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Sample records for atlantic period ca

  1. Ca. Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Salmon Gill Pox Virus transmit horizontally in Atlantic salmon held in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Gjessing, M; Solheim, H T; Litlabø, A; Gjevre, A-G; Kristoffersen, A B; Powell, M D; Colquhoun, D J

    2017-03-06

    Elucidation of the role of infectious agents putatively involved in gill disease is commonly hampered by the lack of culture systems for these organisms. In this study, a farmed population of Atlantic salmon pre-smolts, displaying proliferative gill disease with associated Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Atlantic salmon gill pox virus (SGPV) infections, was identified. A subpopulation of the diseased fish was used as a source of waterborne infection towards a population of naïve Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. Ca. B. cysticola infection became established in exposed naïve fish at high prevalence within the first month of exposure and the bacterial load increased over the study period. Ca. P. salmonis and SGPV infections were identified only at low prevalence in exposed fish during the trial. Although clinically healthy, at termination of the trial the exposed, naïve fish displayed histologically visible pathological changes typified by epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial inflammation with associated bacterial inclusions, confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization to contain Ca. B. cysticola. The results strongly suggest that Ca. B. cysticola infections transmit directly from fish to fish and that the bacterium is directly associated with the pathological changes observed in the exposed, previously naïve fish.

  2. Reinvestigating the "salinity effect" on Atlantic Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, J. E.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous culturing, core-top, and sediment trap studies show that temperature is the primary control on Mg/Ca ratios in foraminiferal calcite, and calibrations of this relationship have been applied successfully to the paleo-record to reconstruct ocean temperatures across a wide range of time periods. In addition, paired Mg/Ca temperatures and δ18Ocalcite measurements on surface dwelling foraminifera are often used to reconstruct past δ18Osw variability, a robust proxy for sea surface salinity. However, a recent study of core-top sediments across an Atlantic meridional transect suggests that salinity might have a stronger control on foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios than previously thought. By analyzing Mg/Ca ratios and δ18O on the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white), Arbuszewski et al. [2010] found a 27% increase in G. ruber Mg/Ca ratios per 1 salinity unit increase for seawater salinities above 35. In this study, we use shell weight analyses and SEM images from a subset of the core-tops used in the Arbuszewski et al. [2010] study across a narrow depth range (3197 - 3559 m) to show that G. ruber shells from the equatorial region are highly dissolved compared to those from the gyres, significantly impacting their Mg/Ca-SSTs. Shell weights from the higher-productivity equatorial regions of the Atlantic are on average 20% and 15% lower than those from the oligotrophic North and South Atlantic gyres, respectively. Given the large preservation gradient along the Mid Atlantic Ridge, Arbuszewski et al.'s [2010] application of a single depth-corrected Mg/Ca:SST equation [Dekens et al., 2002] on cores from the subtropical gyres and the equatorial region is not appropriate. When regional differences in preservation are considered, as well as realistic calcification seasons for G. ruber in temperate latitudes, we find a strong correlation between SST and G. ruber Mg/Ca ratios in core-top samples spanning 43°N to 25°S in the Atlantic. When we also consider

  3. Periodic variations of precipitation in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. S. V.; Theon, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Statistical analysis of the satellite-borne Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer data in the tropical Atlantic region reveals that the rainfall near local noon is higher both in frequency of occurrence and intensity than the rainfall in the same area near local midnight. Another striking feature that stands out from the analysis is an oscillation with a period of 3.3. days in rainfall occurrence and intensity. This periodicty is consistent with easterly waves traveling from the African continent to the region under study.

  4. Refining Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca paleothermometry in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Schmidt, Matthew W.

    2013-12-01

    The Mg/Ca ratio of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white) has become a widely used proxy for reconstructing sea surface temperature (SST), as numerous studies have shown that temperature is the primary control on Mg/Ca ratios in foraminiferal calcite. However, a recent study of core-top sediments across an Atlantic meridional transect suggests that salinity might have a stronger control on foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios than previously thought. By analyzing Mg/Ca ratios and δO18 values in G. ruber (white), Arbuszewski et al. (2010) found a 27% increase in G. ruber Mg/Ca ratios per 1 salinity unit increase for seawater salinities above 35.5. Here, we use shell weight analyses and SEM images from a subset of the core-tops used in the Arbuszewski et al. (2010) study across a narrow depth range (3197-3733 m) to show that G. ruber shells from the equatorial region are highly dissolved compared to those from the subtropical North and South Atlantic gyres, significantly impacting their Mg/Ca-SSTs. Shell weights from the higher-productivity equatorial region of the Atlantic are on average 20% and 15% lower than those from the oligotrophic North and South Atlantic gyres, respectively. Given the large preservation gradient along the transect studied by Arbuszewski et al. (2010), application of a single dissolution-corrected Mg/Ca:SST calibration equation (Dekens et al., 2002) on cores from the subtropical gyres and the equatorial region is not appropriate. When regional differences in preservation are considered, as well as realistic habitat depths and calcification seasons for G. ruber in temperate latitudes, we find a strong correlation between observational SSTs and calculated G. ruber Mg/Ca-SSTs in core-top samples spanning 43°N to 25°S in the Atlantic. In addition, our re-calibrated Mg/Ca-SSTs are more strongly correlated with isotopic calcification temperatures across the transect than originally reported by Arbuszewski et al. (2010). This study

  5. Reconstructing the history of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation using high-resolution Mg/Ca paleothermometry from a Cariaco Basin core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurtzel, J. B.; Black, D. E.; Rahman, S.; Thunell, R.; Peterson, L. C.; Tappa, E.

    2010-12-01

    Instrumental and proxy-reconstructions show the existence of an approximately 70-year periodicity in Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The AMO is correlated with circum-tropical Atlantic climate phenomena such as Sahel and Nordeste rainfall, and Atlantic hurricane patterns. Though it has been suggested that the AMO is controlled by thermohaline circulation, much debate exists as to whether the SST fluctuations are a result of anthropogenic forcing or a natural climate mode, or even if the AMO is a true oscillation at all. Our ability to address this issue has been limited by instrumental SST records that rarely extend back more than 50-100 years and proxy reconstructions that are mostly terrestrial-based. Additionally, the modern instrumental variability likely contains an anthropogenic component that is not easily distinguished from the natural background of the system. From a marine sediment core taken in the Cariaco Basin, we have developed a high-resolution SST reconstruction for the past ca. 1500 years using Mg/Ca paleothermometry on seasonally-representative foraminifera, with the most recent data calibrated to the instrumental record. Previous studies have shown Cariaco Basin Mg/Ca-SSTs to be well-correlated to the Caribbean Sea and much of the western tropical Atlantic, which allows us to create a record that can be used to determine pre-anthropogenic rates and ranges of SST variability and observe how they change over time. Averaging the seasonal temperatures derived from the two foraminiferal species over the instrumental period yields a strong correlation to the AMO index from A. D. 1880 through 1970 (r = 0.44, p<0.0001). Wavelet analysis of the proxy average annual SST data indicates that modern AMO variability is not a consistent feature through time, and may be a function of warm-period climate.

  6. Evidence for cooler European summers during periods of changing meltwater flux to the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Heiri, Oliver; Tinner, Willy; Lotter, André F

    2004-10-26

    We analyzed fossil chironomids (nonbiting midges) and pollen in two lake-sediment records to reconstruct and quantify Holocene summer-temperature fluctuations in the European Alps. Chironomid and pollen records indicate five centennial-scale cooling episodes during the early- and mid-Holocene. The strongest temperature declines of approximately 1 degrees C are inferred at approximately 10,700-10,500 and 8,200-7,600 calibrated 14C years B.P., whereas other temperature fluctuations are of smaller amplitude. Two forcing mechanisms have been presented recently to explain centennial-scale climate variability in Europe during the early- and mid-Holocene, both involving changes in Atlantic thermohaline circulation. In the first mechanism, changes in meltwater flux from the North American continent to the North Atlantic are responsible for changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation, thereby affecting circum-Atlantic climate. In the second mechanism, solar variability is the cause of Holocene climatic fluctuations, possibly triggering changes in Atlantic thermohaline overturning. Within their dating uncertainty, the two major cooling periods in the European Alps are coeval with substantial changes in the routing of North American freshwater runoff to the North Atlantic, whereas quantitatively, our climatic reconstructions show a poor agreement with available records of past solar activity. Thus, our results suggest that, during the early- and mid-Holocene, freshwater-induced Atlantic circulation changes had stronger influence on Alpine summer temperatures than solar variability and that Holocene thermohaline circulation reductions have led to summer-temperature declines of up to 1 degrees C in central Europe.

  7. Rapid reductions in North Atlantic Deep Water during the peak of the last interglacial period.

    PubMed

    Galaasen, Eirik Vinje; Ninnemann, Ulysses S; Irvalı, Nil; Kleiven, Helga Kikki F; Rosenthal, Yair; Kissel, Catherine; Hodell, David A

    2014-03-07

    Deep ocean circulation has been considered relatively stable during interglacial periods, yet little is known about its behavior on submillennial time scales. Using a subcentennially resolved epibenthic foraminiferal δ(13)C record, we show that the influence of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) was strong at the onset of the last interglacial period and was then interrupted by several prominent centennial-scale reductions. These NADW transients occurred during periods of increased ice rafting and southward expansions of polar water influence, suggesting that a buoyancy threshold for convective instability was triggered by freshwater and circum-Arctic cryosphere changes. The deep Atlantic chemical changes were similar in magnitude to those associated with glaciations, implying that the canonical view of a relatively stable interglacial circulation may not hold for conditions warmer and fresher than at present.

  8. Fidelity of the Sr/Ca proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Roberts, Kelsey E.; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Richey, Julie N.

    2017-01-01

    Massive corals provide a useful archive of environmental variability, but careful testing of geochemical proxies in corals is necessary to validate the relationship between each proxy and environmental parameter throughout the full range of conditions experienced by the recording organisms. Here we use samples from a coral-growth study to test the hypothesis that Sr/Ca in the coral Siderastrea siderea accurately records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the subtropics (Florida, USA) along 350 km of reef tract. We test calcification rate, measured via buoyant weight, and linear extension (LE) rate, estimated with Alizarin Red-S staining, as predictors of variance in the Sr/Ca records of 39 individual S. siderea corals grown at four outer-reef locations next to in-situ temperature loggers during two, year-long periods. We found that corals with calcification rates < 1.7 mg cm-2 d-1 or < 1.7 mm yr-1 LE returned spuriously high Sr/Ca values, leading to a cold-bias in Sr/Ca-based SST estimates. The threshold-type response curves suggest that extension rate can be used as a quality-control indicator during sample and drill-path selection when using long cores for SST paleoreconstruction. For our corals that passed this quality control step, the Sr/Ca-SST proxy performed well in estimating mean annual temperature across three sites spanning 350 km of the Florida reef tract. However, there was some evidence that extreme temperature stress in 2010 (cold snap) and 2011 (SST above coral-bleaching threshold) may have caused the corals not to record the temperature extremes. Known stress events could be avoided during modern calibrations of paleoproxies.Plain Language SummaryCoral skeletons are used to decipher past environmental conditions in the ocean because they live for centuries and produce annual growth bands much like tree rings. Along with measuring coral growth rates in the past, coral skeletons can be chemically sampled to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.2336D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.2336D"><span id="translatedtitle">South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> intermediate water advances into the North-east <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with reduced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Bonneau, Lucile; Colin, Christophe; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Montagna, Paolo; Blamart, Dominique; Hebbeln, Dierk; Van Rooij, David; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Hemsing, Freya; Wefing, Anne-Marie; Frank, Norbert</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The Nd isotopic composition (ɛNd) of seawater and cold-water coral (CWC) samples from the Gulf of Cádiz and the Alboran Sea, at a depth of 280-827 m were investigated in order to constrain middepth water mass dynamics within the Gulf of Cádiz over the past 40 ka. ɛNd of glacial and Holocene CWC from the Alboran Sea and the northern Gulf of Cádiz reveals relatively constant values (-8.6 to -9.0 and -9.5 to -10.4, respectively). Such values are similar to those of the surrounding present-day middepth waters from the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW; ɛNd ˜ -9.4) and Mediterranean Sea Water (MSW; ɛNd ˜ -9.9). In contrast, glacial ɛNd values for CWC collected at thermocline depth (550-827 m) in the southern Gulf of Cádiz display a higher average value (-8.9 ± 0.4) compared to the present-day value (-11.7 ± 0.3). This implies a higher relative contribution of water masses of Mediterranean (MSW) or South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> origin (East Antarctic Intermediate Water, EAAIW). Our study has produced the first evidence of significant radiogenic ɛNd values (˜ -8) at 19, 23-24, and 27 ka, which are coeval with increasing iceberg discharges and a weakening of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Since MOW ɛNd values remained stable during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, it is suggested that these radiogenic ɛNd values most likely reflect an enhanced northward propagation of glacial EAAIW into the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP31E..04V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP31E..04V"><span id="translatedtitle">North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Surface and Deep-Water Hydrography during the Early Pliocene Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voelker, A. H. L.; Evans, H. F.; Naafs, B. D.; Cavaleiro, C. D.; Rebotim, A.; Ventura, C.; Stein, R. H.; Channell, J. E. T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The early Pliocene, with atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at levels similar to today, is seen as a case study for Earth's future climate evolution. During this <span class="hlt">period</span> the progressive closing of the Central American Seaway led to increased poleward heat and salt transport within the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) becoming warmer and saltier and resulting in an enhanced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In order to understand how stable the AMOC really was we produced millennial-scale (1-2 kyr) surface and deep-water records for IODP Site U1313 (41°N, 33°W, 3412m) for the interval from 3.4 to 4.1 Ma. This site is ideally located to monitor past AMOC changes with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Drift waters at the surface and NADW in the deep. Although interglacial/glacial cycles are visible, the higher frequency oscillations recorded in both the planktonic G. ruber (white) and benthic Cibicidoides sp. δ18O records impede tuning to the LR04 stack (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). We therefore exploit a different approach: using the magnetic polarity chrons (Gilbert, Cochiti) as recorded at Site U1313 as framework, we tune our benthic δ18O record to that of ODP Site 1085 (on LR04 ages). The benthic δ13C record shows millennial-scale oscillations, and the values indicate nearly continuous NADW presence and confirm a strong AMOC, also during most of the glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Varying surface water conditions, especially during the younger interglacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>, are reflected in the G. ruber isotope data and appear to be linked to salinity changes since they are not recorded in the alkenone sea-surface temperature data. Although glacial stages Gi 2 and Gi 4 show the expected higher benthic δ18O values, Gi 6 was the glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> with the strongest impact on the AMOC as revealed by cooler, less ventilated surface waters and a less ventilated NADW. Overall, the AMOC was strong throughout, but experienced high frequency oscillations at a level similar to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022375','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022375"><span id="translatedtitle">Orbital and suborbital variability in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bottom water temperature obtained from deep-sea ostracod Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Baker, P.A.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, J.; DeMartino, D.M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Magnesium/calcium (Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) ratios were measured in the deep-sea ostracod (Crustacea) genus Krithe from Chain core 82-24-4PC from the western mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge (3427 m) in order to estimate ocean circulation and bottom water temperature (BWT) variability over the past 200,000 years. Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios have been used as a paleothermometer because the ratios are controlled primarily by ambient water temperatures at the time the organism secretes its adult carapace. Over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> values oscillated between about 7 mmol/mol and 12 mmol/mol, equivalent to a BWT range of 0 to > 3.5??C. The lowest values were obtained on specimens from glacial marine isotope stages (MISs) 2, 4 and 6; the highest values were obtained from specimens from the early part of the Holocene interglacial (MIS 1), and also from MISs 5 and 7. These trends suggest that BWTs in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean fluctuate over orbital time scales. Suborbital variability in Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios and BWT was also observed for the past 100,000 years. Ratios rose from ~8 mmol/mol to ~10 mmol/mol (implying a BWT increase of ~1 to 3??C) during 14 Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> excursions. The highest ratios were found in Krithe dated at approximately 32, 36-38, 43, 48, 73, 85 and 93 ka. Although the age model for the Chain 82-24-4PC and temporal resolution do not allow precise correlation, some of these deep-sea bottom temperature excursions appear to correspond to Heinrich events recorded in other regions of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and perhaps Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadial events recorded in Greenland ice cores. If confirmed, this would support the hypothesis that millennial-scale oscillations of climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are capable of affecting global climate via thermohaline circulation changes. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP52A..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP52A..05C"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Centennial Record of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Freshwater Variability since the Little Ice Age Archived in Coralline Algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, P. T. W.; Halfar, J.; Adey, W.; Zack, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Declining Arctic sea-ice cover in recent decades has driven large-scale freshwater transport into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, possibly influencing the strength of the Meridional Overturning Circulation and even global climate. However, due to the lack of long-term oceanographic observations, little is known about the natural freshwater variability of the Northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Crustose coralline algae Clathromorphum compactum are extremely long-lived shallow marine calcareous plants that are abundant along the subarctic eastern Canadian coastline. They are particularly well-suited as recorders of paleoclimate signals due to the formation of annual growth increments, allowing for the precise calendar dating and geochemical sampling of hard tissue. Here, we provide the first annually-resolved multi-centennial record of coralline algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> from Labrador, Canada, as a proxy for North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> freshwater variability extending well into the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1665 AD). Barium-to-calcium ratios (Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) from coralline algae have previously been used as an indicator of freshwater runoff. This is because barium-rich clay sediments are transported by terrestrial runoff into coastal waters, and barium is released from the clay minerals upon encountering more alkaline elements present in seawater. We observe higher algal barium concentrations during the LIA, followed by a steady decline to recent times. In addition, coralline algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> shows significant positive relationships to Hudson Strait runoff, as well as Canadian Arctic and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea-ice extent. This suggests that more riverine Ba is transported from the Hudson Strait into the Labrador Sea during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of increased sea-ice cover. Multiyear sea-ice can block incoming solar radiation thereby diminishing the effects of nutrient scavenging by phytoplankton, resulting in a more conservative transport of Ba into northern Labrador. However as sea-ice continues to thin, more sunlight is able to penetrate through the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP42A..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP42A..01G"><span id="translatedtitle">The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation Reconstructed at Bermuda for 220 Years Using Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> Ratios in Diploria labyrinthiformis (brain coral)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goodkin, N. F.; Hughen, K. A.; Cohen, A. L.; Curry, W. B.; Doney, S. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) is a meridional oscillation in atmospheric mass measured by pressure anomalies between Iceland (65°N, 23°W) and the Azores (38°N, 26°W) (Hurrell, 1995). Changes between the positive and negative phase of the NAO strongly influence weather patterns across the US, Europe and the Middle East. A shift in recent decades toward a sustained positive NAO has raised questions about the influence of greenhouse gas emissions on this system. Unfortunately, instrumental records are too short to identify the natural baseline variability of the NAO, and NAO reconstructions generally encompass only land-based proxies, excluding ocean processes. Winter-time sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Sargasso Sea have previously been shown to correlate to the NAO (Visbeck et al., 2001), and thus a long winter SST record based on proxy data could be used to reconstruct NAO variability back in time. Here we present an annually resolved winter-time strontium to calcium ratio (Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) record from a 220-year old brain coral (Diploria labyrinthiformis) collected from the south shore of Bermuda. Brain coral is prevalent in Bermuda and shows distinct annual banding in its skeleton providing precise age models. Winter-time coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> has previously been shown to accurately record winter SST free from growth rate influences (Goodkin et al., 2005), and that relationship is confirmed here. Cross-spectral analysis between winter-time coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and four instrumental and proxy records of the NAO (Hurrell, 1995, Jones et al., 1997, Luterbacher et al., 2001, Cook et al., 2002) show two frequencies of coherence with >95% confidence. At <span class="hlt">periods</span> greater than 20 years and between 3 and 5 years, the coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> effectively captures the NAO variability. Filtering the coral record to these frequencies and comparing to the instrumental and proxy records, including another marine-based NAO reconstruction from the North and Norwegian Seas (Schoene et al., 2003), show</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.5415M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.5415M"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of benthic foraminiferal Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and sedimentary Mn / Al as proxies of relative bottom-water oxygenation in the low-latitude NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> upwelling system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McKay, C. L.; Groeneveld, J.; Filipsson, H. L.; Gallego-Torres, D.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Toyofuku, T.; Romero, O. E.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Trace element incorporation into foraminiferal shells (tests) is governed by physical and chemical conditions of the surrounding marine environment, and therefore foraminiferal geochemistry provides a means of palaeo-oceanographic reconstructions. With the availability of high-spatial-resolution instrumentation with high precision, foraminiferal geochemistry has become a major research topic over recent years. However, reconstructions of past bottom-water oxygenation using foraminiferal tests remain in their infancy. In this study we explore the potential of using Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as well as by flow-through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (FT-ICP-OES) in the benthic foraminiferal species Eubuliminella exilis as a proxy for recording changes in bottom-water oxygen conditions in the low-latitude NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> upwelling system. Furthermore, we compare the SIMS and FT-ICP-OES results with published Mn sediment bulk measurements from the same sediment core. This is the first time that benthic foraminiferal Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> is directly compared with Mn bulk measurements, which largely agree on the former oxygen conditions. Samples were selected to include different productivity regimes related to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (35-28 ka), the Last Glacial Maximum (28-19 ka), Heinrich Event 1 (18-15.5 ka), Bølling Allerød (15.5-13.5 ka) and the Younger Dryas (13.5-11.5 ka). Foraminiferal Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> determined by SIMS and FT-ICP-OES is comparable. Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> was higher during <span class="hlt">periods</span> with high primary productivity, such as during the Younger Dryas, which indicates low-oxygen conditions. This is further supported by the benthic foraminiferal faunal composition. Our results highlight the proxy potential of Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> in benthic foraminifera from upwelling systems for reconstructing past variations in oxygen conditions of the sea floor environment as well as the need to use it in combination with other proxy records such as faunal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51A1813A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51A1813A"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between solar irradiance and climatic variability in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> since the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alonso-Garcia, M.; Flower, B. P.; Kleiven, H. F.; Andrews, J. T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The potential role of solar irradiance as a climate forcing during the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (MWP)-Little Ice Age (LIA)-20th Century interval can be tested using several proxies. In this work we use the occurrence of fine sand sized lithic grains (63-150 μm) in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine sediments to study the climatic history of high latitudes because these lithic grains were ice-rafted either by icebergs or sea-ice. The Holocene ice-rafted debris (IRD) flux is much lower than the IRD flux during glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span> but the occurrence of hematite-stained grains (HSG) from Paleozoic red beds, Icelandic volcanic glass, and detrital carbonate in the fine sand fraction has been used to track climatic variability at several North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> areas: Feni Drift off Ireland, off eastern Greenland near Denmark Strait, and off Newfoundland (Bond et al, 2001). This controversial work suggested that during the Holocene major ice-rafting discharges matched solar irradiance variability patterns inferred from cosmogenic nuclides (10Be fluxes measured in Greenland ice cores and 14C records from tree rings) and hence, variations in the solar output may have paced centennial- to millennial-scale climate variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. Since 2001 improved 10Be and 14C records have been released and several new sedimentological studies of subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine sites suggested that other climatic forcings may have been involved in Holocene climate variability rather than solar activity (e.g. Moros et al., 2006; Andrews et al., 2009). Moreover, even the ice-rafted origin of the debris has been questioned at some sites. Here we present new high resolution North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> IRD records from Denmark Strait off eastern Greenland and the Labrador Sea, in addition to recounts of sites on the Feni Drift off Ireland (Bond et al., 2001), to study climate variability in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> since MWP. IRD counts are performed using the same technique as in Bond et al. (2001) to (1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41B1511B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41B1511B"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of the Wintertime Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-SST Record from Red Sea Corals as a Proxy for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernstein, W. N.; Hughen, K. A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) is one of the most pronounced and influential patterns in winter atmospheric circulation variability. This meridional redistribution of atmospheric mass across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean produces large changes in the intensity, number and direction of storms generated within the basin, and the regional climate of surrounding continents. The NAO exerts a significant impact on society, through influences on agriculture, fisheries, water management, energy generation and coastal development. NAO effects on climate extend from eastern North America across Europe to the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. Changes in NAO behavior during the late 20th century have been linked to global warming; yet despite its importance, the causes and long-term patterns of NAO variability in the past remain poorly understood. In order to better predict the influence of the NAO on climate in the future, it is critical to examine multi-century NAO variability. The Red Sea is an excellent location from which to generate long NAO records for two reasons. First, patterns of wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) in the Red Sea are highly correlated with NAO variability (Visbeck et al. 2001; Hurrell et al. 2003). Second, the tropical/subtropical Red Sea region contains fast growing long-lived massive Porites spp. corals with annually banded skeletons. These corals are ideal for generating well-dated high-resolution paleoclimatic records that extend well beyond the instrumental <span class="hlt">period</span>. Here we present a study of winter SST and NAO variability in the Red sea region based on coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data. In 2008, we collected multiple drill cores ranging in length from 1 to 4.1 meters from Porites corals at six sites spanning a large SST gradient. Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> measurements from multiple corals will be regressed against 23 years of satellite SST data, expanding the SST range over which we calibrate. A sampling resolution of 0.5mm will yield greater than bi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1233641','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1233641"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantal release, incremental detection, and long-<span class="hlt">period</span> <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations in a model based on regulatory <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-binding sites along the permeation pathway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dupont, G; Swillens, S</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Quantal release, incremental detection, and oscillations are three types of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ responses that can be obtained in different conditions, after stimulation of the intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores by submaximum concentrations of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3). All three phenomena are thought to occur through the regulatory properties of the InsP3 receptor/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channel. In the present study, we perform further analysis of the model (Swillens et al., 1994, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91:10074-10078) previously proposed for transient InsP3-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release, based on the bell-shaped dependence of the InsP3 receptor activity on the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ level and on the existence of an intermediate <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ domain located around the mouth of the channel. We show that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations also arise in the latter model. Conditions for the occurrence of the various behaviors are investigated. Numerical simulations also show that the existence of an intermediate <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ domain can markedly increase the <span class="hlt">period</span> of oscillations. <span class="hlt">Periods</span> on the order of 1 min can indeed be accounted for by the model when one assigns realistic values to the kinetic constants of the InsP3 receptor, which, in the absence of a domain, lead to oscillations with <span class="hlt">periods</span> of a few seconds. Finally, theoretical support in favor of a positive cooperativity in the regulation of the InsP3 receptor by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ is presented. Images FIGURE 7 PMID:8889149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP22B..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP22B..07H"><span id="translatedtitle">A Millennial-Scale Reduction in Ventilation of the Deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> During the Last Interglacial <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayes, C. T.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Hasenfratz, A. P.; Jaccard, S.; Hodell, D. A.; Sigman, D. M.; Haug, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>During the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, global temperatures were ~2°C warmer than present and sea level was 6-8 m higher. Southern Ocean sediments from ODP Site 1094 reveal a spike in authigenic uranium 127,000 years ago, within the last interglacial, reflecting decreased oxygenation of deep water by Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Increased deep storage of respired carbon due to this circulation event may explain an observed decline in atmospheric CO2 at this time. Unlike ice age reductions in AABW, the interglacial stagnation event appears decoupled from open ocean conditions and may have resulted from coastal freshening due to mass loss from the Antarctic ice sheet. AABW reduction coincided with increased North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) formation, and the subsequent reinvigoration in AABW coincided with reduced NADW formation. Alternation of deep water formation between the Antarctic and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, believed to characterize ice ages, apparently also occurs in warm climates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13A1497S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13A1497S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling dust emission variations in Eastern Europe related to North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> abrupt climate changes of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sima, A.; Kageyama, M.; Rousseau, D.; Ramstein, G.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Antoine, P.; Dulac, F.; Hatte, C.; Lagroix, F.; Gerasimenko, N.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The European loess sequences of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> (~ 100-15 kyr BP) show <span class="hlt">periods</span> of strong dust accumulation alternating with episodes of reduced (or no) sedimentation, allowing soil development. For the main loess sedimentation <span class="hlt">period</span> (~ 40 - 15 kyr BP), data indicate a correlation between these variations and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rapid climate changes: the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events. We use numerical modeling to investigate the relationship between the North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> abrupt changes and the sedimentation variations in Europe. A first study (Sima et al, QSR, 2009) focused on western Europe, and addressed the impact on dust emission of North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST changes as those associated to DO and H events. It proposed that vegetation played a key role in modulating dust emission variations in western European source areas. Here we focus on eastern Europe, especially on the areas north and north-east of the Carpathian Mountains, where loess deposits have recorded DO and H events (Rousseau et al. Clim. Past D, 2010). As in the previous study, we use the LMDZ AGCM and the SECHIBA land-surface models to simulate a reference glacial state (“stadial”), a cold (“HE”) and a warm (“DO interstadial”) perturbation, all corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 3 conditions. We follow the same protocol as for the study on the west-European sector to analyze the impact of the climate factors and surface conditions on dust emission. The simulated most active emission areas are compatible with the loess deposit distribution, and the key role of vegetation in stadial-interstadial dust emission variations is confirmed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178241','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178241"><span id="translatedtitle">Data for evaluating the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> temperature proxy with in-situ temperature in the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coral Siderastrea siderea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Roberts, Kelsey E.; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Richey, Julie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Massive corals are used as environmental recorders throughout the tropics and subtropics to study environmental variability during time <span class="hlt">periods</span> preceding ocean-observing instrumentation. However, careful testing of paleoproxies is necessary to validate the environmental-proxy record throughout a range of conditions experienced by the recording organisms. As part of the USGS Coral Reef Ecosystems Studies project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/crest/), we tested the hypothesis that the coral Siderastrea siderea faithfully records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> record throughout the subtropical (Florida, USA) seasonal cycle along 350 km of reef tract. Coral samples were analyzed from thirty-nine corals growing in 3 to 4 m depth at Fowey Rocks (Biscayne National Park), Molasses Reef (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, FKNMS), Sombrero Reef (FKNMS), and Pulaski Shoal (Dry Tortugas National Park). Temperatures were recorded with Onset® HOBO® Water Temp Pro V2 (U22-001) data loggers in duplicate at each site. Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, calcification rate, and select underwater temperature data are provided here. The results of this experiment are interpreted in Kuffner et al. (in review). A larger temperature dataset, including the data provided here, is found in another data release Kuffner (2015), and a larger calcification-rate dataset is interpreted in Kuffner et al. (2013).Kuffner, I.B., K.E. Roberts, J.A. Flannery, J.M. Morrison, and J.N. Richey. In review. Fidelity of the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coral Siderastrea siderea.Kuffner, I.B., T.D. Hickey, and J.M. Morrison. 2013. Calcification rates of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea and crustose coralline algae along the Florida Keys (USA) outer-reef tract. Coral Reefs 32:987-997. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00338-013-1047-8Kuffner, I. B. (2015), Underwater temperature on off-shore coral reefs of the Florida Keys, U.S.A.: U.S. Geological Survey data</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3869012','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3869012"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiologic and metagenomic attributes of the rhodoliths forming the largest <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 bed in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cavalcanti, Giselle S; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; dos Santos, Eidy O; Silveira, Cynthia B; Meirelles, Pedro M; Longo, Leila; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the world's largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ∼21 000 km2) and has one of the largest marine <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16 μmol carbon m−2 s−1), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 105 tons C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. PMID:23985749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23985749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23985749"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiologic and metagenomic attributes of the rhodoliths forming the largest <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 bed in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cavalcanti, Giselle S; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; dos Santos, Eidy O; Silveira, Cynthia B; Meirelles, Pedro M; Longo, Leila; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the world's largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ∼21,000 km(2)) and has one of the largest marine <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16 μmol carbon m(-2 )s(-1)), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 10(5) tons C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-21/pdf/2012-30757.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-21/pdf/2012-30757.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 75654 - Nomination <span class="hlt">Period</span> Extension for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council, <span class="hlt">CA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-12-21</p> <p>... Management, Bakersfield Field Office, 3801 Pegasus Drive, Bakersfield, <span class="hlt">CA</span> 93308. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Johna Hurl, Monument Manager, Bakersfield Field Office, 3801 Pegasus Drive, Bakersfield, <span class="hlt">CA</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4742245','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4742245"><span id="translatedtitle">Substantial Downregulation of Myogenic Transcripts in Skeletal Muscle of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Cod during the Spawning <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Edvardsen, Vigdis</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Gonadal maturation is an extremely energy consuming process for batch spawners and it is associated with a significant decrease in growth and seasonal deterioration in flesh quality. Our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms linking sexual maturation and muscle growth is still limited. In the present study, we performed RNA-Seq using 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing in fast skeletal muscle sampled from two-year-old <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cod (Gadus morhua) at representative time points throughout the reproductive cycle (August, March and May). In total, 126,937 good quality reads were obtained, with 546 nucleotide length and 52% GC content on average. RNA-Seq analysis using the CLC Genomics Workbench with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cod reference UniGene cDNA data revealed 59,581 (46.9%) uniquely annotated reads. Pairwise comparison for expression levels identified 153 differentially expressed UniGenes between time points. Notably, we found a significant suppression of myh13 and myofibrillar gene isoforms in fast skeletal muscle during the spawning season. This study uncovered a large number of differentially expressed genes that may be influenced by gonadal maturation, thus representing a significant contribution to our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating muscle wasting and regeneration in batch spawners during their reproductive cycle. PMID:26844771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70180017','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70180017"><span id="translatedtitle">Fidelity of the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coral Siderastrea siderea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Roberts, Kelsey E.; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Richey, Julie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Massive corals provide a useful archive of environmental variability, but careful testing of geochemical proxies in corals is necessary to validate the relationship between each proxy and environmental parameter throughout the full range of conditions experienced by the recording organisms. Here we use samples from a coral-growth study to test the hypothesis that Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in the coral Siderastrea siderea accurately records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the subtropics (Florida, USA) along 350 km of reef tract. We test calcification rate, measured via buoyant weight, and linear extension (LE) rate, estimated with Alizarin Red-S staining, as predictors of variance in the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records of 39 individual S. siderea corals grown at four outer-reef locations next to in-situ temperature loggers during two, year-long <span class="hlt">periods</span>. We found that corals with calcification rates < 1.7 mg cm−2 d−1 or < 1.7 mm yr−1 LE returned spuriously high Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> values, leading to a cold-bias in Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based SST estimates. The threshold-type response curves suggest that extension rate can be used as a quality-control indicator during sample and drill-path selection when using long cores for SST paleoreconstruction. For our corals that passed this quality control step, the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-SST proxy performed well in estimating mean annual temperature across three sites spanning 350 km of the Florida reef tract. However, there was some evidence that extreme temperature stress in 2010 (cold snap) and 2011 (SST above coral-bleaching threshold) may have caused the corals not to record the temperature extremes. Known stress events could be avoided during modern calibrations of paleoproxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20735561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20735561"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> and the timing of river entry in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuparinen, A; O'Hara, R B; Merilä, J</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Historical catch records of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar from three rivers discharging to the Baltic Sea in an area free from tides and from strong effects of the moon on illumination were analysed to investigate whether timing of S. salar river entry was associated with lunar cycles directly. Although a significant effect of lunar phase on river entry was detected, with more fish entering rivers around the full moon than other phases, the effect of the lunar cycle was very small compared with other sources of variation. Hence, the biological role of lunar cycle as a determinant of the timing of S. salar runs in the investigated populations was negligible, suggesting that lunar cycle per se does not play a role in the timing of S. salar river entry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1474172','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1474172"><span id="translatedtitle">A transitional <span class="hlt">period</span> of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-dependent spike afterdepolarization and bursting in developing rat <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Shmuel; Yue, Cuiyong; Yaari, Yoel</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>During postnatal development neurones display discharge behaviours that are not present in the adult, yet they are essential for the normal maturation of the nervous system. Neonatal <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal cells, like their adult counterparts, fire regularly, but excitatory GABAergic transmission drives them to generate spontaneous high-frequency bursts until postnatal day (P) 15. Using intracellular recordings in hippocampal slices from rats at P8 to P25, we show herein that as the network-driven burst activity fades out, most <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal cells become intrinsically bursting neurones. The incidence of intrinsic bursters begins to rise at P11 and attains a peak of 74% by P18–P19, after which it decreases over the course of a week, disappearing almost entirely at P25. Analysis of the effects of different voltage-gated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ and Na+ channel antagonists, applied focally to proximal and distal parts of developing neurones, revealed a complex burst mechanism. Intrinsic bursting in developing neurones results from ‘ping-pong’ interplay between a back-propagating spike that activates T/R- and L-type voltage-gated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels in the distal apical dendrites and persistent voltage-gated Na+ channels in the somatic region. Thus, developing pyramidal neurones transitionally express not only distinctive synaptic properties, but also unique intrinsic firing patterns, that may contribute to the ongoing formation and refinement of synaptic connections. PMID:15919718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15923393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15923393"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-sensing receptor expression and hormonal regulation in rat uterus during the peri-implantation <span class="hlt">period</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Li-Juan; Yuan, Jin-Xiang; Li, Yin-Chuan; Wang, Rui; Hu, Zhao-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Xun</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>The extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-sensing receptor (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>R) is a member of the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). It is an important mediator of a wide range of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-dependent physiological responses in various tissues. In reproductive tissues it has been reported to play a significant role in promoting or maintaining placentation. Meanwhile, another <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ regulated gene stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) has been documented to be involved in decidualization and uterine remodelling. The phenomenon that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mediates STC-1's transcription responding to extracellular calcium in fish urges us to suppose that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R, like STC-1, may also play a role in implantation and decidualization. To resolve this conjecture, we have examined the expression and hormonal regulation of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R gene in rat uterus during peri-implantation <span class="hlt">period</span>. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mRNA was expressed at a moderate level in the luminal epithelium of the early stage of pregnancy (from day 1 to day 3). From day 2-3 it began to be expressed more strongly in the stromal cells immediately underneath the luminal epithelium, but decreased to a basal level on day 4. From day 6 to day 9 continuously, both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mRNA and protein were highly expressed in the primary decidua. Expression of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mRNA and protein in these cells was also observed when a delayed implantation was terminated by estrogen treatment to allow the embryo implantation. In contrast, only basal level expression of the molecules was detected in the cells of animals subjected to a normal-delayed implantation or the pseudopregnant condition. Embryo transplantation experiment confirmed that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R expression at the implantation site was induced by the implanting blastocyst. Consistent with the normal pregnant process, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mRNA and protein in the cells were also induced by an artificial decidualization procedure. Further experiments demonstrated that treatment of the ovariectomized rat with estrogen or/and progesterone stimulated a high level expression of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mRNA in the uterine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11A2200A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11A2200A"><span id="translatedtitle">TRACEing Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Period</span> (25-80 ka b2k) tephra horizons within North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine cores and exploring links to the Greenland ice-cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abbott, P. M.; Davies, S. M.; Griggs, A. J.; Bourne, A. J.; Cook, E.; Pearce, N. J. G.; Austin, W. E. N.; Chapman, M.; Hall, I. R.; Purcell, C. S.; Scourse, J. D.; Rasmussen, T. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Tephrochronology is a powerful technique for the correlation and synchronisation of disparate palaeoclimatic records from different depositional environments and has considerable potential for testing climatic phasing. For example, the relative timing of atmospheric and marine changes caused by the abrupt climatic events that punctuated the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> within the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. Here we report on efforts to establish a framework of tephra horizons within North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine sequences that can correlate these records and if traced in the Greenland ice-cores can act as isochronous tie-lines. Investigations have been conducted on a network of marine cores from a number of sites across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Tephra horizons have been identified using cryptotephra extraction techniques more commonly applied to the study of terrestrial sequences. There are two main challenges with assessing cryptotephras in the glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; i) determining the transportation processes and ii) assessing the influence of secondary reworking processes and the stratigraphic integrity of the isochrons. These processes and their influence are investigated for each cryptotephra using shard size variations, major element heterogeneity and co-variance of IRD input for some cores. Numerous Icelandic cryptophras have been successfully identified in the marine records and we will discuss the integration of a number of these with an isochronous nature into a marine tephra framework and how potential correlations to the Greenland ice-core tephra framework are determined. Spatial patterns in the nature of tephra records that are emerging from the core network will be highlighted to outline some of the key areas that could be explored in the future. In addition, the synchronisation of multiple North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> records to the Greenland ice-cores using the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ash Zone II to test the synchroneity of an abrupt cooling in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073401','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073401"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep-sea temperature during climatic fluctuations of the last 25,000 years based on ostracode Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dwyer, Gary S.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Baker, Paul A.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, Julio</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We reconstructed three time series of last glacial-to-present deep-sea temperature from deep and intermediate water sediment cores from the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> using Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of benthic ostracode shells. Although the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data show considerable variability (“scatter”) that is common to single-shell chemical analyses, comparisons between cores, between core top shells and modern bottom water temperatures (BWT), and comparison to other paleo-BWT proxies, among other factors, suggest that multiple-shell average Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios provide reliable estimates of BWT history at these sites. The BWT records show not only glacial-to-interglacial variations but also indicate BWT changes during the deglacial and within the Holocene interglacial stage. At the deeper sites (4500- and 3400-m water depth), BWT decreased during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the late Holocene, and possibly during the Younger Dryas. Maximum deep-sea warming occurred during the latest deglacial and early Holocene, when BWT exceeded modern values by as much as 2.5°C. This warming was apparently most intense around 3000 m, the depth of the modern-day core of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water (NADW). The BWT variations at the deeper water sites are consistent with changes in thermohaline circulation: warmer BWT signifies enhanced NADW influence relative to Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Thus maximum NADW production and associated heat flux likely occurred during the early Holocene and decreased abruptly around 6500 years B.P., a finding that is largely consistent with paleonutrient studies in the deep North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. BWT changes in intermediate waters (1000-m water depth) of the subtropical gyre roughly parallel the deep BWT variations including dramatic mid-Holocene cooling of around 4°C. Joint consideration of the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based BWT estimates and benthic oxygen isotopes suggests that the cooling was accompanied by a decrease in salinity at this site. Subsequently, intermediate waters warmed to modern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...586A..14H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...586A..14H"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring rotation <span class="hlt">periods</span> of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of <span class="hlt">periodic</span> <span class="hlt">Ca</span>II H+K S-index variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Context. The rotation <span class="hlt">period</span> of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>II H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a <span class="hlt">periodic</span> signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant <span class="hlt">period</span>. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation <span class="hlt">periods</span> were already previously known, in which case our <span class="hlt">period</span> measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the <span class="hlt">periodic</span> signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>II H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation <span class="hlt">periods</span> will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15295596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15295596"><span id="translatedtitle">Vigorous exchange between the Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oceans at the end of the past five glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peeters, Frank J C; Acheson, Ruth; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; De Ruijter, Wilhelmus P M; Schneider, Ralph R; Ganssen, Gerald M; Ufkes, Els; Kroon, Dick</p> <p>2004-08-05</p> <p>The magnitude of heat and salt transfer between the Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oceans through 'Agulhas leakage' is considered important for balancing the global thermohaline circulation. Increases or reductions of this leakage lead to strengthening or weakening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning and associated variation of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation. Here we show that modern Agulhas waters, which migrate into the south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean in the form of an Agulhas ring, contain a characteristic assemblage of planktic foraminifera. We use this assemblage as a modern analogue to investigate the Agulhas leakage history over the past 550,000 years from a sediment record in the Cape basin. Our reconstruction indicates that Indian-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water exchange was highly variable: enhanced during present and past interglacials and largely reduced during glacial intervals. Coherent variability of Agulhas leakage with northern summer insolation suggests a teleconnection to the monsoon system. The onset of increased Agulhas leakage during late glacial conditions took place when glacial ice volume was maximal, suggesting a crucial role for Agulhas leakage in glacial terminations, timing of interhemispheric climate change and the resulting resumption of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.2135R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.2135R"><span id="translatedtitle">Long <span class="hlt">periods</span> (1 -10 mHz) geomagnetic pulsations variation with solar cycle in South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Magnetic Anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rigon Silva, Willian; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Guimarães Dutra, Severino Luiz; Babulal Trivedi, Nalin; Claudir da Silva, Andirlei; Souza Savian, Fernando; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; de Siqueira, Josemar; Espindola Antunes, Cassio</p> <p></p> <p>The occurrence and intensity of the geomagnetic pulsations Pc-5 (2-7 mHz) and its relationship with the solar cycle in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Magnetic Anomaly -SAMA is presented. The study of geomagnetic pulsations is important to help the understanding of the physical processes that occurs in the magnetosphere region and help to predict geomagnetic storms. The fluxgate mag-netometers H, D and Z, three axis geomagnetic field data from the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, São Martinho da Serra (29.42° S, 53.87° W, 480m a.s.l.), RS, Brasil, a were analyzed and correlated with the solar wind parameters (speed, density and temperature) from the ACE and SOHO satellites. A digital filtering to enhance the 2-7 mHz geomagnetic pulsations was used. Five quiet days and five perturbed days in the solar minimum and in the solar maximum were selected for this analysis. The days were chosen based on the IAGA definition and on the Bartels Musical Diagrams (Kp index) for 2001 (solar maximum) and 2008 (solar minimum). The biggest Pc-5 amplitude averages differences between the H-component is 78,35 nT for the perturbed days and 1,60nT for the quiet days during the solar maximum. For perturbed days the average amplitude during the solar minimum is 8,32 nT, confirming a direct solar cycle influence in the geomagnetic pulsations intensity for long <span class="hlt">periods</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V24B..01D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V24B..01D"><span id="translatedtitle">Tephra constraints on Rapid Climate Events (TRACE): precise correlation of marine and ice-core records during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, S. M.; Griggs, A. J.; Abbott, P. M.; Bourne, A. J.; Purcell, C. S.; Hall, I. R.; Scourse, J. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Little has challenged our understanding of climate change more so than the abruptness with which large-scale shifts in temperature occurred during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Atmospheric temperature jumps occurring within decades over Greenland were closely matched by rapid changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures and major re-organisation of the deep ocean circulation. Although these climatic instabilities are well-documented in various proxy records, the causal mechanisms of such short-lived oscillations remain poorly understood, largely due to the dating uncertainties that prevent the integration of different archives. Synchronisation of palaeoclimate records on a common timescale is inherently problematic, and unravelling the lead/lag responses (hence cause and effect) between the Earth's climate components is currently beyond our reach. TRACE - a 5 year project funded by the European Research Council - exploits the use of microscopic traces of tephra deposits to precisely correlate the Greenland ice-cores with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine records. Here we draw upon examples of how these time-lines can be used to constrain the lead/lag responses between the atmospheric and oceanic systems during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. High-resolution proxy data from North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine cores MD04-2829CQ from the Rosemary Bank and MD04 2820CQ from the Goban Spur are integrated with the Greenland ice-cores according to the position of common tephra isochrons. These direct tie-lines allow us to focus in detail on the relative timing of rapid warming transitions between Greenland and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088305&hterms=soybean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsoybean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088305&hterms=soybean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsoybean"><span id="translatedtitle">Soybean cell enlargement oscillates with a temperature-compensated <span class="hlt">period</span> length of <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 24 min</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morre, D. J.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Rate of enlargement of epidermal cells from soybean, when measured at intervals of 1 min using a light microscope equipped with a video measurement system, oscillated with a <span class="hlt">period</span> length of about 24 min. This oscillation parallels the 24-min <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> observed for the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase. The increase in length was not only non-linear, but intervals of rapid increase in area alternated with intervals of rapid decrease in area. The length of the <span class="hlt">period</span> was temperature compensated, and was approximately the same when measured at 14, 24 and 34 degrees C even though the rate of cell enlargement varied over this same range of temperatures. These observations represent the first demonstration of an oscillatory growth behavior correlated with a biochemical activity where the <span class="hlt">period</span> length of both is independent of temperature (temperature compensated) as is the hallmark of clock-related biological phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP21B1902J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP21B1902J"><span id="translatedtitle">The Once and Future North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: How the Mid-Pliocene Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> Can Increase Stakeholder Preparedness in a Warming World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobs, P.; de Mutsert, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Paleoclimatic reconstructions, particularly from <span class="hlt">periods</span> that may serve as an analog to the present and future greenhouse-driven warming, are increasingly being used to validate climate models as well as to provide constraints on broad impacts such as global temperature and sea level change. However, paleoclimatic data remains under-utilized in decision-making processes by stakeholders, who typically rely on scenarios produced by computer models or naive extrapolation of present trends. We hope to increase the information available to stakeholders by incorporating paleoclimatic data from the mid-Pliocene Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (mPWP, ~3ma) into a fisheries model of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> fisheries are economically important and are expected to be sensitive to climatic change. State of the art climate models remain unable to realistically simulate the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, both over the observational record as well as during times in the geologic past such as the mPWP. Given that the mPWP shares many of the same boundary conditions as those likely to be seen in the near future, we seek to answer the question 'What if the climate of the future looks more like the climate of the past?' relative to what state of the art computer models currently project. To that end we have created a suite of future North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean scenarios using output from the CMIP3 and CMIP5 modeling experiments, as well as the PRISM group's Mid-Pliocene ocean reconstruction. We use these scenarios to drive an ecosystem-based fisheries model using the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) software to identify differences between the scenarios as the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean changes through time. Additionally, we examine the spatial component of these differences by using the Ecospace module of EwE. Whereas the Ecosim realizations are intended to capture the dynamic response to changing oceanographic parameters (SST, SSS, DO) over time, the Ecospace experiments are intended to explore the impact of different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21A1296D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21A1296D"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking Agulhas Leakage Variability and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climate MIS 1-5a</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyez, K. A.; Zahn, R.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Agulhas leakage of warm, salty water from the Indian Ocean to the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is suggested to have altered <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning and climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. One way to assess such linkages with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate variability is to examine the past Agulhas hydrography via high-resolution marine records from the Agulhas Bank slope. Here we present one such hydrographic estimate from the Agulhas Bank slope in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector of the Agulhas Corridor using planktic foraminiferal (Globigerinoides ruber) δ18O and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-derived SST to estimate surface salinity. By focusing on the last 80,000 years this is the first quantitative fine-scale Agulhas leakage record that overlaps in time with the Greenland ice core record of abrupt climate changes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. <span class="hlt">Periods</span> of enhanced Agulhas Corridor salinity occur at Northern Hemisphere cool <span class="hlt">periods</span> (glacial termination and Heinrich meltwater events) and are followed by rapid northern hemisphere warming. We show that the timing of maximal salinity events in relation to <span class="hlt">periods</span> of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> freshwater perturbation is consistent with the concept suggested by climate models that Agulhas salinity oscillations could provide buoyancy compensation for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and potentially even trigger increased convective activity in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, thereby restoring <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation after relatively weak states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3816713N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3816713N"><span id="translatedtitle">Key role of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet <span class="hlt">periods</span> over the Great Plains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nigam, Sumant; Guan, Bin; Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The Great Plains of North America are susceptible to multi-year droughts, such as the 1930s ‘Dust Bowl’. The droughts have been linked to SST variability in the Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basins. This observationally rooted analysis shows the SST influence in multi-year droughts and wet episodes over the Great Plains to be significantly more extensive than previously indicated. The remarkable statistical reconstruction of the major hydroclimate episodes attests to the extent of the SST influence in nature, and facilitated evaluation of the basin contributions. We find the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs to be especially influential in forcing multi-year droughts; often, more than the Pacific ones. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), in particular, contributed the most in two of the four reconstructed episodes (Dust Bowl Spring, 1980s fall wetness), accounting for almost half the precipitation signal in each case. The AMO influence on continental precipitation was provided circulation context from analysis of NOAA's 20th Century Atmospheric Reanalysis. A hypothesis for how the AMO atmospheric circulation anomalies are generated from AMO SSTs is proposed to advance discussion of the influence pathways of the mid-to-high latitude SST anomalies. Our analysis suggests that the La Nina-US Drought paradigm, operative on interannual time scales, has been conferred excessive relevance on decadal time scales in the recent literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..798K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..798K"><span id="translatedtitle">Extreme warming in the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in the winter <span class="hlt">period</span> 2002-2012 - an analysis with the regional atmospheric model COSMO-CLM and the Arctic System Reanalysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohnemann, Svenja; Heinemann, Guenther; Gutjahr, Oliver; Bromwich, David H.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The high-resolution atmospheric model COSMO-CLM (CCLM, German Meteorological Service) is used to simulate the 2m-temperature and the boundary layer structures in the Arctic with focus on the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> section the winter <span class="hlt">periods</span> (Nov-Apr) between 2002 and 2015. The CCLM simulations have a horizontal resolution of 15 km for the whole Arctic. The comparable Arctic System Reanalysis data (ASR, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center), which has been optimized for the Arctic, are available for the same time <span class="hlt">period</span> with a horizontal resolution of 30 km. In addition, climatological data from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) stations are used as verification. The comparison between the CCLM simulations and the ASR data shows a high agreement. Also the verification of both data sets with AWS and Era-Interim data shows a very high correlation for the air temperature. Slight differences between CCLM and ASR are recognizable in the extreme values as CCLM has the better ice information assimilated and the higher resolution during simulations. Time series of monthly mean based 2m-temperature indicate an enormous increase for the single months for the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and especially the region around the Siberian Island Novaya Zemlya. For example the CCLM March increase amounts up to 16 °C for the regional maximum for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 2002-2012. The strong increase is mainly reducible to the decreasing sea ice situation in that region during the same time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3438871','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3438871"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Periodization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. <span class="hlt">Periodization</span> is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing <span class="hlt">periodization</span> schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on <span class="hlt">periodization</span> principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of <span class="hlt">periodization</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">periodization</span> program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of <span class="hlt">periodization</span> principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords <span class="hlt">periodization</span>, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, <span class="hlt">periodized</span> strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting <span class="hlt">periodization</span> programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of <span class="hlt">periodization</span> into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5684A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5684A"><span id="translatedtitle">TRACEing Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Period</span> (25-80 ka b2k) Tephra Horizons between North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine-cores and the Greenland ice-cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abbott, Peter; Davies, Siwan; Griggs, Adam; Bourne, Anna; Cook, Eliza; Austin, William; Chapman, Mark; Hall, Ian; Purcell, Catriona; Rasmussen, Tine; Scourse, James</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Tephrochronological investigations are currently being undertaken on a network of marine cores from a range of locations and depositional settings within the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This work forms a component of the ERC-funded project Tephra constraints on Rapid Climate Events (TRACE). The main aim of this project is to utilise isochronous tephra horizons as direct tie-lines to correlate North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine sequences and the Greenland ice-cores to determine the relative timing of oceanic and atmospheric changes associated with the rapid climate events that dominated the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Early comparisons of six North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine records (MD99-2251, MD04-2820CQ, MD04-2829CQ, MD04-2822, MD01-2461 and JM11-19PC) and the Greenland ice-cores highlight six tephra horizons common to the ice record and one or more marine sequences. These horizons are within GS-3 (26,740 ± 390 a b2k and 29,130 ± 456 a b2k), GS-9 (38,300 ± 703 a b2k), GS-10 (40,220 ± 792 a b2k) and GS-12 (43,680 ± 877 a b2k) and the widespread North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ash Zone II (55,380 ± 1184 a b2k). New high-resolution proxy information from MD04-2820CQ allows us to explore the relative timing of climatic changes between the Goban Spur, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Greenland over GI-12 to GI-8 using two tephra correlations that link the records. Tephra horizons have been identified in the marine records through the successful use of cryptotephra extraction techniques more commonly applied to the study of terrestrial sequences. All horizons have an Icelandic source with horizons of both rhyolitic and basaltic composition isolated. The acquisition of high-resolution profiles of shard concentration and comprehensive geochemical characterisations for horizons is vital to this work. This allows us to disentangle the processes that transported material to core sites, which can include primary airfall, sea-ice rafting and iceberg rafting, and the potential impact of secondary reworking processes such as bottom current</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JChPh..93.2676F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JChPh..93.2676F"><span id="translatedtitle">Reactions of fourth-<span class="hlt">period</span> metal ions (<span class="hlt">Ca</span> + - Zn + ) with O2: Metal-oxide ion bond energies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, Ellen R.; Elkind, J. L.; Clemmer, D. E.; Georgiadis, R.; Loh, S. K.; Aristov, N.; Sunderlin, L. S.; Armentrout, P. B.</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>Reactions of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>+, Zn+ and all first-row atomic transition metal ions with O2 are studied using guided ion beam techniques. While reactions of the ground states of Sc+, Ti+, and V+ are exothermic, the remaining metal ions react with O2 in endothermic processes. Analyses of these endothermic reactions provide new determinations of the M+-O bond energies for these eight elements. Source conditions are varied such that the contributions of excited states of the metal ions can be explicitly considered for Mn+, Co+, Ni+, and Cu+. Results (in eV) at 0 K are D0(<span class="hlt">Ca</span>+-O)= 3.57±0.05, D0(Cr+-O)=3.72±0.12, D0(Mn+-O)=2.95±0.13, D0(Fe+-O)=3.53±0.06 (reported previously), D0(Co+-O)=3.32±0.06, D0(Ni+-O) =2.74±0.07, D0(Cu+-O)=1.62±0.15, and D0(Zn+-O)=1.65±0.12. These values along with literature data for neutral metal oxide bond energies and ionization energies are critically evaluated. <span class="hlt">Periodic</span> trends in the ionic metal oxide bond energies are compared with those of the neutral metal oxides and those of other related molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..651M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..651M"><span id="translatedtitle">Reduced admixture of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water to the deep central South Pacific during the last two glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molina-Kescher, Mario; Frank, Martin; Tapia, Raúl; Ronge, Thomas A.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Tiedemann, Ralf</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The South Pacific is a sensitive location for the variability of the global oceanic thermohaline circulation given that deep waters from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Pacific Basin are exchanged. Here we reconstruct the deep water circulation of the central South Pacific for the last two glacial cycles (from 240,000 years ago to the Holocene) based on radiogenic neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotope records complemented by benthic stable carbon data obtained from two sediment cores located on the flanks of the East Pacific Rise. The records show small but consistent glacial/interglacial changes in all three isotopic systems with interglacial average values of -5.8 and 18.757 for ɛNd and 206Pb/204Pb, respectively, whereas glacial averages are -5.3 and 18.744. Comparison of this variability of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) to previously published records along the pathway of the global thermohaline circulation is consistent with reduced admixture of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water to CDW during cold stages. The absolute values and amplitudes of the benthic δ13C variations are essentially indistinguishable from other records of the Southern Hemisphere and confirm that the low central South Pacific sedimentation rates did not result in a significant reduction of the amplitude of any of the measured proxies. In addition, the combined detrital Nd and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope signatures imply that Australian and New Zealand dust has remained the principal contributor of lithogenic material to the central South Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121f5103B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121f5103B"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of electrical transport properties of <span class="hlt">CaO(Ca</span>MnO3)m (m = 1, 2, 3, ∞) thermoelectric oxides on lattice <span class="hlt">periodicity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baranovskiy, Andrei; Amouyal, Yaron</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The electrical transport properties of <span class="hlt">CaO(Ca</span>MnO3)m (m = 1, 2, 3, ∞) compounds are studied applying the density functional theory (DFT) in terms of band structure at the vicinity of the Fermi level (EF). It is shown that the total density of states (DOS) values at EF increase with increase in the m-values, which implies an increase in the electrical conductivity, σ, with increasing m-values, in full accordance with experimental results. Additionally, the calculated values of the relative slopes of the DOS at EF correlate with the experimentally measured Seebeck coefficients. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients were calculated in the framework of the Boltzmann transport theory applying the constant relaxation time approximation. By the analysis of experimental and calculated σ(Τ) dependences, the electronic relaxation time and mean free path values were estimated. It is shown that the electrical transport is dominated by electron scattering on the boundaries between perovskite (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MnO3) and <span class="hlt">Ca</span> oxide (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>O) layers inside the crystal lattice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17024090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17024090"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salinity oscillations across Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Matthew W; Vautravers, Maryline J; Spero, Howard J</p> <p>2006-10-05</p> <p>Geochemical and sedimentological evidence suggest that the rapid climate warming oscillations of the last ice age, the Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles, were coupled to fluctuations in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation through its regulation of poleward heat flux. The balance between cold meltwater from the north and warm, salty subtropical gyre waters from the south influenced the strength and location of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation during this <span class="hlt">period</span> of highly variable climate. Here we investigate how rapid reorganizations of the ocean-atmosphere system across these cycles are linked to salinity changes in the subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyre. We combine Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> palaeothermometry and oxygen isotope ratio measurements on planktonic foraminifera across four Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (spanning 45.9-59.2 kyr ago) to generate a seawater salinity proxy record from a subtropical gyre deep-sea sediment core. We show that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyre surface salinities oscillated rapidly between saltier stadial conditions and fresher interstadials, covarying with inferred shifts in the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hydrologic cycle and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation. These salinity oscillations suggest a reduction in precipitation into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and/or reduced export of deep salty thermohaline waters during stadials. We hypothesize that increased stadial salinities preconditioned the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean for a rapid return to deep overturning circulation and high-latitude warming by contributing to increased North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface-water density on interstadial transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24142145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24142145"><span id="translatedtitle">Beneficial effects of bumetanide in a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>V1.1-R528H mouse model of hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Fenfen; Mi, Wentao; Cannon, Stephen C</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Transient attacks of weakness in hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis are caused by reduced fibre excitability from paradoxical depolarization of the resting potential in low potassium. Mutations of calcium channel and sodium channel genes have been identified as the underlying molecular defects that cause instability of the resting potential. Despite these scientific advances, therapeutic options remain limited. In a mouse model of hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis from a sodium channel mutation (NaV1.4-R669H), we recently showed that inhibition of chloride influx with bumetanide reduced the susceptibility to attacks of weakness, in vitro. The R528H mutation in the calcium channel gene (CACNA1S encoding <span class="hlt">Ca</span>V1.1) is the most common cause of hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis. We developed a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>V1.1-R528H knock-in mouse model of hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis and show herein that bumetanide protects against both muscle weakness from low K+ challenge in vitro and loss of muscle excitability in vivo from a glucose plus insulin infusion. This work demonstrates the critical role of the chloride gradient in modulating the susceptibility to ictal weakness and establishes bumetanide as a potential therapy for hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis arising from either NaV1.4 or <span class="hlt">Ca</span>V1.1 mutations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19842047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19842047"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiregional <span class="hlt">periodic</span> matrix for modeling the population dynamics of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) along the moroccan <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> coast: management elements for fisheries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serghini, Mansour; Boutayeb, Abdesslam; Auger, Pierre; Charouki, Najib; Ramzi, Azeddine; Ettahiri, Omar; Tchuente, Maurice</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a deterministic time discrete mathematical model based on multiregional <span class="hlt">periodic</span> matrices to describe the dynamics of Sardina pilchardus in the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> area of the Moroccan coast. This model deals with two stages (immature and mature) and three spatial zones where sardines are supposed to migrate from one zone to another. The population dynamics is described by an autonomous recurrence equation N(t + 1) = A.N(t), where A is a positive matrix whose entries are estimated using data collected during biannual acoustic surveys carried out from 2001 to 2003 onboard the Norwegian research vessel "Dr Fridtjof Nansen". The dominant eigenvalue lambda of A that gives the long-term growth rate of fish population is smaller than one. This agrees with the stock decrease observed in the data collected. We show that lambda is highly sensitive to the recruitment rate and much less sensitive to the reproduction rate. These results can clearly be used to define an efficient scenario in order to fight for instance against a stock decrease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712941P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712941P"><span id="translatedtitle">A regional overview of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> in the temperate NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: varying paleoproductivity centers over the last 50 ka BP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Penaud, Aurélie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Ganne, Axelle</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recent palynological investigations carried out in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz (MD99-2339 core) over MIS 3 enable to consider dinoflagellate cyst assemblage patterns over the last 50 ka BP through a compilation of 6 cores from the NE subtropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to the Northern Bay of Biscay (also including cores MD95-2042, MD95-2043, MD04-2805CQ, VK03-58bis). Dinocyst signals depict hydrological front latitudinal shifts over the last glacial and associated sea-surface consequences regarding past regimes of primary productivity. We show here new data clearly evidencing subtropical latitudes of Cadiz as being as productive areas over the last glacial as recorded today in the septentrional part of the Bay of Biscay, especially between GI 8 and GI 12. We especially focus on dinocyst-species Lingulodinium machaerophorum relative abundances and absolute concentrations that we first evidence as a powerful tool to reconstruct and discuss productivity shifts through time in the temperate North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This spatio-temporal synthesis bring important evidences of fast migrating paleoproductiviy centers from the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> to present, implying also large consequences on the biological pump through time. Regarding this specific session, 5 of the 6 cores discussed here were retrieved by the R/V Marion Dufresne through 3 different cruises: Core MD99-2339 (35.89°N, 7.53°W, 1170m water depth, 18.54m long) was retrieved in a contouritic field in the oriental part of the Gulf of Cadiz by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1999 International Marine Global Change Studies V (IMAGES V) cruise (Labeyrie, Jansen and Cortijo, 2003). Cores MD95-2042 (37°48'N, 10°10'W, 3146m water depth, 39.56m long) and MD95-2043 (36°8.6'N, 2°37.3'W, 1841m water depth, 36m long) were retrieved from the SW Iberian margin and the central Alboran Sea, respectively, by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1995 IMAGES I cruise (Bassinot and Labeyrie, 1996). Core MD04-2805 CQ (34</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001QuRes..56..383B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001QuRes..56..383B"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>Palynological analysis of a core from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 37,500 and <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 27,500 to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene <span class="hlt">period</span> until <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rain forest then developed at the study site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=257453','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=257453"><span id="translatedtitle">In search of "Organ III" strata-a sedimentary record of the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 900 to 1300)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">period</span> AD 900 to 1300, internationally referred to as the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>, is a critical time for the archaeological record of the Southwestern USA. During the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> both alluvial and eolian sedimentation increased, but not to the magnitude of the middle Holocene (the Altithe...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19712266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19712266"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualization of stochastic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signals in the formed somites during the early segmentation <span class="hlt">period</span> in intact, normally developing zebrafish embryos.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leung, Christina F; Miller, Andrew L; Korzh, Vladimir; Chong, Shang-Wei; Sleptsova-Freidrich, Inna; Webb, Sarah E</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Localized <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signals were consistently visualized in the formed somites of intact zebrafish embryos during the early segmentation <span class="hlt">period</span>. Unlike the regular process of somitogenesis, these signals were stochastic in nature with respect to time and location. They did, however, occur predominantly at the medial and lateral boundaries within the formed somites. Embryos were treated with modulators of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](i) to explore the signal generation mechanism and possible developmental function of the stochastic transients. Blocking elements in the phosphoinositol pathway eliminated the stochastic signals but had no obvious effect, stochastic or otherwise, on the formed somites. Such treatments did, however, result in the subsequently formed somites being longer in the mediolateral dimension. Targeted uncaging of buffer (diazo-2) or <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) (NP-ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid [EGTA]) in the presomitic mesoderm, resulted in a regular mediolateral lengthening and shortening, respectively, of subsequently formed somites. These data suggest a requirement for IP(3) receptor-mediated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release during convergence cell movements in the presomitic mesoderm, which appears to have a distinct function from that of the IP(3) receptor-mediated stochastic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signaling in the formed somites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542656"><span id="translatedtitle">Gonadotropin regulation of testosterone production by primary cultured theca and granulosa cells of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker: I. Novel role of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKs and interactions between calcium- and adenylyl cyclase-dependent pathways.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benninghoff, Abby D; Thomas, Peter</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Theca and granulosa cells for in vitro primary culture were obtained by enzymatic digestion of mature ovarian tissue from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) and separation from the other cell types by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation. Histochemical staining and treatment with pregnenolone confirmed the presence in the cultured cells of enzymes involved in synthesizing the major sex steroids in croaker ovaries: testosterone, estradiol, and 17alpha,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S). Croaker theca and granulosa cells maintained their steroidogenic response to gonadotropin when cultured with serum-supplemented media and produced high levels of testosterone for up to 5 days, although estradiol production was low. Multiple signal transduction pathways mediating gonadotropin stimulation of androgen production were identified in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker ovarian theca and granulosa cells in primary co-culture. Inhibitors of voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) and calmodulin decreased the steroidogenic response to gonadotropin, whereas activators of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A (PKA) increased testosterone production, indicating that both calcium and PKA-dependent signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of follicular steroid production. In addition, the first evidence in vertebrates for an involvement of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKs) in gonadal steroidogenesis was obtained, since the stimulatory effects of gonadotropin on testosterone media accumulation were attenuated by specific inhibitors of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKs. Some interactions among the signaling pathways were observed as demonstrated by the positive effect of elevated intracellular calcium on adenylyl cyclase activity and the reduction of forskolin- and dbcAMP-induced testosterone production by inhibitors of VSCCs, calmodulin, and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP53B2332H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP53B2332H"><span id="translatedtitle">Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data from multiple species of planktonic foraminifers from the equatorial Pacific and subtropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Indicators of surface ocean productivity, diagenesis of the shells, or both?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howlett, J.; Mekik, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in planktonic foraminifers have been purported to be indicators of terrestrial input, marine oxidation-reduction reactions and sea surface productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific. We investigated this hypothesis using Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data from five species of planktonic foraminifers in 32 core tops from the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), five species from 12 core tops in the western equatorial Pacific, and two species from 15 core tops on the Rio Grande Rise. We present Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data from Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globorotalia menardii, Globigerina bulloides, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata and Globorotalia tumida from the eastern and western equatorial Pacific and from Globorotalia truncatulinoides and Globorotalia inflata on the Rio Grande Rise. We find that the environmental parameter depicted by Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios depends on the species of foraminifer from which the data was derived. Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> from N. dutertrei in the EEP have statistically significant and quantifiable relationships with apparent oxygen utilization, dissolved phosphate concentration and dissolved oxygen concentration in the habitat depths of this species. The Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratio from P. obliquiloculata and G. tumida are highest in regions of greatest productivity in the EEP. On the Rio Grande Rise, we explored the effect of dissolution in the sediments on Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios from planktonic foraminifers. We used the G. menardii fragmentation index as our sedimentary dissolution indicator, and found that dissolution does not have a strong effect on the Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios measured from foraminifers tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..285..195S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..285..195S"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van (eastern Anatolia) III: <span class="hlt">Periodic</span> (Nemrut) vs. episodic (Süphan) explosive eruptions and climate forcing reflected in a tephra gap between <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 14 ka and <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 30 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Fifteen Lateglacial to Holocene rhyolitic, dominantly primary tephra layers piston-cored and drilled (ICDP Paleovan drilling project) in western Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) were precisely correlated to either of the two adjacent and active large volcanoes Nemrut and Süphan based on shard textures, mineralogy and mineral and glass compositions. The young peralkaline (comenditic to pantelleritic) primary rhyolitic Nemrut tephras are characterized by anorthoclase, hedenbergitic to augitic clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, minor quartz, and rare accessory chevkinite and zircon. Phenocrysts in subalkaline primary rhyolitic Süphan tephras are chiefly oligoclase-labradorite, with minor K-rich sanidine in some, biotite, amphibole, hypersthene, rare augitic clinopyroxene, relatively common allanite and rare zircon. Two contrasting explosive eruptive modes are distinguished from each other: episodic (Süphan) and <span class="hlt">periodic</span> (Nemrut). The Lateglacial Süphan tephra swarm covers a short time interval of <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 338 years between <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 13,078 vy BP and 12,740 vy BP, eruptions having occurred statistically every <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 42 years with especially short intervals between V-11 (reworked) and V-14. Causes for the strongly episodic Süphan explosive behavior might include seismic triggering of a volcano-magma system unable to erupt explosively without the benefit of external triggering, as reflected in pervasive faulting preceding the Süphan tephra swarm. Seismic triggering may have caused the rise of more mafic ("trachyandesitic") parent magma, heating near-surface pockets of highly evolved magma - that might have formed silicic domes during this stage of volcano evolution - resulting in ascent and finally explosive fragmentation of magma essentially by external factors, probably significantly enhanced by magma-water/ice interaction. Explosive eruptions of the Nemrut volcano system, interpreted to be underlain by a large fractionating magma reservoir, follow a more <span class="hlt">periodic</span> mode of (a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6212412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6212412"><span id="translatedtitle">Circum-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Teleki, P.; Edgar, T. )</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>Inspired by the success and value of the maps prepared by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) initiated the Circum-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Project (CAP) in 1987. The project is co-sponsored by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). Objectives of CAP are to help organize, coordinate, and stimulate the compilation and interpretation of geological, geophysical, and resources data for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean basin and adjacent continental areas and to publish these data in an integrated map series. Four regional working groups, one each for the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, eastern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> areas have been organized, and within each of these groups specialty teams are being established to compile and interpret various types of geologic data. Based on a digital compilation of these data, a series of geologic thematic maps are planned to be prepared and displayed on a single sheet, at a scale of 1:17,000,000, for the entire <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin, and on four quadrant sheets, at a scale of 1:10,000,000. The quadrants correspond to the North-, Tethyan-, Central-, and South-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> areas. The thematic series will consist of bathymetric, geologic, tectonic, magnetic, gravity, and mineral and energy resource maps. In addition, several palinspastic maps are planned to be constructed to display the geologic development of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin at eight geologic time <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Transects will accompany all maps. The CAP plans support pilot projects that fit the scope and objectives of this undertaking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088297&hterms=Herbicides&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHerbicides','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088297&hterms=Herbicides&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHerbicides"><span id="translatedtitle">Cell enlargement of plant tissue explants oscillates with a temperature-compensated <span class="hlt">period</span> of <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 24 min</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morre, D. James; Ternes, Philipp; Morre, Dorothy M.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Rate of plant cell enlargement, measured at intervals of 3 min using a sensitive linear transducer, oscillates with a minimum <span class="hlt">period</span> of about 24 min that parallels the 24-min <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> observed with the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase and of single cells measured previously by video-enhanced light microscopy. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the steady-state rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min <span class="hlt">period</span> emerges. The length of the 24-min <span class="hlt">period</span> is temperature compensated and remains constant at 24 min when measured at 15, 25 or 35 degrees C, despite the fact that the rate of cell enlargement approximately doubles for each 10 degree C rise over this same range of temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5208F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5208F"><span id="translatedtitle">New results to discuss possibility of irrigation in Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before Hafit <span class="hlt">period</span> (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 3100-2700 BCE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fouache, Eric; Desruelles, Stéphane; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1989, the extensive archaeological site of Bat is situated within the Wadi Sharsah and around the modern village and palm grove of Bat, 24 km from the modern city of Ibri in northwestern Oman. The archaeological remains from the Bronze Age excavated by the Bat Archaeological Project are located in two mains areas. The northern area consists of a chain of low limestone hills cut by wadi tributaries leading to the main Wadi Sharsah. It is characterised by an exceptionnally high density of graves from two successive Bronze Age <span class="hlt">periods</span> : Hafit (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 3100-2700 BCE) and Umm an-Nar (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 2700-2000 BCE). South of the Bat cemetery, in the flat part of the valley, there are several large circular structures (known historically as « towers ») and remains from both Hafit and Umm an-Nar <span class="hlt">periods</span>, as well as later <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Geomorphological mapping of the floodplain, associated with archaeological survey, have identified walls suggesting that during the Umm an-Nar <span class="hlt">period</span> there was a system of irrigation which controlled flood water. Sedimentological, malacological, C14 dating and micromorphological studies of a 10 m long and 2.5 m high section located 143 m northeast of the Tower 1146 on the left bank of a small tributary of the Wadi Sharsah provide strong argument for the presence of an irrigation system that began before the Hafit <span class="hlt">period</span>. New C14 datings confirm this hypothesis. Botanical macro-remains collected during the excavation of early Bronze Age structures at Bat further indicate the presence of date palm gardens since the 3rd millenium BCE allowing the cultivation of several crop species, in particular cereals. Most generally the global palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from our data supports a model of a general trend of aridification from Bronze Age to iron Age. Key words : Bronze Age, Holocene, Geomoephology, Micromorphology, Irrigation, Oman.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....926265D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....926265D"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing <span class="hlt">period</span>: an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Healy, R. M.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing <span class="hlt">Period</span>, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm-3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm-3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm-3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Black carbon concentrations in polluted air were between 300-400 ng m-3, and in clean marine air were less than 50 ng m-3. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.8413D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.8413D"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing <span class="hlt">period</span>: an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, J.; Healy, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; Ehn, M.; Mikkilä, J.; Kulmala, M.; O'Dowd, C. D.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing <span class="hlt">Period</span>, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June, 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the N. E. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm-3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm-3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm-3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water soluble organic carbon, which, in turn, was dominated by methanesulphonic acid (MSA). Sulphate concentrations were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhyC..185..885O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhyC..185..885O"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in modulation <span class="hlt">period</span> of Bi 2Sr 2 (<span class="hlt">Ca</span> 1- xNd x) Cu 2O a + δ and their relations to oxygen content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onozuka, Takashi; Tokiwa, Ayako; Syono, Yasuhiko; Koike, Yoji; Saito, Yoshitami</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>Structural changes of long-<span class="hlt">period</span> modulated structure (LPMS) of the Bi 2Sr 2(<span class="hlt">Ca</span> 1- xNd x) Cu 2O a + δ ceramics with x are investigated by means of electron diffraction. Increasing x, the modulation mode of the mixing of domains of two modulation <span class="hlt">periods</span> with b=4.5b o and b=5b o changes to that with b=4.5b o and b=4b o through the modulation mode with only b=4.5b o at x=0.4-0.5. The wavenumber of the superlattice reflection shows a stepwise increase rather than a linear increase with x. Excess oxygen in a LPMS model with the site of excess oxygen is shown to be consistent with excess oxygen analyzed chemically by iodometry and its change with x.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4528405','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4528405"><span id="translatedtitle">Fit for print: developing an institutional model of scientific <span class="hlt">periodical</span> publishing in England, 1665–<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1714</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moxham, N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the contested afterlife of Philosophical Transactions following the death of its founder, Henry Oldenburg. It investigates the complex interrelation between the institution and the <span class="hlt">periodical</span> at a time when the latter was supposedly independent, and outlines the competing proposals for institutional publishing in science contemplated in the Royal Society, linking some publications that were actually attempted to those proposals and to the Society's attempts to revitalize its experimental programme between 1677 and 1687. It argues that the Society was concerned to produce experimental natural knowledge over which it could claim ownership, and intended this work for publication in other venues than Transactions, whereas the <span class="hlt">periodical</span> was seen as a more suitable site for work reported to the Society than for research that the institution had primarily produced. It was only from the early 1690s, after the collapse of the Society's experimental programme, that Transactions gradually became a more straightforward reflection of the mainstream of Royal Society activity, paving the way for its formal reinvention as the official publication of the Society in 1752. PMID:26495576</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22775293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22775293"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> DFT study of acidic trace atmospheric gas molecule adsorption on <span class="hlt">Ca</span>- and Fe-doped MgO(001) surface basic sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Hatch, Courtney; Orlando, Roberto</p> <p>2012-08-02</p> <p>The electronic properties of undoped and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>- or Fe-doped MgO(001) surfaces, as well as their propensity toward atmospheric acidic gas (CO2, SO2, and NO2) uptake was investigated with an emphasis on gas adsorption on the basic MgO oxygen surface sites, O(surf), using <span class="hlt">periodic</span> density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Adsorption energy calculations show that MgO doping will provide stronger interactions of the adsorbate with the O(surf) sites than the undoped MgO for a given adsorbate molecule. Charge transfer from the iron atom in Fe-doped MgO(001) to NO2 was shown to increase the binding interaction between adsorbate by an order of magnitude, when compared to that of undoped and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-doped MgO(001) surfaces. Secondary binding interactions of adsorbate oxygen atoms were observed with surface magnesium sites at distances close to those of the Mg-O bond within the crystal. These interactions may serve as a preliminary step for adsorption and facilitate further adsorbate transformations into other binding configurations. Impacts on global atmospheric chemistry are discussed as these adsorption phenomena can affect atmospheric gas budgets via altered partitioning and retention on mineral aerosol surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PalOc..29.1238D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PalOc..29.1238D"><span id="translatedtitle">Multicentennial Agulhas leakage variability and links to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate during the past 80,000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyez, Kelsey A.; Zahn, Rainer; Hall, Ian R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>New high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) estimates are presented from the Agulhas Bank slope in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector of the Agulhas Corridor using planktic foraminiferal (Globigerinoides ruber) δ18O and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-derived SST. By focusing on the last 80,000 years, this is the first fine-scale Agulhas leakage record that overlaps in time with much of the Greenland ice core record of abrupt climate changes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. The multicentennial profiles indicate instances of warm SST and/or increased SSS coincident with Northern Hemisphere cool <span class="hlt">periods</span>, followed by Northern Hemisphere warming. These <span class="hlt">periods</span> of enhanced SST and SSS in the Agulhas Corridor occur at the last glacial termination (T1) and during North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cold episodes associated with Heinrich (H) meltwater events. To a first-order approximation, the timing of maximal salinity events in relation to <span class="hlt">periods</span> of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> freshwater perturbation is consistent with the concept suggested by climate models that enhanced Agulhas leakage provides for buoyancy compensation and can potentially trigger increased convective activity in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, thereby restoring <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation after relatively weak states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213508L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213508L"><span id="translatedtitle">A reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) for the last 1200 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Linderholm, Hans; Knight, Jeff; Folland, Chris; Zorita, Eduardo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean show multidecadal fluctuations known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) . The AMO has been related to the thermohaline circulation, which implies a strong association to large-scale climate variability. Indeed, the variability of a wide range of climate parameters in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region has been related to the AMO, e.g. temperatures, precipitation, drought and hurricanes. Moreover, the AMO seems to influence the Asian summer monsoon, and South American precipitation. Most of these relationships have been established analyzing the short observational records or from experiments with climate models. In order to establish the stability of the multidecadal oscillation in the AMO as well as the association with climate, it is necessary to extend the record further back in time. Using tree-ring data from the Northern Hemisphere a reconstruction of the AMO, spanning AD 800 to 2000 is presented. The reconstruction suggests anomalously warm North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 900 to 1050, coinciding with the "Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>", as well as a phase between 1100 and 1400 with relatively little interdecadal variability. There is a prolonged negative phase of AMO from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1600-1860, i.e. during the "Little Ice Age" (LIA). The multidecadal variability of approximately 40-80 years remains constant throughout the record, except around <span class="hlt">ca</span> 1500-1700, i.e. during the LIA, when it breaks down.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17152709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17152709"><span id="translatedtitle">[Selective effect of the duration of the critical temperature <span class="hlt">period</span> on some allozyme loci of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar L. (Salmonidae)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stroganov, A N; Novikov, G G; Afanas'ev, K I; Malinina, T V; Rubtsova, G A; Ponomareva, E V; Kalabushkin, B A</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Genetic structure of juvenile fish from the populations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar inhabiting the rivers of Murmansk oblast, Arkhangelsk oblast, and Karelia, as well as of juveniles from hatcheries was examined at five allozymic loci: aspartate aminotransferase (AAT-4*), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDHP-3*), iditol dehydrogenase (IDDH-2*), esterase D (ESTD*), and malic enzyme (MEP-2*). High genetic differentiation of both natural and "hatchery" juvenile fish was revealed. It was demonstrated that the gene pool of juveniles at three of the five loci tested was to a considerable degree formed by natural selection. In this case, the role of limiting factor was played by the duration of critical temperature regime in the rivers. The differentiation factors for juveniles from nature were not established, however, their clusterization pattern pointed to a possible role of natural selection in this process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..687H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..687H"><span id="translatedtitle">Subsurface North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidence from the early Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt ice-rafted detritus (IRD) events during cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> of the early Pleistocene. We used paired Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O measurements of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral - sin.), deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, to estimate the subsurface temperatures and seawater δ18O from a sediment core from Gardar Drift, in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Carbon isotopes of benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based temperatures and seawater δ18O suggest increased subsurface temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of weaker <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of IRD. Subsurface accumulation of warm waters would have resulted in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The release of heat stored at the subsurface to the atmosphere would have helped to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in response to AMOC slowdown during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.2195Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.2195Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface temperatures in the central southern Indian Ocean over the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1790 to 2007 inferred from two monthly resolved Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and oxygen isotope records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zinke, J.; Wassenburg, J.; Hardman, E.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>We obtained two monthly resolved Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records from Rodrigues island (Mauritius) located in the trade wind belt of the central southern Indian Ocean. The longest core was obtained at a nearshore fringing reef and covers the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1790-2005. This coral records surface air temperatures from the local weather station available from 1950 to the present. The most remarkable signal is a slight cooling after the 1950's. The second core was obtained from the open ocean and records a long-term warming trend between 1947 to 2007. The warming accelerated after the late 1970's in agreement with instrumental data. The oxygen isotope record is affected by salinity variations and shows a strong freshening trend after the late 1970's. The freshening trend is probably related to advection of low salinity waters with the South Equatorial Current and/or increased cyclonicity. We will discuss our results in light of interannual and decadal variability and present long-term seawater monitoring data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1342648-commensurate-period-charge-density-modulations-throughout-bi-sr-cacu-pseudogap-regime','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1342648-commensurate-period-charge-density-modulations-throughout-bi-sr-cacu-pseudogap-regime"><span id="translatedtitle">Commensurate 4 a 0 -<span class="hlt">period</span> charge density modulations throughout the Bi 2 Sr 2 <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu 2 O 8+x pseudogap regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Mesaros, Andrej; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Edkins, Stephen D.; ...</p> <p>2016-10-20</p> <p>Theories based upon strong real space (r-space) electron–electron interactions have long predicted that unidirectional charge density modulations (CDMs) with four-unit-cell (4a0) <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> should occur in the hole-doped cuprate Mott insulator (MI). But, increasing the hole density p is reported to cause the conventionally defined wavevector QA of the CDM to evolve continuously as if driven primarily by momentum-space (k-space) effects. We introduce phase-resolved electronic structure visualization for determination of the cuprate CDM wavevector. Remarkably, this technique reveals a virtually doping-independent locking of the local CDM wavevector at |Q0|=2π/4a0 throughout the underdoped phase diagram of the canonical cuprate Bi2Sr2<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu2O8. Our observationsmore » have significant fundamental consequences because they are orthogonal to a k-space (Fermi-surface)–based picture of the cuprate CDMs but are consistent with strong-coupling r-space–based theories. Our findings imply that it is the latter that provides the intrinsic organizational principle for the cuprate CDM state.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5111700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5111700"><span id="translatedtitle">Commensurate 4a0-<span class="hlt">period</span> charge density modulations throughout the Bi2Sr2<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu2O8+x pseudogap regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mesaros, Andrej; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Edkins, Stephen D.; Hamidian, Mohammad H.; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Davis, J. C. Séamus; Lawler, Michael J.; Kim, Eun-Ah</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Theories based upon strong real space (r-space) electron–electron interactions have long predicted that unidirectional charge density modulations (CDMs) with four-unit-cell (4a0) <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> should occur in the hole-doped cuprate Mott insulator (MI). Experimentally, however, increasing the hole density p is reported to cause the conventionally defined wavevector QA of the CDM to evolve continuously as if driven primarily by momentum-space (k-space) effects. Here we introduce phase-resolved electronic structure visualization for determination of the cuprate CDM wavevector. Remarkably, this technique reveals a virtually doping-independent locking of the local CDM wavevector at |Q0|=2π/4a0 throughout the underdoped phase diagram of the canonical cuprate Bi2Sr2<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu2O8. These observations have significant fundamental consequences because they are orthogonal to a k-space (Fermi-surface)–based picture of the cuprate CDMs but are consistent with strong-coupling r-space–based theories. Our findings imply that it is the latter that provides the intrinsic organizational principle for the cuprate CDM state. PMID:27791157</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-21/pdf/2011-6563.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-21/pdf/2011-6563.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 15276 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quotas and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tuna Fisheries...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-21</p> <p>.... ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: On March 14, 2011, NMFS published a proposed rule to modify <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>... April 14, 2011, which would allow an approximately 30-day comment <span class="hlt">period</span>. In order to provide additional... Fisheries, NOAA (AA). In the proposed rule, NMFS announced the end of the comment <span class="hlt">period</span> as April, 14,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-04/pdf/2011-7947.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-04/pdf/2011-7947.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 18504 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quotas and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tuna Fisheries...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-04</p> <p>...: Notification of public hearing. ] SUMMARY: On March 14, 2011, NMFS published a proposed rule to modify <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>... the comment <span class="hlt">period</span> for this action until April 28, 2011, allowing a 45-day comment <span class="hlt">period</span>, rescheduled... greater opportunity for public comment on the proposed rule. DATES: A hearing will be held on April...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.449..418B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.449..418B"><span id="translatedtitle">Last interglacial temperature seasonality reconstructed from tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brocas, William M.; Felis, Thomas; Obert, J. Christina; Gierz, Paul; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Denis; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Reconstructions of last interglacial (LIG, MIS 5e, ∼127-117 ka) climate offer insights into the natural response and variability of the climate system during a <span class="hlt">period</span> partially analogous to future climate change scenarios. We present well preserved fossil corals (Diploria strigosa) recovered from the southern Caribbean island of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands). These have been precisely dated by the 230Th/U-method to between 130 and 120 ka ago. Annual banding of the coral skeleton enabled construction of time windows of monthly resolved strontium/calcium (Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) temperature proxy records. In conjunction with a previously published 118 ka coral record, our eight records of up to 37 years in length, cover a total of 105 years within the LIG <span class="hlt">period</span>. From these, sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality and variability in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is reconstructed. We detect similar to modern SST seasonality of ∼2.9 °C during the early (130 ka) and the late LIG (120-118 ka). However, within the mid-LIG, a significantly higher than modern SST seasonality of 4.9 °C (at 126 ka) and 4.1 °C (at 124 ka) is observed. These findings are supported by climate model simulations and are consistent with the evolving amplitude of orbitally induced changes in seasonality of insolation throughout the LIG, irrespective of wider climatic instabilities that characterised this <span class="hlt">period</span>. The climate model simulations suggest that the SST seasonality changes documented in our LIG coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records are representative of larger regions within the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These simulations also suggest that the reconstructed SST seasonality increase during the mid-LIG is caused primarily by summer warming. A 124 ka old coral documents, for the first time, evidence of decadal SST variability in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the LIG, akin to that observed in modern instrumental records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22908256','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22908256"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of abrupt deglacial climate change on tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subsurface temperatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Matthew W; Chang, Ping; Hertzberg, Jennifer E; Them, Theodore R; Ji, Link; J, Link; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L</p> <p>2012-09-04</p> <p>Both instrumental data analyses and coupled ocean-atmosphere models indicate that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly linked to abrupt tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes. Although a slowdown of AMOC results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming because of rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns at intermediate water depths. Here, we reconstruct high-resolution temperature records using oxygen isotope values and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in both surface- and subthermocline-dwelling planktonic foraminifera from a sediment core located in the TNA over the last 22 ky. Our results show significant changes in the vertical thermal gradient of the upper water column, with the warmest subsurface temperatures of the last deglacial transition corresponding to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Furthermore, we present new analyses of a climate model simulation forced with freshwater discharge into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> under Last Glacial Maximum forcings and boundary conditions that reveal a maximum subsurface warming in the vicinity of the core site and a vertical thermal gradient change at the onset of AMOC weakening, consistent with the reconstructed record. Together, our proxy reconstructions and modeling results provide convincing evidence for a subsurface oceanic teleconnection linking high-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate to the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of reduced AMOC across the last deglacial transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3437837','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3437837"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of abrupt deglacial climate change on tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subsurface temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Matthew W.; Chang, Ping; Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Them, Theodore R.; Ji, Link; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Both instrumental data analyses and coupled ocean-atmosphere models indicate that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly linked to abrupt tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes. Although a slowdown of AMOC results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming because of rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns at intermediate water depths. Here, we reconstruct high-resolution temperature records using oxygen isotope values and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in both surface- and subthermocline-dwelling planktonic foraminifera from a sediment core located in the TNA over the last 22 ky. Our results show significant changes in the vertical thermal gradient of the upper water column, with the warmest subsurface temperatures of the last deglacial transition corresponding to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Furthermore, we present new analyses of a climate model simulation forced with freshwater discharge into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> under Last Glacial Maximum forcings and boundary conditions that reveal a maximum subsurface warming in the vicinity of the core site and a vertical thermal gradient change at the onset of AMOC weakening, consistent with the reconstructed record. Together, our proxy reconstructions and modeling results provide convincing evidence for a subsurface oceanic teleconnection linking high-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate to the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of reduced AMOC across the last deglacial transition. PMID:22908256</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981733"><span id="translatedtitle">Reproductive biology of female Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Leach, in Icelandic waters during the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1960-2010: comparative overview of distribution areas in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Mediterranean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eiríksson, Hrafnkell</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Maturity size, reproductive cycle, sex ratio and fecundity of female Nephrops were investigated at SW, S and SE Iceland for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1960-2010. Time series of biological parameters and fisheries data displayed significant relationships. In addition, female biological data from 20 areas in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Mediterranean were compared. Fifty percentage maturity estimates had an overall range of 23.9-34.4mm CL with some anomalies in the 2000s. The reproductive cycle in Iceland has been biennial during the whole study <span class="hlt">period</span> from mid-1960s to 2010 with minor change in phase in the 2000s. Biennial moulting retards female growth more than annual spawning, and the length of incubation and hatch time of year show significant relationships with latitude and sea temperature. Variations in sex ratio were observed and relationships found between female sex ratio and CL, CPUE and stock biomass during 1961-2010, displaying apparent fishery-induced effects on sex ratio. Potential and realized fecundity estimates in Iceland are 35-50% of those reported from more southerly waters. Biennial spawning and low fecundity limit the number of progeny in Icelandic Nephrops and necessitate lower fishing mortality. Ambient temperature in Icelandic waters has risen by 1°C since the late 1990s, generating around 30 days shorter incubation time in the 2000s, but around 3°C rise is necessary for possible annual spawning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP62A0316M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP62A0316M"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal-Scale Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climate Variability Recorded in Slow Growing Cape Verde Corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moses, C. S.; Swart, P. K.; Dodge, R. E.; Helmle, K. P.; Thorrold, S.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The decadal to century scale climate variability of the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> has major implications for both neighboring coastal and inland areas. Changes in patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) and SST anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are known to affect rainfall in Florida, South America, and sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the number of major hurricanes formed in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Because of the significance of these connections, it is important to further increase our predictive capacity for the recognition of trends and cycles in tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and SSTA. Located at 15° N latitude off the west coast of sub-Saharan Africa, the Cape Verde Islands are an ideal geographic location to search for records of the Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Index (TNA). Such patterns are present in proxy indicators of climate (O, C, Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) recorded in the skeletons of slow growing corals, such as Siderastrea radians, found in Cape Verde (growth rate = 1-2 mm/yr). These corals represent an archive for SST and SSTA records that exceed the instrumental <span class="hlt">period</span> of the eastern tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. We cored corals from several different locations within the Cape Verde archipelago and analyzed them for stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) and minor elements (Sr, Mg, and Ba). The δ18O signal present in these corals shows a distinct relationship to the TNA over the better part of the last 100 years. In addition, the δ18O record in several of these corals also records the onset of the latest Sahel (11°-18° N in Africa) drought which began in 1970. The Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records of these corals indicate a slight warming of the waters around Cape Verde during the last 100 years, as well as accurately recording the El Niño events of 1982-83 and 1997-98. The correlations present between the records in these corals and the known instrumental record for the eastern tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> suggests that the fluctuations recorded in the proxy indicators may be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PalOc..27.3231V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PalOc..27.3231V"><span id="translatedtitle">Corals record persistent multidecadal SST variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Warm Pool since 1775 AD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>VáSquez-Bedoya, Luis Fernando; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; Blanchon, Paul</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Accurate low-latitude sea surface temperature (SST) records that predate the instrumental era are needed to put recent warming in the context of natural climate variability and to evaluate the persistence of lower frequency climate variability prior to the instrumental era and the possible influence of anthropogenic climate change on this variability. Here we present a 235-year-long SST reconstruction based on annual growth rates (linear extension) of three colonies of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coralSiderastrea sidereasampled at two sites on the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, located within the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Warm Pool (AWP). AWP SSTs vary in concert the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), a basin-wide, quasiperiodic (˜60-80 years) oscillation of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs. We demonstrate that the annual linear growth rates of all three coral colonies are significantly inversely correlated with SST. We calibrate annual linear growth rates to SST between 1900 and 1960 AD. The linear correlation coefficient over the calibration <span class="hlt">period</span> is r = -0.77 and -0.66 over the instrumental record (1860-2008 AD). We apply our calibration to annual linear growth rates to extend the SST record to 1775 AD and show that multidecadal SST variability has been a persistent feature of the AWP, and likely, of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> over this time <span class="hlt">period</span>. Our results imply that tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs remained within 1°C of modern values during the past 225 years, consistent with a previous reconstruction based on coral growth rates and with most estimates based on the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> of planktonic foraminifera from marine sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3533L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3533L"><span id="translatedtitle">Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bathymetric map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loubrieu, B.; Sibuet, J.-C.; Monti, S.; Mazé, J.-P.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The new bathymetric map of the Bay of Biscay and Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is based on all available conventional and multibeam data. It extends from the European coast to the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ridge in longitude and from the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone to 50^oN in latitude. Grid spacing is one km. The map is in Mercator projection at a 1/2,400,000 scale. With respect to previously published maps, the detailed morphology of Eurasian and Iberian continental margins, a complete picture of the two fossil trajectories of the Bay of Biscay triple junction, which limit the western extension of the Bay of Biscay, and the precise location of the plate boundary between Eurasia and Iberia, which was active during the Tertiary, are now available. The Bay of Biscay and Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> opened simultaneously between chrons M0 (118 Ma) and 33o (80 Ma). A triple junction existed during that <span class="hlt">period</span>. Fossil triple junctions trajectories on each of the three Eurasia (EU), Iberia (IB) and North America (NA) plates separate oceanic domains which were formed between the three plate pairs: IB/EU for the Bay of Biscay, EU/NA and IB/NA for the northern and southern portions of the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> respectively. On each side of the fossil trajectories, rift directions formed between different plate pairs present different azimuths. The two eastern branches have been identified on the basis of available bathymetric, magnetic and seismic data. They are generally associated with a basement ridge whose bathymetric expression is clearly shown in their youngest parts. The intersections of these two fossil trajectories with the base of the continental margins are conjugate points before the opening of the Bay of Biscay, giving an independent constraint for plate reconstructions at M0 time. In a companion poster, we have used the constraints deduced from the new bathymetric map to derive the IB/EU kinematic motions and discuss their consequences on the formation of Pyrenees.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4033H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4033H"><span id="translatedtitle">Subsurface North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidences from the Early Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt IRD events during cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> of the Early Pleistocene. We used Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based temperatures of deep-dwelling (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral) planktonic foraminifera and paired Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-δ18O measurements to estimate the subsurface temperatures and δ18O of seawater at Site U1314. Carbon isotopes on benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based temperatures and δ18O of seawater suggest increased temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to enhanced northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of AMOC reduction. Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of ice-rafted detritus (IRD). Warm waters accumulated at subsurface would result in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Release of heat and salt stored at subsurface would help to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in response to AMOC slowdown during the MIS3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/south_atlantic_anomaly','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/south_atlantic_anomaly"><span id="translatedtitle">South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-19</p> <p>article title:  The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Anomaly     View larger GIF image The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Anomaly (SAA) . Even before the cover opened, the Multi-angle Imaging ... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Anomaly location:  <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean Global Images First Light Images region:  Before the ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-098.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-098.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat Suitability Index Models: Juvenile <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Croaker</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Diaz, Robert J.; Onuf, Christopher P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker is an important commercial and recreational species. In the 1940's, the foodfish catch of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croakers was concentrated in Chesapeake Bay; in the 1950's and early 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico; and in the late 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> States (Wilk 1981). Industrial and recreational catches of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croakers have been concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico, where the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker is the most important species of bottomfish for industrial uses (Knudsen and Herke 1978), and has ranked first, second, or third in number caught by recreational anglers, depending on survey year (Nakamura 1981). Today, Virginia or Delaware is considered to be the northern extent of the species. During climatically warmer <span class="hlt">periods</span>, such as the 1930's and 1940's, the croaker extended its range north at least to New York, where it was commercially fished. The southern extent of its range is Argentina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PalOc..26.4224K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PalOc..26.4224K"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal variability and late medieval cooling of near-coastal sea surface temperatures in the eastern tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhnert, Henning; Mulitza, Stefan</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Multidecadal variations in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SST) influence the climate of the Northern Hemisphere. However, prior to the instrumental time <span class="hlt">period</span>, information on multidecadal climate variability becomes limited, and there is a particular scarcity of sufficiently resolved SST reconstructions. Here we present an eastern tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> reconstruction of SSTs based on foraminiferal Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios that resolves multidecadal variability over the past 1700 years. Spectral power in the multidecadal band (50 to 70 years <span class="hlt">period</span>) is significant over several time intervals suggesting that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) has been influencing local SST. Since our data exhibit high scatter the absence of multidecadal variability in the remaining record does not exclude the possibility that SST variations on this time scale might have been present without being detected in our data. Cooling by ˜0.5°C takes place between about AD 1250 and AD 1500; while this corresponds to the inception of the Little Ice Age (LIA), the end of the LIA is not reflected in our record and SST remains relatively low. This transition to cooler SSTs parallels the previously reconstructed shift in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation toward a low pre-20th century mean state and possibly reflects common solar forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9110D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9110D"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrographic changes in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at the MCA to LIA transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Divine, Dmitry; Miettinen, Arto; Husum, Katrine; Koc, Nalan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A network of four marine sediment cores from the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is used to study hydrographic changes in surface water masses during the last 2000 years with a special focus on the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) transition. Three of the cores are recovered from the sites located on main pathways of warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water to the Arctic: M95-2011 (Vøring plateau, Norwegian Sea), Rapid-21 COM and LO-14 (Reykjanes Ridge, south of Iceland). The fourth core MD99-2322 is from the SE Greenland shelf (Denmark Strait), and it is influenced by the cold water outflow from the Arctic. The cores were analyzed continuously for planktonic diatoms with a high decadal to subdecadal temporal resolution. Past changes in the spatial distribution of surface water masses have been studied identifying factors, or typical species compositions, in downcore diatom assemblages. To derive the factors a Q-mode factor analysis has been applied to the extended modern calibration data set of 184 surface sediment samples from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the Labrador Sea, the Nordic Seas, and Baffin Bay. SSTs have also been reconstructed using transfer functions. Variations of the reconstructed SSTs and loadings of major contributing factors reveal a complex regional pattern of changes in the structure of circulation during the MCA/LIA transition (1200-1400 AD). In the Norwegian Sea, the factors associated with assemblages typical for warmer and saline North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters are partly displaced by colder and fresher water dwelling diatoms suggesting an eastward migration of mixed Arctic/<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water masses into the Norwegian Sea. The two cores south of Iceland show a westward propagation of a warm water pulse as evidenced by the dominance of assemblages, which today are typical for the waters <span class="hlt">ca</span> 5° further south than the current study sites. At the SE Greenland shelf an abrupt shift (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 50 years) in factors associated with different sea ice zone dwelling diatoms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6983M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6983M"><span id="translatedtitle">A modelling study of the influence of anomalous wind forcing over the Barents Sea on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water flow to the Arctic Ocean in the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1979-2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marciniak, Jakub; Schlichtholz, Pawel; Maslowski, Wieslaw</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Arctic climate system is influenced by oceanic heat transport with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water (AW) streaming towards the Arctic Ocean in two branches, through the deep Fram Strait and the shallow Barents Sea. In Fram Strait, the AW submerges below the Polar surface water and then flows cyclonically along the margin of the Arctic Ocean as a subsurface water mass in the Arctic Slope Current. In contrast to the Fram Strait branch, which is the major source of heat for the Arctic Ocean, most of the heat influx to the Barents Sea through the Barents Sea opening (BSO) is passed to the atmosphere. Only cold remnants of AW outflow to the Arctic Ocean through the northeastern gate of the Barents Sea. Some AW entering the Barents Sea recirculates westward, contributing to an outflow from the Barents Sea through the BSO along the shelf slope south of Bear Island, in the Bear Island Slope Current. Even though the two-branched AW flow toward the Arctic Ocean has been known for more than a century, little is known about co-variability of heat fluxes in the two branches, its mechanisms and climatic implications. Recent studies indicate that the Bear Island Slope Current may play a role in this co-variability. Here, co-variability of the flow through the BSO and Fram Strait is investigated using a pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean hindcast model run for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1979-2004 and forced with daily atmospheric data from the ECMWF. Significant wintertime co-variability between the volume transport in the Bear Island and Arctic slope currents and its link to wind forcing over the Barents Sea is confirmed. It is found that the volume transports in these currents are, however, not correlated in the annual mean and that the wintertime co-variability of these currents has no immediate effect on either the net heat flux through the BSO or the net heat flux divergence in the Barents Sea. It is shown that the main climatic effect of wind forcing over the northern Barents Sea shelf is to induce temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0653.photos.378578p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0653.photos.378578p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Photocopy of ground floor plan, <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 12939. Plans and renovations ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Photocopy of ground floor plan, <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 12939. Plans and renovations required for the 1940-1941 addition are overlaid on the original plan - Stamford Post Office, 421 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Street, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRI...95...99B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRI...95...99B"><span id="translatedtitle">Sex-structure, depth distribution, intermoult <span class="hlt">period</span> and reproductive pattern of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon affinis (Brachyura, Geryonidae) in two populations in the north-eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biscoito, Manuel; Freitas, Mafalda; Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Santana, José I.; Costa, Ana L.; Delgado, João; González, José A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This work investigated the biology of Chaceon affinis in two isolated populations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including depth distribution, sexual structure, reproductive patterns and intermoult <span class="hlt">period</span>. Males were larger and heavier than females. Mean size decreased with depth for both males and females. The highest abundance was found at 600-799 m of depth for males and at 800-999 m depth stratum for females. The highest abundance of ovigerous females was found at the 800-999 m depth stratum. Of the different ovaries' colour or colour shades recorded, only six categories were histologically characterized. The presence of spermatophores in the spermatheca of females in carapace stages II and III suggests that spermatophores are viable and used during the intermoult <span class="hlt">period</span>. The size at sexual maturity in females was estimated at 104.4-104.7 mm carapace width (CW) in Madeira, and 109.3-110.5 mm CW in the Canary Islands. Only three categories of testes were identified. Mature testes consisted in a large mass, with highly coiled vasa deferentia visible to the naked eye. The size at sexual maturity in males was estimated at 113.8 mm CW in Madeira and 118.9 mm CW in the Canaries. The relative growth of males showed significant changes along the ontogeny and size at which allometric growth changes, as an indicator of morphometric maturity, occurred between 103.2 and 103.6 mm CW in Madeira and between 111.4 and 113.1 mm CW in the Canaries. In females, size at which allometric growth changes was found for maximum width of fifth abdominal somite (AS5W) at 98.2 mm CW in Madeira and 103.0 mm CW in the Canaries. The size at maturity obtained for C. affinis indicates that the minimum landing size (MLS) should not be set smaller than 125 mm CW in Madeira and 130 mm CW in the Canaries. This conservative MLS, higher than length at functional maturity, would safeguard immature individuals until they reach the size at which they can contribute to the reproductive capacity of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061355','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061355"><span id="translatedtitle">At the Feet of the Fortress: Analysis of Inka <span class="hlt">Period</span> (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 1430-1536) Archaeofaunal Assemblages from Residential Unit 1 (RU1), Pucara de Tilcara (Jujuy, Argentina)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the results of a zooarchaeological analysis conducted on the occupation layer of a compound structure (Residential Unit 1) of the Pucara de Tilcara archaeological site (Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina). Its occupation span extends between the 13th and 15th centuries AD, but evidence diagnostic of the Inka <span class="hlt">Period</span> (AD 1430–1536) is predominant. Residential Unit 1 was a house-workshop that hosted specialized crafts like metallurgy and lapidary during the Inka <span class="hlt">Period</span>. It was proposed in previous works that artisans living at Pucara de Tilcara were provisioned with agropastoral products by the Inka administration. This paper aims to test that hypothesis against the zooarchaeological evidence of Residential Unit 1. Three variables were used as proxies for state-sponsored distribution: taxonomic diversity (family and species ranks), and skeletal and age profiles of the predominant zoological family (Camelidae) in the assemblage. The results show a high degree of continuity with the regional record, characterized by a herding-hunting strategy focused on domestic and wild species of Camelidae and a mixed mortality pattern. The skeletal profile shows a strong and negative correlation with the desiccation potential of elements, which could be indicative of local production of chalona. Overall, faunal evidence does not show any sign of centralized distribution. PMID:27732648</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP51E..04F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP51E..04F"><span id="translatedtitle">Meltwater routing and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation: A Gulf of Mexico perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flower, B. P.; Williams, C.; Randle, N.; Hastings, D. W.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Routing of low-salinity meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> via eastern outlets (e.g., St. Lawrence and Hudson River systems) and northern outlets (e.g., Hudson Bay and Arctic Ocean) is thought to have reduced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and thereby triggered rapid regional to global climate change during the last glacial cycle. In contrast, southward meltwater flow to the Gulf of Mexico is generally thought to allow enhanced AMOC and warmer climates in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. Situated at the outlet of the Mississippi River system, Orca Basin is ideally located to record meltwater input from the LIS. Orca Basin core MD02-2550 collected by the R/V Marion Dufresne in 2002 on IMAGES cruise VIII allows sub-centennial-scale records of Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> sea-surface temperature (SST) and δ18Oseawater back to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 23.9 ka. Accumulation rates average about 40 cm/k.y. Our current data extend from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 16.5-7 ka, with age control provided by 40 AMS radiocarbon dates (nearly all in stratigraphic order; calibrated using Calib 5.0.2). We use paired Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and oxygen isotope data on Globigerinoides ruber to isolate changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater. Four major episodic δ18O decreases of more than 2 per mil indicate substantial LIS meltwater input. Intervals of major meltwater discharge to the Gulf of Mexico do not appear to match known pulses of global sea level increase. However, abrupt reductions in southward meltwater input to the Gulf of Mexico seem to correlate with abrupt coolings in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region (e.g., Younger Dryas, Intra-Allerod cold <span class="hlt">period</span>, and Oldest Dryas). In particular, a 3.5 per mil δ18O increase centered at 10,970 radiocarbon years B.P. (the "cessation event") appears to coincide with the onset of the Younger Dryas in European lakes and with Δ14C evidence from Cariaco Basin for AMOC reduction. Furthermore, recent results with the NCAR Community Climate System model (CCSM3) indicate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..114.1108M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..114.1108M"><span id="translatedtitle">Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mellinger, David K.; Clark, Christopher W.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Sounds of blue whales were recorded from U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The most common signals were long, patterned sequences of very-low-frequency sounds in the 15-20 Hz band. Sounds within a sequence were hierarchically organized into phrases consisting of one or two different sound types. Sequences were typically composed of two-part phrases repeated every 73 s: a constant-frequency tonal ``A'' part lasting approximately 8 s, followed 5 s later by a frequency-modulated ``B'' part lasting approximately 11 s. A common sequence variant consisted only of repetitions of part A. Sequences were separated by silent <span class="hlt">periods</span> averaging just over four minutes. Two other sound types are described: a 2-5 s tone at 9 Hz, and a 5-7s inflected tone that swept up in frequency to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 70 Hz and then rapidly down to 25 Hz. The general characteristics of repeated sequences of simple combinations of long-duration, very-low-frequency sound units repeated every 1-2 min are typical of blue whale sounds recorded in other parts of the world. However, the specific frequency, duration, and repetition interval features of these North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sounds are different than those reported from other regions, lending further support to the notion that geographically separate blue whale populations have distinctive acoustic displays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12942988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12942988"><span id="translatedtitle">Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mellinger, David K; Clark, Christopher W</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Sounds of blue whales were recorded from U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The most common signals were long, patterned sequences of very-low-frequency sounds in the 15-20 Hz band. Sounds within a sequence were hierarchically organized into phrases consisting of one or two different sound types. Sequences were typically composed of two-part phrases repeated every 73 s: a constant-frequency tonal "A" part lasting approximately 8 s, followed 5 s later by a frequency-modulated "B" part lasting approximately 11 s. A common sequence variant consisted only of repetitions of part A. Sequences were separated by silent <span class="hlt">periods</span> averaging just over four minutes. Two other sound types are described: a 2-5 s tone at 9 Hz, and a 5-7 s inflected tone that swept up in frequency to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 70 Hz and then rapidly down to 25 Hz. The general characteristics of repeated sequences of simple combinations of long-duration, very-low-frequency sound units repeated every 1-2 min are typical of blue whale sounds recorded in other parts of the world. However, the specific frequency, duration, and repetition interval features of these North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sounds are different than those reported from other regions, lending further support to the notion that geographically separate blue whale populations have distinctive acoustic displays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21560021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21560021"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic structure of HgBa{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Ca</span>{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n+2} (n= 1, 2, 3) superconductor parent compounds from <span class="hlt">periodic</span> hybrid density functional theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moreira, Iberio de P. R.; Rivero, Pablo; Illas, Francesc</p> <p>2011-02-21</p> <p>The electronic structure of HgBa{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Ca</span>{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n+2} (n= 1, 2, and 3) high T{sub c} superconductor parent compounds has been investigated by means of <span class="hlt">periodic</span> hybrid density functional theory. Similar to other cuprates, these materials are predicted to exhibit an antiferromagnetic ground state with well localized S= 1/2 magnetic centers at the Cu{sup 2+} sites. However, the presence of the HgO{sub 2} structural units largely defines the nature of states dominating the energy range around Fermi energy. This results in a complex charge transfer character of the insulating gap which decreases when increasing the number of CuO{sub 2} planes in the unit cell, to the point that in the HgBa{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Ca</span>{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} compound it becomes so small that one can claim that the resulting material is metallic. Nevertheless, the metallic character arises from the HgO{sub 2} structural units and coexists with the antiferromagnetic order arising from the localized spins at the Cu{sup 2+} sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP33A..03C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP33A..03C"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of Seawater 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> Through the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castillo, P. R.; Gopalan, K.; Norris, R. D.; MacIsaac, C.; Liu, X.; MacDougall, J. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We analyzed the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> concentrations and 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of surface ocean planktonic (Morozovella, Acarinina, Dentoglobigerina) and benthic (Gavelinella) foraminifera of Late Cretaceous to Late Oligocene ages from DSDP and ODP sites in the Pacific, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian oceans in order to fill a major gap in the Phanerozoic seawater 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> curve (Farkass et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 2007). Our new 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data indicate a general increase in foraminiferan-based seawater 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> from ~-1.3 ‰ δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SW in Late Cretaceous to ~0.0 ‰ δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SW in Early Miocene (Heuser et al., Paleocean. 20, 2005; Sime et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 2007). In detail, the 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratio stepped abruptly from ~-1.3 ‰ δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SW to a slightly higher value of ~-1.1 ‰ δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SW across the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. A slight positive excursion of ~0.2 ‰ above the background value occurred after the Paleocene Thermal Maximum (55 Ma) but otherwise, the Paleocene to Middle Eocene ratio is relatively stable at ~-1.0 ‰ δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SW. The most prominent increase in foraminiferan-based seawater 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> occurred from Late Eocene to Late Oligocene, roughly coincident with the initial phase of the rapid and steady rise of marine carbonate 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Tertiary (e.g., DePaolo and Ingram, Science 227, 1985).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245350','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245350"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatic and limnological changes associated with the Younger Dryas in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilson, S.E.; Smol, J.P.; Walker, I.R.</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Pollen, diatom and chironomid fossils from the sediments of a core from Brier Island Bog Lake, Nova Scotia were studied in an attempt to relate changes in microfossil composition to a climatic cooling in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada correlative with the European Younger Dryas <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 10 to 11 ka. Our paleolimnological data were then compared to similar types of data from Splan Pond, New Brunswick to determine if there were any significant differences between a coastal and a more inland site. Nonarboreal pollen was dominant throughout the Brier Island core and the interval 10.0-11.0 ka did not show the typical decline in Picea and increases in tundra-like vegetation characteristic of many sites in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada. However, the limnological indicators did undergo marked changes in taxon composition. The chironomid assemblage was initially dominated by shallow-water, warm-adapted chironomid taxa followed by abundant Sergentia (a cold stenotherm) during 10-11 ka. Sergentia disappeared in the {open_quotes}post Younger Dryas{close_quotes} interval and the warm-adapted genera resumed dominance. Chironomid-inferred paleotemperature reconstructions revealed that at both Brier Island Bog Lake and Splan Pond, summer surface-water temperatures dropped abruptly to between 13 and 17{degrees}C during the 10-11 ka interval, suggesting that a cooler climate was present in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada correlative with the European Younger Dryas. Diatom assemblage changes during the same <span class="hlt">period</span> corroborate the occurrence of limnological fluctuations. 40 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052295&hterms=Atlantic+Coastal+Plain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAtlantic%2BCoastal%2BPlain','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052295&hterms=Atlantic+Coastal+Plain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAtlantic%2BCoastal%2BPlain"><span id="translatedtitle">Rain rate statistics and fade distributions at 20 and 30 GHz derived from a network of rain gauges in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast over a five year <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldhirsh, Julius; Krichevsky, Vladimir; Gebo, Norman E.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A network of ten tipping bucket rain gauges located within a grid 70 km north-south and 47 km east-west in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast of the United States was used to analyze rain rate and modeled slant path attenuation distributions at 20 and 30 GHz. It was shown that, for realistic fade margins at 20 GHz and above, the variable integration times results are adequate to estimate slant path attenuations using models which require 1 min averages. Crane's Global Model was used to derive fade distributions at 20 and 30 GHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP31C2258R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP31C2258R"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Holocene climate change in the western Mediterranean: centennial-scale vegetation and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramos Román, M. J.; Jimenez-Moreno, G.; Anderson, R. S.; García-Alix, A.; Toney, J. L.; Jiménez-Espejo, F. J. J.; Carrión, J. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sediments from alpine peat bogs and lakes from the Sierra Nevada in southeastern Spain (western Mediterranean area) have been very informative in terms of how vegetation and wetland environments were impacted by past climate change. Recently, many studies try to find out the relationship between solar activity, atmosphere and ocean dynamics and changes in the terrestrial environments. The Mediterranean is a very sensitive area with respect to atmospheric dynamics due to (1) its location, right in the boundary between subtropical and temperate climate systems and (2) the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) is one of the main mechanism that influence present climate in this area. Here we present a multi-proxy high-resolution study from Borreguil de la Caldera (BdlC), a peat bog that records the last <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 4500 cal yr BP of vegetation, fire, human impact and climate history from the Sierra Nevada. The pollen, charcoal and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) reconstruction in the BdlC-01 record evidence relative humidity changes in the last millennia interrupting the late Holocene aridification trend. This study shows a relative arid <span class="hlt">period</span> between <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 4000 and 3100 cal yr BP; the Iberian Roman humid <span class="hlt">period</span> (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 2600 to 1600 cal yr BP); a relative arid <span class="hlt">period</span> during the Dark Ages (from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 500 to AD 900) and Medieval Climate Anomaly (from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 900 to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 1300) and predominantly wetter conditions corresponding with The Little Ice Age <span class="hlt">period</span> (from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 1300 to AD 1850). This climate variability could be explained by centennial scale changes in the NAO and solar activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7249H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7249H"><span id="translatedtitle">Subsurface warming in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during rapid climate events in the Early and Mid-Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Sierro, Francisco; Cacho, Isabel; Abel Flores, José</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A new high-resolution reconstruction of the temperature and salinity of the subsurface waters using paired Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-δ18O measurements on the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistrorsa (sin.) was conducted on a deep-sea sediment core in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Site U1314). This study aims to reconstruct millennial-scale subsurface hydrography variations during the Early and Mid-Pleistocene (MIS 31-19). These rapid climate events are characterized by abrupt shifts between warm/cold conditions, and ice-sheet oscillations, as evidenced by major ice rafting events recorded in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediments (Hernández-Almeida et al., 2012), similar to those found during the Last Glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> (Marcott et al, 2011). The Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> derived paleotemperature and salinity oscillations prior and during IRD discharges at Site U1314 are related to changes in intermediate circulation. The increases in Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleotemperatures and salinities during the IRD event are preceded by short episodes of cooling and freshening of subsurface waters. The response of the AMOC to this perturbation is an increased of warm and salty water coming from the south, transported to high latitudes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> beneath the thermocline. This process is accompanied by a southward shift in the convection cell from the Nordic Seas to the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and better ventilation of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at mid-depths. Poleward transport of warm and salty subsurface subtropical waters causes intense basal melting and thinning of marine ice-shelves, that culminates in large-scale instability of the ice sheets, retreat of the grounding line and iceberg discharge. The mechanism proposed involves the coupling of the AMOC with ice-sheet dynamics, and would explain the presence of these fluctuations before the establishment of high-amplitude 100-kyr glacial cycles. Hernández-Almeida, I., Sierro, F.J., Cacho, I., Flores, J.A., 2012. Impact of suborbital climate changes in the North</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A42B..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A42B..02F"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed Influence of Amazon rainfall on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, R.; Wang, H.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Most of previous studies on climate variabilities of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean have been focused on remote and internal oceanic processes or atmosphere-ocean interaction. In comparison, relatively few studies have examined the influences from adjacent continents, especially the influence of rainfall over the South American continent. Using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) daily rain-rate dada, the QuikSCAT ocean surface wind and PIRATA buoy data, we have found that convection developed over the Amazonia appears to propagate eastward across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and then into Africa. Such changes modulate the intensity and location of the convection within the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ and result in a zonal oscillation of the ITCZ between the west and east equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. The eastward propagating disturbances appear to be an atmospheric Kelvin wave with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 6 to 7 days and a phase speed of around 12 m s-1. Such convectively coupled Kelvin wave is particularly strong during boreal spring and dominates the synoptic variations of the lower and upper troposphere winds. Our results further suggest that the interannual changes of these convective coupled Kelvin waves have an important influence on trigging the onset of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ninos. In particular, anomalously late northward withdraw of the South American rainfall in boreal spring lead to stronger Kelvin wave activities and stronger westerly wind anomalies in the western equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The latter triggers a change of the slope of the thermocline in the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and induces sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These changes contribute to the onset of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino in earlier boreal summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ211633.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ211633.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Evolution of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCoy, Floyd W.; Rabinowitz, Philip D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The development of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> continental margins through geological time is discussed in a series of three time slices, all of which depict various characteristics in the initial formation of this margin during the Cretaceous <span class="hlt">period</span> (180 to 65 million years ago) of the Mesozoic era. (BT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GML....29..477P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GML....29..477P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of multidecadal climate variability and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation from a Gulf of Mexico sea-surface temperature-proxy record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poore, Richard Z.; Delong, Kristine L.; Richey, Julie N.; Quinn, Terrence M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A comparison of a Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based sea-surface temperature (SST)-anomaly record from the northern Gulf of Mexico, a calculated index of variability in observed North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and a tree-ring reconstruction of the AMO contain similar patterns of variation over the last 110 years. Thus, the multidecadal variability observed in the instrumental record is present in the tree-ring and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> proxy data. Frequency analysis of the Gulf of Mexico SST record and the tree-ring AMO reconstruction from 1550 to 1990 found similar multidecadal-scale <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> (~30-60 years). This multidecadal <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> is about half the observed (60-80 years) variability identified in the AMO for the 20th century. The historical records of hurricane landfalls reveal increased landfalls in the Gulf Coast region during time intervals when the AMO index is positive (warmer SST), and decreased landfalls when the AMO index is negative (cooler SST). Thus, we conclude that alternating intervals of high and low hurricane landfall occurrences may continue on multidecadal timescales along the northern Gulf Coast. However, given the short length of the instrumental record, the actual frequency and stability of the AMO are uncertain, and additional AMO proxy records are needed to establish the character of multidecadal-scale SST variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037464','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037464"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of multidecadal climate variability and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation from a Gulf of Mexico sea-surface temperature-proxy record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poore, R.Z.; DeLong, K.L.; Richey, J.N.; Quinn, T.M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A comparison of a Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based sea-surface temperature (SST)-anomaly record from the northern Gulf of Mexico, a calculated index of variability in observed North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and a tree-ring reconstruction of the AMO contain similar patterns of variation over the last 110 years. Thus, the multidecadal variability observed in the instrumental record is present in the tree-ring and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> proxy data. Frequency analysis of the Gulf of Mexico SST record and the tree-ring AMO reconstruction from 1550 to 1990 found similar multidecadal-scale <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> (???30-60 years). This multidecadal <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> is about half the observed (60-80 years) variability identified in the AMO for the 20th century. The historical records of hurricane landfalls reveal increased landfalls in the Gulf Coast region during time intervals when the AMO index is positive (warmer SST), and decreased landfalls when the AMO index is negative (cooler SST). Thus, we conclude that alternating intervals of high and low hurricane landfall occurrences may continue on multidecadal timescales along the northern Gulf Coast. However, given the short length of the instrumental record, the actual frequency and stability of the AMO are uncertain, and additional AMO proxy records are needed to establish the character of multidecadal-scale SST variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. ?? 2009 US Government.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107068p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107068p/"><span id="translatedtitle">3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> WITH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> WITH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> OCEAN IN THE FOREGROUND. DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL, AND MARLBOROUGH HOTEL (LEFT TO RIGHT) ARE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CLARIDGE HOTEL IS THE HIGHRISE IMMEDIATELY TO THE RIGHT OF THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317504','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317504"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature seasonality at the end of the last interglacial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Felis, Thomas; Giry, Cyril; Scholz, Denis; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pfeiffer, Madlene; Pätzold, Jürgen; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The end of the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, ~118 kyr ago, was characterized by substantial ocean circulation and climate perturbations resulting from instabilities of polar ice sheets. These perturbations are crucial for a better understanding of future climate change. The seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean, however, which play an important role in seasonal climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods and droughts at the present day, are not well known for this <span class="hlt">period</span> that led into the last glacial. Here we present a monthly resolved snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean for 117.7±0.8 kyr ago, using coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O records. We find that temperature seasonality was similar to today, which is consistent with the orbital insolation forcing. Our coral and climate model results suggest that temperature seasonality of the tropical surface ocean is controlled mainly by orbital insolation changes during interglacials. PMID:25609544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP53C1163T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP53C1163T"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracing the history of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Anomaly on an Archeomagnetic Timescale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tarduno, J. A.; Huffman, T. N.; Watkeys, M. K.; Cottrell, R. D.; Wagner, C. L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The dramatic decay of the dipole geomagnetic field during the last 160 years has been driven by growth of a low intensity region in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> that we refer to as the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Anomaly (SAA). The rapid decay relative to ohmic resistance has motivated models of core flux expulsion. A prominent core patch of reversed polarity flux beneath South Africa has been called for on the basis of analyses of modern field data recorded by satellites. The rapid decay and similarity of the SAA to patterns seen in some numerical simulations of reversals has driven speculation that Earth is heading toward a field reversal. Putting the SAA in a longer temporal context, however, has been difficult because of the lack of archeomagnetic data from this key region of the Southern Hemisphere. To address this data deficiency, we report the first archeomagnetic curve from Early, Middle and Late Iron Age sites from South Africa, dated between <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 700 and 1650 AD. The floors of burnt structures (huts, grain bins and kraals) resulting from ritualistic village cleansing provide opportunities to obtain directional data. Directions reveal times of modest change (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 0.04 degrees/yr, <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 730 to 1225 AD), followed by a time of rapid change (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 0.11 to 0.15 degrees/yr, 1225 to 1580 AD). Preliminary paleointensity data from the burnt structures and coeval pottery show field strengths that are comparable to the lowest values seen in the SAA today during the <span class="hlt">period</span> of rapid field directional change. Implications of these data for core processes will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029402','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029402"><span id="translatedtitle">Catastrophic meltwater discharge down the Hudson Valley: a potential trigger for the Intra-Allerød cold <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Driscoll, Neal W.; Uchupi, Elazar; Keigwin, Loyd D.; Schwab, William C.; Thieler, E. Robert; Swift, Stephen A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Glacial freshwater discharge to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean during deglaciation may have inhibited oceanic thermohaline circulation, and is often postulated to have driven climatic fluctuations. Yet attributing meltwater-discharge events to particular climate oscillations is problematic, because the location, timing, and amount of meltwater discharge are often poorly constrained. We present evidence from the Hudson Valley and the northeastern U.S. continental margin that establishes the timing of the catastrophic draining of Glacial Lake Iroquois, which breached the moraine dam at the Narrows in New York City, eroded glacial lake sediments in the Hudson Valley, and deposited large sediment lobes on the New York and New Jersey continental shelf <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 13,350 yr B.P. Excess 14C in Cariaco Basin sediments indicates a slowing in thermohaline circulation and heat transport to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at that time, and both marine and terrestrial paleoclimate proxy records around the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> show a short-lived (<400 yr) cold event (Intra-Aller??d cold <span class="hlt">period</span>) that began <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 13,350 yr B.P. The meltwater discharge out the Hudson Valley may have played an important role in triggering the Intra-Aller??d cold <span class="hlt">period</span> by diminishing thermohaline circulation. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1342648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1342648"><span id="translatedtitle">Commensurate 4 <i>a</i> <sub>0</sub> -<span class="hlt">period</span> charge density modulations throughout the Bi <sub>2</sub> Sr <sub>2</sub> <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu <sub>2</sub> O <sub>8+x</sub> pseudogap regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mesaros, Andrej; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Edkins, Stephen D.; Hamidian, Mohammad H.; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Davis, J. C. Seamus; Lawler, Michael J.; Kim, Eun-Ah</p> <p>2016-10-20</p> <p>Theories based upon strong real space (r-space) electron–electron interactions have long predicted that unidirectional charge density modulations (CDMs) with four-unit-cell (4<sub>a0</sub>) <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> should occur in the hole-doped cuprate Mott insulator (MI). But, increasing the hole density p is reported to cause the conventionally defined wavevector Q<sub>A</sub> of the CDM to evolve continuously as if driven primarily by momentum-space (k-space) effects. We introduce phase-resolved electronic structure visualization for determination of the cuprate CDM wavevector. Remarkably, this technique reveals a virtually doping-independent locking of the local CDM wavevector at |Q<sub>0</sub>|=2π/4<sub>a0</sub> throughout the underdoped phase diagram of the canonical cuprate Bi<sub>2</sub>Sr<sub>2</sub><span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu<sub>2</sub>O<sub>8</sub>. Our observations have significant fundamental consequences because they are orthogonal to a k-space (Fermi-surface)–based picture of the cuprate CDMs but are consistent with strong-coupling r-space–based theories. Our findings imply that it is the latter that provides the intrinsic organizational principle for the cuprate CDM state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13C1542L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13C1542L"><span id="translatedtitle">Mid-Pliocene Sea Surface Temperature of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Gyre</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lutz, B. P.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene (~3.5-3.0 Ma) was a warm and variable <span class="hlt">period</span> during which mean global surface temperatures were 2-3°C warmer than today despite similar external forcing. As the magnitude of this warming is similar to that which is projected for the late 21st century, the mid-Pliocene is considered a useful (albeit imperfect) analog for future climate change. It also provides a natural test bed for proxy data-climate model integration and the calibration of general circulation models (GCMs) used to predict future climate changes. Proxy data and GCM simulations have provided clear evidence that the mid-Pliocene ocean was characterized by reduced vertical and meridional temperature gradients, leading to the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturn circulation (AMOC) and associated tropical heat advection were more vigorous than today. The zone of maximum oceanic-atmospheric northward mass and energy transport in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lies between ~15°N and ~35°N latitude. A detailed understanding of sea surface conditions in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Gyre (NASG; ~15°-40° N latitude) is therefore critical to our understanding of tropical-extratropical heat fluxes during the mid-Pliocene. Because <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean circulation patterns were similar to today, planktic foraminifer assemblages and sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions of the NASG can be used to further elucidate and partition the causes of mid-Pliocene warmth, better describe to role of ocean circulation in climate change, and understand changes in biogeography during a geologically recent warm <span class="hlt">period</span>. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) project, this study provides a faunal analysis and multi-proxy (Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-, alkenone-, and faunal assemblage-based) SST reconstruction of the NASG during the mid-Pliocene. Preliminary faunal results indicate that relative to modern conditions, gyre circulation was stronger (particularly the Gulf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003156','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003156"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of the Oceanic Turbulent Boundary Layer to Cyclic Insolation Change with Response <span class="hlt">Periods</span> of 23 to 2.5 Ky: an Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Record for the Last 200 Ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcintyre, Andrew</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Time series of sea-surface temperature in cores sited beneath the region of maximum divergence centered on 10 degrees W are characterized by two sets of <span class="hlt">periodic</span> signals. The dominant signal is centered on a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 23 Ky and is coherent with and lags, approx. 2.5 Ky, the precessional component of orbitally controlled insolation. The subdominant <span class="hlt">periods</span> occur between 4.0 and 2.5 Ky. Both sets of signals record variation in the seasonal intensity of oceanic divergence modulated by variation in tropical easterly intensity. The longer <span class="hlt">periods</span> are a response to precessional forcing. The forcing responsible for the shorter <span class="hlt">periods</span> is unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP21B1999M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP21B1999M"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea Surface Temperature Seesaw between the Subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Norwegian Sea during the Late Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miettinen, A.; Divine, D.; Koc, N.; Godtliebsen, F.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>August sea surface temperature (aSST) record based on fossil diatom assemblages is generated from a 2800-year-long marine sediment core Rapid 21-COM from the Iceland Basin, in the northern subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The record has a resolution of 2-10 years for interval 800-2004 AD representing the highest-resolution diatom SST reconstruction from the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> for this <span class="hlt">period</span>, and 40 years for interval 800 BC-800 AD. The record is compared with the high-resolution aSST record from core CR948/2011 from the Vøring Plateau, in the Norwegian Sea, to explore the variability of the aSST gradient between these areas during the late Holocene. The aSST records show persistent opposite climate trends toward warming in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and cooling in the Norwegian Sea during the late Holocene. An apparent tendency to coherent antiphased aSST variations between the sites is also revealed for the shorter time scales implying an aSST seesaw between the northern subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Norwegian Sea to operate during the late Holocene. At the multicentennial scale of aSST variability of 600-900 years, the records are nearly in antiphase with warmer (colder) <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corresponding to the colder (warmer) <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the Norwegian Sea. At the shorter time scale of 200-450 years, the records display a phase-locked behaviour with a tendency for the positive aSST anomalies in the Norwegian Sea to lead by <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 30 years the negative aSST anomalies in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This aSST seesaw might have had a strong effect on two major climate anomalies in the northwest Europe during the past Millennium: Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). During the MWP warming of the sea surface in the Norwegian Sea occurred in parallel with cooling in the northern subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, whereas the opposite pattern emerged during the LIA. Coupled changes in aSST between the northern subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..216V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..216V"><span id="translatedtitle">600 yr High-Resolution Climate Reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation deduced from a Puerto Rican Speleothem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieten, Rolf; Winter, Amos; Scholz, Denis; Black, David; Spoetl, Christoph; Winterhalder, Sophie; Koltai, Gabriella; Schroeder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Terzer, Stefan; Zanchettin, Davide; Mangini, Augusto</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">periods</span> of decreased rainfall. Before 1800 there were two intervals of increased Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ13C values (dryer conditions) lasting several decades in our speleothem record centered around 1680 CE and 1470 CE. The elevated ratios indicate that drier conditions than present may have occurred in the region during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76694&keyword=prediction+AND+probability&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=88545681&CFTOKEN=70174417','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76694&keyword=prediction+AND+probability&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=88545681&CFTOKEN=70174417"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERACTIVE HABITAT MODELS FOR MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> HIGHLAND STREAM FISHES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In most wadeable streams of the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highland region of the eastern United States, habitat alteration resulting from development in the watershed is the primary stressor for fish. Models that predict the presence of stream fish species based on habitat characteristics <span class="hlt">ca</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5251937','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5251937"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ dynamics in zebrafish morphogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tsutsui, Kenta; Ogawa, Tomohisa</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Intracellular calcium ion (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+) signaling is heavily involved in development, as illustrated by the use of a number of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ indicators. However, continuous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ patterns during morphogenesis have not yet been studied using fluorescence resonance energy transfer to track the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sensor. In the present study, we monitored <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ levels during zebrafish morphogenesis and differentiation with yellow cameleon, YC2.12. Our results show not only clear changes in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ levels but also continuous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ patterns at 24 hpf and later <span class="hlt">periods</span> for the first time. Serial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+dynamics during early pharyngula <span class="hlt">period</span> (Prim-5-20; 24–33 hpf) was successfully observed with cameleon, which have not reported anywhere yet. In fact, high <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ level occurred concurrently with hindbrain development in segmentation and pharyngula <span class="hlt">periods</span>. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ patterns in the late gastrula through segmentation <span class="hlt">periods</span> which were obtained with cameleon, were similar to those obtained previously with other <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+sensor. Our results suggested that the use of various <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sensors may lead to novel findings in studies of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ dynamics. We hope that these results will prove valuable for further research in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling. PMID:28133572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021534','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021534"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonics of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Williams, H.; Dehler, S.A.; Grant, A.C.; Oakey, G.N.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The tectonic history of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada is summarized according to a model of multiple ocean opening-closing cycles. The modern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is in the opening phase of its cycle. It was preceded by an early Paleozoic lapetus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Appalachian Orogen. lapetus was preceded by the Neoproterozoic Uranus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Grenville Orogen. The phenomenon of coincident, or almost coincident orogens and modern continental margins that relate to repeated ocean opening-closing cycles is called the Accordion Effect. An understanding of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and its continental margins provides insights into the nature of lapetus and the evolution of the Appalachian Orogen. Likewise, an understanding of lapetus and the Appalachian Orogen raises questions about Uranus and the development of the Grenville Orogen. Modern tectonic patterns in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> may have been determined by events that began before 1000 m.y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910041720&hterms=thermohaline+circulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dthermohaline%2Bcirculation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910041720&hterms=thermohaline+circulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dthermohaline%2Bcirculation"><span id="translatedtitle">South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> interbasin exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rintoul, Stephen Rich</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The exchange of mass and heat between the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP13A1369R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP13A1369R"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bottom Water nutrients and carbonate ion during the last 467,000 years BP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rashid, H.; Marchitto, T.; Boyle, E. A.; Smith, M. E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is essential since it reorganizes heat and moisture between high and low latitudes and thus exerts control on the global climate. Boyle and Keigwin (1985/86) reconstructed the MOC of the last 215 ka BP using the sediment core CHN82-4PC from the subtropical northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. The authors inferred that the net export of the nutrient-depleted North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) was reduced by a factor of two relative to the inflow of the nutrient-rich Southern Ocean Waters (SOW) during the glacial marine isotope stages (MIS) 2, 4 and 6. In this study, we extend the records up to 467 ka BP (i.e. MIS 12) by patching CHN82-4PC records with IODP Site 1313 (41oN, 32.57oW; 3,425 mwd). We have measured the B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ13C in benthic foraminifers. B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios were converted to carbonate ion concentration using the newly developed equations of Yu and Elderfield (2007). We found that the Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios were higher in glacial MISs 8.4, 9.2, 10 and 12 than in glacial MISs 2, 4 and 6. In general, we observe a mode shift to higher Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios at around 225 ka BP. Furthermore, the lower bottom water carbonate ion concentrations were accompanied by higher Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios. Enriched benthic δ18O values with the concomitant depleted δ13C in Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi were found in MISs 10 and 12 compared to MISs 2 and 6. However, the magnitude of differences in δ18O between MISs2/6 and MISs10/12 do not equate with the magnitude of changes in δ13C for the same <span class="hlt">period</span>. The multi-proxy sea-surface temperature (SST) estimates at Site 1313 from the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in Globigerina bulloides and alkenone (Uk37) concentrations show 3 and 4oC cooler SSTs in MISs 10 and 12, respectively, than in MIS 2. Given that there were no appreciable increases in atmospheric dust loading or decreases in pCO2 and CH4 in the EPICA records during MISs 10 and 12 compared to the preceding or subsequent ice ages, it can be inferred that there were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025982','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025982"><span id="translatedtitle">Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ~2-4oC in Chesapeake Bay (CB) temperature ~2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) paleothermometry. These include large temperature excursions during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (~800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long <span class="hlt">period</span> of sustained regional and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ~450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ~70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3oC, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682045','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682045"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, ‘Agulhas leakage', forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. This is relevant for climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. PMID:26656850</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259279','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259279"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M.</p> <p>2015-12-10</p> <p>The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, ‘Agulhas leakage’, forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. Lastly, this is relevant for climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26656850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26656850"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V; Morrison, Adele K; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M</p> <p>2015-12-10</p> <p>The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, 'Agulhas leakage', forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1870-2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. This is relevant for climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5511625','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5511625"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiocarbon age of waters in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Broecker, W.S.; Virgilio, A. ); Peng, T.H. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The authors use a simple box model to evaluate the impact of temporal changes of the atmosphere's {sup 14}C/C on ventilation fluxes for the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> calculated from radiocarbon measurements. The conclusion is that despite the fact that over the 300 year <span class="hlt">period</span> from 1650 to 1950 the atmosphere's radiocarbon content declined at the same rate as radiocarbon decays, this temporal change has a relatively small impact (10-15%) on radiocarbon-based estimates of the ventilation rate of the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The reason is that the radiocarbon content of the source waters for deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are reasonably well buffered against changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C/C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8815M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8815M"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the salt leakage through the Indian-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean gateway on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> MOC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marino, G.; Zahn, R.; Ziveri, P.; Ziegler, M.; Hall, I. R.; Elderfield, H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Freshwater perturbation in the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> exerts a strong influence on the stability of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) with potentially severe impacts on the regional and global climates. The occurrence of ice rafted detritus (IRD) in the glacial sediments of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> testifies to past episodes of Laurentide ice sheet surging that also coincided with AMOC curtailments and prominent climate deterioration in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Western Europe. The equally abrupt warming shifts observed in Greenland ice core and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediment core records that characterize the end of each IRD event have been related to the rapid resumption of AMOC and its associated heat transport. The hysteresis response, under glacial boundary conditions, of the AMOC to freshwater forcing suggests that a reduction in this forcing may have been sufficient to trigger the rapid AMOC resumptions revealed by several palaeoceanographic records. But recent modelling studies allude to the potential importance of a salt surplus, originating in the Indian Ocean and transported to the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> via the Agulhas leakage, that may have acted as a positive feedback on the AMOC strengthening. This possibility, however, has yet to be adequately tested with palaeoproxy reconstructions. We present a suite of multi-centennial-scale palaeoceanographic records spanning a full glacial cycle from the Southwest African margin and Agulhas Plateau that have been generated as part of the EU Marie Curie GATEWAYS project. The sediment cores are positioned such that they monitor the leakage of Agulhas water into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Agulhas Return Current that straddles the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical front on its way to the Indian Ocean. Paired Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-δ18O analyses on the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerina bulloides reveal millennial-scale surface ocean temperature and salinity changes at the core sites that reflect recurrent</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S"><span id="translatedtitle">Deglacial Subsurface Temperature Change in the Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Linked to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments indicate that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; and Chiang et al., 2008). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). In addition, observational records of detrended 20th century ocean temperature and salinity variability show a strong anticorrelation between surface cooling and subsurface warming in the TNA over the past several decades, suggesting changing vertical temperature gradients in this region may be a distinct fingerprint of AMOC variability (Zhang 2007). In order to test the hypothesis that subsurface temperature change in the TNA is coupled to AMOC variability across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstructed high-resolution Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature and δ18O records from both surface (G. ruber) and sub-thermocline dwelling (G. truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth and G. crassaformis, 450-580 m) planktonic foraminifera in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Sea surface temperatures indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5oC during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, last glacial maximum subsurface temperatures were as much as 2.5oC warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface temperatures characterized by abrupt temperature increases as large as 4-5oC. Furthermore, a comparison of our subsurface temperature record with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC variability (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.380...52L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.380...52L"><span id="translatedtitle">Asynchronous Little Ice Age glacier fluctuations in Iceland and European Alps linked to shifts in subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, Darren J.; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Records of past glacier fluctuations are an important source of paleoclimate data and provide context for future changes in global ice volume. In the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, glacier chronologies can be used to track the response of terrestrial environments to variations in marine conditions including circulation patterns and sea ice cover. However, the majority of glacier records are discontinuous and temporally restricted, owing in part to the extensive advance of Northern Hemisphere glaciers during the Little Ice Age (LIA), the most recent and severe climate anomaly of the Neoglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Here, we combine an absolutely dated and continuous record of Langjökull ice marginal fluctuations with new reconstructions of sediment flux through the past 1.2 ka using varved sediments from Hvítárvatn, a proglacial lake in Iceland's central highlands. Large spatial and temporal variations in sediment flux related to changing ice cap dimensions are reconstructed from six sediment cores and seismic reflection profiles. Sediment data reveal two discrete phases of ice expansion occurring <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1400 to 1550 AD and <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1680 to 1890 AD. These advances are separated by a persistent interval of ice retreat, suggesting that a substantial <span class="hlt">period</span> of warming interrupted LIA cold. The pattern of Icelandic glacier activity contrasts with that of European glaciers but shows strong similarities to reconstructed changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oceanographic conditions, indicating differing regional responses to coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice variations. Our data suggest that subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation dynamics may have led to coherent asynchronous glacier fluctuations during the mid LIA and highlight the importance of circulation variability in triggering and transmitting multidecadal scale climate changes to nearby terrestrial environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP13E..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP13E..08L"><span id="translatedtitle">Asynchronous Little Ice Age glacier fluctuations in Iceland and European Alps linked to shifts in subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, D. J.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Records of past glacier fluctuations are an important source of paleoclimate data and provide context for future changes in global ice volume. In the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, glacier chronologies can be used to track the response of terrestrial environments to variations in marine conditions including circulation patterns and sea ice cover. However, the majority of glacier records are discontinuous and temporally restricted, owing in part to the extensive advance of Northern Hemisphere glaciers during the Little Ice Age (LIA), the most recent and severe climate anomaly of the Neoglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Here, we combine an absolutely dated and continuous record of Langjökull ice marginal fluctuations with new reconstructions of sediment flux through the past 1.2 ka using varved sediments from Hvítárvatn, a proglacial lake in Iceland's central highlands. Large spatial and temporal variations in sediment flux related to changing ice cap dimensions are reconstructed from six sediment cores and seismic reflection profiles. Sediment data reveal two discrete phases of ice expansion occurring <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1400 to 1550 AD and <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1680 to 1890 AD. These advances are separated by a persistent interval of ice retreat, suggesting that a substantial <span class="hlt">period</span> of warming interrupted LIA cold. The pattern of Icelandic glacier activity contrasts with that of European glaciers but shows strong similarities to reconstructed changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oceanographic conditions, indicating differing regional responses to coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice variations. Our data suggest that subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation dynamics may have led to coherent asynchronous glacier fluctuations during the mid LIA and highlight the importance of circulation variability in triggering and transmitting multidecadal scale climate changes to nearby terrestrial environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4176K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4176K"><span id="translatedtitle">Holocene sea surface temperatures in the East African Coastal Current region and their relationship with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhnert, Henning; Kuhlmann, Holger; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Pätzold, Jürgen</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The East African Coastal Current (EACC) is one of the western boundary currents of the Indian Ocean and represents the only pathway for southern water masses to enter the Arabian Sea. Today, sea surface temperatures (SST) in the western boundary currents region covary with those in large parts of the central tropical Indian Ocean. The latter play an important role in global climate by influencing the mean state of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) and associated <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST anomalies (Hoerling et al., 2001). In the EACC region paleoclimate data are sparse and its Holocene temperature history is unexplored. We present data from a 5 m long sediment core retrieved off northern Tanzania where the EACC flows northward year-round. Proximity to the Pangani River mouth provides a steady sediment supply. We have reconstructed SST from Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and stable oxygen isotope ratios (^18O) of the surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifera species Globigerinoides ruber (sensu stricto). Our record spans the time <span class="hlt">period</span> from 9700 to 1400 years BP at an average temporal resolution of 40 years. The Holocene is characterized by a sequence of intervals representing cool, warm, cool, and intermediate SST, with boundaries at 7.8, 5.6, and 4.4 ka BP. SST anomalies relative to the series mean range from -0.6 to +0.75 ° C. This pattern strikingly resembles a Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> foraminiferal ^18O record (Cléroux et al., 2012), with warm Indian SST corresponding to low <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> foraminiferal ^18O (indicating low sea surface density). This matches the modern situation on the interdecadal time-scale, where a warm Indian Ocean leads to a shift of the NAO towards a positive mean state, which is accompanied by SST warming over much of the low- and mid-latitude western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and a displacement of the Gulf Stream path. We hypothesize that this mechanism also operates on millennial time-scales to explain the obvious similarities in the SST patterns observed in the Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and western</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614020H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614020H"><span id="translatedtitle">An Anatomy of the 1960s <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Cooling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hodson, Dan; Robson, Jon; Sutton, Rowan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability during the 20th Century. In particular, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs exhibited a rapid warming between 1920 and 1940 followed by a rapid cooling between 1960 and 1980. SSTs outside the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> display a much smaller level of decadal variability over the 20th Century. This pattern of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming and cooling has been linked to subsequent changes in rainfall over the Sahel and Nordeste Brazil, Summertime North American Climate and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Hurricane Genesis. Several hypotheses for the rapid 1960s <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cooling have been proposed, including a reduction in northward ocean heat transport due to a reduced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the significant rise in anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions during the latter half of the 20th century. Here we examine the observed 1960s <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cooling in more detail. We describe the evolution of the rapid cooling by constructing a detailed multivariate anatomy of the cooling <span class="hlt">period</span> in order to illuminate the possible explanations and mechanisms involved. We show that the observed 1960s cooling began around 1964-68 in the Greenland-Iceland-Norway (GIN) seas, later spreading to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sub Polar Gyre and much of the subtropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This initial cooling of the Sub Polar Gyre is associated with a marked reduction in salinity (the Great Salinity Anomaly). The cooling peaked between 1972-76, extending into the Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This <span class="hlt">period</span> also saw the development of a significant Winter North-South Dipole Mean Sea Level Pressure dipole pattern reminiscent of a positive NAO (High over the Azores, Low over Iceland). The cooling then retreated back to higher latitudes during 1976:80. Our analysis demonstrates that the cooling of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the 1960s cannot be understood as a simple thermodynamic response to aerosol induced reductions in shortwave radiation. Dynamical changes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 42.30-35 - The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. 42.30-35 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Periods</span> § 42.30-35 The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. (a) The part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> referred to in § 42.20-75(d)(1) comprises: (1) That part of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 42.30-35 - The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. 42.30-35 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Periods</span> § 42.30-35 The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. (a) The part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> referred to in § 42.20-75(d)(1) comprises: (1) That part of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 42.30-35 - The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. 42.30-35 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Periods</span> § 42.30-35 The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. (a) The part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> referred to in § 42.20-75(d)(1) comprises: (1) That part of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 42.30-35 - The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. 42.30-35 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Periods</span> § 42.30-35 The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. (a) The part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> referred to in § 42.20-75(d)(1) comprises: (1) That part of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 42.30-35 - The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. 42.30-35 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Periods</span> § 42.30-35 The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. (a) The part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> referred to in § 42.20-75(d)(1) comprises: (1) That part of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-05/pdf/2011-16769.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-05/pdf/2011-16769.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 39019 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quotas and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tuna Fisheries...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-05</p> <p>... the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas possession-at-sea and landing regulations to allow removal of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas tail lobes; and clarifying the transfer-at-sea regulations for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas. This action is necessary to... consideration of overharvest/underharvest from the previous fishing year and any accounting for estimated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..950G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..950G"><span id="translatedtitle">Abrupt changes in the southern extent of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water during Dansgaard-Oeschger events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Misra, Sambuddha; Waelbroeck, Claire; Menviel, Laurie; Timmermann, Axel</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The glacial climate system transitioned rapidly between cold (stadial) and warm (interstadial) conditions in the Northern Hemisphere. This variability, referred to as Dansgaard-Oeschger variability, is widely believed to arise from perturbations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation. Evidence for such changes during the longer Heinrich stadials has been identified, but direct evidence for overturning circulation changes during Dansgaard-Oeschger events has proven elusive. Here we reconstruct bottom water [CO32-] variability from B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of benthic foraminifera and indicators of sedimentary dissolution, and use these reconstructions to infer the flow of northern-sourced deep water to the deep central sub-Antarctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. We find that nearly every Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadial is accompanied by a rapid incursion of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water into the deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Based on these results and transient climate model simulations, we conclude that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> stadial-interstadial climate variability was associated with significant <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation changes that were rapidly transmitted across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. However, by demonstrating the persistent role of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation changes in past abrupt climate variability, our reconstructions of carbonate chemistry further indicate that the carbon cycle response to abrupt climate change was not a simple function of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9992R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9992R"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface heat storage in the subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the LGM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Repschlaeger, Janne; Weinelt, Mara; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Andersen, Nils; Schneider, Ralph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The transport of warm saline waters from the subtropical into the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> plays a major role in the stabilization of AMOC. During the Late Pleistocene this system experienced millennial scale variability with weak AMOC phases that are associated with heat and salt storage within the subtropics. The subsequent onset of AMOC is supposed to be fueled by the release and transport of the warm saline water into the northern hemisphere deepwater convection sites. Despite this conceptual model, contradicting reconstructions for such warm water storage exist for the Deglaciation to early Holocene and full glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>, either asserting a southward movement of the Subtropical gyre (STG) and subsurface heat storage or northward extension of the STG with warming of the surface waters. Here we investigate the heat and salt storage patterns and extension of the warm subtropical gyre (STG) during MIS 2 well into MIS 3 (16- 30 ka BP) at centennial scale resolution using sediment core MD08-3181 (38°N; 31.13°W, 3060 m w.d.) retrieved immediately east of the Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge south of the Azores Islands with sedimentation rates up to 100 cm/ ka. At present, this site is located at the northern rim of the Azores Current, which delineates the STG, recirculating warm waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current. Due to its position at the boundary between temperate Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters and warm STG waters, the coring site is ideal to trace past changes in the influence of both water masses. Parallel stable-oxygen isotope and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> temperature records of surface-water dwelling foraminifera Globigerina bulloides (habitat depth 0-200 m) and subsurface dweller Globorotalia inflata (habitat depth 100-300 m) and foraminiferal transfer functions are used to reconstruct the temperature and salinity structure of the mixed layer. Additionally, the AF position is reconstructed using the abundance of the tropical to subtropical species Globigerinoides ruber white. Preliminary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP23B0962P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP23B0962P"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Teleconnections to Latitudinal Variability of Wave Climate Along the North American <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Provancha, C.; Adams, P. N.; Hegermiller, C.; Storlazzi, C. D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Shoreline change via coastal erosion and accretion is largely influenced by variations in ocean wave climate. Identifying the sources of these variations is challenging because the timing of wave energy delivery varies over multiple timescales within ocean basins. We present the results of an investigation of USACE Wave Information Studies hindcast hourly wave heights, <span class="hlt">periods</span>, and directions along the North American <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast from 1980-2012, designed to explore links between wave climate and teleconnection patterns. Trends in median and extreme significant wave heights (SWHs) demonstrate that mean monthly SWHs increased from 1 to 5 cm/yr along the roughly 3000 km reach of study area, with changes in hurricane season waves appearing to be most influential in producing the overall trends. Distributions of SWHs categorized by North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) phase, show that positive-<span class="hlt">period</span> NAO SWHs are greater than negative-<span class="hlt">period</span> NAO SWHs along the entire eastern seaboard (25°N to 45°N). The most prominent wave direction off Cape Cod, MA during positive-<span class="hlt">period</span> NAO is approximately 105°, as compared to approximately 75° during negative-<span class="hlt">period</span> NAO. Prominent wave directions between Cape Canaveral, FL, and Savannah, GA exhibit a similar shift but during opposite phases of the NAO. The results of this analysis suggest that the atmosphere-ocean interactions associated with contrasting NAO phases can significantly change the wave climate observed offshore along the North American <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast, altering alongshore wave energy fluxes and sediment transport patterns along the coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21593764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21593764"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual atmospheric variability forced by the deep equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brandt, Peter; Funk, Andreas; Hormann, Verena; Dengler, Marcus; Greatbatch, Richard J; Toole, John M</p> <p>2011-05-26</p> <p>Climate variability in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is determined by large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, which particularly affect deep atmospheric convection over the ocean and surrounding continents. Apart from influences from the Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation, the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability is thought to be dominated by two distinct ocean-atmosphere coupled modes of variability that are characterized by meridional and zonal sea-surface-temperature gradients and are mainly active on decadal and interannual timescales, respectively. Here we report evidence that the intrinsic ocean dynamics of the deep equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> can also affect sea surface temperature, wind and rainfall in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region and constitutes a 4.5-yr climate cycle. Specifically, vertically alternating deep zonal jets of short vertical wavelength with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of about 4.5 yr and amplitudes of more than 10 cm s(-1) are observed, in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, to propagate their energy upwards, towards the surface. They are linked, at the sea surface, to equatorial zonal current anomalies and eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature anomalies that have amplitudes of about 6 cm s(-1) and 0.4 °C, respectively, and are associated with distinct wind and rainfall patterns. Although deep jets are also observed in the Pacific and Indian oceans, only the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep jets seem to oscillate on interannual timescales. Our knowledge of the persistence and regularity of these jets is limited by the availability of high-quality data. Despite this caveat, the oscillatory behaviour can still be used to improve predictions of sea surface temperature in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Deep-jet generation and upward energy transmission through the Equatorial Undercurrent warrant further theoretical study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPD..11.2649M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPD..11.2649M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) forcing on the late Holocene Cauca paleolake dynamics, northern Andes of Colombia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez, J. I.; Obrochta, S.; Yokoyama, Y.; Battarbee, R. W.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), is a major driving climate mechanism, in the eastern Caribbean Sea and the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean in relation to the dynamics of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) for the late Holocene. Here we document the AMO signal in the San Nicolás-1 core of the Cauca paleolake (Santa Fé-Sopetrán Basin) in the northern Andes. Wavelet spectrum analysis of the gray scale of the San Nicolás-1 core provides evidence for a 70 yr AMO <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> for the 3750 to 350 yr BP time interval, whose pattern is analogous to the one documented for the Cariaco Basin. This supports a possible correlation between enhanced precipitation and ENSO variability with a positive AMO phase during the 2000 to 1500 yr BP interval, and its forcing role on the Cauca ria lake deposits, which led to increased precipitation and to the transition from a igapo (black water) to a varzea (white water) environment <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 3000 yr BP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP42A..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP42A..04M"><span id="translatedtitle">Sudden intrusion of corrosive bottom water into the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meissner, K. J.; Alexander, K.; Bralower, T. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, ˜55 million years before present, was a <span class="hlt">period</span> of rapid warming marked by a negative carbon isotope excursion and widespread dissolution of seafloor carbonate. These changes have been attributed to a massive release of carbon into the exogenic carbon cycle, and thus, the event provides an analog for future climate and environmental changes given the current anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Previous attempts to constrain the amount of carbon released have produced widely diverging results, between 2000 and 10,000 gigatons carbon (GtC). Sediment records indicate that acidification of deep waters was generally more extensive and severe in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Caribbean regions, with more modest changes in the Southern and Pacific Oceans. Here we compare simulations integrated with the UVic Earth System Climate Model with reconstructions of temperature and dissolution to present a mechanism that might explain the observed spatial differences and to constrain the total mass of carbon released. Due to the late Paleocene topography, highly corrosive waters accumulate in the deep North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> before the PETM in our simulations. Several thousand years into the event, deep ocean warming destabilizes the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water column and triggers deep water formation. This causes the corrosive bottom water to spill over an equatorial sill into the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and through the Southern and Pacific Oceans, progressively gaining alkalinity. The simulated pattern of sediment dissolution along the path taken by this corrosive water is consistent with most dissolution estimates made from <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 measurements in the Paleocene-Eocene sediment record. We find two scenarios that agree best with proxy data: a carbon release of 7000 GtC in combination with pre-event atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of 840 ppm and a carbon release of 7000-10,000 GtC with pre-event CO2 concentrations of 1680 ppm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP51A2263W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP51A2263W"><span id="translatedtitle">600 yr High-Resolution Climate Reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Variability deduced from a Puerto Rican Speleothem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winter, A.; Vieten, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A multi-proxy speleothem study tracks the regional hydrological variability in Puerto Rico and highlights its close relation to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation. Our proxy record extends instrumental observations 600 years into the past, and reveals the range of natural hydrologic variability for the region. A detailed interpretation and understanding of the speleothem climate record is achieved by the combination of multi-proxy measurements, thin section petrography, XRD analysis and cave monitoring results. The speleothem was collected in Cueva Larga, a one mile-long cave system that has been monitored since 2012. MC-ICPMS 230Th/U-dating reveals that the speleothem grew constantly over the last 600 years. Trace element ratios (Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) as well as stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C) elucidate significant changes in atmospheric precipitation at the site. Monthly cave monitoring results demonstrate that the epikarst system responds to multi-annual changes in seepage water recharge. The drip water isotope and trace element composition lack short term or seasonal variability. This hydrological system creates favorable conditions to deduce decadal climate variability from Cueva Larga's climate record. The speleothem time series mimics the most-recently published AMO reconstruction over the last 200 years with a time lag of 10-20 years. The time lag seems to results from slow atmospheric signal transmission through the epikarst but the effect of dating uncertainties cannot be ruled out. Warm SSTs in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are related to drier conditions in Puerto Rico. During times of decreased rainfall a relative increase in prior calcite precipitation seems to be the main process causing increased Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> trace element ratios. High trace element ratios correlate to higher δ13C values. The increase in both proxies indicates a shift towards time <span class="hlt">periods</span> of decreased rainfall. Over the past 600 years there are two intervals of increased Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ13C values</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..349M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..349M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mann, Michael E.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Holland, Greg J.; Webster, Peter J.</p> <p></p> <p>Vigorous discussions have taken place recently in Eos [e.g., Mann and Emanuel, 2006; Landsea, 2007] and elsewhere [Emanuel, 2005; Webster et al., 2005; Hoyos et al., 2006; Trenberth and Shea, 2006; Kossin et al., 2007] regarding trends in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone (TC) activity and their potential connection with anthropogenic climate change. In one study, for example [Landsea, 2007], it is argued that a substantial underestimate of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone counts in earlier decades arising from insufficient observing systems invalidates the conclusion that trends in TC behavior may be connected to climate change. Here we argue that such connections are in fact robust with respect to uncertainties in earlier observations.Several recent studies have investigated trends in various measures of TC activity. Emanuel [2005] showed that a measure of total power dissipation by TCs (the power dissipation index, or PDI) is highly correlated with August-October sea surface temperatures (SST) over the main development region (MDR) for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TCs over at least the past half century. Some support for this conclusion was provided by Sriver and Ruber [2006]. Webster et al. [2005] demonstrated a statistically significant increase in recent decades in both the total number of the strongest category cyclones (categories 4 and 5) and the proportion of storms reaching hurricane intensity. Hoyos et al. [2006] showed that these increases were closely tied to warming trends in tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST, while, for example, the modest decrease in vertical wind shear played a more secondary role. Kossin et al. [2007] called into question some trends in other basins, based on a reanalysis of past TC data, but they found the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> trends to be robust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729858"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> density and chemical stratification across the last deglaciation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roberts, Jenny; Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Peck, Victoria L; Kender, Sev; Elderfield, Henry; Waelbroeck, Claire; Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Hodell, David A</p> <p>2016-01-19</p> <p>Explanations of the glacial-interglacial variations in atmospheric pCO2 invoke a significant role for the deep ocean in the storage of CO2. Deep-ocean density stratification has been proposed as a mechanism to promote the storage of CO2 in the deep ocean during glacial times. A wealth of proxy data supports the presence of a "chemical divide" between intermediate and deep water in the glacial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, which indirectly points to an increase in deep-ocean density stratification. However, direct observational evidence of changes in the primary controls of ocean density stratification, i.e., temperature and salinity, remain scarce. Here, we use Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-derived seawater temperature and salinity estimates determined from temperature-corrected δ(18)O measurements on the benthic foraminifer Uvigerina spp. from deep and intermediate water-depth marine sediment cores to reconstruct the changes in density of sub-Antarctic South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water masses over the last deglaciation (i.e., 22-2 ka before present). We find that a major breakdown in the physical density stratification significantly lags the breakdown of the deep-intermediate chemical divide, as indicated by the chemical tracers of benthic foraminifer δ(13)C and foraminifer/coral (14)C. Our results indicate that chemical destratification likely resulted in the first rise in atmospheric pCO2, whereas the density destratification of the deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lags the second rise in atmospheric pCO2 during the late deglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Our findings emphasize that the physical and chemical destratification of the ocean are not as tightly coupled as generally assumed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..113...49D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..113...49D"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution and at-sea activity of a nocturnal seabird, the Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulwerii, during the incubation <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dias, Maria P.; Romero, Joana; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Catry, Teresa; Pollet, Ingrid L.; Catry, Paulo</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Bulwer's petrels are nocturnal seabirds that mostly prey on mesopelagic fauna. As aerial foragers and shallow divers, their feeding opportunities are limited by near-surface availability of their prey, which is highly variable both temporally (reflecting diurnal and lunar cycles) and spatially. Here we studied how Bulwer's petrels cope with these constraints by analysing their at-sea distribution and activity during the incubation <span class="hlt">period</span>. We tracked the movements of 20 birds from Selvagem Grande (NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) during a complete lunar cycle, and recorded 30 foraging trips that lasted 11 days on average. Birds were both distributed around the colony and in waters close to the Azorean archipelago (mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) located 1700 km away, and were significantly more active at night (especially just after sunset and before sunrise), when mesopelagic fauna is also closer to the sea surface due to their diel vertical migrations. Bulwer's petrels spent significantly more time flying during moonlight, although the effect of the moon was relatively weak (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 10-15% difference between moonlit and dark <span class="hlt">periods</span> of the night), and not obvious when birds were foraging in mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters, which were also targeted more often during full-moon. These results reveal key adaptations of the Bulwer's petrel to the highly dynamic ecology of its mesopelagic prey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1793S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1793S"><span id="translatedtitle">Deglacial Subsurface Temperature Change in the Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Linked to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Hertzberg, J. E.; Them, T. R.; Parker, A. O.; Chang, P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments conducted under both the present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions indicate that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; Chiang et al., 2008; Otto-Bliesner and Brady, 2009). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). To test the hypothesis that subsurface temperature change in the TNA is coupled to AMOC variability across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstruct Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature and δ18O records from both surface (Globigerinoides ruber, upper mixed layer) and sub-thermocline dwelling (Globorotalia truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth) planktonic foraminifera, as well as from the benthic species Cibicidoides pachyderma in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33 °N, 66.63 °W; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5 °C during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, LGM subsurface temperatures were as much as 2.5 °C warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface temperatures characterized by abrupt temperature increases as large as 4-5 °C. In addition, benthic Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios during the YD and H1 increase by 50% relative to Holocene intervals, suggesting significant warming extending to 1079 m water depth across these events. Comparison of our subsurface temperature records with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC variability (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong correlation between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940787"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>²⁺ buffers on free [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>²⁺] fluctuations and the effective volume of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>²⁺ microdomains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weinberg, Seth H; Smith, Gregory D</p> <p>2014-06-17</p> <p>Intracellular calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)) plays a significant role in many cell signaling pathways, some of which are localized to spatially restricted microdomains. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) binding proteins (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) buffers) play an important role in regulating <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) concentration ([<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)]). Buffers typically slow [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] temporal dynamics and increase the effective volume of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) domains. Because fluctuations in [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] decrease in proportion to the square-root of a domain's physical volume, one might conjecture that buffers decrease [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations and, consequently, mitigate the significance of small domain volume concerning <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signaling. We test this hypothesis through mathematical and computational analysis of idealized buffer-containing domains and their stochastic dynamics during free <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) influx with passive exchange of both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) and buffer with bulk concentrations. We derive Langevin equations for the fluctuating dynamics of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) and buffer and use these stochastic differential equations to determine the magnitude of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations for different buffer parameters (e.g., dissociation constant and concentration). In marked contrast to expectations based on a naive application of the principle of effective volume as employed in deterministic models of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signaling, we find that mobile and rapid buffers typically increase the magnitude of domain [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) influx, whereas stationary (immobile) <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) buffers do not. Also contrary to expectations, we find that in the absence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) influx, buffers influence the temporal characteristics, but not the magnitude, of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations. We derive an analytical formula describing the influence of rapid <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) buffers on [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations and, importantly, identify the stochastic analog of (deterministic) effective domain volume. Our results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) buffers alter the dynamics of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations in a nonintuitive manner. The finding that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-11/pdf/2013-13849.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-11/pdf/2013-13849.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City Offshore Race, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-11</p> <p>... City Offshore Race, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... to only one recurring marine event, held on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, offshore of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, New Jersey... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean near <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, New Jersey, during the event. DATES: This rule will be effective on...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7246961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7246961"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquakes at North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> passive margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gregersen, S. ); Basham, P.W. )</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The main focus of this volume is the earthquakes that occur at and near the continental margins on both sides of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The book, which contains the proceedings of the NATO workshop on Causes and Effects of Earthquakes at Passive Margins and in Areas of Postglacial Rebound on Both Sides of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, draws together the fields of geophysics, geology and geodesy to address the stress and strain in the Earth's crust. The resulting earthquakes produced on ancient geological fault zones and the associated seismic hazards these pose to man are also addressed. Postglacial rebound in North America and Fennoscandia is a minor source of earthquakes today, during the interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, but evidence is presented to suggest that the ice sheets suppressed earthquake strain while they were in place, and released this strain as a pulse of significant earthquakes after the ice melted about 9000 years ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5613785','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5613785"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Libby-French, J.; Amato, R.V.</p> <p>1981-10-01</p> <p>Exploratory drilling in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal plain region decreased in 1980. Seven wells were drilled, five of which were completed, for a total footage of 80,968 ft (24,679 m). Six of the wells were located in the Baltimore Canyon Trough, and one was located in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. No exploratory wells were drilled in the Georges Bank Basin or in the onshore portion of this region in 1980. Tenneco and Exxon reported gas shows in two wells in the Baltimore Canyon Trough; the remaining completed wells were reported as dry holes. No lease sales were held in 1980, but two sales are scheduled for 1981 in the Middle and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. 1 figure, 2 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6240119','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6240119"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 after exposure to LiF-22<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2, air, and vacuum at 1093 K for <span class="hlt">periods</span> up to 10,000 hours</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whittenberger, J.D. )</p> <p>1992-08-01</p> <p>As part of a program to provide reassurance that the cobalt-base superalloy Haynes Alloy 188 can adequately contain a LiF-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 eutectic thermal energy storage salt, 4900- and 10,000-hr exposures of Haynes Alloy 188 to LiF-22<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2, its vapor, vacuum, and air at 1093 K have been undertaken. Following such exposures, the microstructure has been characterized and the 77 to 1200 K tensile properties measured. In addition, 1050 K vacuum creep-rupture testing of as-received and molten salt- and vacuum-exposed samples has been undertaken. Although slight degradation of the mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 due to prior exposure was observed, basically none of the losses could be ascribed to a particular environment. Hence, observed decreases in properties are due to thermal aging effects, not corrosive attack. In view of these findings, Haynes Alloy 188 is still deemed to be suitable for containment of the eutectic LiF-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 thermal energy storage media. 8 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052589&hterms=1093&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231093','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052589&hterms=1093&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231093"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 after exposure to LiF-22<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2, air, and vacuum at 1093 K for <span class="hlt">periods</span> up to 10,000 hours</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whittenberger, J. D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>As part of a program to provide reassurance that the cobalt-base superalloy Haynes Alloy 188 can adequately contain a LiF-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 eutectic thermal energy storage salt, 4900- and 10,000-hr exposures of Haynes Alloy 188 to LiF-22<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2, its vapor, vacuum, and air at 1093 K have been undertaken. Following such exposures, the microstructure has been characterized and the 77 to 1200 K tensile properties measured. In addition, 1050 K vacuum creep-rupture testing of as-received and molten salt- and vacuum-exposed samples has been undertaken. Although slight degradation of the mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 due to prior exposure was observed, basically none of the losses could be ascribed to a particular environment. Hence, observed decreases in properties are due to thermal aging effects, not corrosive attack. In view of these findings, Haynes Alloy 188 is still deemed to be suitable for containment of the eutectic LiF-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 thermal energy storage media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5021255','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5021255"><span id="translatedtitle">Fine tuning of cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ oscillations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ oscillations, a widespread mode of cell signaling, were reported in non-excitable cells for the first time more than 25 years ago. Their fundamental mechanism, based on the <span class="hlt">periodic</span> <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cytoplasm, has been well characterized. However, how the kinetics of cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ changes are related to the extent of a physiological response remains poorly understood. Here, we review data suggesting that the downstream targets of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ are controlled not only by the frequency of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ oscillations but also by the detailed characteristics of the oscillations, such as their duration, shape, or baseline level. Involvement of non-endoplasmic reticulum <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ stores, mainly mitochondria and the extracellular medium, participates in this fine tuning of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ oscillations. The main characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ exchange fluxes with these compartments are also reviewed. PMID:27630768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA101524','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA101524"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceanography. Volume 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1978-08-01</p> <p>Gibbs transform fault. 4124 CLAUDE FRANKIGNOUL and TERRENCE M. JOYCE. Internal wave variability during the Internal Wave Experiment (IWEX). 4126 P.L...tions of interaction between the internal wave field and low frequency flows in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. 4124 CLAUDE FRANKIGNOUL and TERRENCE M. JOYCE...tertiary marine benthic gastropods. In Historical Biogeography , Plate Tectonics and the Changing Environment, A. J. Boucot and J. Gray [eds</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC42B..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC42B..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of clouds in driving North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal climate variability in observations and models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clement, A. C.; Bellomo, K.; Murphy, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Large scale warming and cooling <span class="hlt">periods</span> of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The pattern of warming and cooling in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean over the 20th century that has a characteristic spatial structure with maximum warming in the mid-latitudes and subtropics. This has been most often attributed to changes in the strength of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), which in turn affects poleward heat transport. A recent modeling study by Booth et al. (2012), however, suggested that aerosols can explain both the spatial pattern and temporal history of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST through indirect effects of aerosols on cloud cover; although this idea is controversial (Zhang et al., 2013). We have found observational evidence that changes in cloud amount can drive SST changes on multi-decadal timescale. We hypothesize that a positive local feedback between SST and cloud radiative effect amplifies SST and gives rise to the observed pattern of SST change. During cool North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">periods</span>, a southward shift of the ITCZ strengthens the trade winds in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and increases low-level cloud cover, which acts to amplify the SST cooling in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. During warm <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the opposite response occurs. We are testing whether the amplitude of this feedback is realistically simulated in the CMIP5 models, and whether inter-model differences in the amplitude of the feedback can explain differences in model simulations of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.7143C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.7143C"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> impacts on Pacific decadal climate trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chikamoto, Y.; Mochizuki, T.; Timmermann, A.; Kimoto, M.; Watanabe, M.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The tropical Pacific cooling from the early 1990s to 2013 has contributed to the slowdown of globally averaged sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The origin of this regional cooling trend still remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the remote impact of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST anomalies, as well as local atmosphere-ocean interactions, contributed to the eastern Pacific cooling during this <span class="hlt">period</span>. By assimilating observed three-dimensional <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature and salinity anomalies into a coupled general circulation model, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the observed Pacific decadal trends of SST and sea level pressure (SLP), albeit with reduced amplitude. Although a major part of the Pacific SLP trend can be explained by equatorial Pacific SST forcing only, the origin of this low-frequency variability can be traced back further to the remote impacts of equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST trends. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST impacts on the atmospheric circulation can also be detected for the Northeastern Pacific, thus providing a linkage between <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate and Western North American drought conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6101973','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6101973"><span id="translatedtitle">Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Van Den Avyle, M.J.</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus, is an anadromous species that occupies rivers, estuaries, and nearshore waters along the entire <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast of the United States. The species once supported significant commercial fisheries throughout its range, but stocks have declined because of overfishing, deterioration of water quality, and damming of rivers. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon spawn in rivers and the young remain in freshwater for several years prior to emigration to the ocean. Little is known about spawning areas and associated environmental factors. Females typically do not mature until age X and the age at first spawning ranges from 5 to 13 years for males and 7 to 19 years for females. Longevity may frequently exceed 25 years. Immature and adult sturgeons are bottom feeders and consume a variety of mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and other small bottom-dwelling invertebrates and fishes. Little is know about competitors, predators, or effects of environmental factors on recruitment. The long <span class="hlt">period</span> required to reach maturity, possibly irregular spawning thereafter, and prolonged reliance on river systems make juvenile and adult <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon highly susceptible to habitat alterations, pollution, and over exploitation. 49 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010711','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010711"><span id="translatedtitle">Two Distinct Roles of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Two distinct roles of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (NTA) SST and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940739"><span id="translatedtitle">An electrical analogy relating the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kurtz, Bruce E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is the northward flow of surface water to subpolar latitudes where deepwater is formed, balanced by southward abyssal flow and upwelling in the vicinity of the Southern Ocean. It is generally accepted that AMOC flow oscillates with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 60-80 years, creating a regular variation in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation (AMO). This article attempts to answer two questions: how is the AMOC driven and why does it oscillate? Using methods commonly employed by chemical engineers for analyzing processes involving flowing liquids, apparently not previously applied to trying to understand the AMOC, an equation is developed for AMOC flow as a function of the meridional density gradient or the corresponding temperature gradient. The equation is based on the similarity between the AMOC and an industrial thermosyphon loop cooler, which circulates a heat transfer liquid without using a mechanical pump. Extending this equation with an analogy between the flow of heat and electricity explains why the AMOC flow oscillates and what determines its <span class="hlt">period</span>. Calculated values for AMOC flow and AMO oscillation <span class="hlt">period</span> are in good agreement with measured values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4062526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4062526"><span id="translatedtitle">An Electrical Analogy Relating the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kurtz, Bruce E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is the northward flow of surface water to subpolar latitudes where deepwater is formed, balanced by southward abyssal flow and upwelling in the vicinity of the Southern Ocean. It is generally accepted that AMOC flow oscillates with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 60–80 years, creating a regular variation in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation (AMO). This article attempts to answer two questions: how is the AMOC driven and why does it oscillate? Using methods commonly employed by chemical engineers for analyzing processes involving flowing liquids, apparently not previously applied to trying to understand the AMOC, an equation is developed for AMOC flow as a function of the meridional density gradient or the corresponding temperature gradient. The equation is based on the similarity between the AMOC and an industrial thermosyphon loop cooler, which circulates a heat transfer liquid without using a mechanical pump. Extending this equation with an analogy between the flow of heat and electricity explains why the AMOC flow oscillates and what determines its <span class="hlt">period</span>. Calculated values for AMOC flow and AMO oscillation <span class="hlt">period</span> are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:24940739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060033988&hterms=arctic+ocean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Darctic%2Bocean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060033988&hterms=arctic+ocean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Darctic%2Bocean"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Changes in Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Motion Associated with the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kwok, R.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Examination of a new ice motion dataset of the Arctic Ocean over a recent eighteen year <span class="hlt">period</span> (1978-1996) reveals patterns of variability that can be linked directly to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23460832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23460832"><span id="translatedtitle">Marine ecosystem response to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edwards, Martin; Beaugrand, Gregory; Helaouët, Pierre; Alheit, Jürgen; Coombs, Stephen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Against the backdrop of warming of the Northern Hemisphere it has recently been acknowledged that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature changes undergo considerable variability over multidecadal <span class="hlt">periods</span>. The leading component of natural low-frequency temperature variability has been termed the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Presently, correlative studies on the biological impact of the AMO on marine ecosystems over the duration of a whole AMO cycle (∼60 years) is largely unknown due to the rarity of continuously sustained biological observations at the same time <span class="hlt">period</span>. To test whether there is multidecadal cyclic behaviour in biological time-series in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> we used one of the world's longest continuously sustained marine biological time-series in oceanic waters, long-term fisheries data and historical records over the last century and beyond. Our findings suggest that the AMO is far from a trivial presence against the backdrop of continued temperature warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and accounts for the second most important macro-trend in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> plankton records; responsible for habitat switching (abrupt ecosystem/regime shifts) over multidecadal scales and influences the fortunes of various fisheries over many centuries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PalOc..30.1425P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PalOc..30.1425P"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subsurface warming events as a fingerprint for AMOC variability during Marine Isotope Stage 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parker, Andrew O.; Schmidt, Matthew W.; Chang, Ping</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as the driver of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) variability that characterized Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) has long been hypothesized. Although there is ample proxy evidence suggesting that DO events were robust features of glacial climate, there is little data supporting a link with AMOC. Recently, modeling studies and subsurface temperature reconstructions have suggested that subsurface warming across the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> can be used to fingerprint a weakened AMOC during the deglacial because a reduction in the strength of the western boundary current allows warm salinity maximum water of the subtropical gyre to enter the deep tropics. To determine if AMOC variability played a role during the DO cycles of MIS 3, we present new, high-resolution Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O records spanning 24-52 kyr from the near-surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber and the lower thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia truncatulinoides in Southern Caribbean core VM12-107 (11.33°N, 66.63°W, 1079 m depth). Our subsurface Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> record reveals abrupt increases in Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios (the largest equal to a 4°C warming) during the interstadial-stadial transition of most DO events during this <span class="hlt">period</span>. This change is consistent with reconstructions of subsurface warming events associated with cold events across the deglacial using the same core. Additionally, our data support the conclusion reached by a recently published study from the Florida Straits that AMOC did not undergo significant reductions during Heinrich events 2 and 3. This record presents some of the first high-resolution marine sediment derived evidence for variable AMOC during MIS 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PalOc..32..146A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PalOc..32..146A"><span id="translatedtitle">Twentieth century warming of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> captured by Sr-U paleothermometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alpert, Alice E.; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hernandez-Delgado, Edwin A.; Winter, Amos; Gonneea, Meagan E.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Coral skeletons are valuable archives of past ocean conditions. However, interpretation of coral paleotemperature records is confounded by uncertainties associated with single-element ratio thermometers, including Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. A new approach, Sr-U, uses U/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> to constrain the influence of Rayleigh fractionation on Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. Here we build on the initial Pacific Porites Sr-U calibration to include multiple <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific coral genera from multiple coral reef locations spanning a temperature range of 23.15-30.12°C. Accounting for the wintertime growth cessation of one Bermuda coral, we show that Sr-U is strongly correlated with the average water temperature at each location (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001, n = 19). We applied the multispecies spatial calibration between Sr-U and temperature to reconstruct a 96 year long temperature record at Mona Island, Puerto Rico, using a coral not included in the calibration. Average Sr-U derived temperature for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1900-1996 is within 0.12°C of the average instrumental temperature at this site and captures the twentieth century warming trend of 0.06°C per decade. Sr-U also captures the timing of multiyear variability but with higher amplitude than implied by the instrumental data. Mean Sr-U temperatures and patterns of multiyear variability were replicated in a second coral in the same grid box. Conversely, Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records from the same two corals were inconsistent with each other and failed to capture absolute sea temperatures, timing of multiyear variability, or the twentieth century warming trend. Our results suggest that coral Sr-U paleothermometry is a promising new tool for reconstruction of past ocean temperatures.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186755','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186755"><span id="translatedtitle">Twentieth century warming of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> captured by Sr-U paleothermometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Alpert, Alice E.; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hernandez-Delgado, Edwin A.; Winter, Amos; Gonneea, Meagan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Coral skeletons are valuable archives of past ocean conditions. However, interpretation of coral paleotemperature records is confounded by uncertainties associated with single-element ratio thermometers, including Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. A new approach, Sr-U, uses U/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> to constrain the influence of Rayleigh fractionation on Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. Here we build on the initial Pacific Porites Sr-U calibration to include multiple <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific coral genera from multiple coral reef locations spanning a temperature range of 23.15–30.12°C. Accounting for the wintertime growth cessation of one Bermuda coral, we show that Sr-U is strongly correlated with the average water temperature at each location (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001, n = 19). We applied the multispecies spatial calibration between Sr-U and temperature to reconstruct a 96 year long temperature record at Mona Island, Puerto Rico, using a coral not included in the calibration. Average Sr-U derived temperature for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1900–1996 is within 0.12°C of the average instrumental temperature at this site and captures the twentieth century warming trend of 0.06°C per decade. Sr-U also captures the timing of multiyear variability but with higher amplitude than implied by the instrumental data. Mean Sr-U temperatures and patterns of multiyear variability were replicated in a second coral in the same grid box. Conversely, Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records from the same two corals were inconsistent with each other and failed to capture absolute sea temperatures, timing of multiyear variability, or the twentieth century warming trend. Our results suggest that coral Sr-U paleothermometry is a promising new tool for reconstruction of past ocean temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=107121&keyword=Fear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90708220&CFTOKEN=59915028','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=107121&keyword=Fear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90708220&CFTOKEN=59915028"><span id="translatedtitle">LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> ESTUARIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates from estuaries along the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast of North America from Cape Cod, MA, to Biscayne Bay, FL, were compared. Benthic data were collected over a 5 year <span class="hlt">period</span> (1990 to 1995) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Envi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13A1048B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13A1048B"><span id="translatedtitle">Water level changes for Lake Turkana and climate variability during the African Humid <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bloszies, C.; Forman, S. L.; Wright, D. K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The chronology of East African paleoclimate suggests the transition through the African Humid <span class="hlt">Period</span> (AHP) at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 15 to 5 ka was a binary shift from wet conditions in the Late Pleistocene to current aridity. Previous studies indicate that water levels for Lake Turkana for the AHP were stable at ~88 to 98 m above current level with outflow into the White Nile Basin. This study of relict beaches around Lake Turkana indicates surprisingly >50 m variability in water level between 14 and 4 ka. The elevation of past water level is constrained by barometric and GPS-based altimetry of relict beaches and age control by 14C dating of associated mollusks and OSL dating of quartz grains from surrounding littoral and sublittoral deposits. We also include well provenanced lake level data from prior studies to constrain more fully the timing and height of water level fluctuations in the Late Quaternary. Additionally, previous studies indicate that peak water levels may be regionally amplified by increased precipitation causing overflow into the Lake Turkana Basin from the adjacent Suguta and Chew Bahir basins, particularly during high stands at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. >8.5 ka and at 6.3 ka. Our analysis of the Lake Turkana strandplain reveals that water level may have varied by × 60 m, potentially reaching the outlet elevation at <span class="hlt">ca</span>.11.3, 10.3, 9.0, 6.3 and 5.1 ka. There are other possible high stands at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 13.0, 8.4, 7.8 and 7.0 ka with limited elevational and age constraints; it is unknown if these lake stands reached the outlet elevation. Evidence from relict strand plains indicate that lake level was probably below 20 m since <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 4.5 ka, though there were two noticeable high stands up to >12 to 18 m at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 830 years ago and <100 years, the latter consistent with the historic record of lake levels. Inferences on the source of moisture to sustain these many high stands are based on the isotopic data on leaf wax (δDwax) from lakes Tanganika and Victoria and associated sea surface temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..135L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..135L"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote impact of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature on rainfall in southwestern China during boreal spring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Gang; Chen, Jiepeng; Wang, Xin; Luo, Xia; Yang, Daoyong; Zhou, Wen; Tan, Yanke; Yan, Hongming</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>As an important oceanic signal, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature (SST) affects not only the climate variability over East China and Northeast China but also can affect climate variability over southwestern China (SWC). Based on station rainfall data and reanalysis datasets, the present study investigates the relationship of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST with SWC rainfall during boreal spring for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1979-2016. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. The atmospheric circulation over southern Asia associated with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST is favorable for positive rainfall anomalies. Further analyses show that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST can induce a North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-western Russia-western Tibetan Plateau-SWC (NRTC) teleconnection wave train from upper level to low level. At low level, two anomalous anticyclones are found over the mid-high latitude of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the western Tibetan Plateau, and two anomalous cyclones are observed over the western Russia and Bay of Bengal (BOB), respectively. The NRTC teleconnection wave train plays a bridging role between the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. Both the observational analysis and two numerical experiments suggest that the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST during boreal spring can induce an anomalous cyclone over BOB by the NRTC teleconnection pattern. The anomalous cyclone over BOB favors moisture transport to SWC, accompanying with significant anomalous ascending motion, and thus results in positive rainfall anomalies in SWC during boreal spring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039048','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039048"><span id="translatedtitle">Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Regional Wind Energy Institute</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Courtney Lane</p> <p>2011-12-20</p> <p>As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant <span class="hlt">period</span>, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/irregular-periods.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/irregular-periods.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Irregular <span class="hlt">Periods</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first <span class="hlt">period</span> between the ... to skip <span class="hlt">periods</span> or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-14/pdf/2011-5858.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-14/pdf/2011-5858.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 13583 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quotas and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tuna Fisheries...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-14</p> <p>..., Gloucester, MA 01930. 2. Barnegat--Ocean County Library, 112 Burr Street, Barnegat, NJ 08005. 3. Manteo--Town... is the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean area bounded by straight lines connecting the following coordinates in the... virtually the entire span of the western north <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, as far east as the Azores and the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10578&hterms=bloom&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbloom','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10578&hterms=bloom&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbloom"><span id="translatedtitle">North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bloom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMGP11A0060G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMGP11A0060G"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraining the History of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Igneous Province: a Palaeomagnetic and Geochronologic Ballad in the British Tertiary Volcanics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ganerød, M.; Rousse, S.; Smethurst, M.; Prestvik, T.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Large Igneous Provinces (LIP), overwhelmingly of basaltic affinity constitute the surface expressions of catastrophically rapid dissipation of large quantities of internal heat. Subsequent to their extrusion, most LIPs have changed position in the Earth's surface due to plate motions. With an estimated volume of <span class="hlt">ca</span> 107 km3 the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Igneous Province (NAIP) represents the third largest magmatic event on Earth during the last 150 Myr. The NAIP formed during two major magmatic phases: a pre- break-up phase (62-58 Ma) and a syn- break-up phase (56-54 Ma) contemporaneous with the onset of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea-floor spreading. The formation of the NAIP has been linked to the proto-Icelandic plume through paleogeographic reconstructions and geochemical observations. Since the late 1980's much of the research focus on the NAIP has been guided by the understanding of the genetic relationship between North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> magmatism that began in the earliest Palaeocene, the genesis/position of the Iceland Hotspots and/or related mantle plume(s) through the Cenozoic, and the change at c. 54 Ma from a long <span class="hlt">period</span> of continental rifting and thinning of sea- floor spreading. However, despite the number of data available, the temporal and physio-chemical ties between NAIP rocks, hotspot motion and continental break-up have not been demonstrated to fit a single regionally applicable and consistent geodynamic model. For example, discrepancies between recent palaeomagnetic poles from western Greenland and the Faeroe Islands (Riisager et al. 2002a,b) and older data from the British Tertiary Igneous Province (BTIP) have questioned the reliability of the latest. Therefore, to ultimately understand the Tertiary evolution of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, extensive palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar sampling on the lava fields of the British Igneous Provinces (Isle of Skye, Isle of Mull, Antrim Plateau) has been initiated. Our findings are in agreement with older published poles from the BTIP and support</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E3323K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E3323K"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for external forcing of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation since termination of the Little Ice Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Jacobsen, Bo Holm; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) represents a significant driver of Northern Hemisphere climate, but the forcing mechanisms pacing the AMO remain poorly understood. Here we use the available proxy records to investigate the influence of solar and volcanic forcing on the AMO over the last ~450 years. The evidence suggests that external forcing played a dominant role in pacing the AMO after termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA; <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1400-1800), with an instantaneous impact on mid-latitude sea-surface temperatures that spread across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> over the ensuing ~5 years. In contrast, the role of external forcing was more ambiguous during the LIA. Our study further suggests that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation is important for linking external forcing with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea-surface temperatures, a conjecture that reconciles two opposing theories concerning the origin of the AMO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..319Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..319Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequestration of carbon in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last glaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, J.; Menviel, L.; Jin, Z. D.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.; Marino, G.; Rohling, E. J.; Cai, Y.; Zhang, F.; Wang, X.; Dai, Y.; Chen, P.; Broecker, W. S.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric CO2 concentrations declined markedly about 70,000 years ago, when the Earth’s climate descended into the last glaciation. Much of the carbon removed from the atmosphere has been suspected to have entered the deep oceans, but evidence for increased carbon storage remains elusive. Here we use the B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of benthic foraminifera from several sites across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean to reconstruct changes in the carbonate ion concentration and hence the carbon inventory of the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> across this transition. We find that deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate ion concentration declined by around 25 μmol kg-1 between ~80,000 and 65,000 years ago. This drop implies that the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbon inventory increased by at least 50 Gt around the same time as the amount of atmospheric carbon dropped by about 60 Gt. From a comparison with proxy records of deep circulation and climate model simulations, we infer that the carbon sequestration coincided with a shoaling of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation. We thus conclude that changes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean circulation may have played an important role in reductions of atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the last glaciation, by increasing the carbon storage in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44..957O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44..957O"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplified North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming in the late Pliocene by changes in Arctic gateways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Jahn, Alexandra; Feng, Ran; Brady, Esther C.; Hu, Aixue; Löfverström, Marcus</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Under previous reconstructions of late Pliocene boundary conditions, climate models have failed to reproduce the warm sea surface temperatures reconstructed in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Using a reconstruction of mid-Piacenzian paleogeography that has the Bering Strait and Canadian Arctic Archipelago Straits closed, however, improves the simulation of the proxy-indicated warm sea surface temperatures in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in the Community Climate System Model. We find that the closure of these small Arctic gateways strengthens the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation, by inhibiting freshwater transport from the Pacific to the Arctic Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to the Labrador Sea, leading to warmer sea surface temperatures in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This indicates that the state of the Arctic gateways may influence the sensitivity of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate in complex ways, and better understanding of the state of these Arctic gateways for past time <span class="hlt">periods</span> is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-16/pdf/2011-23877.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-16/pdf/2011-23877.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 57709 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-16</p> <p>... Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine Fisheries... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on September...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-24/pdf/2012-1337.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-24/pdf/2012-1337.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 3393 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2012 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Commercial Fishing Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-24</p> <p>... blue sharks) in the northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea... northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. DATES: The 2012 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> commercial...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP13D..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP13D..05H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Relationship between <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Overturning and Climate in the Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howe, J. N. W.; Piotrowski, A. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Changes in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation play an important role in modulating global climate by controlling northward heat transport in the surface ocean and carbon storage in the deep ocean. We present a new high resolution 1.2 Myr record of neodymium isotopes (ɛNd) - a proxy for water mass mixing - measured on foraminifera and fish debris from site ODP 929 [6.0°N, 43.7°W, 4356 m] on the Ceara Rise in the western equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. This record reveals a fundamental step-change in the nature of glacial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition as well as providing new insight into the relationship between ocean circulation and greenhouse gas forcing during the <span class="hlt">period</span> known as the "lukewarm" interglacials.Comparison with benthic foraminiferal carbon isotopes from the same core reveals <span class="hlt">periods</span> of significant decoupling between ɛNd and δ13C, demonstrating that deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water mass mixing proportions and nutrient chemistry can vary independently of one another. In contrast, comparison of the ɛNd record with benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes reveals a tight coupling, exhibiting the control of Northern Hemisphere climate on both ice volume and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning. The high resolution of the records allows cross spectral analysis of the phasing between authigenic ɛNd and both benthic foraminiferal δ13C and δ18O. This reveals that the different proxy records are coherent at time <span class="hlt">periods</span> of 100-, 40- and 23-kyr which correlate with orbital forcing. However, the changes in each variable at these <span class="hlt">periods</span> are not always in phase, indicating that the proxies exhibit different temporal responses to climatic forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... shore on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean may be conducted for <span class="hlt">periods</span> not to exceed 4 hours, then suspended and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.514 Safety Zone:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... shore on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean may be conducted for <span class="hlt">periods</span> not to exceed 4 hours, then suspended and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.514 Safety Zone:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... shore on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean may be conducted for <span class="hlt">periods</span> not to exceed 4 hours, then suspended and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.514 Safety Zone:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-06/pdf/E9-31373.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-06/pdf/E9-31373.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 838 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-06</p> <p>... result of rising sea level. As described previously, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon once supported extensive... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon underwent significant range-wide declines from historical abundance levels due to... active in many rivers during all or some of the <span class="hlt">period</span> from 1962 to 1997, although at much lower...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6872349','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6872349"><span id="translatedtitle">Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bight): <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and shortnosed sturgeons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gilbert, C.R. )</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal species. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and shortnose sturgeons (especially the former) were commercially important fishes between 1880 and 1900, but stocks have since decreased markedly and the shortnose sturgeon is now classified as federally endangered. Although the two species are anadromous, the shortnose sturgeon tends to spawn farther upstream, and spawning in both species usually occurs over a clean, hard substrate washed by a moderate to strong current. The shortnose sturgeon usually spawn earlier at the same latitude, with spawning of this species in the St. John River, New Brunswick, being completed by mid-May, as opposed to late June or even July for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon. During non-spawning <span class="hlt">periods</span>, the shortnose is largely confined to estuaries and apparently does not undergo the extensive coastal migrations that are characteristic of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon mature more slowly than shortnose sturgeon at comparable latitudes, with male and female <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon from the Hudson River, New York, requiring at least 11 and 18 years, respectively, to reach maturity, compared with less than half that time for the shortnose sturgeon. Spawning in both sexes may occur thereafter only once every several years. Both species are usually indiscriminate feeders and feed by sucking materials off the bottom with their protrusible mouths. Feeding apparently occurs mostly at night in the shortnose sturgeon. 71 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1121B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1121B"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface temperatures in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean from 30ka to 10ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrack, Kerr; Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Barker, Stephen; Chalk, Thomas; Crocker, Anya</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Some of the most striking features of the Late Pleistocene interval are the rapid changes in climate between warmer interstadial and cold stadial <span class="hlt">periods</span> which, when coupled, are termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. This shift between warm and cold climates has been interpreted to result from changes in the thermohaline circulation (Broecker et al., 1985) triggered by, for instance, freshwater input from the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet (Zahn et al., 1997). However, a recent study suggests that major ice rafting events cannot be the 'trigger' for the centennial to millennial scale cooling events identified over the past 500kyr (Barker at al., 2015). Polar planktic foraminiferal and lithogenic/terrigenous grain counts reveal that the southward migration of the polar front occurs before the deposition of ice rafted debris and therefore the rafting of ice during stadial <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Based upon this evidence, Barker et al. suggest that the transition to a stadial state is a non-linear response to gradual cooling in the region. In order to test this hypothesis, our study reconstructs sea surface temperature across D-O events and the deglaciation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> between 30ka and 10ka using Mg/ <span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleothermometry in Globigerina bulloides at ODP Sites 980 and 983 (the same sites as used in Barker et al., 2015) with an average sampling resolution of 300 years. With our new record we evaluate the timing of surface ocean temperature change, frontal shift movement, and ice rafting to investigate variations in the temperature gradient across the polar front over D-O events. References: Barker, S., Chen, J., Gong, X., Jonkers, L., Knorr, G., Thornalley, D., 2015. Icebergs not the trigger for North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cold events. Nature, 520(7547), pp.333-336. Broecker, W.S., Peteer, D.M., Rind, D., 1985. Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature, 315 (6014), pp.21-26. Zahn, R., Schönfeld, J., Kudrass, H.-R., Park, M</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51A1815M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51A1815M"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Holocene (0-1.2 ka BP) centennial to decadal time scales surface and deep water variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moffa Sanchez, P.; Hall, I. R.; Barker, S.; Thornalley, D. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is a key region for understanding climate variability, as it is one of the world's main localities of deepwater formation. On decadal to multidecadal time-scales two interrelated modes of natural climate variability have been identified that contribute to changes observed in the recent North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate system (mostly through their impact on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation, AMOC): the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) have often been highlighted as a good example of the impact of climate oscillations on society. Although the causality of these intervals still remains controversial, a commonly cited explanation is a weak solar trigger which was amplified and transmitted globally through positive feedbacks, possibly including some internal climatic modes (such as the NAO/AMO) and the AMOC. In this study, sediment cores RAPiD-35-25B and RAPiD-17-5P recovered from the Eirik Drift (south of Greenland) and Björn Drift (Iceland Basin) respectively, are used to produce multi-proxy reconstructions of some of the main constituents of the AMOC at sub-decadal to multidecadal resolution during the last 1.2 ka BP. Near-bottom flow speed reconstructions based on the sortable silt mean grain size proxy show multidecadal variability in both of the Nordic Overflows. In particular, the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water vigour presents a range of decadal to centennial <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> similar to the AMO (55 years) and deVries solar cycles (200 years). Additionally, surface water reconstructions from multi-species planktonic foraminiferal δ18O, Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and assemblage counts reveal changes in the properties of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current and summer season stratification of the upper water column in the Eastern Labrador Sea, with a possible common link to changes in Subpolar Gyre dynamics. As yet, no clear consensus has emerged as to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-27/pdf/2012-10153.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-27/pdf/2012-10153.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 25144 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-27</p> <p>.... Council address: South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC, 29405;...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230273&keyword=geology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78675326&CFTOKEN=61321265','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230273&keyword=geology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78675326&CFTOKEN=61321265"><span id="translatedtitle">North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Tidal Wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal wetlands. The book c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52RsZ12lErw','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52RsZ12lErw"><span id="translatedtitle">Dual Hurricanes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cameras on the International Space Station show views of Hurricane Julia and Hurricane Igor, both moving west-northwest across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> on Sept. 14, 2010. At the time the video was captured, Ju...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6764226','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6764226"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climate Change Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Molinari, R.L. ); Battisti, D. ); Bryan, K. ); Walsh, J. )</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850017717','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850017717"><span id="translatedtitle">North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water Formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..509D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..509D"><span id="translatedtitle">The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation as a driver of rapid climate change in the Northern Hemisphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delworth, Thomas L.; Zeng, Fanrong; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Yang, Xiaosong; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Rong</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Pronounced climate changes have occurred since the 1970s, including rapid loss of Arctic sea ice, large-scale warming and increased tropical storm activity in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Anthropogenic radiative forcing is likely to have played a major role in these changes, but the relative influence of anthropogenic forcing and natural variability is not well established. The above changes have also occurred during a <span class="hlt">period</span> in which the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation has shown marked multidecadal variations. Here we investigate the role of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation in these rapid changes through its influence on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation and ocean heat transport. We use climate models to show that observed multidecadal variations of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation can induce multidecadal variations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation and poleward ocean heat transport in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, extending to the Arctic. Our results suggest that these variations have contributed to the rapid loss of Arctic sea ice, Northern Hemisphere warming, and changing <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical storm activity, especially in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These multidecadal variations are superimposed on long-term anthropogenic forcing trends that are the dominant factor in long-term Arctic sea ice loss and hemispheric warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6377405','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6377405"><span id="translatedtitle">On the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmitz, W.J. Jr.; McCartney, M.S. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>A summary for North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation is proposed to replace the circulation scheme hypothesized by Worthington in 1976. Divergences from the previous model are in thermohaline circulation, cross-equatorical transport and Florida Current sources, flow in the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, circulation in the Newfoundland Basin, slope water currents, and flow pattern near the Bahamas. The circulation patterns presented here are consistent with the majority of of published accounts of flow components. 77 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP41B0645D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP41B0645D"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraining Mid Pliocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Warming Using a Multiproxy Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Dwyer, G.; Cronin, T.; Chandler, M.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Relatively high sea surface temperature during the mid Pliocene (~3.0 Ma) has been documented in many oceanic regions. Constraining the magnitude, variability, and regional extent of warming is critical for modeling experiments being undertaken based upon reconstruction of mid Pliocene conditions. A comprehensive re-evaluation of the mid Pliocene of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region using a multiproxy approach that includes quantitative planktic foraminifer analysis, and Mg:<span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleothermometry on Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Globigerina bulloides yields new insights into conditions occurring 3 million years ago. While the overall pattern of warming documented by the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping) Project remains unchanged, mean regional warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> may have been underestimated in earlier reconstructions. Model simulations using maximum and minimum probable SST reconstructions provide a more useful measure of the spatial variability of mid-Pliocene warmth and should produce more realistic model simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037606','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037606"><span id="translatedtitle">The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age in Chesapeake Bay and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K.; Thunell, R.C.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Willard, D.A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A new 2400-year paleoclimate reconstruction from Chesapeake Bay (CB) (eastern US) was compared to other paleoclimate records in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region to evaluate climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Using Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios from ostracodes and oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera as proxies for temperature and precipitation-driven estuarine hydrography, results show that warmest temperatures in CB reached 16-17. ??C between 600 and 950. CE (Common Era), centuries before the classic European Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (950-1100. CE) and peak warming in the Nordic Seas (1000-1400. CE). A series of centennial warm/cool cycles began about 1000. CE with temperature minima of ~. 8 to 9. ??C about 1150, 1350, and 1650-1800. CE, and intervening warm <span class="hlt">periods</span> (14-15. ??C) centered at 1200, 1400, 1500 and 1600. CE. Precipitation variability in the eastern US included multiple dry intervals from 600 to 1200. CE, which contrasts with wet medieval conditions in the Caribbean. The eastern US experienced a wet LIA between 1650 and 1800. CE when the Caribbean was relatively dry. Comparison of the CB record with other records shows that the MCA and LIA were characterized by regionally asynchronous warming and complex spatial patterns of precipitation, possibly related to ocean-atmosphere processes. ?? 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/periodpain.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/periodpain.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Period</span> Pain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. <span class="hlt">Period</span> pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://jfr.geoscienceworld.org/content/29/4/465.abstract','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://jfr.geoscienceworld.org/content/29/4/465.abstract"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin to cyclic climatic forcing during the early Cretaceous</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dean, W.E.; Arthur, M.A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Striking cyclic interbeds of laminated dark-olive to black marlstone and bioturbated white to light-gray limestone of Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) age have been recovered at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) sites in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These Neocomian sequences are equivalent to the Maiolica Formation that outcrops in the Tethyan regions of the Mediterranean and to thick limestone sequences of the Vocontian Trough of France. This lithologic unit marks the widespread deposition of biogenic carbonate over much of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Tethyan seafloor during a time of overall low sealevel and a deep carbonate compensation depth. The dark clay-rich interbeds typically are rich in organic carbon (OC) with up to 5.5% OC in sequences in the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sequences off northwest Africa, contain more abundant and better preserved hydrogen-rich, algal organic matter (type II kerogen) relative to the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, probably in response to coastal upwelling induced by an eastern boundary current in the young North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. The more abundant algal organic matter in sequences in the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is also expressed in the isotopic composition of the carbon in that organic matter. In contrast, organic matter in Neocomian sequences in the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> along the continental margin of North America has geochemical and optical characteristics of herbaceous, woody, hydrogen-poor, humic, type III kerogen. The inorganic geochemical characteristics of the dark clay-rich (80% <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3) interbeds in both the eastern and western basins of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> suggest that they contain minor amounts of relatively unweathered eolian dust derived from northwest Africa during dry intervals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10144057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10144057"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Periodized</span> wavelets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The properties of <span class="hlt">periodized</span> Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of <span class="hlt">periodized</span> wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1319.photos.038184p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1319.photos.038184p/"><span id="translatedtitle">1. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOWN OF <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY, LOOKING ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOWN OF <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY, LOOKING NORTH FROM NINTH FLOOR OF CEASAR'S PARKING GARAGE ON KENTUCKY AVENUE - Town of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, North end of Absecon Island, South of Absecon Channel, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110230','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110230"><span id="translatedtitle">The Response of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bloom to NAO Forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mizoguchi, Ken-Ichi; Worthen, Denise L.; Hakkinen, Sirpa; Gregg, Watson W.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Results from the climatologically forced coupled ice/ocean/biogeochemical model that covers the Arctic and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans are presented and compared to the chlorophyll fields of satellite-derived ocean color measurements. Biogeochemical processes in the model are determined from the interactions among four phytoplankton functional groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) and four nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, silicate and dissolved iron). The model simulates the general large-scale pattern in April, May and June, when compared to both satellite-derived and in situ observations. The subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was cool in the 1980s and warm in the latter 1990s, corresponding to the CZCS and SeaWiFS satellite observing <span class="hlt">periods</span>, respectively. The oceanographic conditions during these <span class="hlt">periods</span> resemble the typical subpolar upper ocean response to the NAO+ and NAO-phases, respectively. Thus, we use the atmospheric forcing composites from the two NAO phases to simulate the variability of the mid-ocean bloom during the satellite observing <span class="hlt">periods</span>. The model results show that when the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is cool, the NAO+ case, more nutrients are available in early spring than when the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is warm, the NAO-case. However, the NAO+ simulation produces a later bloom than the NAO-simulation. This difference in the bloom times is also identified in SeaWiFS and CZCS satellite measurements. In the model results, we can trace the difference to the early diatom bloom due to a warmer upper ocean. The higher nutrient abundance in the NAO+ case did not provide larger total production than in the NAO- case, instead the two cases had a comparable area averaged amplitude. This leads us to conclude that in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom depends on surface temperature and the magnitude of the bloom is not significantly impacted by the nutrient abundance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..129..296P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..129..296P"><span id="translatedtitle">Mid to late Holocene strengthening of the East Greenland Current linked to warm subsurface <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; Lloyd, Jeremy M.; Jansen, Eystein; Stein, Rüdiger</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The relatively fresh and cold East Greenland Current (EGC) connects the Arctic with the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Its strength and influence on the freshwater balance in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> affects both the Subpolar Gyre dynamics and deep convection in the Labrador Sea. Enhanced freshwater and sea-ice expansion in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is suggested to modify the northward heat transport within the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current. High-resolution palaeoceanographic reconstructions, based on planktic and benthic foraminifera assemblage data, from the central East Greenland shelf (Foster Bugt) reveal distinct centennial to millennial-scale oceanographic variability that relates to climatic changes during the mid to late Holocene (the last c. 6.3 ka BP). Our data highlight intervals of cooling and freshening of the polar surface EGC waters that accompany warming in the subsurface <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters, which are a combination of chilled <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intermediate Water (AIW) from the Arctic Ocean and of the Return <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current (RAC) from the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). Mid Holocene thermal optimum conditions prevailed until c. 4.5 ka BP. A thin/absent surface Polar Water layer, low drift/sea-ice occurrence and strong contribution of recirculating warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters at the subsurface, suggest a relatively weak EGC during this <span class="hlt">period</span>. Subsequently, between 1.4 and 4.5 ka BP, the water column became well stratified as the surface Polar Water layer thickened and cooled, indicating a strong EGC. This EGC strengthening parallelled enhanced subsurface chilled AIW contribution from the Arctic Ocean after c. 4.5 ka BP, which culminated from 1.4 to 2.3 ka BP. This coincides with warming identified in earlier work of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current, the Irminger Current, and the West Greenland Current. We link the enhanced contribution of chilled <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water during this <span class="hlt">period</span> to the time of the 'Roman Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>'. The observed warming offshore East Greenland, centred at c. 1.8 ka</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3777989','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3777989"><span id="translatedtitle">Burst Feeding of Pelagia noctiluca ephyrae on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Eggs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gordoa, Ana; Acuña, José Luis; Farrés, Roser; Bacher, Kathrin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the predation of P. noctiluca ephyrae on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin tuna (ABFT) eggs under different experimental conditions. The specific factors considered in the experimental design were: a) water mix conditions to explore predation under two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) prey distributions, b) prey density to investigate the ingestion rate capacity, and c) incubation time to inspect gut saturation. The eggs and jellyfish ephyrae were collected during the 2012 ABFT spawning survey off Ibiza (Balearic Isl., Western Mediterranean). The results showed that the proportion of feeding ephyrae increased with size. The mean clearance rate of feeding ephyrae, 4.14 L h-1, was the highest ever recorded for ephyrae. Under calm conditions the eggs floated at the surface (2D spatial arrangement) and the clearance rates, at low prey densities, were at least twice those under mixed conditions (3D spatial arrangement). At high prey density, clearance rate did not differ between mix conditions, probably due to the fast gut saturation, which was reached in <span class="hlt">c.a</span>. 15 min, as revealed by time series observations of gut contents. The fast saturation of ephyrae and their slow digestion time of approximately 18 h suggest the existence of a diel feeding <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>. We conclude that in the Western Mediterranean, P. noctiluca ephyrae are capable of predating on ABFT eggs, a highly pulsed and spatially restricted resource that potentially switches from a 3D to a 2D configuration in the absence of wind-generated turbulence. The P. noctiluca and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin tuna egg system might represent an example of a general mechanism linking pelagic and neustonic food webs. PMID:24069335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17234694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17234694"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations in HeLa cells and fibroblasts by mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uniporter stimulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vay, Laura; Hernández-Sanmiguel, Esther; Santo-Domingo, Jaime; Lobatón, Carmen D; Moreno, Alfredo; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The recent availability of activators of the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uniporter allows direct testing of the influence of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uptake on the overall <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) homeostasis of the cell. We show here that activation of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uptake by 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) or kaempferol stimulates histamine-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that this effect is enhanced if the mitochondrial Na(+)-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) exchanger is simultaneously inhibited with CGP37157. This suggests that both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uptake and release from mitochondria control the ability of local <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) microdomains to produce feedback inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP(3)Rs). In addition, the ability of mitochondria to control <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release from the ER allows them to modulate cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations. In histamine stimulated HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, both PPT and kaempferol initially stimulated and later inhibited oscillations, although kaempferol usually induced a more prolonged <span class="hlt">period</span> of stimulation. Both compounds were also able to induce the generation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations in previously silent fibroblasts. Our data suggest that cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations are exquisitely sensitive to the rates of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uptake and release, which precisely control the size of the local <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) microdomains around InsP(3)Rs and thus the ability to produce feedback activation or inhibition of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2075421','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2075421"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations in HeLa cells and fibroblasts by mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uniporter stimulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vay, Laura; Hernández-SanMiguel, Esther; Santo-Domingo, Jaime; Lobatón, Carmen D; Moreno, Alfredo; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The recent availability of activators of the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uniporter allows direct testing of the influence of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uptake on the overall <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ homeostasis of the cell. We show here that activation of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uptake by 4,4′,4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) or kaempferol stimulates histamine-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that this effect is enhanced if the mitochondrial Na+–<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ exchanger is simultaneously inhibited with CGP37157. This suggests that both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uptake and release from mitochondria control the ability of local <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ microdomains to produce feedback inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs). In addition, the ability of mitochondria to control <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release from the ER allows them to modulate cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations. In histamine stimulated HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, both PPT and kaempferol initially stimulated and later inhibited oscillations, although kaempferol usually induced a more prolonged <span class="hlt">period</span> of stimulation. Both compounds were also able to induce the generation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations in previously silent fibroblasts. Our data suggest that cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations are exquisitely sensitive to the rates of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uptake and release, which precisely control the size of the local <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ microdomains around InsP3Rs and thus the ability to produce feedback activation or inhibition of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release. PMID:17234694</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA447536','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA447536"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol Optical Depth Analysis with NOAA GOES and POES in the Western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-02-17</p> <p>Monterey, <span class="hlt">CA</span>, 73 pp . Charlson, R. J., S. E. Swartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, Jr., J. E. Hansen and D. J. Hoffman, 1992: Climate forcing by...in the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. M.S. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, <span class="hlt">CA</span>, 81 pp . Maring, H., D. L. Savoie, M. A. Izaguirre, C. McCormick, R...properties using the NOAA POES AVHRR during ACE-l, TARFOX, and ACE-2. M.S. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, <span class="hlt">CA</span>, 58 pp . 20 Turner, R., 1973</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000791','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000791"><span id="translatedtitle">Meridional Distribution of Aerosol Optical Thickness over the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kishcha, P.; Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, B.; Long, C. N.; Kalashnikova, O.; Alpert, P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies showed that, over the global ocean, there is hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and no noticeable asymmetry in cloud fraction (CF). In the current study, we focus on the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (30 Deg N 30 Deg S) which is characterized by significant amounts of Saharan dust dominating other aerosol species over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. We found that, by contrast to the global ocean, over a limited area such as the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, strong meridional asymmetry in dust aerosols was accompanied by meridional CF asymmetry. During the 10-year study <span class="hlt">period</span> (July 2002 June 2012), NASA Aerosol Reanalysis (aka MERRAero) showed that, when the meridional asymmetry in dust aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was the most pronounced (particularly in July), dust AOT averaged separately over the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was one order of magnitude higher than dust AOT averaged over the tropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In the presence of such strong meridional asymmetry in dust AOT in July, CF averaged separately over the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> exceeded CF averaged over the tropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> by 20%. Our study showed significant cloud cover, up to 0.8 - 0.9, in July along the Saharan Air Layer which contributed to above-mentioned meridional CF asymmetry. Both Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) measurements and MERRAero data were in agreement on seasonal variations in meridional aerosol asymmetry. Meridional asymmetry in total AOT over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was maximal. In September and October, there was no noticeable meridional asymmetry in total AOT and meridional CF distribution over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was almost symmetrical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-23/pdf/2011-30276.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-23/pdf/2011-30276.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 72383 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-23</p> <p>... Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-BA17 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management...) and fishery management plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shark... design elements for potential catch shares programs in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shark fisheries. Additionally,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-22/pdf/2010-23689.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-22/pdf/2010-23689.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 57698 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-22</p> <p>... operator of a vessel for which a Purse Seine category <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas category permit has been issued under... another vessel for which a Purse Seine category <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas permit has been issued, provided the amount... INFORMATION: Background <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> HMS are managed under the dual authority of the MSA and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-19/pdf/2013-14661.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-19/pdf/2013-14661.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 36685 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2013 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-19</p> <p>... Species; 2013 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: NMFS establishes 2013 quota specifications for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) fishery and closes the... Commission for the Conservation of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas (ICCAT), as required by the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas Convention...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-29/pdf/2011-10452.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-29/pdf/2011-10452.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 23935 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-29</p> <p>..., and billfish in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action... Caribbean Sea, to a North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> swordfish taken from or possessed in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, and to bluefin... for the conservation of tuna and tuna-like species in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and adjacent seas....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15014495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15014495"><span id="translatedtitle">Links between salinity variation in the Caribbean and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Matthew W; Spero, Howard J; Lea, David W</p> <p>2004-03-11</p> <p>Variations in the strength of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean thermohaline circulation have been linked to rapid climate changes during the last glacial cycle through oscillations in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation and northward oceanic heat flux. The strength of the thermohaline circulation depends on the supply of warm, salty water to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which, after losing heat to the atmosphere, produces the dense water masses that sink to great depths and circulate back south. Here we analyse two Caribbean Sea sediment cores, combining Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> palaeothermometry with measurements of oxygen isotopes in foraminiferal calcite in order to reconstruct tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface salinity during the last glacial cycle. We find that Caribbean salinity oscillated between saltier conditions during the cold oxygen isotope stages 2, 4 and 6, and lower salinities during the warm stages 3 and 5, covarying with the strength of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation. At the initiation of the Bølling/Allerød warm interval, Caribbean surface salinity decreased abruptly, suggesting that the advection of salty tropical waters into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> amplified thermohaline circulation and contributed to high-latitude warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41B1503W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41B1503W"><span id="translatedtitle">A new calibration for the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature relationship in sclerosponges reveals synchronous changes in Caribbean specimens indicative of warming and multi-decadal climate variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.; Rosenheim, B. E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Previous work defined the calibration between the skeletal Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratio of the sclerosponge Ceratoporella nicholsoni and the ambient seawater temperature. However, application of this calibration to records throughout the Caribbean reveals a nearly 4°C warming over the last 150 years, in excess of what one might expect from global climate averages. As the original C. nicholsoni Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature relationship was calibrated between 26 and 30°C, it is possible that the relationship differed outside of the examined temperature window. This suspicion is confirmed by the measurement of Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios from additional specimens of the same species. These show a significantly different slope between Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and temperature at lower temperatures (21 to 26°C). Using this information, the calibration equation has been refined and the subsequent reconstructions of temperature are much more realistic, indicating a warming of approximately 1°C over the last 150 years. Applying this new calibration to additional published sclerosponge records of Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> reveals remarkable agreements between records from the Bahamas and Jamaica, both in amplitude of warming and smaller scale variability. In addition, the depth versus temperature relationship associated with these specimens is preserved. The refined temperature reconstruction of a 600 year record from Exuma Sound, Bahamas, demonstrates the cyclic nature of its variability (~15 and 28 year <span class="hlt">periodicities</span>). Further use of these data and stable oxygen isotopes to calculate salinity reveals variability on multi-decadal timescales. This includes an approximately 20 year <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> between 1400 and 1790. From 1790 to 2000, the dominant mode appears to switch to a roughly 60 year <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>, consistent with that of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24696145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24696145"><span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous and nicotine-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations mediated by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx in rat pinealocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mizutani, Hiroya; Yamamura, Hisao; Muramatsu, Makoto; Kiyota, Keiko; Nishimura, Kaori; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Ohya, Susumu; Imaizumi, Yuji</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The pineal gland regulates circadian rhythm through the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. The rise of intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) concentration ([<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)]i) following nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation due to parasympathetic nerve activity downregulates melatonin production. Important characteristics and roles of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) mobilization due to nAChR stimulation remain to be clarified. We report here that spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations can be observed in ∼15% of the pinealocytes in slice preparations from rat pineal glands when this dissociation procedure is done within 6 h from a dark-to-light change. The frequency and half-life of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)]i rise were 0.86 min(-1) and 19 s, respectively. Similar spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations were recorded in 17% of rat pinealocytes that were primary cultured for several days. Simultaneous measurement of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)]i and membrane potential revealed that spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations were triggered by <span class="hlt">periodic</span> membrane depolarizations. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations in cultured pinealocytes were abolished by extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) removal or application of nifedipine, a blocker of voltage-dependent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) channel (VDCC). In contrast, blockers of intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-release channels, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate and ryanodine, have no effect. Our results also reveal that, in 23% quiescent pinealocytes, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations were observed following the withdrawal of nicotine. Norepinephrine-induced melatonin secretion from whole pineal glands was significantly decreased by the coapplication of acetylcholine (ACh). This inhibitory effect of ACh was attenuated by nifedipine. In conclusion, both spontaneous and evoked <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations are due to membrane depolarization following activation of VDCCs. This consists of VDCC α1F subunit, and the associated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) influx can strongly regulate melatonin secretion in pineal glands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeCoA..71.3979S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeCoA..71.3979S"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpreting the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope record of marine biogenic carbonates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sime, Neil G.; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Tipper, Edward T.; Tripati, Aradhna; Galy, Albert; Bickle, Michael J.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>An 18 million year record of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic composition (δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) of planktonic foraminiferans from ODP site 925, in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, on the Ceara Rise, provides the opportunity for critical analysis of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope-based reconstructions of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> cycle. δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in this record averages +0.37 ± 0.05 (1 σ SD) and ranges from +0.21‰ to +0.52‰. The record is a good match to previously published Neogene <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope records based on foraminiferans, but is not similar to the record based on bulk carbonates, which has values that are as much as 0.25‰ lower. Bulk carbonate and planktonic foraminiferans from core tops differ slightly in their δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> (i.e., by 0.06 ± 0.06‰ ( n = 5)), while the difference between bulk carbonate and foraminiferan values further back in time is markedly larger, leaving open the question of the cause of the difference. Modeling the global <span class="hlt">Ca</span> cycle from downcore variations in δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> by assuming fixed values for the isotopic composition of weathering inputs (δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> w) and for isotope fractionation associated with the production of carbonate sediments (Δ sed) results in unrealistically large variations in the total mass of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ in the oceans over the Neogene. Alternatively, variations of ±0.05‰ in the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope composition of weathering inputs or in the extent of fractionation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopes during calcareous sediment formation could entirely account for variations in the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic composition of marine carbonates. <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope fractionation during continental weathering, such as has been recently observed, could easily result in variations in δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> w of a few tenths of permil. Likewise a difference in the fractionation factors associated with aragonite versus calcite formation could drive shifts in Δ sed of tenths of permil with shifts in the relative output of calcite and aragonite from the ocean. Until better constraints on variations in δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> w and Δ sed have been established, modeling the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ content</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5211411','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5211411"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Seaduck Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.2025 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area. 165.2025 Section... Vessels § 165.2025 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable waters of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area, which includes...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002memi.conf..143H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002memi.conf..143H"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatic Variability over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hurrell, J.; Hoerling, M. P.; Folland, C. K.</p> <p></p> <p>INTRODUCTION WHAT IS THE NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> OSCILLATION AND HOW DOES IT IMPACT REGIONAL - CLIMATE? WHAT ARE THE MECHANISMS THAT GOVERN NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> OSCILLATION VARIABILITY? Atmospheric Processes Ocean Forcing of the Atmosphere CONCLUDING COMMENTS ON THE OTHER ASPECTS OF NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CLIMATE - VARIABILITY REFERENCES</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARF11005T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARF11005T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> Polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Edwin</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D <span class="hlt">periodic</span> nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based <span class="hlt">periodic</span> materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESSD....2....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESSD....2....1S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> CFC data in CARINA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinfeldt, R.; Tanhua, T.; Bullister, J. L.; Key, R. M.; Rhein, M.; Köhler, J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC)). The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ESSDD...2...27S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ESSDD...2...27S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> CFC data in CARINA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinfeldt, R.; Tanhua, T.; Bullister, J. L.; Key, R. M.; Rhein, M.; Köhler, J.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC)). The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Bases on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor" quality flag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PrOce..45..109H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PrOce..45..109H"><span id="translatedtitle">North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nordic Seas exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, B.; Østerhus, S.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>The northeastern part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is unique in the sense that it is much warmer in the surface than other ocean areas at similar latitudes. The main reason for this is the large northward transport of heat that extends to high latitudes and crosses the Greenland-Scotland Ridge to enter the Nordic Seas and the Arctic. There the warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water is converted to colder water masses that return southwards over the ridge partly as surface outflows and partly as overflows through the deep passages across the ridge. In this paper, the state of knowledge on the exchanges especially across the eastern part of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge is reviewed based on results from the ICES NANSEN (North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Norwegian Sea Exchanges) project, from the Nordic WOCE project and from other sources. The accumulated evidence allows us to describe the exchanges in fair detail; the origins of the waters, the patterns of their flow towards and over the ridge and their ultimate fate. There is also increasing information on temporal variations of the exchanges although dynamical changes are still not well understood. Quantitative estimates for the volume transport of most of the overflow branches seem reasonably well established, and transport measurements of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> inflows to the Nordic Seas are approaching acceptable levels of confidence which allows preliminary budgets to be presented. The deep overflows are driven by pressure gradients set up by the formation of deep and intermediate water. The dominance of deep overflows over surface outflows in the water budget argues that this thermohaline forcing also dominates over direct wind stress and estuarine forcing in driving the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water inflow across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, while wind stress seems to influence the characteristics and distribution of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water north of the ridge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..501H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..501H"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Korea teleconnection pattern during boreal summer season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ham, Yoo-Geun; Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Kug, Jong-Seong; Kimoto, Masahide; Mochizuki, Takashi</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The remote impact of tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature (SST) variability on Korean summer precipitation is examined based on observational data analysis along with the idealized and hindcast model experiments. Observations show a significant correlation (i.e. 0.64) between Korean precipitation anomalies (averaged over 120-130°E, 35-40°N) and the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST index (averaged over 60°W-20°E, 30°S-30°N) during the June-July-August (JJA) season for the 1979-2010 <span class="hlt">period</span>. Our observational analysis and partial-data assimilation experiments using the coupled general circulation model demonstrate that tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST warming induces the equatorial low-level easterly over the western Pacific through a reorganization of the global Walker Circulation, causing a decreased precipitation over the off-equatorial western Pacific. As a Gill-type response to this diabatic forcing, an anomalous low-level anticyclonic circulation appears over the Philippine Sea, which transports wet air from the tropics to East Asia through low-level southerly, resulting an enhanced precipitation in the Korean peninsula. Multi-model hindcast experiments also show that predictive skills of Korean summer precipitation are improved by utilizing predictions of tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST anomalies as a predictor for Korean precipitation anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..261W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..261W"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic warming will promote <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific fish interchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Throughout much of the Quaternary <span class="hlt">Period</span>, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12110074Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12110074Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the December North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation on the following February East Asian trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Shaobo; Feng, Guolin</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>During winter, the December North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) has an impact on the following February East Asian trough (EAT), and a significant positive correlation exists between them. It is shown that the circulation anomalies affected by the December NAO for December and for the following January are primarily confined to the Euro-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector while they extend to East Asia during the following February, and this is related to anomalous wave trains originating from the southwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and spreading to the northeastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, northern Europe, western Siberia, and East Asia. When the NAO is positive phase in December, the sea surface temperature (SST) tripole pattern is forced by persistence positive NAO from December to the following January, contributing to pronounced positive SST anomalies in midlatitude areas of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the following February. The pronounced positive SST anomalies found during this <span class="hlt">period</span> can generate feedback for atmospheric anomalies, and the westerly winds are enhanced (reduced) to the north (south) side of the positive SST anomalies, which result from strengthened (weakened) baroclinicity there. In addition, the Rossby wave source over the northeastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shows a positive anomaly, establishing a link between the positive SST anomalies in midlatitude areas of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the deepened EAT downstream.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..427V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..427V"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-model ensemble forecasting of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Villarini, Gabriele; Luitel, Beda; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Ghosh, Joyee</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones (TCs) and hurricanes are responsible for a large number of fatalities and economic damage. Skillful seasonal predictions of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TC activity can provide basic information critical to our improved preparedness. This study focuses on the development of statistical-dynamical seasonal forecasting systems for different quantities related to the frequency and intensity of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TCs. These models use only tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and tropical mean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to describe the variability exhibited by the observational records because they reflect the importance of both local and non-local effects on the genesis and development of TCs in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin. A set of retrospective forecasts of SSTs by six experimental seasonal-to-interannual prediction systems from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble are used as covariates. The retrospective forecasts are performed over the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1982-2015. The skill of these statistical-dynamical models is quantified for different quantities (basin-wide number of tropical storms and hurricanes, power dissipation index and accumulated cyclone energy) for forecasts initialized as early as November of the year prior to the season to forecast. The results of this work show that it is possible to obtain skillful retrospective forecasts of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TC activity with a long lead time. Moreover, probabilistic forecasts of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TC activity for the 2016 season are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30..312X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30..312X"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar wind: A possible factor driving the interannual sea surface temperature tripolar mode over North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Ziniu; Li, Delin</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The effect of solar wind (SW) on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature (SST) in boreal winter is examined through an analysis of observational data during 1964-2013. The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs show a pronounced meridional tripolar pattern in response to solar wind speed (SWS) variations. This pattern is broadly similar to the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of interannual variations in the wintertime SSTs over North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The time series of this leading EOF mode of SST shows a significant interannual <span class="hlt">period</span>, which is the same as that of wintertime SWS. This response also appears as a compact north-south seesaw of sea level pressure and a vertical tripolar structure of zonal wind, which simultaneously resembles the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) in the overlying atmosphere. As compared with the typical low SWS winters, during the typical high SWS winters, the stratospheric polar night jet (PNJ) is evidently enhanced and extends from the stratosphere to the troposphere, even down to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean surface. Notably, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is an exclusive region in which the SW signal spreads downward from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Thus, it seems that the SW is a possible factor for this North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST tripolar mode. The dynamical process of stratosphere-troposphere coupling, together with the global atmospheric electric circuit-cloud microphysical process, probably accounts for the particular downward propagation of the SW signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..327..531P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..327..531P"><span id="translatedtitle">New 40Ar/39Ar ages and revised 40K/40Ar* data from nephelinitic-phonolitic volcanic successions of the Trindade Island (South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pires, G. L. C.; Bongiolo, E. M.; Geraldes, M. C.; Renac, C.; Santos, A. C.; Jourdan, F.; Neumann, R.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The Trindade Island is located in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, 1170 km from the Brazilian coast and represents the eastern end of the submarine E-W Vitória-Trindade Chain. This is interpreted as the Trindade plume track beneath the South American plate during the Cenozoic. Almeida (1961) recognized five volcanogenic successions at Trindade in decreasing age: the Trindade Complex (TC) and the Desejado (DF), Morro Vermelho (MV), Valado (VF) and Paredão (PF) formations, composed of nephelinitic to phonolitic effusive-pyroclastic deposits, dykes and necks. Here, we present new 40Ar/39Ar ages and re-evaluation of available 40K/40Ar* data that, coupled with previous petrological information, allowed us to reconstruct the volcanic history of the island (i.e., 3.9-0.25 Ma) distinguishing near synchronous volcanic episodes and solving several stratigraphic uncertainties reported in the literature. The geochronological dataset show that the nephelinitic-phonolitic volcanism at Trindade was discontinuous throught time, being marked by <span class="hlt">periods</span> of high volcanic activity and <span class="hlt">periods</span> of quiescence, which suggests variable melt production and eruption rates. The peak of the volcanic activity occurred between 3.9 and 2.5 Ma (i.e., Lower Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene) that is represented by the TC, which correspond to the largest volume of volcanic deposits preserved in the island. The volcanic activity slows down progressively from 2.5 Ma to cease at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1.6 Ma, <span class="hlt">period</span> that is represented by the DF. This volcanism was followed by a quiescent <span class="hlt">period</span> that lasted until the ephemeral nephelinitic volcanism of the MV (no age), VA (no age) and PF (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 0.25 Ma). Thus, the volcanic activity in Trindade was ceased completely at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 0.25 Ma, event registered in the uppermost volcanic deposits of the PF and that represents the last volcanic activity in the Brazilian territory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9064A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9064A"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of the Mediterranean Overflow Water on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aldama Campino, Aitor; Döös, Kristofer</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Mediterranean Overflow Water is created due to an excess of evaporation over precipitation and river runoffs in the Mediterranean Sea. As a result, the incoming surface waters from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> become denser and saltier. These waters return to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> through Gibraltar Strait and start mixing with the surrounding waters in the vicinity of the Gulf of Cadiz forming a warm and saline tongue of water, which spreads westward. In this exchange of waters between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Mediterranean, other magnitudes such as heat and salt are transported. In the last case, the salt transport between the two basins shows a variability with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of few decades. These oscillations produce two different states, one where the Mediterranean exports salt to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and another where the Mediterranean imports salt from it. The Mediterranean-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> system alternates these two states. The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of these multidecadal oscillations on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This study is performed using data from the climate model EC-EARTH run under pre-industrial conditions, where the greenhouse gas forcing is constant. Different magnitudes such as the total salt and volume transport through Gibraltar Strait, salinity profiles in the vicinity of the Gulf of Cadiz, the net freshwater fluxes in the Mediterranean basin are studied. The analysis of the total salt transport through Gibraltar show <span class="hlt">periods</span> where salt is imported from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and vice versa. Our guess is that the Mediterranean Sea acts as a reservoir which alternates between exporting and importing salt from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> through the strait. The impact of this salt transport in Gibraltar on the total salt transport of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is studied. The results show a larger impact of the outgoing salt transport on the total <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salt transport north of Gibraltar strait (in a region between 40°N-50°N). These results oppose the ones obtained when the impact of the outgoing salt</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP23A1378Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP23A1378Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward quantifying the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbon storage increase during the last glaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, J.; Menviel, L.; Jin, Z.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Ice core records show that atmospheric CO2 concentrations during peak glacial time were ~30% lower than the levels during interglacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>. The terrestrial biosphere carbon stock was likely reduced during glacials. Increased carbon storage in the deep ocean is thought to play an important role in lowering glacial atmospheric CO2. However, it has been challenging to quantify carbon storage changes in the deep ocean using existing proxy data. Here, we present deepwater carbonate ion reconstructions for a few locations in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These data allow us to estimate the minimum carbon storage increase in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean during the last glaciation. Our results show that, despite its relative small volume, the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean may contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2 variations at major climate transitions. Furthermore, our results suggest a strong coupling of ocean circulation and carbon cycle in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last glaciation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP14B..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP14B..05H"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling non-analogue elements of Pliocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, D. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The strong warming seen in records of mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> has proved difficult to reproduce in climate model simulations. The results of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Experiment 2 fail to produce a single simulation with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SSTs) as high as those indicated by the PRISM3 (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) data set. Direct comparisons between the data and models are hampered by differing techniques used in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and physical climate simulations. However, even if current simulations are not directly comparable to the reconstructions of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, something must have forced these particularly high temperatures for at least parts of the mid-Pliocene warm <span class="hlt">period</span>. The boundary condition changes defined in the PlioMIP Experiment 2 protocol are limited to CO2, ice sheets, vegetation, land area change due to sea level rise and orography. Apart from small orographic changes imposed outside of the ice sheet regions, the rest of these factors would be expected to change under future anthropogenic climate change. As such the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has referred to the mid-Pliocene as 'an accessible example of a world that is similar in many respects to ... the late 21st century'. However, there are a number of different palaeogeographic changes documented in published literature that are not incorporated into the PRISM3 palaeoenvironmental reconstruction used as model boundary conditions, particularly in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. Although some of these would be expected under future climate change, e.g. a reduction in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> icebergs, many would not. Changes in the intensity of Icelandic mantle plume upwelling have resulted in changes in the sill depth of the Greenland-Scotland ridge over at least the last 40 million years. Pleistocene glacial erosion has created new ocean areas in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/642337','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/642337"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogeochemical processes and facies in confining units of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Plain in New Jersey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pucci, A.A. Jr.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Pore water solutes and sediments in the New Jersey Coastal Plain were studied to assess processes that control pore water chemistry in confining units and interactions with aquifer water chemistry. Solute chemistry and variations with depth are reported for 19 samples collected from a continuously cored borehole in the lower Miocene Kirkwood Formation at <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, New Jersey. In 14 pore water samples collected from the Lower Confining Unit overlying the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City 800-foot sand, and from the silt interbeds in the Upper Part of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City 800-foot sand, linear regressions showed especially high correlations (R{sup 2}>0.89) between concentrations of Mg and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>; between concentrations of Na and the sum of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg; between concentrations of SO{sub 4} and the sum of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg; and between concentrations of Na and SO{sub 4}. There were three distinct water quality types: <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-SO{sub 4}, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-Na-SO{sub 4}-Cl-HCO{sub 3}, and Na-SO{sub 4}-HCO{sub 3}Cl. Each water type generally is within distinct intervals (tens of meters), or hydrogeochemical facies, in the core. The first two facies were found only in the units overlying the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City 800-foot Sand; the third type was found only in samples from the underlying composite confining unit. Significant variation of pore water solute concentrations was indicated on a scale smaller than the sampling interval (about 3.5 m). Two principal components explained 82.5% of the total variation in pore water chemistry. The processes which control the variation in water quality include (1) chemical processes such as shell dissolution, incongruent carbonate dissolution, and clay transformations; (2) a hypothesized physical-chemical mechanism of differential migration of sulfate accompanied by divalent cations; and (3) fresh water flushing of, and mixing with, residual sea water at paleoflow rates. Cation-exchange reactions do not appear to be an important process in these sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.6802M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.6802M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> opportunities for ENSO prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martín-Rey, Marta; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén.; Polo, Irene</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability with worldwide impacts. The knowledge of ENSO drivers and the underlying mechanisms is crucial to improve ENSO prediction, which still remains a challenge. The recently discovered connection between an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niño (Niña) and a Pacific Niña (Niño), through an air-sea coupled mechanism during the first and last decades of the twentieth century, highlights an opportunity for ENSO prediction. Here a statistical cross-validated hindcast of ENSO along the twentieth century is presented, considering the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures as the unique predictor field, and a set of atmospheric and oceanic variables related to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific connection as the predictand field. The observed ENSO phase is well reproduced, and the skill is enhanced at the beginning and the end of the twentieth century. Understanding this multidecadal modulation of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific connection could help to improve seasonal-to-decadal forecasts of ENSO and its associated impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457924','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457924"><span id="translatedtitle">Geology of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olsson, R.K.; Gohn, G.S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Plain developed landward of a hinge zone on slowly subsiding continental crust during the postrift phase of the opening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Generally, a wedge of marine and non-marine sediments reaches 2000m thickness near the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastline. Variations in deposition along strike in the coastal plain was controlled by tectonic movement of basins and structural highs which from north to south include the Raritan Embayment, South New Jersey High, Chesapeake-Delaware Basin, Norfolk Arch, Albemarle Embayment, Cape Fear Arch, Southeast Georgia Embayment and South Florida Basin. Postrift sedimentation was initiated during late Jurassic and early Cretaceous time adjacent to the faulted hinge zone which separates thicker unstretched continental crust beneath the coastal plain from thinner stretched crust beneath the outer <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin. Continental clastic and deltaic sediments were deposited in onlapping sequence from Long Island to northern Florida. During this time carbonate deposition was initiated in the South Florida Basin. Marine deposition of terrigenous sands, silts and clays occurred along the coastal plain in late Cenomanian time. Shallow carbonate deposition continued in Florida. Transgressive and regressive marine deposition was dominant in the coastal plain during late Cretaceous and Paleogene time. Deposition during the Neogene was affected by numerous changes in sea level and consequently it is stratigraphically incomplete and irregularly distributed. Many units lack precise biostratigraphic resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=witchcraft&id=EJ672251','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=witchcraft&id=EJ672251"><span id="translatedtitle">Witches in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> World.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Breslaw, Elaine</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.8961K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.8961K"><span id="translatedtitle">Nutrients in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermocline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawase, M.; Sarmiento, J. L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A set of maps are presented of nutrient distribution on isopycnal surfaces in the North and tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean main thermocline. The data used in producing these maps are from the Transient Tracers in the Oceans (TTO) North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Study and Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Study, an associated German study (Meteor 56/5), two cross-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sections from cruise 109 of the Atlantis II, and the GEOSECS program. The nutrient distributions reflect primarily the sources at the northern and southern outcrops of the isopycnal surfaces, the in situ regeneration due to decomposition of sinking organic materials, and the interior physical processes as inferred from thermocline models and the distribution of conservative properties such as salinity. However, silica also exhibits behavior that cannot be explained by in situ regeneration. A simple phenomenological model suggests that cross-isopycnal advection and mixing in the equatorial region may play an important role in the nutrient dynamics. These data should prove of great value in constraining models of physical as well as biogeochemical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.414..156G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.414..156G"><span id="translatedtitle">The Cretaceous opening of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Granot, Roi; Dyment, Jérôme</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The separation of South America from Africa during the Cretaceous is poorly understood due to the long <span class="hlt">period</span> of stable polarity of the geomagnetic field, the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS, lasted between ∼121 and 83.6 Myr ago). We present a new identification of magnetic anomalies located within the southern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> magnetic quiet zones that have arisen due to past variations in the strength of the dipolar geomagnetic field. Using these anomalies, together with fracture zone locations, we calculate the first set of magnetic anomalies-based finite rotation parameters for South America and Africa during that <span class="hlt">period</span>. The kinematic solutions are generally consistent with fracture zone traces and magnetic anomalies outside the area used to construct them. The rotations indicate that seafloor spreading rates increased steadily throughout most of the Cretaceous and decreased sharply at around 80 Myr ago. A change in plate motion took place in the middle of the superchron, roughly 100 Myr ago, around the time of the final breakup (i.e., separation of continental-oceanic boundary in the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). Prominent misfit between the calculated synthetic flowlines (older than Anomaly Q1) and the fracture zones straddling the African Plate in the central South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> could only be explained by a combination of seafloor asymmetry and internal dextral motion (<100 km) within South America, west of the Rio Grande fracture zone. This process has lasted until ∼92 Myr ago after which both Africa and South America (south of the equator) behaved rigidly. The clearing of the continental-oceanic boundaries within the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Gateway was probably completed by ∼95 Myr ago. The clearing was followed by a progressive widening and deepening of the passageway, leading to the emergence of north-south flow of intermediate and deep-water which might have triggered the global cooling of bottom water and the end for the Cretaceous greenhouse <span class="hlt">period</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP31A1848E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP31A1848E"><span id="translatedtitle">Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ezat, M.; Rasmussen, T. L.; Groeneveld, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr Mohamed M. Ezat1,2*, Tine L. Rasmussen1, Jeroen Groeneveld3 1 CAGE - Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, and Department of Geology, University of Tromsø, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway. 2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. 3 Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Klagenfurter Strasse, 28359, Bremen, Germany. * e-mail: mohamed.ezat@uit.no The climate during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events of warm interstadials and cold stadials. DO events are manifested in marine and continental records in the circum-North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region and throughout the globe. Several studies suggest a crucial role of the Nordic seas in regulating the climate during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Previous studies from the Nordic seas revealed low benthic δ18O values during stadials and high values during interstadials. The causes of the depletions in benthic 18O during stadials are highly debated. Sinking of isotope depleted-brines formed due to sea ice production has previously been proposed. Another explanation has indicated warming of the intermediate water in the Nordic seas based on the finding of warm water benthic foraminiferal species during stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based bottom water temperature (BWT) record from the Nordic seas that, along with other proxies, aims to resolve the hydrographic changes at intermediate water depth on DO timescale during the last 65 kyr. The results show pronounced and gradual BWT increases during all cold stadials followed by an abrupt drop to modern-like BWT at interstadials onsets. The increase in BWT, caused by the subsurface inflow of warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> intermediate water, substantially contributed to the halocline collapse and onset of interstadial conditions throughout complex ocean-sea ice</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3297783','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3297783"><span id="translatedtitle">Single-Channel Monitoring of Reversible L-Type <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Channel <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vα1-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ Subunit Interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Kuzmenkina, Elza; Böhnke, Ann Kristin; Herzig, Stefan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Voltage-dependent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels are heteromultimers of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vα1 (pore), <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ- and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vα2δ-subunits. The stoichiometry of this complex, and whether it is dynamically regulated in intact cells, remains controversial. Fortunately, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ-isoforms affect gating differentially, and we chose two extremes (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ1a and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ2b) regarding single-channel open probability to address this question. HEK293α1C cells expressing the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>V1.2 subunit were transiently transfected with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vα2δ1 alone or with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ1a, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ2b, or (2:1 or 1:1 plasmid ratio) combinations. Both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ-subunits increased whole-cell current and shifted the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation to hyperpolarization. Time-dependent inactivation was accelerated by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ1a-subunits but not by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ2b-subunits. Mixtures induced intermediate phenotypes. Single channels sometimes switched between <span class="hlt">periods</span> of low and high open probability. To validate such slow gating behavior, data were segmented in clusters of statistically similar open probability. With <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ1a-subunits alone, channels mostly stayed in clusters (or regimes of alike clusters) of low open probability. Increasing <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ2b-subunits (co-)expressed (1:2, 1:1 ratio or alone) progressively enhanced the frequency and total duration of high open probability clusters and regimes. Our analysis was validated by the inactivation behavior of segmented ensemble averages. Hence, a phenotype consistent with mutually exclusive and dynamically competing binding of different <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ-subunits is demonstrated in intact cells. PMID:22261054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713502R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713502R"><span id="translatedtitle">Annually resolved North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine climate over the last millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental <span class="hlt">period</span>, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial <span class="hlt">period</span> (AD 1000-1800) variability in the sub-polar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5150573','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5150573"><span id="translatedtitle">Annually resolved North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine climate over the last millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental <span class="hlt">period</span>, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial <span class="hlt">period</span> (AD 1000–1800) variability in the sub-polar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing. PMID:27922004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5729P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5729P"><span id="translatedtitle">Summer North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation and flood variability in Switzerland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peña, Juan Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Badoux, Alexandre</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The study analyses the possible links between flood frequency in Switzerland and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> dynamics over the last two centuries. Given the intricate topography of Switzerland, it will generate a territorial division to retain main physiographic and environmental dissimilarities between different regions. The flood variability in Switzerland over the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1800-2010 has been determined from a flood damage index for July and August months. The index considers very severe and catastrophic floods from existing flood inventories, summarizing both the severity of these events, their spatial extent and the regional differences. Special attention will be focused on the disparities between flood dynamics at northern and southern slopes of the Alps. The analysis of the possible links between floods and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> dynamics is focused on the low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Summer climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-European sector shows a principal pattern of year-to-year variability, although this pattern is weaker than the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) in winter and is confined to northern latitudes. By analogy the climatology community refers to this pattern as the Summer North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (SNAO), which is defined as the main empirical orthogonal function of the standardized anomalies of the European mean sea level pressure during July and August. The flood damage index provides evidences of floods clusters in: 1830-1851, 1881-1927, 1977-1990 and 2005 to present. These clusters coincide with those reported from Switzerland and from some areas of the European continent such as the Czech Republic, Italy and the eastern half of the Iberian Peninsula. This link is not so close when compared with the flood occurrences in Germany. The analysis of the principal mode of low-frequency atmospheric variability shows that the Swiss river catchments situated on the center and southern flank of the Alps are affected by atmospherically unstable areas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986434','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986434"><span id="translatedtitle">An updated anthropogenic CO2 inventory in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, K.; Choi, S.-D.; Park, G.-H.; Peng, T.-H.; Key, Robert; Sabine, Chris; Feely, R. A.; Bullister, J.L.; Millero, F. J.; Kozyr, Alexander</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the basin-wide inventory of anthropogenic CO2 in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean based on high-quality inorganic carbon, alkalinity, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) surveys of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean between 1990 and 1998. Anthropogenic CO2 was separated from the large pool of dissolved inorganic carbon using an extended version of the DC* method originally developed by Gruber et al. [1996]. The extension of the method includes the use of an optimum multiparameter analysis to determine the relative contributions from various source water types to the sample on an isopycnal surface. Total inventories of anthropogenic CO2 in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean are highest in the subtropical regions at 20 40, whereas anthropogenic CO2 penetrates the deepest in high-latitude regions (>40N). The deeper penetration at high northern latitudes is largely due to the formation of deep water that feeds the Deep Western Boundary Current, which transports anthropogenic CO2 into the interior. In contrast, waters south of 50S in the Southern Ocean contain little anthropogenic CO2. Analysis of the data collected during the 1990 1998 <span class="hlt">period</span> yielded a total anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 28.4 4.7 Pg C in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (equator-70N) and of 18.5 3.9 Pg C in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (equator-70S). These estimated basin-wide inventories of anthropogenic CO2 are in good agreement with previous estimates obtained by Gruber [1998], after accounting for the difference in observational <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Our calculation of the anthropogenic CO2 inventory in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, in conjunction with the inventories calculated previously for the Indian Ocean [Sabine et al., 1999] and for the Pacific Ocean [Sabine et al., 2002], yields a global anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 112 17 Pg C that has accumulated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9756484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9756484"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchronous climate changes in antarctica and the north <span class="hlt">atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steig; Brook; White; Sucher; Bender; Lehman; Morse; Waddington; Clow</p> <p>1998-10-02</p> <p>Central Greenland ice cores provide evidence of abrupt changes in climate over the past 100,000 years. Many of these changes have also been identified in sedimentary and geochemical signatures in deep-sea sediment cores from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, confirming the link between millennial-scale climate variability and ocean thermohaline circulation. It is shown here that two of the most prominent North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> events-the rapid warming that marks the end of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> and the Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas oscillation-are also recorded in an ice core from Taylor Dome, in the western Ross Sea sector of Antarctica. This result contrasts with evidence from ice cores in other regions of Antarctica, which show an asynchronous response between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020113','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020113"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchronous climate changes in Antarctica and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Steig, E.J.; Brook, E.J.; White, J.W.C.; Sucher, C.M.; Bender, M.L.; Lehman, S.J.; Morse, D.L.; Waddington, E.D.; Clow, G.D.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Central Greenland ice cores provide evidence of abrupt changes in climate over the past 100,000 years. Many of these changes have also been identified in sedimentary and geochemical signatures in deep-sea sediment cores from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, confirming the link between millennial-scale climate variability and ocean thermohaline circulation. It is shown here that two of the most prominent North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> events - the rapid warming that makes the end of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> and the Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas oscillation - are also recorded in an ice core from Taylor Dome, in the western Ross Sea sector of Antarctica. This result contrasts with evidence from ice cores in other regions of Antarctica, which show an asynchronous response between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH21C..02Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH21C..02Z"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Prediction of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> CATEGORY-5 Hurricans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zapotitla Rpman, J.; Juarez-Zuñiga, A.; Pérez-Peraza, J. A.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Category-5 Hurricanes are the most devastating from the standpoint of human and economic losses. To minimize such damages we propose here a method to predict those kinds of hurricanes. We consider north <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> category-5 hurricanes since 1920. Data was transformed into a series of Pulses with unitary value at the dates of hurricanes occurrence and 0 for dates of no occurrence. Under the hypothesis that the occurrence of hurricanes of this category behave in a sinusoidal manner we can define the dominant <span class="hlt">periods</span> of oscillation and establish correspondence rules that delimit the occurrence of the next hurricane. By means of the Wavelet transform we determine the dominant oscillation <span class="hlt">periods</span> and we search for associations between the hurricanes occurrence and the behavior of the harmonics. The Wavelet Power Spectrum yields the following <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> 2, 9, 14 and 24 yrs. The 24 years <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> divides exactly the events in four groups, where we observe that each of the <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> have a similar peculiar behavior through all the four groups. According to the behavior of the harmonics it is found that their combination restricts regions of probability of Hurricane occurrence. Interpolation of this sinusoidal behavior allows for a good reconstruction of past Hurricanes dates as well as extrapolation to the future. In this way we conclude that there is a good probability that the next category-5 Hurricane in the north <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> occurs in the course of this year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.463..118P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.463..118P"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid deglacial injection of nutrients into the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> via Antarctic Intermediate Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poggemann, David-Willem; Hathorne, Ed C.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Frank, Martin; Bruhn, Imke; Reißig, Stefan; Bahr, André</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>As part of the return flow of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation, Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) redistributes heat, salt, CO2 and nutrients from the Southern Ocean to the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and thus plays a key role in ocean-atmosphere exchange. It feeds (sub)tropical upwelling linking high and low latitude ocean biogeochemistry but the dynamics of AAIW during the last deglaciation remain poorly constrained. We present new multi-decadal benthic foraminiferal Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and stable carbon isotope (δ13 C) records from tropical W-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediment cores indicating abrupt deglacial nutrient enrichment of AAIW as a consequence of enhanced deglacial Southern Ocean upwelling intensity. This is the first clear evidence from the intermediate depth tropical W-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> that the deglacial reconnection of shallow and deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning cells effectively altered the AAIW nutrient budget and its geochemical signature. The rapid nutrient injection via AAIW likely fed temporary low latitude productivity, thereby dampening the deglacial rise of atmospheric CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-08/pdf/2010-22305.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-08/pdf/2010-22305.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-08</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY81 Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Red Snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-05/pdf/2010-19303.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-05/pdf/2010-19303.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 47266 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-05</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XX60 Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> red snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center. Participants include...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-25/pdf/2013-04156.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-25/pdf/2013-04156.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 12705 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-25</p> <p>... in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT... coastal states on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Pursuant to 15 CFR...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-26/pdf/2013-28340.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-26/pdf/2013-28340.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 70500 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2014 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-26</p> <p>... and Caribbean Sea. DATES: This rule is effective on January 1, 2014. The 2014 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> commercial...) management groups in the northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-24/pdf/2011-27474.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-24/pdf/2011-27474.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 65700 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species Southeast...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-24</p> <p>..., used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea... sharks in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. While the SEDAR Pool was...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-01/pdf/2013-26066.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-01/pdf/2013-26066.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 65615 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC941 Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and ] Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27449752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27449752"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)/Calmodulin/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKK2 Axis: Nature's Metabolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Mshaft.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marcelo, Kathrina L; Means, Anthony R; York, Brian</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)) is an essential ligand that binds its primary intracellular receptor calmodulin (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M) to trigger a variety of downstream processes and pathways. Central to the actions of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M is the activation of a highly conserved <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M kinase (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MK) cascade that amplifies <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signals through a series of subsequent phosphorylation events. Proper regulation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) flux is necessary for whole-body metabolism and disruption of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) homeostasis has been linked to various metabolic diseases. Here we provide a synthesis of recent advances that highlight the roles of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MK axis in key metabolic tissues. An appreciation of this information is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M-dependent signaling contributes to metabolic homeostasis and disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1792X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1792X"><span id="translatedtitle">Abrupt changes in Antarctic Intermediate Water strength lead <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation changes during the last deglacial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, R.; Marcantonio, F.; Schmidt, M. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Reorganization of meridional overturning circulation that is a response to or a trigger of climate change in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> has been a subject of intense interest. During the last deglaciation, cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> such as the Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich 1 (H1) are thought to be coincident with significant reductions in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) formation. Yet, the role that Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) played during these cold events is still poorly constrained. Benthic Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data from sediment cores in the Florida Straits suggest a reduced contribution of AAIW in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> western boundary current during the YD [1]. However, ɛNd evidence in sediment cores from Tobago basin suggests a greater influence of AAIW in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during YD and H1 [2]. In this study, we measure ɛNd values in the authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide fraction of sediment from three cores, KNR166-2-26JPC (24°19.62'N, 83°15.14'W; 546 m) and KNR166-2-31JPC (24°13.18'N, 83°17.75'W; 751 m) within the Florida Straits, and VM12-107 (11.33°N, 66.63°W; 1079 m) in the Southern Carribean Sea. All three cores lie within the path of AAIW and are, therefore, useful to gauge the waxing and waning of AAIW during the last deglaciation. Cores 26JPC and 31JPC are located within the Florida Current, which under modern conditions represents a mixture of recirculated North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical gyre water and Southern origin waters. Our preliminary results from 26JPC and 31JPC show significantly less radiogenic ɛNd values during the YD and H1 than during the Holocene (~1 epsilon unit for 26JPC and ~0.6 epsilon units for 31JPC during both <span class="hlt">periods</span>). We interpret the lower ɛNd during the YD and H1 as signifying a decreased input of Southern-sourced waters (i.e., AAIW) arriving at these sites, in agreement with the study of Came et al.[1], but not that of Pahnke et al. in the Tobago Basin [2]. We suggest that ɛNd values in the latter study, in which the core site location is at a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107073p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107073p/"><span id="translatedtitle">8. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ACROSS <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY WITH THE SHELBOURNE, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>8. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ACROSS <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY WITH THE SHELBOURNE, DENNIS, BLENHEIM, MARLBOROUGH, AND PART OF THE CLARIDGE HOTELS VISABLE (LEFT TO RIGHT) - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-21/pdf/2013-06487.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-21/pdf/2013-06487.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 17357 - South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-21</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC579 South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery.... Council address: South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107070p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107070p/"><span id="translatedtitle">5. VIEW LOOKING AT <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY WITH THE SHELBOURNE, DENNIS, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>5. VIEW LOOKING AT <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY WITH THE SHELBOURNE, DENNIS, BLENHEIM, MARLBOROUGH AND CLARIDGE HOTELS IN THE FOREGROUND (LEFT TO RIGHT) - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..135...54L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..135...54L"><span id="translatedtitle">Drought modulated by North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures for the last 3,000 years along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Livsey, Daniel; Simms, Alexander R.; Hangsterfer, Alexandra; Nisbet, Robert A.; DeWitt, Regina</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In 2012 the most severe United States drought since the 1930's occurred, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the climate factors driving droughts. Spatial-temporal analysis of United States precipitation data from 1900 to 1999 indicates that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) primarily modulates drought frequency. Tree rings provide the highest resolution and most spatially distributed drought records beyond secular time-series; however, as most tree-ring records only extend to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1000 years before present (BP), a new broadly distributed, quantitative, multi-millennial, proxy of past drought is needed to determine if the AMO modulated drought across North America through the late Holocene. In this study, we develop a new quantitative drought proxy from a transfer function between X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) derived elemental data from a Texas playa and a tree-ring drought record. Using this transfer function, a 954-year tree-ring drought record was extended to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 3000 BP. Changes in the extended drought record correspond with timing of the Roman Climate Optimum, Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>, Little Ice Age, and changes in the AMO as recorded in a proxy record derived from North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ice-rafted debris. These results indicate that lacustrine-derived XRF element data can be used as a quantitative tool to reconstruct past drought records, and suggest that AMO modulated drought in southern Texas for the last 3000 years. Additional studies using XRF-derived element data as a drought proxy are needed to determine the utility of this proxy in non-playa lacustrine systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2831737','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2831737"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost Shifting and Timeliness of Drug Formulary Decisions in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scobie, Andrea C.; Mackinnon, Neil J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Context: Our objectives were to investigate the timeliness of formulary decision-making in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada, including the Common Drug Review (CDR) process and the adoption of positive CDR recommendations by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canadian provincial public drug plans, and to determine the degree of cost shifting to private payers. Methods: Dates of formulary listing decisions from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canadian provincial drug plan formularies and utilization analyses from Medavie Blue Cross were used to calculate the timeliness of decisions and cost shifting from public payers to a private payer. Results: The median time <span class="hlt">period</span> between the issuance of a positive CDR recommendation and the addition of a drug to an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canadian provincial drug plan was 26.7 weeks (σ=19.1). Cost shifting to employer-sponsored health plans provided by Medavie Blue Cross was minimal. Discussion: There is significant variation in the timing of provincial drug formulary listings among the four <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canadian provinces and the uptake of CDR recommendations. Conclusion: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canadian provincial governments should support the mandate of the CDR by aiming for a more timely consideration of recommendations. PMID:21286272</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP41B..02K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP41B..02K"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Temperature Trends in the Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region Over the Last 2,000 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korhola, A.; Hanhijarvi, S.; Tingley, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We introduce a new reconstruction method that uses the ordering of all pairs of proxy observations within each record to arrive at a consensus time series that best agrees with all proxy records. By considering only pairwise comparisons, this method, which we call PaiCo, facilitates the inclusion of records with differing temporal resolutions, and relaxes the assumption of linearity to the more general assumption of a monotonically increasing relationship between each proxy series and the target climate variable. We apply PaiCo to a newly assembled collection of high-quality proxy data to reconstruct the mean temperature of the Northernmost <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, which we call Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, over the last 2,000 years. The Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is a dynamically important region known to feature substantial temperature variability over recent millennia, and PaiCo allows for a more thorough investigation of the Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> regional climate as we include a diverse array of terrestrial and marine proxies with annual to multidecadal temporal resolutions. Comparisons of the PaiCo reconstruction to recent reconstructions covering larger areas indicate greater climatic variability in the Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> than for the Arctic as a whole. The Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> reconstruction features temperatures during the Roman Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> and Medieval Climate Anomaly that are comparable or even warmer than those of the twentieth century, and coldest temperatures in the middle of the nineteenth century, just prior to the onset of the recent warming trend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15616560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15616560"><span id="translatedtitle">Break-up of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep western boundary current into eddies at 8 degrees S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dengler, M; Schott, F A; Eden, C; Brandt, P; Fischer, J; Zantopp, R J</p> <p>2004-12-23</p> <p>The existence in the ocean of deep western boundary currents, which connect the high-latitude regions where deep water is formed with upwelling regions as part of the global ocean circulation, was postulated more than 40 years ago. These ocean currents have been found adjacent to the continental slopes of all ocean basins, and have core depths between 1,500 and 4,000 m. In the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, the deep western boundary current is estimated to carry (10-40) x 10(6) m3 s(-1) of water, transporting North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water--from the overflow regions between Greenland and Scotland and from the Labrador Sea--into the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Antarctic circumpolar current. Here we present direct velocity and water mass observations obtained in the <span class="hlt">period</span> 2000 to 2003, as well as results from a numerical ocean circulation model, showing that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep western boundary current breaks up at 8 degrees S. Southward of this latitude, the transport of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water into the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is accomplished by migrating eddies, rather than by a continuous flow. Our model simulation indicates that the deep western boundary current breaks up into eddies at the present intensity of meridional overturning circulation. For weaker overturning, continuation as a stable, laminar boundary flow seems possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..254K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..254K"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical climate variability: interactions across the Pacific, Indian, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kajtar, Jules B.; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Cai, Wenju</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Complex interactions manifest between modes of tropical climate variability across the Pacific, Indian, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans. For example, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extends its influence on modes of variability in the tropical Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans, which in turn feed back onto ENSO. Interactions between pairs of modes can alter their strength, <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>, seasonality, and ultimately their predictability, yet little is known about the role that a third mode plays. Here we examine the interactions and relative influences between pairs of climate modes using ensembles of 100-year partially coupled experiments in an otherwise fully coupled general circulation model. In these experiments, the air-sea interaction over each tropical ocean basin, as well as pairs of ocean basins, is suppressed in turn. We find that Indian Ocean variability has a net damping effect on ENSO and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean variability, and conversely they each promote Indian Ocean variability. The connection between the Pacific and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is most clearly revealed in the absence of Indian Ocean variability. Our model runs suggest a weak damping influence by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability on ENSO, and an enhancing influence by ENSO on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48.1108L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48.1108L"><span id="translatedtitle">Desulfurizing Ability of the <span class="hlt">CaOsatd.-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 Slags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Jiazhan; Kobayashi, Yoshinao</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Desulfurizing ability of the <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 slags saturated with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O has been investigated from the viewpoint of the sulfide capacity and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O solubility. The <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 slags containing small amounts of Cu2O and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S were inserted in a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible with metallic copper. The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible was sealed in a nickel holder to prevent the evaporation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2, then heated up and kept at temperatures from 1573 K (1300 °C) to 1673 K (1400 °C) for 24 hours, which enabled the system inside the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible to reach the equilibrium. As expected, the sulfide capacity derived from the data obtained as well as <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O solubility of the slag increase with an increase in temperature at a constant ratio of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2. The solubility of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O increases by the replacement of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2, whereas the sulfide capacity slightly decreases and the activity coefficient of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S ( γ <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S) increases. This suggests that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 has stronger interaction with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S than <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2. The sulfur distribution ratio between carbon-saturated iron melts and the <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2 slag has been calculated to be about 10 000 at 1573 K (1300 °C) using the sulfide capacity obtained, which value is still large enough even with the replacement of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB..tmp..323L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB..tmp..323L"><span id="translatedtitle">Desulfurizing Ability of the <span class="hlt">CaOsatd.-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 Slags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Jiazhan; Kobayashi, Yoshinao</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Desulfurizing ability of the <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 slags saturated with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O has been investigated from the viewpoint of the sulfide capacity and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O solubility. The <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 slags containing small amounts of Cu2O and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S were inserted in a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible with metallic copper. The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible was sealed in a nickel holder to prevent the evaporation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2, then heated up and kept at temperatures from 1573 K (1300 °C) to 1673 K (1400 °C) for 24 hours, which enabled the system inside the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible to reach the equilibrium. As expected, the sulfide capacity derived from the data obtained as well as <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O solubility of the slag increase with an increase in temperature at a constant ratio of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2. The solubility of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O increases by the replacement of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2, whereas the sulfide capacity slightly decreases and the activity coefficient of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S (γ <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S) increases. This suggests that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 has stronger interaction with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S than <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2. The sulfur distribution ratio between carbon-saturated iron melts and the <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2 slag has been calculated to be about 10 000 at 1573 K (1300 °C) using the sulfide capacity obtained, which value is still large enough even with the replacement of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-22/pdf/2010-15061.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-22/pdf/2010-15061.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 35432 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Swordfish Quotas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-22</p> <p>... fishing for swordfish in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XV31 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Swordfish Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-21/pdf/2010-23528.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-21/pdf/2010-23528.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 57407 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Swordfish Quotas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-21</p> <p>... fishing for swordfish in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XV31 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Swordfish Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-21/pdf/2010-17782.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-21/pdf/2010-17782.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 42378 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-21</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XX73 Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> red snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> stock of red snapper will consist of a series of workshops and webinars: a Data Workshop, a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-29/pdf/2012-26535.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-29/pdf/2012-26535.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 65498 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-29</p> <p>... Northeastern United States; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Herring Management Area 1A Sub... fishing year sub-annual catch limit for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Herring Management Area 1A due to an under-harvest in the... processing, U.S. at-sea processing, border transfer and sub-ACLs for each management area. The 2012...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-26/pdf/2012-15575.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-26/pdf/2012-15575.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 38011 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-26</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XC055 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... closes the incidental Longline category northern area fishery for large medium and giant <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-29/pdf/2012-12929.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-29/pdf/2012-12929.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 31546 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-29</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XC035 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... area fishery for large medium and giant <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2012....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18784.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18784.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 44938 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Shark Fishery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-30</p> <p>... 0648-XX28 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Shark... cancellation of the Federal moratorium on fishing for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey... Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES: Effective July 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: Emily Menashes, Acting...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-05/pdf/2011-19927.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-05/pdf/2011-19927.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-08-05</p> <p>... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata) and Golden... Workshop for South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> black sea bass and golden tilefish. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 25 Review of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> stock of black sea bass and golden tilefish will consist of one workshop, originally scheduled...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-02/pdf/2010-13204.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-02/pdf/2010-13204.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 30730 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-02</p> <p>... Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... retention limit adjustment. SUMMARY: NMFS has determined that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas General category daily <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted for the June through August 2010 time...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-03/pdf/2011-13832.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-03/pdf/2011-13832.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 32086 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-03</p> <p>... Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... retention limit adjustment. SUMMARY: NMFS has determined that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas General category daily <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted for the June through August 2011 time...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-24/pdf/2011-21651.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-24/pdf/2011-21651.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 52886 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-08-24</p> <p>... Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... retention limit adjustment. SUMMARY: NMFS has determined that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas General category daily <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted from one to three large medium or giant...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040013512&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040013512&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution"><span id="translatedtitle">Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Paradoxical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ozone Maxima</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chatfield, Robert B.; Guan, Hong; Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We describe a broad resolution of the "<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Paradox" concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We describe <span class="hlt">periods</span> of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.-April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO)O3 maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.- March highest column-O3 <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 30 or 60 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> pollution make important contributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060009189&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060009189&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution"><span id="translatedtitle">Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ozone maxima</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We describe a broad resolution of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Parado concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution, of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight <span class="hlt">periods</span> of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.- April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, possible stratospheric input, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.-March highest column-O3 <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 20-50 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> pollution make important contributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeoRL..31.6103C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeoRL..31.6103C"><span id="translatedtitle">Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ozone maxima</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>We describe a broad resolution of the ``<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Parado'' concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight <span class="hlt">periods</span> of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.-April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, possible stratospheric input, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.-March highest column-O3 <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 20-50 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> pollution make important contributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-30/pdf/2010-10051.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-30/pdf/2010-10051.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 22872 - California Disaster # <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00154</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-30</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00154 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 04/21/2010. Incident: Northern Baja California Earthquake. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>: 04/04/2010 and...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-29/pdf/2011-16241.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-29/pdf/2011-16241.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 38263 - California Disaster #<span class="hlt">CA</span>-00172</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-29</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office Small Business Administration California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00172 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of California (FEMA- 1968-DR), dated 06/20/2011. Incident: Tsunami Waves. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-12/pdf/2012-471.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-12/pdf/2012-471.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 1971 - California Disaster #<span class="hlt">CA</span>-00183</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-12</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00183 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 01/05/2012. Incident: 1502 Golden Gate Fire. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>: 12/22/2011. Effective Date:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-06/pdf/2011-25919.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-06/pdf/2011-25919.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 62132 - California Disaster #<span class="hlt">CA</span>-00176</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-06</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00176 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 09/29/2011. Incident: Canyon Fire. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>: 09/04/2011 through 09/11/2011. Effective Date:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-11/pdf/2013-22062.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-11/pdf/2013-22062.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 55771 - California Disaster #<span class="hlt">CA</span>-00207</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-11</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00207 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of CALIFORNIA dated 08/26/2013. Incident: Silver Fire. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>: 08/07/2013 through 08/14/2013. Effective Date:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-22/pdf/2011-6671.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-22/pdf/2011-6671.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 16029 - CALIFORNIA Disaster #<span class="hlt">CA</span>-00165</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-22</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION CALIFORNIA Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00165 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of CALIFORNIA dated 03/16/2011. Incident: Garden Breeze Apartment Complex Fire. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>: 02/20/2011. DATES:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-12/pdf/2011-8608.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-12/pdf/2011-8608.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 20433 - California Disaster #<span class="hlt">CA</span>-00169</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-12</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00169 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 04/05/2011. Incident: Center Fire. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>: 03/18/2011 through 03/20/2011. Effective Date:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-20/pdf/2013-30390.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-20/pdf/2013-30390.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 77195 - California Disaster #<span class="hlt">CA</span>-00214</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-20</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00214 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of California (FEMA- 4158-DR), dated 12/13/2013. Incident: Rim Fire. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-02/pdf/2013-15825.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-02/pdf/2013-15825.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 39821 - California Disaster #<span class="hlt">CA</span>-00202</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-02</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00202 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 06/25/2013. Incident: Powerhouse Fire. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>: 05/30/2013 through 06/11/2013. Effective Date:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-22/pdf/2011-32785.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-22/pdf/2011-32785.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 79751 - California Disaster #<span class="hlt">CA</span>-00181</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-22</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00181 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 12/14/2011. Incident: Sequoia Apartment Complex Fire. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>: 11/18/2011. Effective Date:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000085549','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000085549"><span id="translatedtitle">Contributions of Tropical Cyclones to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The tropical cyclone rainfall climatology study that was performed for the North Pacific was extended to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Similar to the North Pacific tropical cyclone study, mean monthly rainfall within 444 km of the center of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones (i.e., that reached storm stage and greater) was estimated from passive microwave satellite observations during, an eleven year <span class="hlt">period</span>. These satellite-observed rainfall estimates were used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> total rainfall during, June-November when tropical cyclones were most abundant. The main results from this study indicate: 1) that tropical cyclones contribute, respectively, 4%, 3%, and 4% to the western, eastern, and entire North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; 2) similar to that observed in the North Pacific, the maximum in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone rainfall is approximately 5 - 10 deg poleward (depending on longitude) of the maximum non-tropical cyclone rainfall; 3) tropical cyclones contribute regionally a maximum of 30% of the total rainfall 'northeast of Puerto Rico, within a region near 15 deg N 55 deg W, and off the west coast of Africa; 4) there is no lag between the months with maximum tropical cyclone rainfall and non-tropical cyclone rainfall in the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, while in the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, maximum tropical cyclone rainfall precedes maximum non-tropical cyclone rainfall; 5) like the North Pacific, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones Of hurricane intensity generate the greatest amount of rainfall in the higher latitudes; and 6) warm ENSO events inhibit tropical cyclone rainfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PrOce..59..443H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PrOce..59..443H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Iceland-Faroe inflow of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water to the Nordic Seas [review article</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, B.; Østerhus, S.; Hátún, H.; Kristiansen, R.; Larsen, K. M. H.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The flow of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water between Iceland and the Faroe Islands is one of three current branches flowing from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean into the Nordic Seas across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. By the heat that it carries along, it keeps the subarctic regions abnormally warm and by its import of salt, it helps maintain a high salinity and hence density in the surface waters as a precondition for thermohaline ventilation. From 1997 to 2001, a number of ADCPs have been moored on a section going north from the Faroes, crossing the inflow. Combining these measurements with decade-long CTD observations from research vessel cruises along this section, we compute the fluxes of water (volume), heat, and salt. For the <span class="hlt">period</span> June 1997-June 2001, we found the average volume flux of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water to be 3.5±0.5 Sv (1 Sv=10 6 m 3·s -1). When compared to recent estimates of the other branches, this implies that the Iceland-Faroe inflow is the strongest branch in terms of volume flux, transporting 47% of the total <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> inflow to the Arctic Mediterranean (Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean with shelf areas). If all of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> inflow were assumed to be cooled to 0 °C, before returning to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the Iceland-Faroe inflow carries a heat flux of 124±15 TW (1 TW=10 12 W), which is about the same as the heat carried by the inflow through the Faroe-Shetland Channel. The Iceland-Faroe <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water volume flux was found to have a negligible seasonal variation and to be remarkably stable with no reversals, even on daily time scales. Out of a total of 1348 daily flux estimates, not one was directed westwards towards the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636135"><span id="translatedtitle">Coralline algal barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface ocean freshwater variability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hetzinger, S; Halfar, J; Zack, T; Mecking, J V; Kunz, B E; Jacob, D E; Adey, W H</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of long-term high-resolution marine proxy archives. Here we present the first multidecadal-length records of annually resolved Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations from Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coralline algae. We observe positive relationships between algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios from two Newfoundland sites and salinity observations back to 1950. Both records capture episodical multi-year freshening events during the 20th century. Variability in algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> is sensitive to freshwater-induced changes in upper ocean stratification, which affect the transport of cold, Ba-enriched deep waters onto the shelf (highly stratified equals less Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>). Algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios therefore may serve as a new resource for reconstructing past surface ocean freshwater changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007217.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007217.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CA</span>-125 blood test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... above 35 U/mL is considered abnormal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some ... 125 usually does not mean ovarian cancer is present. Most healthy women with an elevated <span class="hlt">CA</span>-125 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 120.31 - North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization (NATO) is..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Netherlands,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 120.31 - North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization (NATO) is..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Netherlands,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2269497','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2269497"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx in resting rat sensory neurones that regulates and is regulated by ryanodine-sensitive <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Usachev, Yuriy M; Thayer, Stanley A</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Store-operated, voltage-independent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels are activated by depletion of intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores and mediate <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx into non-excitable cells at resting membrane potential. We used microfluorimetry, patch-clamp and Mn2+-quench techniques to explore the possibility that a similar mechanism exists in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones in primary culture. Following caffeine-induced depletion, ryanodine-sensitive <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores refilled with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ at resting membrane potential. The refilling process required extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+, was blocked by 2 mM Ni2+, and was facilitated by membrane hyperpolarization from −55 to −80 mV, indicating a key role for <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx. This influx of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ was not affected by the voltage-operated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channel (VOCC) antagonists nicardipine (10 μM), nimodipine (10 μm) or ω-grammotoxin SIA (1 μm). When ryanodine-sensitive <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores were depleted in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-free media, a return to 2 mM external <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ resulted in a pronounced [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i overshoot, indicating an increased permeability to <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+. Depletion of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores also produced a 2-fold increase in the rate of Mn2+ influx. The [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i overshoot and Mn2+ entry were both inhibited by Ni2+, but not by VOCC antagonists. Caffeine induced <span class="hlt">periodic</span> <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release from, and reuptake into, ryanodine-sensitive stores. The [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i oscillations were arrested by removal of extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ or by addition of Ni2+, but they were not affected by VOCC antagonists. Hyperpolarization increased the frequency of this rhythmic activity. These data suggest the presence of a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ entry pathway in mammalian sensory neurones that is distinct from VOCCs and is regulated by ryanodine-sensitive <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores. This pathway participates in refilling intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores and maintaining [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i oscillations and thus controls the balance between intra- and extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ reservoirs in resting DRG neurones. PMID:10432343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LanB.37B1...37C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LanB.37B1...37C"><span id="translatedtitle">Ag-Al-<span class="hlt">Ca</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.</p> <p></p> <p>This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-<span class="hlt">Ca</span> to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>' with the content:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3091G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3091G"><span id="translatedtitle">Abrupt transitions in the NAO control of explosive North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cyclone development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gómara, Iñigo; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Zurita-Gotor, Pablo; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Explosive cyclones are intense extra-tropical low pressure systems featuring large deepening rates. In the Euro-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector, they are a major source of life-threatening weather impacts due to their associated strong wind gusts, heavy precipitation and storm surges. The wintertime variability of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cyclonic activity is primarily modulated by the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO). In this study, we investigate the interannual and multi-decadal variability of explosive North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cyclones using track density data from two reanalysis datasets (NCEP and ERA-40) and a control simulation of an atmosphere/ocean coupled General Circulation Model (GCM—ECHAM5/MPIOM1). The leading interannual and multi-decadal modes of variability of explosive cyclone track density are characterized by a strengthening/weakening pattern between Newfoundland and Iceland, which is mainly modulated by the NAO at both timescales. However, the NAO control of interannual cyclone variability is not stationary in time and abruptly fluctuates during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of 20-25 years long both in NCEP and ECHAM5/MPIOM1. These transitions are accompanied by structural changes in the leading mode of explosive cyclone variability, and by decreased/enhanced baroclinicity over the sub-polar/sub-tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The influence of the ocean is apparently important for both the occurrence and persistence of such anomalous <span class="hlt">periods</span>. In the GCM, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation appears to influence the large-scale baroclinicity and explosive cyclone development over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These results permit a better understanding of explosive cyclogenesis variability at different climatic timescales and might help to improve predictions of these hazardous events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531580"><span id="translatedtitle">Retinoic acid cross-talk with calcitriol activity in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ørnsrud, R; Lock, E J; Glover, C N; Flik, G</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Vitamins A (VA) and D (VD) are metabolised by vertebrates to bioactive retinoic acid (RA) and calcitriol (CTR). RA and CTR involvement in bone metabolism requires fine-tuned regulation of their synthesis and breakdown. In mammals antagonism of VA and VD is observed, but the mechanism of interaction is unknown. We investigated VA-VD interactions in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar L.) following i.p. injection of RA and/or CTR. VA metabolites, CTR, calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) were determined in plasma. Expression of bone matrix Gla protein (mgp), collagen 1 alpha2 chain (col1a2) and alkaline phosphatase (alp) mRNA was quantified to reflect osteogenesis. Branchial epithelial <span class="hlt">Ca</span> channel (ecac listed as trpv6 in ZFIN Database) mRNA levels and intestinal <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and P influx were determined to study <span class="hlt">Ca</span>/P handling targets of RA and CTR. RA-injection (with or without CTR) decreased plasma CTR-levels three- to sixfold. CTR injection did not affect RA metabolites, but lowered CTR in plasma 3 and 5 days after injection. Lowered plasma CTR correlated with decreased mgp and col1a2 expression in all groups and with decreased alp in CTR-injected fish. RA-treated salmon had enhanced alp expression, irrespective of reduced plasma CTR. Expression of ecac and unidirectional intestinal influx of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> were stimulated following RA-CTR treatment. Plasma <span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Mg and P were not affected by any treatment. The results suggest cross-talk of RA with the VD endocrine system in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon. Enhanced <span class="hlt">Ca</span> flux and osteogenesis (alp transcription) in RA-treated fish and inhibition of mgp expression revealed unprecedented disturbance of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> physiology in hypervitaminosis A.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17051216','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17051216"><span id="translatedtitle">Eastern Pacific cooling and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation during the last deglaciation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kienast, Markus; Kienast, Stephanie S; Calvert, Stephen E; Eglinton, Timothy I; Mollenhauer, Gesine; François, Roger; Mix, Alan C</p> <p>2006-10-19</p> <p>Surface ocean conditions in the equatorial Pacific Ocean could hold the clue to whether millennial-scale global climate change during glacial times was initiated through tropical ocean-atmosphere feedbacks or by changes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> during Heinrich events and millennial-scale cold events (stadials) have been linked with climatic changes in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and South America, as well as the Indian and East Asian monsoon systems, but not with tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures. Here we present a high-resolution record of sea surface temperatures in the eastern tropical Pacific derived from alkenone unsaturation measurements. Our data show a temperature drop of approximately 1 degrees C, synchronous (within dating uncertainties) with the shutdown of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich event 1, and a smaller temperature drop of approximately 0.5 degrees C synchronous with the smaller reduction in the overturning circulation during the Younger Dryas event. Both cold events coincide with maxima in surface ocean productivity as inferred from 230Th-normalized carbon burial fluxes, suggesting increased upwelling at the time. From the concurrence of equatorial Pacific cooling with the two North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> during deglaciation, we conclude that these millennial-scale climate changes were probably driven by a reorganization of the oceans' thermohaline circulation, although possibly amplified by tropical ocean-atmosphere interaction as suggested before.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-28/pdf/2011-16168.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-28/pdf/2011-16168.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 37788 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Gulf of Mexico; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-28</p> <p>... Catch (ABC) recommendation for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Migratory Group Spanish mackerel and assessment priorities for... deriving ABC for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Migratory Group Spanish Mackerel and SEDAR assessment priorities for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80433&keyword=tree+AND+rings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77883982&CFTOKEN=81705140','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80433&keyword=tree+AND+rings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77883982&CFTOKEN=81705140"><span id="translatedtitle">INDICATORS OF CHANGE IN MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> WATERSHEDS, AND CONSEQUENCES IN UPPER CHESAPEAKE BAY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The rate of change of atmospheric temperature in the Northern Hemisphere in the past century relative to the preceding millennium strongly suggests that we are in a <span class="hlt">period</span> of rapid global climate change. The mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region is quite sensitive to larger-scale climate variation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80174&keyword=nino+AND+4&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90469312&CFTOKEN=81093460','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80174&keyword=nino+AND+4&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90469312&CFTOKEN=81093460"><span id="translatedtitle">IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIATION AND CHANGE ON MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> REGION HYDROLOGY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study analyzes <span class="hlt">periodic</span> variations in the climate of the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region over the last 100 years and uses general circulation models (GCMs) to project major climate trends for the next hundred years. Historical data include the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172..901O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172..901O"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> from Near- and Far-Field Tectonic Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Matias, L.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this article, we present the first study on probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Northeast (NE) <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region related to earthquake sources. The methodology combines the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, tsunami numerical modeling, and statistical approaches. We consider three main tsunamigenic areas, namely the Southwest Iberian Margin, the Gloria, and the Caribbean. For each tsunamigenic zone, we derive the annual recurrence rate for each magnitude range, from Mw 8.0 up to Mw 9.0, with a regular interval, using the Bayesian method, which incorporates seismic information from historical and instrumental catalogs. A numerical code, solving the shallow water equations, is employed to simulate the tsunami propagation and compute near shore wave heights. The probability of exceeding a specific tsunami hazard level during a given time <span class="hlt">period</span> is calculated using the Poisson distribution. The results are presented in terms of the probability of exceedance of a given tsunami amplitude for 100- and 500-year return <span class="hlt">periods</span>. The hazard level varies along the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast, being maximum along the northern segment of the Morocco <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast, the southern Portuguese coast, and the Spanish coast of the Gulf of Cadiz. We find that the probability that a maximum wave height exceeds 1 m somewhere in the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region reaches 60 and 100 % for 100- and 500-year return <span class="hlt">periods</span>, respectively. These probability values decrease, respectively, to about 15 and 50 % when considering the exceedance threshold of 5 m for the same return <span class="hlt">periods</span> of 100 and 500 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMOS31B1443M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMOS31B1443M"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Proxy Approach to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Indian Water Interchange Along the Last Three Glacial-Interglacial Cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez Méndez, G.; Zahn, R.; Hall, I.; Rickaby, R.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Multi-centennial mean grainsize (SS), paired planktonic ( G. bulloides) and benthic foraminifera ( C. wuellerstorfi ) stable isotope and trace element records of IMAGES core MD96-2080 are used to document surface and deep interchange of waters between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian oceans. The core is from the western slope of the Agulhas Bank, off the southern tip of Africa, within the main gateway of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Indian ocean interbasin exchange. At a water depth of 2488 m it is currently located within the southern extension of NADW bounded above and below by Upper and Lower CDW. The records display prominent orbital modulation and faster sub-orbital variability that is linked to climate variability seen in marine records at high southern latitudes, and in Antarctic ice core records. Departures from the orbitally modulated pattern occur in benthic C-13 along MIS 5 suggesting an alternation between water masses with similar C-13 signature. Low C-13 levels during glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span> point to a substitution of NADW by CDW, while flow speeds are increased as indicated by high values of SS. The pattern mimics that seen at a mid-depth SW Pacific core site (Hall et al., 2001) suggesting a hemisphere-wide significance for the southern hemisphere oceans. The combined benthic C-13 and Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> patterns are used to discriminate between water masses and to separate preformed from THC-related signals contained in the glacial-interglacial and millennial patterns. The data profiles show significant differences in the rate of change of ice volume (O-18), chemical ventilation (C-13) and physical circulation (SS) during glacial to interglacial transitions and interglacial to glacial transitions that suggest a large inertia of ocean physics but also confirm the significance of Southern Ocean THC water mass formation for changing deep ocean ventilation. Coherency between the planktonic and benthic isotope records points to the existence of a direct connection between Agulhas leakage and deep outflow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.epa.gov/bioiweb1/pdf/EPA-903-B-05-001AnIntroductiontoMid-AtlanticSeasonalPools.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.epa.gov/bioiweb1/pdf/EPA-903-B-05-001AnIntroductiontoMid-AtlanticSeasonalPools.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An introduction to mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> seasonal pools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brown, L.J.; Jung, R.E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Seasonal pools, also known as vernal ponds, provide important ecological services to the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. This publication serves as an introduction to seasonal pool ecology and management; it also provides tools for exploring seasonal pools, including a full-color field guide to wildlife. Seasonal pools are defined as having four distinctive features: surface water isolation, <span class="hlt">periodic</span> drying, small size and shallow depth, and support of a characteristic biological community. Seasonal pools experience regular drying that excludes populations of predatory fish. Thus, pools in the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region provide critical breeding habitat for amphibian and invertebrate species (e.g., spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), wood frog (Rana sylvatica), and fairy shrimp (Order Anostraca)) that would be at increased risk of predation in more permanent waters. The distinctive features of seasonal pools also make them vulnerable to human disturbance. In the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, land-use changes pose the greatest challenges to seasonal pool conservation. Seasonal pools are threatened by direct loss (e.g., filling or draining of the pool) as well as by destruction and fragmentation of adjoining terrestrial habitat. Many of the species that depend on seasonal pools for breeding spend the majority of their lives in the surrounding lands that extend a radius of 1000 feet or more from the pools; these vital habitats are being transected by roads and converted to other land uses. Other threats to seasonal pools include biological introductions and removals, mosquito control practices, amphibian diseases, atmospheric deposition, and climate change. The authors recommend a three-pronged strategy for seasonal pool conservation and management in the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region: education and research, inventory and monitoring of seasonal pools, and landscape-level planning and management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2057W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2057W"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-Decadal Oscillation Impact on Regional Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitar; Atanassov, Atanas; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta; Kirillov, Andrey S.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) shows a <span class="hlt">period</span> of about 60-70 years. Over the time span from 1860 up to 2014 the AMO has had a strong climate impact on the Northern Hemisphere. The AMO is considered to be related to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation, but the origin of the oscillation is not fully understood up till now. To study the AMO impact on climate, the Hadcrut4, Crut4 and HadSST3 temperature data sets have been employed in the current study. The influence of the AMO on the zonal and meridional temperature distribution has been investigated in detail. The strongest zonal AMO impact was obtained in the Arctic region. The results indicated that the AMO influence on temperature at Southern latitudes was opposite in phase compared to the temperature influence in the Northern Hemisphere, in agreement with the well known heat transfer phenomenon from South to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In the Northern Hemisphere the strongest AMO temperature impact was found over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and America. In the West from American continent, over the Pacific, the AMO impact was the lowest obtained over the whole Northern Hemisphere. The Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre, connected with it southwards, built up an atmospheric circulation barrier preventing a strong propagation of the AMO temperature signal westerly. The amplitude of the AMO index itself was greater during summer-fall. However stronger AMO influence on the Northern Hemisphere temperatures was found during the fall-winter season, when the differences between the Northern Hemisphere temperatures and the temperatures in the tropics were the greatest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216947"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal acidification in the water masses of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ríos, Aida F; Resplandy, Laure; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I; Fajar, Noelia M; Velo, Anton; Padin, Xose A; Wanninkhof, Rik; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Rosón, Gabriel; Pérez, Fiz F</p> <p>2015-08-11</p> <p>Global ocean acidification is caused primarily by the ocean's uptake of CO2 as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. We present observations of the oceanic decrease in pH at the basin scale (50 °S-36 °N) for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean over two decades (1993-2013). Changes in pH associated with the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 (ΔpHCant) and with variations caused by biological activity and ocean circulation (ΔpHNat) are evaluated for different water masses. Output from an Institut Pierre Simon Laplace climate model is used to place the results into a longer-term perspective and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for pH change. The largest decreases in pH (∆pH) were observed in central, mode, and intermediate waters, with a maximum ΔpH value in South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Central Waters of -0.042 ± 0.003. The ΔpH trended toward zero in deep and bottom waters. Observations and model results show that pH changes generally are dominated by the anthropogenic component, which accounts for rates between -0.0015 and -0.0020/y in the central waters. The anthropogenic and natural components are of the same order of magnitude and reinforce one another in mode and intermediate waters over the time <span class="hlt">period</span>. Large negative ΔpHNat values observed in mode and intermediate waters are driven primarily by changes in CO2 content and are consistent with (i) a poleward shift of the formation region during the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and (ii) an increase in the rate of the water mass formation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED291546.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED291546.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Science Curriculum Project in Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McFadden, C.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Science Curriculum Project was launched in 1976 at the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Institute of Education in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, as a regional initiative. This account of the project provides its aims, its experience, and its lessons for others similarly engaged in the task of improving curriculum and instruction. This paper was written at a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+african+AND+american+AND+slavery&pg=6&id=EJ939024','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+african+AND+american+AND+slavery&pg=6&id=EJ939024"><span id="translatedtitle">The Red <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weaver, Jace</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The development of David Armitage's "white <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.2025 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area, which includes the...): The boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area and the First, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth U... within a naval defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.2025 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area, which includes the...): The boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area and the First, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth U... within a naval defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.2025 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area, which includes the...): The boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area and the First, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth U... within a naval defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.2025 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area, which includes the...): The boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area and the First, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth U... within a naval defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246635&keyword=sea+AND+boundaries&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90786958&CFTOKEN=62459046','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246635&keyword=sea+AND+boundaries&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90786958&CFTOKEN=62459046"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecosystem Effects of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Multidecadal variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and its importance to the Earth’s climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillati...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002memi.conf..185R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002memi.conf..185R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Air-Sea Interaction Revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodwell, M. J.</p> <p></p> <p>INTRODUCTION DATA AND MODELS THE ANALYSIS METHOD ATMOSPHERIC FORCING OF NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FORCING OF THE ATMOSPHERE Observational Evidence Model Results POTENTIAL SEASONAL PREDICTABILITY BASED ON THE ATMOSPHERE GENERAL - CIRCULATION MODEL CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION REFERENCES</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653679','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653679"><span id="translatedtitle">Routes of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Shuttling during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Oscillations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pecze, László; Blum, Walter; Schwaller, Beat</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In some cell types, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations are strictly dependent on <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx across the plasma membrane, whereas in others, oscillations also persist in the absence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx. We observed that, in primary mesothelial cells, the plasmalemmal <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx played a pivotal role. However, when the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ transport across the plasma membrane by the “lanthanum insulation method” was blocked prior to the induction of the serum-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations, mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ transport was found to be able to substitute for the plasmalemmal <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ exchange function, thus rendering the oscillations independent of extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+. However, in a physiological situation, the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-buffering capacity of mitochondria was found not to be essential for <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations. Moreover, brief spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ changes were observed in the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration without apparent changes in the cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration, indicating the presence of a mitochondrial autonomous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling mechanism. In the presence of calretinin, a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-buffering protein, the amplitude of cytosolic spikes during oscillations was decreased, and the amount of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ ions taken up by mitochondria was reduced. Thus, the increased calretinin expression observed in mesothelioma cells and in certain colon cancer might be correlated to the increased resistance of these tumor cells to proapoptotic/pronecrotic signals. We identified and characterized (experimentally and by modeling) three <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ shuttling pathways in primary mesothelial cells during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations: <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ shuttled between (i) the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, (ii) the ER and the extracellular space, and (iii) the ER and cytoplasmic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers. PMID:26396196</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22389135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22389135"><span id="translatedtitle">Chronic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid redistribution effect on muscle calcium in healthy subjects during prolonged hypokinesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zorbas, Yan G; Deogenov, Victor A; Merkov, Pavel L; Federenko, Yuri F</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Studies have shown that chronic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid shifting upwards is not sensed as excessive fluid volume and excretion mechanisms are not activated. To determine if chronic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid and volume shifting upwards can affect muscle calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)) during hypokinesia (HK) we measured muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) content, plasma <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) concentration, and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) losses in urine and feces. Studies were conducted on 40 healthy male volunteers. They were divided into four equal groups: active control subjects (ACS), hypokinetic subjects (HKS), <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid redistribution control subjects (PFRCS), and <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid redistribution hypokinetic subjects (PFRHS). Plasma <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) level decreased (p < 0.05) in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) repleted muscle, muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) level increased (p < 0.05), and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) losses in urine and feces decreased (p < 0.05) in the PFRHS group compared with the HKS group. Plasma <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) level increased (p < 0.05) in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) deficient muscle, muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) level decreased (p < 0.05), and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) losses in urine and feces increased (p < 0.05) in the HKS group compared with their pre-experimental levels and the values in their respective control groups (ACS and PFRCS). This study shows that the muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) content increases and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) excretion decreases, suggesting the clinical potential of chronic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid and volume redistribution in treatment of muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) deficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221473','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221473"><span id="translatedtitle">Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Long, Charles N.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas</p> <p>2015-07-09</p> <p>Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Only over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Over the 10-year <span class="hlt">period</span> under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOT asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this <span class="hlt">period</span> the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. During the same 10-year <span class="hlt">period</span>, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1221473-saharan-dust-causal-factor-hemispheric-asymmetry-aerosols-cloud-cover-over-tropical-atlantic-ocean','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1221473-saharan-dust-causal-factor-hemispheric-asymmetry-aerosols-cloud-cover-over-tropical-atlantic-ocean"><span id="translatedtitle">Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; ...</p> <p>2015-07-09</p> <p>Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Only over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Over the 10-year <span class="hlt">period</span> under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOTmore » asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this <span class="hlt">period</span> the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. During the same 10-year <span class="hlt">period</span>, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10363361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10363361"><span id="translatedtitle">Attenuation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> paradox injury in guinea pig heart by K+ channel blocker, d-sotalol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tribulova, N; Sosner, I; Varon, D; Manoach, M</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>D-sotalol was shown to prevent <span class="hlt">Ca</span> overload and intermyocyte uncoupling. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of d-sotalol in <span class="hlt">Ca</span> paradox conditions. Guinea pig hearts were perfused at 37 degrees C and constant pressure with oxygenated Tyrode solution. <span class="hlt">Ca</span> paradox was induced by 10 min <span class="hlt">Ca</span> free perfusion followed by 10 min <span class="hlt">Ca</span> repletion. 10(-6) M d-sotalol was administered either during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> depletion or during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> repletion <span class="hlt">period</span>. Electrical activity and ventricular contraction were simultaneously recorded and subcellular alterations were analysed. The contraction terminated in 5 min of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> free perfusion and electrical activity disappeared within 5 min of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> repletion. Nonuniform injury of myocardial tissue was observed. The majority of cardiomyocytes were irreversibly injured and profound dissociation of intercellular junctions was detected. Administration of d-sotalol during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> free <span class="hlt">period</span> preserved electrical activity and restored ventricular contraction accompanied by apparent protection of the ultrastructure, including intercellular connections. Uniform patterns of sarcomeres reflected synchronous contraction and protection of junctional couplings. In conclusion, d-sotalol attenuates <span class="hlt">Ca</span> paradox injury. It seems that the protective effect of d-sotalol is most likely related to inhibition of potassium efflux antagonizing Na loading during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> depletion <span class="hlt">period</span>, as well as to attenuation of excess of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i via acceleration of sarcoplasmic <span class="hlt">Ca</span> exchange during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> repletion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/181947','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/181947"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic`s</span> Heinrich events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Broecker, W.; Bond, G.; Klas, M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>As first noted by Heinrich, 1988, glacial age sediments in the eastern part of the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> contain layers with unusually high ratios of ice-rafted lithic fragments of foraminifera shells. He estimated that these layers are spaced at intervals of roughly 10000 years. In this paper we present detailed information documenting the existence of the upper five of these layers in ODP core 609 from 50{degrees}N and 24{degrees}W. Their ages are respectively 15000 radiocarbon years, 20000 radiocarbon years, 27000 radiocarbon years, about 40000 years, and about 50000 years. We also note that the high lithic fragment to foram ratio is the result of a near absence of shells in these layers. Although we are not of one mind regarding the origin of these layers, we lean toward an explanation that the Heinrich layers are debris released during the melting of massive influxes of icebergs into the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These sudden inputs may be the result of surges along the eastern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP22B..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP22B..08H"><span id="translatedtitle">A 400-kyr record of millennial-scale carbonate preservation events in the Southern Ocean: Implications for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation and atmospheric CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hodell, D. A.; Vautravers, M. J.; Barker, S.; Charles, C.; Crowhurst, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hodell et al. (2001) suggested that carbonate preservation in the deep Cape Basin represented a qualitative, high-resolution record of the temporal evolution of the carbonate saturation state of the deep sea. The carbonate signal reflects both transient events in the redistribution of alkalinity and DIC in the deep ocean and steady-state mass balance processes. Here we re-analyzed the carbonate records of Sites 1089/TN057-21 using an Avaatech XRF core scanner and measured elemental variations at 2.5-mm resolution for the past 400 kyrs. Log <span class="hlt">Ca</span>/Ti is highly correlated to weight percent carbonate content and other dissolution proxies and resolves millennial-scale events in carbonate preservation. A high-pass filter removes the low-frequency (orbital) variability in carbonate preservation, which is attributed mainly to steady-state mass balance processes. The high-frequency (suborbital) component reflects transient responses to the redistribution of carbonate ion that is related mainly to changing deep-water circulation. During the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, distinct millennial-scale increases in carbonate preservation in piston core TN057-21 occurred during times of enhanced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overtunring Circulation (AMOC) (Barker et al., 2010; Barker and Diz, 2014), as supported by increases in benthic δ13C and less radiogenic ɛNd values. Carbonate preservation peaked particularly during long, warm interstadials in Greenland when a deep water mass with high carbonate ion concentration was formed in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Export of NADW may have been greater than the Holocene during some of these events ("overshoots") and/or preformed carbonate ion concentrations in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> source areas may have been higher owing to lower atmospheric CO2 and less carbonate production in surface water. Each South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate peak is associated with the start of Antarctic cooling and declining or leveling of atmospheric CO2, reflecting the signature of a thermal bipolar seesaw</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6504269','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6504269"><span id="translatedtitle">Spawning and rearing <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> menhaden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hettler, W.F.</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>Two-year-old <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=53242','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=53242"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ of inositol trisphosphate-mediated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ liberation: a possible mechanism for oscillatory release of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parker, I; Ivorra, I</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Light-flash photolysis of caged inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) was used to generate reproducible transients of free InsP3 in Xenopus oocytes, and the resulting liberation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ from intracellular stores was monitored by recording <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-activated membrane currents and by use of the fluorescent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ indicator fluo-3. InsP3-mediated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release was inhibited by elevating the intracellular free <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ level, either by microinjecting <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ into the cell or by applying conditioning light flashes to liberate <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+. This inhibition followed a slow time course, being maximal after about 2 s and subsequently declining over several seconds. Negative feedback of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ ions on InsP3-mediated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ liberation may explain the oscillatory release of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ seen during activation of inositol phospholipid signaling in the oocyte, and the time course of the inhibition is consistent with the <span class="hlt">period</span> of the oscillations. PMID:2296584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6581F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6581F"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for external forcing of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation since the termination of the Little Ice Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faurschou Knudsen, Mads; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Variations in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are particularly prominent on multidecadal timescales. These changes, which exert a strong influence on climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, are dominated by the alternation between warm and cold SST anomalies on a timescale of 60-80 years, a phenomenon known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The forcing mechanism pacing the AMO remains subject to considerable debate. One school of thought holds that the AMO is driven by internal ocean variability and related to multidecadal fluctuations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). In contrast, a recent model study concluded that the combined external forcing due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions has dictated the pace and phasing of the AMO over the past 600 years, as the combined solar and volcanic forcing is highly correlated to the AMO in the model with the forcing leading this AMO by ~5 years. Identifying the relative roles of internal ocean variability and external forcing agents in driving multi-decadal SST variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is important, in particular because the AMO purportedly influence climate variables of key importance to society, such as precipitation and hurricane activity. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the AMO and potential external forcing agents over the past 450 years based on statistical analyses of available high-resolution proxy data. The evidence suggests that external forcing played a dominant role in pacing the AMO after termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA; <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1400-1800), with an instantaneous impact on mid-latitude sea-surface temperatures that spread across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> over the ensuing ~5 years. In contrast, the role of external forcing was more ambiguous during the LIA. Our study further suggests that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is important for linking external forcing with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5247943','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5247943"><span id="translatedtitle">Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> silverside</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fay, C.W.; Neves, R.J.; Pardue, G.B.</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> silverside (Menidia menidia) is an important link in estuarine food webs as an opportunistic omnivore and as forage for large piscivores such as striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Many times the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> silverside is the most abundant fish species encountered in estuaries and tributaries. They mature at age 1 and spawn in the intertidal zone of estuaries from March to June in the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. Few 2-year-old fish are ever encountered, so the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> silverside is basically a short-lived species. Most spawning occurs at high tide during new or full moon phases. Eggs are adhesive and are found attached to submerged vegetation. Larvae, juveniles, and adults generally inhabit similar areas. Sex is determined in larval development 32 to 46 days after hatching, and is a function of parental genotype and water temperature regime during the critical <span class="hlt">period</span>. Fisheries for this species are not documented. Eggs can tolerate water temperatures between 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/C, and larvae need temperatures above 15/sup 0/C for survival. Larvae tolerate relatively acute temperature increases. Upper lethal temperatures for juveniles and adults range from 30.5/sup 0/ to 33.8/sup 0/C, depending on acclimation temperature. Salinities of 20 ppt or lower significantly delay hatching and affect larval survival. Juveniles and adults tolerate the full range of naturally occurring salinities (i.e., freshwater to at least 37.8 ppt). 57 references, 2 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP51B0482L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP51B0482L"><span id="translatedtitle">Age differences between <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific benthic d18O change at terminations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lisiecki, L. E.; Raymo, M. E.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Because a large fraction of benthic δ18O change is due to global ice volume change, benthic δ18O is often used as stratigraphic tool to place marine records on a common age model and as a proxy for the timing of ice volume/sea level change. These applications require the assumptions that δ18O change is rapidly transmitted throughout the deep ocean and that the effects of hydrographic changes are in phase with ice volume. Recently, Skinner and Shackleton [2005] found that the timing of benthic δ18O change at the last termination differed by 4500 years between two sites in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific. Based on Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleothermometry, they argued that these age discrepancies resulted from a late temperature increase in the Pacific and millennial-scale circulation changes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Do these results imply that benthic δ18O change may not accurately record the timing of terminations? We compare benthic δ18O records from 34 sites in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific to evaluate the impact of ocean mixing rates and deep water changes on the relative timing of terminations recorded in benthic δ18O. Statistical analysis of sedimentation rates derived from the alignment of benthic δ18O suggests an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lead over Pacific benthic δ18O change for all terminations of the last 600 kyr. The magnitude of sedimentation rate change suggests an average termination age difference of 1000-1500 years between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific, consistent with or slightly greater than the delay expected due to ocean mixing rates, given that most glacial meltwater probably enters the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JGR....8911365R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JGR....8911365R"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal activity at the Trans-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Geotraverse Hydrothermal Field, Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge crest at 26°N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rona, P. A.; Thompson, G.; Mottl, M. J.; Karson, J. A.; Jenkins, W. J.; Graham, D.; Mallette, M.; von Damm, K.; Edmond, J. M.</p> <p>1984-12-01</p> <p>The first submersible observations of the only known active submarine hydrothermal field on a slow-spreading oceanic ridge are incorporated with results of 10 prior years of investigation to derive an understanding of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>, duration, and varying intensity of hydrothermal activity at the Trans-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Geotraverse (TAG) Hydrothermal Field on the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge crest near latitude 26°N. Hydrothermal activity has persisted at this location for at least 1×106 years based on the distribution of hydrothermal and hydrogenous mineralization with respect to crustal age. The hydrothermal activity has been cyclic, multistage, and episodic. Prior high-temperature hydrothermal venting stages with a <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> of the order of 1×104 years and duration of the order of 101 years are deduced from the estimated ages of discrete sedimentary layers anomalously enriched in Cu, Fe, and Zn and correspond with the independently determined <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> of volcanic eruptive cycles on the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge. The most recent episode of high-temperature venting is inferred to have ceased in the recent past based on metal enrichment (Cu, Fe, Zn) in the surficial sediment layer. Low-temperature hydrothermal venting stages with a duration of the order of 1×104 years intervene between the short high-temperature stages and produce stratiform deposits of layered and earthy manganese oxide, iron oxide, hydroxide, and silicate. Bivalve-like forms with the characteristics of vent clams in various stages of dissolution are identified on bottom photographs. The fresh appearance of intact tubules composed of iron hydroxide that acted as vents on relict deposits, conductive heat flow anomalies in the sediment column, and the record of temperature anomalies and excess 3He in the near-bottom water column, suggest that the low-temperature hydrothermal discharge is intermittent at individual vents on a time scale of years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2008PA001608.shtml','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2008PA001608.shtml"><span id="translatedtitle">Reevaluation of mid-Pliocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Lawrence, Kira T.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Multiproxy temperature estimation requires careful attention to biological, chemical, physical, temporal, and calibration differences of each proxy and paleothermometry method. We evaluated mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from multiple proxies at Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes 552A, 609B, 607, and 606, transecting the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Drift. SST estimates derived from faunal assemblages, foraminifer Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, and alkenone unsaturation indices showed strong agreement at Holes 552A, 607, and 606 once differences in calibration, depth, and seasonality were addressed. Abundant extinct species and/or an unrecognized productivity signal in the faunal assemblage at Hole 609B resulted in exaggerated faunal-based SST estimates but did not affect alkenone-derived or Mg/Ca–derived estimates. Multiproxy mid-Pliocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST estimates corroborate previous studies documenting high-latitude mid-Pliocene warmth and refine previous faunal-based estimates affected by environmental factors other than temperature. Multiproxy investigations will aid SST estimation in high-latitude areas sensitive to climate change and currently underrepresented in SST reconstructions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1571692','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1571692"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel antimigraineur dotarizine releases <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ from caffeine-sensitive <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores of chromaffin cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Novalbos, Jesús; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Zapater, Pedro; Alvarez, Javier; Alonso, María Teresa; Montero, Mayte; García, Antonio G</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The novel antimigraineur, dotarizine (30 μM), increased cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration, [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c, in fura-2-loaded bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. This increase was transient, reached a peak in about 2–5 min (0.53±0.07 μM; n=19) and then declined to basal levels over a further 5 min <span class="hlt">period</span>.This transient rise of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c was mimicked by 1 μM thapsigargin and by 30 μM cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), but not by 30 μM flunarizine. Both thapsigargin and CPA occluded the effects of dotarizine and vice versa.All three compounds suppressed the transient [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c rises induced by caffeine (10 mM, 10 s); blockade induced by thapsigargin was irreversible and that induced by CPA and dotarizine was reversible.Of the three compounds, only dotarizine blocked reversibly the [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c spikes induced by short pulses of high K+ (70 mM, 5 s), suggesting that dotarizine blocks voltage-dependent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels but CPA and thapsigargin do not.Dotarizine caused a gradual and reversible depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ in chromaffin cells transfected with ER-targeted aequorin. CPA had a similar effect.These data show that dotarizine shares with thapsigargin and CPA the ability to deplete <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ in the ER; this novel action of dotarizine could be relevant to its prophylactic effects in migraine. Unlike thapsigargin and CPA, however, dotarizine additionally and reversibly blocks <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ entry through voltage-dependent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels. PMID:10516641</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1302778','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1302778"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionic Mechanisms Underlying Spontaneous <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 Neuronal Firing in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-Free Solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shuai, Jianwei; Bikson, Marom; Hahn, Philip J.; Lian, Jun; Durand, Dominique M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Hippocampal <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 neurons exposed to zero-[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] solutions can generate <span class="hlt">periodic</span> spontaneous synchronized activity in the absence of synaptic function. Experiments using hippocampal slices showed that, after exposure to zero-[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]0 solution, <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal cells depolarized 5–10 mV and started firing spontaneous action potentials. Spontaneous single neuron activity appeared in singlets or was grouped into bursts of two or three action potentials. A 16-compartment, 23-variable cable model of a <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal neuron was developed to study mechanisms of spontaneous neuronal bursting in a calcium-free extracellular solution. In the model, five active currents (a fast sodium current, a persistent sodium current, an A-type transient potassium current, a delayed rectifier potassium current, and a muscarinic potassium current) are included in the somatic compartment. The model simulates the spontaneous bursting behavior of neurons in calcium-free solutions. The mechanisms underlying several aspects of bursting are studied, including the generation of triplet bursts, spike duration, burst termination, after-depolarization behavior, and the prolonged inactive <span class="hlt">period</span> between bursts. We show that the small persistent sodium current can play a key role in spontaneous <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 activity in zero-calcium solutions. In particular, it is necessary for the generation of an after-depolarizing potential and prolongs both individual bursts and the interburst interval. PMID:12609911</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3988121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3988121"><span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal study of CEA and <span class="hlt">CA</span>125 in ovarian cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brioschi, P A; Bischof, P; Rapin, C; De Roten, M; Irion, O; Krauer, F</p> <p>1985-05-01</p> <p>Carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 125 (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>125) levels were measured at regular intervals over a 24-month <span class="hlt">period</span> in 19 patients with proven ovarian cancers. In 91.5% of the cases with recurrent or progressive disease, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>125 levels were increased whereas only 34% of these patients had increased CEA levels. Furthermore, reduction of the tumoral mass was associated with a decrease of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>125 levels in all patients. It is proposed that determination of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>125 levels in ovarian cancer might provide a valuable prognostic tool for the assessment of the evolution of the disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP62A0315G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP62A0315G"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal Scale Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sea Surface Temperature Indices as Recorded by a Modern Dominican Coral (1935-1996)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greer, L.; Swart, P. K.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>In contrast to research in the tropical Pacific, there have been few definitive studies utilizing proxy records within <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coral skeletons to provide information on the climate dynamics in this region. In order to study associations between salinity and temperature in the Subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, a core was retrieved from a colony of the coral species Montastraea annularis at El Pe¤¢n located in the northwestern region of Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic. Decadal oscillations in the δ18O of the coral skeleton correlate with SST anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> for much of the <span class="hlt">period</span> from 1935 to 1996. Cospectral analyses of coral δ18O and documented tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTAs reveal a dominant frequency of ~12-15 years. This decadal frequency is well documented in observed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST data and models of tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate. We do not believe that fluctuations in the δ18O of this coral reflect local temperature or precipitation patterns. Instead we suggest that the δ18O of the coral is related to Caribbean wide salinity anomalies, which are in turn related to tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTAs. The correlation between coral δ18O and tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTA may indicate that when a southward SSTA gradient is pronounced, tradewinds north of the ITCZ increase, enhancing evaporation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Gyre. The net increase in evaporation coupled with a strengthening of gyre circulation could result in a relative increase in the transport of more saline water into the Caribbean via the Mona Passage. When a northward SST gradient is present, precipitation associated with the northern extent of the ITCZ may decrease the mean salinity of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Gyre and/or gyre circulation. A relative increase in the transport of less saline South Equatorial waters to the Caribbean could result. However, the correlation between coral δ18O and tropical SST anomalies changes significantly between 1960 and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4388M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4388M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane response to geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Devastating <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-19/pdf/2013-22728.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-19/pdf/2013-22728.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 57534 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-19</p> <p>... following domestic fisheries in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Caribbean coral... shrimp, Gulf coral, Gulf and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal migratory pelagics, Gulf and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> spiny lobster, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coral, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> snapper-grouper, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shrimp, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> dolphin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ECSS..173...65Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ECSS..173...65Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surfclam connectivity within the Middle <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bight: Mechanisms underlying variation in larval transport and settlement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xinzhong; Munroe, Daphne; Haidvogel, Dale; Powell, Eric N.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Larval transport and settlement have been shown in various studies to be essential in determining population abundance and connectivity for benthic invertebrates. This transport is influenced by both the physical environment and biological behavior. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surfclam, Spisula solidissima, is a commercially important benthic invertebrate fishery species along the U.S northeastern coast. In this study, a physical circulation model is coupled to a surfclam larval model to investigate the dynamics of larval transport and settlement within the Middle <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bight (MAB) shelf in 2006. The main physical mechanisms causing variability in larval transport and settlement are also examined. Model results show that surfclam larvae released from July to early October experience relatively larger settlement rates, due to higher average temperatures experienced by larvae. Larval along-shore transport exhibits a mean down-coast pattern following the coastal current from the northeast to the southwest, with most high-frequency (<span class="hlt">period</span> of 2-10 days) variations caused by fluctuations in the along-shore surface wind stress, and with seasonal variations speculated to be driven mainly by changes in the across-shelf density gradient. Larval across-shelf movement is highly correlated with the along-shore surface wind stress mediated by coastal upwelling and downwelling episodes, but the correlation is further dependent on the vertical distribution of the larvae, particularly their position relative to the thermocline. Most surfclam larvae released from the Middle <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shelf stay below the thermocline and experience a net onshore transport during the summer-stratified season when upwelling-favorable wind forcing dominates. A proposed critical value of water temperature at the thermocline successfully regulates the observed patterns of vertical distribution of surfclam larvae and their across-shelf movement off the New Jersey and South Virginia shelves; that is, when the water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4016685','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4016685"><span id="translatedtitle">Prenatal morphine exposure reduces pyramidal neurons in <span class="hlt">CA</span>1, <span class="hlt">CA</span>2 and <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 subfields of mice hippocampus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ghafari, Soraya; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective(s): This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation <span class="hlt">period</span> on pyramidal neurons of hippocampus in 18 and 32 day mice offspring. Materials and Methods: Thirty female mice were randomly allocated into cases and controls. In case group, animals received morphine sulfate 10 mg/kg.body weight intraperitoneally during 7 days before mating, gestational <span class="hlt">period</span> (GD 0-21), 18 and 32 days after delivery in the experimental groups. The control animals received an equivalent volume of normal saline. Cerebrum of six offsprings in each group was removed and stained with cresyl violet and a monoclonal antibody NeuN for immunohistochemical detection of surviving pyramidal neurons. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on hippocampus. Results: The number of pyramidal neurons in <span class="hlt">CA</span>1, <span class="hlt">CA</span>2 and <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 in treated groups was significantly reduced in postnatal day 18 and 32 (P18, P32) compared to control groups (P<0.05). The mean thickness of the stratum pyramidal layer was decreased in the treated groups in comparison with controls (P<0.05), whereas the mean thickness of the stratum oriens, stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare in <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 field and stratum oriens, stratum lucidum, stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare in <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 were significantly increased in morphine treated group in comparison with controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Morphine administration before and during pregnancy and during lactation <span class="hlt">period</span> causes pyramidal neurons loss in 18 and 32 days old infant mice. PMID:24847417</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP22A..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP22A..04K"><span id="translatedtitle">Northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate since late Medieval times from Northern Caribbean coral geochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Paleoclimate reconstructions of different global climate modes over the last 1000 years provide the basis for testing the relative roles of forced and unforced variability climate system, which can help us improve projections of future climate change. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) has been characterized by a combination of persistent La Niña-like conditions, a positive North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (+NAO), and increased <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is sensitive to each of these climate patterns, but not all of them have the same regional fingerprint in the modern northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The relative influence of different processes related to these climate patterns can help us better understand regional responses to climate change. The regional response of the northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is important because the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is a large source of heat and moisture to the global climate system that can feedback onto global climate patterns. This study presents new coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O data from the northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Anegada, British Virgin Islands). Comparison of the sub-fossil corals that grew during the 13th and 14th Centuries with modern coral geochemical data from this site indicates relatively cooler mean conditions with a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the water consistent with lower salinities. Similar average annual cycles between modern and sub-fossil Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> indicate no change in seasonal temperature range, but a difference in the relative phasing of the δ18O seasonal cycles indicates that the fresher mean conditions may be due to a more northerly position of the regional salinity front. This localized response is consistent with some, but not all of the expected regional responses to a La Niña-like state, a +NAO state, and increased AMOC. Understanding these differences can provide insight into the relative importance of advection versus surface fluxes for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036538','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036538"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat selection and overlap of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon and smallmouth bass juveniles in nursery streams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wathen, G.; Coghlan, S.M.; Zydlewski, J.; Trial, J.G.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Introduced smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have invaded much of the historic freshwater habitat of<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar in North America, yet little is known about the ecological interactions between the two species.We investigated the possibility of competition for habitat between age-0 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon and age-0 and age-1 smallmouth bass by means of in situ observations and a mesocosm experiment.We used snorkel observation to identify the degree and timing of overlap in habitat use in our in situ observations and to describe habitat shifts by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon in the presence of smallmouth bass in our mesocosm experiments. In late July 2008, we observed substantial overlap in the depths and mean water column velocities used by both species in sympatric in situ conditions and an apparent shift by age-0 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon to shallower water that coincided with the <span class="hlt">period</span> of high overlap. In the mesocosm experiments, we detected no overlap or habitat shifts by age-0 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon in the presence age-1 smallmouth bass and low overlap and no habitat shifts of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in fall 2009. In 2009, summer floods with sustained high flows and low temperatures resulted in the nearly complete reproductive failure of the smallmouth bass in our study streams, and we did not observe a midsummer habitat shift by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon similar to that seen in 2008. Although this prevented us from replicating our 2008 experiments under similar conditions, the virtual year-class failure of smallmouth bass itself is enlightening. We suggest that future studies incorporate the effects of varying temperature and discharge to determine how abiotic factors affect the interactions between these species and thus mediate the outcomes of potential competition. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4553C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4553C"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal evolution of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the adjacent continent during Termination 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiessi, C. M.; Mulitza, S.; Mollenhauer, G.; Silva, J. B.; Groeneveld, J.; Prange, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>During Termination 1, millennial-scale weakening events of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) supposedly produced major changes in sea surface temperatures (SST) of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and in mean air temperatures (MAT) over southeastern South America. It was suggested, for instance, that the Brazil Current (BC) would strengthen (weaken) and the North Brazil Current (NBC) would weaken (strengthen) during slowdown (speed-up) events of the AMOC. This anti-phase pattern was claimed to be a necessary response to the decreased North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat piracy during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of weak AMOC. However, the thermal evolution of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the adjacent continent is largely unknown and a compelling record of the BC-NBC anti-phase behavior remains elusive. Here we address this issue, presenting high temporal resolution SST and MAT records from the BC and southeastern South America, respectively. We identify a warming in the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), which is followed first by a drop and then by increasing temperatures during the Bølling-Allerød, in-phase with an existing NBC record. Additionally, a similar SST evolution is shown by a southernmost eastern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> record, suggesting a South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-wide pattern in SST evolution during most of Termination 1. Over southeastern South America, our MAT record shows a two-step increase during Termination 1, synchronous with atmospheric CO2 rise (i.e., during the second half of HS1 and during the Younger Dryas), and lagging abrupt SST changes by several thousand years. This delay corroborates the notion that the long duration of HS1 was fundamental to drive the Earth out of the last glacial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..915C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..915C"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal evolution of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the adjacent continent during Termination 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiessi, C. M.; Mulitza, S.; Mollenhauer, G.; Silva, J. B.; Groeneveld, J.; Prange, M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>During Termination 1, millennial-scale weakening events of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) supposedly produced major changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and in mean air temperatures (MATs) over southeastern South America. It has been suggested, for instance, that the Brazil Current (BC) would strengthen (weaken) and the North Brazil Current (NBC) would weaken (strengthen) during slowdown (speed-up) events of the AMOC. This anti-phase pattern was claimed to be a necessary response to the decreased North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat piracy during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of weak AMOC. However, the thermal evolution of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the adjacent continent is so far largely unknown. Here we address this issue, presenting high-temporal-resolution SST and MAT records from the BC and southeastern South America, respectively. We identify a warming in the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), which is followed first by a drop and then by increasing temperatures during the Bølling-Allerød, in phase with an existing SST record from the NBC. Additionally, a similar SST evolution is shown by a southernmost eastern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> record, suggesting a South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-wide pattern in SST evolution during most of Termination 1. Over southeastern South America, our MAT record shows a two-step increase during Termination 1, synchronous with atmospheric CO2 rise (i.e., during the second half of HS1 and during the Younger Dryas), and lagging abrupt SST changes by several thousand years. This delay corroborates the notion that the long duration of HS1 was fundamental in driving the Earth out of the last glacial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS51B1052B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS51B1052B"><span id="translatedtitle">Freshwater variations in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> from in situ salinity measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyer, T.; Levitus, S.; Antonov, J.; Locarnini, R.; Garcia, H.; Mishonov, A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Salinity data from bottle samples, CTD casts, moored buoys, profiling float, Towed CTDs, gliders and drifting buoys are used to calculate variations in freshwater in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (0-80N) for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1955- 2006. Data from the World Ocean Database 2005 (WOD05) are averaged over running 5-year <span class="hlt">periods</span> (pentads) after the annual cycle is removed by subtracting the monthly climatological salinity. The climatological salinity fields used are from the World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05). From these salinity anomaly fields, freshwater anomaly fields are calculated for different portions of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. As previously reported, the upper 2000 meters of thesubpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Nordic Seas experienced a large increase of freshwater between the late 1960s and the early 1990s. After reaching a peak around 1991-1995 pentad, this area has experienced a large and steady decrease in freshwater which continues through the first half of 2006. The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> as a whole has experienced a decrease of freshwater over the time <span class="hlt">period</span> of the study over the top 1500 meters of the water column. Different depth layers in the water column are studied to ascertain at which layers the change in freshwater is occuring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.A22B1060C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.A22B1060C"><span id="translatedtitle">Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Recurrent South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ozone Maxima</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>We extend on our analysis of equatorial tropospheric ozone to illustrate the contributions of South Asian pollution export in forming episodes of high O3 over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. We amplify on an earlier description of a broad resolution of the "<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Paradox," for the Jan-Feb-March <span class="hlt">period</span>, which included initial indications of a very long-distance contribution from South Asia. The approach has been to describe typical <span class="hlt">periods</span> of significant maximum and minimum tropospheric ozone for early 1999, exploiting TOMS tropospheric ozone estimates jointly with characteristic features of the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone soundings. Further investigation of the Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) record for all of 1999 suggests that there are repeated <span class="hlt">periods</span> of very long-distance Asian influence crossing Africa, with an apparent effect on those portions of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Equatorial troposphere which are downwind. Trajectory analyses suggest that the pattern over the Indian Ocean is complex: a sequence invoving multiple or mixed combustion sources, low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and high-level transport to the west seem to be indicated by the TTO record. Biomass burning, fossil and biofuel combustion, and lighting seem to all contribute. For the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, burning and lighting on adjacent continents as well as episodes of this cross-Africa long-distance transport are all linked in a coordinated seasonal march: all are related by movement of the sun. However, interseasonal tropical variability related to the Madden-Julian oscillation allows intermittent ozone buildups that depart from the seasonal norm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8947828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8947828"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling and intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ binding proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niki, I; Yokokura, H; Sudo, T; Kato, M; Hidaka, H</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Changes in cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentrations evoke a wide range of cellular responses and intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-binding proteins are the key molecules to transduce <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling via enzymatic reactions or modulation of protein/protein interations (Fig.1). The EF hand proteins, like calmodulin and S100 proteins, are considered to exert <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-dependent actions in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+/phospholipid binding proteins are classified into two groups, the annexins and the C2 region proteins. These proteins, distributed mainly in the cytoplasm, translocate to the plasma membrane in response to an increase in cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ and function in the vicinity of the membrane. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ storage proteins in the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum provide the high <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ capacity of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ store sites, which regulate intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ distribution. The variety and complexity of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling result from the cooperative actions of specific <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-binding proteins. This review describes biochemical properties of intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-binding proteins and their proposed roles in mediating <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4447295','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4447295"><span id="translatedtitle">Dual Annual Spawning Races in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sturgeon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999DSRII..46..979R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999DSRII..46..979R"><span id="translatedtitle">Silver in the far North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rivera-Duarte, I.; Flegal, A. R.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Véron, A. J.</p> <p></p> <p>Total (unfiltered) silver concentrations in higher latitudes of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (52-68°N) are reported for the second Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Global Investigation of Pollutants in the Marine Environment (GIPME) baseline survey of 1993. These silver concentrations (0.69-7.2 pM) are oceanographically consistent with those (0.24-9.6 pM) previously reported for lower latitudes in the eastern North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ( Flegal et al., 1995). However, surface (⩽200 m) water concentrations of silver (0.69-4.6 pM) in the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters are, on average, ten-fold larger than those (0.25 pM) considered natural background concentrations in surface waters of the central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In contrast, variations in deep far North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> silver concentrations are associated with discrete water masses. Consequently, the cycling of silver in the far North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> appears to be predominantly controlled by external inputs and the advection of distinct water masses, in contrast to the nutrient-like biogeochemical cycling of silver observed in the central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26020631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26020631"><span id="translatedtitle">Dual annual spawning races in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010QSRv...29.1276G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010QSRv...29.1276G"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial-scale variability in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water advection to the Nordic Seas derived from Holocene coccolith concentration records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giraudeau, J.; Grelaud, M.; Solignac, S.; Andrews, J. T.; Moros, M.; Jansen, E.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Abundance patterns of coccolith species in two Holocene marine cores retrieved off Norway and northern Iceland are indicative of millennial-scale modulations in the flow of the main (Norwegian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current) and secondary (North Iceland Irminger Current) branches of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Drift to the Nordic Seas. Long-term trends in coccolith abundance changes reflect major Holocene steps in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water transfer to the Nordic Seas at orbital scale with important constraints on the convective activity of the Nordic Seas that leads to the formation of the precursor water mass of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water. Millennial-scale Holocene episodes of increased advection of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters off Norway are associated with enhanced winter precipitation over Scandinavia, increased sea-salt fluxes over Greenland, and strengthened wind over Iceland, thereby suggesting a common atmospheric forcing: the location and intensity of the westerlies and the associated changes in mid- to high-latitude pressure gradients. Our biotic data indicate an opposite pattern of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water inflow at suborbital scale between the western (Denmark) and eastern (Iceland-Scotland) straits of the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> throughout the Holocene. This, as supported by present observational and simulated data, further highlights the role of atmospheric oscillations in the recent history of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Nordic Seas water mass exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. Such atmospheric processes are thought to explain the observed coupling between <span class="hlt">periods</span> of excess export of arctic sea-ice to the Nordic Seas and intervals of maximum inflow of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water to the Norwegian Sea throughout the last 11 000 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-13/pdf/2010-20077.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-13/pdf/2010-20077.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-13</p> <p>... United States; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... (TAC) and corresponding fleet days-at-sea (DAS) allocation for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep- sea red crab fishery... the implementing regulations for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep- Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1060A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1060A"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of the QBO on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Mediterranean storm tracks: An energetic perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asbaghi, Ghorban; Joghataei, Mohammad; Mohebalhojeh, Ali R.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Impacts of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the energetics of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Mediterranean storm tracks are discussed. The daily National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1953-2015 are used to evaluate the spatial distribution of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and the main factors involved in generation, conversion, and propagation of the EKE in the westerly and easterly phases of the QBO. Results are presented for both early and late winter to uncover intraseasonal variations of the impact. It is shown that the QBO exerts a marked influence on the Mediterranean storm track in early winter, which is of the same order of its impact on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> storm track. Further, the impact on the Mediterranean storm track is rather local in early winter but more influenced by variations in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> storm track in late winter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...158...26F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...158...26F"><span id="translatedtitle">The imprint of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna otoliths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fraile, Igaratza; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Kölling, Martin; Santos, Miguel Neves; Macías, David; Addis, Piero; Dettman, David L.; Karakulak, Saadet; Deguara, Simeon; Rooker, Jay R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Otoliths of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) collected from the Mediterranean Sea and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean were analyzed to evaluate changes in the seawater isotopic composition over time. We report an annual otolith δ13C record that documents the magnitude of the δ13C depletion in the Mediterranean Sea between 1989 and 2010. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna in our sample (n = 632) ranged from 1 to 22 years, and otolith material corresponding to the first year of life (back-calculated birth year) was used to reconstruct seawater isotopic composition. Otolith δ18O remained relatively stable between 1989 and 2010, whereas a statistically significant decrease in δ13C was detected across the time interval investigated, with a rate of decline of 0.05‰ yr- 1 (- 0.94‰ depletion throughout the recorded <span class="hlt">period</span>). The depletion in otolith δ13C over time was associated with the oceanic uptake of anthropogenically derived CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13H1630L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13H1630L"><span id="translatedtitle">A Climatological Perspective on U.S. Rainfall and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tropical Cyclones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luitel, B. N.; Villarini, G.; Vecchi, G. A.; Murakami, H.; Zhang, W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones (TCs) are major contributors to annual precipitation over large areas of the United States, in particular along the Gulf Coast, Florida and the Eastern Seaboard. Studies have shown large inter-annual as well as decadal variations in rainfall associated with TCs, but there is limited evidence concerning the possible factors controlling these variations. In this study we focus on rainfall associated with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TCs and its impact over the continental United States during the <span class="hlt">period</span> of 1948 - 2013. Results are based on gridded daily rainfall provided by the Climate Prediction Center (Daily US Unified Gauge-Based Analysis of Precipitation). Based on this 66-year record, we will show the areas of the United States that are more susceptible to TC-rainfall. Moreover, we will also examine the role played by different climate phenomena (e.g., the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation, El Nino - Southern Oscillation) in controlling the interannual variability of TC rainfall</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11110658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11110658"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid changes in the hydrologic cycle of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last glacial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peterson, L C; Haug, G H; Hughen, K A; Röhl, U</p> <p>2000-12-08</p> <p>Sedimentary time series of color reflectance and major element chemistry from the anoxic Cariaco Basin off the coast of northern Venezuela record large and abrupt shifts in the hydrologic cycle of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the past 90,000 years. Marine productivity maxima and increased precipitation and riverine discharge from northern South America are closely linked to interstadial (warm) climate events of marine isotope stage 3, as recorded in Greenland ice cores. Increased precipitation at this latitude during interstadials suggests the potential for greater moisture export from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to Pacific, which could have affected the salinity balance of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and increased thermohaline heat transport to high northern latitudes. This supports the notion that tropical feedbacks played an important role in modulating global climate during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4931225','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4931225"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiocarbon evidence for enhanced respired carbon storage in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at the Last Glacial Maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Waelbroeck, C.; Hodell, D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The influence of ocean circulation changes on atmospheric CO2 hinges primarily on the ability to alter the ocean interior's respired nutrient inventory. Here we investigate the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum and its impact on respired carbon storage using radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope data from the Brazil and Iberian Margins. The data demonstrate the existence of a shallow well-ventilated northern-sourced cell overlying a poorly ventilated, predominantly southern-sourced cell at the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find that organic carbon remineralization rates in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> remained broadly similar to modern, but that ventilation ages in the southern-sourced overturning cell were significantly increased. Respired carbon storage in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was therefore enhanced during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, primarily due to an increase in the residence time of carbon in the deep ocean, rather than an increase in biological carbon export. PMID:27346723</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8724B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8724B"><span id="translatedtitle">North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> westerlies variability from ships' logbooks: 1685-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barriopedro, David; Gallego, David; García-Herrera, Ricardo</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A monthly index based on the persistence of the westerly wind over the English Chanel is constructed for 1685-2008 using daily data from ships' logbooks and marine meteorological datasets. This Westerly Index (WI) provides the longest instrumental record of atmospheric circulation currently available. Anomalous WI values are associated with climatic signals in temperature and precipitation over large areas of Europe, which are stronger for precipitation than for temperature and in winter and summer than in transitional seasons. Overall, the WI series reveal that the frequency of the westerlies in the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the 20th century or the Late Maunder Minimum was not exceptional in the context of the last three centuries. The WI provides additional and complementary information to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) indices. Thus, there is a significant year-round signature on precipitation and a seasonal-dependent temperature signal associated with the WI that is partially missed by the NAO indices. Although the WI reveals an overall good temporal agreement with the winter and high-summer NAO, there are several multidecadal <span class="hlt">periods</span> of weakened correlation during the industrial era. These decoupled <span class="hlt">periods</span> are interpreted on the basis of several sources of non-stationarity affecting the centres of the variability of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and their teleconnections. Comparisons with long instrumental indices extending back to the 17th century suggest that similar situations have occurred in the past, which call for caution when reconstructing the past atmospheric circulation from climatic proxies. In fact, there is a generally poor correlation of the WI with purely proxy-generated indices of the NAO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45..139G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45..139G"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets strengthen the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, Xun; Zhang, Xiangdong; Lohmann, Gerrit; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Pfeiffer, Madlene</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>During the last glacial-interglacial cycle, changes in the large-scale North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean circulation occurred, and at the same time topography of the Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets also varied. In this study, we focus on detecting the changes of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyres, western boundary current, and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) corresponding to different Laurentide and Greenland ice sheet topographies. Using an Earth System Model, we conducted simulations for five climate states with different ice sheet topographies: Pre-industrial, Mid Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum, 32 kilo years before present and Eemian interglacial. Our simulation results indicate that higher topographies of the Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets strengthen surface wind stress curl over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean, intensifying the subtropical and subpolar gyres and the western boundary currents. The corresponding decrease in sea surface height from subtropical to subpolar favors a stronger AMOC. An offshore shift of the Gulf Stream is also identified during the glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span> relative to that during the Pre-industrial due to lower sea levels, explaining a weaker glacial Gulf Stream detected in proxy data. Meanwhile, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyres and AMOC demonstrate a positively correlated relation under each of the climate conditions with higher ice sheets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.434..628S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.434..628S"><span id="translatedtitle">Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmittner, Andreas</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Reorganizations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation were associated with large and abrupt climatic changes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Projections with climate models suggest that similar reorganizations may also occur in response to anthropogenic global warming. Here I use ensemble simulations with a coupled climate-ecosytem model of intermediate complexity to investigate the possible consequences of such disturbances to the marine ecosystem. In the simulations, a disruption of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation leads to a collapse of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> plankton stocks to less than half of their initial biomass, owing to rapid shoaling of winter mixed layers and their associated separation from the deep ocean nutrient reservoir. Globally integrated export production declines by more than 20per cent owing to reduced upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water and gradual depletion of upper ocean nutrient concentrations. These model results are consistent with the available high-resolution palaeorecord, and suggest that global ocean productivity is sensitive to changes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...48a2004S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...48a2004S"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> dipole on climate changes over Eurasia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Serykh, I. V.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, some hydrophysical and meteorological characteristics of negative (1948-1976 and 1999-2015) and positive (1977-1998) phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Eurasia are constructed and investigated. Specifically, the near-surface temperature, sea-level atmospheric pressure, wind speed, heat content of the upper 700 m ocean layer, water temperature and salinity at various depths, the latent and sensible heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere are analyzed. The fields obtained are in good agreement and complement each other. This gives important information about the hydrometeorological conditions in the region under study. Analysis of these data has shown that in the upper 1000 m North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> layer there is a thermal dipole which can be interpreted as an oceanic analog of the atmospheric North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO). An index of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Dipole (NAD) as the difference between the mean heat contents in the upper 700 m oceanic layer between the regions (50°-70° N; 60°-10° W) and (20°-40° N; 80°-30° W) is proposed. A possible physical mechanism of the internal oscillations with a quasi-60-year <span class="hlt">period</span> in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantics</span>- Eurasia system of ocean-atmosphere interactions is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3817705T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3817705T"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust features of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal variability and its climate impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ting, Mingfang; Kushnir, Yochanan; Seager, Richard; Li, Cuihua</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Variability (AMV), also known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), is characterized by a sharp rise and fall of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin-wide sea surface temperatures (SST) on multi-decadal time scales. Widespread consequences of these rapid temperature swings were noted in many previous studies. Among these are the drying of Sahel in the 1960-70s and change in the frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricanes on multi-decadal time scales. Given the short instrumental data records (about a century long) the central question is whether these climate fluctuations are robustly linked with the AMV and to what extent are these connections subject to changes in a changing climate. Here we address this issue by using the CMIP3 simulations for the 20th, 21st, and pre-industrial eras with 23 IPCC models. While models tend to produce AMV of shorter time scales and less <span class="hlt">periodic</span> than suggested by the observations, the spatial structures of the SST anomaly patterns, and their association with worldwide precipitation, are surprisingly similar between models (with differing external forcing) and observations. Our results confirm the strong link between AMV and Sahel rainfall and suggest a clear physical mechanism for the linkage in terms of meridional shifts of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ. The results also help clarify influences that may not be robust, such as the impacts over North America, India, and Australia.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G42A..03L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G42A..03L"><span id="translatedtitle">North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation variations from GRACE ocean bottom pressure anomalie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landerer, F. W.; Wiese, D. N.; Bentel, K.; Boening, C.; Watkins, M. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The important role of the North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridonal Overturning Circulation (AMOC) for regional as well as global climate is well recognized. Concerns about potential future AMOC changes imply the need for a continuous, large-scale observation capability to detect any such changes on interannual to decadal time scales. Here, we present the first measurements of lower North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Deep-Water (LNADW) monthly transport changes using only space-based time-variable gravity observations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, continuously covering the time <span class="hlt">period</span> from 2003 until now. Improved monthly gravity field retrievals allow the detection of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> interannual bottom pressure anomalies and yield LNADW transport estimates that are in good agreement with those from the ocean in-situ RAPID-MOCA array at 26.5N. Concurrent with the observed AMOC transport anomalies from late-2009 through early-2010, GRACE measured ocean bottom pressures changes in the 3000-5000 m deep western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> of -20 mm-H2O, implying a southward volume transport anomaly in that layer of approximately -5.5 Sv. Our results highlight the efficacy of space-gravimetry to observe and detect meridional ocean transport variations that can potentially be retrieved over all latitude ranges in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4310909C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4310909C"><span id="translatedtitle">Global linkages originating from decadal oceanic variability in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chafik, L.; Häkkinen, S.; England, M. H.; Carton, J. A.; Nigam, S.; Ruiz-Barradas, A.; Hannachi, A.; Miller, L.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The anomalous decadal warming of the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (SPNA), and the northward spreading of this warm water, has been linked to rapid Arctic sea ice loss and more frequent cold European winters. Recently, variations in this heat transport have also been reported to covary with global warming slowdown/acceleration <span class="hlt">periods</span> via a Pacific climate response. We here examine the role of SPNA temperature variability in this <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific climate connectivity. We find that the evolution of ocean heat content anomalies from the subtropics to the subpolar region, likely due to ocean circulation changes, coincides with a basin-wide <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming/cooling. This induces an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific sea surface temperature seesaw, which in turn, strengthens/weakens the Walker circulation and amplifies the Pacific decadal variability that triggers pronounced global-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies. We conclude that the decadal oceanic variability in the SPNA is an essential component of the tropical interactions between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific Oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15800620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15800620"><span id="translatedtitle">Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmittner, Andreas</p> <p>2005-03-31</p> <p>Reorganizations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation were associated with large and abrupt climatic changes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Projections with climate models suggest that similar reorganizations may also occur in response to anthropogenic global warming. Here I use ensemble simulations with a coupled climate-ecosystem model of intermediate complexity to investigate the possible consequences of such disturbances to the marine ecosystem. In the simulations, a disruption of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation leads to a collapse of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> plankton stocks to less than half of their initial biomass, owing to rapid shoaling of winter mixed layers and their associated separation from the deep ocean nutrient reservoir. Globally integrated export production declines by more than 20 per cent owing to reduced upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water and gradual depletion of upper ocean nutrient concentrations. These model results are consistent with the available high-resolution palaeorecord, and suggest that global ocean productivity is sensitive to changes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESD.....6..781T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESD.....6..781T"><span id="translatedtitle">The tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface wind divergence belt and its effect on clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tubul, Y.; Koren, I.; Altaratz, O.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A well-defined surface wind divergence (SWD) belt with distinct cloud properties forms over the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the boreal summer months. This belt separates the deep convective clouds of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from the shallow marine stratocumulus cloud decks forming over the cold-water subtropical region of the southern branch of the Hadley cell in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Using the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds and Aqua-MODIS instruments, we examined the large-scale spatiotemporal variability in the SWD belt during a 6-year <span class="hlt">period</span> (2003-2008) and the related links to cloud properties over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SWD belt was found to be most pronounced from May to August, between the Equator and 2° N latitude. A positive correlation and a strong link were observed between formation of the SWD belt and a sharp sea-surface temperature gradient on the northern border of the cold tongue, supporting Wallace's vertical-mixing mechanism. The dominant cloud type over this region was shallow cumulus. Cloud properties were shown to be strongly linked to the formation and strength of the SWD zone. The findings will help to understand the link between ocean-atmosphere dynamics and cloud properties over this region, and suggest that the SWD zone be considered a unique cloud belt of the southern branch of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Hadley cell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3859S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3859S"><span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropic tomography of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silveira, G.; Stutzmann, E.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>We present a regional tri-dimensional model of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean with anisotropy. The model, derived from Rayleigh and Love phase velocity measurements, is defined from the Moho down to 300 km depth with a lateral resolution of about 500 km and is presented in terms of average isotropic S-wave velocity, azimuthal anisotropy and transverse isotropy. The cratons beneath North America, Brazil and Africa are clearly associated with fast S-wave velocity anomalies. The Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge is a shallow structure in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corresponding to a negative velocity anomaly down to about 150 km depth. In contrast, the ridge negative signature is visible in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> down to the deepest depth inverted, that is 300~km depth. This difference is probably related to the presence of hot-spots along or close to the ridge axis in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and may indicate a different mechanism for the ridge between the North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Negative velocity anomalies are clearly associated with hot-spots from the surface down to at least 300km depth, they are much broader that the supposed size of the hot-spots and seem to be connected along a North-South direction. Down to 100 km depth, a fast S-wave velocity anomaly is extenting from Africa into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean within the zone defined as the Africa superswell area. This result indicates that the hot material rising from below does not reach the surface in this area but may be pushing the lithosphere upward. In most parts of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the azimuthal anisotropy directions remain stable with increasing depth. Close to the ridge, the fast S-wave velocity direction is roughly parallel to the sea floor spreading direction. The hot-spot anisotropy signature is striking beneath Bermuda, Cape Verde and Fernando Noronha islands where the fast S-wave velocity direction seems to diverge radially from the hot-spots. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> average radial anisotropy is similar to that of the PREM model, that is positive down to about</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4889056','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4889056"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Malaquias, Manuel António E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt), a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny). Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 64 individuals/m2 and <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been <span class="hlt">periodically</span> restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown. PMID:27248835</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1161S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1161S"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep convection preceding Heinrich 1 glacial ice sheet destabilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Lindgreen, Holger</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Labrador Sea is a crucial center of action for North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation. This region is characterized in winter by strong cold and dry winds from land or ice surfaces inducing large heat and moisture fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface. Particularly in late winter these conditions favor deep-convection processes leading to the formation of a relatively homogeneous and oxygen-rich intermediate water mass (Labrador Sea Water, LSW) spreading to other parts of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at water depths between about 1,000 and 2,000 m. Sedimentary records from the Labrador Sea have previously indicated here the presence of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water during <span class="hlt">periods</span> in between glacial ('Heinrich') ice-rafting events. The present sediment core investigation based on clay mineralogical analysis and study of the benthic foraminiferal fauna shows a significant oxygenation event at 18000 cal.yrs BP recorded both in the Labrador Sea and at the northern margin of Rockall Trough at 2381 m and 1286 m water depth, respectively. We conclude this ventilation pulse to be related to a <span class="hlt">period</span> of enhanced deep convection and formation of glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intermediate Water occupying those parts of the water column presently affected under conditions of strong LSW formation. This ventilation event implies an early, significant re-activation of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation after the Last Glacial Maximum immediately prior to Heinrich 1 large-scale ice-sheet destabilization. This scenario points to an oceanic trigger mechanism for large-scale glacial iceberg surges around the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which involves enhanced northward ocean (sub)surface heat transport and subsequent enhanced bottom melting of floating outlet glaciers and ice shelves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA087413','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA087413"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-<span class="hlt">Periodic</span> Helix TWT Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>IA-A087 413 LITTON SYSTEMS INC SAN CARLOS <span class="hlt">CA</span> ELECTRON TUBE DIV F/6 9/1 NON-<span class="hlt">PERIODIC</span> HELIX TWT STUDY.(U) MAY 80 N00173-76C-014 UNCLASSIFIED ML...IEEEEEEmhEEI U-80 - ’l////////,, 11111 128 25 L1. = *""L 1- 1.8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ’IT-, ( (NO-<span class="hlt">PERIODIC</span> HELIX WTSTUDY0 I EXTENSION OF CONTRACT... Helix Circuit 4 - 2 Non-<span class="hlt">Periodic</span> Helix Structure 7 3 Unwound Tape for Non-<span class="hlt">Periodic</span> Helix 8 4 Typical Helix Assembly 10 5 Typical Ladder Assembly 11 6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP33A1544L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP33A1544L"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature and [CO3 ] Effects on Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in the Benthic Foraminifera Species of Hoeglundina Elegans and Cibicidoides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lear, C. H.; Rosenthal, Y.; Oppo, D. W.; Linsley, B. K.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Current core-top calibrations suggest that the temperature sensitivity of Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in Cibicidoides sp. tests is essentially identical with the 10% increase in Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> per 1°C observed in many planktonic species. However, there is also evidence suggesting that non temperature-related effects may exert additional control on Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in foraminiferal calcite. Here we use core-top samples from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Little Bahama Banks, LBB; Arctic) and Pacific (Hawaii, and Indonesia) depth transects to assess the influence of bottom water temperature (BWT) and carbonate saturation levels on metal/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in the aragonitic benthic foraminifer Hoeglundina elegans and calcitic Cibicidoides sp. We find that in situ CO3 ion concentrations play an important role in determining the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in Cibicidoides sp. and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in H. elegans. The CO3 ion effect is limited, however, only to relatively low saturation levels, whereas at over-saturated levels, temperature exert the dominant effect on these metal ratios. Because we find no significant difference between results obtained on ``live'' and ``dead'' specimens, we propose that these differences are due to primary effects on metal uptake during test formations and not because of dissolution. Based on the new results we reappraise the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature relationship of Cibicidoides sp. and propose a new calibration. We also propose that Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in H. elegans tests can be used to reconstruct thermocline temperatures. Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-thermometry in H. elegans may be especially useful in cases where the use of Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> thermometry in calcitic foraminfera has been compromised by contamination issues. In both cases, temperature estimates in low carbonate saturation levels may be grossly inaccurate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214415R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214415R"><span id="translatedtitle">North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> summer to winter rainfall response to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific tropical connection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belen; Losada Doval, Teresa; Mohino Harris, Elsa; Polo Sánchez, Irene; Garcia Serrano, Javier</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Recent observational and GCM studies have shown, following the results of Polo et al. (2008), how the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific Niños present a dynamical link during the last decades of the XX century (Rodriguez-Fonseca et al., 2009). In this way, the positive (negative) phase of the summer Pacific Niño signal has been found to be connected with a negative (positive) phase of the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> mode (EM or <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niño, Polo et al., 2008); a pattern which leads the summer <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability. The determinant impact of this connection on the WA monsoon has been addressed by defining a global summer tropical mode accounting for more than the 60% of the rainfall variance. The rainfall response to an isolated Pacific forcing has been documented to be a decrease of rainfall over Sahel whilst, the response associated to an isolated EM is a Guinean-Sahel rainfall dipolar pattern. Nevertheless, the rainfall response to the Pacific ENSO- <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niña forcing observed from the 70's has a unified behavior in the WA region. In order to deeply analyse the dynamics involved in the concomitant action of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific in summer and in the subsequent months, different sensitivity experiments have been performed separating the global <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-IndoPacific contribution to the independent Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ones. Some dynamical aspects in relation to the extratropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> teleconnections in the following seasons are also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-28/pdf/2010-18456.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-28/pdf/2010-18456.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 44228 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-28</p> <p>... Fishery Management Council office, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC; telephone... Information Officer, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-10/pdf/2010-5088.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-10/pdf/2010-5088.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 11133 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-10</p> <p>... Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; telephone: (843... Officer, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-18/pdf/2013-06180.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-18/pdf/2013-06180.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 16658 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-18</p> <p>... address: South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC 29405. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kim Iverson, Public Information Officer, 4055 Faber Place...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10501539','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10501539"><span id="translatedtitle">Different <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ source for slow AHP in completely adapting and repetitive firing pyramidal neurons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pineda, J C; Galarraga, E; Foehring, R C</p> <p>1999-06-23</p> <p>Intracellular recordings in an in vitro neocortical slice preparation from immature rats were used to investigate the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2 source for slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) generation in pyramidal neurons that exhibit complete spike frequency adaptation (<span class="hlt">CA</span> neurons). In pyramidal neurons that maintain repetitive firing for long <span class="hlt">periods</span> of time (RF neurons), N-, P- and Q-type <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels supply <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ for sAHP generation. In <span class="hlt">CA</span> neurons, the sAHP was reduced by only 50% by the combination of antagonists for these <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channel types and L-type channels. Ryanodine and dantrolene, blockers of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2(+)-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release, reduced the sAHP by approximately 45% in <span class="hlt">CA</span> neurons, but caused no reduction of the sAHP in RF neurons. Dantrolene application caused <span class="hlt">CA</span> neurons to fire throughout a 1s suprathreshold current injection (as do RF neurons).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..771M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..771M"><span id="translatedtitle">Indian/<span class="hlt">atlantic</span> Interocean Exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matano, R. P.; Beier, E. J.</p> <p></p> <p>In this presentation we analyze the interocean exchanges between the Indian and the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans simulated in an global, eddy-permitting simulation. The analy- sis focuses in the Cape Basin, a region of the southeastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> limited to the north- west by the Walvis Ridge and to the south by the subtropical convergence. To quantify the relative importance of the different dynamical mechanisms involved in the intero- cean exchange we separated the climatological mean circulation from the transients. The analysis indicates that Agulhas eddies not only influence the transient fluxes but also to those associated with the mean circulation (eddy fluxes, for example, supply most of the energy of the Benguela Current). A distinct characteristic of the eddy variability within the Cape Basin is the co-existence of cyclonic and anticyclonic vor- tices in dipole structures that resemble the heton model of Hogg and Stommel (Deep Sea Research,1985). Anticyclones are surface intensified vortices that, in spite of their baroclinic structure, reach to deep layers. Cyclones, are bottom-intensified vortices with dominant barotropic structure that projects into the upper layer. The propaga- tion of cyclones and anticyclones is strongly affected by the bottom topography. Our analysis shows that the Walvis Ridge and the Vema Seamount block the passage of bottom-intensified cyclones and rectifies the trajectories of the upper-intensified anti- cyclones. Although most anticyclones are able to escape the basin the deep compen- sation generated by the ridge generates an energy loss of approximately 30%, and a rectification of the eddy trajectory to a more westward direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784595','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784595"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ current vs. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channel cooperativity of exocytosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matveev, Victor; Bertram, Richard; Sherman, Arthur</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Recently there has been significant interest and progress in the study of spatio-temporal dynamics of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ that triggers exocytosis at a fast chemical synapse, which requires understanding the contribution of individual calcium channels to the release of a single vesicle. Experimental protocols provide insight into this question by probing the sensitivity of exocytosis to <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx. While varying extracellular or intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration assesses the intrinsic biochemical <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ cooperativity of neurotransmitter release, varying the number of open <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels using pharmacological channel block or the tail current titration probes the cooperativity between individual <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels in triggering exocytosis. Despite the wide use of these <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sensitivity measurements, their interpretation often relies on heuristic arguments. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sensitivity measures probed by these experimental protocols, present simple expressions for special cases, and demonstrate the distinction between the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ current cooperativity, defined by the relationship between exocytosis rate and the whole-terminal <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ current magnitude, and the underlying <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channel cooperativity, defined as the average number of channels involved in the release of a single vesicle. We find simple algebraic expressions that show that the two are different but linearly related. Further, we use 3D computational modeling of buffered <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ diffusion to analyze these distinct <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ cooperativity measures, and demonstrate the role of endogenous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers on such measures. We show that buffers can either increase or decrease the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ current cooperativity of exocytosis, depending on their concentration and the single-channel <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ current. PMID:19793978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63353&keyword=estimator&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90655840&CFTOKEN=94612180','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63353&keyword=estimator&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90655840&CFTOKEN=94612180"><span id="translatedtitle">MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> LANDCOVER CHANGE DATA BROWSER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region is comprised of southern New York, southern and western New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, northeastern North Carolina, Delaware, and Washington, DC. It is an ecosystem rich in streams, wetlands, forests, estuaries, breeding birds...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464153','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464153"><span id="translatedtitle">A composite annual-resolution stalagmite record of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate over the last three millennia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baker, Andy; C. Hellstrom, John; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Trouet, Valerie</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Annually laminated stalagmites can be used to construct a precise chronology, and variations in laminae thickness provide an annual growth-rate record that can be used as a proxy for past climate and environmental change. Here, we present and analyse the first composite speleothem annual growth-rate record based on five stalagmites from the same cave system in northwest Scotland, where precipitation is sensitive to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate variability and the winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO). Our 3000-year record confirms persistently low growth-rates, reflective of positive NAO states, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Another persistently low growth <span class="hlt">period</span> occurring at 290-550 CE coincides with the European Migration <span class="hlt">Period</span>, and a subsequent <span class="hlt">period</span> of sustained fast growth-rate (negative NAO) from 600-900 AD provides the climate context for the Viking Age in northern and western Europe. PMID:26068805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.453..223L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.453..223L"><span id="translatedtitle">An alternative model for <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 over-shooting during the PETM: Biological carbonate compensation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, Yiming; Boudreau, Bernard P.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Sluijs, Appy; Middelburg, Jack J.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Decreased <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 content of deep-sea sediments argues for rapid and massive acidification of the oceans during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ∼56 Ma BP). In the course of the subsequent recovery from this acidification, sediment <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 content came to exceed pre-PETM levels, known as over-shooting. Past studies have largely attributed the latter to increased alkalinity input to the oceans via enhanced weathering, but this ignores potentially important biological factors. We successfully reproduce the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 records from Walvis Ridge in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including over-shooting, using a biogeochemical box model. Replication of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 records required: 1) introduction of a maximum of ∼6500 GtC of CO2 directly into deep-ocean waters or ∼8000 GtC into the atmosphere, 2) limited deep-water exchange between the Indo-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific oceans, 3) the disappearance of sediment bioturbation during a portion of the PETM, and 4) most central to this study, a ∼50% reduction in net <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 production, during acidification. In our simulations, over-shooting is an emergent property, generated at constant alkalinity input (no weathering feedback) as a consequence of attenuated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 productivity. This occurs because lower net <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 production from surface waters allows alkalinity to build-up in the deep oceans (alkalinization), thus promoting deep-water super-saturation. Restoration of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 productivity later in the PETM, particularly in the Indo-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, leads to greater accumulation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3, ergo over-shooting, which returns the ocean to pre-PETM conditions over a time scale greater than 200 ka.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23851490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23851490"><span id="translatedtitle">Intracellular click reaction with a fluorescent chemical <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ indicator to prolong its cytosolic retention.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takei, Yoshiaki; Murata, Atsushi; Yamagishi, Kento; Arai, Satoshi; Nakamura, Hideki; Inoue, Takafumi; Takeoka, Shinji</p> <p>2013-08-25</p> <p>The powerful strategy of "intracellular click reaction" was used to retain a chemical <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) indicator in the cytosol. Specifically, a novel clickable <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) indicator "N3-fura-2 AM" was coupled with dibenzylcyclooctyl-modified biomacromolecules via copper-free click reaction in living cells and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillation was observed for an extended <span class="hlt">period</span> of time.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=network+AND+Neuron&pg=4&id=EJ779776','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=network+AND+Neuron&pg=4&id=EJ779776"><span id="translatedtitle">Memory Retrieval Time and Memory Capacity of the <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 Network: Role of Gamma Frequency Oscillations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de Almeida, Licurgo; Idiart, Marco; Lisman, John E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The existence of recurrent synaptic connections in <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 led to the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 is an autoassociative network similar to the Hopfield networks studied by theorists. <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 undergoes gamma frequency <span class="hlt">periodic</span> inhibition that prevents a persistent attractor state. This argues against the analogy to Hopfield nets, in which an attractor state can be…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5851111','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5851111"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">CA</span>1P and <span class="hlt">CA</span> in leaves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moore, B.d.; Kobza, J.; Seemann, J.R. )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>Carboxyarabinitol-1-phosphate (<span class="hlt">CA</span>1P) and carboxyarabinitol (<span class="hlt">CA</span>) were assayed in leaves by isotope dilution. {sup 14}C-labeled standards were synthesized from (2-{sup 14}C) CABP using acid (<span class="hlt">CA</span>1P) or alkaline (<span class="hlt">CA</span>) phosphatase. Either was added to boiling 80% EtOH along with liquid N{sub 2}-killed leaves. Each was largely purified by anion exchange chromatography. <span class="hlt">CA</span>1P samples were subjected to 2D-TLE/TLC. The specific activity of the {sup 14}C-containing spot was measured using alkaline phosphatase. <span class="hlt">CA</span> samples were run on an HPLC and the specific activity was determined using a UV monitor and a flow-through radioisotope detector. In 3 of the tested species, light/dark amount of <span class="hlt">CA</span>1P (nmol/mg Chl) were kidney bean, 0.7/67; sugar beet, 0.8/33; and Alocasia, 0/3.4. Light/dark <span class="hlt">CA</span> levels (nmol/mg Chl) in these respective species were 897/653, 3.2/3.5, and 5.7/4.6. These results support the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">CA</span> is a product of <span class="hlt">CA</span>1P metabolism in vivo under high light, but also indicate that <span class="hlt">CA</span> is not the only intermediate involved in <span class="hlt">CA</span>1P synthesis under low light/dark conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GBioC..30...70W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GBioC..30...70W"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid anthropogenic changes in CO2 and pH in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean: 2003-2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woosley, Ryan J.; Millero, Frank J.; Wanninkhof, Rik</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The extended multilinear regression method is used to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean based on repeat occupations of four cruises from 1989 to 2014 (A16, A20, A22, and A10), with an emphasis on the 2003-2014 <span class="hlt">period</span>. The results show a significant increase in basin-wide anthropogenic carbon storage in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which absorbed 4.4 ± 0.9 Pg C decade-1 from 2003 to 2014 compared to 1.9 ± 0.4 Pg C decade-1 for the 1989-2003 <span class="hlt">period</span>. This decadal variability is attributed to changing ventilation patterns associated with the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation and increasing release of anthropogenic carbon into the atmosphere. There are small changes in the uptake rate of CO2 in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> for these time <span class="hlt">periods</span> (3.7 ± 0.8 Pg C decade-1 versus 3.2 ± 0.7 Pg C decade-1). Several eddies are identified containing ~20% more anthropogenic carbon than the surrounding waters in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> demonstrating the importance of eddies in transporting anthropogenic carbon. The uptake of carbon results in a decrease in pH of ~0.0021 ± 0.0007 year-1 for surface waters during the last 10 years, in line with the atmospheric increase in CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B23G0676W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B23G0676W"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid Anthropogenic Changes in CO2 and pH in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean: 2003-2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woosley, R. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The extended multi-linear regression (eMLR) method is used to determine the uptake of anthropogenic carbon in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean based on repeat occupations of 4 cruises from 1989 - 2014 (A16, A20, A22, and A10), with an emphasis on the 2003-2014 <span class="hlt">period</span>. The results show a significant increase in basin wide anthropogenic carbon storage in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which absorbed 4.4± 1.2 Pg C/decade from 2003 - 2014 compared to 1.9 ± 1 Pg C/decade for the 1989 - 2003 <span class="hlt">period</span>. This decadal variability is attributed to changing ventilation patterns associated with the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) and increasing release of anthropogenic carbon into the atmosphere. There are small changes in the uptake rate of CO2 in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> for these time <span class="hlt">periods</span>, but within the uncertainty. Several eddies are identified that transport 20% more anthropogenic carbon than the surrounding waters in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> showing the importance of eddies in transporting anthropogenic carbon. The uptake of carbon results in a decrease in pH of ~0.0021 ± 0.0007 yr-1 for surface waters during the last 10 years, in line with the atmospheric increase in CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1989K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1989K"><span id="translatedtitle">Younger Dryas thermohaline circulation in the N-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Irminger Sea versus Norwegian Sea Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuijpers, Antoon; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Luise Knudsen, Karen; Knutz, Paul C.; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Andresen, Camilla S.; Pearce, Christof</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Oceanographic observations from the early 1990's show a marked cooling and freshening of the Nordic Seas due to eastward expansion of East Greenland Current derived Polar Waters under influence of strong zonal atmospheric circulation(1). For the cold Younger Dryas (YD) <span class="hlt">period</span>, <span class="hlt">ca</span> 12,900 - 11,600 years ago, the impact of Northern Hemisphere late glacial melt water pulses on N- <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation has been discussed as a likely mechanism for cooling. Melt water discharge sources have been a matter of much debate, but recent evidence point to important melt water pulses emanating from the Arctic region (2, e.g. MacKenzie Valley discharge). The largest volume of these fresh water masses reached the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> via Fram Strait, less through the Canadian archipelago. During preceding Bølling-Allerød warming, the size of the Laurentide Ice Sheet may have been still large enough to have influenced atmospheric planetary waves resulting in a more zonal <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> jet axis(3). In addition, Northern Hemisphere high summer insolation favored a northward displaced west wind belt forcing surface waters away from the Greenland coast. Hence, in analogue to recent observations, ice-loaded meltwater masses in the western Greenland Sea were forced eastward, creating a pool of cold,low salinity (ice-loaded) surface water masses in the Norwegian Sea(4), while transport of cold Polar Water via Denmark Strait to the Irminger Sea would be suppressed. Our own sediment core data from offshore Iceland, Greenland and Davis Strait(5,6,7)together with results from lake studies in southern Greenland(8) point to an active Irminger Current and well-developed Irminger Sea Water subsurface transport towards Davis Strait. Subsequent incorporation of the latter water mass into the south-flowing Labrador Current may have contributed to tidewater glacier melting in eastern Canada and eventually triggering of the H0 meltwater pulse. The sediment core data indicate Irminger Sea deep</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1212947H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1212947H"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oxygen concentrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Glacial-interglacial changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations [O2] in the deep Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have been linked to decreased ventilation relating to changes in ocean circulation and the biological pump (Hoogakker et al., 2015). In this paper we discuss seawater [O2] changes in relation to millennial climate oscillations in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean over the last glacial cycle, using bottom water [O2] reconstructions from 2 cores: (1) MD95-2042 from the deep northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Hoogakker et al., 2015), and (2) ODP 1055 from the intermediate northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Deep northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> core MD95-2042 shows decreased bottom water [O2] during millennial scale cool events, with lowest bottom water [O2] of 170, 144, and 166 ± 17 μmol kg-1 during Heinrich ice rafting events H6, H4 and H1. Importantly, at intermediate core ODP 1055 bottom water [O2] was lower during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 4 and millennial cool events, with lowest values of 179 and 194 μmol kg-1 recorded during millennial cool events C21 and a cool event following Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19. Our reconstructions agree with previous model simulations suggesting that glacial cold events may be associated with lower seawater [O2] across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> below ~1 km (Schmittner et al., 2007), although in our reconstructions the changes are less dramatic. The decreases in bottom water [O2] during North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Heinrich events and earlier cold events at the deep site can be linked to water mass changes in relation to ocean circulation changes, and possibly productivity changes. At the intermediate depth site a strong North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intermediate Water cell precludes water mass changes as a cause for decreased bottom water [O2]. Instead we propose that the lower bottom [O2] there can be linked to productivity changes through increased export of organic material from the surface ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011741','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011741"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Miocene biogeography and paleoclimatology of the central North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poore, R.Z.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative analyses of planktonic foraminiferal assemblages from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Holes 334 and 410 demonstrate that subpolar and subtropical faunal provinces existed in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the late Miocene. Climatic oscillations are clearly recorded in Hole 410 by variations in abundance of the Neogloboquadrina subpolar assemblage. These climatic oscillations have a <span class="hlt">period</span> of about 1 m.y. Higher frequency oscillations with a <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> of one to several hundred thousand years are evident from about 6.5 to 7.5 m.y. and are probably present throughout the entire late Miocene. A revised age of 7.0 m.y. is proposed for the first occurrence of the calcareous nannofossil Amaurolithus primus (the Amaurolithus datum). ?? 1981.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.460..123L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.460..123L"><span id="translatedtitle">Two phases of the Holocene East African Humid <span class="hlt">Period</span>: Inferred from a high-resolution geochemical record off Tanzania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Kuhlmann, Holger; Li, Anchun</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>During the Holocene, the most notably climatic change across the African continent is the African Humid <span class="hlt">Period</span> (AHP), however the pace and primary forcing for this pluvial condition is still ambiguous, particularly in East Africa. We present a high-resolution marine sediment record off Tanzania to provide insights into the climatic conditions of inland East Africa during the Holocene. Major element ratios (i.e., log-ratios of Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Ti/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>), derived from X-Ray Fluorescence scanning, have been employed to document variations in humidity in East Africa. Our results show that the AHP is represented by two humid phases: an intense humid <span class="hlt">period</span> from the beginning of the Holocene to 8 ka (AHP I); and a moderate humid <span class="hlt">period</span> spanning from 8 to 5.5 ka (AHP II). On the basis of our geochemical record and regime detection, the termination of the AHP initiated at 5.5 ka and ceased around 3.5 ka. Combined with other paleoclimatic records around East Africa, we suggest that the humid conditions in this region responded to Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. The AHP I and II might have been related to an eastward shift of the Congo Air Boundary and warmer conditions in the western Indian Ocean, which resulted in additional moisture being delivered from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian Oceans during the NH summer and autumn, respectively. We further note a drought event throughout East Africa north of 10°S around 8.2 ka, which may have been related to the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in response to the NH cooling event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19100620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19100620"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitochondrial free [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] levels and the permeability transition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vay, Laura; Hernández-SanMiguel, Esther; Lobatón, Carmen D; Moreno, Alfredo; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) activates many processes, from mitochondrial metabolism to opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP) and apoptosis. However, there is considerable controversy regarding the free mitochondrial [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] ([<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](M)) levels that can be attained during cell activation or even in mitochondrial preparations. Studies using fluorescent dyes (rhod-2 or similar), have reported that phosphate precipitation precludes [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](M) from increasing above 2-3 microM. Instead, using low-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-affinity aequorin probes, we have measured [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](M) values more than two orders of magnitude higher. We confirm here these values by making a direct in situ calibration of mitochondrial aequorin, and we show that a prolonged increase in [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](M) to levels of 0.5-1mM was actually observed at any phosphate concentration (0-10mM) during continuous perfusion of 3.5-100 microM <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-buffers. In spite of this high and maintained (>10 min) [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](M), mitochondria retained functionality and the [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](M) drop induced by a protonophore was fully reversible. In addition, this high [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](M) did not induce PTP opening unless additional activators (phenyl arsine oxide, PAO) were present. PAO induced a rapid, concentration-dependent and irreversible drop in [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](M). In conclusion [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](M) levels of 0.5-1mM can be reached and maintained for prolonged <span class="hlt">periods</span> (>10 min) in phosphate-containing medium, and massive opening of PTP requires additional pore activators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713201H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713201H"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of the oxygen isotopes from diatom silica as a proxy for North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández, Armand; Leng, Melanie J.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; Sloane, Hilary J.; Rubio-Inglés, Maria J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) is the main atmospheric circulation mode controlling climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Instrumental records of the NAO are relatively short, and therefore proxy approaches are essential to understand its evolution over longer time <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Diatom oxygen isotope ratios are increasingly being used for palaeoclimatic reconstructions in lacustrine sedimentary records. However, application of this proxy to annual-to-decadal resolution lacustrine records is still in its infancy. To our knowledge, oxygen isotope ratios from diatoms at annual-to-decadal resolution has not been attempted, mainly due to the difficulty in obtaining large enough samples suitable for analysis at this temporal scale. Here we present a high-resolution, <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 200-year-long, proxy record based on 56 oxygen isotope measurements from Lake Santiago (37° 50' N - 25° 47'W, Azores Archipelago, Portugal). This record will be compared to instrumental data of precipitation and NAO index values to test its robustness to conduct an ancient NAO reconstruction. In detail the oxygen isotope data shows an isotope depletion trend (-3o), with several interannual oscillations, from 1830 cal yr AD until present. The entire record can be divided into two intervals. The interval, from 1830 to 1938 cal yr AD, displays values above the average (+33o), whereas the interval from 1939 to 2012 cal yr AD shows values below the mean. Since Lake Santiago is a hydrologically closed lake, the oxygen isotope variations are mostly related to the precipitation-evaporation ratio. These results exhibit a good agreement with the rainfall instrumental data with an increase of net rainfall amount through the last decades in the Azores archipelago. Besides this, the short-term recorded isotope excursions (±3.5o) are related to the rainfall interannual variability. These patterns suggest that the isotope data from diatom silica in Lake Santiago sediments are directly linked to past</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5146683','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5146683"><span id="translatedtitle">Using circulating reproductive hormones for sex determination of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) in the Saco River estuary, Maine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wheeler, Carolyn R.; Novak, Ashleigh J.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.; Sulikowski, James A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) is a long-lived, anadromous fish species ranging from Labrador, <span class="hlt">CA</span> to Florida, USA. In the Saco River, located in the Gulf of Maine, this species was not present during a survey study ending in 1982, but was found inhabiting the estuary in 2007. Although the reason for the return of this sturgeon to this river system remains unknown, research on basic life-history information is necessary to facilitate the conservation of this federally protected species. Given the conservation status of the species, the present study used circulating sex steroid hormones to determine the sex of 288 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon captured between 2012 and 2014 in the Saco River estuary located in the Gulf of Maine. Overall, the sex was determined for 93% of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon sampled. Mean hormone values were similar to other <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon reproductive studies. The findings indicate the validity of sex steroid hormones as a singular method for sex determination in wild <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon. Results also indicated a likely 1:1 (male:female) sex ratio in the system, except in 2014 when a 1:3 ratio was observed. It is not believed that the Saco River estuary is used for spawning, as several impassable dams block access to spawning habitat. However, this area might provide crucial foraging for growth and development of juveniles and a habitat for adults forgoing spawning. PMID:27957335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27957335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27957335"><span id="translatedtitle">Using circulating reproductive hormones for sex determination of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) in the Saco River estuary, Maine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wheeler, Carolyn R; Novak, Ashleigh J; Wippelhauser, Gail S; Sulikowski, James A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) is a long-lived, anadromous fish species ranging from Labrador, <span class="hlt">CA</span> to Florida, USA. In the Saco River, located in the Gulf of Maine, this species was not present during a survey study ending in 1982, but was found inhabiting the estuary in 2007. Although the reason for the return of this sturgeon to this river system remains unknown, research on basic life-history information is necessary to facilitate the conservation of this federally protected species. Given the conservation status of the species, the present study used circulating sex steroid hormones to determine the sex of 288 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon captured between 2012 and 2014 in the Saco River estuary located in the Gulf of Maine. Overall, the sex was determined for 93% of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon sampled. Mean hormone values were similar to other <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon reproductive studies. The findings indicate the validity of sex steroid hormones as a singular method for sex determination in wild <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon. Results also indicated a likely 1:1 (male:female) sex ratio in the system, except in 2014 when a 1:3 ratio was observed. It is not believed that the Saco River estuary is used for spawning, as several impassable dams block access to spawning habitat. However, this area might provide crucial foraging for growth and development of juveniles and a habitat for adults forgoing spawning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJCli..17..345N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJCli..17..345N"><span id="translatedtitle">An Analysis of the ENSO Signal in the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Western Indian Oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicholson, Sharon E.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>This article examines the time-space evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and western Indian Oceans, using harmonic analysis. Composites of sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and other variables are examined for a 24-month <span class="hlt">period</span> beginning 6 months prior to the year of maximum warming in the Pacific (termed year 0). An ENSO signal is apparent in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in six out of eight Pacific episodes and in the Indian Ocean in all eight episodes. Warming begins along the south-eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast early in year 0, some months later elsewhere in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and in the Indian Ocean. Maximum warming occurs in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in October-December of year 0, but in the following January-March in the Indian Ocean.In these oceans a cold phase occurs synchronously with the first half of the Pacific episode (July of year -1 to June of year 0, in the Rasmusson-Carpenter terminology), a warm phase with the second half. Maximum cooling is 1 year prior to maximum warming in both oceans. In the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> the cold phase occurs most consistently; in the Indian Ocean the warm phase occurs most consistently. There is a season-by-season reversal of SST anomalies and, to a lesser extent, pressure anomalies between the cold and warm phases. This is the basis for the biennial component of the ENSO signal.Our results indicate that the ENSO signal in African rainfall variability is a manifestation of ENSO's influence on SSTs in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian Oceans and, in turn, their influence on rainfall. The cold and warm phases correspond roughly to enhanced and reduced rainfall over the African continent, respectively. A similar reversal of rainfall anomalies is apparent season-by-season during these phases. The timing of the warming and cooling is relatively constant in the Indian Ocean. However, the onset of the warming and cooling in the south and equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> occurs progressively later from south to north, thus the signal propagates northward</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142115&hterms=muscle+modifications&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmuscle%2Bmodifications','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142115&hterms=muscle+modifications&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmuscle%2Bmodifications"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidation of the skeletal muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release channel alters calmodulin binding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, J. Z.; Wu, Y.; Williams, B. Y.; Rodney, G.; Mandel, F.; Strasburg, G. M.; Hamilton, S. L.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This study presents evidence for a close relationship between the oxidation state of the skeletal muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release channel (RyR1) and its ability to bind calmodulin (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M). <span class="hlt">Ca</span>M enhances the activity of RyR1 in low <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ and inhibits its activity in high <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+. Oxidation, which activates the channel, blocks the binding of 125I-labeled <span class="hlt">Ca</span>M at both micromolar and nanomolar <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentrations. Conversely, bound <span class="hlt">Ca</span>M slows oxidation-induced cross-linking between subunits of the RyR1 tetramer. Alkylation of hyperreactive sulfhydryls (<3% of the total sulfhydryls) on RyR1 with N-ethylmaleimide completely blocks oxidant-induced intersubunit cross-linking and inhibits <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-free 125I-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M but not <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+/125I-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M binding. These studies suggest that 1) the sites on RyR1 for binding apocalmodulin have features distinct from those of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M site, 2) oxidation may alter the activity of RyR1 in part by altering its interaction with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>M, and 3) <span class="hlt">Ca</span>M may protect RyR1 from oxidative modifications during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of oxidative stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSR...100...91V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSR...100...91V"><span id="translatedtitle">Lost fishing gear and litter at Gorringe Bank (NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieira, Rui P.; Raposo, Isabel P.; Sobral, Paula; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Cunha, Marina R.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Studies concerning marine litter have received great attention over the last several years by the scientific community mainly due to their ecological and economic impacts in marine ecosystems, from coastal waters to the deep ocean seafloor. The distribution, type and abundance of marine litter in Ormonde and Gettysburg, the two seamounts of Gorringe Bank, were analyzed from photo and video imagery obtained during ROV-based surveys carried out at 60-3015 m depths during the E/V Nautilus cruise NA017. Located approximately 125 nm southwest of Portugal, Gorringe Bank lays at the crossroad between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Mediterranean and is therefore characterized by an intense maritime traffic and fishing activities. The high frequency of lost or discarded fishing gear, such as cables, longlines and nets, observed on Gorringe Bank suggests an origin mostly from fishing activities, with a clear turnover in the type of litter (mostly metal, glass and to a much lesser extent, plastic) with increasing depth. Litter was more abundant at the summit of Gorringe Bank (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 4 items·km- 1), decreasing to less than 1 item·km- 1 at the flanks and to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 2 items·km- 1 at greater depths. Nevertheless, litter abundance appeared to be lower than in continental margin areas. The results presented herein are a contribution to support further actions for the conservation of vulnerable habitats on Gorringe Bank so that they can continue contributing to fishery productivity in the surrounding region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzAOP..52..649P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzAOP..52..649P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the heat balance constituents of the upper mixed layer in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Polonsky, A. B.; Sukhonos, P. A.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Different physical mechanisms which cause interannual and interdecadal temperature anomalies in the upper mixed layer (UML) of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are investigated using the data of ORA-S3 reanalysis for the <span class="hlt">period</span> of 1959-2011. It is shown that the annual mean heat budget in UML is mainly caused by the balance between advective heat transfer and horizontal turbulent mixing (estimated as a residual term in the equation of thermal balance). The local UML temperature change and contribution from the heat fluxes on the lower boundary of the UML to the heat budget of the upper layer are insignificant for the time scale under consideration. The contribution of the heat fluxes on the upper UML boundary to the low-frequency variability of the upper layer temperature in the whole North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> area is substantially less than 30%. Areas like the northwestern part of the Northern Subtropical Anticyclonic Gyre (NSAG), where their contribution exceeds 30-60%, are exceptions. The typical time scales of advective heat transfer variability are revealed. In the NSAG area, an interannual variability associated with the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation dominates, while in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subpolar gyre, an interdecadal variability of advective transfers with <span class="hlt">periods</span> of more than 30 years prevails.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365061"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> in <span class="hlt">periodical</span> cicadas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin</p> <p>2015-09-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Periodical</span> cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-<span class="hlt">periodical</span>, <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>. During the evolution of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (<span class="hlt">period</span>) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> in the non-<span class="hlt">periodical</span> ancestors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568538','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568538"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> in <span class="hlt">periodical</span> cicadas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Periodical</span> cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-<span class="hlt">periodical</span>, <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>. During the evolution of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (<span class="hlt">period</span>) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> in the non-<span class="hlt">periodical</span> ancestors. PMID:26365061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4503501','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4503501"><span id="translatedtitle">Decline in an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Puffin Population: Evaluation of Magnitude and Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miles, Will T. S.; Mavor, Roddy; Riddiford, Nick J.; Harvey, Paul V.; Riddington, Roger; Shaw, Deryk N.; Parnaby, David; Reid, Jane M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Determining which demographic and ecological parameters contribute to variation in population growth rate is crucial to understanding the dynamics of declining populations. This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude and mechanisms of an apparent major decline in an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Puffin Fratercula arctica population. This was achieved using a 27-year dataset to estimate changes in population size and in two key demographic rates: adult survival and breeding success. Estimated demographic variation was then related to two ecological factors hypothesised to be key drivers of demographic change, namely the abundance of the main predator at the study site, the Great Skua Stercorarius skua, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Puffin chick food supply, over the same 27-year <span class="hlt">period</span>. Using a population model, we assessed whether estimated variation in adult survival and reproductive success was sufficient to explain the population change observed. Estimates of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Puffin population size decreased considerably during the study <span class="hlt">period</span>, approximately halving, whereas Great Skua population estimates increased, approximately trebling. Estimated adult <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Puffin survival remained high across all years and did not vary with Great Skua abundance; however, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Puffin breeding success and quantities of fish prey brought ashore by adults both decreased substantially through the <span class="hlt">period</span>. A population model combining best possible demographic parameter estimates predicted rapid population growth, at odds with the long-term decrease observed. To simulate the observed decrease, population models had to incorporate low immature survival, high immature emigration, or increasingly high adult non-breeding rates. We concluded that reduced recruitment of immatures into the breeding population was the most likely cause of population decrease. This study showed that increase in the size of a predator population does not always impact on the survival of adult prey and that reduced recruitment can be a crucial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4872883','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4872883"><span id="translatedtitle">Are Postgraduate Medical Residency Training Positions in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada Evenly Distributed?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Howlett, Mike; MacKay, Jacqueline; Fraser, Jacqueline; Ross, Peter</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background The distribution of postgraduate medical training (residency) positions in Canada is administered by medical schools and universities in conjunction with individual provinces. In <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada, the Maritime provinces are considered a single unit under Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia (NS), although distributed medical undergraduate education through Dalhousie and Sherbrooke has enabled medical students to complete their entire course of study in New Brunswick (NB). It is unclear if postgraduate medical education has been distributed in a similar fashion in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada, particularly in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island (PE). Methods Data on the number of R1 residency positions was obtained from the Canadian Resident Matching Service (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>RMS) database. The distribution of R1 positions was described and compared nationally and through the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> provinces. The analysis was completed using MS Excel and Prism. Results Rates of R1 positions per million persons varied widely; the national median rate was 97 positions per million persons, with a range of 34 to 138. The combined Maritime provinces rate of R1 positions was 71 per million persons and the rate in Newfoundland (NL) was 138 positions per million. The NS rate was 106 positions per million while the NB rate was 54 per million and the PE rate 34 per million. Sixty-four percent of all residency training positions in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada were based in the two most urban areas of Halifax, NS or St John’s, NL. Royal College (specialty) positions were more likely to be based at the main university campus city than family medicine training positions (97 vs. 3%; 33 vs. 67%, respectively). Conclusion There is a high level of variation in available residency positions among the individual provinces, especially in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada. The lower prevalence of opportunities in NB and PE may influence the ability of these provinces to recruit and retain new physicians. PMID:27200227</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-13/pdf/2010-16967.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-13/pdf/2010-16967.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-13</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XX50 Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> red snapper. AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-15/pdf/C1-2010-13207.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-15/pdf/C1-2010-13207.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 33731 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2010 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-AY77 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2010 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications Correction In rule document 2010-13207...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-20/pdf/2010-23438.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-20/pdf/2010-23438.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 57235 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-20</p> <p>... Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National....S. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shark fishery to address several specific issues currently affecting management of the shark fishery and to identify specific goals for management of fishery in the future. NMFS is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-13/pdf/2012-14458.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-13/pdf/2012-14458.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 35357 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; Commercial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-13</p> <p>...; Commercial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National Marine...-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform fishermen and dealers about the fishery opening date. DATES: The commercial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-06/pdf/2011-25841.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-06/pdf/2011-25841.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 62042 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-06</p> <p>.... SUMMARY: The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Coral Advisory... INFORMATION: Members of the Coral AP will meet from 8:30 a.m. until 5 p.m. on October 25, 2011 and from 8:30 a... coral research and activity in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region; a discussion of measures to be included in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-10/pdf/2011-2987.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-10/pdf/2011-2987.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 7547 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-02-10</p> <p>... meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will hold a 3-day <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP... management of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> HMS. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The AP meeting will be held on April 5... by the Sustainable Fisheries Act, Public Law 104-297, provided for the establishment of an AP...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-01/pdf/2011-19401.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-01/pdf/2011-19401.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 45781 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>... meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will hold a 3-day <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP... management of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> HMS. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The AP meeting will be held Sept. 20... by the Sustainable Fisheries Act, Public Law 104-297, provided for the establishment of an AP...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-04/pdf/2013-26128.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-04/pdf/2013-26128.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 65974 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species Southeast...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-04</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC935 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; Advisory...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... not limited to data and models, used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CliPa..12.2061B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CliPa..12.2061B"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the geometry and strength of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation during the last glacial (20-50 ka)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burckel, Pierre; Waelbroeck, Claire; Luo, Yiming; Roche, Didier M.; Pichat, Sylvain; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Gherardi, Jeanne; Govin, Aline; Lippold, Jörg; Thil, François</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation during the Heinrich stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20-50 ka <span class="hlt">period</span> based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th. We show that the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present-day North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich stadial 2, the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow, southward-flowing water mass originating from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24924600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24924600"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Dipole index for the past 12,000 years from surface temperature proxy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wainer, Ilana; Prado, Luciana Figueiredo; Khodri, Myriam; Otto-Bliesner, Bette</p> <p>2014-06-13</p> <p>Climate indices based on sea surface temperature (SST) can synthesize information related to physical processes that describe change and variability in continental precipitation from floods to droughts. The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Dipole index (SASD) is based on the distribution of SST in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and fits these criteria. It represents the dominant mode of variability of SST in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which is modulated by changes in the position and intensity of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical High. Here we reconstructed an index of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean SST (SASD-like) for the past twelve thousand years (the Holocene <span class="hlt">period</span>) based on proxy-data. This has great scientific implications and important socio-economic ramifications because of its ability to infer variability of precipitation and moisture over South America where past climate data is limited. For the first time a reconstructed index based on proxy data on opposite sides of the SASD-like mode is able to capture, in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the significant cold events in the Northern Hemisphere at 12.9-11.6 kyr BP and 8.6-8.0 ky BP. These events are related, using a transient model simulation, to precipitation changes over South America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16166513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16166513"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hátún, Hjálmar; Sandø, Anne Britt; Drange, Helge; Hansen, Bogi; Valdimarsson, Hedinn</p> <p>2005-09-16</p> <p>During the past decade, record-high salinities have been observed in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Inflow to the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, which feeds the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation (THC). This may counteract the observed long-term increase in freshwater supply to the area and tend to stabilize the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> THC. Here we show that the salinity of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Inflow is tightly linked to the dynamics of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subpolar gyre circulation. Therefore, when assessing the future of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> THC, it is essential that the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its influence on the salinity are taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.4865P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.4865P"><span id="translatedtitle">Early diagenesis impact on precise U-series dating of deep-sea corals: Example of a 100 200-year old Lophelia pertusa sample from the northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Deschamps, Pierre; Ghaleb, Bassam; Sinclair, Daniel J.</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>-ages performed on both pristine and bioeroded parts of the coral gives coherent values (<span class="hlt">ca</span> 450 a) for the preindustrial 14C-reservoir age of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters. It remains to be determined, however, whether diagenesis occurs rapidly over a short <span class="hlt">period</span> of time, or whether it continues for longer <span class="hlt">periods</span>. In the latter case, diagenetic processes would hamper paleoceanographic interpretations as well as the precise calculation of 14C ages of deep-water masses, based on comparative U/Th- and 14C-chronologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS41A1699O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS41A1699O"><span id="translatedtitle">Retracing diagenetic processes in marine porewaters using <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ockert, C.; Teichert, B. M.; Kaufhold, S.; Gussone, N. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) isotope ratios of marine organic and inorganic mineral precipitates are used to monitor changes in the oceanic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-budget and in paleo-temperature, and serve as a proxy for the trophic level of organisms in the food chain (c.f. Skulan et al., 1997; Zhu et al., 1998). However, during interaction between sediments and porewater, the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic composition of marine porewaters might be shifted, bearing the potential to alter the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope proxy records. While processes, such as partial dissolution of calcareous shells and carbonate recrystallization have been studied (Fantle and DePaolo, 2007; Turchyn and DePaolo 2011), other diagenetic processes such as ion exchange with clay minerals have not been taken into account while studying <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope profiles of porewaters. Nevertheless, first experiments and the investigation of natural porewaters indicate that this process has a significant effect on the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope composition in marine porewaters. Laboratory experiments aimed to determine if <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope fractionation occurs during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> adsorption and exchange with ammonium on clay minerals. The results show that <span class="hlt">Ca</span> adsorption in a seawater environment is associated with fractionation, where light <span class="hlt">Ca</span> is preferably adorbed. The addition of ammonium to the experimental set up caused partial release of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> accompanied by isotope fractionation. Based on the results of the experiments, model calculations tested the impact of varying clay mineral type, content and sediment porosity, revealing that ion exchange processes with clay minerals predominantly shift the porewater signal to lighter values. This is in agreement with observations by Teichert et al. (2009), who found a correlation of ammonium-concentration and δ44/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in the porewater of drill core samples from the Cascadia accretionary margin (ODP Leg 204). Calcium isotope ratios of natural marine porewaters of three sites in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (IODP Expedition 303) show that the correlation between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8191M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8191M"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial variability of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magnusdottir, G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) is a seesaw in mass (or anticorrelation in pressure) between a northern center of action, located close to Iceland, and a southern center of action, located close to the Azores. It is assumed to have a fixed spatial structure during winter and an index of time variability is measured, the NAO index. However, it is well documented that there was a shift in location of the northern center of action of the NAO from the two decades 1958-1977 to the two decades of 1978-1997. In this talk we examine dynamical changes associated with the aforementioned shift in the northern center of action of the NAO. We then go on to examine variability in the location of both centers of action over a longer time <span class="hlt">period</span>, or from 1871. The analysis results in two possible approaches to understanding the evolution of the NAO. First, we define an additional index (to the NAO index), the angle index, to describe decadal atmospheric variability in the region associated with spatial shifts in the centers of action of the NAO. The angle index measures the angle that the great circle connecting the two centers makes with the meridian running through the northern center. It gives supplemental information to the NAO index alone. In light of the slow movement of the NAO, one may need more than the one dominating climate pattern to describe low-frequency atmospheric variability in the region. However, it is conceptually attractive as well as economical to summarize atmospheric low-frequency variability by referring to one climate pattern, especially when one is examining interactions with other parts of the climate system such as sea-ice variability. As our second approach we are developing an alternative to the static EOF-based (or correlation based) definition of the NAO. Our work to develop a dynamic statistical model to characterize the evolution of the NAO will be briefly described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110009942','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110009942"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulation of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tian, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Wong, S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Much like the better-known EI Nino-Southern Oscillation, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a global-scale atmospheric phenomenon. The MJO involves <span class="hlt">periodic</span>, systematic changes in the distribution of clouds and precipitation over the western Pacific and Indian oceans, along with differences in wind intensity over even more extensive areas, including the north and subtropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. The lead authors of this paper developed a sophisticated mathematical technique for mapping the spatial and temporal behavior of changes in the atmosphere produced by the MJO. In a previous paper, we applied this technique to search for modulation of airborne particle amount in the eastern hemisphere associated with the "wet" (cloudy) vs. "dry" phases of the MJO. The study used primarily AVHRR, MODIS, and TOMS satellite-retrieved aerosol amount, but concluded that other factors, such as cloud contamination of the satellite signals, probably dominated the observed variations. The current paper looks at MJO modulation of desert dust transport eastward across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> from northern Africa, a region much less subject to systematic cloud contamination than the eastern hemisphere areas studied previously. In this case, a distinct aerosol signal appears, showing that dust is transported westward much more effectively during the MJO phase that favors westward-flowing wind, and such transport is suppressed when the MJO reduces these winds. Aside form the significant achievement in identifying such an effect, the result implies that an important component of global dust transport can be predicted based on the phase of the MJO. As a consequence, the impact of airborne dust on storm development in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and on dust deposition downwind of the desert sources, can also be predicted and more accurately modeled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5295599','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5295599"><span id="translatedtitle">Expression Patterns of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) During Embryonic Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaitetzidou, Elisavet; Ludwig, Arne; Gessner, Jörn; Sarropoulou, Elena</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>During teleost ontogeny the larval and embryonic stages are key stages, since failure during this <span class="hlt">period</span> of tissue differentiation may cause malformations, developmental delays, poor growth, and massive mortalities. Despite the rapid advances in sequencing technologies, the molecular backgrounds of the development of economically important but endangered fish species like the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The current study examines the differential expression of transcripts involved in embryonic development of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon. Addressing this goal, a reference transcriptome comprising eight stages was generated using an Illumina HiSequation 2500 platform. The constructed de novo assembly counted to 441,092 unfiltered and 179,564 filtered transcripts. Subsequently, the expression profile of four developmental stages ranging from early (gastrula) to late stages of prelarval development [2 d posthatching (dph)] were investigated applying an Illumina MiSeq platform. Differential expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns among stages, especially between the two early and the two later stages. Transcripts upregulated at the two early stages were mainly enriched in transcripts linked to developmental processes, while transcripts expressed at the last two stages were mainly enriched in transcripts important to muscle contraction. Furthermore, important stage-specific expression has been detected for the hatching stage with transcripts enriched in molecule transport, and for the 2 dph stage with transcripts enriched in visual perception and lipid digestion. Our investigation represents a significant contribution to the understanding of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon embryonic development, and transcript characterization along with the differential expression results will significantly contribute to sturgeon research and aquaculture. PMID:27974440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRC..11711004S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRC..11711004S"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen trends over five decades in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stendardo, I.; Gruber, N.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We investigate long-term trends in dissolved oxygen in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> from 1960 to 2009 on the basis of a newly assembled high-quality dataset consisting of oxygen data from three different sources: CARINA, GLODAP and the World Ocean Database. Oxygen trends are determined along isopycnal surfaces for eight regions and five water masses using a general least-squares linear regression method that accounts for temporal auto-correlation. Our results show a significant decrease of oxygen in the Upper (UW), Mode (MW) and Intermediate (IW) waters in almost all regions over the last 5 decades. Over the same <span class="hlt">period</span>, oxygen increased in the Lower Intermediate Water (LIW) and Labrador Sea Water (LSW) throughout the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The observed oxygen decreases in the MW and IW of the northern and eastern regions are largely driven by changes in circulation and/or ventilation, while changes in solubility are the main driver for the oxygen decrease in the UW and the increases in the LIW and LSW. From 1960 until 2009 the UW, MW, and IW horizons have lost a total of -57 ± 34 Tmol, while the LIW and LSW horizons have gained 46 ± 47 Tmol, integrating to a roughly constant oxygen inventory in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Comparing our oxygen trends with those of the oceanic heat content, we find an O2 to heat change ratio of -3.6 ± 2.8 nmol J-1 for the UW, MW and IW, and a ratio of -2.8 ± 3.4 nmol J-1 for the LIW and LSW. These ratios are substantially larger than those expected from solubility alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010037382','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010037382"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Salinity Variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> During Recent Decades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haekkinen, Sirpa</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The sea surface salinity (SSS) variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is investigated using numerical model simulations for the last 50 years based on atmospheric forcing variability from Comprehensive Atmosphere Ocean Data Set (COADS) and National Center for Environmental Prediction / National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis. The largest interannual and longer term variability occurs in two regions: the Labrador Sea and the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) region. In both regions the seasonality of the surface salinity variability is prominent with the maximum standard deviation occurring in the summer/fall <span class="hlt">period</span>. In the Labrador Sea the summer SSS anomalies far exceed those of wintertime in amplitude. The interannual SSS variability in the subpolar gyre can be attributed to two factors: excess ice melt and heat flux (i.e. deep mixing) variations. On the other hand, heat flux variability can also lead to meridional overturning changes on decadal time scales such that weak overturning is manifested in fresh surface conditions in the subpolar gyre. The overturning changes also influence the NECC region SSS variability. Moreover, the subpolar freshening events are expected to occur during the negative phase of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation which is associated with a weak wintertime surface heat loss in the subpolar gyre. No excess sea ice melt or precipitation is necessary for the formation of the fresh anomalies, because with the lack of wide-spread deep mixing, the fresh water that would be expected based on climatology, would accumulate at the surface. Thus, the fresh water 'conveyor' in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> operates via the overturning circulation such that deep mixing inserts fresh water while removing heat from the water column.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6969W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6969W"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Steinhoff, T.; Röckmann, T.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Although hydrogen (H2) is considered as one of the most important future energy carriers, little is known about the global biogeochemical cycle of this trace gas (Rhee et al. 2006). In order to assess the potential impact of expected increasing H2 concentrations to the atmosphere a fundamental understanding of the global H2 cycle is indispensable (Tromp et al. 2003, Warwick et al. 2004). Oceans are one source of atmospheric H2, produced by biological processes such as fermentation and N2-fixation and abiotic photochemical processes (Punshon and Moore 2008 and references herein). Further information can be obtained by studying the isotope composition of H2. However, the isotopic ratio of oceanic released H2 is unknown and has so far only been estimated from thermodynamic equilibrium. We investigated the atmospheric D/H isotopic ratio of H2 in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. First results of atmospheric H2 isotope ratios from the West African coast of Mauritania and from a meridional transect over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean will be presented. Samples were taken onboard the German research vessel "Poseidon" in February 2007 associated to SOPRAN and during the cruise Ant XXIV-4 with the German research vessel "Polarstern" in April 2008 between Punta Arenas (Chile) and Bremerhaven (Germany). Literature Punshon, S. and R.M. Moore; Aerobic hydrogen production and dinitrogen fixation in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101; Limnol. Oceanogr., 53(6), 2749-2753, 2008. Rhee, T.S., C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, and T. Röckmann; The overwhelming role of soils in the global atmospheric hydrogen cycle, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1611-1625, 2006. Tromp, T.K., Shi, R.-L., Allen, M., Eiler, J.M., and Y. L. Yung1; Potential Environmental Impact of a Hydrogen Economy on the Stratosphere, Science, 300, 1740-1742, 2003. Warwick, N.J., Bekki, S., Nisbet, E.G., and J.A. Pyle; Impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere and troposphere studied in a 2-D model; Geo.Res.Lett., 31, L05107, doi:10</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.258...73Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.258...73Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Benthic foraminiferal B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios reflect deep water carbonate saturation state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Jimin; Elderfield, Henry</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Boron/calcium ratios were measured in four benthic foraminiferal species (three calcitic: Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Cibicidoides mundulus, and Uvigerina spp., and one aragonitic: Hoeglundina elegans) from 108 core-top samples located globally. Comparison of coexisting species shows: B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> of C. wuellerstorfi > C. mundulus > H. elegans > Uvigerina spp., suggestive of strong "vital effects" on benthic foraminiferal B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. A dissolution effect on benthic B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> is not observed. Core-top data show large intra-species variations (50-130 μmol/mol) in B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. Within a single species, benthic foraminiferal B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> show a simple linear correlation with deep water Δ[CO 32-], providing a proxy for past deep water [CO 32-] reconstructions. Empirical sensitivities of Δ[CO 32-] on B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> have been established to be 1.14 ± 0.048 and 0.69 ± 0.072 μmol/mol per μmol/kg for C. wuellerstorfi and C. mundulus, respectively. The uncertainties associated with reconstructing bottom water Δ[CO 32-] using B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in C. wuellerstorfi and C. mundulus are about ± 10 μmol/kg. A preliminary application shows that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios were increased by 12% at 1-2 km and decreased by 12% at 3.5-4.0 km relative to Holocene values in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. This implies that the LGM [CO 32-] was higher by ˜ 25-30 μmol/kg at intermediate depths and lower by ˜ 20 μmol/kg in deeper waters, consistent with glacial water mass reorganization in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean inferred from other paleochemical proxies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.4010O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.4010O"><span id="translatedtitle">North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Arctic Mediterranean exchanges in an ensemble hindcast experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olsen, Steffen MalskæR.; Schmith, Torben</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>An ensemble-hindcast approach is designed to simulate North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation changes during the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1948-2005 using the Max Plank Institute Ocean Model forced by atmospheric reanalysis data. The experiment seeks to isolate oceanic changes related to the atmospheric forcing history by evaluating the role of initial conditions and masking internal model variability in the ensemble mean results. Characteristics of the complete North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Arctic Mediterranean exchange system is described at key sections by time series of exchanges of volume, ice, heat, and liquid freshwater. Volume transports are divided into water masses by properties, and the constructed climatology of exchanges is shown to compare well with available observational estimates of individual branches. In response to the atmospheric forcing history, we find a modest but robust decline of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation of 0.4 Sv/decade, in total 2-2.5 Sv since 1948. In contrast, overturning exchanges with the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Nordic Seas and with the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean show no sign of cessation. A marked increase in the freshwater storage of the Nordic Seas and in particular of the subpolar <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> accompany the model decline in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning. The characteristics of the modeled freshening bears similarities with observed patterns of change since the 1950s, but whereas the origin of observed freshening is uncertain, freshening in the model predominantly results from dynamic changes linked to prominent changes in atmospheric circulation. Moreover, documented increase in the drainage of major Arctic-rivers is found to have a negligible effect on the oceanic changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMOS34A..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMOS34A..01H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Subpolar Gyre - a regulator for the inflow of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water to the Nordic Seas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hatun, H.; Sandoe, A.; Drange, H.; Bentsen, M.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>As shown by Hakkinen & Rhines (2004), the sea level within the Subpolar Gyre, as determined by altimetry, has been increasing throughout the nineties and in the beginning of 21st century. This has resulted in a weakened baroclinic rim-current around the Gyre during this <span class="hlt">period</span>. Here we show that the prominent increase in temperature and salinity in the Northeastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last decade is linked to the weakened Gyre conditions. In order to further explore the nature of the decadal scale variations of hydrography and volume transports of the pole-ward flowing <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water crossing the Iceland-Scotland Ridge a numerical model is invoked. A 53 years hind-cast simulation with a regional version of the Nansen Center version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) indicates large variations in volume transport of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water through the Iceland-Faroe (IF) Gap. The mid 60s, the late 70s to the early 80s showed very weak transports while the <span class="hlt">periods</span> 1971-1975 and 1989-1994 were characterized by abnormally strong transports. Strong/weak transport <span class="hlt">periods</span> through IF Gap are concurrent with strong/weak deep convection <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the Labrador Sea and an expanded/contracted Subpolar Gyre. The simulated transport through the IF Gap follows the temporal evolution of the sea level within the Subpolar Gyre.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010390','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010390"><span id="translatedtitle">Northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sea Surface Height and Ocean Heat Content Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter; Worthen, Denise L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The evolution of nearly 20 years of altimetric sea surface height (SSH) is investigated to understand its association with decadal to multidecadal variability of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat content. Altimetric SSH is dominated by an increase of about 14 cm in the Labrador and Irminger seas from 1993 to 2011, while the opposite has occurred over the Gulf Stream region over the same time <span class="hlt">period</span>. During the altimeter <span class="hlt">period</span> the observed 0-700 m ocean heat content (OHC) in the subpolar gyre mirrors the increased SSH by its dominantly positive trend. Over a longer <span class="hlt">period</span>, 1955-2011, fluctuations in the subpolar OHC reflect <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal variability (AMV) and can be attributed to advection driven by the wind stress ''gyre mode'' bringing more subtropical waters into the subpolar gyre. The extended subpolar warming evident in SSH and OHC during the altimeter <span class="hlt">period</span> represents transition of the AMV from cold to warm phase. In addition to the dominant trend, the first empirical orthogonal function SSH time series shows an abrupt change 2009-2010 reaching a new minimum in 2010. The change coincides with the change in the meridional overturning circulation at 26.5N as observed by the RAPID (Rapid Climate Change) project, and with extreme behavior of the wind stress gyre mode and of atmospheric blocking. While the general relationship between northern warming and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) volume transport remains undetermined, the meridional heat and salt transport carried by AMOC's arteries are rich with decade-to-century timescale variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850039884&hterms=apatites&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dapatites','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850039884&hterms=apatites&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dapatites"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope variations in Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jungck, M. H. A.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ca</span>-isotope measurements of Allende <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), together with those on an apatite-enriched fraction from Orgueil, indicate the existence of widespread excesses on the neutron-rich isotope <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-48. Isotopic anomalies are noted in 7 out of 11 CAIs analyzed. This abundance of isotopic excesses places <span class="hlt">Ca</span> alongside Ti and O, although no clear correlation has yet been found between <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-48 and Ti-50, which are thought to be coproduced by neutron-rich nucleosynthetic processes within stars. It is suggested that the higher volatility of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>, by comparison with Ti compounds, led to a variable dilution with isotopically normal <span class="hlt">Ca</span> in vaporization and recondensation processes in stellar envelopes, the interstellar medium, and/or the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.4003R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.4003R"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term observations of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current transport at the gateway between western and eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roessler, Achim; Rhein, Monika; Kieke, Dagmar; Mertens, Christian</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, warm and saline water is brought by the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current (NAC) from the subtropics into the subpolar gyre. Four inverted echo sounders with high precision pressure sensors (PIES) were moored between 47°40'N and 52°30'N to study the main pathways of the NAC from the western into the eastern basin. The array configuration that forms three segments (northern, central, and southern) allows partitioning of the NAC and some assessment of NAC flow paths through the different Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge fracture zones. We exploit the correlation between the NAC transport measured between 2006 and 2010 and the geostrophic velocity from altimeter data to extend the time series of NAC transports to the <span class="hlt">period</span> from 1992 to 2013. The mean NAC transport over the entire 21 years is 27 ± 5 Sv, consisting of 60% warm water of subtropical origin and 40% subpolar water. We did not find a significant trend in the total transport time series, but individual segments had opposing trends, leading to a more focused NAC in the central subsection and decreasing transports in the southern and northern segments. The spectral analysis exhibits several significant peaks. The two most prominent are around 120 days, identified as the time scale of meanders and eddies, and at 4-9 years, most likely related to the NAO. Transport composites for the years of highest and lowest NAO indices showed a significantly higher transport (+2.9 Sv) during strong NAO years, mainly in the southern segment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5794548','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5794548"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marginal basins of Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moore, G.T.</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>The over 10,000-km long <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28104335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28104335"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil, water, and nutrient losses from management alternatives for degraded pasture in Brazilian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Rainforest biome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rocha Junior, Paulo Roberto da; Andrade, Felipe Vaz; Mendonça, Eduardo de Sá; Donagemma, Guilherme Kangussú; Fernandes, Raphael Bragança Alves; Bhattharai, Rabin; Kalita, Prasanta Kumar</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate sediment, water and nutrient losses from different pasture managements in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Rainforest biome. A field study was carried out in Alegre Espiríto Santo, Brazil, on a Xanthic Ferralsol cultivated with braquiaria (Brachiaria brizantha). The six pasture managements studied were: control (CON), chisel (CHI), fertilizer (FER), burned (BUR), plowing and harrowing (PH), and integrated crop-livestock (iCL). Runoff and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and organic carbon contents. Soil physical attributes and above and below biomass were also evaluated. The results indicated that higher water loss was observed for iCL (129.90mm) and CON (123.25mm) managements, and the sediment losses were higher for CON (10.24tha(-1)) and BUR (5.20tha(-1)) managements when compared to the other managements. Majority of the nutrients losses occurred in dissolved fraction (99% of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>, 99% of Mg, 96% of K, and 65% of P), whereas a significant fraction of organic carbon (80%) loss occurred in a particulate form. Except for P, other nutrients (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Mg and K) and organic carbon losses were higher in coarse sediment compared to fine sediment. The greater losses of sediment, organic carbon, and nutrients were observed for CON followed by BUR management (p<0.05). Our findings indicated that the traditional pasture management adopted in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Rainforest needs to be rethought and burned management should be avoided. Based on the water, soil, and nutrient losses from various practices, to reduce pasture degradation, farmers should adopt edaphic practices by applying lime and fertilize to improve pasture growth and soil cover, and reducing soil erosion in the hilly Brazilian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Rainforest biome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PalOc..21.1007R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PalOc..21.1007R"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature and carbonate ion effects on Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in benthic foraminifera: Aragonitic species Hoeglundina elegans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenthal, Yair; Lear, Caroline H.; Oppo, Delia W.; Linsley, Braddock K.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Core top samples from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Little Bahama Banks (LBB)) and Pacific (Hawaii and Indonesia) depth transects have been analyzed in order to assess the influence of bottom water temperature (BWT) and aragonite saturation levels on Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in the aragonitic benthic foraminifer Hoeglundina elegans. Both the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in H. elegans tests show a general decrease with increasing water depth. Although at each site the decreasing trends are consistent with the in situ temperature profile, Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in LBB are substantially higher than in Indonesia and Hawaii at comparable water depths with a greater difference observed with increasing water depth. Because we find no significant difference between results obtained on "live" and "dead" specimens, we propose that these differences are due to primary effects on the metal uptake during test formation. Evaluation of the water column properties at each site suggests that in situ CO3 ion concentrations play an important role in determining the H. elegans Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios. The CO3 ion effect is limited, however, only to aragonite saturation levels ([ΔCO3]aragonite) below 15 μmol kg-1. Above this level, temperature exerts a dominant effect. Accordingly, we propose that Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in H. elegans tests can be used to reconstruct thermocline temperatures only in waters oversaturated with respect to the mineral aragonite using the following relationships: Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> = (0.034 ± 0.002)BWT + (0.96 ± 0.03) and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> = (0.060 ± 0.002)BWT + (1.53 ± 0.03) (for [ΔCO3]aragonite > 15 μmol kg-1). The standard error associated with these equations is about ±1.1°C. Reconstruction of deeper water temperatures is complicated because in undersaturated waters, changes in Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios reflect a combination of changes in [CO3] and BWT. Overall, we find that Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, rather than Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, in H. elegans may be a more accurate proxy for reconstructing paleotemperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000312.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000312.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypokalemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> paralysis - hypokalemic; Familial hypokalemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis; HOKPP; HypoKPP; HypoPP ... is not inherited. Unlike other forms of <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis, people with hypoPP have normal thyroid function. But ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000316.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000316.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Hyperkalemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis. It affects men more often than women.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12489014','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12489014"><span id="translatedtitle">Contamination of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast commercial shellfish with Cryptosporidium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fayer, R; Trout, J M; Lewis, E J; Santin, M; Zhou, L; Lal, A A; Xiao, L</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Shellfish (oysters and/or clams) were obtained from 37 commercial harvesting sites in 13 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast states from Maine to Florida and one site in New Brunswick, Canada. Gill washings from each of 25 shellfish at each site were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFA) for oocysts of Cryptosporidium. Gill washings from another 25 shellfish at each site were grouped into five pools of five shellfish each. DNA from each pool was utilized for PCR and genotyping. Oocysts were found in 3.7% of 925 oysters and clams examined by IFA in shellfish from New Brunswick and 11 of 13 states. Cryptosporidium DNA was detected by PCR in 35.2% of 185 pools. Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, and Cryptosporidium meleagridis,all of which have been identified in infected humans, were identified at 37.8% of the sites. Gill washings from every site were tested for the presence of infectious oocysts by biological assay in neonatal BALB/c mice but no mice were found infected, suggesting that either the oocysts were no longer infectious or infections in mice were below the level of detection. Collectively, these findings indicate that Cryptosporidium species, indicative of pollution from human and animal feces and potentially infectious for humans, were found in commercial shellfish from 64.9% of sites examined along the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast by either microscopy or molecular testing. Previous reports link <span class="hlt">periods</span> of high rainfall with the elevated numbers of pathogen contaminated shellfish. Because shellfish in the present study were examined during a <span class="hlt">period</span> of exceptionally low precipitation, the data are thought to underestimate the number of Cryptosporidium contaminated shellfish likely to be found during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of normal or above normal precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5181183','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5181183"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ca</span> sup + emission in the sunlit ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Torr, M.R. ); Torr, D.G.; Bhatt, P.; Swift, W.; Dougani, H. )</p> <p>1990-03-01</p> <p>In the course of a program of twilight airglow observations from the McDonald Observatory in southwest Texas, the resonance fluorescence emissions from calcium ions were measured. In particular, twilight sequences were obtained during the <span class="hlt">period</span> of December 19-22, 1987, which coincided with the Ursids meteorite shower. During this meteorite event the intensities of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>{sup +} emission lines at 3,934 {angstrom} increased to the point that the surface brightness profiles could be inverted to volume emission rate profiles. These profiles show evidence for strong spatial redistribution of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>{sup +} over the course of three days. Prior to the onset of the meteorite activity, emissions from the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>{sup +} originate from below 100 km, on the occasions when the emissions are visible. By the evening of December 19 a peak is measurable at 108 km. On the morning of December 22, a high-altitude peak was observed above 250 km, with a larger peak down at approximately 85 km. By the evening of December 22, the emission had substantially intensified, with the peak of the layer being at 80 km or below, but with emission being produced all the way up to at least 160 km. Observations of these emissions during meteor shower <span class="hlt">periods</span> could provide a valuable tracer for the processes responsible for the transport of ions in the D, E, and F region, allowing the full altitude and latitude extent of the distribution to be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2223361','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2223361"><span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Concentration on <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Sparks and Spontaneous Transient Outward Currents in Single Smooth Muscle Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>ZhuGe, Ronghua; Tuft, Richard A.; Fogarty, Kevin E.; Bellve, Karl; Fay, Fredric S.; Walsh, John V.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Localized, transient elevations in cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+, known as <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sparks, caused by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, are thought to trigger the opening of large conductance <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-activated potassium channels in the plasma membrane resulting in spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) in smooth muscle cells. But the precise relationships between <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration within the sarcoplasmic reticulum and a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ spark and that between a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ spark and a STOC are not well defined or fully understood. To address these problems, we have employed two approaches using single patch-clamped smooth muscle cells freshly dissociated from toad stomach: a high speed, wide-field imaging system to simultaneously record <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sparks and STOCs, and a method to simultaneously measure free global <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration in the sarcoplasmic reticulum ([<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]SR) and in the cytosol ([<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]CYTO) along with STOCs. At a holding potential of 0 mV, cells displayed <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sparks and STOCs. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sparks were associated with STOCs; the onset of the sparks coincided with the upstroke of STOCs, and both had approximately the same decay time. The mean increase in [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]CYTO at the time and location of the spark peak was ∼100 nM above a resting concentration of ∼100 nM. The frequency and amplitude of spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sparks recorded at −80 mV were unchanged for a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 10 min after removal of extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ (nominally <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-free solution with 50 μM EGTA), indicating that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx is not necessary for <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+sparks. A brief pulse of caffeine (20 mM) elicited a rapid decrease in [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]SR in association with a surge in [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]CYTO and a fusion of STOCs, followed by a fast restoration of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]CYTO and a gradual recovery of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]SR and STOCs. The return of global [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]CYTO to rest was an order of magnitude faster than the refilling of the sarcoplasmic reticulum with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+. After the global [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]CYTO was fully restored, recovery of STOC frequency and amplitude were correlated with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11734852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11734852"><span id="translatedtitle">Demography of the endangered North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> right whale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujiwara, M; Caswell, H</p> <p>2001-11-29</p> <p>Northern right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) were formerly abundant in the northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, but by 1900 they had been hunted to near extinction. After the end of commercial whaling the population was thought to be recovering slowly; however, evidence indicates that it has been declining since about 1990 (ref. 1). There are now fewer than 300 individuals, and the species may already be functionally extinct owing to demographic stochasticity or the difficulty of females locating mates in the vast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (Allee effect). Using a data set containing over 10,000 sightings of photographically identified individuals we estimated trends in right whale demographic parameters since 1980. Here we construct, using these estimates, matrix population models allowing us to analyse the causes of right whale imperilment. Mortality has increased, especially among mother whales, causing declines in population growth rate, life expectancy and the mean lifetime number of reproductive events between the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1980-1995. Increased mortality of mother whales can explain the declining population size, suggesting that the population is not doomed to extinction as a result of the Allee effect. An analysis of extinction time shows that demographic stochasticity has only a small effect, but preventing the deaths of only two female right whales per year would increase the population growth rate to replacement level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/2000009','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/2000009"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon brood stock management and breeding handbook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kincaid, Harold L.; Stanley, Jon G.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Anadromus runs of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850017729&hterms=timestep&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtimestep','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850017729&hterms=timestep&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtimestep"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Simulation of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sea Ice Variability, 1951 - 1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, J. E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A two-level dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model is used to simulate the growth, drift and decay of sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere during a 30-year <span class="hlt">period</span>, 1951 to 1980. The model is run with a daily timestep on a 222 km grid and is forced by interanually varying fields of geostrophic wind and temperature-derived thermodynamic fluxes. The objective is a quantitative description of large-scale sea ice variability in terms of the dynamic and thermodynamic processes responsible for the fluctuations, especially in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> where sea ice represents a substantial input of fresh water. The fields of ice velocity and thickness contain strong seasonal as well as interannual variability. The mean drift pattern results in thicknesses of 4 to 5 m offshore of northern Canada and Greenland, while winter thicknesses of approximately 2 m are typical of Alaskan. Eurasian and East Greenland coastal waters. The 30-year mean fields are characterized by ecessive ice in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during winter and by a summer retreat that is more rapid than observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712825M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712825M"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbonate reservoir plays in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and worldwide analogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohriak, Webster</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This work presents a summary of the geological, geophysical and petrophysical challenges for interpretation of post-salt and presalt carbonate rocks that constitute one of the main reservoirs in the hydrocarbon accumulations in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, particularly in the Campos and Santos basins offshore Brazil and in the Angola -Gabon conjugate margins. Carbonate rocks associated with salt tectonics constitute one of the main exploratory plays in several basins worldwide, and recently have yielded large petroleum discoveries in the southeastern Brazilian continental margin (Santos Basin) and also in Angola (Kwanza Basin) . The presalt microbialite reservoirs are sealed by evaporites and the origin of these rocks is still controversial. One current of interpretation assumes they are associated with reefs and carbonate buildups formed during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of sea-level rises in a desiccating basin. Other currents of interpretation assume that these rocks might be associated with hydrothermal fluids and chemical precipitation of carbonates in a basin affected by volcanic episodes, resulting in travertine deposits with secondary biogenic growth. We present examples of post-salt oil fields involving Albian carbonates in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and also discuss the presalt plays recently drilled in ultradeep waters. The presalt carbonate reservoirs are compared with possible microbialite analogs in the sedimentary basins of Brazil dating from Neoproterozoic to Recent, and their similarities and differences in terms of depositional setting and petrophysical parameters from the Late Aptian presalt carbonate rocks that have been sampled in the Santos and Kwanza basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033487','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033487"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> reef fish biogeography and evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Floeter, S.R.; Rocha, L.A.; Robertson, D.R.; Joyeux, J.C.; Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Wirtz, P.; Edwards, A.J.; Barreiros, J.P.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Gasparini, J.L.; Brito, A.; Falcon, J.M.; Bowen, B.W.; Bernardi, G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Aim: To understand why and when areas of endemism (provinces) of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean were formed, how they relate to each other, and what processes have contributed to faunal enrichment. Location: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Methods: The distributions of 2605 species of reef fishes were compiled for 25 areas of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and southern Africa. Maximum-parsimony and distance analyses were employed to investigate biogeographical relationships among those areas. A collection of 26 phylogenies of various <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> reef fish taxa was used to assess patterns of origin and diversification relative to evolutionary scenarios based on spatio-temporal sequences of species splitting produced by geological and palaeoceanographic events. We present data on faunal (species and genera) richness, endemism patterns, diversity buildup (i.e. speciation processes), and evaluate the operation of the main biogeographical barriers and/or filters. Results: Phylogenetic (proportion of sister species) and distributional (number of shared species) patterns are generally concordant with recognized biogeographical provinces in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The highly uneven distribution of species in certain genera appears to be related to their origin, with highest species richness in areas with the greatest phylogenetic depth. Diversity buildup in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> reef fishes involved (1) diversification within each province, (2) isolation as a result of biogeographical barriers, and (3) stochastic accretion by means of dispersal between provinces. The timing of divergence events is not concordant among taxonomic groups. The three soft (non-terrestrial) inter-regional barriers (mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, Amazon, and Benguela) clearly act as 'filters' by restricting dispersal but at the same time allowing occasional crossings that apparently lead to the establishment of new populations and species. Fluctuations in the effectiveness of the filters, combined with ecological differences among provinces, apparently provide a mechanism</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1900554','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1900554"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrastructural damage associated with the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox. The protective effect of Mn2+.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elz, J. S.; Nayler, W. G.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Hearts repleted with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-containing buffers after only a few minutes of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-free perfusioN display extensive ultrastructural damage and accumulate <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+. Ultrastructural damage includes separation of the intercalated disks, development of contracture bands, and splitting of the internal and external layers of the glycocalyx. In this study, the authors have used isolated spontaneously beating Langendorff perfused hearts to investigate whether Mn2+ alters the ultrastructural damage associated with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ repletion after <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-free perfusion, previous studies having shown that it attenuates or abolishes the gain in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ which normally occurs under these conditions. Mn2+ added only at the time of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ repletion did not attenuate the ultrastructural damage. When Mn2+ (2 mM) was added during the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-free <span class="hlt">period</span> or the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-free and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ repletion <span class="hlt">periods</span>, however, the hearts were not as extensively damaged. The myofibrils were relaxed, and the intercalated disks were intact. However, splitting of the glycocalyx still occurred and was a prominent feature. These results indicate that splitting of the glycocalyx per se does not necessarily result in a massive gain in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ when <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ is returned to <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-depleted hearts. Possible mechanisms of action of Mn2+ are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6486241</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMNG31A0848T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMNG31A0848T"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear Prediction of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Hurricane Abundance in 2004 Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, J.; Barbara, D.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Hurricanes are an eddy phenomenon in the weather system. Each year hurricanes form out of the global atmosphere circulation in a couple of months and then disappear. One of the directions in hurricane research is to discuss the characteristics of annual hurricane behavior in order to answer questions such as how many hurricanes may occur in a coming hurricane season (i.e., the hurricane annual abundance or frequency) and how long they will last (i.e., the hurricane duration) [1]. Usually the historical best track data are utilized for analysis of the climatology of hurricane seasons. The time series of the annual abundance of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricanes over the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1886-2003 [2] shows a series of bursty data with self similarity, which suggests that a nonlinear prediction method based on fractal dimension may be good to describe the abundance of hurricane season in 2004. This paper tries to use F4 [3] - a nonlinear prediction method based on fractal dimension to forecast the number of hurricanes in 2004 season. The hurricanes annual frequency in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin from 1886 to 2003 is extracted from the NHC best track data [2]. The whole series contains 118 data points. A set of experiments is designed as followed. A 2004 estimate is computed by F4 using all the 118 data points. That is, the whole data series from 1886 to 2003 is used to forecast the number in 2004. A second estimate is computed by F4 using the series from 1886 to 2002, totally 117 data points. Of course F4 will produce estimates of the number of hurricanes in both 2003 and 2004 seasons. The idea is to test F4 estimate with the actual observation in the 2003 season at the mean time to make a forecast of the 2004 season. This idea can be applied where the series from 1886 to 2001, to 2000, to 1999, until to 1994 are used respectively to make estimates till 2004. Overall, F4 states that there will be 6-7 hurricanes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin for this 2004 season. References: [1] James B. Elsner and A</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.T12D1343L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.T12D1343L"><span id="translatedtitle">Bay of Biscay and Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bathymetric map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loubrieu, B.; Sibuet, J.; Monti, S.; Maze, J.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The new bathymetric map of the Bay of Biscay and Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean is based on all available conventional and multibeam data. It extends from the European coast to the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ridge in longitude and from the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone to 50°N in latitude. Grid spacing is one km. The map is in Mercator projection at a 1/2,400,000 scale. With respect to previously published maps, the detailed morphology of Eurasian and Iberian continental margins, a complete picture of the two fossil trajectories of the Bay of Biscay triple junction, which limit the western extension of the Bay of Biscay, and the precise location of the plate boundary between Eurasia and Iberia, which was active during the Tertiary, are now available. The Bay of Biscay and Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> opened simultaneously between chrons M0 (118 Ma) and 33o (80 Ma). A triple junction existed during that <span class="hlt">period</span>. Fossil triple junctions trajectories on each of the three Eurasia (EU), Iberia (IB) and North America (NA) plates separate oceanic domains which were formed between the three plate pairs: IB/EU for the Bay of Biscay, EU/NA and IB/NA for the northern and southern portions of the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> respectively. On each side of the fossil trajectories, rift directions formed between different plate pairs present different azimuths. The two eastern branches have been identified on the basis of available bathymetric, magnetic and seismic data. They are generally associated with a basement ridge whose bathymetric expression is clearly shown in their youngest parts. The intersections of these two fossil trajectories with the base of the continental margins are conjugate points before the opening of the Bay of Biscay, giving an independent constraint for plate reconstructions at M0 time. In addition, two topographic features of similar size, the Armorican and Coruna seamounts are tangential to the fossil trajectories, at about 200 km from the triple junction. They are interpreted as twin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-19/pdf/2010-836.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-19/pdf/2010-836.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 2856 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-19</p> <p>... for sharks in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Nominations are being sought for..., used in stock assessments for sharks in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Vaginal bleeding between <span class="hlt">periods</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">periods</span>; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images Female reproductive anatomy Bleeding between <span class="hlt">periods</span> Uterus References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4685V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4685V"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal predictability of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin and associated fluctuations in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22653514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22653514"><span id="translatedtitle">Subplasma membrane <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCarron, John G; Chalmers, Susan; Olson, Marnie L; Girkin, John M</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) may selectively activate various processes in part by the cell's ability to localize changes in the concentration of the ion to specific subcellular sites. Interestingly, these <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signals begin most often at the plasma membrane space so that understanding subplasma membrane signals is central to an appreciation of local signaling. Several experimental procedures have been developed to study <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signals near the plasma membrane, but probably the most prevalent involve the use of fluorescent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) indicators and fall into two general approaches. In the first, the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) indicators themselves are specifically targeted to the subplasma membrane space to measure <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) only there. Alternatively, the indicators are allowed to be dispersed throughout the cytoplasm, but the fluorescence emanating from the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signals at the subplasma membrane space is selectively measured using high resolution imaging procedures. Although the targeted indicators offer an immediate appeal because of selectivity and ease of use, their limited dynamic range and slow response to changes in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) are a shortcoming. Use of targeted indicators is also largely restricted to cultured cells. High resolution imaging applied with rapidly responding small molecule <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) indicators can be used in all cells and offers significant improvements in dynamic range and speed of response of the indicator. The approach is technically difficult, however, and realistic calibration of signals is not possible. In this review, a brief overview of local subplasma membrane <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signals and methods for their measurement is provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ssva.conf...64R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ssva.conf...64R"><span id="translatedtitle">Proto-historic and Historical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Navigation: Archaeological Evidence from the Azores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Nuno; Joaquinito, Anabela; Pimenta, Fernando; Sauren, Herbert; Rodrigues, António Félix; Costa, Antonieta; Pereira, António Sérgio; Juliano, Maria de Fraga; Fernandes, Joaquim; Freitas, Ricardo; Ventura, Ricardo; Tirapicos, Luís</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This paper presents unpublished data on archaeological sites located in the Azores Islands that suggests the possibility of sailing in ancient times in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, namely in the Proto-historic and Roman <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Several structures, identified as hypogea, are reminiscent of Phoenician sanctuaries and, in their architecture, seem to represent the goddess Tanit. In addition, results of the epigraphic analysis of an inscribed stone, are presented wherein the "god of the Dacians" is mentioned, suggesting their presence in the islands during the Roman <span class="hlt">period</span>. Overall, these preliminary finds raise new questions regarding the pre-Portuguese occupation of the archipelago as well as pre-compass navigation in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, possibly using the stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.406....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.406....1K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation and the prediction of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klöwer, M.; Latif, M.; Ding, H.; Greatbatch, R. J.; Park, W.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), a major current system in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, is thought to be an important driver of climate variability, both regionally and globally and on a large range of time scales from decadal to centennial and even longer. Measurements to monitor the AMOC strength have only started in 2004, which is too short to investigate its link to long-term climate variability. Here the surface heat flux-driven part of the AMOC during 1900-2010 is reconstructed from the history of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation, the most energetic mode of internal atmospheric variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector. The decadal variations of the AMOC obtained in that way are shown to precede the observed decadal variations in basin-wide North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature (SST), known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) which strongly impacts societally important quantities such as <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane activity and Sahel rainfall. The future evolution of the AMO is forecast using the AMOC reconstructed up to 2010. The present warm phase of the AMO is predicted to continue until the end of the next decade, but with a negative tendency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11161&hterms=fruit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfruit','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11161&hterms=fruit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfruit"><span id="translatedtitle">Coachella Valley, <span class="hlt">CA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p><p/> These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, <span class="hlt">CA</span>. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude. <p/> The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80289&keyword=tree+AND+rings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77883982&CFTOKEN=81705140','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80289&keyword=tree+AND+rings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77883982&CFTOKEN=81705140"><span id="translatedtitle">INDICATORS OF CHANGE IN THE MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> WATERSHEDS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE IN UPPER CHESAPEAKE BAY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The rate of change in Northern Hemisphere atmospheric temperature in the past century relative to the preceding millennium strongly suggests that we are in a <span class="hlt">period</span> of rapid global climate change. The mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region is quite sensitive to larger scale climate variation, which...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80251&keyword=tree+AND+rings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77883982&CFTOKEN=81705140','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80251&keyword=tree+AND+rings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77883982&CFTOKEN=81705140"><span id="translatedtitle">HISTORICAL CHANGES IN GLOBAL SCALE CIRCULATION PATTERNS, MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CLIMATE STREAM FLOW AND NUTRIENT FLUXES TO THE CHESAPEAKE BAY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The rate of change in Northern Hemisphere temperature in the past century strongly suggests that we are now in a <span class="hlt">period</span> of rapid global climate change. Also, the climate in the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is quite sensitive to larger scale climate variation, which affects the frequency and seve...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=96554&keyword=Hardness&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90687937&CFTOKEN=52094439','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=96554&keyword=Hardness&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90687937&CFTOKEN=52094439"><span id="translatedtitle">INACTIVATION OF MS2 VIRUS IN DRINKING WATER: <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> ULTRAVIOLET CORPORATION MEGATRON UNIT, MODEL M250 AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Verification testing of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ultraviolet Megatron M250 system was conducted over a 48-day <span class="hlt">period</span> from 11/01/01 to 12/18/01. The feedwater to the ultraviolet (UV) unit during the testing was effluent from the Otay Water Treatment Plant (OWTP), a conventional plant with fl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.458..223L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.458..223L"><span id="translatedtitle">The transfer of bomb radiocarbon and anthropogenic lead to the deep North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean observed from a deep sea coral</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Jong-Mi; Eltgroth, Selene F.; Boyle, Edward A.; Adkins, Jess F.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Deep-ocean, Δ14C, Pb concentrations, and Pb isotopes were reconstructed from a deep-sea coral Enallopsammia rostrata from 1410 m depth off of Bermuda. Our high-resolution time series is created from closely spaced radial cross sections, with samples taken from the center of concentric coral growth bands that we show to be the oldest portion of the section. Prebomb radiocarbon ages from the coral demonstrate that the vertical growth rate of the coral is linear, and the age of the coral is estimated to be 560-630 yr old based on the growth rate. Using this age model to reconstruct Δ14C in deep seawater, we first detect bomb radiocarbon at the coral growth site around 1980, and show that Δ14C increased from - 80 ± 1 ‰ (average 1930-1979) to a plateau at - 39 ± 3 ‰ (1999-2001). Pb/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> of the coral ranges between 1.1-4.5 nmol/mol during the 16th and 17th centuries, and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/207Pb = 1.21, 208Pb/207Pb = 2.495) in this <span class="hlt">period</span> agree with pre-anthropogenic values found in the pelagic sediments of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean basin. Coral Pb/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> is slightly elevated to 6.2 ± 0.9 nmol /mol between the 1740s and the 1850s and then increases to 25.1 ± 0.2 nmol /mol in the 1990s. The increase in coral Pb/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> is accompanied by a decrease in coral 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb, indicating that the increase was caused by the infiltration of anthropogenic Pb to the coral growth site. Comparing our data to the surface coral Δ14C and Pb records from Bermuda reveals a time scale of tracer transport from the surface ocean to the coral growth site. Some characteristic features, e.g., the bomb-derived Δ14C increase, appear in the deep ocean approximately 25 yr later than the surface, but the overall increase of Δ14C and Pb in the deep ocean is smaller and slower than the surface, showing the importance of mixing during the transport of these tracers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-16/pdf/2013-29774.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-16/pdf/2013-29774.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 76107 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Gulf of Mexico; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Gulf of Mexico; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) and Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-07/pdf/2011-26042.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-07/pdf/2011-26042.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 62377 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Gulf of Mexico; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-07</p> <p>... Mexico; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Correction AGENCY: National Marine... to the previous notice of South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council's Scientific and Statistical... an agenda item to consider wreckfish stock status and fishing level recommendations to the November...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-03/pdf/2010-32697.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-03/pdf/2010-32697.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Salmon From Norway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-03</p> <p>... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... on fresh and chilled <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon from Norway. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it... and chilled <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon from Norway would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 120.31 - North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization (NATO)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 120.31 - North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization (NATO)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 120.31 - North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization (NATO)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol12/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol12-sec600-520.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol12/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol12-sec600-520.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean fishery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-22/pdf/2013-09397.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-22/pdf/2013-09397.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 23745 - South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-22</p> <p>... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC635 South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Meeting of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council. SUMMARY: The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a special webinar meeting in order...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107067p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107067p/"><span id="translatedtitle">2. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROUGH, BLENHEIM ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROUGH, BLENHEIM AND DENNIS HOTELS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE LFET OF THE HIGHROSE CLARIDGE HOTEL IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107066p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107066p/"><span id="translatedtitle">1. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROGH, BLENHEIM, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROGH, BLENHEIM, AND DENNIS HOTELS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE LEFT OF THE HIGHRISE CLARIDGE HOTEL IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-01/pdf/2011-19309.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-01/pdf/2011-19309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 45780 - South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>... should be sent to Bob Mahood, Executive Director, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber..., Public Information Officer, ] South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite... CONTACT: Kim Iverson, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol10/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol10-sec600-520.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol10/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol10-sec600-520.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean fishery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-04/pdf/2013-24237.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-04/pdf/2013-24237.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 61844 - North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coast Comprehensive Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-04</p> <p>... No: 2013-24237] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coast... in the preparation of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coast Comprehensive Study (Hurricane Sandy). The USACE is preparing a report that will be submitted to Congress in 2015. The goals of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890050191&hterms=Milankovitch&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DMilankovitch','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890050191&hterms=Milankovitch&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DMilankovitch"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change in the circum-North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region during the last deglaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Peterson, Larry C.; Kipp, Nilva; Imbrie, John; Rind, David</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A survey of new and published palaeoclimate data indicates that both the high- and low-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> regions were characterized by at least three synchronous <span class="hlt">periods</span> of abrupt climate change during the last glacial-to-interglacial transition. Climate model results suggest that changes in the melting history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet may explain much of this nonlinear response of the climate system to astronomical (Milankovitch) forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHyd..502..191S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHyd..502..191S"><span id="translatedtitle">Flood magnitudes in the Tagus River (Iberian Peninsula) and its stochastic relationship with daily North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation since mid-19th Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Machado, Maria J.; Barriendos, Mariano; Pereira, Henrique Garcia; Benito, Gerardo</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new methodological approach in the analysis of the influence of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation on the flood magnitude of the Tagus River, the largest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> draining river of the Iberian Peninsula. This methodology is based on Correspondence Analysis viewed as a qualitative regression tool. A daily scale database (sea level atmospheric pressure, river discharge, rainfall) was used for this study. The selected streamflow station, Vila Velha de Rodão (Portugal, near the Spanish border), holds the longest continuous daily river discharge register of the Iberian Peninsula (over 160 years, since 1852). The annual maximum flood magnitudes were classified into seven categories according to their specific recurrence intervals (T). The qualitative regression approach was used to relate annual peak flood occurrence with the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) index mode (positive or negative) registered, during the preceding 40 days (divided in 8 successive 5-day <span class="hlt">periods</span>). Large floods (categories 1-2 of T > 50 years and category 3, T ˜25-50 years) were found to be associated with a very high frequency of the negative NAO mode during the initial 20-25 days (within a total 40 days <span class="hlt">period</span> length) before de flood peak. The lack of significant association of these flood categories with a predominant NAO mode during the immediately preceding 15 days, prior to the flood, suggest a time lag of 15 days before the peak. Minor flooding (category 7, T < 2 years) show a high degree of association with the presence of a positive NAO mode during the previous 20-25 days. The analysis of flood response under natural and dam-regulated regimes (before and after the construction of dams <span class="hlt">ca</span> 1960) revealed no changes in the behaviour of major floods (responding to a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 25 days with a dominant negative NAO index mode). Moderate flooding of category 4 (T: 10-25 years), that during the pre-dam construction <span class="hlt">period</span> were linked to the existence of an initial 5-15 days of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006261','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006261"><span id="translatedtitle">Are seawater Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations preserved in Quaternary foraminifera?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stoll, H.M.; Schrag, D.P.; Clemens, S.C.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>High precision measurements of Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in planktonic foraminifera for the last 150 ka reveal Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations of up to 12% on glacial/interglacial time scales. Although records showing the largest variations appear to be strongly influenced by selective dissolution, other records show Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations of 3--5% that do not covary with indicators of dissolution intensity and that are reproduced in sites of contrasting Quaternary dissolution histories. These systematic variations are characterized by high Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios during glacial maxima, followed by steep decreases during deglaciation and gradual increases through interstadial <span class="hlt">periods</span>, closely following {delta}{sup 18}O curves. Foraminiferal Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations may reflect changes in the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratio of seawater, or they may be due to kinetically or biologically induced changes in Sr partitioning. Coupled numerical models of the Sr and <span class="hlt">Ca</span> budgets of the ocean reveal that sea level changes, together with large changes in river fluxes and carbonate accumulation rates, can produce seawater Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations that approximate both the shape and amplitude of foraminiferal Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations. However, such extreme changes in river and carbonate fluxes conflict with existing data on carbonate accumulation rates and Sr isotopic constraints on the magnitude of variations in the river flux. Smaller variations (1--3%) in the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratio of seawater likely characterize Quaternary glacial cycles. Changes in Sr partitioning due to glacial-interglacial changes in the carbonate ion concentration and other environmental factors likely produce additional variation in the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> record of planktonic foraminifera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14558901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14558901"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent changes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dickson, Robert R; Curry, Ruth; Yashayaev, Igor</p> <p>2003-09-15</p> <p>It has long been recognized that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is potentially sensitive to greenhouse-gas and other climate forcing, and that changes in the MOC have the potential to cause abrupt climate change. However, the mechanisms remain poorly understood and our ability to detect these changes remains incomplete. Four main (interrelated) types of ocean change in particular are associated in the literature with greenhouse-gas forcing. These are: a slowing of MOC overturning rate; changes in northern seas which might effect a change in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning, including changes in the freshwater flux from the Arctic, and changes in the transport and/or hydrographic character of the northern overflows which ventilate the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; a change in the trans-ocean gradients of steric height (both zonal and meridional) which might accompany a change in the MOC; and an intensification of the global water cycle. Though as yet we have no direct measure of the freshwater flux passing from the Arctic to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> either via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or along the East Greenland Shelf, and no direct measure yet of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning rate, we examine a wide range of time-series from the existing hydrographic record for oceanic evidence of the other anticipated responses. Large amplitude and sustained changes are found (or indicated by proxy) over the past three to four decades in the southward transport of fresh waters along the Labrador shelf and slope, in the hydrography of the deep dense overflows from Nordic seas, in the transport of the eastern overflow through Faroe Bank Channel, and in the global hydrologic cycle. Though the type and scale of changes in ocean salinity are consistent with an amplification of the water cycle, we find no convincing evidence of any significant, concerted slowdown in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411958C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411958C"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-year forecast of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone activity using EC-Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caron, L.-P.; Jones, C. G.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.; Caian, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Seasonal forecasts of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane activity are now routinely performed by various groups and have become relatively successful at forecasting basin wide activity a few months before the official start of a hurricane season. Part of the skill in predicting the level of tropical cyclone activity for a given season comes from the ability to predict the behaviour of ENSO, which strongly impacts (through teleconnections) hurricane formation over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Over the same basin, the ~100 years of available hurricane records also show variations at the decadal timescale. This decadal fluctuation appears linked to an oscillation in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Coined the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), a successful multi-year forecast of this oscillation offers the potential to produce a skillful multi-year forecast of hurricane activity. Such forecast could help mitigate against (potentially huge) hurricane-related losses through improved preparedness and improved insurance schemes. Using EC-Earth, a coupled global atmosphere-ocean model, we perform a series of ensemble decadal re-forecasts at 5 year intervals between the 1965-2005 <span class="hlt">period</span> and investigate the ability of these re-forecasts at capturing observed variations in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs (in essence, the AMO) as well as other large-scale fields known to impact cyclogenesis. We also use an automated procedure to track the tropical cyclones produced in these re-forecasts, which then allows direct comparison with the actual number of tropical cyclones that formed over the equivalent <span class="hlt">period</span>. Preliminary analysis shows that EC-Earth re-forecasts manage to capture variations in large-scale fields relatively well, especially variations in the AMO, which suggests a potential for skillful multi-year forecast of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones. However, direct comparison of simulated and observed TC numbers does not offer the same level of skill. Tropical cyclone numbers in the re-forecasts are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6541B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6541B"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic forcing of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation over the last 2,000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Ridley, Harriet E.; Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Asmerom, Yemane; Rehfeld, Kira; Prufer, Keith M.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Aquino, Valorie V.; Polyak, Victor; Goswami, Bedartha; Marwan, Norbert; Haug, Gerald H.; Baldini, James U. L.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) is a principal mode of atmospheric circulation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> realm (Hurrell et al. 2003) and influences rainfall distribution over Europe, North Africa and North America. Although observational data inform us on multi-annual variability of the NAO, long and detailed paleoclimate datasets are required to understand the mechanisms and full range of its variability and the spatial extent of its influence. Chronologies of available proxy-based NAO reconstructions are often interdependent and cover only the last ~1,100 years, while longer records are characterized by low sampling resolution and chronological constraints. This complicates the reconstruction of regional responses to NAO changes. We present data from a 2,000 year long sub-annual carbon isotope record from speleothem YOK-I from Yok Balum Cave, Belize, Central America. YOK-I has been extensively dated using U-series (Kennett et al. 2012). Monitoring shows that stalagmite δ13C in Yok Balum cave is governed by infiltration changes associated with tropical wet season rainfall. Higher (lower) δ13C values reflect drier (wetter) conditions related to Intertropical Convergence Zone position and trade winds intensity. Comparison with NAO reconstructions (Proctor et al. 2000, Trouet et al. 2009, Wassenburg et al. 2013) reveals that YOK-I δ13C sensitively records NAO-related rainfall dynamics over Belize. The Median Absolute Deviation (MAD) of δ13C extends NAO reconstructions to the last 2,000 years and indicates that high latitude volcanic aerosols force negative NAO phases. We infer that volcanic aerosols modify inter-hemispheric temperature contrasts at multi-annual scale, resulting in meridional relocation of the ITCZ and the Bermuda-Azores High, altering NAO and tropical rainfall patterns. Decade-long dry <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the 11th and the late 18th century relate to major high northern latitude eruptions and exemplify the climatic response to volcanic forcing by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMOS41A0450D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMOS41A0450D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water Seasonal Variability on the Continental Slope of the Laptev Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dmitrenko, I.; Polyakov, I.; Kirillov, S.; Timokhov, L.; Simmons, H.; Walsh, D.; Ivanov, V.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Due to the scarcity of observations, knowledge of circulation, water-mass transformations and exchanges occurring across the continental slope of the Siberian Arctic remains sketchy, and understanding of water dynamics is correspondingly crude. Here, we present our preliminary analysis of observational data obtained from the Laptev Sea continental slope in 2002-2003. The water properties were evaluated using year-long records of water temperature and salinity from the mooring deployed in September 2002 about 200 km northward from the continental shelf brake. CTD surveys from several cruises (1993, 1995, 1996, 2002, 2003 years) were also employed in this analysis. The focus of this study is the seasonal cycle found in the intermediate (150-800m) <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water layer of the Arctic Ocean. Increase of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water temperature was observed during the cold <span class="hlt">period</span> whereas during summer months the records show cooling of the layer. We found a strong connection between these cooling and warming events and direction of winds over the slope. Wintertime prevailing off-slope winds cause shift of the warm core of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water towards the slope, and the mooring record indicated warming. Summertime along-slope winds resulted in separation of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water warm core from the slope and decrease of the recorded temperature. These results support the earlier theory by Goodkovich (1961).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...621728V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...621728V"><span id="translatedtitle">The intertropical convergence zone modulates intense hurricane strikes on the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Hengstum, Peter J.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Fall, Patricia L.; Toomey, Michael R.; Albury, Nancy A.; Kakuk, Brian</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricanes form in the Main Development Region between 9°N to 20°N along the northern edge of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Previous research has suggested that meridional shifts in the ITCZ position on geologic timescales can modulate hurricane activity, but continuous and long-term storm records are needed from multiple sites to assess this hypothesis. Here we present a 3000 year record of intense hurricane strikes in the northern Bahamas (Abaco Island) based on overwash deposits in a coastal sinkhole, which indicates that the ITCZ has likely helped modulate intense hurricane strikes on the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin on millennial to centennial-scales. The new reconstruction closely matches a previous reconstruction from Puerto Rico, and documents a <span class="hlt">period</span> of elevated intense hurricane activity on the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin from 2500 to 1000 years ago when paleo precipitation proxies suggest that the ITCZ occupied a more northern position. Considering that anthropogenic warming is predicted to be focused in the northern hemisphere in the coming century, these results provide a prehistoric analog that an attendant northern ITCZ shift in the future may again return the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin to an active hurricane interval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632881I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632881I"><span id="translatedtitle">Linkages between atmospheric blocking, sea ice export through Fram Strait and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ionita, M.; Scholz, P.; Lohmann, G.; Dima, M.; Prange, M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>As a key persistent component of the atmospheric dynamics, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> blocking activity has been linked to extreme climatic phenomena in the European sector. It has also been linked to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal ocean variability, but its potential links to rapid oceanic changes have not been investigated. Using a global ocean-sea ice model forced with atmospheric reanalysis data, here it is shown that the 1962–1966 <span class="hlt">period</span> of enhanced blocking activity over Greenland resulted in anomalous sea ice accumulation in the Arctic and ended with a sea ice flush from the Arctic into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean through Fram Strait. This event induced a significant decrease of Labrador Sea water surface salinity and an abrupt weakening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the 1970s. These results have implications for the prediction of rapid AMOC changes and indicate that an important part of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics at mid- and high latitudes requires a proper representation of the Fram Strait sea ice transport and of the synoptic scale variability such as atmospheric blocking, which is a challenge for current coupled climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27619955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27619955"><span id="translatedtitle">Linkages between atmospheric blocking, sea ice export through Fram Strait and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ionita, M; Scholz, P; Lohmann, G; Dima, M; Prange, M</p> <p>2016-09-13</p> <p>As a key persistent component of the atmospheric dynamics, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> blocking activity has been linked to extreme climatic phenomena in the European sector. It has also been linked to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal ocean variability, but its potential links to rapid oceanic changes have not been investigated. Using a global ocean-sea ice model forced with atmospheric reanalysis data, here it is shown that the 1962-1966 <span class="hlt">period</span> of enhanced blocking activity over Greenland resulted in anomalous sea ice accumulation in the Arctic and ended with a sea ice flush from the Arctic into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean through Fram Strait. This event induced a significant decrease of Labrador Sea water surface salinity and an abrupt weakening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the 1970s. These results have implications for the prediction of rapid AMOC changes and indicate that an important part of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics at mid- and high latitudes requires a proper representation of the Fram Strait sea ice transport and of the synoptic scale variability such as atmospheric blocking, which is a challenge for current coupled climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764861','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764861"><span id="translatedtitle">The intertropical convergence zone modulates intense hurricane strikes on the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>van Hengstum, Peter J.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Fall, Patricia L.; Toomey, Michael R.; Albury, Nancy A.; Kakuk, Brian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricanes form in the Main Development Region between 9°N to 20°N along the northern edge of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Previous research has suggested that meridional shifts in the ITCZ position on geologic timescales can modulate hurricane activity, but continuous and long-term storm records are needed from multiple sites to assess this hypothesis. Here we present a 3000 year record of intense hurricane strikes in the northern Bahamas (Abaco Island) based on overwash deposits in a coastal sinkhole, which indicates that the ITCZ has likely helped modulate intense hurricane strikes on the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin on millennial to centennial-scales. The new reconstruction closely matches a previous reconstruction from Puerto Rico, and documents a <span class="hlt">period</span> of elevated intense hurricane activity on the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin from 2500 to 1000 years ago when paleo precipitation proxies suggest that the ITCZ occupied a more northern position. Considering that anthropogenic warming is predicted to be focused in the northern hemisphere in the coming century, these results provide a prehistoric analog that an attendant northern ITCZ shift in the future may again return the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin to an active hurricane interval. PMID:26906670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6969K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6969K"><span id="translatedtitle">Low-frequency thermohaline variability in the Subtropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> pycnocline during 2002-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas; Reverdin, Gilles; Gaillard, Fabienne; Lazar, Alban</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Low-frequency variability of spiciness is observed in the Subtropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> over the <span class="hlt">period</span> 2002-2013 with the Argo gridded product ISAS. Within the pycnocline, spiciness anomalies propagate at a mean speed of 0.04±0.02 m.s-1, the same speed as the gyre mean circulation, from the Agulhas Retroflection region off South Africa (~35°S-20°E) towards the South American coast (~18°S-35°W). After 2010, propagation is still found, but stationary local spiciness generation is also found over the Subtropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This spiciness increase is associated with high values of vertical Turner angle below the mixed layer base during late winter. This suggests spice injection resulting from penetrative convective mixing due to air-sea buoyancy loss. These features may have an impact on the low-frequency warm and salty signal produced by the Agulhas leakage in Subtropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the upper branch of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009088','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009088"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent Multidecadal Atmospheric and Oceanic Variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Blocking Corresponds with Warm Subpolar Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hakkinen, Sirpa M.; Rhines, P. B.; Worthen, D. L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Winters with frequent atmospheric blocking, in a band of latitudes from Greenland to Western Europe, are found to persist over several decades and correspond to a warm North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. This is evident in atmospheric reanalysis data, both modern and for the full 20th century. Blocking is approximately in phase with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal ocean variability (AMV). Wintertime atmospheric blocking involves a highly distorted jetstream, isolating large regions of air from the westerly circulation. It influences the ocean through windstress-curl and associated air/sea heat flux. While blocking is a relatively high-frequency phenomenon, it is strongly modulated over decadal timescales. The blocked regime (weaker ocean gyres, weaker air-sea heat flux, paradoxically increased transport of warm subtropical waters poleward) contributes to the warm phase of AMV. Atmospheric blocking better describes the early 20thC warming and 1996-2010 warm <span class="hlt">period</span> than does the NAO index. It has roots in the hemispheric circulation and jet stream dynamics. Subpolar <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability covaries with distant AMOC fields: both these connections may express the global influence of the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean on the global climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990110690','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990110690"><span id="translatedtitle">The Variation of Tropical Cyclone Rainfall within the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific as Observed from Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rodgers, Edward; Pierce, Harold; Adler, Robert</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Tropical cyclone monthly rainfall amounts are estimated from passive microwave satellite observations in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and in three equal geographical regions of the North Pacific (i.e., Western, Central, and Eastern North Pacific). These satellite-derived rainfall amounts are used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the 1987-1989, 1991-1998 North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific rainfall during June-November when tropical cyclones are most abundant. To estimate these tropical cyclone rainfall amounts, mean monthly rain rates are derived from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/ Radiometer (SSM/I) observations within 444 km radius of the center of those North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific tropical cyclones that reached storm stage and greater. These rain rate observations are then multiplied by the number of hours in a given month. Mean monthly rainfall amounts are also constructed for all the other North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific raining systems during this eleven year <span class="hlt">period</span> for the purpose of estimating the geographical distribution and intensity of rainfall contributed by non-tropical cyclone systems. Further, the combination of the non-tropical cyclone and tropical cyclone (i.e., total) rainfall is constructed to delineate the fractional amount that tropical cyclones contributed to the total North Pacific rainfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5020648','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5020648"><span id="translatedtitle">Linkages between atmospheric blocking, sea ice export through Fram Strait and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ionita, M.; Scholz, P.; Lohmann, G.; Dima, M.; Prange, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>As a key persistent component of the atmospheric dynamics, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> blocking activity has been linked to extreme climatic phenomena in the European sector. It has also been linked to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal ocean variability, but its potential links to rapid oceanic changes have not been investigated. Using a global ocean-sea ice model forced with atmospheric reanalysis data, here it is shown that the 1962–1966 <span class="hlt">period</span> of enhanced blocking activity over Greenland resulted in anomalous sea ice accumulation in the Arctic and ended with a sea ice flush from the Arctic into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean through Fram Strait. This event induced a significant decrease of Labrador Sea water surface salinity and an abrupt weakening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the 1970s. These results have implications for the prediction of rapid AMOC changes and indicate that an important part of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics at mid- and high latitudes requires a proper representation of the Fram Strait sea ice transport and of the synoptic scale variability such as atmospheric blocking, which is a challenge for current coupled climate models. PMID:27619955</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1899i/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1899i/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamflow from the United States into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean during 1931-1960</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bue, Conrad D.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Streamflow from the United States into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, between the international stream St. Croix River, inclusive, and Cape Sable, Fla., averaged about 355,000 cfs (cubic feet per second) during the 30-year <span class="hlt">period</span> 1931-60, or roughly 20 percent of the water that, on the average flows out of the conterminous United States. The area drained by streams flowing into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is about 288,000 square miles, including the Canadian part of the St. Croix and Connecticut River basins, or a little less than 10 percent of the area of the conterminous United States. Hence, the average streamflow into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, in terms of cubic feet per second per square mile, is about twice the national average of the flow that leaves the conterminous United States. Flow from about three-fourths of the area draining into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is gaged at streamflow measuring stations of the U.S. Geological Survey. The remaining one-fourth of the drainage area consists mostly of low-lying coastal areas from which the flow was estimated, largely on the basis of nearby gaging stations. Streamflow, in terms of cubic feet per second per square mile, decreases rather progressively from north to south. It averages nearly 2 cfs along the Maine coast, about 1 cfs along the North Carolina coast, and about 0.9 cfs along the Florida coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817440B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817440B"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural and anthropogenic forcing of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone track position since 1550 A.D.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baldini, Lisa; Baldini, James; McElwaine, Jim; Frappier, Amy; Asmerom, Yemane; Liu, Kam-biu; Prufer, Keith; Ridley, Harriet; Polyak, Victor; Kennett, Douglas; Macpherson, Colin; Aquino, Valorie; Awe, Jamie; Breitenbach, Sebastian</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Over the last 30 years, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones (TC) have increased in frequency, intensity, and duration in response to rising North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SST). Here we present a 450-year record of western Caribbean TC activity reconstructed using subannually-resolved carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in a stalagmite from Yok Balum Cave, southern Belize. Western Caribbean TC activity peaked at 1650 A.D. coincident with maximum Little Ice Age cooling and decreased gradually to 1983 A.D. (the end of the record). Comparison with existing basin-wide reconstructions reveals that the dominant TC tracks corridor migrated from the western Caribbean toward the North American east coast through time. A close link with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) exists throughout the record but with a clear polarity shift in the TC-AMO relationship at 1870 A.D., coincident with industrialisation. We suggest that the cause of this reversal is Greenhouse gas and aerosol emission induced changes in the relationship between the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the Bermuda High between the modern warm <span class="hlt">period</span> and the Pre-Industrial Era. The likely impact of continued anthropogenic forcing of TC track on population centres of the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Caribbean will be addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41G0158M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41G0158M"><span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of North-South Shifts in the Sahel on North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murphy, L.; Clement, A. C.; Mahowald, N. M.; Albani, S.; Swart, P. K.; Arienzo, M. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Cool <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have been linked to hydrological changes over the Sahel region. It has been postulated that the Sahara-Sahel border shifted southwards during the last Heinrich event, which resulted in the semi-arid Sahel becoming more arid. This would drive changes in dust emission rates over North Africa. In fact proxy data indicates North Africa was dustier during the last Heinrich event than during the LGM. Recent analysis of CMIP5 models suggests the Western Sahel may become drier later this century. This may be analogous to past changes that have occurred in this region. Here we examine the implications of a southward shift in the Sahara-Sahel border in the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1). Imposed changes in soil erodibility over the Sahel region results in greater dust emission rates and transport across the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Greater dust loading cools local sea surface temperatures and may have implications on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation. Our idealized runs can be used to understand how changes in dust forced climate change during the past as well as how potential future hydrological changes over the western Sahel can impact <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESDD....6.1557T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESDD....6.1557T"><span id="translatedtitle">The tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface wind divergence belt and its effect on clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tubul, Y.; Koren, I.; Altaratz, O.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A well-defined surface wind divergence (SWD) belt with distinct cloud properties forms over the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the boreal summer months. This belt separates the deep convective clouds of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) from the shallow marine stratocumulus cloud decks forming over the cold-water subtropical region of the southern Hadley cell. Using the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds and Aqua-MODIS instruments, we examined the large-scale spatiotemporal variability of the SWD belt during a 6 year <span class="hlt">period</span> (2003-2008) and the related links to cloud properties over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SWD belt was found to be most pronounced from May to August, between the equator and 2° N latitude. A positive correlation and a strong link were observed between formation of the SWD belt and a sharp sea-surface temperature gradient on the northern border of the cold tongue, supporting Wallace's vertical-mixing mechanism. The dominant cloud type over this region was shallow cumulus. Cloud properties were shown to be strongly linked to the formation and strength of the SWD zone. Our findings help understand the link between ocean-atmosphere dynamics and cloud properties over this region, and suggest that the SWD zone be considered a unique cloud belt of the southern branch of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Hadley cell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11877515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11877515"><span id="translatedtitle">GABA application to hippocampal <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 or <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 stratum lacunosum-moleculare excites an interneuron network.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perkins, Katherine L</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Whole cell voltage-clamp recording and focal application of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were used to investigate the ability of exogenous GABA applied to different locations within the guinea pig hippocampal slice to trigger a giant GABA-mediated postsynaptic current (GPSC) in pyramidal cells. A GPSC reflects the synchronous release of GABA from a group of interneurons. Recordings were done in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and blockers of ionotropic glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Spontaneous GPSCs occurred rhythmically in pyramidal cells under these conditions. Brief focal pressure application of GABA (500 microM; 30-200 ms) to <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) or to the border between <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 s. radiatum (SR) and SLM triggered an "all-or-none" GPSC in <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 and <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal cells that looked like the spontaneous GPSCs. During the refractory <span class="hlt">period</span> following a spontaneous GPSC, application of GABA could not trigger a GPSC. Both spontaneous GPSCs and GPSCs triggered by exogenous GABA were blocked by suppressing synaptic transmission with high Mg(2+)/low <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) bath solution. On the other hand, focal application of GABA to <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 s. oriens (SO) or to proximal SR did not trigger a GPSC in the <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 pyramidal cell; instead it produced a graded response. Focal application of GABA to regions other than <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 was also tested. Focal application of GABA to <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 SLM always triggered a GPSC in the <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 pyramidal cell. Focal application of GABA within the outer two-thirds of the dentate molecular layer often elicited a GPSC in the <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 pyramidal cell. In contrast, focal application of GABA to <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 SO, to <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 SR, or to the hilus elicited no current response in the <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 pyramidal cell. These data indicate that the GPSC recorded in pyramidal cells that was triggered by focal GABA application resulted from the synchronous synaptic release of GABA from activated interneurons rather than from the binding of exogenous GABA to receptors on the pyramidal cell</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13..211H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13..211H"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oxygen concentrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Glacial-interglacial changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations [O2] in the deep northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have been linked to decreased ventilation relating to changes in ocean circulation and the biological pump (Hoogakker et al., 2015). In this paper we discuss seawater [O2] changes in relation to millennial climate oscillations in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> over the last glacial cycle, using bottom water [O2] reconstructions from 2 cores: (1) MD95-2042 from the deep northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Hoogakker et al., 2015) and (2) ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 1055 from the intermediate northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The deep northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> core MD95-2042 shows decreased bottom water [O2] during millennial-scale cool events, with lowest bottom water [O2] of 170, 144, and 166 ± 17 µmol kg-1 during Heinrich ice rafting events H6, H4, and H1. Importantly, at intermediate depth core ODP Site 1055, bottom water [O2] was lower during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 4 and millennial cool events, with the lowest values of 179 and 194 µmol kg-1 recorded during millennial cool event C21 and a cool event following Dansgaard-Oeschger event 19. Our reconstructions agree with previous model simulations suggesting that glacial cold events may be associated with lower seawater [O2] across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> below ˜ 1 km (Schmittner et al., 2007), although in our reconstructions the changes are less dramatic. The decreases in bottom water [O2] during North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Heinrich events and earlier cold events at the two sites can be linked to water mass changes in relation to ocean circulation changes and possibly productivity changes. At the intermediate depth site a possible strong North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intermediate Water cell would preclude water mass changes as a cause for decreased bottom water [O2]. Instead, we propose that the lower bottom [O2] there can be linked to productivity changes through increased export of organic material from the surface ocean and its subsequent remineralization in the water column</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740861M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740861M"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplification of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation associated with the onset of the industrial-era warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, G. W. K.; Halfar, J.; Majeed, H.; Adey, W.; Kronz, A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures experience variability with a <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> of 60–80 years that is known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). It has a profound imprint on the global climate system that results in a number of high value societal impacts. However the industrial <span class="hlt">period</span>, i.e. the middle of the 19th century onwards, contains only two full cycles of the AMO making it difficult to fully characterize this oscillation and its impact on the climate system. As a result, there is a clear need to identify paleoclimate records extending into the pre-industrial <span class="hlt">period</span> that contain an expression of the AMO. This is especially true for extratropical marine paleoclimate proxies where such expressions are currently unavailable. Here we present an annually resolved coralline algal time series from the northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean that exhibits multidecadal variability extending back six centuries. The time series contains a statistically significant trend towards higher values, i.e. warmer conditions, beginning in the 19th century that coincided with an increase in the time series’ multidecadal power. We argue that these changes are associated with a regional climate reorganization involving an amplification of the AMO that coincided with onset of the industrial-era warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5256104','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5256104"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplification of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation associated with the onset of the industrial-era warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moore, G. W. K.; Halfar, J.; Majeed, H.; Adey, W.; Kronz, A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures experience variability with a <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> of 60–80 years that is known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). It has a profound imprint on the global climate system that results in a number of high value societal impacts. However the industrial <span class="hlt">period</span>, i.e. the middle of the 19th century onwards, contains only two full cycles of the AMO making it difficult to fully characterize this oscillation and its impact on the climate system. As a result, there is a clear need to identify paleoclimate records extending into the pre-industrial <span class="hlt">period</span> that contain an expression of the AMO. This is especially true for extratropical marine paleoclimate proxies where such expressions are currently unavailable. Here we present an annually resolved coralline algal time series from the northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean that exhibits multidecadal variability extending back six centuries. The time series contains a statistically significant trend towards higher values, i.e. warmer conditions, beginning in the 19th century that coincided with an increase in the time series’ multidecadal power. We argue that these changes are associated with a regional climate reorganization involving an amplification of the AMO that coincided with onset of the industrial-era warming. PMID:28112208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4949458','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4949458"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and spatial genetic differentiation in the crab Liocarcinus depurator across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Mediterranean transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pascual, Marta; Palero, Ferran; García-Merchán, Víctor Hugo; Macpherson, Enrique; Robainas-Barcia, Aymée; Mestres, Francesc; Roda, Tania; Abelló, Pere</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Spatial genetic studies often require sampling broadly separated areas, difficult to access simultaneously. Although comparing localities surveyed at different time <span class="hlt">periods</span> might result in spurious genetic differentiation, there is a general believe on the stability of genetic structure through time, particularly if sampled localities are isolated or very distant. By analysing spatial and temporal genetic differentiation of the portunid crab Liocarcinus depurator we assessed the contribution of historical and contemporary processes on population connectivity patterns across three main oceanographic discontinuities along the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Mediterranean transition: Gibraltar Strait, Almeria-Oran Front and Ibiza Channel. A partial fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene was sequenced in 366 individuals collected from localities at both sides of each discontinuity during three time <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Although localities showed genetic fluctuations through time, a significant gradient was detected along the coast for all sampling <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Significant inter-annual differences identified within the Alicante area, north of the Almeria-Oran Front, were associated with shifts in the relative contribution of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Mediterranean water masses. The persistence of a clinal pattern in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Mediterranean transition area together with local fluctuations suggests a complex balance of dispersal and selection. PMID:27431989</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.9705C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.9705C"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenland ice core evidence for spatial and temporal variability of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Folland, Chris; Frankcombe, Leela; Dijkstra, Henk; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The Greenland δ18O ice core record is used as a proxy for Greenland surface air temperatures and to interpret <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) variability. An analysis of annual δ18O data from six Arctic ice cores (five from Greenland and one from Canada's Ellesmere Island) suggests a significant AMO spatial and temporal variability within a recent <span class="hlt">period</span> of 660 years. A dominant AMO <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> near 20 years is clearly observed in the southern (Dye3 site) and the central (GISP2, Crete and Milcent) regions of Greenland. This 20-year variability is, however, significantly reduced in the northern (Camp Century and Agassiz Ice Cap) region, likely due to a larger distance from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, and a much lower snow accumulation. A longer time scale AMO component of 45-65 years, which has been seen clearly in the 20th century SST data, is detected only in central Greenland ice cores. We find a significant difference between the AMO cycles during the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (MWP). The LIA was dominated by a ˜20 year AMO cycle with no other decadal or multidecadal scale variability above the noise level. However, during the preceding MWP the 20 year cycle was replaced by a longer scale cycle centered near a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 43 years with a further 11.5 year <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>. An analysis of two coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models control runs (UK Met Office HadCM3 and NOAA GFDL CM2.1) agree with the shorter and longer time-scales of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and temperature fluctuations with <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> close to those observed. However, the geographic variability of these <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> indicated by ice core data is not captured in model simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880043883&hterms=Gale+Research&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGale%2BResearch','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880043883&hterms=Gale+Research&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGale%2BResearch"><span id="translatedtitle">Genesis of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Lows Experiment (GALE) - An overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dirks, R. A.; Kuettner, J. P.; Moore, J. A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The field phase of the Genesis of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Lows Experiment (GALE) was conducted from 15 January to 15 March 1986. The objectives of GALE were to study mesoscale and air-sea interaction processes in East Coast winter storms, with particular emphasis on their contributions to cyclogenesis. This project area, specail observing systems, and field operations are described. There were thirteen special observing <span class="hlt">periods</span> during the field phase including eight cases of cyclogenesis. Meterological and oceanographic phenomena on which special observations were collected include: cyclogenesis, rainbands, cold fronts, coastal fronts, cold-air damming, jets streaks, tropopause folding, low-level jets, cold-air outbreaks, lightning and marine boundary layer interactions with Gulf Stream and mid-shelf oceanic fronts. Preliminary research findings and operational implications are presented. GALE data documents are listed. The GALE data set is open to all interested scientists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988BAMS...69..148D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988BAMS...69..148D"><span id="translatedtitle">Genesis of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Lows Experiment (GALE): An Overview.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dirks, R. A.; Kuettner, J. P.; Moore, J. A.</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>The field phase of the Genesis of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Lows Experiment (GALE) was conducted from 15 January to 15 March 1986. The objectives of GALE were to study mesoscale and air-sea interaction processes in East Coast winter storms, with particular emphasis on their contributions to cyclogenesis. The project area, special observing systems, and field operations are described. There were thirteen special observing <span class="hlt">periods</span> during the field phase including eight cases of cyclogenesis. Meteorological and oceanographic phenomena on which special observations were collected include: cyclogenesis, rainbands, cold fronts, coastal fronts, cold-air damming, jet streaks, tropopause folding, low-level jets, cold-air outbreaks, lightning and marine boundary layer interactions with Gulf Stream and mid-shelf oceanic fronts. Preliminary research findings and operational implications are presented. GALE data documents are listed. The GALE data set is open to all interested scientists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20724586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20724586"><span id="translatedtitle">Plastic accumulation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical gyre.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Law, Kara Lavender; Morét-Ferguson, Skye; Maximenko, Nikolai A; Proskurowski, Giora; Peacock, Emily E; Hafner, Jan; Reddy, Christopher M</p> <p>2010-09-03</p> <p>Plastic marine pollution is a major environmental concern, yet a quantitative description of the scope of this problem in the open ocean is lacking. Here, we present a time series of plastic content at the surface of the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1986 to 2008. More than 60% of 6136 surface plankton net tows collected buoyant plastic pieces, typically millimeters in size. The highest concentration of plastic debris was observed in subtropical latitudes and associated with the observed large-scale convergence in surface currents predicted by Ekman dynamics. Despite a rapid increase in plastic production and disposal during this time <span class="hlt">period</span>, no trend in plastic concentration was observed in the region of highest accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Sci...329.1185L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Sci...329.1185L"><span id="translatedtitle">Plastic Accumulation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Gyre</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Law, Kara Lavender; Morét-Ferguson, Skye; Maximenko, Nikolai A.; Proskurowski, Giora; Peacock, Emily E.; Hafner, Jan; Reddy, Christopher M.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Plastic marine pollution is a major environmental concern, yet a quantitative description of the scope of this problem in the open ocean is lacking. Here, we present a time series of plastic content at the surface of the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1986 to 2008. More than 60% of 6136 surface plankton net tows collected buoyant plastic pieces, typically millimeters in size. The highest concentration of plastic debris was observed in subtropical latitudes and associated with the observed large-scale convergence in surface currents predicted by Ekman dynamics. Despite a rapid increase in plastic production and disposal during this time <span class="hlt">period</span>, no trend in plastic concentration was observed in the region of highest accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810011002','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810011002"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison data for Seasat altimetry in the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cheney, R. E.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The radar altimeter flown on Seasat in 1978 collected approximately 1,000 orbits of high quality data (5-8 precision). In the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> these data were combined with a detailed gravimetric geoid in an attempt to produce profiles of dynamic topography. In order to provide a basis for evaluation of these profiles, available oceanographic observations in the Gulf Stream/Sargasso Sea region have been compiled into a series of biweekly maps. The data include XBT's, satellite infrared imagery, and selected trajectories of surface drifters and sub-surface SOFAR floats. The maps document the known locations of the Gulf Stream, cyclonic and anticyclonic rings, and mid-ocean eddies during the <span class="hlt">period</span> July to October 1978.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP41E..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP41E..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Ostracode Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> Paleothermometry: Applications and Complications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G. S.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Ostracode (bivalved Crustacea) shell Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleothermometry has wide applicability in Cenozoic paleoclimatology over 101 to 107 year timescales because they are commonly fossilized, live in freshwater, shallow- and deep-marine habitats, and grow by molting, which minimizes Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variability due to ontogenetic variability. Two empirically derived Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature calibrations based on core top and culturing include one for the shallow marine, estuarine genus Loxoconcha (5 to 30°C) and another for deep-sea genus Krithe (<1 to 14°C). The former produced a temperature history for Chesapeake Bay for the last millennium, which has been intensively analyzed in the context of the hockey stick temperature curve. The latter produced evidence for decreased deep-sea temperature during glacial intervals and the first <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-wide reconstruction of deep-sea temperature during the warm mid-Pliocene. In addition to temperature, however, factors such as host-water magnesium concentrations, salinity, intra-shell, intra-population, and interspecific variabilility, seasonality, biological factors (shell secretion rate), and post-mortem dissolution can contribute to scatter in calibration datasets and uncertainty in paleotemperature estimates. We will review these processes, present a new 2000 year Chesapeake temperature record, and discuss its relation to twentieth century climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26665173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26665173"><span id="translatedtitle">Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> coeval with Norse settlement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Young, Nicolás E; Schweinsberg, Avriel D; Briner, Jason P; Schaefer, Joerg M</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The climatic mechanisms driving the shift from the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region are debated. We use cosmogenic beryllium-10 dating to develop a moraine chronology with century-scale resolution over the last millennium and show that alpine glaciers in Baffin Island and western Greenland were at or near their maximum LIA configurations during the proposed general timing of the MWP. Complimentary paleoclimate proxy data suggest that the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region remained cool, whereas the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region was comparatively warmer during the MWP-a dipole pattern compatible with a persistent positive phase of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation. These results demonstrate that over the last millennium, glaciers approached their eventual LIA maxima before what is considered the classic LIA in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, a relatively cool western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region during the MWP has implications for understanding Norse migration patterns during the MWP. Our results, paired with other regional climate records, point to nonclimatic factors as contributing to the Norse exodus from the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4673052','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4673052"><span id="translatedtitle">Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> coeval with Norse settlement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Young, Nicolás E.; Schweinsberg, Avriel D.; Briner, Jason P.; Schaefer, Joerg M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The climatic mechanisms driving the shift from the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region are debated. We use cosmogenic beryllium-10 dating to develop a moraine chronology with century-scale resolution over the last millennium and show that alpine glaciers in Baffin Island and western Greenland were at or near their maximum LIA configurations during the proposed general timing of the MWP. Complimentary paleoclimate proxy data suggest that the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region remained cool, whereas the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region was comparatively warmer during the MWP—a dipole pattern compatible with a persistent positive phase of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation. These results demonstrate that over the last millennium, glaciers approached their eventual LIA maxima before what is considered the classic LIA in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, a relatively cool western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region during the MWP has implications for understanding Norse migration patterns during the MWP. Our results, paired with other regional climate records, point to nonclimatic factors as contributing to the Norse exodus from the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. PMID:26665173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9..989B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9..989B"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bates, N. R.; Best, M. H. P.; Neely, K.; Garley, R.; Dickson, A. G.; Johnson, R. J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Fossil fuel use, cement manufacture and land-use changes are the primary sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, with the ocean absorbing 30 %. Ocean uptake and chemical equilibration of anthropogenic CO2with seawater results in a gradual reduction in seawater pH and saturation states (Ω) for calcium carbonate (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3) minerals in a process termed ocean acidification. Assessing the present and future impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems requires detection of the multi-decadal rate of change across ocean basins and at ocean time-series sites. Here, we show the longest continuous record of ocean CO2 changes and ocean acidification in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical gyre near Bermuda from 1983-2011. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increased in surface seawater by ~40 μmol kg-1 and ~50 μatm (~20 %), respectively. Increasing Revelle factor (β) values imply that the capacity of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface waters to absorb CO2 has also diminished. As indicators of ocean acidification, seawater pH decreased by ~0.05 (0.0017 yr-1) and Ω values by ~7-8 %. Such data provide critically needed multi-decadal information for assessing the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean CO2sink and the pH changes that determine marine ecosystem responses to ocean acidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9.2509B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9.2509B"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bates, N. R.; Best, M. H. P.; Neely, K.; Garley, R.; Dickson, A. G.; Johnson, R. J.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Fossil fuel use, cement manufacture and land-use changes are the primary sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, with the ocean absorbing approximately 30% (Sabine et al., 2004). Ocean uptake and chemical equilibration of anthropogenic CO2 with seawater results in a gradual reduction in seawater pH and saturation states (Ω) for calcium carbonate (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3) minerals in a process termed ocean acidification. Assessing the present and future impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems requires detection of the multi-decadal rate of change across ocean basins and at ocean time-series sites. Here, we show the longest continuous record of ocean CO2 changes and ocean acidification in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical gyre near Bermuda from 1983-2011. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increased in surface seawater by ~40 μmol kg-1 and ~50 μatm (~20%), respectively. Increasing Revelle factor (β) values imply that the capacity of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface waters to absorb CO2 has also diminished. As indicators of ocean acidification, seawater pH decreased by ~0.05 (0.0017 yr-1) and ω values by ~7-8%. Such data provide critically needed multi-decadal information for assessing the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean CO2 sink and the pH changes that determine marine ecosystem responses to ocean acidification.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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