointment (2013-2015... assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. While the SEDAR...

  8. 78 FR 65974 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Nominations are being sought for a 3-year appointment (2014-2016... Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. While the SEDAR Pool was created specifically...

  9. 75 FR 57407 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... specific measures laid out in the proposed rule can be found in 75 FR 35432 (June 22, 2010) and are...

  10. 75 FR 5284 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... and, (2) the condition of the pink shrimp stock in the South Atlantic Region. The Fishery Management... necessary to bring the pink shrimp stock back above the MSST level. The Panel will prepare a...

  11. 78 FR 11809 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    .... Christopher M. Moore, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Suite 201, 800 N. State... overfishing. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. Dated: February 12, 2013. Alan D. Risenhoover, Director,...

  12. 77 FR 8776 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    .... Moore, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Suite 201, 800 N. State Street... Monitoring Committee. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. Dated: February 9, 2012. Alan D. Risenhoover,...

  13. 33 CFR 165.2025 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....S. Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 165.2025 Section...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Protection of...

  14. 33 CFR 165.2025 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....S. Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 165.2025 Section...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Protection of...

  15. 33 CFR 165.2025 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....S. Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 165.2025 Section...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Protection of...

  16. 33 CFR 165.2025 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....S. Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 165.2025 Section...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Protection of...

  17. 33 CFR 165.2025 - Atlantic Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....S. Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Area. 165.2025 Section...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Protection of...

  18. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  19. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  20. Sustainability in Higher Education in Atlantic Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut; Wright, Tarah; Malone, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to ascertain the state of sustainability in higher education (SHE) in Atlantic Canada (sustainability education/curriculum; research and scholarship; operations; faculty/staff development and rewards; community outreach and service; student opportunities; and institutional mission, structure and planning).…

  1. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  2. The Evolution of the South Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Floyd W.; Rabinowitz, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the South Atlantic continental margins through geological time is discussed in a series of three time slices, all of which depict various characteristics in the initial formation of this margin during the Cretaceous period (180 to 65 million years ago) of the Mesozoic era. (BT)

  3. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization at 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) on the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty. Highlights milestones in the Organization's history of dealing with the Soviet Union, from containment to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Discusses needs, tasks, and challenges that NATO faces in the 1990s.…

  4. Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Andrew J.

    1983-01-01

    The author is persuaded that the main purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was to raise the confidence of moderate ruling groups in Western Europe. Today NATO is an expression of support between troubled allies with a number of common interests. (RM)

  5. A tritium budget for the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, Scott C.; Jenkins, Wllliam J.; Östlund, H. G.

    1993-10-01

    We develop a new model bomb-3H budget for the North Atlantic between 1950 and 1986. The model, which calculates the atmospheric and continental 3H delivery as well as the advective 3H transports from the South Atlantic and Arctic, agrees within about 10% with the 3H inventories computed from the 1972 GEOSECS and the 1981-1983 Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) observations. The decay-corrected 3H inventory for the North Atlantic increased by about 43% between the GEOSECS and TTO programs (1972 to 1981), and the inflow of high 3H polar water from the Arctic into the North Atlantic is found to be crucial for correctly simulating this increase. Key aspects of the model that differ from previous studies include the treatment of vapor/rain isotopic equilibrium, the continental vapor flux, and the downward flux of water vapor into the ocean. The sensitivity of the atmospheric 3H delivery to model parameters and to seasonal and interannual variability are explored.

  6. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  7. Ecosystem effects of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Janet A.; Baker, Matthew R.; Bell, Richard; Kenny, Andrew; Kilbourne, K. Halimeda; Friedland, Kevin D.; Martino, Edward; Stachura, Megan M.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.; Wood, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and its importance to the Earth's climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation or AMO, been recognized by ecologists as an important factor influencing ecosystem state. A growing body of literature suggests that AMO-related fluctuations are associated with shifts in ecological boundaries, primary productivity, and a number of ecologically and economically important coastal and marine populations across the Atlantic basin. Although the AMO is a basin-wide index of SST, the drivers of ecosystem change encompass more than temperature anomalies and the mode of action differs within each ecosystem. A common theme in assessing ecosystem change indicates that fluctuations in water masses and circulation patterns drive shifts in ecosystem states, but the magnitude and rate of change is dependent on the physical characteristics of the region. Because of the wide ranging geographic effects of the AMO, and considering its multidecadal nature, a more complete understanding of its causes and effects would allow scientists and managers to more effectively inform ecosystem-based management across the Atlantic Basin.

  8. Turbidity distribution in the Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, S.; Thorndike, E.M.; Sullivan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The regional coverage of Lamont nephelometer data in the North and South Atlantic can be used to map seawater turbidity at all depths. At the level of the clearest water, in the mid-depth regions, the turbidity distribution primarily reflects the pattern of productivity in the surface waters. This suggests that the 'background' turbidity level in the oceans is largely a function of biogenic fallout. The bottom waters of the western Atlantic generally exhibit large increases in turbidity. The most intense benthic nepheloid layers are in the southwestern Argentine basin and northern North American basin; the lowest bottom water turbidity in the western Atlantic is in the equatorial regions. Both the Argentine and North American basin bottom waters appear to derive their high turbidity largely from local resuspension of terrigenous input in these basins. In contrast to the west, the eastern Atlantic basins show very low turbidities with the exception of three regions: the Mediterranean outflow area, the Cape basin, and the West European basin. ?? 1976.

  9. Reading for Young People: The Middle Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennypacker, Arabelle, Ed.

    One of five annotated bibliographies that describe books about certain regions of the United States, this compilation focuses on books about the Middle Atlantic area. The stated purposes of these regional bibliographies are: (1) to introduce young people living in the subject region to books dealing with their cultural heritage, (2) to help young…

  10. Tsunami Forecasting in the Atlantic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.; Sterling, K.; Hale, D. A.; Bahng, B.

    2012-12-01

    The mission of the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) is to provide advance tsunami warning and guidance to coastal communities within its Area-of-Responsibility (AOR). Predictive tsunami models, based on the shallow water wave equations, are an important part of the Center's guidance support. An Atlantic-based counterpart to the long-standing forecasting ability in the Pacific known as the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) is now developed. The Atlantic forecasting method is based on ATFM version 2 which contains advanced capabilities over the original model; including better handling of the dynamic interactions between grids, inundation over dry land, new forecast model products, an optional non-hydrostatic approach, and the ability to pre-compute larger and more finely gridded regions using parallel computational techniques. The wide and nearly continuous Atlantic shelf region presents a challenge for forecast models. Our solution to this problem has been to develop a single unbroken high resolution sub-mesh (currently 30 arc-seconds), trimmed to the shelf break. This allows for edge wave propagation and for kilometer scale bathymetric feature resolution. Terminating the fine mesh at the 2000m isobath keeps the number of grid points manageable while allowing for a coarse (4 minute) mesh to adequately resolve deep water tsunami dynamics. Higher resolution sub-meshes are then included around coastal forecast points of interest. The WCATWC Atlantic AOR includes eastern U.S. and Canada, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are in very close proximity to well-known tsunami sources. Because travel times are under an hour and response must be immediate, our focus is on pre-computing many tsunami source "scenarios" and compiling those results into a database accessible and calibrated with observations during an event. Seismic source evaluation determines the order of model pre

  11. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-01-01

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888. PMID:25543942

  12. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-01-01

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888.

  13. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  14. Atlantic and Indian Oceans Pollution in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  15. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  16. North Atlantic westerlies during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasskog, Kristian; Bakke, Jostein; Ringkjøb Nielsen, Pål; Meidell, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Understanding North Atlantic decadal-scale climate variability is crucial in order to make projections of future climate change and to assess anthropogenic impacts on climate. However, reconstructing past changes in atmospheric circulation patterns from proxy data is particularly challenging, and different proxy reconstructions often show conflicting results. Winter accumulation dominates the annual mass-balance of glaciers along the west coast of Norway, and because the winter accumulation is highly sensitive to changes in the strength of wintertime westerly winds, these glaciers are potentially valuable recorders of past atmospheric circulation. Here we present a 1200-year long spatiotemporal reconstruction of Nordfonna, a maritime plateau glacier in western Norway, based on an integrated study of terrestrial moraine sequences, sub-glacial topography, and multi-proxy records from two distal glacier-fed lakes located at the opposite sides of the glacier in a west-east transect. We use temporal changes in the west-to-east tilt of the Equilibrium-Line-Altitude (ELA) across the ice cap to infer the strength of North-Atlantic westerly winds over the past 1200 years, and validate our high-resolution (5-yr) record against instrumental data. While multidecadal fluctuations in the regional ELA can be explained largely by changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (i.e. the AMO), our data suggests that the local 'Little Ice Age' maximum glacier expansion (AD 1700-1750) was caused mainly by strengthened wintertime westerlies. The wintertime westerlies over southern Norway are closely linked to the leading mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic, known as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and our record therefore represents a unique proxy of past changes in the NAO.

  17. Simulated Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, W.; Lohmann, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) under different boundary conditions during the Holocene, i.e. orbital change, greenhouse gas concentration, the Laurentide ice sheet and its melting, are examined in several long-term simulations using the Earth system model COSMOS. The simulated AMO indices exhibit a quasi-multidecadal periodicity, consistent with the typical 50-80 year cycle of the AMO indicated by the observation data. A warm phase of the AMO accompanies a hemispheric scale warming in the NH, with the maximum warming over the North Atlantic and part of the Arctic. Such a warming favors more evaporation and thus more precipitation over most part of the North Atlantic, especially enhancing the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone. Concerning the forcing mechanism of the AMO, the most common believed physical process involves the variation of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Although a fully understanding of such a process is beyond the scope of this study, our results show the strong correlation between the AMO index and AMOC index on multidecadal timescales and, during a warm phase of the AMO, the AMOC is intensified significantly. The climate influence of the AMO during the Holocene demonstrates that there is no remarkable change in its spatial pattern under different climate background conditions, which further reveals that the AMO is an internal variability of the climate system. However, we imply that this influence can be distinguished regarding the regional scale feature and its magnitude. It has been supported by a previous study, which suggests that the regional response to the AMO can be modulated by orbitally induced shifts in large-scale ocean-atmosphere circulation. Moreover, we argue that the climate influence of the AMO might be amplified by a vigorous background climate condition, in particular during a cold period.

  18. Determination of the triacylglycerol fraction in fish oil by comprehensive liquid chromatography techniques with the support of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Beccaria, Marco; Costa, Rosaria; Sullini, Giuseppe; Grasso, Elisa; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Fish oil made from menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) can be used as a dietary supplement for the presence of high levels of the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids, viz. epentaenoic and docosahexanoic. In this work, for the first time, two different multidimensional approaches were developed and compared, in terms of peak capacity, for triacylglycerol characterization. In particular, silver ion chromatography with a silver-ion column and non-aqueous reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 column were tested in both comprehensive (stop-flow) and off-line modes. The use of mass spectra attained by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for both LC approaches, and the fatty acids methyl esters profile of menhaden oil obtained by gas chromatography analysis, greatly supported the elucidation of the triacylglycerol content in menhaden oil. The off-line approach afforded a better separation and, thus, higher peak capacity to allow identifying and semiquantifying more than 250 triacylglycerols. Such a huge number has never been reported for a menhaden oil sample.The main disadvantage of such an approach over the stop-flow one was the longer analysis time, mainly attributable to solvent exchange between the two dimensions. PMID:25963648

  19. Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

    2014-05-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

  20. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  1. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  2. From Europe to America: Pliocene to Recent trans-Atlantic expansion of cold-water North Atlantic molluscs

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Geerat J

    2005-01-01

    Data on the geographical distribution, phylogeny and fossil record of cool-temperate North Atlantic shell-bearing molluscs that live in waters shallower than 100 m depth belong to two biogeographic provinces, one in eastern North America north of Cape Cod, the other in northern Europe. Amphi-Atlantic species, which are found in both provinces, comprise 30.8% of the 402 species in the northeastern Atlantic and 47.3% of the 262 species in the northwestern Atlantic. Some 54.8% of these amphi-Atlantic species have phylogenetic origins in the North Pacific. Comparisons among fossil Atlantic faunas show that amphi-Atlantic distributions became established in the Middle Pliocene (about 3.5 million years ago), and that all represent westward expansions of European taxa to North America. No American taxa spread eastward to Europe without human assistance. These results are in accord with previous phylogeographic studies among populations within several amphi-Atlantic species. Explanations for the unidirectional expansion of species across the Atlantic remain uncertain, but may include smaller size and greater prior extinction of the North American as compared to the European fauna and biased transport mechanisms. Destruction of the European source fauna may jeopardize faunas on both sides of the Atlantic. PMID:16271981

  3. Earthquakes at North Atlantic passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Gregersen, S. ); Basham, P.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of this volume is the earthquakes that occur at and near the continental margins on both sides of the North Atlantic. The book, which contains the proceedings of the NATO workshop on Causes and Effects of Earthquakes at Passive Margins and in Areas of Postglacial Rebound on Both Sides of the North Atlantic, draws together the fields of geophysics, geology and geodesy to address the stress and strain in the Earth's crust. The resulting earthquakes produced on ancient geological fault zones and the associated seismic hazards these pose to man are also addressed. Postglacial rebound in North America and Fennoscandia is a minor source of earthquakes today, during the interglacial period, but evidence is presented to suggest that the ice sheets suppressed earthquake strain while they were in place, and released this strain as a pulse of significant earthquakes after the ice melted about 9000 years ago.

  4. Mixotrophic basis of Atlantic oligotrophic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Tarran, Glen A; Martin, Adrian P; Burkill, Peter H; Scanlan, David J; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2012-04-10

    Oligotrophic subtropical gyres are the largest oceanic ecosystems, covering >40% of the Earth's surface. Unicellular cyanobacteria and the smallest algae (plastidic protists) dominate CO(2) fixation in these ecosystems, competing for dissolved inorganic nutrients. Here we present direct evidence from the surface mixed layer of the subtropical gyres and adjacent equatorial and temperate regions of the Atlantic Ocean, collected on three Atlantic Meridional Transect cruises on consecutive years, that bacterioplankton are fed on by plastidic and aplastidic protists at comparable rates. Rates of bacterivory were similar in the light and dark. Furthermore, because of their higher abundance, it is the plastidic protists, rather than the aplastidic forms, that control bacterivory in these waters. These findings change our basic understanding of food web function in the open ocean, because plastidic protists should now be considered as the main bacterivores as well as the main CO(2) fixers in the oligotrophic gyres. PMID:22451938

  5. Wind Stress Increases Glacial Atlantic Overturning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muglia, J.; Schmittner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Previous Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) showed ambiguous results on transports and structure. Here we analyze the most recent PMIP3 models, which show a consistent increase (on average by 41%) and deepening (580 m) of the AMOC for all models with respect to pre-industrial control (PIC) simulations (see Figure), in contrast to some reconstructions. Changes in wind stress alone lead to similar AMOC responses in a climate-ocean circulation model, suggesting that atmospheric circulation changes in the North Atlantic due to the presence of ice sheets are an important control in the PMIP3 models' LGM response. These results improve our understanding of the LGM AMOC's driving forces and are relevant for the evaluation of models that are used in the IPCC's Assessment Reports for future climate projections, as well as for the currently ongoing design of the next round of PMIP.

  6. Storms of Mediterranean and Atlantic legends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenenwald, N.; Tabeaud, M.

    2009-09-01

    Weather extremes and notably wind storms are very often the channel ones since they are suspected of being the outward signs of climate change. However, even if audiovisual medias talk about wind storms in a very similar way, tales and legends stories account for the richness of their representations. Coastal and insular regions, whatever Atlantic or Mediterranean, are the ones where wind storms are most mentioned. The comparison between the tales and legends of these two regions, with distinct climatic characteristics, allows to underline the similarities and dissimilarities about the impregnation (or impact) of wind storms on these territories. Winds and storms distinguish spaces through vocabulary which can be peculiar to a region. Nevertheless, they also bring them together because above the local cultures is the human thought upon which wind storms create comparable perceptions, whatever the region. Key words: wind storms, Mediterranean regions, Atlantic regions, perceptions, representations.

  7. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multidecadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  8. Mixotrophic basis of Atlantic oligotrophic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Tarran, Glen A; Martin, Adrian P; Burkill, Peter H; Scanlan, David J; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2012-04-10

    Oligotrophic subtropical gyres are the largest oceanic ecosystems, covering >40% of the Earth's surface. Unicellular cyanobacteria and the smallest algae (plastidic protists) dominate CO(2) fixation in these ecosystems, competing for dissolved inorganic nutrients. Here we present direct evidence from the surface mixed layer of the subtropical gyres and adjacent equatorial and temperate regions of the Atlantic Ocean, collected on three Atlantic Meridional Transect cruises on consecutive years, that bacterioplankton are fed on by plastidic and aplastidic protists at comparable rates. Rates of bacterivory were similar in the light and dark. Furthermore, because of their higher abundance, it is the plastidic protists, rather than the aplastidic forms, that control bacterivory in these waters. These findings change our basic understanding of food web function in the open ocean, because plastidic protists should now be considered as the main bacterivores as well as the main CO(2) fixers in the oligotrophic gyres.

  9. Ocean Current Boundry, North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the ocean current boundry between the Gulf Stream of the North Atlantic Ocean and the coastal currents off the eastern seaboard of North America (43.5N, 65.5W), is an excellent study in ocean dynamics. The warm waters of the Gulf Stream are clearly visible as a dynamic rapidly flowing current with many internal wave patterns and a rougher surface versus the cooler and less active coastal shelf waters having a smoother surface.

  10. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  11. Hurricane Bonnie, Northeast of Bermuda, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Hurricane Bonnie was over the North Atlantic Ocean about 500 miles northeast of Bermuda (39.0N, 56.5W) when this photo was taken. Compare this view with Hurricane Iniki, also photographed on this mission (STS-47-77-058). Bonnie is small but in her prime, having a well defined eye, a tight spiral gyre indicating high wind speeds and numerous thunderheads. Iniki, on the other hand, was decaying when photographed and no longer presented a threat.

  12. Atlantic forcing of the Mediterranean oligotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, I. E.; RíOs, A. F.; GarcíA-Lafuente, J.; Navarro, G.; Makaoui, A.; SáNchez-RomáN, A.; Rodriguez-Galvez, S.; Orbi, A.; RuíZ, J.; PéRez, F. F.

    2012-06-01

    The Mediterranean Sea shows a peculiar anomaly in its nutrient pattern compared to the global ocean, as there is decrease in nutrient concentration from west to east. This feature has been attributed to the antiestuarine circulation at the Strait of Gibraltar, where an eastward flow of Atlantic nutrient-poor surface waters is compensated by a westward countercurrent of Mediterranean nutrient-rich deep waters. This water exchange has been suggested as the ultimate cause for the oligotrophy of the Mediterranean basin, even though only a few studies have accurately examined the magnitude of the nutrient flux through the Strait of Gibraltar. In this work, data from the Gibraltar Fixed Time series (GIFT) between 2005 and 2008 were used to assess nutrient distributions. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange and using the Mediterranean outflow recorded in situ, the net export of nutrients from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic was calculated as 139 and 4.8 Gmol yr-1 of nitrate and phosphate, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the Atlantic inflow is not nutrient depleted and in particular contains significant levels of phosphate, which is the limiting factor for biological productivity in the eastern Mediterranean. The distribution of the quasi-conservative parameter N* in the western and eastern basins indicated that nitrate-deficient surface waters are transformed into phosphate-deficient bottom waters by internal cycling processes. Therefore, phosphate depletion in the Mediterranean does not have its origin in the entry of a phosphorus-impoverished Atlantic inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar.

  13. Fisheries. Population of origin of Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, E E; Hansen, M M; Schmidt, C; Meldrup, D; Grønkjaer, P

    2001-09-20

    Most of the world's cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries are now tightly regulated or closed altogether. Being able to link individual fish to their population of origin would assist enormously in policing regulations and in identifying poachers. Here we show that microsatellite genetic markers can be used to assign individual cod from three different populations in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean to their population of origin. PMID:11565021

  14. Jurassic sandstone from the tropical atlantic.

    PubMed

    Fox, P J; Heezen, B C; Johnson, G L

    1970-12-25

    The oldest sediment yet sampled from the abyssal margins of South America, late Jurassic (or possibly very early Cretaceous) shallow-water, coarse-grained, calcareous sandstone containing palynomorphs and mollusk prisms, was recovered from a depth of 4400 meters on the seaward scarp of the Demerara Plateau. The sandstone was deposited in a shallow, late Jurassic epicontinental sea after the initial stages of rifting when the newly created Atlantic began to founder.

  15. Cyclic growth in Atlantic region continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Atlantic region continental crust evolved in successive stages under the influence of regular, approximately 400 Ma-long tectonic cycles. Data point to a variety of operative tectonic processes ranging from widespread ocean floor consumption (Wilson cycle) to entirely ensialic (Ampferer-style subduction or simple crustal attenuation-compression). Different processes may have operated concurrently in some or different belts. Resolving this remains the major challenge.

  16. In Brief: Atlantic seasonal hurricane forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Two hurricane forecasters are predicting that 2008 will be an above-average Atlantic basin tropical cyclone season with an above-average probability of a major hurricane making landfall in the United States. During 2008, there could be about seven hurricanes (the annual average is 5.9) and 13 named storms (the average is 9.6), according to a 7 December report by Philip Klotzbach, research scientist at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, and William Gray, university professor emeritus of atmospheric sciences. The forecasters indicate that they believe the Atlantic basin is in an active hurricane cycle that is associated with a strong thermohaline circulation and an active phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The report notes that, ``real-time operational early December forecasts have not shown forecast skill over climatology during this 16-year period [1992-2007]. This has occurred despite the fact that the skill over the hindcast period...showed appreciable skill.'' For more information, visit the Web site: http://hurricane.atmos.colostate.edu/Forecasts/2007/dec2007/dec2007.pdf.

  17. Review of North Atlantic Source Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) ventilates the deep World Ocean. It not only carries relatively well-oxygenated waters, but also other substances derived from recent sea-surface exchanges. There are five regional sources for NADW: (1) derivatives of the salty Mediterranean Sea outflow, (2) products of open-ocean convection in the Labrador Sea, (3) Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water from the Norwegian Sea - salty by virtue of mixing with saline water near the sills, (4) Denmark Strait Overflow Water from the Iceland and Greenland Seas - which retains a high-density, relatively low-salinity signal, and (5) remnants of deep water from the Antarctic circumpolar region - freshest of the bottom waters. Despite the differences of characteristics of the source waters, the NADW is relatively uniform. Because the formation of each of the five source waters may be viewed as a response to a complex series of events, it is difficult to examine the sensitivity of NADW to environmental fluctuations. It is known that the deep northern North Atlantic is relatively closely coupled to the sea surface in the Greenland and Iceland seas. The most recent studies indicate a minimum response time of only two years between the introduction of a passive signal north of Iceland and its appearance in the deep northwest Atlantic.

  18. Ocean Modeling of the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seminar, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Present modeling of the North Atlantic is inadequate and can be improved in a number of ways. A number of important physical processes are listed in five categories from the viewpoints of how they are treated in isolation, how they are usually represented in present ocean basin models, and how they may be better represented in future models. In the first two categories of vertical boundary processes and internal vertical mixing, parameterizations exist which can easily be incorporated into models and which will have important effects on the simulated structure of the North Atlantic. For the third catagory (mesoscale eddy effects), adequate parameterizations do not exist; but the order of magnitude of the effects is known from observational and process-model studies. A horizontal grid spacing of 100 km or less in required to allow parameterizations with this order of magnitude, as well as to resolve the time-averaged ocean fields. In the fourth category of large scale transports improvements are suggested by way of increased vertical resolution and by the requirement that lateral mixing due to eddies takes place on isopycnal surfaces. Model incorporation of the latter phenomenta is underway. In the fifth category of miscellaneous high-latitude processes, formulations for the treatment of sea ice are available for use. However, the treatment of gravitational instability, which is crucial to deepwater formation in the Atlantic Ocean, will require additional refinements to account for the unresolved physics of chimney formations in the open ocean and buoyant plumes near ocean boundaries.

  19. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  20. Population Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Bycaught in U.S. Atlantic Coast Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Wirgin, I.; Maceda, L.; Grunwald, C.; King, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA control region sequence analyses were used to determine the population and Distinct Population Segment (DPS) origin of 173 Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus encountered from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Observer Program. It was found that the Hudson River was by far the greatest contributor to this coastal bycatch, with 42.2-46.3% of specimens originating there. Generally, specimens respected the geographic province of the river in which they were spawned, but some specimens, particularly those originating in the South Atlantic DPS, moved great distances. Genetic mixed stock analyses provides an accurate approach to determine the DPS and population origin of Atlantic sturgeon bycaught in coastal waters but most informative management requires that these results be partitioned by locale, season, target fishery, and gear type. PMID:25727098

  1. Dynamics associated to different Atlantic Niño configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rey, Marta Martin; Polo, Irene; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Lazar, Alban

    2015-04-01

    The Equatorial Mode or Atlantic Niño is the leading mode of the tropical Atlantic interannual variability. The positive phase of this mode is characterized by anomalous positive SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Atlantic during summer months, associated with a weakening of the trades in the western side of the basin. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Atlantic Niños (Niñas) are connected to their Pacific counterpart, ENSO phenomenon, in some periods of time. In particular, the Atlantic Niños-Pacific Niñas (and vice versa) appears as the leading covaribility mode of the tropical Atlantic and Pacific interannual variability under negative phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. During those decades, the Atlantic Niños able to impact on the Pacific show a wide-basin warming contrasting to the equatorial warming flanked by north and south tropical cooling observed in positive AMO phases. It has been demonstrated that during negative AMO phases two different inter-annual SST modes resembling the Atlantic Niño pattern appear. Here we analyse the origin and development of these two modes, including associated teleconnections in relation to their forcings and impacts, for instance the connection with ENSO and the role of the Subtropical Highs. An ocean heat buget of the modes and the role of kelvin and Rossby waves is also investigated

  2. Glacial-Holocene Deep Atlantic Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, D.; Curry, W. B.; Huang, K.; Gebbie, G.; Keigwin, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Despite decades of research on deep ocean circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, many uncertainties remain. Even first order questions such as whether Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) influenced the North Atlantic in the past are unresolved. Here, we update the glacial western Atlantic benthic δ13C transect of Curry and Oppo (2005) including new data from four cores recovered between 450 and 1100 m water depth, at AAIW depths in the western tropical North Atlantic. Low glacial values are consistent with the presence of AAIW. However, in the modern ocean, remineralization of organic matter drives δ13C values at these water depths lower than expected from their end-member composition. As this may have also been the case in the past, insights from more conservative tracers like δ18O of calcite, the air-sea exchange δ13C signature (δ13Cas), and neodymium isotopes (ɛNd) are important. We evaluate new and published relevant data and present a new δ13Cas transect for the LGM (updated from Marchitto and Broecker, 2006). A preliminary inversion of LGM data using an ocean pathways model (Gebbie and Huybers, 2010) will be presented. δ13C values in these same four western tropical North Atlantic cores during the Heinrich Event are also consistent with, but may not require, a contribution of AAIW. δ13C values decrease further following the Heinrich event and remain low throughout the deglaciation, during which the records exhibit coherent millennial-scale oscillations. For much of the deglaciation, δ13C values in these cores appear to be lower than values at other sites from similar depths in the western North and South Atlantic, suggestive of non-conservative behavior. The benthic records exhibit high amplitude δ18O variability, which may reflect vertical movement of isopynals, in association with variations in geostrophic flow (e.g. Lynch-Stieglitz et al., 2011). Our new deglacial data will be discussed in the broader context of

  3. Decadal variability in the Eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Rhein, Monika; Roessler, Achim; Denker, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the subpolar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the subtropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. We examine the decadal variability in the eastern North Atlantic based on Argo data from 2000-2015 and have constructed time series for four water masses (Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), Intermediate Water (IW), upper Labrador Sea Water (uLSW) and deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW)) at selected locations along the Northwest European shelf. Data from the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin are chosen to represent advective pathways in the subpolar gyre at two major branches of the North Atlantic Current towards the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Temporal variability of subtropical waters transported northward along the eastern boundary is studied at Goban Spur around 48°N. The Argo data are extended in time with long-term hydrographic observations such as the Extended Ellet Line data and other climatological sources in the region. For the study of transport fluctuations time series from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) program (2012-2015) and predecessor programs have been used. These programs have monitored the subpolar gyre in the western basin and provide time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). First results show that the temperatures and salinities remained at high levels for the upper waters (SPMW and IW) until 2010 and have been decreasing since

  4. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  5. 77 FR 59344 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South...) of the South Atlantic. The Science Research Director (SRD) has estimated that commercial landings...

  6. 77 FR 73338 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South... Atlantic. Commercial landings for blue runner, as estimated by the Science and Research Director,...

  7. 78 FR 39188 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South... Atlantic. Commercial landings for gray triggerfish, as estimated by the Science and Research Director...

  8. 78 FR 68372 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South... Atlantic. Commercial landings for blue runner, as estimated by the Science and Research Director,...

  9. 78 FR 71529 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South... Atlantic. Commercial landings for red porgy, as estimated by the Science Research Director (SRD),...

  10. 78 FR 25861 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South... Atlantic. Commercial landings for golden tilefish, as estimated by the Science and Research Director...

  11. Combined influences of seasonal East Atlantic Pattern and North Atlantic Oscillation to excite Atlantic multidecadal variability in a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Cassou, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The physical processes underlying the internal component of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) are investigated from a 1,000-yr pre-industrial control simulation of the CNRM-CM5 model. The low-frequency fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are shown to be the main precursor for the model AMV. The full life cycle of AMOC/AMV events relies on a complex time-evolving relationship with both North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) that must be considered from a seasonal perspective in order to isolate their action; the ocean is responsible for setting the multidecadal timescale of the fluctuations. AMOC rise leading to a warm phase of AMV is statistically preceded by wintertime NAO+ and EAP+ from ~Lag -40/-20 yrs. Associated wind stress anomalies induce an acceleration of the subpolar gyre (SPG) and enhanced northward transport of warm and saline subtropical water. Concurrent positive salinity anomalies occur in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas in link to local sea-ice decline; those are advected by the Eastern Greenland Current to the Labrador Sea participating to the progressive densification of the SPG and the intensification of ocean deep convection leading to AMOC strengthening. From ~Lag -10 yrs prior an AMOC maximum, opposite relationship is found with the NAO for both summer and winter seasons. Despite negative lags, NAO- at that time is consistent with the atmospheric response through teleconnection to the northward shift/intensification of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone in link to the ongoing warming of tropical north Atlantic basin due to AMOC rise/AMV build-up. NAO- acts as a positive feedback for the full development of the model AMV through surface fluxes but, at the same time, prepares its termination through negative retroaction on AMOC. Relationship between EAP+ and AMOC is also present in summer from ~Lags -30/+10 yrs while winter EAP- is favored around the AMV peak. Based on

  12. 77 FR 53150 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... established in the 2006 Consolidated Atlantic HMS Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058...). The 2011 BFT quota rule (76 FR 39019, July 5, 2011) established a quota of 435.1 mt for the General... adjustments to the BFT General and Harpoon category regulations (76 FR 74003, November 30, 2011), the...

  13. 78 FR 21584 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... final rule implementing the BFT quotas and Atlantic tuna fisheries management measures (76 FR 39019... Administrator for Fisheries, NMFS. Background On May 28, 1999, NMFS published in the Federal Register (64 FR... the Federal Register (71 FR 58058), effective November 1, 2006, implementing the 2006...

  14. 77 FR 38011 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and subsequent rulemaking. Under Sec. 635.27(a)(3), the total... announced a closure of the Longline category southern area BFT fishery, effective May 29, 2012 (77 FR 31546... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  15. 77 FR 21015 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... categories, per the allocations established in the Consolidated HMS FMP (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and in... remainder of the respective fishing years (75 FR 33531, June 14, 2010, and 76 FR 18416, April 4, 2011... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  16. 77 FR 3637 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... tuna (BFT) until the General category reopens on June 1, 2012. This action is being taken to...

  17. 75 FR 33531 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006). The 2010 BFT fishing year, which is managed on a calendar... categories (75 FR 30732, June 2, 2010). The final 2010 Angling category quota is 225.4 mt (97.7 mt for school... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  18. 78 FR 11788 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Species Fishery Management Plan (Consolidated HMS FMP) (71 FR 58058, October 2, 2006) and subsequent... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; General Category Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... tuna (BFT) until the General category reopens on June 1, 2013. This action is being taken to...

  19. 76 FR 14377 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Dolphin Wahoo... INFORMATION: Members of the Dolphin Wahoo AP will meet from 1 p.m.-5 p.m. on April 7, 2010 and from 8:30 a.m... Catch Limit (ACL) Amendment relative to dolphin and wahoo including the establishment of ACLs...

  20. 78 FR 14983 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Dolphin Wahoo..., March 27, 2013 1. Approve the current agenda as well as the minutes from the April 2012 Dolphin Wahoo AP meeting. 2. Receive a presentation on dolphin research from the Cooperative Sciences Center. 3. Receive...

  1. 76 FR 36892 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2011 North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... 2011 fishing year to account for 2010 underharvests and landings. This proposed rule incorporates International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) recommendations 10-02 and 09-03 into the quota adjustments for the 2011 fishing year. These recommendations extend, through the 2011 fishing...

  2. 78 FR 16658 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC 29405. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kim Iverson, Public Information Officer, 4055 Faber Place Drive... recommendations for stocks that have reliable catch data only. 2. Review catch and biological data for...

  3. 76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata) and Golden...: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; (843... Federal Register on July 28, 2011 (76 FR 45231). All other information previously-published...

  4. 77 FR 77037 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Fishery Management Council's (Council) Golden Crab Advisory Panel (AP). SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of Golden Crab Advisory Panel (AP) in Fort... fishery. 2. Receive an overview of Council actions regarding golden crab management since the last...

  5. 75 FR 44228 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a meeting of its Golden Crab Advisory....iverson@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Golden Crab Advisory Panel will receive an update on the draft catch share amendment to the Golden Crab Fishery Management Plan, review Annual Catch...

  6. 76 FR 40699 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a meeting of its Golden Crab AP in Fort... INFORMATION: Members of the Golden Crab AP will meet from 8:30 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. on July 26, 2011. Issues... golden crab fishery. The AP will provide recommendations to the Council. Special Accommodations...

  7. 76 FR 81480 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Fishery Management Council's (Council) Golden Crab Advisory Panel (AP). SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a meeting of its Golden Crab AP in Ft. Lauderdale, FL. DATES: The... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Golden Crab AP will meet from 1 p.m.-5 p.m. on Sunday, January...

  8. 75 FR 27221 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2010 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... proposed specifications (75 FR 10450, March 8, 2010), and will not be repeated here. Final Specifications... RSA Program was published on January 2, 2009 (74 FR 72). Two research projects that would utilize... harvest limit, and recreational possession limits for Atlantic bluefish off the east coast of the U.S....

  9. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... authority to manage HMS in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and...; Implementing limited access in commercial fisheries; Establishing new procedures for counting dead discards and... Management Solutions A. Quota Structure Changes Several changes could be made to the current shark...

  10. 76 FR 19977 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Council Coordination Committee of the Fishery Management Councils. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will host a meeting of the Council Coordination Committee in Charleston, SC. See... Coordination Committee (CCC), consisting of the Regional Fishery Management Council (RFMC) chairs, vice...

  11. 77 FR 72762 - Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; 2013 Fishing Quotas for Atlantic Surfclams and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog fisheries for 2013 will remain status quo. Regulations governing these... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jason Berthiaume, Fishery Management Specialist, (978) 281-9177; fax (978) 281-9135. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 648.72(c) of the regulations implementing the fishery management plan...

  12. 75 FR 10450 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...). Alternative 3, the no action alternative, is considered to be synonymous with status quo management measures... a given phase in the rebuilding period, or the status quo F, whichever is less. According to... alternatives (including a no action/status quo alternative) for 2010 Atlantic bluefish fishery. All...

  13. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... implemented and analyzed in the 2013 shark quota final rule (77 FR 75896, December 26, 2013) and in the final... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal...

  14. 78 FR 24148 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 62331), we published an NOI that announced the stock status determinations for various... Magnuson-Stevens Act. On November 26, 2012, we published a proposed rule (77 FR 70552) for draft Amendment... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  15. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Register notice on October 7, 2011 (76 FR 62331). The notice also announced NMFS' intent to undertake... contains an error and is in need of correction. Correction Accordingly, in the October 7, 2011 (76 FR 62331... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  16. 77 FR 31562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... October 7, 2011(76 FR 62331). This amendment is designed to rebuild and/or end overfishing on several... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... considering the inclusion of Gulf of Mexico blacktip sharks in an amendment to the 2006 Consolidated...

  17. 76 FR 17382 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a meeting of its Spiny Lobster Advisory...: (843) 769-4520; e-mail: kim.iverson@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Spiny Lobster AP will meet from 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. on April 20, 2011. The Spiny Lobster AP will receive...

  18. 78 FR 19460 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold meetings of the King & Spanish... discussion in the individual meeting agendas are as follows: King & Spanish Mackerel AP Agenda: Monday, April... Mackerel Amendment 19, which addresses bag limit sales of king and Spanish mackerel, reduces inactive...

  19. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - Atlantic sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1984-07-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus, is an anadromous species that occupies rivers, estuaries, and nearshore waters along the entire Atlantic coast of the United States. The species once supported significant commercial fisheries throughout its range, but stocks have declined because of overfishing, deterioration of water quality, and damming of rivers. Atlantic sturgeon spawn in rivers and the young remain in freshwater for several years prior to emigration to the ocean. Little is known about spawning areas and associated environmental factors. Females typically do not mature until age X and the age at first spawning ranges from 5 to 13 years for males and 7 to 19 years for females. Longevity may frequently exceed 25 years. Immature and adult sturgeons are bottom feeders and consume a variety of mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and other small bottom-dwelling invertebrates and fishes. Little is know about competitors, predators, or effects of environmental factors on recruitment. The long period required to reach maturity, possibly irregular spawning thereafter, and prolonged reliance on river systems make juvenile and adult Atlantic sturgeon highly susceptible to habitat alterations, pollution, and over exploitation. 49 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  20. 77 FR 45273 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas and Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. DATES: Effective on August 30, 2012. ADDRESSES: Copies of the supporting... a CK minimum size measurement of 25 inches. The proposed rule (77 FR 25669, May 1, 2012) and draft... FR 56929) analyzed the impacts resulting from Recommendation 06-03 for South Atlantic...

  1. 76 FR 56120 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ..., including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by establishing annual quotas. The effects on commercial and... species, and other species (including swordfish) targeted in high seas fisheries or incidentally captured in tuna fisheries, in the Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent seas. The ICCAT Commission can, on...

  2. 77 FR 75896 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... sharks) fisheries in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea... Caribbean. In addition, we are keeping the porbeagle shark quota closed in 2013 due to overharvests from... CFR part 635. On October 10, 2012, we published a rule (77 FR 61562) proposing the 2013 opening...

  3. 78 FR 28758 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ..., including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT recommendations, consistent... Specifications Final Rule (July 31, 2012; 77 FR 45273). The impacts resulting from the 2013 South Atlantic... Quota Specification Final Rule (October 5, 2007; 72 FR 56929). The quota adjustments in this final...

  4. 77 FR 25669 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas and Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT recommendations, consistent with... (AA). On October 2, 2006, NMFS published in the Federal Register (71 FR 58058) final regulations... the conservation of tuna and tuna-like species in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas....

  5. 75 FR 250 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ..., including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, will open on January 5, 2010. The non-sandbar LCS in the...) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, will open on... 50 CFR part 635. On October 28, 2009, NMFS published a proposed rule (74 FR 55526) announcing...

  6. 76 FR 62331 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... the U.S. Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Based on the 2005/2006 assessment, sandbar.... Caribbean. For these assessments, SEDAR used two face- to-face workshops and a series of webinars. The Data... (May 4, 2010, 75 FR 23676). The Assessment Process was conducted via a series of webinars, during...

  7. 77 FR 44161 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... information about the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill and alleged illegal fishing on the eastern Atlantic and... the effects of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill and the effects of mixing of eastern and western BFT... of the Center's comment that are relevant to this rulemaking. Deepwater Horizon/BP Oil Spill In...

  8. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... fishermen, commercial and recreational, who fish for sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and... (74 FR 34556), Gulf of Mexico (74 FR 36669), Caribbean (74 FR 40168), and New England (74 FR 45821... sharks are not overfished and are not experiencing overfishing (73 FR 25665). These determinations...

  9. 76 FR 68164 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish, sharks, and billfish. Nominations are being sought to fill one... the recreational and commercial fishing and related industries, environmental community, academia, and... FMP amendment. NMFS has consulted with the HMS AP on the FMP for Atlantic Tunas, Swordfish, and...

  10. Structure of the North American Atlantic Continental Margin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitgord, K. K.; Schlee, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Offers explanations on the origin of the North American Atlantic continental margin. Provides an analysis and illustrations of structural and strategraphic elements of cross sections of the Atlantic continental margin. Also explains the operations and applications of seismic-relection profiles in studying ocean areas. (ML)

  11. Programming Practices of Atlantic Coast Conference Wind Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Eric S.; Paul, Timothy A.; Paul, Phyllis M.; Rudnicki, Erika

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the programming trends of the elite wind bands/ensembles of the Atlantic Coast Conference universities. Using survey techniques previously employed by Powell (2009) and Paul (2010; in press), we contacted the directors of the Atlantic Coast Conference band programs and requested concert programs from their top groups for the…

  12. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  13. 76 FR 16730 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... the Spiny Lobster FMP for the Gulf and South Atlantic Region. Public hearings in Duck Key and Key West...Amend10Comment@safmc.net for Amendment 10 to the Spiny Lobster FMP. Written comments will be received from March... 10 to the Spiny Lobster FMP for the Gulf and South Atlantic Regions also establishes ACLs and AMs...

  14. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  15. 78 FR 79673 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a series of public hearings and scoping meetings in January. Public hearings will be held on Amendment 29 to the Snapper Grouper Fishery Management Plan (FMP) and South Atlantic Coastal Migratory Pelagic Framework Action. Public scoping will be held on Regulatory Amendment 16 to the Snapper Grouper FMP, Amendment 24 to the......

  16. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  17. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  18. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  19. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  20. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  1. 78 FR 68757 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Atlantic HMS are at 50 CFR part 635. Background On August 29, 2013, NMFS published a proposed rule (78 FR... effective July 22, 2013 (78 FR 37398; June 20, 2013). The rule increased the size standard for Finfish... requirements for vessels required to use Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) units in Atlantic Highly...

  2. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  3. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  4. Chemistry of western Atlantic precipitation at the mid-Atlantic coast and on Bermuda

    SciTech Connect

    Church, T.M.; Galloway, J.N.; Jickells, T.D.; Knap, A.H.

    1982-12-20

    The major ion composition of western Atlantic precipitation falling at the coast of eastern United States (Lewes, Delaware) and at the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Island) has been measured by event year round (May 1980 to April 1981) to assess the influence of the ocean on precipitation from storms that leave the North American continent and transit over the western Atlantic. Particular attention is paid to the oceanic influence on the sulfur and nitrogen precursors of acid rains. While sea salt contributes over half (by weight) of the salt in precipitation at the coast and over three quarters at Bermuda, most of the sulfate (90% at the coast and 50% at Bermuda) is in excess to sea salt sodium. Since Bermuda precipitation is still acidified some factor of 8 relative to pure equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, this strong acidity has been attributed to the long-range transport sulfur and nitrogen precursors in the marine troposphere during which the sulfuric acid component dominates. A sulfur budget for the western Atlantic troposphere shows that of the total amount of sulfur exported from the North American continent (>3.9 TgS/yr) less than 3% (0.1 TgS/yr) is from natural sources, the rest being from anthropogenic emissions. If Bermuda precipitation is taken as typical of wet fallout of sulfur over the western Atlantic, then no more than half (<2 TgS/yr) of North American excess (nonsea salt) sulfur export falls out to the western Atlantic and at least half undergoes potential transoceanic transport as acid rain precursors to the east of Bermuda.

  5. Chemistry of Western Atlantic Precipitation at the Mid-Atlantic Coast and on Bermuda

    SciTech Connect

    Church, T.M.; Galloway, J.N.; Jickells, T.D.; Knap, A.H.

    1982-12-20

    The major ion composition of western Atlantic precipitation falling at the coast of eastern United States (Lewes, Delaware) and at the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Island) has been measured by event year round (May 1980 to April 1981) to assess the influence of the ocean on precipitation from storms that leave the North American continent and transit over the western Atlantic. Particular attention is paid to the oceanic influence on the sulfur and nitrogen precursors of 'acid rains.' While sea salt contributes over half (by weight) of the salt in precipitation at the coast and over three quarters at Bermuda, most of the sulfate (90% at the coast and 50% at Bermuda) is in excess to sea salt sodium. Since Bermuda precipitation is still acidified some factor of 8 relative to pure equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, this strong acidity has been attributed to the long-range transport sulfur and nitrogen precursors in the marine troposphere during which the sulfuric acid component dominates. A sulfur budget for the western Atlantic troposphere shows that of the total amount of sulfur exported from the North American continuent (>3.9 TgS/yr) less than 3% (0.1 TgS/yr) is from natural sources, the rest being from anthropogenic emissions. If Bermuda precipitation is taken as typical of wet fallout of sulfur over the western Atlantic, then no more than half (<2 TgS/yr) of north American excess (nonsea salt) sulfur export falls out to the western Atlantic and at least half undergoes potential transoceanic tranport as acid rain precursors to the east of Bermuda.

  6. Origin and fate of the North Atlantic Current at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckenfelder, Tilia; Myers, Paul G.; Rhein, Monika; Pennelly, Clark; Hu, Xianmin

    2016-04-01

    Warm, salty tropical and subtropical water is brought into the subpolar gyre by the North Atlantic Current (NAC). The NAC is the northward extension of the Gulf Stream and is part of the upper branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The warm, salty water is further transported into the Nordic Seas via the Rockall Trough, into the Denmark Strait and, finally into the Labrador Sea, where it plays an important role in the deep water formation process. On its way into the Labrador Sea the water mass increases its density by dissipating heat to the atmosphere and thereby influencing the local climate. To further understand the processes behind warm water transport towards higher latitudes, we start our investigation at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Here, the NAC flows from the western to eastern basin of the North Atlantic and crosses the MAR via the Charlie-Gibbs, Faraday and Maxwell Fracture Zones. The role of the subpolar and subtropical gyre on the different water masses, and their properties, originating or reaching the MAR is studied using the lagrangian tool ARIANE with the 3D velocity fields taken from a 1/12° AGRIF nest set in a regional NEMO configuration. One result of this investigation is that the majority of particles released at the MAR, distributed over the entire water column, recirculate. Most of the remaining particles make their way into the East Greenland Current or turn in the eastern basin towards the south. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is investigated by studying the pathways of the NAC and their properties during different NAO phases.

  7. Detecting Atlantic herring by parametric sonar.

    PubMed

    Godo, Olav Rune; Foote, Kenneth G; Dybedal, Johnny; Tenningen, Eirik; Patel, Ruben

    2010-04-01

    The difference-frequency band of the Kongsberg TOPAS PS18 parametric sub-bottom profiling sonar, nominally 1-6 kHz, is being used to observe Atlantic herring. Representative TOPAS echograms of herring layers and schools observed in situ in December 2008 and November 2009 are presented. These agree well with echograms of volume backscattering strength derived simultaneously with the narrowband Simrad EK60/18- and 38-kHz scientific echo sounder, also giving insight into herring avoidance behavior in relation to survey vessel passage. Progress in rendering the TOPAS echograms quantitative is described. PMID:20369983

  8. Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Roman, Joe; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2003-07-25

    It is well known that hunting dramatically reduced all baleen whale populations, yet reliable estimates of former whale abundances are elusive. Based on coalescent models for mitochondrial DNA sequence variation, the genetic diversity of North Atlantic whales suggests population sizes of approximately 240,000 humpback, 360,000 fin, and 265,000 minke whales. Estimates for fin and humpback whales are far greater than those previously calculated for prewhaling populations and 6 to 20 times higher than present-day population estimates. Such discrepancies suggest the need for a quantitative reevaluation of historical whale populations and a fundamental revision in our conception of the natural state of the oceans.

  9. Detecting Atlantic herring by parametric sonar.

    PubMed

    Godo, Olav Rune; Foote, Kenneth G; Dybedal, Johnny; Tenningen, Eirik; Patel, Ruben

    2010-04-01

    The difference-frequency band of the Kongsberg TOPAS PS18 parametric sub-bottom profiling sonar, nominally 1-6 kHz, is being used to observe Atlantic herring. Representative TOPAS echograms of herring layers and schools observed in situ in December 2008 and November 2009 are presented. These agree well with echograms of volume backscattering strength derived simultaneously with the narrowband Simrad EK60/18- and 38-kHz scientific echo sounder, also giving insight into herring avoidance behavior in relation to survey vessel passage. Progress in rendering the TOPAS echograms quantitative is described.

  10. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-06-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters.

  11. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Howe, Jacob N W; Piotrowski, Alexander M; Noble, Taryn L; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ(13)C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  12. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial–interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  13. 75 FR 63812 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ71 Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a... development and provide fishing level recommendations for South Atlantic red snapper. The meeting will be...

  14. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC ESTUARIES: THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA-Estuaries) evaluated ecological conditions in US Mid-Atlantic estuaries during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Over 800 probability-based stations were monitored in four main estuarine systems?Chesapeake Bay, the Delaware Estuary, Maryla...

  15. 75 FR 12507 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) to make fishing level recommendations for black and red grouper... reports on recent Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) assessments of black grouper and Atlantic... level recommendations for South Atlantic black and red grouper will be developed during the SSC...

  16. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  17. Cenozoic climates: evidence from the North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Cenozoic biostratigraphy and climatology of the North Atlantic and adjacent land areas reflects the continuing fragmentation of Eurasia and concomitant changes on ocean-continent geometry. A latitudinal (zonal) Mesozoic circulation pattern evolved into a predominantly longitudinal (meridional) pattern during the Cenozoic in which the development of oceanic gateways and barriers gradually decreased the efficiency of poleward heat transfer resulting in the progressive climatic change which has taken place over the past 50 million years. Cenozoic distributional data from the North Atlantic and adjacent land areas will be reviewed from the following fields: a) terrestrial vertebrates and floras: b) marine calcareous microplankton and benthic foraminifera; c) other marine invertebrates. Available data suggests that the present climate in the northern hemisphere has resulted from a gradual, but inexorable, strengthening of latitudinal and vertical temperature gradients punctuated by several brief intervals of accelerated change. The absence of evidence for northern hemisphere polar glaciation prior to the late Neogene does not preclude seasonal cooling near the freezing point in post-Eocene time. Evidence for early Paleogene cold climates is not reflected in the fossil record.

  18. Immunoglobulin isotypes in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Hordvik, Ivar

    2015-02-27

    There are three major immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes in salmonid fish: IgM, IgD and IgT, defined by the heavy chains μ, δ and τ, respectively. As a result of whole genome duplication in the ancestor of the salmonid fish family, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) possess two highly similar Ig heavy chain gene complexes (A and B), comprising two μ genes, two δ genes, three intact τ genes and five τ pseudogenes. The μA and μB genes correspond to two distinct sub-populations of serum IgM. The IgM-B sub-variant has a characteristic extra cysteine near the C-terminal part of the heavy chain and exhibits a higher degree of polymer disulfide cross-linking compared to IgM-A. The IgM-B:IgM-A ratio in serum is typically 60:40, but skewed ratios are also observed. The IgT isotype appears to be specialized to mucosal immune responses in salmonid fish. The concentration of IgT in serum is 100 to 1000 times lower than IgM. Secreted forms of IgD have been detected in rainbow trout, but not yet in Atlantic salmon.

  19. North Atlantic Climate Variability. An Oceanographers's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbeck, M.

    Much of the interannual to decadal variability in the North Atlantic Ocean is strongly linked to changes in the atmospheric forcing. The dominant mode of Atmospheric Variability is associated with changes in the strength and location of the westerly winds, a mode which is known as the North Atlantic Oscillation. The oceans response can be divided into three related categories. First there are changes in the upper ocean transports (Ekman transport) which directly alter the oceans heat transport (fast re- sponse) and because of changes in the planetary vorticity balance generate Rossby and Kelvin waves which then establish a new balanced state (slow response). Sec- ondly changes in the air-sea fluxes by a combination of variable atmospheric advection (wind vector) and efficiency of exchange (wind speed) perturb the upper ocean heat content. Part of that signal is then advected in regions of large mean ocean currents. Finally changes of the surface ocean density can alter the amount and type of newly formed water masses. Thus the characteristics and types of deep water vary possibly altering the rate of the ocean overturning. Specifically I will review recent findings about the oceans response to NAO forcing and the associated propagation of upper ocean heat content anomalies. I will discuss observations of decadal salinity variations in the Labrador Sea. and finally touch upon how a simple ecosystem is effected by the above.

  20. An Anatomy of the 1960s Atlantic Cooling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Dan; Robson, Jon; Sutton, Rowan

    2014-05-01

    North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability during the 20th Century. In particular, the North Atlantic SSTs exhibited a rapid warming between 1920 and 1940 followed by a rapid cooling between 1960 and 1980. SSTs outside the North Atlantic display a much smaller level of decadal variability over the 20th Century. This pattern of North Atlantic warming and cooling has been linked to subsequent changes in rainfall over the Sahel and Nordeste Brazil, Summertime North American Climate and Atlantic Hurricane Genesis. Several hypotheses for the rapid 1960s Atlantic cooling have been proposed, including a reduction in northward ocean heat transport due to a reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the significant rise in anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions during the latter half of the 20th century. Here we examine the observed 1960s Atlantic cooling in more detail. We describe the evolution of the rapid cooling by constructing a detailed multivariate anatomy of the cooling period in order to illuminate the possible explanations and mechanisms involved. We show that the observed 1960s cooling began around 1964-68 in the Greenland-Iceland-Norway (GIN) seas, later spreading to the Atlantic Sub Polar Gyre and much of the subtropical Atlantic. This initial cooling of the Sub Polar Gyre is associated with a marked reduction in salinity (the Great Salinity Anomaly). The cooling peaked between 1972-76, extending into the Tropical North Atlantic. This period also saw the development of a significant Winter North-South Dipole Mean Sea Level Pressure dipole pattern reminiscent of a positive NAO (High over the Azores, Low over Iceland). The cooling then retreated back to higher latitudes during 1976:80. Our analysis demonstrates that the cooling of the North Atlantic during the 1960s cannot be understood as a simple thermodynamic response to aerosol induced reductions in shortwave radiation. Dynamical changes

  1. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  2. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  3. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  4. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  5. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  6. 50 CFR 622.171 - South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.171 South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access. (a) General. The only valid commercial vessel permits for South...

  7. 50 CFR 622.171 - South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.171 South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access. (a) General. The only valid commercial vessel permits for South...

  8. 50 CFR 622.18 - South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.18 South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access. (a) General. The only valid commercial vessel permits for South Atlantic snapper-grouper are those that have been issued...

  9. Interannual atmospheric variability forced by the deep equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Peter; Funk, Andreas; Hormann, Verena; Dengler, Marcus; Greatbatch, Richard J; Toole, John M

    2011-05-26

    Climate variability in the tropical Atlantic Ocean is determined by large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, which particularly affect deep atmospheric convection over the ocean and surrounding continents. Apart from influences from the Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation, the tropical Atlantic variability is thought to be dominated by two distinct ocean-atmosphere coupled modes of variability that are characterized by meridional and zonal sea-surface-temperature gradients and are mainly active on decadal and interannual timescales, respectively. Here we report evidence that the intrinsic ocean dynamics of the deep equatorial Atlantic can also affect sea surface temperature, wind and rainfall in the tropical Atlantic region and constitutes a 4.5-yr climate cycle. Specifically, vertically alternating deep zonal jets of short vertical wavelength with a period of about 4.5 yr and amplitudes of more than 10 cm s(-1) are observed, in the deep Atlantic, to propagate their energy upwards, towards the surface. They are linked, at the sea surface, to equatorial zonal current anomalies and eastern Atlantic temperature anomalies that have amplitudes of about 6 cm s(-1) and 0.4 °C, respectively, and are associated with distinct wind and rainfall patterns. Although deep jets are also observed in the Pacific and Indian oceans, only the Atlantic deep jets seem to oscillate on interannual timescales. Our knowledge of the persistence and regularity of these jets is limited by the availability of high-quality data. Despite this caveat, the oscillatory behaviour can still be used to improve predictions of sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic. Deep-jet generation and upward energy transmission through the Equatorial Undercurrent warrant further theoretical study.

  10. Estimation of Atlantic-Mediterranean netflow variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Peliz, Alvaro; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The exchanges at the Strait of Gibraltar are extremely difficult to measure due to the strong temporal and across-strait variabilities; yet the Atlantic inflow into the Mediterranean is extremely important both for climate and to ecosystems. Most of the published numerical modeling studies do not resolve the Strait of Gibraltar realistically. Models that represent the strait at high resolution focus primarily in high frequency dynamics, whereas long-term dynamics are studied in low resolution model studies, and for that reason the Strait dynamics are poorly resolved. Estimating the variability of the exchanges requires long term and high-resolutions studies, thus an improved simulation with explicit and realistic representation of the Strait is necessary. On seasonal to inter-annual timescales the flow is essentially driven by the net evaporation contribution and consequently realistic fields of precipitation and evaporation are necessary for model setup. A comparison between observations, reanalysis and combined products shows ERA-Interim Reanalysis has the most suitable product for Mediterranean Sea. Its time and space variability are in close agreement with NOC 1.1 for the common period (1980 - 1993) and also with evaporation from OAFLUX (1989 - 2014). Subinertial fluctuations, periods from days to a few months, are the second most energetic, after tides, and are the response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations and local winds. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the Mediterranean cause sea level oscillations that induce a barotropic flow through the Strait. Candela's analytical model has been used to quantify this response in later studies, though comparison with observations points to an underestimation of the flow at strait. An improved representation of this term contribution to the Atlantic - Mediterranean exchange must be achieved on longer time-scales. We propose a new simulation for the last 36 years (1979 - 2014) for the Mediterranean - Atlantic

  11. Atmospheric and oceanic freshwater transport during weak Atlantic overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Gerrit

    2003-10-01

    Oceanic and atmospheric freshwater transports are analyzed in a numerical experiment where induced freshwater in the North Atlantic slowed the thermohaline circulation (THC). During times of weak Atlantic overturning circulation, it is found that the Intertropical Convergence Zone moves southward and trade winds at tropical latitudes increase, resulting in enhanced water vapor export out of the Atlantic catchment area. The experiment reveals furthermore that the oceanic freshwater transport amounts to a stabilizing effect of similar magnitude to the atmospheric effect. It is argued that the modeled response can be used as a fingerprint for the detection of THC changes documented in the paleoclimatic record or related recent climate change.

  12. Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage

    PubMed Central

    Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic, ‘Agulhas leakage', forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the period 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. This is relevant for climate in the North Atlantic. PMID:26656850

  13. Radiocarbon age of waters in the deep Atlantic revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Virgilio, A. ); Peng, T.H. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors use a simple box model to evaluate the impact of temporal changes of the atmosphere's {sup 14}C/C on ventilation fluxes for the deep Atlantic calculated from radiocarbon measurements. The conclusion is that despite the fact that over the 300 year period from 1650 to 1950 the atmosphere's radiocarbon content declined at the same rate as radiocarbon decays, this temporal change has a relatively small impact (10-15%) on radiocarbon-based estimates of the ventilation rate of the deep Atlantic. The reason is that the radiocarbon content of the source waters for deep Atlantic are reasonably well buffered against changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C/C.

  14. Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage

    DOE PAGES

    Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M.

    2015-12-10

    The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic, ‘Agulhas leakage’, forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the period 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. Lastly, this is relevant for climate in the North Atlantic.

  15. Linking North Atlantic Teleconnections to Latitudinal Variability of Wave Climate Along the North American Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provancha, C.; Adams, P. N.; Hegermiller, C.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Shoreline change via coastal erosion and accretion is largely influenced by variations in ocean wave climate. Identifying the sources of these variations is challenging because the timing of wave energy delivery varies over multiple timescales within ocean basins. We present the results of an investigation of USACE Wave Information Studies hindcast hourly wave heights, periods, and directions along the North American Atlantic coast from 1980-2012, designed to explore links between wave climate and teleconnection patterns. Trends in median and extreme significant wave heights (SWHs) demonstrate that mean monthly SWHs increased from 1 to 5 cm/yr along the roughly 3000 km reach of study area, with changes in hurricane season waves appearing to be most influential in producing the overall trends. Distributions of SWHs categorized by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase, show that positive-period NAO SWHs are greater than negative-period NAO SWHs along the entire eastern seaboard (25°N to 45°N). The most prominent wave direction off Cape Cod, MA during positive-period NAO is approximately 105°, as compared to approximately 75° during negative-period NAO. Prominent wave directions between Cape Canaveral, FL, and Savannah, GA exhibit a similar shift but during opposite phases of the NAO. The results of this analysis suggest that the atmosphere-ocean interactions associated with contrasting NAO phases can significantly change the wave climate observed offshore along the North American Atlantic coast, altering alongshore wave energy fluxes and sediment transport patterns along the coast.

  16. An Electrical Analogy Relating the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is the northward flow of surface water to subpolar latitudes where deepwater is formed, balanced by southward abyssal flow and upwelling in the vicinity of the Southern Ocean. It is generally accepted that AMOC flow oscillates with a period of 60–80 years, creating a regular variation in North Atlantic sea surface temperature known as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). This article attempts to answer two questions: how is the AMOC driven and why does it oscillate? Using methods commonly employed by chemical engineers for analyzing processes involving flowing liquids, apparently not previously applied to trying to understand the AMOC, an equation is developed for AMOC flow as a function of the meridional density gradient or the corresponding temperature gradient. The equation is based on the similarity between the AMOC and an industrial thermosyphon loop cooler, which circulates a heat transfer liquid without using a mechanical pump. Extending this equation with an analogy between the flow of heat and electricity explains why the AMOC flow oscillates and what determines its period. Calculated values for AMOC flow and AMO oscillation period are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:24940739

  17. Bottom pressure correlations in the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, C. W.; Smithson, M. J.

    Bottom pressure in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM) shows regions where fluctuations are dominated by small-scale internal variability of the currents, and are not directly related to the wind. There are often very sharp boundaries between these regions and regions of large scale coherence. Bearing this in mind, the measured coherence of BPR measurements near Tristan da Cunha island in the South Atlantic is taken as evidence that mesoscale variability associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) reaches further north in the model than in reality. There are many possible reasons for this, but the significant result is that the BPR measurements can provide useful information about the dynamical regime of the deep ocean, which can not be discovered by surface measurements.

  18. Elevated Tropospheric Ozone over the Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Tie, X.

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric column ozone (TCO) is derived from differential measurements of TOMS total column ozone and Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric column ozone. It is shown that TCO during summer months over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in northern midlatitudes is about the same (50 to 60 Dobson Units) as over the continents of North America, Europe, and Asia, where surface emissions of nitrogen oxides from industrial sources, biomass and biofuel burning and biogenic emissions are significantly larger. This nearly uniform zonal variation in TCO is modulated by surface topography of the Rocky and Himalayan mountains, and Tibetan plateau where TCO is reduced by 20 to 30 Dobson Units. The zonal variation in TCO is well simulated by a global chemical transport model called MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2). The model results are analyzed to delineate the relative importance of various processes contributing to observed zonal characteristics of TCO.

  19. Mechanisms and depths of atlantic transform earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engeln, J. F.; Wiens, D. A.; Stein, S.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms and depths of 40 earthquakes on major transforms along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are studied in order to identify events that deviate from the transform-parallel strike-slip motion. Long and short period waves and Rayleigh wave spectral amplitudes are used to analyze focal mechanisms, depths, source time functions, and seismic moments of earthquakes. The relationship between centroid depths and transform thermal structures is examined. The data reveal that transform earthquake centroid depths occur above the predicted 400 C isotherms and the oceanic intraplate depths extend to the 750 C isotherm. Slip rates inferred from seismic moment releases are compared to those predicted by plate motions and good correlation is detected. The difference in the centroid depths of transform and interplate seismicity indicates transforms are either weaker or higher temperatures than expected.

  20. Drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D

    1997-02-01

    A portion of the secular change of the geomagnetic field leads to a drift of the trapped belt South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). If this drift is not taken into account, models of the trapped particle population give erroneous predictions of particle fluxes. The dose rates measured on two manned spacecrafts, Skylab (50 degrees inclination x 438 km orbit) and Mir orbital station (51.65 degrees inclination x 400 km orbit), were used to determine the drift rate of the SAA. The longitude and latitude drift rates of the SAA as a whole, between 1973 and 1995, were estimated to be 0.28 +/- 0.03 degrees W per year, and 0.08 +/- 0.03 degrees N per year, respectively. These measurements are consistent with determinations made using the AP8 models for radiation trapped belts and are in excellent agreement with drift rates observed for the geomagnetic field.

  1. Morphometric sexing of Northwest Atlantic Roseate Terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palestis, Brian G.; Nisbet, Ian C.T.; Hatch, Jeremy J.; Szczys, Patricia; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A difficulty in the study of monomorphic species is the inability of observers to visually distinguish females from males. Based on a sample of 745 known-sex birds nesting at Bird Island, MA, USA, a discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to sex Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) of the Northwest Atlantic population using morphological measurements. DFA using only the total length of the head (including the bill) correctly identified the sex of approximately 86% of the terns, which increased to 88% if both members of a pair were measured. Including additional measurements increased these percentages slightly, to 87% and 90%, respectively. These levels of accuracy are generally higher than those reported for other species of terns. Because female-female pairs are frequent in this population, one cannot assume that the member of a pair with the larger head is a male, and additional discriminant functions were developed to help separate female-female from male-female pairs.

  2. The Atlantic Seaduck Project: Medical Aspects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Perry, M.C.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Some populations of seaducks, especially scoters along the Atlantic Coast, have been declining over recent decades. A joint US-Canadian tearn has been working to capture and surgically implant satellite radio transmitters in these ducks. Black scoters (Melanitta nigra) captured on the Restigouche River in New Brunswick, Canada and surf scoters (M. perspicilata) captured on Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA have been tracked by the use of Argos/NOAA polar orbiting operational environmental satellites to their breeding and molting areas and back south to their wintering ranges. Successful capture techniques included night-lighting and a capture net gun. A captive colony of seaducks has been maintained for feeding habits and nutritional studies. Veterinary medicine has played a key role in the surgical implantation of the satellite transmitters and in developing heath procedures for the captive seaduck colony.

  3. Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, S.W.; Clark, P.U.; Bartlein, P.J.; Mix, A.C.; Pisias, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    We model the response of the climate system during Heinrich event 2 (H2) by employing an atmospheric general circulation model, using boundary conditions based on the concept of a "canonical" Heinrich event. The canonical event is initialized with a full-height Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and CLIMAP sea surface temperatures (SSTs), followed by lowering of the LIS, then warming of North Atlantic SSTs. Our modeled temperature and wind fields exhibit spatially variable responses over the Northern Hemisphere at each stage of the H2 event. In some regions the climatic responses are additive, whereas in other regions they cancel or are of opposite sign, suggesting that Heinrich event climatic variations may have left complex signatures in geologic records. We find variations in the tropical water balance and the mass balance of ice sheets, and implications for variations in terrestrial methane production from the contraction of northern permafrost regions and the expansion of tropical wetlands. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-11-10

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges.

  5. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-10-26

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.

  6. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-11-10

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges. PMID:26504210

  7. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-01-01

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges. PMID:26504210

  8. Barcoding Atlantic Canada's commonly encountered marine fishes.

    PubMed

    McCusker, M R; Denti, D; Van Guelpen, L; Kenchington, E; Bentzen, P

    2013-03-01

    Marine fishes from the northwest Atlantic Ocean were analysed to determine whether barcoding was effective at identifying species. Our data included 177 species, 136 genera, 81 families and 28 orders. Overall, 88% of nominal species formed monophyletic clusters based on >500 bp of the CO1 region, and the average bootstrap value for these species was 98%. Although clearly effective, the percentage of species that were distinguishable with barcoding based on the criterion of reciprocal monophyletic clusters was slightly lower than has been documented in other studies of marine fishes. Eelpouts, sculpins and rocklings proved to be among the most challenging groups for barcoding, although we suspect that difficult identifications based on traditional (morphology based) taxonomy played a role. Within several taxa, speciation may have occurred too recently for barcoding to be effective (e.g. within Sebastes, Thunnus and Ammodytes) or the designation of distinct species may have been erroneous (e.g. within Antimora and Macrourus). Results were consistent with previous work recognizing particularly high levels of divergence within certain taxa, some of which have been recognized as distinct species (e.g. Osmerus mordax and Osmerus dentex; and Liparis gibbus and Liparis bathyarcticus), and some of which have not (e.g. within Halargyreus johnsonii and within Mallotus villosus). The results from this study suggest that morphology-based identification and taxonomy can be challenging in marine fishes, even within a region as well characterized as Atlantic Canada. Barcoding proved to be a very useful tool for species identification that will likely find a wide range of applications, including the fisheries trade, studies of range expansion, ecological analyses and population assessments.

  9. North Atlantic climate variability: The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Deser, Clara

    2009-08-01

    Marine ecosystems are undergoing rapid change at local and global scales. To understand these changes, including the relative roles of natural variability and anthropogenic effects, and to predict the future state of marine ecosystems requires quantitative understanding of the physics, biogeochemistry and ecology of oceanic systems at mechanistic levels. Central to this understanding is the role played by dominant patterns or "modes" of atmospheric and oceanic variability, which orchestrate coherent variations in climate over large regions with profound impacts on ecosystems. We review the spatial structure of extratropical climate variability over the Northern Hemisphere and, specifically, focus on modes of climate variability over the extratropical North Atlantic. A leading pattern of weather and climate variability over the Northern Hemisphere is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO refers to a redistribution of atmospheric mass between the Arctic and the subtropical Atlantic, and swings from one phase to another producing large changes in surface air temperature, winds, storminess and precipitation over the Atlantic as well as the adjacent continents. The NAO also affects the ocean through changes in heat content, gyre circulations, mixed layer depth, salinity, high latitude deep water formation and sea ice cover. Thus, indices of the NAO have become widely used to document and understand how this mode of variability alters the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. There is no unique way, however, to define the NAO. Several approaches are discussed including both linear (e.g., principal component analysis) and nonlinear (e.g., cluster analysis) techniques. The former, which have been most widely used, assume preferred atmospheric circulation states come in pairs, in which anomalies of opposite polarity have the same spatial structure. In contrast, nonlinear techniques search for recurrent patterns of a specific amplitude and sign. They reveal

  10. North Atlantic climate variability: The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Deser, Clara

    2010-02-01

    Marine ecosystems are undergoing rapid change at local and global scales. To understand these changes, including the relative roles of natural variability and anthropogenic effects, and to predict the future state of marine ecosystems requires quantitative understanding of the physics, biogeochemistry and ecology of oceanic systems at mechanistic levels. Central to this understanding is the role played by dominant patterns or "modes" of atmospheric and oceanic variability, which orchestrate coherent variations in climate over large regions with profound impacts on ecosystems. We review the spatial structure of extratropical climate variability over the Northern Hemisphere and, specifically, focus on modes of climate variability over the extratropical North Atlantic. A leading pattern of weather and climate variability over the Northern Hemisphere is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO refers to a redistribution of atmospheric mass between the Arctic and the subtropical Atlantic, and swings from one phase to another producing large changes in surface air temperature, winds, storminess and precipitation over the Atlantic as well as the adjacent continents. The NAO also affects the ocean through changes in heat content, gyre circulations, mixed layer depth, salinity, high latitude deep water formation and sea ice cover. Thus, indices of the NAO have become widely used to document and understand how this mode of variability alters the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. There is no unique way, however, to define the NAO. Several approaches are discussed including both linear (e.g., principal component analysis) and nonlinear (e.g., cluster analysis) techniques. The former, which have been most widely used, assume preferred atmospheric circulation states come in pairs, in which anomalies of opposite polarity have the same spatial structure. In contrast, nonlinear techniques search for recurrent patterns of a specific amplitude and sign. They reveal

  11. Satellite Sees Hurricane Leslie and Tropical Storm Michael in Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    A movie of satellite observations from Sept. 2-5, 2012, shows Leslie strengthen into a Hurricane on September 5 as it nears Bermuda, and tiny Tropical Storm Michael in the central Atlantic Ocean. T...

  12. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang A; Sienz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As a major CO2 sink, the North Atlantic, especially its subpolar gyre region, is essential for the global carbon cycle. Decadal fluctuations of CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region are associated with the evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, ocean mixing and sea surface temperature anomalies. While variations in the physical state of the ocean can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of Earth system models, predictability of CO2 uptake has remained unexplored. Here we investigate the predictability of CO2 uptake variations by initialization of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. We find large multi-year variability in oceanic CO2 uptake and demonstrate that its potential predictive skill in the western subpolar gyre region is up to 4-7 years. The predictive skill is mainly maintained in winter and is attributed to the improved physical state of the ocean. PMID:27026490

  13. Dynamics of North Atlantic Deep Water masses during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, Babette A. A.; Chapman, Mark R.; McCave, I. Nick; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Ellison, Christopher R. W.; Hall, Ian R.; Telford, Richard J.

    2011-12-01

    High resolution flow speed reconstructions of two core sites located on Gardar Drift in the northeast Atlantic Basin and Orphan Knoll in the northwest Atlantic Basin reveal a long-term decrease in flow speed of Northeast Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW) after 6,500 years. Benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes of sites currently bathed in NEADW show a 0.2‰ depletion after 6,500 years, shortly after the start of the development of a carbon isotope gradient between NEADW and Norwegian Sea Deep Water. We consider these changes in near-bottom flow vigor and benthic foraminiferal isotope records to mark a significant reorganization of the Holocene deep ocean circulation, and attribute the changes to a weakening of NEADW flow during the mid to late Holocene that allowed the shoaling of Lower Deep Water and deeper eastward advection of Labrador Sea Water into the northeast Atlantic Basin.

  14. 78 FR 66684 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... amendments for Atlantic tunas, swordfish, sharks, and billfish. Nominations are being sought to fill... interests in the recreational and commercial fishing and related industries, environmental community..., swordfish, tunas, or billfish; 2. Contact information, including mailing address, phone, and email of...

  15. Dissolved Organic Carbon in the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Fontela, Marcos; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Hansell, Dennis A.; Mercier, Herlé; Pérez, Fiz F.

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export is evaluated by combining DOC measurements with observed water mass transports. In the eastern subpolar North Atlantic, both upper and lower limbs of the AMOC transport high-DOC waters. Deep water formation that connects the two limbs of the AMOC results in a high downward export of non-refractory DOC (197 Tg-C·yr−1). Subsequent remineralization in the lower limb of the AMOC, between subpolar and subtropical latitudes, consumes 72% of the DOC exported by the whole Atlantic Ocean. The contribution of DOC to the carbon sequestration in the North Atlantic Ocean (62 Tg-C·yr−1) is considerable and represents almost a third of the atmospheric CO2 uptake in the region. PMID:27240625

  16. Satellite Movie Shows Birth of Atlantic's Tropical Storm Lorenzo

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Oct. 20 to 22 shows the development and strengthening of Tropical Depression 13L into Tropical Storm Lorenzo in the Atlantic (far right), a...

  17. BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of landscape metrics, in conjunction with stream water quality to estimate the biological integrity of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains using multivariate techniques.

  18. New Precipitation Satellite Sees 2014's 1st Atlantic Hurricane

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Precipitation Measurement mission's Core Observatory flew over Hurricane Arthur five times between July 1 and July 6, 2014. Arthur is the first tropical cyclone of the 2014 Atlantic Hurr...

  19. Black smokers on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.

    Evidence for a variety of active hydrothermal venting phenomena, including black smokers, was discovered at a site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by a research team of government and university scientists. The work was accomplished on a cruise of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Researcher during July 1985 as part of the NOAA Vents Program. The site of the venting phenomena is the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) Hydrothermal Field on the east wall of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26°N. The TAG Hydrothermal Field was the first hydrothermal field to be found on an oceanic ridge; it was discovered 12 years ago in 1973. However, until the present cruise, only low-temperature hydrothermal activity had been documented, and the existence of higher-temperature hydrothermal activity along slow spreading oceanic ridges (half rate 2 cm/yr), such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, was in question.

  20. Satellite Movie Shows Hurricane Cristobal Speeding Through North Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from August 26 through 29 shows Hurricane Cristobal changing into a post-tropical storm in the North Atlantic Ocean. Credit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

  1. Transport of salt and freshwater in the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Andreas; Stocker, Thomas F.; Sandø, Anne Britt

    2016-08-01

    Transport of salt in the Irminger Current, the northern branch of the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre coupling the eastern and western subpolar North Atlantic, plays an important role for climate variability across a wide range of time scales. High-resolution ocean modeling and observations indicate that salinities in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic decrease with enhanced circulation of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG). This has led to the perception that a stronger SPG also transports less salt westward. In this study, we analyze a regional ocean model and a comprehensive global coupled climate model, and show that a stronger SPG transports more salt in the Irminger Current irrespective of lower salinities in its source region. The additional salt converges in the Labrador Sea and the Irminger Basin by eddy transports, increases surface salinity in the western SPG, and favors more intense deep convection. This is part of a positive feedback mechanism with potentially large implications for climate variability and predictability.

  2. Satellite Movie Sees Major Winter Storm Nearing Mid-Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Jan. 20 to 22 shows the movement of the system that is expected to bring a powerful winter storm to the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region. Credit: NASA...

  3. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Sienz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As a major CO2 sink, the North Atlantic, especially its subpolar gyre region, is essential for the global carbon cycle. Decadal fluctuations of CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region are associated with the evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, ocean mixing and sea surface temperature anomalies. While variations in the physical state of the ocean can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of Earth system models, predictability of CO2 uptake has remained unexplored. Here we investigate the predictability of CO2 uptake variations by initialization of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. We find large multi-year variability in oceanic CO2 uptake and demonstrate that its potential predictive skill in the western subpolar gyre region is up to 4–7 years. The predictive skill is mainly maintained in winter and is attributed to the improved physical state of the ocean. PMID:27026490

  4. 75 FR 74004 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ..., and Caribbean Sea. Nominations are being sought for a three- year appointment (2011-2014). Individuals..., Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. While the SEDAR Pool was created specifically for Atlantic...

  5. Science and Society: The Third Dimension of the Atlantic Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudarskis, Michel

    1983-01-01

    Discusses North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) activities related to science and society. NATO Scientific Exchanges Programme; pilot studies (pollution control, natural resources, health and technological risks, quality of life, and planning); and cultural exchanges are among the areas considered. (JN)

  6. Transport of salt and freshwater in the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Andreas; Stocker, Thomas F.; Sandø, Anne Britt

    2016-09-01

    Transport of salt in the Irminger Current, the northern branch of the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre coupling the eastern and western subpolar North Atlantic, plays an important role for climate variability across a wide range of time scales. High-resolution ocean modeling and observations indicate that salinities in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic decrease with enhanced circulation of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG). This has led to the perception that a stronger SPG also transports less salt westward. In this study, we analyze a regional ocean model and a comprehensive global coupled climate model, and show that a stronger SPG transports more salt in the Irminger Current irrespective of lower salinities in its source region. The additional salt converges in the Labrador Sea and the Irminger Basin by eddy transports, increases surface salinity in the western SPG, and favors more intense deep convection. This is part of a positive feedback mechanism with potentially large implications for climate variability and predictability.

  7. 78 FR 11156 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... (MREP) and Managing Our Nations' Fisheries 3 Conference. 2. Receive an update on the use of social media tools, including: The Atlantic Coast Communication Group Social Media Workshop; the status of...

  8. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  9. A new Munidopsis species (Galatheoidea, Munidopsidae) from the Southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Serejo, Cristiana S; Rodrigues, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Six Munidopsis species are recorded to the Southwestern Atlantic: M. barbarae; M. erinacea; M. nitida; M. sigsbei; M. riveroi and M. transtridens. Herein a new Munidopsis species from Southwestern Atlantic is described: Munidopsis trindadensis sp.nov., was sampled off Trindade Island (Espírito Santo, Brazil) at 360 m depth and differs from all six species previously recorded in this region by the telson with seven plates.

  10. Toxic Trichodesmium bloom occurrence in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sacilotto Detoni, Amália Maria; Costa, Luiza Dy Fonseca; Pacheco, Lucas Abrão; Yunes, João Sarkis

    2016-02-01

    Harmful Trichodesmium blooms have been reported on the continental slope of the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean; we sampled six such blooms. The highest saxitoxin concentration was observed where the number of colonies was proportionally greater relative to the total density of trichomes. Trichodesmium blooms are harmful to shrimp larvae and may lead to plankton community mortality. This study is the first record of neurotoxic blooms in the open waters of the South Atlantic.

  11. Rickettsial infection in farmed Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, R. Roland; Groman, David B.; Jones, Simon R.M.

    2002-01-01

    The cause of death in a postsmolt, Atlantic salmon population with elevated levels of mortalities was investigated. Diagnosis of a rickettsia-like organism was based on gross pathology, histopathology, differential staining, electron microscopy and fluorescent antibody tests. The course of the infection and response to treatment are discussed. This is the first reported occurrence of salmon rickettsias in the Atlantic coast of North or South America. PMID:12058568

  12. Potential tropical Atlantic impacts on Pacific decadal climate trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, Y.; Mochizuki, T.; Timmermann, A.; Kimoto, M.; Watanabe, M.

    2016-07-01

    The tropical Pacific cooling from the early 1990s to 2013 has contributed to the slowdown of globally averaged sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The origin of this regional cooling trend still remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the remote impact of Atlantic SST anomalies, as well as local atmosphere-ocean interactions, contributed to the eastern Pacific cooling during this period. By assimilating observed three-dimensional Atlantic temperature and salinity anomalies into a coupled general circulation model, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the observed Pacific decadal trends of SST and sea level pressure (SLP), albeit with reduced amplitude. Although a major part of the Pacific SLP trend can be explained by equatorial Pacific SST forcing only, the origin of this low-frequency variability can be traced back further to the remote impacts of equatorial Atlantic and South Atlantic SST trends. Atlantic SST impacts on the atmospheric circulation can also be detected for the Northeastern Pacific, thus providing a linkage between Atlantic climate and Western North American drought conditions.

  13. Reorganization of the North Atlantic Oscillation during early Holocene deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Dietrich, Stephan; Fietzke, Jan; Fohlmeister, Jens; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Scholz, Denis; Richter, Detlev K.; Sabaoui, Abdellah; Spötl, Christoph; Lohmann, Gerrit; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation is the dominant atmospheric pressure mode in the North Atlantic region and affects winter temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean, northwest Europe, Greenland, and Asia. The index that describes the sea-level pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores is correlated with a dipole precipitation pattern over northwest Europe and northwest Africa. How the North Atlantic Oscillation will develop as the Greenland ice sheet melts is unclear. A potential past analogue is the early Holocene, during which melting ice sheets around the North Atlantic freshened surface waters, affecting the strength of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we present a Holocene rainfall record from northwest Africa based on speleothem δ18O and compare it against a speleothem-based rainfall record from Europe. The two records are positively correlated during the early Holocene, followed by a shift to an anti-correlation, similar to the modern record, during the mid-Holocene. On the basis of our simulations with an Earth system model, we suggest the shift to the anti-correlation reflects a large-scale atmospheric and oceanic reorganization in response to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet and a strong reduction of meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, pointing to a potential sensitivity of the North Atlantic Oscillation to the melting of ice sheets.

  14. Thermodynamic controls of the Atlantic Niño

    PubMed Central

    Nnamchi, Hyacinth C.; Li, Jianping; Kucharski, Fred; Kang, In-Sik; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Chang, Ping; Farneti, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing theories on the equatorial Atlantic Niño are based on the dynamical interaction between atmosphere and ocean. However, dynamical coupled ocean-atmosphere models poorly simulate and predict equatorial Atlantic climate variability. Here we use multi-model numerical experiments to show that thermodynamic feedbacks excited by stochastic atmospheric perturbations can generate Atlantic Niño s.d. of ∼0.28±0.07 K, explaining ∼68±23% of the observed interannual variability. Thus, in state-of-the-art coupled models, Atlantic Niño variability strongly depends on the thermodynamic component (R2=0.92). Coupled dynamics acts to improve the characteristic Niño-like spatial structure but not necessarily the variance. Perturbations of the equatorial Atlantic trade winds (∼±1.53 m s−1) can drive changes in surface latent heat flux (∼±14.35 W m−2) and thus in surface temperature consistent with a first-order autoregressive process. By challenging the dynamical paradigm of equatorial Atlantic variability, our findings suggest that the current theories on its modelling and predictability must be revised. PMID:26608398

  15. Evolution of Northeast Atlantic magmatic continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Richard; Cornwell, David; Ramsden, Alice

    2014-05-01

    One of the major problems interpreting the evolution of magmatic continental margins such as those which dominate the Irish, UK and Norwegian margins of the NE Atlantic is that the structure which should record the pre-magmatic evolution of the rift and which potentially influences the character of the rifting process is partially or completely obscured by thick basalt lava flows and sills. A limited number of deep reflection seismic profiles acquired with tuned seismic sources have penetrated the basalts and provide an image of the pre-magmatic structure, otherwise the principle data are lower resolution wide-angle/refraction profiles and potential field models which have greater uncertainties associated with them. In order to sidestep the imaging contraints we have examined the Ethiopian ñ Afar rift system to try to understand the rifting process. This magmatic rift system provides, along its length, a series of ësnapshotsí into the possible tectonic evolution of a magmatic continental margin which are associated with different amounts of extension. The Main Ethiopian rift contains an embryonic magmatic passive margin dominated by faulting at the margins of the rift and en-echlon magmatic zones at the centre. Further north toward Afar the rift becomes infilled with extensive lava flows fed from fissure systems in the widening rift zone. Deep seismic profiles crossing the NE Atlantic margins reveal ocean dipping reflector sequences (ODRS) of basaltic lavas overlying extended crust and lower crustal sill complexes of intruded igneous rock, often referred to as underplate, which extend back beneath the continental margin. The ODRS show a variety of morphologies and settings but frequently occur in fault bounded rift structures along the margins. We suggest, by analogy to the observations that can be made in the Ethiopia Afar rift that these fault bounded basins largely form at the embryonic rift stage and are then partially or completely filled with lavas fed

  16. Holocene dynamics of North Atlantic Deep Water Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B.; Chapman, M.; McCave, I. N.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a key component in latitudinal heat and salt transport, comprising northward flow of salty warm near-surface waters in the North Atlantic Current, and its compensating cool return flow at depth. During the early Holocene high summer insolation and strong inflow of North Atlantic surface waters into the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean may have contributed to increased deep-water formation. To assess the effect of increased deep-water formation in the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean on AMOC we reconstructed and assessed bottom flow vigour (using the mean grain size of the sortable silt) and hydrographic properties (using benthic foraminiferal isotopes) at key locations in the deep North Atlantic. The core sites of MD99-2251 and ODP 980 are currently influenced by North East Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW-origin Iceland Scotland Overflow Water), whilst that of MD95-2024 is under the influence of North West Atlantic Bottom Water (NWABW-currently densest North Atlantic Deep Water mass, origin Denmark Strait Overflow). When exiting the Labrador Sea, NEADW and NWABW mix to make up Lower North Atlantic Deep Water. Our results show that NEADW at Gardar Drift in the northeast Atlantic was considerably enhanced and denser (comparable to NWABW) during the early Holocene, until ~6.5 ka. The density increase is attributed to NEADW mainly consisting of Iceland Scotland Overflow Water, lacking significant contributions of Labrador Sea Water or Lower Deep Water (LDW-origin Antarctic Bottom Water) that it contains at present. This implies there was no density gradient between these two deep-water masses during the early Holocene, contrary to today. A subsequent weakening of NEADW accompanied with a reduction in its density after 6.5 ka allowed a shoaling of LDW and deeper eastward advection of Labrador Sea Water into the northeast Atlantic basin. The density gradient observed between current NEADW and NWABW might have been

  17. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral,...

  18. Changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation controlled by ocean circulation.

    PubMed

    Straub, Marietta; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Meckler, A Nele; Hain, Mathis P; Haug, Gerald H

    2013-09-12

    In the ocean, the chemical forms of nitrogen that are readily available for biological use (known collectively as 'fixed' nitrogen) fuel the global phytoplankton productivity that exports carbon to the deep ocean. Accordingly, variation in the oceanic fixed nitrogen reservoir has been proposed as a cause of glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Marine nitrogen fixation, which produces most of the ocean's fixed nitrogen, is thought to be affected by multiple factors, including ocean temperature and the availability of iron and phosphorus. Here we reconstruct changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation over the past 160,000 years from the shell-bound nitrogen isotope ratio ((15)N/(14)N) of planktonic foraminifera in Caribbean Sea sediments. The observed changes cannot be explained by reconstructed changes in temperature, the supply of (iron-bearing) dust or water column denitrification. We identify a strong, roughly 23,000-year cycle in nitrogen fixation and suggest that it is a response to orbitally driven changes in equatorial Atlantic upwelling, which imports 'excess' phosphorus (phosphorus in stoichiometric excess of fixed nitrogen) into the tropical North Atlantic surface. In addition, we find that nitrogen fixation was reduced during glacial stages 6 and 4, when North Atlantic Deep Water had shoaled to become glacial North Atlantic intermediate water, which isolated the Atlantic thermocline from excess phosphorus-rich mid-depth waters that today enter from the Southern Ocean. Although modern studies have yielded diverse views of the controls on nitrogen fixation, our palaeobiogeochemical data suggest that excess phosphorus is the master variable in the North Atlantic Ocean and indicate that the variations in its supply over the most recent glacial cycle were dominated by the response of regional ocean circulation to the orbital cycles.

  19. Interannual Rainfall Variability in the Tropical Atlantic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Guojun

    2005-01-01

    Rainfall variability on seasonal and interannual-to-interdecadal time scales in the tropical Atlantic is quantified using a 25-year (1979-2003) monthly rainfall dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The ITCZ measured by monthly rainfall between 15-37.5 deg W attains its peak as moving to the northernmost latitude (4-10 deg N) during July-September in which the most total rainfall is observed in the tropical Atlantic basin (17.5 deg S-22.5 deg N, 15 deg-37.5 deg W); the ITCZ becomes weakest during January-February with the least total rainfall as it moves to the south. In contrast, rainfall variability on interannual to interdecadal time scales shows a quite different seasonal preference. The most intense interannual variability occurs during March-May when the ITCZ tends to be near the equator and becomes weaker. Significant, negative correlations between the ITCZ strength and latitude anomalies are observed during boreal spring and early summer. The ITCZ strength and total rainfall amount in the tropical Atlantic basin are significantly modulated by the Pacific El Nino and the Atlantic equatorial mode (or Atlantic Nino) particularly during boreal spring and summer; whereas the impact of the Atlantic interhemispheric mode is considerably weaker. Regarding the anomalous latitudes of the ITCZ, the influence can come from both local, i.e., the Atlantic interhemispheric and equatorial modes, and remote forcings, i. e., El Nino; however, a direct impact of El Nino on the latitudes of the ITCZ can only be found during April-July, not in winter and early spring in which the warmest SST anomalies are usually observed in the equatorial Pacific.

  20. Fires, East Falkland Island, South Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This near-nadir image (looking almost straight down) of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic was acquired at the southernmost extent of the International Space Station's latitudinal orbit range of approximately 52 degrees north to 52 degrees south relative to the surface of the Earth. The windy and relatively dry climate, which includes roughly 600 millimeters (24 inches) of precipitation annually, has given rise to natural vegetation comprised of treeless grassland with scattered bogs. The grasslands are ideal for sheep rearing--the dominant occupation until recent decades, when fishing (mainly squid for Spain) and tourism became the mainstays of the economy. These expanses of grassland provide ready fuel for fires, as indicated by the several long smoke plumes visible in this astronaut photograph. Astronaut photograph ISS015-E-30526 was acquired on September 25, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera fitted with a 58 mm lens. The image was taken by the Expedition 15 crew, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image in this article has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast. Lens artifacts have been removed.

  1. Immunological discrimination of Atlantic striped bass stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schill, W.B.; Dorazio, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Stocks of Atlantic striped bass Morone saxatilis that were assumed to be geographically isolated during spawning showed strong antigenic differences in blood serum albumin. A discriminant function was estimated from the immunologic responses of northern (Canadian and Hudson River) and southern (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River) stocks to two reference antisera. The function correctly classified 92% of the northern and 95% of the southern fish in the training set. Cross-validation revealed similar percentages of correct classification for fish that were of known origin but not used to estimate the discriminant function. Monte Carlo experiments were used to evaluate the ability of the discriminant function to predict the relative contribution of northern fish in samples of various size and stock composition. Averages of predicted proportions of northern fish in the samples agreed well with actual proportions. Coefficients of variation (100 × SD/mean) in the predicted proportions ranged from 1.5 to 36% for samples of 50–400 fish that contained at least 10% northern stock. In samples that contained only 2% northern stock, however, at least 1,600 fish were required to achieve similar levels of precision.

  2. West European public and the Atlantic Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, A.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Using original and previously published survey data, this study explores West European public attitudes about Atlantic cooperation in general and NATO in particular. Alternative viewpoints are categorized into a typology that is used to describe the conceptual nature of European beliefs and to measure the level of public support for the different viewpoints. Long-term trends in these attitudes and causal determinants are also examined. A distinguishing feature of this study is that it is truly comparative. The analysis relies on identical survey items administered in four European countries: Great Britain, France, West German, and Italy. The longitudinal data examined indicate that some fundamental changes have occurred in European security beliefs. Anti-Americanism has increased dramatically at the same time that attitudes toward the Soviet Union have become more favorable, and the fear of nuclear weapons and nuclear war has increased substantially. Explanations for these shifts in opinion are not found in sociological factors, such as changes in generational experiences, educational levels, or social classes; but instead, European attitudes appear to reflect broad changes in international politics, such as the Vietnam War, nuclear parity, and detente. Favorable opinion for NATO tends to be high, yet specific defense-related measures receive much less support.

  3. Oceanic origin of southeast tropical Atlantic biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhao; Li, Mingkui; Patricola, Christina M.; Chang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Most coupled general circulation models suffer from a prominent warm sea surface temperature bias in the southeast tropical Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. The origin of the bias is not understood and remains highly controversial. Previous studies suggest that the origin of the bias stems from systematic errors of atmospheric models in simulating surface heat flux and coastal wind, or poorly simulated coastal upwelling. In this study, we show, using different reanalysis and observational data sets combined with a set of eddy-resolving regional ocean model simulations, that systematic errors in ocean models also make a significant contribution to the bias problem. In particular (1) the strong warm bias at the Angola-Benguela front that is maintained by the local wind and the convergence of Angola and Benguela Currents is caused by an overshooting of the Angola Current in ocean models and (2) the alongshore warm bias to the south of the front is caused by ocean model deficiencies in simulating the sharp thermocline along the Angola coast, which is linked to biases in the equatorial thermocline, and the complex circulation system within the Benguela upwelling zone.

  4. Holocene coastal paleoenvironments in Atlantic Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Bonorino, G.; Bujalesky, G.; Colombo, F.; Ferrero, M.

    1999-11-01

    The Atlantic shoreline in Patagonia, southernmost South America, is a paraglacial coast that has undergone extensive erosion and retreat since the late Pleistocene, releasing a large volume of sand and gravel to southward littoral drift. Despite regional erosive conditions, accretionary landforms developed during the Holocene in three coastal reentrants. These are, from north to south along a 200 km long shoreline stretch: (1) the cuspate foreland that underlies Bustamante Point, in the Rı´o Gallegos Estuary; (2) the cuspate foreland with incipient spit underlying Dungeness Point, in the eastern Strait of Magellan; (3) the San Sebastián Bay tidal flat; and (4) the El Páramo Spit, partly enclosing the San Sebastián Bay. These accretionary landforms contain a record of relative sea level changes for approximately the past 7 ka, and indicate a tectonically driven drop of about 3 m during growth of Bustamante Point and of 1-2 m in the other areas. Differential sea level fall influenced development of the landforms, with slower rates favoring spit development in the south.

  5. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

  6. South Atlantic Spreading Velocities and Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. R.; Smethurst, M. A.; Bianchi, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Plate reconstructions based on hierarchical spherical rotations have been around for many years. For the breakup of Pangea and Gondwana, these reconstructions are based on two major sources: magnetic isochrons and geological evidence for the onset of rifting and the tightness of the fit between continents. These reconstructions imply spreading velocities and it is the changes in velocities that can be used to probe questions of the forces moving plates around. In order to calculate the velocities correctly though, the importance of the choice of geologic time scale is often ignored. In this talk, we focus on the South Atlantic and calculate the spreading velocity errors implied by the choice of time scale for three major epochs: the Cenozoic and Late Mesozoic, the Cretaceous Quiet Zone and the Late Cretaceous to the Early Jurassic. In addition, we report the spreading velocities implied through these phases by various available magnetic isochron-derived reconstructions and the geological fits for South America and Africa used by large scale global reconstruction as well as in recent papers. Finally, we will highlight the implications for the choice of the mantle reference frame on African plate velocities.

  7. 78 FR 76595 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Atlantic King Mackerel AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... King Mackerel. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic King...

  8. ATLANTIC DIP: Pregnancy Outcome for Women With Pregestational Diabetes Along the Irish Atlantic Seaboard

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Fidelma P.; Avalos, Gloria; Durkan, Meave; Mitchell, Yvonne; Gallacher, Therese; Keenan, Marita; Hogan, Marie; Carmody, Louise A.; Gaffney, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Prospective evaluation of pregnancy outcomes in pregestational diabetes along the Atlantic seaboard 2006–2007. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy group, representing five antenatal centers in a wide geographical location, was established in 2005. All women with diabetes for >6 months before the index pregnancy were included. Results were collected electronically via the DIAMOND Diabetes Information System. Pregnancy outcome was compared with background rates. RESULTS There were 104 singleton pregnancies. The stillbirth rate (25/1,000) was 5 times, perinatal mortality rate (25/1,000) 3.5 times, and congenital malformation rate (24/1,000) 2 times that of the background population. A total of 28% of women received prepregnancy care, 43% received prepregnancy folic acid, and 51% achieved an A1C ≤7% at first antenatal visit. CONCLUSIONS Women are not well prepared for pregnancy, and outcomes are suboptimal. A regional prepregnancy care program and centralized glucose management are urgently needed. PMID:19564472

  9. Interannual Variability of Boreal Summer Rainfall in the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Guojun; Adler, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    Tropical Atlantic rainfall patterns and variation during boreal summer [June-July-August (JJA)] are quantified by means of a 28-year (1979-2006) monthly precipitation dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Rainfall variability during boreal spring [March-April-May (MAM)] is also examined for comparison in that the most intense interannual variability is usually observed during this season. Comparable variabilities in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) strength and the basin-mean rainfall are found during both seasons. Interannual variations in the ITCZ's latitudinal location during JJA however are generally negligible, in contrasting to intense year-to-year fluctuations during MAM. Sea surface temperature (SST) oscillations along the equatorial region (usually called the Atlantic Nino events) and in the tropical north Atlantic (TNA) are shown to be the two major local factors modulating the tropical Atlantic climate during both seasons. During MAM, both SST modes tend to contribute to the formation of an evident interhemispheric SST gradient, thus inducing anomalous shifting of the ITCZ and then forcing a dipolar structure of rainfall anomalies across the equator primarily in the western basin. During JJA the impacts however are primarily on the ITCZ strength likely due to negligible changes in the ITCZ latitudinal location. The Atlantic Nino reaches its peak in JJA, while much weaker SST anomalies appear north of the equator in JJA than in MAM, showing decaying of the interhemispheric SST mode. SST anomalies in the tropical central-eastern Pacific (the El Nino events) have a strong impact on tropical Atlantic including both the tropical north Atlantic and the equatorial-southern Atlantic. However, anomalous warming in the tropical north Atlantic following positive SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific disappears during JJA because of seasonal changes in the large-scale circulation cutting off the ENSO influence passing through the

  10. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells. PMID:24784218

  11. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells.

  12. Comparative visual ecophysiology of mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Horodysky, Andrij Z.; Brill, Richard W.; Crawford, Kendyl C.; Seagroves, Elizabeth S.; Johnson, Andrea K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The absolute light sensitivities, temporal properties, and spectral sensitivities of the visual systems of three mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes (Atlantic spadefish [Ephippidae: Chaetodipterus faber], tautog [Labridae: Tautoga onitis], and black sea bass [Serranidae: Centropristis striata]) were studied via electroretinography (ERG). Pelagic Atlantic spadefish exhibited higher temporal resolution but a narrower dynamic range than the two more demersal foragers. The higher luminous sensitivities of tautog and black sea bass were similar to other benthic and demersal coastal mid-Atlantic fishes. Flicker fusion frequency experiments revealed significant interspecific differences at maximum intensities that correlated with lifestyle and habitat. Spectral responses of the three species spanned 400–610 nm, with high likelihood of cone dichromacy providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Significant day-night differences in spectral responses were evident in spadefish and black sea bass but not tautog, a labrid with characteristic structure-associated nocturnal torpor. Atlantic spadefish responded to a wider range of wavelengths than did deeper-dwelling tautog or black sea bass. Collectively, these results suggest that temperate reef-associated fishes are well-adapted to their gradient of brighter to dimmer photoclimates, representative of their unique ecologies and life histories. Continuing anthropogenic degradation of water quality in coastal environments, at a pace faster than the evolution of visual systems, may however impede visual foraging and reproductive signaling in temperate reef fishes. PMID:24285711

  13. Organic matter in eolian dusts over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The elemental and mineralogical composition and the microfossil and detritus content of particulate fallout from the lower troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean have been extensively documented in earlier work, and it was possible to ascribe terrigenous source areas to such fallout. A brief review of the organic geochemistry of eolian dusts is also presented here. The lipids of eolian dusts sampled from the air mass over the eastern Atlantic from about 35 deg N to 30 deg S were analyzed here. These lipids consisted mainly of normal alkanes, carboxylic acids and alcohols. The n-alkanes were found to range from n-C23 to n-C35 with high CPI values and maximizing at n-C27 in the North Atlantic, at n-C29 in the equatorial Atlantic and at n-C31 in the South Atlantic. The n-fatty acids had mostly bimodal distributions, ranging from n-C12 to n-C30 (high CPI), with maxima at n-C16 and in the northern samples at n-C24 and in the southern samples at n-C26. The n-alcohols ranged from n-C12 to n-C32, with high CPI values and maxima mainly at n-C28. The compositions of these lipids indicated that their terrigenous sources were comprised mainly of higher plant vegetation and desiccated lacustrine mud flats on the African continent.

  14. Comparative visual ecophysiology of mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Horodysky, Andrij Z; Brill, Richard W; Crawford, Kendyl C; Seagroves, Elizabeth S; Johnson, Andrea K

    2013-01-01

    The absolute light sensitivities, temporal properties, and spectral sensitivities of the visual systems of three mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes (Atlantic spadefish [Ephippidae: Chaetodipterus faber], tautog [Labridae: Tautoga onitis], and black sea bass [Serranidae: Centropristis striata]) were studied via electroretinography (ERG). Pelagic Atlantic spadefish exhibited higher temporal resolution but a narrower dynamic range than the two more demersal foragers. The higher luminous sensitivities of tautog and black sea bass were similar to other benthic and demersal coastal mid-Atlantic fishes. Flicker fusion frequency experiments revealed significant interspecific differences at maximum intensities that correlated with lifestyle and habitat. Spectral responses of the three species spanned 400-610 nm, with high likelihood of cone dichromacy providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Significant day-night differences in spectral responses were evident in spadefish and black sea bass but not tautog, a labrid with characteristic structure-associated nocturnal torpor. Atlantic spadefish responded to a wider range of wavelengths than did deeper-dwelling tautog or black sea bass. Collectively, these results suggest that temperate reef-associated fishes are well-adapted to their gradient of brighter to dimmer photoclimates, representative of their unique ecologies and life histories. Continuing anthropogenic degradation of water quality in coastal environments, at a pace faster than the evolution of visual systems, may however impede visual foraging and reproductive signaling in temperate reef fishes.

  15. 78 FR 3346 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... rule for 2013 MSB specifications and management measures was published on November 19, 2012 (77 FR... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management Measures... measures for Atlantic mackerel, and 2013 specifications for butterfish. Specifications for longfin...

  16. 75 FR 20566 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Council's (MAFMC) Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Monitoring Committee will hold a public meeting... Atlantic mackerel, Loligo and Illex squid and butterfish. Although non-emergency issues not contained...

  17. 76 FR 56735 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Council's Squid, Mackerel, Butterfish Advisory Panel will hold a public meeting. DATES: The meeting will... will develop recommendations for the Council regarding Amendment 14 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid... Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish fisheries. Special Accommodations The meeting is...

  18. 75 FR 33242 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW45 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: On May 6, 2010, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (Commission) found the State...

  19. THE RESPONSE OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A strong association is documented between variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and changes in various trophic levels of the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic. Examples are presented for phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, fish, marine diseases, whales and s...

  20. Seasonal influence of ENSO on the Atlantic ITCZ and equatorial South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münnich, M.; Neelin, J. D.

    2005-11-01

    In late boreal spring, especially May, a strong relationship exists in observations among precipitation anomalies over equatorial South America and the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and eastern equatorial Pacific and central equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). A chain of correlations of equatorial Pacific SSTA, western equatorial Atlantic wind stress (WEA), equatorial Atlantic SSTA, sea surface height, and precipitation supports a causal chain in which El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induces WEA stress anomalies, which in turn affect Atlantic equatorial ocean dynamics. These correlations show strong seasonality, apparently arising within the atmospheric links of the chain. This pathway and the influence of equatorial Atlantic SSTA on South American rainfall in May appear independent of that of the northern tropical Atlantic. Brazil's Nordeste is affected by the northern tropical Atlantic. The equatorial influence lies further to the north over the eastern Amazon and the Guiana Highlands.

  1. 77 FR 12010 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... the Federal Register on February 17, 2012 (77 FR 9628). The date of the meeting changed from March 6.... SUMMARY: The Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Ad-Hoc Atlantic Sturgeon Committee...

  2. 76 FR 69706 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Fishery Management Council's (MAFMC) Summer Flounder Monitoring Committee, Scup Monitoring Committee, Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee, and the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Council's and the Atlantic...

  3. Seasonal Variability of South Atlantic Central Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobrega Passos, E.; de Freitas Assad, L.; Landau, L.

    2013-05-01

    The South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) is constituted by different density water masses. Among these, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is formed on the Brazil-Falkland Confluence region (BFC) and once formed, it becomes part of the Subtropical Gyre. When approaching again the Brazilian coast, this water mass bifurcates next to São Tomé Cape and part of it flows to the North and part to the South. There is another bifurcation that formed the sub-gyre of the SAO and occurs near 30°S. This work aims to analyze the seasonal variability associated to the SACW trajectory on the SAO basin. To achieve this goal, ECCO2 project's time series of prognostic fields were analysed. The parameters evaluated were temperature, salinity and the zonal and meridional velocity components in averaged monthly fields between January 1992 and November 2010. First a climatological year was calculated and was composed by means from all time series for each month. And second, it was estimate seasonally means for the south hemisphere to summer, autumn, winter and springer. For the analysis, the SACW was separated from the rest of the water masses by isolating it for its temperature, salinity and density index. Then the volume transport (VT) was calculated for seven different sections: A (10°S and 36°W-30°W), B (35°S and 55°W-45°W), C (40°W and 37°S-43°S), D (34°S and 7°E-20°E), E (20°E and 34°S-45°S), F (20°W and 27°S-33°S) and G (10°W and 20°S-25°S). The VT integrated on the water column occupied by SACW was calculated from the zonal and meridional velocities. The analysis showed that the VT balance between the sections is consistent with the climatologic analysis, according to scientific references. The analysis of the climatological VT showed that the VT field integrated in SAWC levels is also consistent with scientific reference. On the seasonal analysis, the sections A and F show a stronger VT during autumn. Since section A is formed from part of the flux of section

  4. Transcriptome analysis of gill tissue of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Małachowicz, Magdalena; Kijewska, Agnieszka; Wenne, Roman

    2015-10-01

    The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) is one of the most ecologically and economically important marine fish species in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using Roche GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing technique 962,516 reads, representing 379Mbp of the Baltic cod transcriptome, were obtained. Data was assembled into 14,029 contigs of which 100% displayed homology to the Atlantic cod transcriptome. Despite a high similarity between transcripts, evidence for significant differences between Baltic and Atlantic cod was found.

  5. Optimal control of Atlantic population Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauser, C.E.; Runge, M.C.; Cooch, E.G.; Johnson, F.A.; Harvey, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can be a balance between providing sustained harvest opportunity while not allowing populations to become overabundant and cause damage. In this paper, we focus on the Atlantic population of Canada geese and use stochastic dynamic programming to determine the optimal harvest strategy over a range of plausible models for population dynamics. There is evidence to suggest that the population exhibits significant age structure, and it is possible to reconstruct age structure from surveys. Consequently the harvest strategy is a function of the age composition, as well as the abundance, of the population. The objective is to maximize harvest while maintaining the number of breeding adults in the population between specified upper and lower limits. In addition, the total harvest capacity is limited and there is uncertainty about the strength of density-dependence. We find that under a density-independent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at the highest acceptable abundance. However if harvest capacity is limited, then the optimal long-term breeding population size is lower than the highest acceptable level, to reduce the risk of the population growing to an unacceptably large size. Under the proposed density-dependent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at an intermediate level between the bounds on acceptable population size; limits to harvest capacity have little effect on the optimal long-term population size. It is clear that the strength of density-dependence and constraints on harvest significantly affect the optimal harvest strategy for this population. Model discrimination might be achieved in the long term, while continuing to meet management goals, by adopting an adaptive management strategy.

  6. The cretaceous opening of the Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, J.

    1984-01-01

    A continuous rift system from the Rockall Trough through the Faeroe-Shetland Channel, and the Møre and Vøring basins up to the Tromsø and Bear Island basins is inferred to have developed during the Cretaceous. Oceanic crust was generated in its southern part but its width presumably decreases toward the northeast and probably ends in the Møre Basin. This rift/spreading system requires a clockwise rotation of Greenland and the Rockall Plateau during the Cretaceous around a rotation pole at its northern end at about 74°N 21°E. North of the pole of rotation crustal shortening must have occurred. This compression is interpreted to have taken place on West Spitsbergen. The orogeny there is reinterpreted as (1) a Cretaceous folding phase, (2) a phase of overthrusting at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, and (3) an extensional faulting phase during the Oligocene. This plate-tectonic model can resolve a series of problems in the Northeast Atlantic region: the connection of the Caledonian fronts of Scotland and Greenland can be easily established. The northern ends of the West Shetland Basin and the North Sea graben; the unusual depth of the Møre and Vøring basins; the marked obliqueness of structural trends between the Northeast Greenland shelf and the Norwegian shelf; the fact that the western Hammerfest Basin was intersected by a younger north-south trending graben which formed the deep Tromsø Basin—all these enigmatic observations can be explained by the Cretaceous rift system.

  7. Array Analysis of North Atlantic Microseisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David; Bean, Chris; Möllhoff, Martin; Donne, Sarah; Lokmer, Ivan; Le Pape, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Oceans generate persistent low frequency background seismic signals known as microseisms through a mechanical coupling with the Earth's crust. Microseism energy originates as regions of low barometric pressure (depressions) over the oceans where it is transmitted to the sea-floor and propagates as elastic energy in the Earths crust. Consequently microseisms carry important meteorological information relating to both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The significance of microseisms as climate indicators has previously been investigated in several studies (Essen et al., 1999; Aster et al., 2010) and to estimate ocean wave parameters using onshore seismometer data (Bromirski et al., 1999). Also many modern seismological methods make use of microseism signals, for example "noise tomography" (Shapiro et al., 2005); spectral ratio techniques ; and cross-correlation techniques (Wapenaar et al., 2011; Brenguier et al., 2014). The continental shelf near Ireland is a known generation are for microseisms and an important region for European weather forecasting and climate studies. There has also been seismometers in the region since the 1960s. There is a single station in Valentia observatory in south-west Ireland and a small scale seismic array in Scotland which offer potential climate records for the region. To make use of this information it is first necessary to understand how microseisms recorded in Ireland relate to the local ocean wavefield. The WAVEOBS project was set established with three primary goals; to get a better fundamental understanding of microseism sources; to investigate the use of ocean generated microseisms as real time ocean wave height data; and to investigate their use as a climate proxy. Using spectral analysis and array methods the microseism wavefield in the North-East Atlantic near Ireland is described with reference to the ocean wavefield.

  8. Preformed Nitrate in the Glacial North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.; Estes, E. R.; Insua, T. L.; McKinley, C. C.; Murray, R. W.; Pockalny, R. A.; Robinson, R. S.; Sauvage, J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 abundances are highly correlated with global temperature variations over the past 800,000 years. Consequently, understanding the feedbacks between climate and CO2 is important for predictions of future climate. Leading hypotheses to explain this feedback invoke changes in ocean biology, circulation, chemistry, and/or gas exchange rates to trap CO2 in the deep ocean, thereby reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2 in the atmosphere. To test these hypotheses, we use sediment pore water profiles of dissolved nitrate and oxygen to reconstruct paleo-preformed nitrate concentrations at two deep-water sites in the western North Atlantic (23°N 57°W, 5557 m water depth; 30°N 58°W, 5367 m water depth). Preformed nitrate increases down-core to 22.7 μM (25.6 m core depth) at the northern site, and to 28.5 μM (27.8 m core depth) at the southern site. The large preformed nitrate gradient between these sites reveals a paleo-boundary between a southern water source high in preformed nitrate and a northern water source with lower concentrations, similar to today's ocean. However, the boundary between these water masses occurs north of where their modern counterparts meet, indicating that Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) extended farther north during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In addition, the southern source had a higher preformed nitrate concentration than today's AABW (25 μM), contradicting hypotheses that nutrient utilization was more efficient in the Southern Ocean deep-water formation regions during the LGM. Comparison to our previous Pacific data reveals that the average preformed nitrate concentration of the deep ocean was slightly higher during the LGM than today. This result implies that the CO2-climate feedback was not principally due to more efficient nitrate utilization.

  9. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic Bight): Atlantic and shortnosed sturgeons

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal species. The Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons (especially the former) were commercially important fishes between 1880 and 1900, but stocks have since decreased markedly and the shortnose sturgeon is now classified as federally endangered. Although the two species are anadromous, the shortnose sturgeon tends to spawn farther upstream, and spawning in both species usually occurs over a clean, hard substrate washed by a moderate to strong current. The shortnose sturgeon usually spawn earlier at the same latitude, with spawning of this species in the St. John River, New Brunswick, being completed by mid-May, as opposed to late June or even July for the Atlantic sturgeon. During non-spawning periods, the shortnose is largely confined to estuaries and apparently does not undergo the extensive coastal migrations that are characteristic of the Atlantic sturgeon. Atlantic sturgeon mature more slowly than shortnose sturgeon at comparable latitudes, with male and female Atlantic sturgeon from the Hudson River, New York, requiring at least 11 and 18 years, respectively, to reach maturity, compared with less than half that time for the shortnose sturgeon. Spawning in both sexes may occur thereafter only once every several years. Both species are usually indiscriminate feeders and feed by sucking materials off the bottom with their protrusible mouths. Feeding apparently occurs mostly at night in the shortnose sturgeon. 71 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A peak and decline in North Atlantic CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, Paul; Lebehot, Alice; Watson, Andy; McNeall, Doug; Schuster, Ute; Voelker, Christoph; Booth, Ben; Totterdell, Ian; Jones, Chris; Lambert, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The oceans play a vital role in mitigating climate change by removing anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. Presently, only around half of human-emitted CO2 remains in the atmosphere, with the rest being taken up by the land and ocean carbon sinks in approximately equal proportions. Of the ocean's CO2 uptake, that occurring in that high-latitude North Atlantic is the most intense. We develop a theoretical framework which proposes that Subpolar North Atlantic CO2 uptake is likely to peak and decline within the coming century. Considering the CMIP5 models within this framework, and comparing their behaviour to observations, we find that the CMIP5 models underestimate how close the real world's Subpolar North Atlantic CO2 uptake is to reaching peak uptake.

  11. Paleoceanography. Onset of Mediterranean outflow into the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Molina, F Javier; Stow, Dorrik A V; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A; Acton, Gary; Bahr, André; Balestra, Barbara; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Flood, Roger; Flores, José-Abel; Furota, Satoshi; Grunert, Patrick; Hodell, David; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Krissek, Lawrence; Kuroda, Junichiro; Li, Baohua; Llave, Estefania; Lofi, Johanna; Lourens, Lucas; Miller, Madeline; Nanayama, Futoshi; Nishida, Naohisa; Richter, Carl; Roque, Cristina; Pereira, Hélder; Sanchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Sierro, Francisco J; Singh, Arun Deo; Sloss, Craig; Takashimizu, Yasuhiro; Tzanova, Alexandrina; Voelker, Antje; Williams, Trevor; Xuan, Chuang

    2014-06-13

    Sediments cored along the southwestern Iberian margin during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 339 provide constraints on Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) circulation patterns from the Pliocene epoch to the present day. After the Strait of Gibraltar opened (5.33 million years ago), a limited volume of MOW entered the Atlantic. Depositional hiatuses indicate erosion by bottom currents related to higher volumes of MOW circulating into the North Atlantic, beginning in the late Pliocene. The hiatuses coincide with regional tectonic events and changes in global thermohaline circulation (THC). This suggests that MOW influenced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), THC, and climatic shifts by contributing a component of warm, saline water to northern latitudes while in turn being influenced by plate tectonics.

  12. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multi-Decadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5-14 days or more. From a recent 20th century atmospheric reanalysis (1,2) winters with more frequent blocking persist over several decades and correspond to a warm North Atlantic Ocean, in-phase with Atlantic multi-decadal ocean variability (AMV). Ocean circulation is forced by wind-stress curl and related air/sea heat exchange, and we find that their space-time structure is associated with dominant blocking patterns: weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange contribute to the warm phase of AMV. Increased blocking activity extending from Greenland to British Isles is evident when winter blocking days of the cold years (1900-1929) are subtracted from those of the warm years (1939-1968).

  13. Paleoceanography. Onset of Mediterranean outflow into the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Molina, F Javier; Stow, Dorrik A V; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A; Acton, Gary; Bahr, André; Balestra, Barbara; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Flood, Roger; Flores, José-Abel; Furota, Satoshi; Grunert, Patrick; Hodell, David; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Krissek, Lawrence; Kuroda, Junichiro; Li, Baohua; Llave, Estefania; Lofi, Johanna; Lourens, Lucas; Miller, Madeline; Nanayama, Futoshi; Nishida, Naohisa; Richter, Carl; Roque, Cristina; Pereira, Hélder; Sanchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Sierro, Francisco J; Singh, Arun Deo; Sloss, Craig; Takashimizu, Yasuhiro; Tzanova, Alexandrina; Voelker, Antje; Williams, Trevor; Xuan, Chuang

    2014-06-13

    Sediments cored along the southwestern Iberian margin during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 339 provide constraints on Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) circulation patterns from the Pliocene epoch to the present day. After the Strait of Gibraltar opened (5.33 million years ago), a limited volume of MOW entered the Atlantic. Depositional hiatuses indicate erosion by bottom currents related to higher volumes of MOW circulating into the North Atlantic, beginning in the late Pliocene. The hiatuses coincide with regional tectonic events and changes in global thermohaline circulation (THC). This suggests that MOW influenced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), THC, and climatic shifts by contributing a component of warm, saline water to northern latitudes while in turn being influenced by plate tectonics. PMID:24926012

  14. Predicted slowdown in the rate of Atlantic sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, Stephen G.; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2015-12-01

    Coupled climate models initialized from historical climate states and subject to anthropogenic forcings can produce skillful decadal predictions of sea surface temperature change in the subpolar North Atlantic. The skill derives largely from initialization, which improves the representation of slow changes in ocean circulation and associated poleward heat transport. We show that skillful predictions of decadal trends in Arctic winter sea ice extent are also possible, particularly in the Atlantic sector. External radiative forcing contributes to the skill of retrospective decadal sea ice predictions, but the spatial and temporal accuracy is greatly enhanced by the more realistic representation of ocean heat transport anomalies afforded by initialization. Recent forecasts indicate that a spin-down of the thermohaline circulation that began near the turn of the century will continue, and this will result in near-neutral decadal trends in Atlantic winter sea ice extent in the coming years, with decadal growth in select regions.

  15. Abstracting the Pacific Ocean's Impact on North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghmous, J.; Le, M.; Liess, S.; Mesquita, M.; Kumar, V.

    2012-12-01

    The warming anomalies of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the near- equatorial Pacific Ocean (ENSO) have well documented global long-range weather teleconnections from rainfall in southern India to mudslides in the western United States. In this work, we focus on ENSO's teleconnections with North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity. Traditionally, ENSO's impact on Atlantic TCs has been abstracted by monitoring the warming of static regions along the equatorial Pacific Ocean. We propose that the spatial distribution of Pacific Ocean warming might provide better predictive insights into ENSO-Atlantic TC impact than warming anomalies alone. We present a distance-based ENSO index (S-ENSO for spatial ENSO) that tracks the location of the maximum near-tropical Pacific warming anomaly instead the absolute warming of a static region. Our spatial ENSO index correlates better with seasonal TC activity than standard ENSO indices, especially with increased lead times.

  16. Atlantic surfclam connectivity within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Mechanisms underlying variation in larval transport and settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Munroe, Daphne; Haidvogel, Dale; Powell, Eric N.

    2016-05-01

    Larval transport and settlement have been shown in various studies to be essential in determining population abundance and connectivity for benthic invertebrates. This transport is influenced by both the physical environment and biological behavior. The Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, is a commercially important benthic invertebrate fishery species along the U.S northeastern coast. In this study, a physical circulation model is coupled to a surfclam larval model to investigate the dynamics of larval transport and settlement within the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf in 2006. The main physical mechanisms causing variability in larval transport and settlement are also examined. Model results show that surfclam larvae released from July to early October experience relatively larger settlement rates, due to higher average temperatures experienced by larvae. Larval along-shore transport exhibits a mean down-coast pattern following the coastal current from the northeast to the southwest, with most high-frequency (period of 2-10 days) variations caused by fluctuations in the along-shore surface wind stress, and with seasonal variations speculated to be driven mainly by changes in the across-shelf density gradient. Larval across-shelf movement is highly correlated with the along-shore surface wind stress mediated by coastal upwelling and downwelling episodes, but the correlation is further dependent on the vertical distribution of the larvae, particularly their position relative to the thermocline. Most surfclam larvae released from the Middle Atlantic shelf stay below the thermocline and experience a net onshore transport during the summer-stratified season when upwelling-favorable wind forcing dominates. A proposed critical value of water temperature at the thermocline successfully regulates the observed patterns of vertical distribution of surfclam larvae and their across-shelf movement off the New Jersey and South Virginia shelves; that is, when the water

  17. 75 FR 4348 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU05 Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public hearings. SUMMARY: The Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management... Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan (FMP). See SUPPLEMENTARY...

  18. 76 FR 63615 - Atlantic Path 15, LLC; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Atlantic Path 15, LLC; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund... determine the justness and reasonableness of Atlantic Path 15, LLC's proposed rate reduction to its transmission revenue requirement. Atlantic Path 15, LLC, 135 FERC ] 61,037 (2011). The refund effective date...

  19. 50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish... OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to...

  20. 50 CFR 648.22 - Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish... Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.22 Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications. (a) Initial recommended annual specifications. The...

  1. 50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish... OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to...

  2. 50 CFR 648.22 - Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish... Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.22 Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications. (a) Initial recommended annual specifications. The...

  3. 50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish... OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to...

  4. 50 CFR 648.22 - Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish... Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.22 Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications. (a) Initial recommended annual specifications. The...

  5. 50 CFR 229.32 - Atlantic large whale take reduction plan regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic large whale take reduction plan... Regulations § 229.32 Atlantic large whale take reduction plan regulations. (a)(1) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section is to implement the Atlantic Large Whale Take Reduction Plan to reduce...

  6. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  7. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  8. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  9. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  10. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  11. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  12. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  13. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  14. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  15. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  16. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  17. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  18. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  19. 78 FR 57796 - Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, Florida during the Pro... jet ski races. The event will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada,...

  20. 77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during the Bone... Atlantic Ocean located south of Key West, Florida. Approximately 1000 swimmers will be participating in...

  1. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean... Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of jets and...

  2. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean... proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland... the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners and the public from the hazards associated with air show...

  3. 77 FR 11387 - Safety Zone; Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Fort... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Fort Lauderdale... Lauderdale Air Show will include numerous aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic...

  4. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the Virginia... over the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the need to protect mariners and...

  5. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August 24-25... powerboat racing regatta. The event will be held on the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY and will...

  6. 78 FR 57480 - Safety Zone; 2013 Annual Islamorada Swim for Alligator Lighthouse, Atlantic Ocean; Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Lighthouse, Atlantic Ocean; Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located in Islamorada, Florida. Approximately 300 swimmers will...

  7. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean... Port located in the Atlantic Ocean off of Boston, Massachusetts. The purpose of these temporary safety... Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA; Final Rule (USCG-2009-0589), to protect vessels from...

  8. 78 FR 25008 - Safety Zone; Fairfield Estates Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Sagaponack, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Sagaponack, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY... of the Atlantic Ocean within a 1000 foot radius of the fireworks barge located 1000 feet south of the... Zone; Fairfield Estates Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Sagaponack, NY. (a) Location. The...

  9. 77 FR 50065 - Safety Zone; Jacksonville Sea and Sky Spectacular, Atlantic Ocean; Jacksonville Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Jacksonville Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean... over the Atlantic Ocean in Jacksonville Beach, FL. In recent years, there have been...

  10. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in..., 2012 through June 3, 2012, the United States Navy will host an air show event over the Atlantic...

  11. 75 FR 34643 - Atlantic Ocean Off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Atlantic Ocean Off John F. Kennedy Space Center... the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The KSC is the...: Sec. 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area. (a) The area....

  12. 77 FR 38030 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Lifting Trade Restrictive Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... species in the North and South Atlantic Ocean to implement recommendations adopted at the 2011 meeting of... of bigeye tuna in the Atlantic Ocean and noted the Commission had reviewed information that Bolivian... expressed concern regarding the overfished status of bigeye tuna in the Atlantic Ocean, and the...

  13. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia... Concerts Entertainment, Inc. will host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA. In... mariners and the public transiting the Atlantic Ocean immediately below the air show from...

  14. 75 FR 8570 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center...) is proposing to revise its regulations to establish a new restricted area in the Atlantic Ocean off...). 2. Add Sec. 334.525 to read as follows: Sec. 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space...

  15. 77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean... proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. This..., 2012, the Town of Ocean City will host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD....

  16. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will establish a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Virginia... restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners from the hazards associated...

  17. 78 FR 41844 - Safety Zone; Fairfield Estates Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Sagaponack, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Sagaponack, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean, in... Zone; Fairfield Estates Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Sagaponack, NY in the Federal Register...

  18. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida... approximately 20 aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

  19. 78 FR 39995 - Safety Zone; Margate Mother's Association Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean; Margate, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Display, Atlantic Ocean; Margate, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in Margate, NJ. The safety zone will restrict vessel traffic on a portion of the Atlantic Ocean from operating while a...

  20. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean... establish a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, MD to support the... Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners from the hazards associated with air show events. DATES: This rule...

  1. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  2. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  3. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  4. 76 FR 64074 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA670 Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification... Shark Identification workshop scheduled for November 17, 2011, in Charleston, SC, has been changed. This.... Atlantic Shark Identification workshops are mandatory for Atlantic Shark Dealer permit holders or...

  5. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    SciTech Connect

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. 75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway, 56 FR 14920 (April 12, 1991) (Norwegian Salmon Order... Atlantic Salmon from Norway: Final Results of the Full Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 70 FR... Atlantic Salmon from Norway, 74 FR, August 5, 2009) (Initiation and Preliminary Notice) determining...

  7. 77 FR 12800 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 89 (January 3, 2011); Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From... Duty Order, 76 FR 70409 (November 14, 2011), and Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Final... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway, 71 FR...

  8. 77 FR 69593 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ..., and sharks from Federal waters in the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico for the... waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. EFPs and related permits are issued... efforts in closed areas of the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, including the...

  9. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #17: PUBLICATION OF MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, "Preparing for a Changing Climate: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change - Mid-Atlantic Overview", summarizes the findings of the first Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment was led by a team from The Pennsylvani...

  10. Selection responses for caracass weight in four Atlantic Salmon year classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, aquaculture is one of the most successful global aquaculture enterprises, and has wide acceptance as a main food item by American consumers. US production of Atlantic salmon is concentrated in Maine and Washington. The initial focus of the USDA applied Atlantic salmon b...

  11. 77 FR 74389 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for Atlantic... the Science and Research Director, are projected to reach the commercial annual catch limit (ACL) on... the rule that implemented the Atlantic wahoo ACL and AMs has been subject to notice and comment (77...

  12. 78 FR 72070 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing... Atlantic Fleet study area as described in Alternative 2 for the proposed action. Under Alternative 2, the... for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing, dated August 2013 and supporting documents. Single copies...

  13. 75 FR 71187 - Atlantic Coast Financial Corporation, Waycross, GA; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Atlantic Coast Financial Corporation, Waycross, GA; Approval of Conversion... application of Atlantic Coast Federal, MHC and Atlantic Coast Bank, Waycross, Georgia, to convert to the...

  14. The influence of ENSO on the equatorial Atlantic precipitation through the Walker circulation in a CGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Wataru; Doi, Takeshi; Richards, Kelvin J.; Masumoto, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The link between El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the equatorial Atlantic precipitation during boreal spring (March-April-May) is explored using a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). Interannual variability of the equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in the CGCM is excluded by nudging the modeled SST toward the climatological monthly mean of observed SST in the equatorial Atlantic, but full air-sea coupling is allowed elsewhere. It is found that the equatorial Atlantic precipitation is reduced (increased) during El Niño (La Niña) in the case where the interannual variability of the equatorial Atlantic SST is disabled. The precipitation anomalies in the equatorial Atlantic during ENSO are not strongly associated with the meridional migration of the Atlantic inter-tropical convergence zone. We find the reduced precipitation in the equatorial Atlantic during El Niño is associated with an enhanced Atlantic Walker circulation characterized by strengthened low-level easterlies and anomalous dry, downward winds over the equatorial Atlantic, while the Pacific Walker circulation is weakened. The upper-level anomalous westerlies over the equatorial Atlantic are consistent with a Matsuno-Gill-type response to heating in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Our results of the CGCM experiments suggest that changes to the Walker circulation induced by ENSO contribute significantly to changes in precipitation over the equatorial Atlantic.

  15. An Atlantic-Pacific ventilation seesaw across the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Tisserand, A.; Dokken, T.; Timmermann, A.; Menviel, L.; Friedrich, T.

    2015-08-01

    It has been proposed that the rapid rise of atmospheric CO2 across the last deglaciation was driven by the release of carbon from an extremely radiocarbon-depleted abyssal ocean reservoir that was 'vented' to the atmosphere primarily via the deep- and intermediate overturning loops in the Southern Ocean. While some radiocarbon observations from the intermediate ocean appear to confirm this hypothesis, others appear to refute it. Here we use radiocarbon measurements in paired benthic- and planktonic foraminifera to reconstruct the benthic-planktonic 14C age offset (i.e. 'ventilation age') of intermediate waters in the western equatorial Atlantic. Our results show clear increases in local radiocarbon-based ventilation ages during Heinrich-Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). These are found to coincide with opposite changes of similar magnitude observed in the Pacific, demonstrating a 'seesaw' in the ventilation of the intermediate Atlantic and Pacific Oceans that numerical model simulations of North Atlantic overturning collapse indicate was primarily driven by North Pacific overturning. We propose that this Atlantic-Pacific ventilation seesaw would have combined with a previously identified North Atlantic-Southern Ocean ventilation seesaw to enhance ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange during a 'collapse' of the North Atlantic deep overturning limb. Whereas previous work has emphasized a more passive role for intermediate waters in deglacial climate change (merely conveying changes originating in the Southern Ocean) we suggest instead that the intermediate water seesaw played a more active role via relatively subtle but globally coordinated changes in ocean dynamics that may have further influenced ocean-atmosphere carbon exchange.

  16. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    Tanhua, T.; Steinfeldt, R.; Key, Robert; Brown, P.; Gruber, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Perez, F.F.; Kortzinger, A.; Velo, A.; Schuster, U.; Van Heuven, S.; Bullister, J.L.; Stendardo, I.; Hoppema, M.; Olsen, Are; Kozyr, Alexander; Pierrot, D.; Schirnick, C.; Wallace, D.W.R.

    2010-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30 S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally was well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories

  17. Variability of the North Atlantic Current over the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffa Sanchez, P.; Hall, I. R.; Born, A.; Thornalley, D. J.; Barker, S.; Richter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 2000 years, the climate of the North Atlantic region was punctuated by centennial oscillations, which despite their small magnitude had important societal impacts, particularly in NW Europe. The most favoured explanations for this climate variability invoke changes in external forcings (such as solar activity and explosive volcanism) amplified by ocean and atmosphere feedbacks, mainly involving the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the North Atlantic Oscillation. However, the scarcity of highly resolved archives has hampered our understanding of the involvement of the ocean-atmosphere interactions in these climatic oscillations. We present a subdecadally resolved temperature and salinity record derived from paired Mg/Ca-δ18O measurements on planktonic foraminifera from a marine sediment core located in the pathway of the North Atlantic Current. Our findings show a strong centennial co-variability of the temperature and salinity of the surface limb of the AMOC with solar irradiance (Moffa-Sánchez et al. 2014- NGS). Climate model results from this study show a similar correlation over the last millennium and we infer that the hydrographic changes were linked to the strength of the subpolar gyre associated with changes in atmospheric circulation. Specifically, in the simulation, low solar irradiance promotes the development of frequent and persistent atmospheric blocking events, in which a quasi-stationary high-pressure system in the eastern North Atlantic, also known as blocking event, modifies the flow of the westerly winds. To further explore the response of the upper limb of the AMOC to solar forcing found in Moffa-Sánchez et al. 14, we synthesize new and available proxy-data from the North Atlantic Current in combination with analysis from CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium.

  18. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  19. Enhanced warming of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, Vincent S.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Anderson, Whit G.; Winton, Michael; Alexander, Michael A.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Rosati, Anthony; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fifth assessment of projected global and regional ocean temperature change is based on global climate models that have coarse (˜100 km) ocean and atmosphere resolutions. In the Northwest Atlantic, the ensemble of global climate models has a warm bias in sea surface temperature due to a misrepresentation of the Gulf Stream position; thus, existing climate change projections are based on unrealistic regional ocean circulation. Here we compare simulations and an atmospheric CO2 doubling response from four global climate models of varying ocean and atmosphere resolution. We find that the highest resolution climate model (˜10 km ocean, ˜50 km atmosphere) resolves Northwest Atlantic circulation and water mass distribution most accurately. The CO2 doubling response from this model shows that upper-ocean (0-300 m) temperature in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf warms at a rate nearly twice as fast as the coarser models and nearly three times faster than the global average. This enhanced warming is accompanied by an increase in salinity due to a change in water mass distribution that is related to a retreat of the Labrador Current and a northerly shift of the Gulf Stream. Both observations and the climate model demonstrate a robust relationship between a weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and an increase in the proportion of Warm-Temperate Slope Water entering the Northwest Atlantic Shelf. Therefore, prior climate change projections for the Northwest Atlantic may be far too conservative. These results point to the need to improve simulations of basin and regional-scale ocean circulation.

  20. The influence of salinity on tropical Atlantic instability waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tong; Lagerloef, Gary; Kao, Hsun-Ying; McPhaden, Michael J.; Willis, Joshua; Gierach, Michelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) data derived from the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite mission are analyzed along with other satellite and in situ data to assess Aquarius' capability to detect tropical instability waves (TIWs) and eddies in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and to investigate the influence that SSS has on the variability. Aquarius data show that the magnitude of SSS anomalies associated with the Atlantic TIWs is ±0.25 practical salinity unit, which is weaker than those in the Pacific by 50%. In the central equatorial Atlantic, SSS contribution to the mean meridional density gradient is similar to sea surface temperature (SST) contribution. Consequently, SSS is important to TIW-related surface density anomalies and perturbation potential energy (PPE). In this region, SSS influences surface PPE significantly through the direct effect and the indirect effect associated with SSS-SST covariability. Ignoring SSS effects would underestimate TIW-related PPE by approximately three times in the surface layer. SSS also regulates the seasonality of the TIWs. The boreal-spring peak of the PPE due to SSS leads that due to SST by about one month. Therefore, SSS not only affects the spatial structure, but the seasonal variability of the TIWs in the equatorial Atlantic. In the northeast Atlantic near the Amazon outflow and the North Brazil Current retroflection region and in the southeast Atlantic near the Congo River outflow, SSS accounts for 80-90% of the contribution to mean meridional density gradient. Not accounting for SSS effect would underestimate surface PPE in these regions by a factor of 10 and 4, respectively.