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Sample records for atlantic period ca

  1. Ca. Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Salmon Gill Pox Virus transmit horizontally in Atlantic salmon held in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Gjessing, M; Solheim, H T; Litlabø, A; Gjevre, A-G; Kristoffersen, A B; Powell, M D; Colquhoun, D J

    2017-03-06

    Elucidation of the role of infectious agents putatively involved in gill disease is commonly hampered by the lack of culture systems for these organisms. In this study, a farmed population of Atlantic salmon pre-smolts, displaying proliferative gill disease with associated Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Atlantic salmon gill pox virus (SGPV) infections, was identified. A subpopulation of the diseased fish was used as a source of waterborne infection towards a population of naïve Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. Ca. B. cysticola infection became established in exposed naïve fish at high prevalence within the first month of exposure and the bacterial load increased over the study period. Ca. P. salmonis and SGPV infections were identified only at low prevalence in exposed fish during the trial. Although clinically healthy, at termination of the trial the exposed, naïve fish displayed histologically visible pathological changes typified by epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial inflammation with associated bacterial inclusions, confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization to contain Ca. B. cysticola. The results strongly suggest that Ca. B. cysticola infections transmit directly from fish to fish and that the bacterium is directly associated with the pathological changes observed in the exposed, previously naïve fish.

  2. Reinvestigating the "salinity effect" on Atlantic Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, J. E.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous culturing, core-top, and sediment trap studies show that temperature is the primary control on Mg/Ca ratios in foraminiferal calcite, and calibrations of this relationship have been applied successfully to the paleo-record to reconstruct ocean temperatures across a wide range of time periods. In addition, paired Mg/Ca temperatures and δ18Ocalcite measurements on surface dwelling foraminifera are often used to reconstruct past δ18Osw variability, a robust proxy for sea surface salinity. However, a recent study of core-top sediments across an Atlantic meridional transect suggests that salinity might have a stronger control on foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios than previously thought. By analyzing Mg/Ca ratios and δ18O on the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white), Arbuszewski et al. [2010] found a 27% increase in G. ruber Mg/Ca ratios per 1 salinity unit increase for seawater salinities above 35. In this study, we use shell weight analyses and SEM images from a subset of the core-tops used in the Arbuszewski et al. [2010] study across a narrow depth range (3197 - 3559 m) to show that G. ruber shells from the equatorial region are highly dissolved compared to those from the gyres, significantly impacting their Mg/Ca-SSTs. Shell weights from the higher-productivity equatorial regions of the Atlantic are on average 20% and 15% lower than those from the oligotrophic North and South Atlantic gyres, respectively. Given the large preservation gradient along the Mid Atlantic Ridge, Arbuszewski et al.'s [2010] application of a single depth-corrected Mg/Ca:SST equation [Dekens et al., 2002] on cores from the subtropical gyres and the equatorial region is not appropriate. When regional differences in preservation are considered, as well as realistic calcification seasons for G. ruber in temperate latitudes, we find a strong correlation between SST and G. ruber Mg/Ca ratios in core-top samples spanning 43°N to 25°S in the Atlantic. When we also consider

  3. Differential success in sampling of Atlantic Forest amphibians among different periods of the day.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Siqueira, C C; Ariani, C V; Vrcibradic, D; Guedes, D M; Kiefer, M C; Almeida-Gomes, M; Goyannes-Araújo, P; Borges-Júnior, V N T; Van Sluys, M

    2015-05-01

    In general, anurans tend to be nocturnal, though diurnal activity is characteristic of some groups. Studies show that frog activity may be inferred based on the number of individuals collected at different periods of the day, during large-scale field surveys. We investigated the best period of the day to conduct amphibian sampling in nine Atlantic Rainforest areas in southeastern Brazil, based on intensive field surveys. At each locality we employed similar sampling effort during diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal searches (totaling 704.5 sampling hours). We pooled data from all localities for each period and estimated the proportion of frogs of each species active at each period based on the total number of individuals and on the number of species found during all surveys for that period. We recorded a total of 817 individual frogs from 69 species. Species richness was highest at night (median = 12 species), intermediate at dusk (median = 8), and lowest during the day (median = 4). The percentage of the total number of individual frogs found (pooled species) was highest during the night (ca. 53%) and lowest during the day (ca. 14%). Analyzing each species separately, the number of individuals recorded was consistently higher at dusk and night for most species. Our study evidences a trend for nocturnal activity for most Atlantic Rainforest frogs, with few species having primarily diurnal habits. Those results may favor future studies and conservation efforts for amphibian species.

  4. Periodic variations of precipitation in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. S. V.; Theon, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Statistical analysis of the satellite-borne Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer data in the tropical Atlantic region reveals that the rainfall near local noon is higher both in frequency of occurrence and intensity than the rainfall in the same area near local midnight. Another striking feature that stands out from the analysis is an oscillation with a period of 3.3. days in rainfall occurrence and intensity. This periodicty is consistent with easterly waves traveling from the African continent to the region under study.

  5. Refining Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca paleothermometry in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Schmidt, Matthew W.

    2013-12-01

    The Mg/Ca ratio of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white) has become a widely used proxy for reconstructing sea surface temperature (SST), as numerous studies have shown that temperature is the primary control on Mg/Ca ratios in foraminiferal calcite. However, a recent study of core-top sediments across an Atlantic meridional transect suggests that salinity might have a stronger control on foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios than previously thought. By analyzing Mg/Ca ratios and δO18 values in G. ruber (white), Arbuszewski et al. (2010) found a 27% increase in G. ruber Mg/Ca ratios per 1 salinity unit increase for seawater salinities above 35.5. Here, we use shell weight analyses and SEM images from a subset of the core-tops used in the Arbuszewski et al. (2010) study across a narrow depth range (3197-3733 m) to show that G. ruber shells from the equatorial region are highly dissolved compared to those from the subtropical North and South Atlantic gyres, significantly impacting their Mg/Ca-SSTs. Shell weights from the higher-productivity equatorial region of the Atlantic are on average 20% and 15% lower than those from the oligotrophic North and South Atlantic gyres, respectively. Given the large preservation gradient along the transect studied by Arbuszewski et al. (2010), application of a single dissolution-corrected Mg/Ca:SST calibration equation (Dekens et al., 2002) on cores from the subtropical gyres and the equatorial region is not appropriate. When regional differences in preservation are considered, as well as realistic habitat depths and calcification seasons for G. ruber in temperate latitudes, we find a strong correlation between observational SSTs and calculated G. ruber Mg/Ca-SSTs in core-top samples spanning 43°N to 25°S in the Atlantic. In addition, our re-calibrated Mg/Ca-SSTs are more strongly correlated with isotopic calcification temperatures across the transect than originally reported by Arbuszewski et al. (2010). This study

  6. Reconstructing the history of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation using high-resolution Mg/Ca paleothermometry from a Cariaco Basin core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurtzel, J. B.; Black, D. E.; Rahman, S.; Thunell, R.; Peterson, L. C.; Tappa, E.

    2010-12-01

    Instrumental and proxy-reconstructions show the existence of an approximately 70-year periodicity in Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The AMO is correlated with circum-tropical Atlantic climate phenomena such as Sahel and Nordeste rainfall, and Atlantic hurricane patterns. Though it has been suggested that the AMO is controlled by thermohaline circulation, much debate exists as to whether the SST fluctuations are a result of anthropogenic forcing or a natural climate mode, or even if the AMO is a true oscillation at all. Our ability to address this issue has been limited by instrumental SST records that rarely extend back more than 50-100 years and proxy reconstructions that are mostly terrestrial-based. Additionally, the modern instrumental variability likely contains an anthropogenic component that is not easily distinguished from the natural background of the system. From a marine sediment core taken in the Cariaco Basin, we have developed a high-resolution SST reconstruction for the past ca. 1500 years using Mg/Ca paleothermometry on seasonally-representative foraminifera, with the most recent data calibrated to the instrumental record. Previous studies have shown Cariaco Basin Mg/Ca-SSTs to be well-correlated to the Caribbean Sea and much of the western tropical Atlantic, which allows us to create a record that can be used to determine pre-anthropogenic rates and ranges of SST variability and observe how they change over time. Averaging the seasonal temperatures derived from the two foraminiferal species over the instrumental period yields a strong correlation to the AMO index from A. D. 1880 through 1970 (r = 0.44, p<0.0001). Wavelet analysis of the proxy average annual SST data indicates that modern AMO variability is not a consistent feature through time, and may be a function of warm-period climate.

  7. Evidence for cooler European summers during periods of changing meltwater flux to the North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Heiri, Oliver; Tinner, Willy; Lotter, André F.

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed fossil chironomids (nonbiting midges) and pollen in two lake-sediment records to reconstruct and quantify Holocene summer-temperature fluctuations in the European Alps. Chironomid and pollen records indicate five centennial-scale cooling episodes during the early- and mid-Holocene. The strongest temperature declines of ≈1°C are inferred at ≈10,700–10,500 and 8,200–7,600 calibrated 14C years B.P., whereas other temperature fluctuations are of smaller amplitude. Two forcing mechanisms have been presented recently to explain centennial-scale climate variability in Europe during the early- and mid-Holocene, both involving changes in Atlantic thermohaline circulation. In the first mechanism, changes in meltwater flux from the North American continent to the North Atlantic are responsible for changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation, thereby affecting circum-Atlantic climate. In the second mechanism, solar variability is the cause of Holocene climatic fluctuations, possibly triggering changes in Atlantic thermohaline overturning. Within their dating uncertainty, the two major cooling periods in the European Alps are coeval with substantial changes in the routing of North American freshwater runoff to the North Atlantic, whereas quantitatively, our climatic reconstructions show a poor agreement with available records of past solar activity. Thus, our results suggest that, during the early- and mid-Holocene, freshwater-induced Atlantic circulation changes had stronger influence on Alpine summer temperatures than solar variability and that Holocene thermohaline circulation reductions have led to summer-temperature declines of up to 1°C in central Europe. PMID:15492214

  8. Evidence for cooler European summers during periods of changing meltwater flux to the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Heiri, Oliver; Tinner, Willy; Lotter, André F

    2004-10-26

    We analyzed fossil chironomids (nonbiting midges) and pollen in two lake-sediment records to reconstruct and quantify Holocene summer-temperature fluctuations in the European Alps. Chironomid and pollen records indicate five centennial-scale cooling episodes during the early- and mid-Holocene. The strongest temperature declines of approximately 1 degrees C are inferred at approximately 10,700-10,500 and 8,200-7,600 calibrated 14C years B.P., whereas other temperature fluctuations are of smaller amplitude. Two forcing mechanisms have been presented recently to explain centennial-scale climate variability in Europe during the early- and mid-Holocene, both involving changes in Atlantic thermohaline circulation. In the first mechanism, changes in meltwater flux from the North American continent to the North Atlantic are responsible for changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation, thereby affecting circum-Atlantic climate. In the second mechanism, solar variability is the cause of Holocene climatic fluctuations, possibly triggering changes in Atlantic thermohaline overturning. Within their dating uncertainty, the two major cooling periods in the European Alps are coeval with substantial changes in the routing of North American freshwater runoff to the North Atlantic, whereas quantitatively, our climatic reconstructions show a poor agreement with available records of past solar activity. Thus, our results suggest that, during the early- and mid-Holocene, freshwater-induced Atlantic circulation changes had stronger influence on Alpine summer temperatures than solar variability and that Holocene thermohaline circulation reductions have led to summer-temperature declines of up to 1 degrees C in central Europe.

  9. Rapid reductions in North Atlantic Deep Water during the peak of the last interglacial period.

    PubMed

    Galaasen, Eirik Vinje; Ninnemann, Ulysses S; Irvalı, Nil; Kleiven, Helga Kikki F; Rosenthal, Yair; Kissel, Catherine; Hodell, David A

    2014-03-07

    Deep ocean circulation has been considered relatively stable during interglacial periods, yet little is known about its behavior on submillennial time scales. Using a subcentennially resolved epibenthic foraminiferal δ(13)C record, we show that the influence of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) was strong at the onset of the last interglacial period and was then interrupted by several prominent centennial-scale reductions. These NADW transients occurred during periods of increased ice rafting and southward expansions of polar water influence, suggesting that a buoyancy threshold for convective instability was triggered by freshwater and circum-Arctic cryosphere changes. The deep Atlantic chemical changes were similar in magnitude to those associated with glaciations, implying that the canonical view of a relatively stable interglacial circulation may not hold for conditions warmer and fresher than at present.

  10. Fidelity of the Sr/Ca proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Roberts, Kelsey E.; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Richey, Julie N.

    2017-01-01

    Massive corals provide a useful archive of environmental variability, but careful testing of geochemical proxies in corals is necessary to validate the relationship between each proxy and environmental parameter throughout the full range of conditions experienced by the recording organisms. Here we use samples from a coral-growth study to test the hypothesis that Sr/Ca in the coral Siderastrea siderea accurately records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the subtropics (Florida, USA) along 350 km of reef tract. We test calcification rate, measured via buoyant weight, and linear extension (LE) rate, estimated with Alizarin Red-S staining, as predictors of variance in the Sr/Ca records of 39 individual S. siderea corals grown at four outer-reef locations next to in-situ temperature loggers during two, year-long periods. We found that corals with calcification rates < 1.7 mg cm-2 d-1 or < 1.7 mm yr-1 LE returned spuriously high Sr/Ca values, leading to a cold-bias in Sr/Ca-based SST estimates. The threshold-type response curves suggest that extension rate can be used as a quality-control indicator during sample and drill-path selection when using long cores for SST paleoreconstruction. For our corals that passed this quality control step, the Sr/Ca-SST proxy performed well in estimating mean annual temperature across three sites spanning 350 km of the Florida reef tract. However, there was some evidence that extreme temperature stress in 2010 (cold snap) and 2011 (SST above coral-bleaching threshold) may have caused the corals not to record the temperature extremes. Known stress events could be avoided during modern calibrations of paleoproxies.Plain Language SummaryCoral skeletons are used to decipher past environmental conditions in the ocean because they live for centuries and produce annual growth bands much like tree rings. Along with measuring coral growth rates in the past, coral skeletons can be chemically sampled to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.2336D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.2336D"><span>South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> intermediate water advances into the North-east <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with reduced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Bonneau, Lucile; Colin, Christophe; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Montagna, Paolo; Blamart, Dominique; Hebbeln, Dierk; Van Rooij, David; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Hemsing, Freya; Wefing, Anne-Marie; Frank, Norbert</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The Nd isotopic composition (ɛNd) of seawater and cold-water coral (CWC) samples from the Gulf of Cádiz and the Alboran Sea, at a depth of 280-827 m were investigated in order to constrain middepth water mass dynamics within the Gulf of Cádiz over the past 40 ka. ɛNd of glacial and Holocene CWC from the Alboran Sea and the northern Gulf of Cádiz reveals relatively constant values (-8.6 to -9.0 and -9.5 to -10.4, respectively). Such values are similar to those of the surrounding present-day middepth waters from the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW; ɛNd ˜ -9.4) and Mediterranean Sea Water (MSW; ɛNd ˜ -9.9). In contrast, glacial ɛNd values for CWC collected at thermocline depth (550-827 m) in the southern Gulf of Cádiz display a higher average value (-8.9 ± 0.4) compared to the present-day value (-11.7 ± 0.3). This implies a higher relative contribution of water masses of Mediterranean (MSW) or South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> origin (East Antarctic Intermediate Water, EAAIW). Our study has produced the first evidence of significant radiogenic ɛNd values (˜ -8) at 19, 23-24, and 27 ka, which are coeval with increasing iceberg discharges and a weakening of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Since MOW ɛNd values remained stable during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, it is suggested that these radiogenic ɛNd values most likely reflect an enhanced northward propagation of glacial EAAIW into the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP31E..04V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP31E..04V"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Surface and Deep-Water Hydrography during the Early Pliocene Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voelker, A. H. L.; Evans, H. F.; Naafs, B. D.; Cavaleiro, C. D.; Rebotim, A.; Ventura, C.; Stein, R. H.; Channell, J. E. T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The early Pliocene, with atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at levels similar to today, is seen as a case study for Earth's future climate evolution. During this <span class="hlt">period</span> the progressive closing of the Central American Seaway led to increased poleward heat and salt transport within the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) becoming warmer and saltier and resulting in an enhanced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In order to understand how stable the AMOC really was we produced millennial-scale (1-2 kyr) surface and deep-water records for IODP Site U1313 (41°N, 33°W, 3412m) for the interval from 3.4 to 4.1 Ma. This site is ideally located to monitor past AMOC changes with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Drift waters at the surface and NADW in the deep. Although interglacial/glacial cycles are visible, the higher frequency oscillations recorded in both the planktonic G. ruber (white) and benthic Cibicidoides sp. δ18O records impede tuning to the LR04 stack (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). We therefore exploit a different approach: using the magnetic polarity chrons (Gilbert, Cochiti) as recorded at Site U1313 as framework, we tune our benthic δ18O record to that of ODP Site 1085 (on LR04 ages). The benthic δ13C record shows millennial-scale oscillations, and the values indicate nearly continuous NADW presence and confirm a strong AMOC, also during most of the glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Varying surface water conditions, especially during the younger interglacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>, are reflected in the G. ruber isotope data and appear to be linked to salinity changes since they are not recorded in the alkenone sea-surface temperature data. Although glacial stages Gi 2 and Gi 4 show the expected higher benthic δ18O values, Gi 6 was the glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> with the strongest impact on the AMOC as revealed by cooler, less ventilated surface waters and a less ventilated NADW. Overall, the AMOC was strong throughout, but experienced high frequency oscillations at a level similar to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022375','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022375"><span>Orbital and suborbital variability in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bottom water temperature obtained from deep-sea ostracod Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Baker, P.A.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, J.; DeMartino, D.M.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Magnesium/calcium (Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) ratios were measured in the deep-sea ostracod (Crustacea) genus Krithe from Chain core 82-24-4PC from the western mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge (3427 m) in order to estimate ocean circulation and bottom water temperature (BWT) variability over the past 200,000 years. Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios have been used as a paleothermometer because the ratios are controlled primarily by ambient water temperatures at the time the organism secretes its adult carapace. Over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> values oscillated between about 7 mmol/mol and 12 mmol/mol, equivalent to a BWT range of 0 to > 3.5??C. The lowest values were obtained on specimens from glacial marine isotope stages (MISs) 2, 4 and 6; the highest values were obtained from specimens from the early part of the Holocene interglacial (MIS 1), and also from MISs 5 and 7. These trends suggest that BWTs in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean fluctuate over orbital time scales. Suborbital variability in Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios and BWT was also observed for the past 100,000 years. Ratios rose from ~8 mmol/mol to ~10 mmol/mol (implying a BWT increase of ~1 to 3??C) during 14 Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> excursions. The highest ratios were found in Krithe dated at approximately 32, 36-38, 43, 48, 73, 85 and 93 ka. Although the age model for the Chain 82-24-4PC and temporal resolution do not allow precise correlation, some of these deep-sea bottom temperature excursions appear to correspond to Heinrich events recorded in other regions of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and perhaps Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadial events recorded in Greenland ice cores. If confirmed, this would support the hypothesis that millennial-scale oscillations of climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are capable of affecting global climate via thermohaline circulation changes. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP52A..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP52A..05C"><span>Multi-Centennial Record of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Freshwater Variability since the Little Ice Age Archived in Coralline Algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, P. T. W.; Halfar, J.; Adey, W.; Zack, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Declining Arctic sea-ice cover in recent decades has driven large-scale freshwater transport into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, possibly influencing the strength of the Meridional Overturning Circulation and even global climate. However, due to the lack of long-term oceanographic observations, little is known about the natural freshwater variability of the Northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Crustose coralline algae Clathromorphum compactum are extremely long-lived shallow marine calcareous plants that are abundant along the subarctic eastern Canadian coastline. They are particularly well-suited as recorders of paleoclimate signals due to the formation of annual growth increments, allowing for the precise calendar dating and geochemical sampling of hard tissue. Here, we provide the first annually-resolved multi-centennial record of coralline algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> from Labrador, Canada, as a proxy for North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> freshwater variability extending well into the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1665 AD). Barium-to-calcium ratios (Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) from coralline algae have previously been used as an indicator of freshwater runoff. This is because barium-rich clay sediments are transported by terrestrial runoff into coastal waters, and barium is released from the clay minerals upon encountering more alkaline elements present in seawater. We observe higher algal barium concentrations during the LIA, followed by a steady decline to recent times. In addition, coralline algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> shows significant positive relationships to Hudson Strait runoff, as well as Canadian Arctic and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea-ice extent. This suggests that more riverine Ba is transported from the Hudson Strait into the Labrador Sea during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of increased sea-ice cover. Multiyear sea-ice can block incoming solar radiation thereby diminishing the effects of nutrient scavenging by phytoplankton, resulting in a more conservative transport of Ba into northern Labrador. However as sea-ice continues to thin, more sunlight is able to penetrate through the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP42A..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP42A..01G"><span>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation Reconstructed at Bermuda for 220 Years Using Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> Ratios in Diploria labyrinthiformis (brain coral)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goodkin, N. F.; Hughen, K. A.; Cohen, A. L.; Curry, W. B.; Doney, S. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) is a meridional oscillation in atmospheric mass measured by pressure anomalies between Iceland (65°N, 23°W) and the Azores (38°N, 26°W) (Hurrell, 1995). Changes between the positive and negative phase of the NAO strongly influence weather patterns across the US, Europe and the Middle East. A shift in recent decades toward a sustained positive NAO has raised questions about the influence of greenhouse gas emissions on this system. Unfortunately, instrumental records are too short to identify the natural baseline variability of the NAO, and NAO reconstructions generally encompass only land-based proxies, excluding ocean processes. Winter-time sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Sargasso Sea have previously been shown to correlate to the NAO (Visbeck et al., 2001), and thus a long winter SST record based on proxy data could be used to reconstruct NAO variability back in time. Here we present an annually resolved winter-time strontium to calcium ratio (Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) record from a 220-year old brain coral (Diploria labyrinthiformis) collected from the south shore of Bermuda. Brain coral is prevalent in Bermuda and shows distinct annual banding in its skeleton providing precise age models. Winter-time coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> has previously been shown to accurately record winter SST free from growth rate influences (Goodkin et al., 2005), and that relationship is confirmed here. Cross-spectral analysis between winter-time coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and four instrumental and proxy records of the NAO (Hurrell, 1995, Jones et al., 1997, Luterbacher et al., 2001, Cook et al., 2002) show two frequencies of coherence with >95% confidence. At <span class="hlt">periods</span> greater than 20 years and between 3 and 5 years, the coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> effectively captures the NAO variability. Filtering the coral record to these frequencies and comparing to the instrumental and proxy records, including another marine-based NAO reconstruction from the North and Norwegian Seas (Schoene et al., 2003), show</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1833994','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1833994"><span>Ocean climate prior to breeding affects the duration of the nestling <span class="hlt">period</span> in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> puffin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Durant, Joël M; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Stenseth, Nils Chr</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Time-series covering 23 years for a long-lived seabird, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> puffin (Fratercula arctica L.) at Røst, northern Norway, was used to explore any indirect effects of climatic variations on chick production. By fitting statistical models on the duration of the nestling <span class="hlt">period</span>, we found that it may be estimated using the average sea temperature and salinity at 0–20 m depth in March (having a positive and a negative effect, respectively). We propose that when the phytoplankton bloom occurs in early spring, adverse oceanographic conditions, i.e. low temperature and high salinity in March, have a negative effect on puffin reproduction by degradation of the prey availability (mainly Clupea harengus) for chick-feeding adults three months later. PMID:17148306</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1400A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1400A"><span>Tracing Marine Cryptotephras in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abbott, Peter; Davies, Siwan; Griggs, Adam; Bourne, Anna</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> patterns in the occurrence of these deposit types have been detected, the dominant controls at different sites explored and key regions of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with a greater likelihood for preserving isochronous deposits identified. Overall, these investigations have allowed a framework of isochronous marine cryptotephras to be defined for the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. The most widespread deposit is the rhyolitic phase of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ash Zone II, identified in 9 of the marine sequences and providing a direct tie-line to the Greenland ice-cores records. The framework is dominated by horizons with a basaltic composition, predominantly sourced from the Icelandic Grímsvötn volcanic system but horizons with Katla, Hekla, Kverkfjöll, Veidivötn and Vestmannaeyjar like compositions have also been isolated. Correlations to horizons in the Greenland ice-core tephra framework are being explored, however, this is a challenging process due to the large number of horizons with similar geochemical signatures in the records and the difference in temporal resolution and stratigraphic control between the ice and marine sequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.5415M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.5415M"><span>A comparison of benthic foraminiferal Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and sedimentary Mn / Al as proxies of relative bottom-water oxygenation in the low-latitude NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> upwelling system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McKay, C. L.; Groeneveld, J.; Filipsson, H. L.; Gallego-Torres, D.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Toyofuku, T.; Romero, O. E.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Trace element incorporation into foraminiferal shells (tests) is governed by physical and chemical conditions of the surrounding marine environment, and therefore foraminiferal geochemistry provides a means of palaeo-oceanographic reconstructions. With the availability of high-spatial-resolution instrumentation with high precision, foraminiferal geochemistry has become a major research topic over recent years. However, reconstructions of past bottom-water oxygenation using foraminiferal tests remain in their infancy. In this study we explore the potential of using Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as well as by flow-through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (FT-ICP-OES) in the benthic foraminiferal species Eubuliminella exilis as a proxy for recording changes in bottom-water oxygen conditions in the low-latitude NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> upwelling system. Furthermore, we compare the SIMS and FT-ICP-OES results with published Mn sediment bulk measurements from the same sediment core. This is the first time that benthic foraminiferal Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> is directly compared with Mn bulk measurements, which largely agree on the former oxygen conditions. Samples were selected to include different productivity regimes related to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (35-28 ka), the Last Glacial Maximum (28-19 ka), Heinrich Event 1 (18-15.5 ka), Bølling Allerød (15.5-13.5 ka) and the Younger Dryas (13.5-11.5 ka). Foraminiferal Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> determined by SIMS and FT-ICP-OES is comparable. Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> was higher during <span class="hlt">periods</span> with high primary productivity, such as during the Younger Dryas, which indicates low-oxygen conditions. This is further supported by the benthic foraminiferal faunal composition. Our results highlight the proxy potential of Mn / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> in benthic foraminifera from upwelling systems for reconstructing past variations in oxygen conditions of the sea floor environment as well as the need to use it in combination with other proxy records such as faunal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMPP12A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMPP12A..06M"><span>Quasi-<span class="hlt">periodic</span> Climate Teleconnections via the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation: A New Perspective From Tree Rings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyers, S. R.; Pagani, M.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Internal modes of climate variability such as the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) significantly contribute to regional weather patterns on an inter-annual basis. Changes in the behavior of these modes over decadal and/or centennial timescales may represent an important driver of past climate events and future climate change. Importantly, if the internal modes express band-limited (<span class="hlt">periodic</span> to quasi-<span class="hlt">periodic</span>) variability, they provide a useful template for climate forecasting. Unfortunately, our ability to directly quantify the <span class="hlt">periodic/quasi-periodic</span> nature of climate response to the internal modes is constrained by the limited temporal extent of instrumental records. In this study we present a novel approach toward recognition of band-limited climatic effects of the NAO in proxy records that span the past 400 years. The spatial climatic response of the NAO between northern and southern Europe provides a framework for detecting the influence of the NAO in proxy climate records. Specifically, if the NAO-forced climate signal is present it should be strongly correlated and anti-phased between the northern and southern regions of western Europe. To prospect for the NAO signal in paleoclimate data we employ independent networks of tree ring width series from Scandinavia and the Mediterranean. These locations were selected because modern instrumental records of the NAO and precipitation are significantly correlated in these regions, and tree ring width sensitivity to climate variability is maximized. The tree-ring width data from western Europe reveals a distinct 25-year quasi-<span class="hlt">periodic</span> synchronization of climate change between Scandinavia and the Mediterranean during the 17th-20th centuries. Based on the dipole character of this signal, we propose that it is representative of climate forcing via the NAO. On this timescale of climate variability, dry/cold climate events in northern Europe are closely tied to wet events in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51A1813A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51A1813A"><span>Relationship between solar irradiance and climatic variability in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> since the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alonso-Garcia, M.; Flower, B. P.; Kleiven, H. F.; Andrews, J. T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The potential role of solar irradiance as a climate forcing during the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (MWP)-Little Ice Age (LIA)-20th Century interval can be tested using several proxies. In this work we use the occurrence of fine sand sized lithic grains (63-150 μm) in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine sediments to study the climatic history of high latitudes because these lithic grains were ice-rafted either by icebergs or sea-ice. The Holocene ice-rafted debris (IRD) flux is much lower than the IRD flux during glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span> but the occurrence of hematite-stained grains (HSG) from Paleozoic red beds, Icelandic volcanic glass, and detrital carbonate in the fine sand fraction has been used to track climatic variability at several North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> areas: Feni Drift off Ireland, off eastern Greenland near Denmark Strait, and off Newfoundland (Bond et al, 2001). This controversial work suggested that during the Holocene major ice-rafting discharges matched solar irradiance variability patterns inferred from cosmogenic nuclides (10Be fluxes measured in Greenland ice cores and 14C records from tree rings) and hence, variations in the solar output may have paced centennial- to millennial-scale climate variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. Since 2001 improved 10Be and 14C records have been released and several new sedimentological studies of subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine sites suggested that other climatic forcings may have been involved in Holocene climate variability rather than solar activity (e.g. Moros et al., 2006; Andrews et al., 2009). Moreover, even the ice-rafted origin of the debris has been questioned at some sites. Here we present new high resolution North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> IRD records from Denmark Strait off eastern Greenland and the Labrador Sea, in addition to recounts of sites on the Feni Drift off Ireland (Bond et al., 2001), to study climate variability in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> since MWP. IRD counts are performed using the same technique as in Bond et al. (2001) to (1</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41B1511B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41B1511B"><span>Development of the Wintertime Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-SST Record from Red Sea Corals as a Proxy for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernstein, W. N.; Hughen, K. A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) is one of the most pronounced and influential patterns in winter atmospheric circulation variability. This meridional redistribution of atmospheric mass across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean produces large changes in the intensity, number and direction of storms generated within the basin, and the regional climate of surrounding continents. The NAO exerts a significant impact on society, through influences on agriculture, fisheries, water management, energy generation and coastal development. NAO effects on climate extend from eastern North America across Europe to the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. Changes in NAO behavior during the late 20th century have been linked to global warming; yet despite its importance, the causes and long-term patterns of NAO variability in the past remain poorly understood. In order to better predict the influence of the NAO on climate in the future, it is critical to examine multi-century NAO variability. The Red Sea is an excellent location from which to generate long NAO records for two reasons. First, patterns of wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) in the Red Sea are highly correlated with NAO variability (Visbeck et al. 2001; Hurrell et al. 2003). Second, the tropical/subtropical Red Sea region contains fast growing long-lived massive Porites spp. corals with annually banded skeletons. These corals are ideal for generating well-dated high-resolution paleoclimatic records that extend well beyond the instrumental <span class="hlt">period</span>. Here we present a study of winter SST and NAO variability in the Red sea region based on coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data. In 2008, we collected multiple drill cores ranging in length from 1 to 4.1 meters from Porites corals at six sites spanning a large SST gradient. Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> measurements from multiple corals will be regressed against 23 years of satellite SST data, expanding the SST range over which we calibrate. A sampling resolution of 0.5mm will yield greater than bi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1233641','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1233641"><span>Quantal release, incremental detection, and long-<span class="hlt">period</span> <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations in a model based on regulatory <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-binding sites along the permeation pathway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dupont, G; Swillens, S</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Quantal release, incremental detection, and oscillations are three types of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ responses that can be obtained in different conditions, after stimulation of the intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores by submaximum concentrations of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3). All three phenomena are thought to occur through the regulatory properties of the InsP3 receptor/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channel. In the present study, we perform further analysis of the model (Swillens et al., 1994, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91:10074-10078) previously proposed for transient InsP3-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release, based on the bell-shaped dependence of the InsP3 receptor activity on the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ level and on the existence of an intermediate <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ domain located around the mouth of the channel. We show that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations also arise in the latter model. Conditions for the occurrence of the various behaviors are investigated. Numerical simulations also show that the existence of an intermediate <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ domain can markedly increase the <span class="hlt">period</span> of oscillations. <span class="hlt">Periods</span> on the order of 1 min can indeed be accounted for by the model when one assigns realistic values to the kinetic constants of the InsP3 receptor, which, in the absence of a domain, lead to oscillations with <span class="hlt">periods</span> of a few seconds. Finally, theoretical support in favor of a positive cooperativity in the regulation of the InsP3 receptor by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ is presented. Images FIGURE 7 PMID:8889149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP22B..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP22B..07H"><span>A Millennial-Scale Reduction in Ventilation of the Deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> During the Last Interglacial <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayes, C. T.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Hasenfratz, A. P.; Jaccard, S.; Hodell, D. A.; Sigman, D. M.; Haug, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>During the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, global temperatures were ~2°C warmer than present and sea level was 6-8 m higher. Southern Ocean sediments from ODP Site 1094 reveal a spike in authigenic uranium 127,000 years ago, within the last interglacial, reflecting decreased oxygenation of deep water by Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Increased deep storage of respired carbon due to this circulation event may explain an observed decline in atmospheric CO2 at this time. Unlike ice age reductions in AABW, the interglacial stagnation event appears decoupled from open ocean conditions and may have resulted from coastal freshening due to mass loss from the Antarctic ice sheet. AABW reduction coincided with increased North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) formation, and the subsequent reinvigoration in AABW coincided with reduced NADW formation. Alternation of deep water formation between the Antarctic and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, believed to characterize ice ages, apparently also occurs in warm climates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19258687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19258687"><span>On the role of <span class="hlt">periodic</span> structures in the lower jaw of the <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dible, S A; Flint, J A; Lepper, P A</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>This paper proposes the application of band-gap theory to hearing in the <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Using the transmission line modelling (TLM) technique and published computed tomography (CT) data of an <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), a series of sound propagation experiments have been carried out. It is shown that the teeth in the lower jaw can be viewed as a <span class="hlt">periodic</span> array of scattering elements which result in the formation of an acoustic stop band (or band gap) that is angular dependent. It is shown through simple and complex geometry simulations that performance enhancements such as improved gain and isolation between the two receive paths can be achieved. This mechanism has the potential to be exploited in direction-finding sonar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PalOc..24.2218L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PalOc..24.2218L"><span>High-amplitude variations in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature during the early Pliocene warm <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lawrence, Kira T.; Herbert, Timothy D.; Brown, Catherine M.; Raymo, Maureen E.; Haywood, Alan M.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>We provide the first continuous, orbital-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) record from the high-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, a region critical to understanding the origin of the Plio-Pleistocene ice ages and proximal to regions that became frequently glaciated after ˜2.7 Ma. We analyzed sediments from Ocean Drilling Program Site 982 over the last 4 Ma for their alkenone unsaturation index and compared this surface water signal to a benthic δ18O record obtained from the same section. We find that while ocean surface temperatures were significantly warmer (˜6°C) than modern temperatures during the early Pliocene, they were also as variable as those during the late Pleistocene, a surprising result in light of the subdued variance of oxygen isotopic time series during the interval of 3-5 Ma. We propose two possible explanations for the high orbital-scale SST variability observed: either that a strong, high-latitude feedback mechanism not involving large continental ice sheets alternately cooled and warmed a broad region of the northern high latitudes or that by virtue of its location near the northern margin of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Drift, the site was unusually sensitive to obliquity-driven climate shifts. On supraorbital time scales, a strong, sustained cooling of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs (˜4.5°C) occurred from 3.5 to 2.5 Ma and was followed by an interval of more modest cooling (an additional 1.5°C) from 2.5 Ma to the present. Evolutionary orbital-scale phase relationships between North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and benthic δ18O show that SST began to lead δ18O significantly coincident with the onset of strong cooling at Site 982 (˜3.5 Ma). We speculate that these changes were related to the growth and subsequent persistence of a Greenland ice sheet of approximately modern size through interglacial states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13A1497S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13A1497S"><span>Modeling dust emission variations in Eastern Europe related to North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> abrupt climate changes of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sima, A.; Kageyama, M.; Rousseau, D.; Ramstein, G.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Antoine, P.; Dulac, F.; Hatte, C.; Lagroix, F.; Gerasimenko, N.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The European loess sequences of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> (~ 100-15 kyr BP) show <span class="hlt">periods</span> of strong dust accumulation alternating with episodes of reduced (or no) sedimentation, allowing soil development. For the main loess sedimentation <span class="hlt">period</span> (~ 40 - 15 kyr BP), data indicate a correlation between these variations and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rapid climate changes: the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events. We use numerical modeling to investigate the relationship between the North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> abrupt changes and the sedimentation variations in Europe. A first study (Sima et al, QSR, 2009) focused on western Europe, and addressed the impact on dust emission of North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST changes as those associated to DO and H events. It proposed that vegetation played a key role in modulating dust emission variations in western European source areas. Here we focus on eastern Europe, especially on the areas north and north-east of the Carpathian Mountains, where loess deposits have recorded DO and H events (Rousseau et al. Clim. Past D, 2010). As in the previous study, we use the LMDZ AGCM and the SECHIBA land-surface models to simulate a reference glacial state (“stadial”), a cold (“HE”) and a warm (“DO interstadial”) perturbation, all corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 3 conditions. We follow the same protocol as for the study on the west-European sector to analyze the impact of the climate factors and surface conditions on dust emission. The simulated most active emission areas are compatible with the loess deposit distribution, and the key role of vegetation in stadial-interstadial dust emission variations is confirmed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28558386','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28558386"><span><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> Mechanical Stress INDUCES Chondrocyte Proliferation and Matrix Synthesis via <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKII-Mediated Pyk2 Signaling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Wenwei; Li, Zeng; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Jinchun; Song, Huanghe; Xu, Shun; Cui, Weiding; Wang, Qing; Chen, Zhefeng; Liu, Feng; Fan, Weimin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> mechanical stress can promote chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis to improve the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage. Although the integrin β1-ERK1/2 signal cascade has been implicated in <span class="hlt">periodic</span> mechanical stress-induced mitogenic effects in chondrocytes, the precise mechanisms have not been fully established. The current study was designed to probe the roles of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKII and Pyk2 signaling in <span class="hlt">periodic</span> mechanical stress-mediated chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. Chondrocytes were subjected to <span class="hlt">periodic</span> mechanical stress, proliferation was assessed by direct cell counting and CCK-8 assay; gene expressions were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR, protein abundance by Western blotting. Mechanical stress, markedly enhanced the phosphorylation levels of Pyk2 at Tyr402 and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKII at Thr286. Both suppression of Pyk2 with Pyk2 inhibitor PF431396 or Pyk2 shRNA and suppression of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKII with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKII inhibitor KN-93 or <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKII shRNA blocked <span class="hlt">periodic</span> mechanical stress-induced chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. Additionally, either pretreatment with KN-93 or shRNA targeted to <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKII prevented the activation of ERK1/2 and Pyk2 under conditions of <span class="hlt">periodic</span> mechanical stress. Interestingly, in relation to <span class="hlt">periodic</span> mechanical stress, in the context of Pyk2 inhibition with PF431396 or its targeted shRNA, only the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 were abrogated, while <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKII signal activation was not affected. Moreover, the phosphorylation levels of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKII- Thr286 and Pyk2- Tyr402 were abolished after pretreatment with blocking antibody against integrinβ1 exposed to <span class="hlt">periodic</span> mechanical stress. Our results collectively indicate that <span class="hlt">periodic</span> mechanical stress promotes chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis through the integrinβ1-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKII-Pyk2-ERK1/2 signaling cascade. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178241','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178241"><span>Data for evaluating the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> temperature proxy with in-situ temperature in the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coral Siderastrea siderea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Roberts, Kelsey E.; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Richey, Julie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Massive corals are used as environmental recorders throughout the tropics and subtropics to study environmental variability during time <span class="hlt">periods</span> preceding ocean-observing instrumentation. However, careful testing of paleoproxies is necessary to validate the environmental-proxy record throughout a range of conditions experienced by the recording organisms. As part of the USGS Coral Reef Ecosystems Studies project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/crest/), we tested the hypothesis that the coral Siderastrea siderea faithfully records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> record throughout the subtropical (Florida, USA) seasonal cycle along 350 km of reef tract. Coral samples were analyzed from thirty-nine corals growing in 3 to 4 m depth at Fowey Rocks (Biscayne National Park), Molasses Reef (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, FKNMS), Sombrero Reef (FKNMS), and Pulaski Shoal (Dry Tortugas National Park). Temperatures were recorded with Onset® HOBO® Water Temp Pro V2 (U22-001) data loggers in duplicate at each site. Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, calcification rate, and select underwater temperature data are provided here. The results of this experiment are interpreted in Kuffner et al. (in review). A larger temperature dataset, including the data provided here, is found in another data release Kuffner (2015), and a larger calcification-rate dataset is interpreted in Kuffner et al. (2013).Kuffner, I.B., K.E. Roberts, J.A. Flannery, J.M. Morrison, and J.N. Richey. In review. Fidelity of the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coral Siderastrea siderea.Kuffner, I.B., T.D. Hickey, and J.M. Morrison. 2013. Calcification rates of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea and crustose coralline algae along the Florida Keys (USA) outer-reef tract. Coral Reefs 32:987-997. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00338-013-1047-8Kuffner, I. B. (2015), Underwater temperature on off-shore coral reefs of the Florida Keys, U.S.A.: U.S. Geological Survey data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3869012','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3869012"><span>Physiologic and metagenomic attributes of the rhodoliths forming the largest <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 bed in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cavalcanti, Giselle S; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; dos Santos, Eidy O; Silveira, Cynthia B; Meirelles, Pedro M; Longo, Leila; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the world's largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ∼21 000 km2) and has one of the largest marine <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16 μmol carbon m−2 s−1), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 105 tons C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. PMID:23985749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23985749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23985749"><span>Physiologic and metagenomic attributes of the rhodoliths forming the largest <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 bed in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cavalcanti, Giselle S; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; dos Santos, Eidy O; Silveira, Cynthia B; Meirelles, Pedro M; Longo, Leila; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the world's largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ∼21,000 km(2)) and has one of the largest marine <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16 μmol carbon m(-2 )s(-1)), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 10(5) tons C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4742245','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4742245"><span>Substantial Downregulation of Myogenic Transcripts in Skeletal Muscle of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Cod during the Spawning <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Edvardsen, Vigdis</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Gonadal maturation is an extremely energy consuming process for batch spawners and it is associated with a significant decrease in growth and seasonal deterioration in flesh quality. Our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms linking sexual maturation and muscle growth is still limited. In the present study, we performed RNA-Seq using 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing in fast skeletal muscle sampled from two-year-old <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cod (Gadus morhua) at representative time points throughout the reproductive cycle (August, March and May). In total, 126,937 good quality reads were obtained, with 546 nucleotide length and 52% GC content on average. RNA-Seq analysis using the CLC Genomics Workbench with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cod reference UniGene cDNA data revealed 59,581 (46.9%) uniquely annotated reads. Pairwise comparison for expression levels identified 153 differentially expressed UniGenes between time points. Notably, we found a significant suppression of myh13 and myofibrillar gene isoforms in fast skeletal muscle during the spawning season. This study uncovered a large number of differentially expressed genes that may be influenced by gonadal maturation, thus representing a significant contribution to our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating muscle wasting and regeneration in batch spawners during their reproductive cycle. PMID:26844771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-21/pdf/2012-30757.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-21/pdf/2012-30757.pdf"><span>77 FR 75654 - Nomination <span class="hlt">Period</span> Extension for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council, <span class="hlt">CA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-12-21</p> <p>... Management, Bakersfield Field Office, 3801 Pegasus Drive, Bakersfield, <span class="hlt">CA</span> 93308. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Johna Hurl, Monument Manager, Bakersfield Field Office, 3801 Pegasus Drive, Bakersfield, <span class="hlt">CA</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25884873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25884873"><span>The frequency of spontaneous triploidy in farmed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon produced in Norway during the <span class="hlt">period</span> 2007-2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glover, Kevin A; Madhun, Abdullah S; Dahle, Geir; Sørvik, Anne G E; Wennevik, Vidar; Skaala, Øystein; Morton, H Craig; Hansen, Tom J; Fjelldal, Per G</p> <p>2015-04-11</p> <p>Spontaneous triploidy has been reported in a number of fish species, and is often linked with in vivo or in vitro ageing of eggs post ovulation. Here, we provide the first investigation into the frequency of spontaneous triploidy in farmed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon by analysing more than 4000 fish from 55 farms, and approximately 1000 recaptured escapees, all sampled in the <span class="hlt">period</span> 2007-2014. In addition, we compare microsatellite genotyping against flow cytometry and red blood cell diameter in a set of 45 putatively diploid and 45 putatively triploid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon. The three methods implemented for ploidy determination gave consistent results, thus validating the methods used here. Overall, 2.0% spontaneous triploids were observed in salmon sampled on farms. The frequency of spontaneous triploids varied greatly among sea cages (0-28%), but they were observed in similar frequencies among the three primary breeding companies (1.8-2.4%). Spontaneous triploids were observed in all farming regions in Norway, and in all years sampled. Spontaneous triploids were also observed among the escapees recaptured in both the marine environment and in rivers. Spontaneous triploidy in commercially produced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon is likely to be a result of the practices employed by the industry. For logistical reasons, there is sometimes a pause of hours, and in some cases overnight, between killing the female broodfish, removal of her eggs, and fertilization. This gives the eggs time to age post ovulation, and increases the probability of duplication of the maternal chromosome set by inhibition of the second polar body release after normal meiosis II in the oocyte.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20735561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20735561"><span>Lunar <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> and the timing of river entry in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuparinen, A; O'Hara, R B; Merilä, J</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Historical catch records of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar from three rivers discharging to the Baltic Sea in an area free from tides and from strong effects of the moon on illumination were analysed to investigate whether timing of S. salar river entry was associated with lunar cycles directly. Although a significant effect of lunar phase on river entry was detected, with more fish entering rivers around the full moon than other phases, the effect of the lunar cycle was very small compared with other sources of variation. Hence, the biological role of lunar cycle as a determinant of the timing of S. salar runs in the investigated populations was negligible, suggesting that lunar cycle per se does not play a role in the timing of S. salar river entry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70180017','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70180017"><span>Fidelity of the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coral Siderastrea siderea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Roberts, Kelsey E.; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Richey, Julie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Massive corals provide a useful archive of environmental variability, but careful testing of geochemical proxies in corals is necessary to validate the relationship between each proxy and environmental parameter throughout the full range of conditions experienced by the recording organisms. Here we use samples from a coral-growth study to test the hypothesis that Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in the coral Siderastrea siderea accurately records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the subtropics (Florida, USA) along 350 km of reef tract. We test calcification rate, measured via buoyant weight, and linear extension (LE) rate, estimated with Alizarin Red-S staining, as predictors of variance in the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records of 39 individual S. siderea corals grown at four outer-reef locations next to in-situ temperature loggers during two, year-long <span class="hlt">periods</span>. We found that corals with calcification rates < 1.7 mg cm−2 d−1 or < 1.7 mm yr−1 LE returned spuriously high Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> values, leading to a cold-bias in Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based SST estimates. The threshold-type response curves suggest that extension rate can be used as a quality-control indicator during sample and drill-path selection when using long cores for SST paleoreconstruction. For our corals that passed this quality control step, the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-SST proxy performed well in estimating mean annual temperature across three sites spanning 350 km of the Florida reef tract. However, there was some evidence that extreme temperature stress in 2010 (cold snap) and 2011 (SST above coral-bleaching threshold) may have caused the corals not to record the temperature extremes. Known stress events could be avoided during modern calibrations of paleoproxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PalOc..28..237Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PalOc..28..237Y"><span>Calibration and application of B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, and δ11B in Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) to constrain CO2 uptake in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last deglaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Jimin; Thornalley, David J. R.; Rae, James W. B.; McCave, Nick I.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Norwegian Sea are prominent sinks of atmospheric CO2 today, but their roles in the past remain poorly constrained. In this study, we attempt to use B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ11B ratios in the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral variety) to reconstruct subsurface water pH and pCO2 changes in the polar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last deglaciation. Comparison of core-top results with nearby hydrographic data shows that B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in N. pachyderma (s) is mainly controlled by seawater B(OH)4-/HCO3- with a roughly constant partition coefficient <mfenced open="(" close=")">KD=<mfrac><mfenced open="[" close="]">B>/<span class="hlt">Ca</mfenced>Ca</span>CO3<mfenced open="[" close="]">B<mfenced open="(" close=")">OH</mfenced> 4->/HCO<mrow></mrow>3>¯</mfenced>seawater</mfrac></mfenced> of 1.48 ± 0.15 × 10-3 (2σ), and δ11B in this species is offset below δ11B of the borate in seawater by 3.38 ± 0.71‰ (2σ). These values represent our best estimates with the sparse available hydrographic data close to our core-tops. More culturing and sediment trap work is needed to improve our understanding of boron incorporation into N. pachyderma (s). Application of a constant KD of 1.48 × 10-3 to high resolution N. pachyderma (s) B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records from two adjacent cores off Iceland shows that subsurface pCO2 at the habitat depth of N. pachyderma (s) ( 50 m) generally followed the atmospheric CO2 trend but with negative offsets of 10-50 ppmv during 19-10 ka. These B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based reconstructions are supported by independent estimates from low-resolution δ11B measurements in the same cores. We also calibrate and apply Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in N. pachyderma (s) to reconstruct nutrient levels for the same down cores. Like today's North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, past subsurface pCO2 variability off Iceland was significantly correlated with nutrient changes that might be linked to surface nutrient utilization and mixing within the upper water column. Because surface pCO2 (at 0 m water depth) is always lower than at deeper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1474172','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1474172"><span>A transitional <span class="hlt">period</span> of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-dependent spike afterdepolarization and bursting in developing rat <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Shmuel; Yue, Cuiyong; Yaari, Yoel</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>During postnatal development neurones display discharge behaviours that are not present in the adult, yet they are essential for the normal maturation of the nervous system. Neonatal <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal cells, like their adult counterparts, fire regularly, but excitatory GABAergic transmission drives them to generate spontaneous high-frequency bursts until postnatal day (P) 15. Using intracellular recordings in hippocampal slices from rats at P8 to P25, we show herein that as the network-driven burst activity fades out, most <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal cells become intrinsically bursting neurones. The incidence of intrinsic bursters begins to rise at P11 and attains a peak of 74% by P18–P19, after which it decreases over the course of a week, disappearing almost entirely at P25. Analysis of the effects of different voltage-gated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ and Na+ channel antagonists, applied focally to proximal and distal parts of developing neurones, revealed a complex burst mechanism. Intrinsic bursting in developing neurones results from ‘ping-pong’ interplay between a back-propagating spike that activates T/R- and L-type voltage-gated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels in the distal apical dendrites and persistent voltage-gated Na+ channels in the somatic region. Thus, developing pyramidal neurones transitionally express not only distinctive synaptic properties, but also unique intrinsic firing patterns, that may contribute to the ongoing formation and refinement of synaptic connections. PMID:15919718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048407','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048407"><span>Diel variation in summer habitat use, feeding <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>, and diet of subyearling <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon in the Salmon River Basin, New York</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Johnson, James H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The habitat use, diet composition, and feeding <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> of subyearling <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar) was examined during both day and night <span class="hlt">periods</span> during summer in tributaries of Lake Ontario. The amount of cover used was the major habitat variable that differed between day and night <span class="hlt">periods</span> in both streams. At night subyearling <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon were associated with significantly less cover than during the day. Principal Component Analysis showed that habitat selection of subyearling <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon was more pronounced during the day in both streams and that salmon in Orwell Brook exhibited more diel variability in habitat use than salmon in Trout Brook. Subyearling salmon fed primarily from the benthic substrate on baetids, chironomids, and leptocerids. There was a substantial amount of diel variation in diet composition with peak feeding occurring from 0400 h to 0800 h on July 21–22, 2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP23C1776G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP23C1776G"><span>Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Last Interglacial <span class="hlt">Period</span> at North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Site U1304 (IODP Expedition 303).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grudem, E. K.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>A unique aspect of IODP Site U1304 on the Gardar Drift (North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) is the sporadic occurrence of laminated diatom mats (LDM) throughout the section. One such LDM occurs during the younger half of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e and MIS 5d, resulting in an expanded 4.7-m long section of the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Bodén and Backman (1996) reported a similar a 3-m sequence of laminated diatom ooze in a nearby piston core (EW9303-17). I measured oxygen isotopes of benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi) from Termination II (~128 ka) to MIS 5e/5d (~116 ka) to assess the nature of millennial-scale climate variability during this <span class="hlt">period</span>. Oxygen isotopes increase abruptly over Termination II from a maximum of ~ 4.8‰ during MIS 6 to an average of ~ 2.7‰ during MIS 5e. Benthic δ18O values are nearly invariant between during MIS 5e with a standard deviation of ±0.08‰ (1σ). Here, I show that the laminated diatom mats at Site U1304 occur in the latter half of MIS 5e and into MIS 5d, which may reflect a shift in the position of frontal boundaries associated with the Subarctic Convergence. Comparison with two other similar LDM sequences during MIS 5e in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (EW9303-17 and ENAM33) lead to the conclusion that the convergence front likely paralleled all three of these locations during varying parts of MIS 5e, leading to the diachronous deposition of diatom mats during MIS 5e.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15923393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15923393"><span>Extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-sensing receptor expression and hormonal regulation in rat uterus during the peri-implantation <span class="hlt">period</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Li-Juan; Yuan, Jin-Xiang; Li, Yin-Chuan; Wang, Rui; Hu, Zhao-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Xun</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>The extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-sensing receptor (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>R) is a member of the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). It is an important mediator of a wide range of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-dependent physiological responses in various tissues. In reproductive tissues it has been reported to play a significant role in promoting or maintaining placentation. Meanwhile, another <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ regulated gene stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) has been documented to be involved in decidualization and uterine remodelling. The phenomenon that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mediates STC-1's transcription responding to extracellular calcium in fish urges us to suppose that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R, like STC-1, may also play a role in implantation and decidualization. To resolve this conjecture, we have examined the expression and hormonal regulation of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R gene in rat uterus during peri-implantation <span class="hlt">period</span>. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mRNA was expressed at a moderate level in the luminal epithelium of the early stage of pregnancy (from day 1 to day 3). From day 2-3 it began to be expressed more strongly in the stromal cells immediately underneath the luminal epithelium, but decreased to a basal level on day 4. From day 6 to day 9 continuously, both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mRNA and protein were highly expressed in the primary decidua. Expression of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mRNA and protein in these cells was also observed when a delayed implantation was terminated by estrogen treatment to allow the embryo implantation. In contrast, only basal level expression of the molecules was detected in the cells of animals subjected to a normal-delayed implantation or the pseudopregnant condition. Embryo transplantation experiment confirmed that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R expression at the implantation site was induced by the implanting blastocyst. Consistent with the normal pregnant process, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mRNA and protein in the cells were also induced by an artificial decidualization procedure. Further experiments demonstrated that treatment of the ovariectomized rat with estrogen or/and progesterone stimulated a high level expression of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>R mRNA in the uterine</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11A2200A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11A2200A"><span>TRACEing Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Period</span> (25-80 ka b2k) tephra horizons within North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine cores and exploring links to the Greenland ice-cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abbott, P. M.; Davies, S. M.; Griggs, A. J.; Bourne, A. J.; Cook, E.; Pearce, N. J. G.; Austin, W. E. N.; Chapman, M.; Hall, I. R.; Purcell, C. S.; Scourse, J. D.; Rasmussen, T. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Tephrochronology is a powerful technique for the correlation and synchronisation of disparate palaeoclimatic records from different depositional environments and has considerable potential for testing climatic phasing. For example, the relative timing of atmospheric and marine changes caused by the abrupt climatic events that punctuated the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> within the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. Here we report on efforts to establish a framework of tephra horizons within North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine sequences that can correlate these records and if traced in the Greenland ice-cores can act as isochronous tie-lines. Investigations have been conducted on a network of marine cores from a number of sites across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Tephra horizons have been identified using cryptotephra extraction techniques more commonly applied to the study of terrestrial sequences. There are two main challenges with assessing cryptotephras in the glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; i) determining the transportation processes and ii) assessing the influence of secondary reworking processes and the stratigraphic integrity of the isochrons. These processes and their influence are investigated for each cryptotephra using shard size variations, major element heterogeneity and co-variance of IRD input for some cores. Numerous Icelandic cryptophras have been successfully identified in the marine records and we will discuss the integration of a number of these with an isochronous nature into a marine tephra framework and how potential correlations to the Greenland ice-core tephra framework are determined. Spatial patterns in the nature of tephra records that are emerging from the core network will be highlighted to outline some of the key areas that could be explored in the future. In addition, the synchronisation of multiple North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> records to the Greenland ice-cores using the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ash Zone II to test the synchroneity of an abrupt cooling in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073401','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073401"><span>Changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep-sea temperature during climatic fluctuations of the last 25,000 years based on ostracode Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dwyer, Gary S.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Baker, Paul A.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, Julio</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We reconstructed three time series of last glacial-to-present deep-sea temperature from deep and intermediate water sediment cores from the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> using Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of benthic ostracode shells. Although the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data show considerable variability (“scatter”) that is common to single-shell chemical analyses, comparisons between cores, between core top shells and modern bottom water temperatures (BWT), and comparison to other paleo-BWT proxies, among other factors, suggest that multiple-shell average Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios provide reliable estimates of BWT history at these sites. The BWT records show not only glacial-to-interglacial variations but also indicate BWT changes during the deglacial and within the Holocene interglacial stage. At the deeper sites (4500- and 3400-m water depth), BWT decreased during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the late Holocene, and possibly during the Younger Dryas. Maximum deep-sea warming occurred during the latest deglacial and early Holocene, when BWT exceeded modern values by as much as 2.5°C. This warming was apparently most intense around 3000 m, the depth of the modern-day core of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water (NADW). The BWT variations at the deeper water sites are consistent with changes in thermohaline circulation: warmer BWT signifies enhanced NADW influence relative to Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Thus maximum NADW production and associated heat flux likely occurred during the early Holocene and decreased abruptly around 6500 years B.P., a finding that is largely consistent with paleonutrient studies in the deep North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. BWT changes in intermediate waters (1000-m water depth) of the subtropical gyre roughly parallel the deep BWT variations including dramatic mid-Holocene cooling of around 4°C. Joint consideration of the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based BWT estimates and benthic oxygen isotopes suggests that the cooling was accompanied by a decrease in salinity at this site. Subsequently, intermediate waters warmed to modern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdAtS..28...16P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdAtS..28...16P"><span>Influence of the Saharan Air Layer on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone formation during the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1-12 September 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Weiyu; Wu, Liguang; Shie, Chung-Lin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data show that the Saharan air layer (SAL) is a dry, warm, and well-mixed layer between 950 and 500 hPa over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, extending westward from the African coast to the Caribbean Sea. The formations of both Hurricane Isabel and Tropical Depression 14 (TD14) were accompanied with outbreaks of SAL air during the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1-12 September 2003, although TD14 failed to develop into a named tropical cyclone. The influence of the SAL on their formations is investigated by examining data from satellite observations and numerical simulations, in which AIRS data are incorporated into the MM5 model through the nudging technique. Analyses of the AIRS and simulation data suggest that the SAL may have played two roles in the formation of tropical cyclones during the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1-12 September 2003. First, the outbreaks of SAL air on 3 and 8 September enhanced the transverse-vertical circulation with the rising motion along the southern edge of the SAL and the sinking motion inside the SAL, triggering the development of two tropical disturbances associated with Hurricane Isabel and TD14. Second, in addition to the reduced environmental humidity and enhanced static stability in the lower troposphere, the SAL dry air intruded into the inner region of these tropical disturbances as their cyclonic flows became strong. This effect may have slowed down the formation of Isabel and inhibited TD14 becoming a named tropical cyclone, while the enhanced vertical shear contributed little to tropical cyclone formation during this <span class="hlt">period</span>. The 48-h trajectory calculations confirm that the parcels from the SAL can be transported into the inner region of an incipient tropical cyclone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...586A..14H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...586A..14H"><span>Measuring rotation <span class="hlt">periods</span> of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of <span class="hlt">periodic</span> <span class="hlt">Ca</span>II H+K S-index variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Context. The rotation <span class="hlt">period</span> of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>II H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a <span class="hlt">periodic</span> signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant <span class="hlt">period</span>. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation <span class="hlt">periods</span> were already previously known, in which case our <span class="hlt">period</span> measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the <span class="hlt">periodic</span> signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>II H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation <span class="hlt">periods</span> will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP31B0412Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP31B0412Y"><span>Can d44<span class="hlt">Ca</span> be a Proxy for Paleoceanography? - A Case Study of Globigerinoides Sacculifer from Western Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, S.; Wei, K.; Shen, J. J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The δ 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, δ 18O, and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of fossil Globigerinoides sacculifer over the past 20 ka extracted from a Caribbean core, TT9108-1GC, have been measured in order to examine the possibility of using δ 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span> as a proxy for paleoceanography. Our results indicate that the δ 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span> of G. sacculifer varies as a function of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS). The Caribbean Sea SSS, reconstructed by combining the δ 18O and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of G. sacculifer and sea level change data, shows significant fluctuations between 36.5 and 39.5 psu during the last 20 ka. After isolating the temperature effect, the δ 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span> of G. sacculifer exhibits a positive correlation with SSS, <span class="hlt">ca</span> 0.27±0.02 ‰ per 1 psu. On the other hand, no significant relationship is observed between δ 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and seawater [CO3 -2]. Moreover, variation of G. sacculifer δ 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span> can also be explained using a Rayleigh fractionation model. As a function of temperature and salinity, the metabolic rate may influence the utilization of vacuole <span class="hlt">Ca</span>+2 in G. sacculifer, resulting in different δ 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span> values. The results of this study are inconsistent with the "rate-controlled fractionation model" of Lemarchand et al. (2004), instead, the results are more in-line with the foraminiferal biomineralization model of Erez (2003), where δ 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span> reflects the adjustments of temperature, salinity, and pH of seawater isolated in vacuoles during the growth of G. sacculifer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15295596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15295596"><span>Vigorous exchange between the Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oceans at the end of the past five glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peeters, Frank J C; Acheson, Ruth; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; De Ruijter, Wilhelmus P M; Schneider, Ralph R; Ganssen, Gerald M; Ufkes, Els; Kroon, Dick</p> <p>2004-08-05</p> <p>The magnitude of heat and salt transfer between the Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oceans through 'Agulhas leakage' is considered important for balancing the global thermohaline circulation. Increases or reductions of this leakage lead to strengthening or weakening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning and associated variation of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation. Here we show that modern Agulhas waters, which migrate into the south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean in the form of an Agulhas ring, contain a characteristic assemblage of planktic foraminifera. We use this assemblage as a modern analogue to investigate the Agulhas leakage history over the past 550,000 years from a sediment record in the Cape basin. Our reconstruction indicates that Indian-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water exchange was highly variable: enhanced during present and past interglacials and largely reduced during glacial intervals. Coherent variability of Agulhas leakage with northern summer insolation suggests a teleconnection to the monsoon system. The onset of increased Agulhas leakage during late glacial conditions took place when glacial ice volume was maximal, suggesting a crucial role for Agulhas leakage in glacial terminations, timing of interhemispheric climate change and the resulting resumption of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.2135R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.2135R"><span>Long <span class="hlt">periods</span> (1 -10 mHz) geomagnetic pulsations variation with solar cycle in South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Magnetic Anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rigon Silva, Willian; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Guimarães Dutra, Severino Luiz; Babulal Trivedi, Nalin; Claudir da Silva, Andirlei; Souza Savian, Fernando; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; de Siqueira, Josemar; Espindola Antunes, Cassio</p> <p></p> <p>The occurrence and intensity of the geomagnetic pulsations Pc-5 (2-7 mHz) and its relationship with the solar cycle in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Magnetic Anomaly -SAMA is presented. The study of geomagnetic pulsations is important to help the understanding of the physical processes that occurs in the magnetosphere region and help to predict geomagnetic storms. The fluxgate mag-netometers H, D and Z, three axis geomagnetic field data from the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, São Martinho da Serra (29.42° S, 53.87° W, 480m a.s.l.), RS, Brasil, a were analyzed and correlated with the solar wind parameters (speed, density and temperature) from the ACE and SOHO satellites. A digital filtering to enhance the 2-7 mHz geomagnetic pulsations was used. Five quiet days and five perturbed days in the solar minimum and in the solar maximum were selected for this analysis. The days were chosen based on the IAGA definition and on the Bartels Musical Diagrams (Kp index) for 2001 (solar maximum) and 2008 (solar minimum). The biggest Pc-5 amplitude averages differences between the H-component is 78,35 nT for the perturbed days and 1,60nT for the quiet days during the solar maximum. For perturbed days the average amplitude during the solar minimum is 8,32 nT, confirming a direct solar cycle influence in the geomagnetic pulsations intensity for long <span class="hlt">periods</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V24B..01D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V24B..01D"><span>Tephra constraints on Rapid Climate Events (TRACE): precise correlation of marine and ice-core records during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, S. M.; Griggs, A. J.; Abbott, P. M.; Bourne, A. J.; Purcell, C. S.; Hall, I. R.; Scourse, J. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Little has challenged our understanding of climate change more so than the abruptness with which large-scale shifts in temperature occurred during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Atmospheric temperature jumps occurring within decades over Greenland were closely matched by rapid changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures and major re-organisation of the deep ocean circulation. Although these climatic instabilities are well-documented in various proxy records, the causal mechanisms of such short-lived oscillations remain poorly understood, largely due to the dating uncertainties that prevent the integration of different archives. Synchronisation of palaeoclimate records on a common timescale is inherently problematic, and unravelling the lead/lag responses (hence cause and effect) between the Earth's climate components is currently beyond our reach. TRACE - a 5 year project funded by the European Research Council - exploits the use of microscopic traces of tephra deposits to precisely correlate the Greenland ice-cores with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine records. Here we draw upon examples of how these time-lines can be used to constrain the lead/lag responses between the atmospheric and oceanic systems during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. High-resolution proxy data from North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine cores MD04-2829CQ from the Rosemary Bank and MD04 2820CQ from the Goban Spur are integrated with the Greenland ice-cores according to the position of common tephra isochrons. These direct tie-lines allow us to focus in detail on the relative timing of rapid warming transitions between Greenland and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088305&hterms=soybean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsoybean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088305&hterms=soybean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsoybean"><span>Soybean cell enlargement oscillates with a temperature-compensated <span class="hlt">period</span> length of <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 24 min</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morre, D. J.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Rate of enlargement of epidermal cells from soybean, when measured at intervals of 1 min using a light microscope equipped with a video measurement system, oscillated with a <span class="hlt">period</span> length of about 24 min. This oscillation parallels the 24-min <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> observed for the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase. The increase in length was not only non-linear, but intervals of rapid increase in area alternated with intervals of rapid decrease in area. The length of the <span class="hlt">period</span> was temperature compensated, and was approximately the same when measured at 14, 24 and 34 degrees C even though the rate of cell enlargement varied over this same range of temperatures. These observations represent the first demonstration of an oscillatory growth behavior correlated with a biochemical activity where the <span class="hlt">period</span> length of both is independent of temperature (temperature compensated) as is the hallmark of clock-related biological phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088305&hterms=epidermis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Depidermis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088305&hterms=epidermis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Depidermis"><span>Soybean cell enlargement oscillates with a temperature-compensated <span class="hlt">period</span> length of <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 24 min</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morre, D. J.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Rate of enlargement of epidermal cells from soybean, when measured at intervals of 1 min using a light microscope equipped with a video measurement system, oscillated with a <span class="hlt">period</span> length of about 24 min. This oscillation parallels the 24-min <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> observed for the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase. The increase in length was not only non-linear, but intervals of rapid increase in area alternated with intervals of rapid decrease in area. The length of the <span class="hlt">period</span> was temperature compensated, and was approximately the same when measured at 14, 24 and 34 degrees C even though the rate of cell enlargement varied over this same range of temperatures. These observations represent the first demonstration of an oscillatory growth behavior correlated with a biochemical activity where the <span class="hlt">period</span> length of both is independent of temperature (temperature compensated) as is the hallmark of clock-related biological phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PalOc..28...79S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PalOc..28...79S"><span>Nutrient conditions in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> reconstructed from foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Straub, M.; Tremblay, M. M.; Sigman, D. M.; Studer, A. S.; Ren, H.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Haug, G. H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Surface nitrate concentration is a potentially useful diagnostic in reconstructing the past circulation of high-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters. Moreover, nutrient consumption in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface impacts the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. To reconstruct nutrient conditions in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region during the last ice age, a record of foraminifera-bound δ15N was measured in Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) from core V28-73 south of Iceland (57.2°N, 20.9°W). Foraminifera-bound δ15N is up to 2‰ lower during the last ice age than during the Holocene, suggesting as much as 25% less complete nitrate consumption during the former. This is consistent with stronger light limitation associated with a deeper summer surface mixed layer, perhaps related to the formation of Glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intermediate Water previously suggested to have occurred near the core site. However, three single-point maxima in δ15N in the glacial section and the sharp deglacial δ15N rise coincide with Heinrich event layers. This suggests that increased water column stratification during Heinrich events, presumably due to surface freshening, reduced the nutrient supply from below and led to nearly complete nitrate consumption in the summertime mixed layer. The Heinrich layers in V28-73 are not accompanied by δ18O minima in either N. pachyderma (sin.) or Globigerinoides bulloides, which we tentatively attribute to extreme mixed-layer shoaling. The reconstructed subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> upper water column changes—both glacial/interglacial and millennial—are inverse to those inferred for the Antarctic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP21B1902J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP21B1902J"><span>The Once and Future North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: How the Mid-Pliocene Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> Can Increase Stakeholder Preparedness in a Warming World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobs, P.; de Mutsert, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Paleoclimatic reconstructions, particularly from <span class="hlt">periods</span> that may serve as an analog to the present and future greenhouse-driven warming, are increasingly being used to validate climate models as well as to provide constraints on broad impacts such as global temperature and sea level change. However, paleoclimatic data remains under-utilized in decision-making processes by stakeholders, who typically rely on scenarios produced by computer models or naive extrapolation of present trends. We hope to increase the information available to stakeholders by incorporating paleoclimatic data from the mid-Pliocene Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (mPWP, ~3ma) into a fisheries model of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> fisheries are economically important and are expected to be sensitive to climatic change. State of the art climate models remain unable to realistically simulate the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, both over the observational record as well as during times in the geologic past such as the mPWP. Given that the mPWP shares many of the same boundary conditions as those likely to be seen in the near future, we seek to answer the question 'What if the climate of the future looks more like the climate of the past?' relative to what state of the art computer models currently project. To that end we have created a suite of future North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean scenarios using output from the CMIP3 and CMIP5 modeling experiments, as well as the PRISM group's Mid-Pliocene ocean reconstruction. We use these scenarios to drive an ecosystem-based fisheries model using the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) software to identify differences between the scenarios as the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean changes through time. Additionally, we examine the spatial component of these differences by using the Ecospace module of EwE. Whereas the Ecosim realizations are intended to capture the dynamic response to changing oceanographic parameters (SST, SSS, DO) over time, the Ecospace experiments are intended to explore the impact of different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3497C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3497C"><span>Reconstruct the past thermocline circulation in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: calcification depths and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature calibrations for 6 deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cleroux, C.; deMenocal, P.; Arbuszewski, J.; Linsley, B.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The subtropical cells are shallow meridional overturning circulations driven by the atmospheric circulation and the deep thermohaline circulation. They connect the mid-latitude and the tropic, release latten heat to the atmosphere and impact climate on decadal to longer time scale. The upper water column temperature and salinity structures of the ocean reflect this circulation. We present proxies to study these past structures. We performed stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) and trace element ratio measurements on one surface-dwelling (G. ruber)1 and six deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera species (N. dutertrei, G. inflata, G. tumida, G. truncatulinoides, G. hirsuta and G. crassaformis) on 66 coretops spanning from 35°N to 20°S along the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ridge. Comparison between measured δ18O and predicted δ18O (using water column temperature and seawater δ18O), shows that N. dutertrei, G. tumida, G. hirsuta and G. crassaformis keep the same apparent calcification depth along the transect (respectively: 125m, 150m, 700m and 800m). Calcification at two depth levels was also tested. For the six deep-dwelling species, we establish Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature calibrations with both atlas temperature at the calcification depth and isotopic temperature. We present Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature equations for species previously very poorly calibrated. The δ18O and temperature (Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> derived) on the six planktonic foraminifera species faithfully reproduce the modern water column structure of the upper 800 m depth, establishing promising proxies for past subsurface reconstruction. 1 Arbuszewski, J. J., P. B. deMenocal, A. Kaplan, and C. E. Farmer (2010), On the fidelity of shell-derived δ18Oseawater estimates, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 300(3-4), 185-196.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21A1296D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21A1296D"><span>Linking Agulhas Leakage Variability and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climate MIS 1-5a</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyez, K. A.; Zahn, R.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Agulhas leakage of warm, salty water from the Indian Ocean to the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is suggested to have altered <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning and climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. One way to assess such linkages with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate variability is to examine the past Agulhas hydrography via high-resolution marine records from the Agulhas Bank slope. Here we present one such hydrographic estimate from the Agulhas Bank slope in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector of the Agulhas Corridor using planktic foraminiferal (Globigerinoides ruber) δ18O and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-derived SST to estimate surface salinity. By focusing on the last 80,000 years this is the first quantitative fine-scale Agulhas leakage record that overlaps in time with the Greenland ice core record of abrupt climate changes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. <span class="hlt">Periods</span> of enhanced Agulhas Corridor salinity occur at Northern Hemisphere cool <span class="hlt">periods</span> (glacial termination and Heinrich meltwater events) and are followed by rapid northern hemisphere warming. We show that the timing of maximal salinity events in relation to <span class="hlt">periods</span> of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> freshwater perturbation is consistent with the concept suggested by climate models that Agulhas salinity oscillations could provide buoyancy compensation for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and potentially even trigger increased convective activity in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, thereby restoring <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation after relatively weak states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/501918','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/501918"><span><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> Hartree-Fock characterization of the structure and electronic properties of zeolite Na<span class="hlt">Ca</span>A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>White, J.C.; Nicholas, J.B.; Hess, A.C.</p> <p>1997-01-23</p> <p>In this paper we present an ab initio <span class="hlt">periodic</span> Hartree-Fock study of the electronic structure zeolite Na<span class="hlt">Ca</span>A. A model system of composition <span class="hlt">Ca</span>{sub 8}Na{sub 8}Si{sub 24}Al{sub 24}O{sub 96} is produced, with F4O3c symmetry and strict alternate ordering of silicon and aluminum. The positions of the Na and <span class="hlt">Ca</span> cations were optimized using the RHF/STO-3G level of theory. Properties of the crystal, such as the partial charges and bond populations, the electrostatic potential, and the electric field within the zeolite cage, were calculated at the more accurate RHF/6-21G* level of theory. Results indicate that the cations are situated slightly above the 6-ring units, in agreement with recent experimental X-ray crystallographic studies. The calculated RHF/6-21G* field of the zeolite is negligible in the center of both the {alpha}- and {beta}-cage, but rises quickly close to the cation centers. 50 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3816713N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3816713N"><span>Key role of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet <span class="hlt">periods</span> over the Great Plains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nigam, Sumant; Guan, Bin; Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The Great Plains of North America are susceptible to multi-year droughts, such as the 1930s ‘Dust Bowl’. The droughts have been linked to SST variability in the Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basins. This observationally rooted analysis shows the SST influence in multi-year droughts and wet episodes over the Great Plains to be significantly more extensive than previously indicated. The remarkable statistical reconstruction of the major hydroclimate episodes attests to the extent of the SST influence in nature, and facilitated evaluation of the basin contributions. We find the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs to be especially influential in forcing multi-year droughts; often, more than the Pacific ones. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), in particular, contributed the most in two of the four reconstructed episodes (Dust Bowl Spring, 1980s fall wetness), accounting for almost half the precipitation signal in each case. The AMO influence on continental precipitation was provided circulation context from analysis of NOAA's 20th Century Atmospheric Reanalysis. A hypothesis for how the AMO atmospheric circulation anomalies are generated from AMO SSTs is proposed to advance discussion of the influence pathways of the mid-to-high latitude SST anomalies. Our analysis suggests that the La Nina-US Drought paradigm, operative on interannual time scales, has been conferred excessive relevance on decadal time scales in the recent literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12484974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12484974"><span><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> oscillations of Josephson-vortex flow resistance in Bi(2)Sr(2)<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu(2)O(8+y).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ooi, S; Mochiku, T; Hirata, K</p> <p>2002-12-09</p> <p>To study the Josephson-vortex system, we have measured the vortex-flow resistance as a function of magnetic field parallel to the ab plane in Bi(2)Sr(2)<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu(2)O(8+y) single crystals. Novel <span class="hlt">periodic</span> oscillations of the vortex-flow resistance have been observed in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. The <span class="hlt">period</span> of the oscillations corresponds to the field needed to add "one" vortex quantum per "two" intrinsic Josephson junctions. The flow velocity is related to a matching effect between the lattice spacing of Josephson vortices along the layers and the width of the sample. These results suggest that Josephson vortices form a triangular lattice in the ground state where the oscillations occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..798K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..798K"><span>Extreme warming in the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in the winter <span class="hlt">period</span> 2002-2012 - an analysis with the regional atmospheric model COSMO-CLM and the Arctic System Reanalysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohnemann, Svenja; Heinemann, Guenther; Gutjahr, Oliver; Bromwich, David H.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The high-resolution atmospheric model COSMO-CLM (CCLM, German Meteorological Service) is used to simulate the 2m-temperature and the boundary layer structures in the Arctic with focus on the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> section the winter <span class="hlt">periods</span> (Nov-Apr) between 2002 and 2015. The CCLM simulations have a horizontal resolution of 15 km for the whole Arctic. The comparable Arctic System Reanalysis data (ASR, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center), which has been optimized for the Arctic, are available for the same time <span class="hlt">period</span> with a horizontal resolution of 30 km. In addition, climatological data from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) stations are used as verification. The comparison between the CCLM simulations and the ASR data shows a high agreement. Also the verification of both data sets with AWS and Era-Interim data shows a very high correlation for the air temperature. Slight differences between CCLM and ASR are recognizable in the extreme values as CCLM has the better ice information assimilated and the higher resolution during simulations. Time series of monthly mean based 2m-temperature indicate an enormous increase for the single months for the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and especially the region around the Siberian Island Novaya Zemlya. For example the CCLM March increase amounts up to 16 °C for the regional maximum for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 2002-2012. The strong increase is mainly reducible to the decreasing sea ice situation in that region during the same time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26495576','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26495576"><span>FIT FOR PRINT: DEVELOPING AN INSTITUTIONAL MODEL OF SCIENTIFIC <span class="hlt">PERIODICAL</span> PUBLISHING IN ENGLAND, 1665-<span class="hlt">CA</span>. 1714.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moxham, N</p> <p>2015-09-20</p> <p>This paper explores the contested afterlife of Philosophical Transactions following the death of its founder, Henry Oldenburg. It investigates the complex interrelation between the institution and the <span class="hlt">periodical</span> at a time when the latter was supposedly independent, and outlines the competing proposals for institutional publishing in science contemplated in the Royal Society, linking some publications that were actually attempted to those proposals and to the Society's attempts to revitalize its experimental programme between 1677 and 1687. It argues that the Society was concerned to produce experimental natural knowledge over which it could claim ownership, and intended this work for publication in other venues than Transactions, whereas the <span class="hlt">periodical</span> was seen as a more suitable site for work reported to the Society than for research that the institution had primarily produced. It was only from the early 1690s, after the collapse of the Society's experimental programme, that Transactions gradually became a more straightforward reflection of the mainstream of Royal Society activity, paving the way for its formal reinvention as the official publication of the Society in 1752.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3438871','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3438871"><span><span class="hlt">Periodization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. <span class="hlt">Periodization</span> is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing <span class="hlt">periodization</span> schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on <span class="hlt">periodization</span> principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of <span class="hlt">periodization</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">periodization</span> program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of <span class="hlt">periodization</span> principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords <span class="hlt">periodization</span>, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, <span class="hlt">periodized</span> strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting <span class="hlt">periodization</span> programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of <span class="hlt">periodization</span> into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5684A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5684A"><span>TRACEing Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Period</span> (25-80 ka b2k) Tephra Horizons between North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine-cores and the Greenland ice-cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abbott, Peter; Davies, Siwan; Griggs, Adam; Bourne, Anna; Cook, Eliza; Austin, William; Chapman, Mark; Hall, Ian; Purcell, Catriona; Rasmussen, Tine; Scourse, James</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Tephrochronological investigations are currently being undertaken on a network of marine cores from a range of locations and depositional settings within the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This work forms a component of the ERC-funded project Tephra constraints on Rapid Climate Events (TRACE). The main aim of this project is to utilise isochronous tephra horizons as direct tie-lines to correlate North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine sequences and the Greenland ice-cores to determine the relative timing of oceanic and atmospheric changes associated with the rapid climate events that dominated the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Early comparisons of six North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine records (MD99-2251, MD04-2820CQ, MD04-2829CQ, MD04-2822, MD01-2461 and JM11-19PC) and the Greenland ice-cores highlight six tephra horizons common to the ice record and one or more marine sequences. These horizons are within GS-3 (26,740 ± 390 a b2k and 29,130 ± 456 a b2k), GS-9 (38,300 ± 703 a b2k), GS-10 (40,220 ± 792 a b2k) and GS-12 (43,680 ± 877 a b2k) and the widespread North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ash Zone II (55,380 ± 1184 a b2k). New high-resolution proxy information from MD04-2820CQ allows us to explore the relative timing of climatic changes between the Goban Spur, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Greenland over GI-12 to GI-8 using two tephra correlations that link the records. Tephra horizons have been identified in the marine records through the successful use of cryptotephra extraction techniques more commonly applied to the study of terrestrial sequences. All horizons have an Icelandic source with horizons of both rhyolitic and basaltic composition isolated. The acquisition of high-resolution profiles of shard concentration and comprehensive geochemical characterisations for horizons is vital to this work. This allows us to disentangle the processes that transported material to core sites, which can include primary airfall, sea-ice rafting and iceberg rafting, and the potential impact of secondary reworking processes such as bottom current</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP23B2057I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP23B2057I"><span>New sedimentary constraints for changes in Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water linked to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate variability during the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irvali, N.; Kleiven, H. F.; Ninnemann, U. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Model studies suggest that variations in Nordic Seas deep water formation, and associated meridional heat transports, exert a strong influence on North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate and played a formative role in the evolution and demise of the previous interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Yet, paleoceanographic reconstructions, which rely on geochemical proxies, have yet to definitively resolved the precise relationship between past changes in meridional overturning and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate. One possible reason for this is that geochemical proxies are unable to differentiate between changes in the preformed chemistry and variations in the ventilation rate of deep waters. Here we present high-resolution records of a new sediment proxy for deep-ocean flow and a record of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate from a sediment core, ODP Site 983 (60°24'N, 23°38'W) at 1983 m water depth south of Iceland. Site 983 is located near the head of the Gardar Drift, which extends to the south-south-west, following the path of deep overflows (Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water, ISOW) from the Iceland-Scotland Ridge. In this study we use sortable silt (SS) grain-size data to reconstruct past changes in the speed of deep-water overflow from the Nordic Seas, stable oxygen and carbon isotope measurements together with planktonic foraminiferal assemblage and ice-rafted debris counts in order to reconstruct North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate and deep-water circulation across the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>; Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e. We further compare our records with recently published high-resolution stable isotope records from the IODP Site U1304 (53° 3.401'N, 33° 31.781'W, 3082 m), located on the southern edge of the Gardar Drift, elucidating changes in the vertical and southward extent of ISOW. Our results suggest that at least three different modes of deep water ventilation existed between MIS 6 to 5d. ISOW vigor was decreased, and mid-depth (1983-m) to deep (3082-m) δ13C gradients developed in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during MIS 6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..651M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..651M"><span>Reduced admixture of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water to the deep central South Pacific during the last two glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molina-Kescher, Mario; Frank, Martin; Tapia, Raúl; Ronge, Thomas A.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Tiedemann, Ralf</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The South Pacific is a sensitive location for the variability of the global oceanic thermohaline circulation given that deep waters from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Pacific Basin are exchanged. Here we reconstruct the deep water circulation of the central South Pacific for the last two glacial cycles (from 240,000 years ago to the Holocene) based on radiogenic neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotope records complemented by benthic stable carbon data obtained from two sediment cores located on the flanks of the East Pacific Rise. The records show small but consistent glacial/interglacial changes in all three isotopic systems with interglacial average values of -5.8 and 18.757 for ɛNd and 206Pb/204Pb, respectively, whereas glacial averages are -5.3 and 18.744. Comparison of this variability of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) to previously published records along the pathway of the global thermohaline circulation is consistent with reduced admixture of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water to CDW during cold stages. The absolute values and amplitudes of the benthic δ13C variations are essentially indistinguishable from other records of the Southern Hemisphere and confirm that the low central South Pacific sedimentation rates did not result in a significant reduction of the amplitude of any of the measured proxies. In addition, the combined detrital Nd and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope signatures imply that Australian and New Zealand dust has remained the principal contributor of lithogenic material to the central South Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JChPh..93.2676F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JChPh..93.2676F"><span>Reactions of fourth-<span class="hlt">period</span> metal ions (<span class="hlt">Ca</span> + - Zn + ) with O2: Metal-oxide ion bond energies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, Ellen R.; Elkind, J. L.; Clemmer, D. E.; Georgiadis, R.; Loh, S. K.; Aristov, N.; Sunderlin, L. S.; Armentrout, P. B.</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>Reactions of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>+, Zn+ and all first-row atomic transition metal ions with O2 are studied using guided ion beam techniques. While reactions of the ground states of Sc+, Ti+, and V+ are exothermic, the remaining metal ions react with O2 in endothermic processes. Analyses of these endothermic reactions provide new determinations of the M+-O bond energies for these eight elements. Source conditions are varied such that the contributions of excited states of the metal ions can be explicitly considered for Mn+, Co+, Ni+, and Cu+. Results (in eV) at 0 K are D0(<span class="hlt">Ca</span>+-O)= 3.57±0.05, D0(Cr+-O)=3.72±0.12, D0(Mn+-O)=2.95±0.13, D0(Fe+-O)=3.53±0.06 (reported previously), D0(Co+-O)=3.32±0.06, D0(Ni+-O) =2.74±0.07, D0(Cu+-O)=1.62±0.15, and D0(Zn+-O)=1.65±0.12. These values along with literature data for neutral metal oxide bond energies and ionization energies are critically evaluated. <span class="hlt">Periodic</span> trends in the ionic metal oxide bond energies are compared with those of the neutral metal oxides and those of other related molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15455221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15455221"><span>Biomass change in an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical moist forest: the ENSO effect in permanent sample plots over a 22-year <span class="hlt">period</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rolim, Samir G; Jesus, Renato M; Nascimento, Henrique E M; do Couto, Hilton T Z; Chambers, Jeffrey Q</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>There are a number of controversies surrounding both biomass estimation and carbon balance in tropical forests. Here we use long-term (from 1978 through 2000) data from five 0.5-ha permanent sample plots (PSPs) within a large tract of relatively undisturbed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> moist forest in southeastern Brazil to quantify the biomass increment (DeltaM(I)), and change in total stand biomass (DeltaM(stand)), from mortality, recruitment, and growth data for trees >/=10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH). Despite receiving an average of only 1,200 mm annual precipitation, total forests biomass (334.5+/-11.3 Mg ha(-1)) was comparable to moist tropical forests with much greater precipitation. Over this relatively long-term study, forest biomass experienced rapid declines associated with El Niño events, followed by gradual biomass accumulation. Over short time intervals that overlook extreme events, these dynamics can be misinterpreted as net biomass accumulation. However for the 22 years of this study, there was a small reduction in forest biomass, averaging -1.2 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) (+/-3.1). Strong climatic disturbances can severely reduce forest biomass, and if the frequency and intensity of these events increases beyond historical averages, these changing disturbance regimes have the capacity to significantly reduce forest biomass, resulting in a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24240197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24240197"><span>Transient compartment-like syndrome and normokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis due to a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(v)1.1 mutation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fan, Chunxiang; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Weber, Marc-André; Bednarz, Marcin; Groome, James R; Jonsson, Malin K B; Jurkat-Rott, Karin</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We studied a two-generation family presenting with conditions that included progressive permanent weakness, myopathic myopathy, exercise-induced contracture before normokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis or, if localized to the tibial anterior muscle group, transient compartment-like syndrome (painful acute oedema with neuronal compression and drop foot). 23Na and 1H magnetic resonance imaging displayed myoplasmic sodium overload, and oedema. We identified a novel familial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(v)1.1 calcium channel mutation, R1242G, localized to the third positive charge of the domain IV voltage sensor. Functional expression of R1242G in the muscular dysgenesis mouse cell line GLT revealed a 28% reduced central pore inward current and a -20 mV shift of the steady-state inactivation curve. Both changes may be at least partially explained by an outward omega (gating pore) current at positive potentials. Moreover, this outward omega current of 27.5 nS/nF may cause the reduction of the overshoot by 13 mV and slowing of the upstroke of action potentials by 36% that are associated with muscle hypoexcitability (permanent weakness and myopathic myopathy). In addition to the outward omega current, we identified an inward omega pore current of 95 nS/nF at negative membrane potentials after long depolarizing pulses that shifts the R1242G residue above the omega pore constriction. A simulation reveals that the inward current might depolarize the fibre sufficiently to trigger calcium release in the absence of an action potential and therefore cause an electrically silent depolarization-induced muscle contracture. Additionally, evidence of the inward current can be found in 23Na magnetic resonance imaging-detected sodium accumulation and 1H magnetic resonance imaging-detected oedema. We hypothesize that the episodes are normokalaemic because of depolarization-induced compensatory outward potassium flux through both delayed rectifiers and omega pore. We conclude that the position of the R1242G residue</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121f5103B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121f5103B"><span>Dependence of electrical transport properties of <span class="hlt">CaO(Ca</span>MnO3)m (m = 1, 2, 3, ∞) thermoelectric oxides on lattice <span class="hlt">periodicity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baranovskiy, Andrei; Amouyal, Yaron</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The electrical transport properties of <span class="hlt">CaO(Ca</span>MnO3)m (m = 1, 2, 3, ∞) compounds are studied applying the density functional theory (DFT) in terms of band structure at the vicinity of the Fermi level (EF). It is shown that the total density of states (DOS) values at EF increase with increase in the m-values, which implies an increase in the electrical conductivity, σ, with increasing m-values, in full accordance with experimental results. Additionally, the calculated values of the relative slopes of the DOS at EF correlate with the experimentally measured Seebeck coefficients. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients were calculated in the framework of the Boltzmann transport theory applying the constant relaxation time approximation. By the analysis of experimental and calculated σ(Τ) dependences, the electronic relaxation time and mean free path values were estimated. It is shown that the electrical transport is dominated by electron scattering on the boundaries between perovskite (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MnO3) and <span class="hlt">Ca</span> oxide (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>O) layers inside the crystal lattice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15132634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15132634"><span>An electron localization function study of the geometry of d(0) molecules of the <span class="hlt">period</span> 4 metals <span class="hlt">Ca</span> to Mn.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gillespie, Ronald J; Noury, Stéphane; Pilmé, Julien; Silvi, Bernard</p> <p>2004-05-17</p> <p>We have studied the geometry of the formally d(0) MX(n)() (X = F, H, CH(3) and O; n = 2-6) molecules of the <span class="hlt">period</span> 4 metals from <span class="hlt">Ca</span> to Mn by studying the topology of the electron localization function (ELF) in order to try to understand why many of these molecules have non-VSEPR geometries. The quantitative analysis of the core basin population shows that it is always larger than its conventional value (18) because, in the LCAO-MO scheme, the 3d basis functions centered on the metal noticeably contribute to the electron density within the core region associated with the M shell. Therefore, the density available to form the bonds is less than Z(M) - 18, the value adopted in electron counts. Under the influence of the ligands, these electrons cause the core to lose its spherical symmetry by the formation of opposite-spin pair localization basins, which in turn influence the geometry of the ligands if the interaction of the ligands with the core is sufficiently strong. All of the ligands considered in this study, except F, interact with the core sufficiently strongly to give non-VSEPR geometries, which we have rationalized on the basis of the ELF topology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QSRv...72..159D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QSRv...72..159D"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> forcing of millennial-scale Indo-Australian monsoon dynamics during the Last Glacial <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Denniston, Rhawn F.; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J.; Humphreys, William F.; Cugley, John; Woods, David; LaPointe, Zachary; Peota, Julian; Greaves, Elizabeth</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Recent studies of the Last Glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> Indo-Australian summer monsoon (IASM) have revealed links to both northern and southern hemisphere high latitude climate as well as to regional ocean conditions. Particular interest has been paid to the monsoon response to Heinrich events, with variability explained by meridional shifts in positioning of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), but this model has not been adequately tested. In addition, the shorter-lived Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events have not been detected (beyond D/O-1, the Bølling/Allerød) in land-based records from the Indo-Pacific, despite their prominent expression in stalagmites from southern Asia, raising questions about the sensitivity of the IASM to these events. Here we present a Southern Hemisphere stalagmite oxygen isotopic time series from Ball Gown Cave (BGC), tropical northern Australia, located on the margins of the modern austral summer ITCZ, that spans 40-31 and 27-8 ka. Elevated IASM rainfall coincides with Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas, while decreased rainfall characterizes D/O interstadials, a response that is anti-phased with sites spanning the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and with Chinese records of the East Asian summer monsoon. The BGC time series thus reveals a precipitation dipole consistent with a southward (northward) migration of the ITCZ during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of high northern latitude cooling (warming) as the primary driver of millennial-scale IASM variability during the Last Glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Our record indicates a strengthening of the IASM after the Younger Dryas <span class="hlt">period</span>, likely as a result of rising sea level and sea surface temperatures, breaking the link with the high latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/67925','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/67925"><span>Equation of state, elastic properties, and stability of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>SiO{sub 3} perovskite: First principles (<span class="hlt">periodic</span> Hartree-Fock) results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sherman, D.M.</p> <p>1993-11-10</p> <p>The cubic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>SiO{sub 3} perovskite phase is possibly the third most abundant mineral in the lower mantle. In addition to its geochemical significance, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>SiO{sub 3} perovskite provides a useful system with which to test the application of quantum chemistry to mantle silicates. Here, the electronic structure, equation of state, and elastic properties of cubic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>SiO{sub 3} perovskite are calculated using the <span class="hlt">periodic</span> Hartree-Fock formalism. Cubic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>SiO{sub 3} is found to be stable relative to an orthorhombic structure to at least 106 GPa. Calculations using a moderately extended basis set give an equation of state for <span class="hlt">Ca</span>SiO{sub 3} in close agreement with experiment (V{sub o} = 44.96 {angstrom}{sup 3}, K{sub o} = 300 Gpa, and K{sub o}{prime} = 4). The aggregate shear modulus of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>SiO{sub 3} perovskite is found to be 209 GPa which is comparable to that of MgSiO{sub 3} perovskite. The high seismic velocities of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>SiO{sub 3} perovskite means it will act as a seismic complement to magnesiowustite in the lower mantle. The free energy, as a function of pressure, of stishovite and B2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>O have also been calculated at the same level of theory. From those results, it is found that cubic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>SiO{sub 3} perovskite is stable relative to the free oxides at pressures up to 130 GPa (the core-mantle boundary). 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17024090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17024090"><span>Rapid subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salinity oscillations across Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Matthew W; Vautravers, Maryline J; Spero, Howard J</p> <p>2006-10-05</p> <p>Geochemical and sedimentological evidence suggest that the rapid climate warming oscillations of the last ice age, the Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles, were coupled to fluctuations in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation through its regulation of poleward heat flux. The balance between cold meltwater from the north and warm, salty subtropical gyre waters from the south influenced the strength and location of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation during this <span class="hlt">period</span> of highly variable climate. Here we investigate how rapid reorganizations of the ocean-atmosphere system across these cycles are linked to salinity changes in the subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyre. We combine Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> palaeothermometry and oxygen isotope ratio measurements on planktonic foraminifera across four Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (spanning 45.9-59.2 kyr ago) to generate a seawater salinity proxy record from a subtropical gyre deep-sea sediment core. We show that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyre surface salinities oscillated rapidly between saltier stadial conditions and fresher interstadials, covarying with inferred shifts in the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hydrologic cycle and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation. These salinity oscillations suggest a reduction in precipitation into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and/or reduced export of deep salty thermohaline waters during stadials. We hypothesize that increased stadial salinities preconditioned the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean for a rapid return to deep overturning circulation and high-latitude warming by contributing to increased North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface-water density on interstadial transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24142145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24142145"><span>Beneficial effects of bumetanide in a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>V1.1-R528H mouse model of hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Fenfen; Mi, Wentao; Cannon, Stephen C</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Transient attacks of weakness in hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis are caused by reduced fibre excitability from paradoxical depolarization of the resting potential in low potassium. Mutations of calcium channel and sodium channel genes have been identified as the underlying molecular defects that cause instability of the resting potential. Despite these scientific advances, therapeutic options remain limited. In a mouse model of hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis from a sodium channel mutation (NaV1.4-R669H), we recently showed that inhibition of chloride influx with bumetanide reduced the susceptibility to attacks of weakness, in vitro. The R528H mutation in the calcium channel gene (CACNA1S encoding <span class="hlt">Ca</span>V1.1) is the most common cause of hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis. We developed a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>V1.1-R528H knock-in mouse model of hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis and show herein that bumetanide protects against both muscle weakness from low K+ challenge in vitro and loss of muscle excitability in vivo from a glucose plus insulin infusion. This work demonstrates the critical role of the chloride gradient in modulating the susceptibility to ictal weakness and establishes bumetanide as a potential therapy for hypokalaemic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> paralysis arising from either NaV1.4 or <span class="hlt">Ca</span>V1.1 mutations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19842047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19842047"><span>Multiregional <span class="hlt">periodic</span> matrix for modeling the population dynamics of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) along the moroccan <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> coast: management elements for fisheries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serghini, Mansour; Boutayeb, Abdesslam; Auger, Pierre; Charouki, Najib; Ramzi, Azeddine; Ettahiri, Omar; Tchuente, Maurice</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a deterministic time discrete mathematical model based on multiregional <span class="hlt">periodic</span> matrices to describe the dynamics of Sardina pilchardus in the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> area of the Moroccan coast. This model deals with two stages (immature and mature) and three spatial zones where sardines are supposed to migrate from one zone to another. The population dynamics is described by an autonomous recurrence equation N(t + 1) = A.N(t), where A is a positive matrix whose entries are estimated using data collected during biannual acoustic surveys carried out from 2001 to 2003 onboard the Norwegian research vessel "Dr Fridtjof Nansen". The dominant eigenvalue lambda of A that gives the long-term growth rate of fish population is smaller than one. This agrees with the stock decrease observed in the data collected. We show that lambda is highly sensitive to the recruitment rate and much less sensitive to the reproduction rate. These results can clearly be used to define an efficient scenario in order to fight for instance against a stock decrease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712941P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712941P"><span>A regional overview of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> in the temperate NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: varying paleoproductivity centers over the last 50 ka BP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Penaud, Aurélie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Ganne, Axelle</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recent palynological investigations carried out in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz (MD99-2339 core) over MIS 3 enable to consider dinoflagellate cyst assemblage patterns over the last 50 ka BP through a compilation of 6 cores from the NE subtropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to the Northern Bay of Biscay (also including cores MD95-2042, MD95-2043, MD04-2805CQ, VK03-58bis). Dinocyst signals depict hydrological front latitudinal shifts over the last glacial and associated sea-surface consequences regarding past regimes of primary productivity. We show here new data clearly evidencing subtropical latitudes of Cadiz as being as productive areas over the last glacial as recorded today in the septentrional part of the Bay of Biscay, especially between GI 8 and GI 12. We especially focus on dinocyst-species Lingulodinium machaerophorum relative abundances and absolute concentrations that we first evidence as a powerful tool to reconstruct and discuss productivity shifts through time in the temperate North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This spatio-temporal synthesis bring important evidences of fast migrating paleoproductiviy centers from the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> to present, implying also large consequences on the biological pump through time. Regarding this specific session, 5 of the 6 cores discussed here were retrieved by the R/V Marion Dufresne through 3 different cruises: Core MD99-2339 (35.89°N, 7.53°W, 1170m water depth, 18.54m long) was retrieved in a contouritic field in the oriental part of the Gulf of Cadiz by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1999 International Marine Global Change Studies V (IMAGES V) cruise (Labeyrie, Jansen and Cortijo, 2003). Cores MD95-2042 (37°48'N, 10°10'W, 3146m water depth, 39.56m long) and MD95-2043 (36°8.6'N, 2°37.3'W, 1841m water depth, 36m long) were retrieved from the SW Iberian margin and the central Alboran Sea, respectively, by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1995 IMAGES I cruise (Bassinot and Labeyrie, 1996). Core MD04-2805 CQ (34</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001QuRes..56..383B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001QuRes..56..383B"><span>Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>Palynological analysis of a core from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 37,500 and <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 27,500 to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene <span class="hlt">period</span> until <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rain forest then developed at the study site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19712266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19712266"><span>Visualization of stochastic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signals in the formed somites during the early segmentation <span class="hlt">period</span> in intact, normally developing zebrafish embryos.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leung, Christina F; Miller, Andrew L; Korzh, Vladimir; Chong, Shang-Wei; Sleptsova-Freidrich, Inna; Webb, Sarah E</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Localized <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signals were consistently visualized in the formed somites of intact zebrafish embryos during the early segmentation <span class="hlt">period</span>. Unlike the regular process of somitogenesis, these signals were stochastic in nature with respect to time and location. They did, however, occur predominantly at the medial and lateral boundaries within the formed somites. Embryos were treated with modulators of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](i) to explore the signal generation mechanism and possible developmental function of the stochastic transients. Blocking elements in the phosphoinositol pathway eliminated the stochastic signals but had no obvious effect, stochastic or otherwise, on the formed somites. Such treatments did, however, result in the subsequently formed somites being longer in the mediolateral dimension. Targeted uncaging of buffer (diazo-2) or <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) (NP-ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid [EGTA]) in the presomitic mesoderm, resulted in a regular mediolateral lengthening and shortening, respectively, of subsequently formed somites. These data suggest a requirement for IP(3) receptor-mediated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release during convergence cell movements in the presomitic mesoderm, which appears to have a distinct function from that of the IP(3) receptor-mediated stochastic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signaling in the formed somites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=257453','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=257453"><span>In search of "Organ III" strata-a sedimentary record of the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 900 to 1300)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">period</span> AD 900 to 1300, internationally referred to as the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>, is a critical time for the archaeological record of the Southwestern USA. During the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> both alluvial and eolian sedimentation increased, but not to the magnitude of the middle Holocene (the Altithe...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542656"><span>Gonadotropin regulation of testosterone production by primary cultured theca and granulosa cells of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker: I. Novel role of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKs and interactions between calcium- and adenylyl cyclase-dependent pathways.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benninghoff, Abby D; Thomas, Peter</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Theca and granulosa cells for in vitro primary culture were obtained by enzymatic digestion of mature ovarian tissue from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) and separation from the other cell types by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation. Histochemical staining and treatment with pregnenolone confirmed the presence in the cultured cells of enzymes involved in synthesizing the major sex steroids in croaker ovaries: testosterone, estradiol, and 17alpha,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S). Croaker theca and granulosa cells maintained their steroidogenic response to gonadotropin when cultured with serum-supplemented media and produced high levels of testosterone for up to 5 days, although estradiol production was low. Multiple signal transduction pathways mediating gonadotropin stimulation of androgen production were identified in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker ovarian theca and granulosa cells in primary co-culture. Inhibitors of voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) and calmodulin decreased the steroidogenic response to gonadotropin, whereas activators of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A (PKA) increased testosterone production, indicating that both calcium and PKA-dependent signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of follicular steroid production. In addition, the first evidence in vertebrates for an involvement of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKs) in gonadal steroidogenesis was obtained, since the stimulatory effects of gonadotropin on testosterone media accumulation were attenuated by specific inhibitors of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKs. Some interactions among the signaling pathways were observed as demonstrated by the positive effect of elevated intracellular calcium on adenylyl cyclase activity and the reduction of forskolin- and dbcAMP-induced testosterone production by inhibitors of VSCCs, calmodulin, and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP53B2332H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP53B2332H"><span>Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data from multiple species of planktonic foraminifers from the equatorial Pacific and subtropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Indicators of surface ocean productivity, diagenesis of the shells, or both?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howlett, J.; Mekik, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in planktonic foraminifers have been purported to be indicators of terrestrial input, marine oxidation-reduction reactions and sea surface productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific. We investigated this hypothesis using Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data from five species of planktonic foraminifers in 32 core tops from the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), five species from 12 core tops in the western equatorial Pacific, and two species from 15 core tops on the Rio Grande Rise. We present Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data from Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globorotalia menardii, Globigerina bulloides, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata and Globorotalia tumida from the eastern and western equatorial Pacific and from Globorotalia truncatulinoides and Globorotalia inflata on the Rio Grande Rise. We find that the environmental parameter depicted by Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios depends on the species of foraminifer from which the data was derived. Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> from N. dutertrei in the EEP have statistically significant and quantifiable relationships with apparent oxygen utilization, dissolved phosphate concentration and dissolved oxygen concentration in the habitat depths of this species. The Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratio from P. obliquiloculata and G. tumida are highest in regions of greatest productivity in the EEP. On the Rio Grande Rise, we explored the effect of dissolution in the sediments on Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios from planktonic foraminifers. We used the G. menardii fragmentation index as our sedimentary dissolution indicator, and found that dissolution does not have a strong effect on the Mn/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios measured from foraminifers tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..285..195S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..285..195S"><span>Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van (eastern Anatolia) III: <span class="hlt">Periodic</span> (Nemrut) vs. episodic (Süphan) explosive eruptions and climate forcing reflected in a tephra gap between <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 14 ka and <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 30 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Fifteen Lateglacial to Holocene rhyolitic, dominantly primary tephra layers piston-cored and drilled (ICDP Paleovan drilling project) in western Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) were precisely correlated to either of the two adjacent and active large volcanoes Nemrut and Süphan based on shard textures, mineralogy and mineral and glass compositions. The young peralkaline (comenditic to pantelleritic) primary rhyolitic Nemrut tephras are characterized by anorthoclase, hedenbergitic to augitic clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, minor quartz, and rare accessory chevkinite and zircon. Phenocrysts in subalkaline primary rhyolitic Süphan tephras are chiefly oligoclase-labradorite, with minor K-rich sanidine in some, biotite, amphibole, hypersthene, rare augitic clinopyroxene, relatively common allanite and rare zircon. Two contrasting explosive eruptive modes are distinguished from each other: episodic (Süphan) and <span class="hlt">periodic</span> (Nemrut). The Lateglacial Süphan tephra swarm covers a short time interval of <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 338 years between <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 13,078 vy BP and 12,740 vy BP, eruptions having occurred statistically every <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 42 years with especially short intervals between V-11 (reworked) and V-14. Causes for the strongly episodic Süphan explosive behavior might include seismic triggering of a volcano-magma system unable to erupt explosively without the benefit of external triggering, as reflected in pervasive faulting preceding the Süphan tephra swarm. Seismic triggering may have caused the rise of more mafic ("trachyandesitic") parent magma, heating near-surface pockets of highly evolved magma - that might have formed silicic domes during this stage of volcano evolution - resulting in ascent and finally explosive fragmentation of magma essentially by external factors, probably significantly enhanced by magma-water/ice interaction. Explosive eruptions of the Nemrut volcano system, interpreted to be underlain by a large fractionating magma reservoir, follow a more <span class="hlt">periodic</span> mode of (a</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26583994','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26583994"><span>First-Principles Elucidation of Atomic Size Effects Using DFT-Chemical Pressure Analysis: Origins of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>36Sn23's Long-<span class="hlt">Period</span> Superstructure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Engelkemier, Joshua; Berns, Veronica M; Fredrickson, Daniel C</p> <p>2013-07-09</p> <p>The space requirements of atoms are empirically known to play key roles in determining structure and reactivity across compounds ranging from simple molecules to extended solid state phases. Despite the importance of this concept, the effects of atomic size on stability remain difficult to extract from quantum mechanical calculations. Recently, we outlined a quantitative yet visual and intuitive approach to the theoretical analysis of atomic size in <span class="hlt">periodic</span> structures: the DFT-Chemical Pressure (DFT-CP) analysis. In this Article, we describe the methodological details of this DFT-CP procedure, with a particular emphasis on refinements of the method to make it useful for a wider variety of systems. A central improvement is a new integration scheme with broader applicability than our earlier Voronoi cell method: contact volume space-partitioning. In this approach, we make explicit our assumption that the pressure at each voxel is most strongly influenced by its two closest atoms. The unit cell is divided into regions corresponding to individual interatomic contacts, with each region containing all points that share the same two closest atoms. The voxel pressures within each contact region are then averaged, resulting in effective interatomic pressures. The method is illustrated through the verification of the role of <span class="hlt">Ca-Ca</span> repulsion (deduced earlier from empirical considerations by Corbett and co-workers) in the long-<span class="hlt">period</span> superstructure of the W5Si3 type exhibited by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>36Sn23.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6212412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6212412"><span>Circum-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Teleki, P.; Edgar, T. )</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>Inspired by the success and value of the maps prepared by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) initiated the Circum-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Project (CAP) in 1987. The project is co-sponsored by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). Objectives of CAP are to help organize, coordinate, and stimulate the compilation and interpretation of geological, geophysical, and resources data for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean basin and adjacent continental areas and to publish these data in an integrated map series. Four regional working groups, one each for the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, eastern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> areas have been organized, and within each of these groups specialty teams are being established to compile and interpret various types of geologic data. Based on a digital compilation of these data, a series of geologic thematic maps are planned to be prepared and displayed on a single sheet, at a scale of 1:17,000,000, for the entire <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin, and on four quadrant sheets, at a scale of 1:10,000,000. The quadrants correspond to the North-, Tethyan-, Central-, and South-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> areas. The thematic series will consist of bathymetric, geologic, tectonic, magnetic, gravity, and mineral and energy resource maps. In addition, several palinspastic maps are planned to be constructed to display the geologic development of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin at eight geologic time <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Transects will accompany all maps. The CAP plans support pilot projects that fit the scope and objectives of this undertaking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....926265D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....926265D"><span>Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing <span class="hlt">period</span>: an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Healy, R. M.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing <span class="hlt">Period</span>, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm-3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm-3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm-3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Black carbon concentrations in polluted air were between 300-400 ng m-3, and in clean marine air were less than 50 ng m-3. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.8413D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.8413D"><span>Aerosol properties associated with air masses arriving into the North East <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the 2008 Mace Head EUCAARI intensive observing <span class="hlt">period</span>: an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dall'Osto, M.; Ceburnis, D.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Dupuy, R.; Jennings, S. G.; Berresheim, H.; Wenger, J.; Healy, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Finessi, E.; Worsnop, D.; Ehn, M.; Mikkilä, J.; Kulmala, M.; O'Dowd, C. D.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>As part of the EUCAARI Intensive Observing <span class="hlt">Period</span>, a 4-week campaign to measure aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, atmospheric structure, and cloud microphysics was conducted from mid-May to mid-June, 2008 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station, located at the interface of Western Europe and the N. E. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and centered on the west Irish coastline. During the campaign, continental air masses comprising both young and aged continental plumes were encountered, along with polar, Arctic and tropical air masses. Polluted-continental aerosol concentrations were of the order of 3000 cm-3, while background marine air aerosol concentrations were between 400-600 cm-3. The highest marine air concentrations occurred in polar air masses in which a 15 nm nucleation mode, with concentration of 1100 cm-3, was observed and attributed to open ocean particle formation. Continental air submicron chemical composition (excluding refractory sea salt) was dominated by organic matter, closely followed by sulphate mass. Although the concentrations and size distribution spectral shape were almost identical for the young and aged continental cases, hygroscopic growth factors (GF) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to total condensation nuclei (CN) concentration ratios were significantly less in the younger pollution plume, indicating a more oxidized organic component to the aged continental plume. The difference in chemical composition and hygroscopic growth factor appear to result in a 40-50% impact on aerosol scattering coefficients and Aerosol Optical Depth, despite almost identical aerosol microphysical properties in both cases, with the higher values been recorded for the more aged case. For the CCN/CN ratio, the highest ratios were seen in the more age plume. In marine air, sulphate mass dominated the sub-micron component, followed by water soluble organic carbon, which, in turn, was dominated by methanesulphonic acid (MSA). Sulphate concentrations were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088297&hterms=Herbicides&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHerbicides','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088297&hterms=Herbicides&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHerbicides"><span>Cell enlargement of plant tissue explants oscillates with a temperature-compensated <span class="hlt">period</span> of <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 24 min</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morre, D. James; Ternes, Philipp; Morre, Dorothy M.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Rate of plant cell enlargement, measured at intervals of 3 min using a sensitive linear transducer, oscillates with a minimum <span class="hlt">period</span> of about 24 min that parallels the 24-min <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> observed with the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase and of single cells measured previously by video-enhanced light microscopy. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the steady-state rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min <span class="hlt">period</span> emerges. The length of the 24-min <span class="hlt">period</span> is temperature compensated and remains constant at 24 min when measured at 15, 25 or 35 degrees C, despite the fact that the rate of cell enlargement approximately doubles for each 10 degree C rise over this same range of temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088297&hterms=Plant+cell&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPlant%2Bcell','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088297&hterms=Plant+cell&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPlant%2Bcell"><span>Cell enlargement of plant tissue explants oscillates with a temperature-compensated <span class="hlt">period</span> of <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 24 min</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morre, D. James; Ternes, Philipp; Morre, Dorothy M.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Rate of plant cell enlargement, measured at intervals of 3 min using a sensitive linear transducer, oscillates with a minimum <span class="hlt">period</span> of about 24 min that parallels the 24-min <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> observed with the oxidation of NADH by the external plasma membrane NADH oxidase and of single cells measured previously by video-enhanced light microscopy. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the steady-state rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min <span class="hlt">period</span> emerges. The length of the 24-min <span class="hlt">period</span> is temperature compensated and remains constant at 24 min when measured at 15, 25 or 35 degrees C, despite the fact that the rate of cell enlargement approximately doubles for each 10 degree C rise over this same range of temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PalOc..26.4209H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PalOc..26.4209H"><span>Impact of abrupt climate change in the tropical southeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hessler, Ines; Steinke, Stephan; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Dupont, Lydie; Wefer, Gerold</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>High resolution planktonic foraminifera Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleotemperatures and oxygen isotopes of seawater of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1078 (off Angola) have been reconstructed and reveal insights into the seasonal thermal evolution of the Angola Current (AC), the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF), and the Benguela Current (BC) during the last glacial (50-23.5 ka BP). Special emphasis is put on time intervals possibly associated with the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Heinrich Stadials (HS), which are thought to lead to an accumulation of heat in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> due to a reduction of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Within dating uncertainties, Globigerinoides ruber (pink) Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based sea surface temperature (SST) estimates that represent southern hemisphere summer surface conditions show several warming episodes that coincide with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> HS, thus supporting the concept of the bipolar thermal seesaw. In contrast, the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based temperatures of Globigerina bulloides, representing the SST of the ABF/BC system during southern hemisphere winter, show no obvious response to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> HS in the study area. We suggest that surface water cooling during the winter season is due to enhanced upwelling or upwelling of colder water masses which has most likely mitigated a warming of the ABF/BC system during HS. We further speculate that the seasonal asymmetry in our SST record results from seasonal differences in the dominance of atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of northern high latitude cooling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5208F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5208F"><span>New results to discuss possibility of irrigation in Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before Hafit <span class="hlt">period</span> (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 3100-2700 BCE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fouache, Eric; Desruelles, Stéphane; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1989, the extensive archaeological site of Bat is situated within the Wadi Sharsah and around the modern village and palm grove of Bat, 24 km from the modern city of Ibri in northwestern Oman. The archaeological remains from the Bronze Age excavated by the Bat Archaeological Project are located in two mains areas. The northern area consists of a chain of low limestone hills cut by wadi tributaries leading to the main Wadi Sharsah. It is characterised by an exceptionnally high density of graves from two successive Bronze Age <span class="hlt">periods</span> : Hafit (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 3100-2700 BCE) and Umm an-Nar (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 2700-2000 BCE). South of the Bat cemetery, in the flat part of the valley, there are several large circular structures (known historically as « towers ») and remains from both Hafit and Umm an-Nar <span class="hlt">periods</span>, as well as later <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Geomorphological mapping of the floodplain, associated with archaeological survey, have identified walls suggesting that during the Umm an-Nar <span class="hlt">period</span> there was a system of irrigation which controlled flood water. Sedimentological, malacological, C14 dating and micromorphological studies of a 10 m long and 2.5 m high section located 143 m northeast of the Tower 1146 on the left bank of a small tributary of the Wadi Sharsah provide strong argument for the presence of an irrigation system that began before the Hafit <span class="hlt">period</span>. New C14 datings confirm this hypothesis. Botanical macro-remains collected during the excavation of early Bronze Age structures at Bat further indicate the presence of date palm gardens since the 3rd millenium BCE allowing the cultivation of several crop species, in particular cereals. Most generally the global palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from our data supports a model of a general trend of aridification from Bronze Age to iron Age. Key words : Bronze Age, Holocene, Geomoephology, Micromorphology, Irrigation, Oman.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GPC....79..234F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GPC....79..234F"><span>Holocene temperature evolution of the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> recorded in the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of surface and thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farmer, Elizabeth J.; Chapman, Mark R.; Andrews, Julian E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratio measurements have been produced from IMAGES piston core MD99-2251 using two species of planktonic foraminifera: the surface dwelling Globigerina bulloides and the thermocline dwelling Globorotalia inflata. Holocene Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> values for G. bulloides are higher and more variable (1.8-3.0 mmol/mol), with lower Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of 1.1-1.9 mmol/mol recorded for G. inflata. At no time do the thermocline Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios exceed those of the surface. Comparison of the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records reveals a complex evolution of the upper water mass characteristics through the Holocene. The early Holocene exhibits far less distinction between surface and thermocline ratios and the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> calibration derived temperatures in the upper water column, with the 0.4 mmol/mol offset equivalent to a temperature difference of 1-2 °C. Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios diverge from early to mid Holocene and despite the increase in G. inflata ratios from ~ 6.5 ka onwards, the much more marked increase in G. bulloides after ~ 4 ka results in a clear separation of the surface and thermocline records for the remainder of the Holocene. Despite the long term increase in thermal contrast between surface and subsurface waters, there is a clear correlation between short-lived events evident in both of the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records, reflecting multi-decadal to centennial scale temperature fluctuations. Coolings at ~ 9 and 8.2 ka are well represented in both records, as too are further warm-cold fluctuations at ~ 5.5, 1.5 and 0.8 ka. This indicates that these rapid climate events had a common forcing that was recorded throughout the upper water column. Comparisons with the GISP2 glacio-chemical indicators of atmospheric circulation suggest that the enhanced intensity of the atmospheric circulation during the early Holocene (11-10 ka) probably explain the reduced surface thermal stratification indicated by the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhyC..185..885O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhyC..185..885O"><span>Changes in modulation <span class="hlt">period</span> of Bi 2Sr 2 (<span class="hlt">Ca</span> 1- xNd x) Cu 2O a + δ and their relations to oxygen content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onozuka, Takashi; Tokiwa, Ayako; Syono, Yasuhiko; Koike, Yoji; Saito, Yoshitami</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>Structural changes of long-<span class="hlt">period</span> modulated structure (LPMS) of the Bi 2Sr 2(<span class="hlt">Ca</span> 1- xNd x) Cu 2O a + δ ceramics with x are investigated by means of electron diffraction. Increasing x, the modulation mode of the mixing of domains of two modulation <span class="hlt">periods</span> with b=4.5b o and b=5b o changes to that with b=4.5b o and b=4b o through the modulation mode with only b=4.5b o at x=0.4-0.5. The wavenumber of the superlattice reflection shows a stepwise increase rather than a linear increase with x. Excess oxygen in a LPMS model with the site of excess oxygen is shown to be consistent with excess oxygen analyzed chemically by iodometry and its change with x.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4528405','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4528405"><span>Fit for print: developing an institutional model of scientific <span class="hlt">periodical</span> publishing in England, 1665–<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1714</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moxham, N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the contested afterlife of Philosophical Transactions following the death of its founder, Henry Oldenburg. It investigates the complex interrelation between the institution and the <span class="hlt">periodical</span> at a time when the latter was supposedly independent, and outlines the competing proposals for institutional publishing in science contemplated in the Royal Society, linking some publications that were actually attempted to those proposals and to the Society's attempts to revitalize its experimental programme between 1677 and 1687. It argues that the Society was concerned to produce experimental natural knowledge over which it could claim ownership, and intended this work for publication in other venues than Transactions, whereas the <span class="hlt">periodical</span> was seen as a more suitable site for work reported to the Society than for research that the institution had primarily produced. It was only from the early 1690s, after the collapse of the Society's experimental programme, that Transactions gradually became a more straightforward reflection of the mainstream of Royal Society activity, paving the way for its formal reinvention as the official publication of the Society in 1752. PMID:26495576</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22775293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22775293"><span><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> DFT study of acidic trace atmospheric gas molecule adsorption on <span class="hlt">Ca</span>- and Fe-doped MgO(001) surface basic sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Hatch, Courtney; Orlando, Roberto</p> <p>2012-08-02</p> <p>The electronic properties of undoped and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>- or Fe-doped MgO(001) surfaces, as well as their propensity toward atmospheric acidic gas (CO2, SO2, and NO2) uptake was investigated with an emphasis on gas adsorption on the basic MgO oxygen surface sites, O(surf), using <span class="hlt">periodic</span> density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Adsorption energy calculations show that MgO doping will provide stronger interactions of the adsorbate with the O(surf) sites than the undoped MgO for a given adsorbate molecule. Charge transfer from the iron atom in Fe-doped MgO(001) to NO2 was shown to increase the binding interaction between adsorbate by an order of magnitude, when compared to that of undoped and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-doped MgO(001) surfaces. Secondary binding interactions of adsorbate oxygen atoms were observed with surface magnesium sites at distances close to those of the Mg-O bond within the crystal. These interactions may serve as a preliminary step for adsorption and facilitate further adsorbate transformations into other binding configurations. Impacts on global atmospheric chemistry are discussed as these adsorption phenomena can affect atmospheric gas budgets via altered partitioning and retention on mineral aerosol surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=187829','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=187829"><span>Coexistence of <span class="hlt">periodic</span> modulation of quasiparticle states and superconductivity in Bi2Sr2<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu2O8+δ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Howald, C.; Eisaki, H.; Kaneko, N.; Kapitulnik, A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In this article we show, using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, the existence of static striped density of electronic states in nearly optimally doped Bi2Sr2<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu2O8+δ in zero field. This modulation is aligned with the Cu—O bonds, with a <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> of four lattice constants, and exhibits features characteristic of a two-dimensional system of line objects. We further show that the density of states modulation manifests itself as a shift of states from above to below the superconducting gap. The fact that a single energy scale (i.e., the gap) appears for both superconductivity and stripes suggests that these two effects have the same origin. PMID:12913127</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PalOc..29.1238D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PalOc..29.1238D"><span>Multicentennial Agulhas leakage variability and links to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate during the past 80,000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyez, Kelsey A.; Zahn, Rainer; Hall, Ian R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>New high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) estimates are presented from the Agulhas Bank slope in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector of the Agulhas Corridor using planktic foraminiferal (Globigerinoides ruber) δ18O and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-derived SST. By focusing on the last 80,000 years, this is the first fine-scale Agulhas leakage record that overlaps in time with much of the Greenland ice core record of abrupt climate changes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. The multicentennial profiles indicate instances of warm SST and/or increased SSS coincident with Northern Hemisphere cool <span class="hlt">periods</span>, followed by Northern Hemisphere warming. These <span class="hlt">periods</span> of enhanced SST and SSS in the Agulhas Corridor occur at the last glacial termination (T1) and during North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cold episodes associated with Heinrich (H) meltwater events. To a first-order approximation, the timing of maximal salinity events in relation to <span class="hlt">periods</span> of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> freshwater perturbation is consistent with the concept suggested by climate models that enhanced Agulhas leakage provides for buoyancy compensation and can potentially trigger increased convective activity in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, thereby restoring <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation after relatively weak states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP34B..05G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP34B..05G"><span>Meridional Transect of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Overturning Circulation across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldstein, S. L.; Pena, L. D.; Seguí, M. J.; Kim, J.; Yehudai, M.; Farmer, J. R.; Ford, H. L.; Haynes, L.; Hoenisch, B.; Raymo, M. E.; Ferretti, P.; Bickert, T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) marked a major transition in glacial-interglacial <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> from dominantly 41 kyr to 100 kyr cycles between 1.3-0.7 Ma. From Nd isotope records in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, Pena and Goldstein (Science, 2014) concluded that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation circulation experienced major weakening between 950-850 ka (MIS 25-21), which generated the climatic conditions that intensified cold <span class="hlt">periods</span>, prolonged their duration, and stabilized 100 kyr cycles. Such weakening would provide a mechanism for decreased atmospheric CO2 (Hönisch et al., Science, 2009) by allowing for additional atmospheric CO2 to be stored in the deep ocean. We present a summary of work in-progress to generate two dimensional representations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation, from the north <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to the Southern Ocean, at different time slices over the past 2Ma, including the MPT, based on Nd isotope ratios measured on Fe-Mn-oxide encrusted foraminifera and fish debris. Thus far we are analyzing samples from DSDP/ODP Sites 607, 1063 from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, 926 from the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, 1264, 1267, 1088, 1090 in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and 1094 from the Southern Ocean. Our data generated thus far support important changes in the overturning circulation during the MPT, and greater glacial-interglacial variability in the 100 kyr world compared with the 40 kyr world. In addition, the data indicate a North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-sourced origin for the ocean circulation disruption during the MPT. Comparison with ɛNd records in different ocean basins and with benthic foraminiferal δ13C and B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios will also allow us to understand the links between deep ocean circulation changes and the global carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17152709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17152709"><span>[Selective effect of the duration of the critical temperature <span class="hlt">period</span> on some allozyme loci of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar L. (Salmonidae)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stroganov, A N; Novikov, G G; Afanas'ev, K I; Malinina, T V; Rubtsova, G A; Ponomareva, E V; Kalabushkin, B A</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Genetic structure of juvenile fish from the populations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar inhabiting the rivers of Murmansk oblast, Arkhangelsk oblast, and Karelia, as well as of juveniles from hatcheries was examined at five allozymic loci: aspartate aminotransferase (AAT-4*), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDHP-3*), iditol dehydrogenase (IDDH-2*), esterase D (ESTD*), and malic enzyme (MEP-2*). High genetic differentiation of both natural and "hatchery" juvenile fish was revealed. It was demonstrated that the gene pool of juveniles at three of the five loci tested was to a considerable degree formed by natural selection. In this case, the role of limiting factor was played by the duration of critical temperature regime in the rivers. The differentiation factors for juveniles from nature were not established, however, their clusterization pattern pointed to a possible role of natural selection in this process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213508L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213508L"><span>A reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) for the last 1200 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Linderholm, Hans; Knight, Jeff; Folland, Chris; Zorita, Eduardo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean show multidecadal fluctuations known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) . The AMO has been related to the thermohaline circulation, which implies a strong association to large-scale climate variability. Indeed, the variability of a wide range of climate parameters in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region has been related to the AMO, e.g. temperatures, precipitation, drought and hurricanes. Moreover, the AMO seems to influence the Asian summer monsoon, and South American precipitation. Most of these relationships have been established analyzing the short observational records or from experiments with climate models. In order to establish the stability of the multidecadal oscillation in the AMO as well as the association with climate, it is necessary to extend the record further back in time. Using tree-ring data from the Northern Hemisphere a reconstruction of the AMO, spanning AD 800 to 2000 is presented. The reconstruction suggests anomalously warm North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 900 to 1050, coinciding with the "Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>", as well as a phase between 1100 and 1400 with relatively little interdecadal variability. There is a prolonged negative phase of AMO from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1600-1860, i.e. during the "Little Ice Age" (LIA). The multidecadal variability of approximately 40-80 years remains constant throughout the record, except around <span class="hlt">ca</span> 1500-1700, i.e. during the LIA, when it breaks down.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..687H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..687H"><span>Subsurface North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidence from the early Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt ice-rafted detritus (IRD) events during cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> of the early Pleistocene. We used paired Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O measurements of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral - sin.), deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, to estimate the subsurface temperatures and seawater δ18O from a sediment core from Gardar Drift, in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Carbon isotopes of benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based temperatures and seawater δ18O suggest increased subsurface temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of weaker <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of IRD. Subsurface accumulation of warm waters would have resulted in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The release of heat stored at the subsurface to the atmosphere would have helped to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in response to AMOC slowdown during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....9912397K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....9912397K"><span>Western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> evidence for millennial-scale changes in ocean circulation and climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keigwin, L. D.; Jones, G. A.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Two late Quaternary series of high resolution percent carbonate data from western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediment drifts (Bermuda Rise and Bahama Outer Ridge) show millennial-scale oscillations superimposed on the familiar, longer-<span class="hlt">period</span> oscillations of orbital origin. The dominant high-frequency oscillation in these records has a quasi-<span class="hlt">period</span> of about 4000 years. These percent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 changes most likely result from the influence of climate change on the flux of terrigenous material from eastern Canada, the resuspension of continental margin sediment by deep eddy kinetic energy, and carbonate dissolution. Sediment is transported to the Bermuda Rise by deep recirculating gyres and to the Bahama Outer Ridge by the deep western boundary current system. Stable isotope results on foraminifera across several of these oscillations from interstadial climate conditions and from a glacial inception display variability similar to that of percent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3. Oxygen isotope ratios of planktonic foraminifera suggest large variations in near-surface temperature and/or salinity, and carbon isotope ratios of benthic foraminifera indicate that there were significant oscillations in the flux of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW). These data support models which couple surface ocean conditions in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, production of NADW, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat flux, and evidence for temperature oscillations in ice cores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1329492-commensurate-period-charge-density-modulations-throughout-bi-sr-cacu-pseudogap-regime','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1329492-commensurate-period-charge-density-modulations-throughout-bi-sr-cacu-pseudogap-regime"><span>Commensurate 4 a 0 -<span class="hlt">period</span> charge density modulations throughout the Bi 2 Sr 2 <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu 2 O 8+x pseudogap regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Mesaros, Andrej; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Edkins, Stephen D.; ...</p> <p>2016-10-20</p> <p>Theories based upon strong real space (r-space) electron–electron interactions have long predicted that unidirectional charge density modulations (CDMs) with four-unit-cell (4a0) <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> should occur in the hole-doped cuprate Mott insulator (MI). Experimentally, however, increasing the hole density p is reported to cause the conventionally defined wavevector QA of the CDM to evolve continuously as if driven primarily by momentum-space (k-space) effects. Here we introduce phase-resolved electronic structure visualization for determination of the cuprate CDM wavevector. Remarkably, this technique reveals a virtually doping-independent locking of the local CDM wavevector at |Q0|=2π/4a0|Q0|=2π/4a0 throughout the underdoped phase diagram of the canonical cuprate Bi2Sr2<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu2O8.more » These observations have significant fundamental consequences because they are orthogonal to a k-space (Fermi-surface)–based picture of the cuprate CDMs but are consistent with strong-coupling r-space–based theories. Our findings imply that it is the latter that provides the intrinsic organizational principle for the cuprate CDM state.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.2195Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.2195Z"><span>Sea surface temperatures in the central southern Indian Ocean over the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1790 to 2007 inferred from two monthly resolved Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and oxygen isotope records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zinke, J.; Wassenburg, J.; Hardman, E.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>We obtained two monthly resolved Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records from Rodrigues island (Mauritius) located in the trade wind belt of the central southern Indian Ocean. The longest core was obtained at a nearshore fringing reef and covers the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1790-2005. This coral records surface air temperatures from the local weather station available from 1950 to the present. The most remarkable signal is a slight cooling after the 1950's. The second core was obtained from the open ocean and records a long-term warming trend between 1947 to 2007. The warming accelerated after the late 1970's in agreement with instrumental data. The oxygen isotope record is affected by salinity variations and shows a strong freshening trend after the late 1970's. The freshening trend is probably related to advection of low salinity waters with the South Equatorial Current and/or increased cyclonicity. We will discuss our results in light of interannual and decadal variability and present long-term seawater monitoring data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5111700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5111700"><span>Commensurate 4a0-<span class="hlt">period</span> charge density modulations throughout the Bi2Sr2<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu2O8+x pseudogap regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mesaros, Andrej; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Edkins, Stephen D.; Hamidian, Mohammad H.; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Davis, J. C. Séamus; Lawler, Michael J.; Kim, Eun-Ah</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Theories based upon strong real space (r-space) electron–electron interactions have long predicted that unidirectional charge density modulations (CDMs) with four-unit-cell (4a0) <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> should occur in the hole-doped cuprate Mott insulator (MI). Experimentally, however, increasing the hole density p is reported to cause the conventionally defined wavevector QA of the CDM to evolve continuously as if driven primarily by momentum-space (k-space) effects. Here we introduce phase-resolved electronic structure visualization for determination of the cuprate CDM wavevector. Remarkably, this technique reveals a virtually doping-independent locking of the local CDM wavevector at |Q0|=2π/4a0 throughout the underdoped phase diagram of the canonical cuprate Bi2Sr2<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu2O8. These observations have significant fundamental consequences because they are orthogonal to a k-space (Fermi-surface)–based picture of the cuprate CDMs but are consistent with strong-coupling r-space–based theories. Our findings imply that it is the latter that provides the intrinsic organizational principle for the cuprate CDM state. PMID:27791157</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1342648-commensurate-period-charge-density-modulations-throughout-bi-sr-cacu-pseudogap-regime','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1342648-commensurate-period-charge-density-modulations-throughout-bi-sr-cacu-pseudogap-regime"><span>Commensurate 4 a 0 -<span class="hlt">period</span> charge density modulations throughout the Bi 2 Sr 2 <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu 2 O 8+x pseudogap regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Mesaros, Andrej; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Edkins, Stephen D.; ...</p> <p>2016-10-20</p> <p>Theories based upon strong real space (r-space) electron–electron interactions have long predicted that unidirectional charge density modulations (CDMs) with four-unit-cell (4a0) <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> should occur in the hole-doped cuprate Mott insulator (MI). But, increasing the hole density p is reported to cause the conventionally defined wavevector QA of the CDM to evolve continuously as if driven primarily by momentum-space (k-space) effects. We introduce phase-resolved electronic structure visualization for determination of the cuprate CDM wavevector. Remarkably, this technique reveals a virtually doping-independent locking of the local CDM wavevector at |Q0|=2π/4a0 throughout the underdoped phase diagram of the canonical cuprate Bi2Sr2<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu2O8. Our observationsmore » have significant fundamental consequences because they are orthogonal to a k-space (Fermi-surface)–based picture of the cuprate CDMs but are consistent with strong-coupling r-space–based theories. Our findings imply that it is the latter that provides the intrinsic organizational principle for the cuprate CDM state.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28859018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28859018"><span>Analysis of Invasive Community-Acquired Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections during a <span class="hlt">Period</span> of Declining <span class="hlt">CA</span>-MRSA Infections at a Large Children's Hospital.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hultén, Kristina G; Mason, Edward O; Lamberth, Linda B; Forbes, Andrea R; Revell, Paula A; Kaplan, Sheldon L</p> <p>2017-08-28</p> <p>The epidemiology of community acquired (<span class="hlt">CA</span>) Staphylococcus aureus infections is changing in the United States. We investigated the current epidemiology of S. aureus infections at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH). Patients with <span class="hlt">CA</span>-S. aureus skin and soft tissue (SSTI) and invasive infections were retrospectively identified from 1/1/2007-12/31/2014. Invasive <span class="hlt">CA</span>-MSSA isolates were characterized by PFGE, Spa typing, agr type and presence of lukSF-PV (pvl) genes. Medical records were reviewed. Statistical analyses included Fisher's exact, Chi-square for trend and Wilcoxon tests. <span class="hlt">CA</span>-MRSA infections decreased by 60.4% (1461 to 578 infections) from 2007-2014 (P<0.0001), while <span class="hlt">CA</span>-MSSA infections averaged 550 infections annually. Invasive <span class="hlt">CA</span>-MRSA infections decreased by 67.2% from 61 to 20 infections (P<0.0001); invasive <span class="hlt">CA</span>-MSSA averaged 44 infections annually. Among 296 invasive <span class="hlt">CA</span>-MSSA isolates, 74 (25%) isolates were USA300 and 88 (30%) were pvl+. USA300 declined among invasive <span class="hlt">CA</span>-MSSA over time (P<0.008). Musculoskeletal infections were most common (242/296, 82%); 52/242 (21.5%) isolates were USA300 and 62/242 (25.6%) pvl+. All 18 isolates from musculoskeletal infections with DVT and/or septic shock were pvl+ and 16/18 (88.9%) were USA300. Pneumonia isolates were mainly USA300 (8, 66.7%) and pvl+ (11, 91.7%). MSSA now cause the majority of invasive <span class="hlt">CA</span>-S. aureus infections at our institution. Molecular analysis of invasive <span class="hlt">CA</span>-MSSA isolates suggests strain diversity with USA300 on the decline and that disease presentations are to some extent strain specific. Changes in the <span class="hlt">CA</span>-S. aureus epidemiology may, in part, be related to changes in immunity to the USA300 clone in the general population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-04/pdf/2011-7947.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-04/pdf/2011-7947.pdf"><span>76 FR 18504 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quotas and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tuna Fisheries...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-04</p> <p>...: Notification of public hearing. ] SUMMARY: On March 14, 2011, NMFS published a proposed rule to modify <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>... the comment <span class="hlt">period</span> for this action until April 28, 2011, allowing a 45-day comment <span class="hlt">period</span>, rescheduled... greater opportunity for public comment on the proposed rule. DATES: A hearing will be held on April...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.449..418B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.449..418B"><span>Last interglacial temperature seasonality reconstructed from tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brocas, William M.; Felis, Thomas; Obert, J. Christina; Gierz, Paul; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Denis; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Reconstructions of last interglacial (LIG, MIS 5e, ∼127-117 ka) climate offer insights into the natural response and variability of the climate system during a <span class="hlt">period</span> partially analogous to future climate change scenarios. We present well preserved fossil corals (Diploria strigosa) recovered from the southern Caribbean island of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands). These have been precisely dated by the 230Th/U-method to between 130 and 120 ka ago. Annual banding of the coral skeleton enabled construction of time windows of monthly resolved strontium/calcium (Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) temperature proxy records. In conjunction with a previously published 118 ka coral record, our eight records of up to 37 years in length, cover a total of 105 years within the LIG <span class="hlt">period</span>. From these, sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality and variability in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is reconstructed. We detect similar to modern SST seasonality of ∼2.9 °C during the early (130 ka) and the late LIG (120-118 ka). However, within the mid-LIG, a significantly higher than modern SST seasonality of 4.9 °C (at 126 ka) and 4.1 °C (at 124 ka) is observed. These findings are supported by climate model simulations and are consistent with the evolving amplitude of orbitally induced changes in seasonality of insolation throughout the LIG, irrespective of wider climatic instabilities that characterised this <span class="hlt">period</span>. The climate model simulations suggest that the SST seasonality changes documented in our LIG coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records are representative of larger regions within the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These simulations also suggest that the reconstructed SST seasonality increase during the mid-LIG is caused primarily by summer warming. A 124 ka old coral documents, for the first time, evidence of decadal SST variability in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the LIG, akin to that observed in modern instrumental records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981733"><span>Reproductive biology of female Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Leach, in Icelandic waters during the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1960-2010: comparative overview of distribution areas in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Mediterranean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eiríksson, Hrafnkell</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Maturity size, reproductive cycle, sex ratio and fecundity of female Nephrops were investigated at SW, S and SE Iceland for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1960-2010. Time series of biological parameters and fisheries data displayed significant relationships. In addition, female biological data from 20 areas in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Mediterranean were compared. Fifty percentage maturity estimates had an overall range of 23.9-34.4mm CL with some anomalies in the 2000s. The reproductive cycle in Iceland has been biennial during the whole study <span class="hlt">period</span> from mid-1960s to 2010 with minor change in phase in the 2000s. Biennial moulting retards female growth more than annual spawning, and the length of incubation and hatch time of year show significant relationships with latitude and sea temperature. Variations in sex ratio were observed and relationships found between female sex ratio and CL, CPUE and stock biomass during 1961-2010, displaying apparent fishery-induced effects on sex ratio. Potential and realized fecundity estimates in Iceland are 35-50% of those reported from more southerly waters. Biennial spawning and low fecundity limit the number of progeny in Icelandic Nephrops and necessitate lower fishing mortality. Ambient temperature in Icelandic waters has risen by 1°C since the late 1990s, generating around 30 days shorter incubation time in the 2000s, but around 3°C rise is necessary for possible annual spawning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22908256','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22908256"><span>Impact of abrupt deglacial climate change on tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subsurface temperatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Matthew W; Chang, Ping; Hertzberg, Jennifer E; Them, Theodore R; Ji, Link; J, Link; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L</p> <p>2012-09-04</p> <p>Both instrumental data analyses and coupled ocean-atmosphere models indicate that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly linked to abrupt tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes. Although a slowdown of AMOC results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming because of rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns at intermediate water depths. Here, we reconstruct high-resolution temperature records using oxygen isotope values and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in both surface- and subthermocline-dwelling planktonic foraminifera from a sediment core located in the TNA over the last 22 ky. Our results show significant changes in the vertical thermal gradient of the upper water column, with the warmest subsurface temperatures of the last deglacial transition corresponding to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Furthermore, we present new analyses of a climate model simulation forced with freshwater discharge into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> under Last Glacial Maximum forcings and boundary conditions that reveal a maximum subsurface warming in the vicinity of the core site and a vertical thermal gradient change at the onset of AMOC weakening, consistent with the reconstructed record. Together, our proxy reconstructions and modeling results provide convincing evidence for a subsurface oceanic teleconnection linking high-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate to the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of reduced AMOC across the last deglacial transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3437837','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3437837"><span>Impact of abrupt deglacial climate change on tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subsurface temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Matthew W.; Chang, Ping; Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Them, Theodore R.; Ji, Link; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Both instrumental data analyses and coupled ocean-atmosphere models indicate that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly linked to abrupt tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes. Although a slowdown of AMOC results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming because of rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns at intermediate water depths. Here, we reconstruct high-resolution temperature records using oxygen isotope values and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in both surface- and subthermocline-dwelling planktonic foraminifera from a sediment core located in the TNA over the last 22 ky. Our results show significant changes in the vertical thermal gradient of the upper water column, with the warmest subsurface temperatures of the last deglacial transition corresponding to the onset of the Younger Dryas. Furthermore, we present new analyses of a climate model simulation forced with freshwater discharge into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> under Last Glacial Maximum forcings and boundary conditions that reveal a maximum subsurface warming in the vicinity of the core site and a vertical thermal gradient change at the onset of AMOC weakening, consistent with the reconstructed record. Together, our proxy reconstructions and modeling results provide convincing evidence for a subsurface oceanic teleconnection linking high-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate to the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of reduced AMOC across the last deglacial transition. PMID:22908256</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP62A0316M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP62A0316M"><span>Decadal-Scale Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climate Variability Recorded in Slow Growing Cape Verde Corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moses, C. S.; Swart, P. K.; Dodge, R. E.; Helmle, K. P.; Thorrold, S.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The decadal to century scale climate variability of the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> has major implications for both neighboring coastal and inland areas. Changes in patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) and SST anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are known to affect rainfall in Florida, South America, and sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the number of major hurricanes formed in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Because of the significance of these connections, it is important to further increase our predictive capacity for the recognition of trends and cycles in tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and SSTA. Located at 15° N latitude off the west coast of sub-Saharan Africa, the Cape Verde Islands are an ideal geographic location to search for records of the Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Index (TNA). Such patterns are present in proxy indicators of climate (O, C, Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) recorded in the skeletons of slow growing corals, such as Siderastrea radians, found in Cape Verde (growth rate = 1-2 mm/yr). These corals represent an archive for SST and SSTA records that exceed the instrumental <span class="hlt">period</span> of the eastern tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. We cored corals from several different locations within the Cape Verde archipelago and analyzed them for stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) and minor elements (Sr, Mg, and Ba). The δ18O signal present in these corals shows a distinct relationship to the TNA over the better part of the last 100 years. In addition, the δ18O record in several of these corals also records the onset of the latest Sahel (11°-18° N in Africa) drought which began in 1970. The Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records of these corals indicate a slight warming of the waters around Cape Verde during the last 100 years, as well as accurately recording the El Niño events of 1982-83 and 1997-98. The correlations present between the records in these corals and the known instrumental record for the eastern tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> suggests that the fluctuations recorded in the proxy indicators may be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019056','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019056"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deepwater temperature change during late pliocene and late quaternary climatic cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dwyer, Gary S.; Cronin, T. M.; Baker, P.A.; Raymo, M.E.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.; Correge, T.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Variations in the ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) in fossil ostracodes from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 607 in the deep North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> show that the change in bottom water temperature during late Pliocene 41,000-year obliquity cycles averaged 1.5°C between 3.2 and 2.8 million years ago (Ma) and increased to 2.3°C between 2.8 and 2.3 Ma, coincidentally with the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. During the last two 100,000-year glacial-to-interglacial climatic cycles of the Quaternary, bottom water temperatures changed by 4.5°C. These results show that glacial deepwater cooling has intensified since 3.2 Ma, most likely as the result of progressively diminished deep-water production in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and of the greater influence of Antarctic bottom water in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>. The ostracode Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data also allow the direct determination of the temperature component of the benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope record from Site 607, as well as derivation of a hypothetical sea-level curve for the late Pliocene and late Quaternary. The effects of dissolution on the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of ostracode shells appear to have been minimal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006E%26PSL.241..699W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006E%26PSL.241..699W"><span>Deglacial sea surface temperature and salinity increase in the western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in synchrony with high latitude climate instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weldeab, S.; Schneider, R. R.; Kölling, M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A sediment core from the western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> covering the last 21,000 yr has been analysed for centennial scale reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST) and ice volume-corrected oxygen isotopic composition of sea water ( δ18O ivc-sw) using Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O of the shallow dwelling planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber (white). At a <span class="hlt">period</span> between 15.5 and 17.5 kyr BP, the Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span> SST and δ18O ivc-sw, a proxy for sea surface salinity (SSS), reveals a warming of around 2.5 °C along with an increase in salinity. A second <span class="hlt">period</span> of pronounced warming and SSS increase occurred between 11.6 and 13.5 kyr BP. Within age model uncertainties, both warming intervals were synchronous with air temperature increase over Antarctica and ice retreat in the southern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and terminated with abrupt centennial scale SSS decrease and slight SST cooling in conjunction with interglacial reactivation of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). We suggest that during these warm intervals, production of saline and warm water of the North Brazil Current resulted in pronounced heat and salt accumulation, and was associated with warming in the southern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, southward displacement of the intertropical convergence zone and weakened MOC. At the termination of the Younger Dryas and Heinrich event 1, intensification of cross-equatorial heat and salt transport caused centennial scale cooling and freshening of the western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface water. This study shows that the western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> served as a heat and salt reservoir during deglaciation. The sudden release of accumulated heat and salt at the end of Younger Drays and Heinrich event 1 may have contributed to the rapid reinvigoration of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> MOC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3533L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3533L"><span>Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bathymetric map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loubrieu, B.; Sibuet, J.-C.; Monti, S.; Mazé, J.-P.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The new bathymetric map of the Bay of Biscay and Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is based on all available conventional and multibeam data. It extends from the European coast to the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ridge in longitude and from the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone to 50^oN in latitude. Grid spacing is one km. The map is in Mercator projection at a 1/2,400,000 scale. With respect to previously published maps, the detailed morphology of Eurasian and Iberian continental margins, a complete picture of the two fossil trajectories of the Bay of Biscay triple junction, which limit the western extension of the Bay of Biscay, and the precise location of the plate boundary between Eurasia and Iberia, which was active during the Tertiary, are now available. The Bay of Biscay and Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> opened simultaneously between chrons M0 (118 Ma) and 33o (80 Ma). A triple junction existed during that <span class="hlt">period</span>. Fossil triple junctions trajectories on each of the three Eurasia (EU), Iberia (IB) and North America (NA) plates separate oceanic domains which were formed between the three plate pairs: IB/EU for the Bay of Biscay, EU/NA and IB/NA for the northern and southern portions of the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> respectively. On each side of the fossil trajectories, rift directions formed between different plate pairs present different azimuths. The two eastern branches have been identified on the basis of available bathymetric, magnetic and seismic data. They are generally associated with a basement ridge whose bathymetric expression is clearly shown in their youngest parts. The intersections of these two fossil trajectories with the base of the continental margins are conjugate points before the opening of the Bay of Biscay, giving an independent constraint for plate reconstructions at M0 time. In a companion poster, we have used the constraints deduced from the new bathymetric map to derive the IB/EU kinematic motions and discuss their consequences on the formation of Pyrenees.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PalOc..27.3231V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PalOc..27.3231V"><span>Corals record persistent multidecadal SST variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Warm Pool since 1775 AD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>VáSquez-Bedoya, Luis Fernando; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; Blanchon, Paul</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Accurate low-latitude sea surface temperature (SST) records that predate the instrumental era are needed to put recent warming in the context of natural climate variability and to evaluate the persistence of lower frequency climate variability prior to the instrumental era and the possible influence of anthropogenic climate change on this variability. Here we present a 235-year-long SST reconstruction based on annual growth rates (linear extension) of three colonies of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coralSiderastrea sidereasampled at two sites on the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, located within the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Warm Pool (AWP). AWP SSTs vary in concert the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), a basin-wide, quasiperiodic (˜60-80 years) oscillation of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs. We demonstrate that the annual linear growth rates of all three coral colonies are significantly inversely correlated with SST. We calibrate annual linear growth rates to SST between 1900 and 1960 AD. The linear correlation coefficient over the calibration <span class="hlt">period</span> is r = -0.77 and -0.66 over the instrumental record (1860-2008 AD). We apply our calibration to annual linear growth rates to extend the SST record to 1775 AD and show that multidecadal SST variability has been a persistent feature of the AWP, and likely, of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> over this time <span class="hlt">period</span>. Our results imply that tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs remained within 1°C of modern values during the past 225 years, consistent with a previous reconstruction based on coral growth rates and with most estimates based on the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> of planktonic foraminifera from marine sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP11C1364P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP11C1364P"><span>Variability in Intermediate Water Mass Geometry in the Tropical W-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> from LGM to Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poggemann, D. W.; Nuernberg, D.; Hathorne, E. C.; Bruhn, I.; Reißig, S.; Frank, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The oceanic intermediate depth response to <span class="hlt">periods</span> of abrupt climatic cooling during the last deglaciation, namely the Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich 1 event (H1), has been the focus of several recent studies (e.g. Pahnke et al., 2008; Huang et al., 2014; Xie et al., 2014; Gebbie et al., 2014). Intermediate water dynamics, in particular the interaction between Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deepwater (NADW) during the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the Holocene and the connection with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), however, are still debated widely. Several hypotheses suggest the short-term presence of AAIW in the subtropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> or N-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sourced intermediate water masses in the Florida Straits during deglacial cool <span class="hlt">periods</span> when the AMOC was supposedly weak or collapsed (e.g. Xie et al., 2012). This study provides new water mass geometry information from the tropical W-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> for the past 35 ka using a multiproxy approach. We analysed calcitic tests of benthic/planktonic foraminifera from various intermediate depth locations for Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> (temperature), Cdw (nutrients), δ18Osw (salinity), δ13C (ventilation), and ɛNd (water mass provenance and mixing) in order to improve our understanding of the intermediate water mass distribution and variability between 400 and 1500 m water depth on millennial time-scales. First results document the southward penetration of Glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intermediate Water (GNAIW) replacing the NADW during the LGM. Furthermore our data indicate a gradual shift from GNAIW influenced conditions during the LGM to AAIW dominated conditions throughout the Holocene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4033H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4033H"><span>Subsurface North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming as a trigger of rapid cooling events: evidences from the Early Pleistocene (MIS 31-19)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, I.; Sierro, F.-J.; Cacho, I.; Flores, J.-A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Subsurface water column dynamics in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> were reconstructed in order to improve the understanding of the cause of abrupt IRD events during cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> of the Early Pleistocene. We used Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based temperatures of deep-dwelling (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral) planktonic foraminifera and paired Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-δ18O measurements to estimate the subsurface temperatures and δ18O of seawater at Site U1314. Carbon isotopes on benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the same site provide information about the ventilation and water column nutrient gradient. Mg / <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based temperatures and δ18O of seawater suggest increased temperatures and salinities during ice-rafting, likely due to enhanced northward subsurface transport of subtropical waters during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of AMOC reduction. Planktonic carbon isotopes support this suggestion, showing coincident increased subsurface ventilation during deposition of ice-rafted detritus (IRD). Warm waters accumulated at subsurface would result in basal warming and break-up of ice-shelves, leading to massive iceberg discharges in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Release of heat and salt stored at subsurface would help to restart the AMOC. This mechanism is in agreement with modelling and proxy studies that observe a subsurface warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in response to AMOC slowdown during the MIS3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-098.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-098.pdf"><span>Habitat Suitability Index Models: Juvenile <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Croaker</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Diaz, Robert J.; Onuf, Christopher P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker is an important commercial and recreational species. In the 1940's, the foodfish catch of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croakers was concentrated in Chesapeake Bay; in the 1950's and early 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico; and in the late 1970's, the catch was concentrated in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> States (Wilk 1981). Industrial and recreational catches of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croakers have been concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico, where the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker is the most important species of bottomfish for industrial uses (Knudsen and Herke 1978), and has ranked first, second, or third in number caught by recreational anglers, depending on survey year (Nakamura 1981). Today, Virginia or Delaware is considered to be the northern extent of the species. During climatically warmer <span class="hlt">periods</span>, such as the 1930's and 1940's, the croaker extended its range north at least to New York, where it was commercially fished. The southern extent of its range is Argentina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP43D..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP43D..02F"><span>Last interglacial temperature seasonality reconstructed from tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Felis, T.; Brocas, W.; Obert, J. C.; Gierz, P.; Lohmann, G.; Scholz, D.; Kölling, M.; Pfeiffer, M.; Scheffers, S. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Reconstructions of last interglacial ( 127-117 ka) climate offer insights into the natural response and variability of the climate system during a <span class="hlt">period</span> partially analogous to future climate change scenarios. However, the seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean are not well known for the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Here we present well preserved fossil corals (Diploria strigosa) recovered from the southern Caribbean island of Bonaire. These corals have been precisely dated by the 230Th/U-method to between 130 and 118 ka ago. Annual banding of the coral skeleton enabled construction of time windows of monthly resolved Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> temperature proxy records. Our eight coral records of up to 37 years in length cover a total of 105 years within the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. From these coral records, sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is reconstructed. We detect similar to modern SST seasonality of 2.9 °C during the early (130 ka) and the late last interglacial (120 - 118 ka). However, within the mid-last interglacial, a significantly higher than modern SST seasonality of 4.9 °C (at 126 ka) and 4.1 °C (at 124 ka) is observed. These findings are supported by climate model simulations (COSMOS) and are consistent with the evolving amplitude of orbitally induced changes in seasonality of insolation throughout the last interglacial, irrespective of wider climatic instabilities that characterised this <span class="hlt">period</span>, e.g. at 118 ka ago. The climate model simulations suggest that the SST seasonality changes documented in our last interglacial coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records are representative of larger regions within the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These simulations also suggest that the reconstructed SST seasonality increase during the mid-last interglacial is caused primarily by summer warming. Furthermore, a 124 ka old coral documents evidence of decadal SST variability in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last interglacial, akin to that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6651W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6651W"><span>The Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>-Little Ice Age Relative Sea Level Slowdown in Western Greenland: A response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to a phase shift of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wake, L. M.; Milne, G. A.; Long, A. J.; Woodroffe, S. A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Changes in mass balance can force spatially variable sea-level changes in both the near- and far-field of an ice sheet (Farrell and Clark, 1976; Mitrovica et al. 2001). During the <span class="hlt">period</span> spanning the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> and the Little Ice Age (LIA), reconstructions of century-scale relative sea-level (RSL) extracted from salt marsh deposits in Greenland (Long et al. 2011, Woodroffe and Long, 2009) reveal that the century-scale RSL trends differ significantly to millennial-scale trends inferred from isolation basin data in their respective areas. At sites in west Greenland (Sisimiut: 68.6oN, 52.6oW; Aasiaat: 68.6oN, 52.6oW), RSL rise slows from ~3 mm/yr to ~0 mm/yr at ~1600AD and is stable thereafter. In south Greenland (Nanortalik, 60oN, 44.7oW), a similar trend is observed, but the slowdown occurs 200 years later. Sensitivity tests show that substantial contributions from oceanographic changes can be ruled out as drivers of RSL slowdown at Aasiaat and Sisimiut but could be more important at Nanortalik. Dynamic ice loss from Jakobshavn Isbrae is predicted to produce an extremely localised RSL signal and is likely to be only a secondary contributor to RSL changes at Aasiaat. For Sisimiut and Aasiaat, regional-scale changes in ice load are the most likely candidate to explain the observed RSL signals. Marginal ice loss in western Greenland beginning around 1600AD is required to initiate local sea-level fall to counteract the background viscous sea-level rise associated with GIA from non-Greenland sources. However, ice loss is deemed an unlikely scenario since this is incompatible with widely-perceived climatic conditions associated with the Little Ice Age. Recently it has been shown that the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) was predominantly in a positive phase prior to the LIA (Trouet et al., 2009), switching to a variable positive/negative phase since ~1600AD. This offers a mechanism to explain the RSL changes at Sisimiut and Aasiaat at 1600AD. We present the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20015083','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20015083"><span>The influence of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature anomalies on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robertson, A.W.; Mechoso, C.R.; Kim, Y.J.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The influence of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the atmospheric circulation over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector during winter is investigated by performing experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model. These consist of a 30-yr run with observed SST anomalies for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1961--90 confined geographically to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, and of a control run with climatological SSTs prescribed globally. A third 30-yr integration with observed SSTs confined to the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is made to confirm present findings. The simulated interannual variance of 500-hPa wintertime geopotential heights over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> attains much more realistic values when observed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs are prescribed. Circulation patterns that resemble the positive phase of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oscillation (NAO) become more pronounced in terms of the leading EOF of winter means, and a cluster analysis of daily fields. The variance of an interannual NAO index increases by fivefold over its control value. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST variability is also found to produce an appreciable rectified response in the December-February time mean. Interannual fluctuations in the simulated NAO are found to be significantly correlated with SST anomalies over the tropical and subtropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These SST anomalies are accompanied by displacements in the simulated summer monosoonal circulation over South America and the cross-equational regional Hadley circulation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9110D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9110D"><span>Hydrographic changes in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at the MCA to LIA transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Divine, Dmitry; Miettinen, Arto; Husum, Katrine; Koc, Nalan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A network of four marine sediment cores from the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is used to study hydrographic changes in surface water masses during the last 2000 years with a special focus on the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) transition. Three of the cores are recovered from the sites located on main pathways of warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water to the Arctic: M95-2011 (Vøring plateau, Norwegian Sea), Rapid-21 COM and LO-14 (Reykjanes Ridge, south of Iceland). The fourth core MD99-2322 is from the SE Greenland shelf (Denmark Strait), and it is influenced by the cold water outflow from the Arctic. The cores were analyzed continuously for planktonic diatoms with a high decadal to subdecadal temporal resolution. Past changes in the spatial distribution of surface water masses have been studied identifying factors, or typical species compositions, in downcore diatom assemblages. To derive the factors a Q-mode factor analysis has been applied to the extended modern calibration data set of 184 surface sediment samples from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the Labrador Sea, the Nordic Seas, and Baffin Bay. SSTs have also been reconstructed using transfer functions. Variations of the reconstructed SSTs and loadings of major contributing factors reveal a complex regional pattern of changes in the structure of circulation during the MCA/LIA transition (1200-1400 AD). In the Norwegian Sea, the factors associated with assemblages typical for warmer and saline North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters are partly displaced by colder and fresher water dwelling diatoms suggesting an eastward migration of mixed Arctic/<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water masses into the Norwegian Sea. The two cores south of Iceland show a westward propagation of a warm water pulse as evidenced by the dominance of assemblages, which today are typical for the waters <span class="hlt">ca</span> 5° further south than the current study sites. At the SE Greenland shelf an abrupt shift (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 50 years) in factors associated with different sea ice zone dwelling diatoms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PalOc..26.4224K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PalOc..26.4224K"><span>Multidecadal variability and late medieval cooling of near-coastal sea surface temperatures in the eastern tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhnert, Henning; Mulitza, Stefan</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Multidecadal variations in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SST) influence the climate of the Northern Hemisphere. However, prior to the instrumental time <span class="hlt">period</span>, information on multidecadal climate variability becomes limited, and there is a particular scarcity of sufficiently resolved SST reconstructions. Here we present an eastern tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> reconstruction of SSTs based on foraminiferal Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios that resolves multidecadal variability over the past 1700 years. Spectral power in the multidecadal band (50 to 70 years <span class="hlt">period</span>) is significant over several time intervals suggesting that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) has been influencing local SST. Since our data exhibit high scatter the absence of multidecadal variability in the remaining record does not exclude the possibility that SST variations on this time scale might have been present without being detected in our data. Cooling by ˜0.5°C takes place between about AD 1250 and AD 1500; while this corresponds to the inception of the Little Ice Age (LIA), the end of the LIA is not reflected in our record and SST remains relatively low. This transition to cooler SSTs parallels the previously reconstructed shift in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation toward a low pre-20th century mean state and possibly reflects common solar forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6983M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6983M"><span>A modelling study of the influence of anomalous wind forcing over the Barents Sea on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water flow to the Arctic Ocean in the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1979-2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marciniak, Jakub; Schlichtholz, Pawel; Maslowski, Wieslaw</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Arctic climate system is influenced by oceanic heat transport with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water (AW) streaming towards the Arctic Ocean in two branches, through the deep Fram Strait and the shallow Barents Sea. In Fram Strait, the AW submerges below the Polar surface water and then flows cyclonically along the margin of the Arctic Ocean as a subsurface water mass in the Arctic Slope Current. In contrast to the Fram Strait branch, which is the major source of heat for the Arctic Ocean, most of the heat influx to the Barents Sea through the Barents Sea opening (BSO) is passed to the atmosphere. Only cold remnants of AW outflow to the Arctic Ocean through the northeastern gate of the Barents Sea. Some AW entering the Barents Sea recirculates westward, contributing to an outflow from the Barents Sea through the BSO along the shelf slope south of Bear Island, in the Bear Island Slope Current. Even though the two-branched AW flow toward the Arctic Ocean has been known for more than a century, little is known about co-variability of heat fluxes in the two branches, its mechanisms and climatic implications. Recent studies indicate that the Bear Island Slope Current may play a role in this co-variability. Here, co-variability of the flow through the BSO and Fram Strait is investigated using a pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean hindcast model run for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1979-2004 and forced with daily atmospheric data from the ECMWF. Significant wintertime co-variability between the volume transport in the Bear Island and Arctic slope currents and its link to wind forcing over the Barents Sea is confirmed. It is found that the volume transports in these currents are, however, not correlated in the annual mean and that the wintertime co-variability of these currents has no immediate effect on either the net heat flux through the BSO or the net heat flux divergence in the Barents Sea. It is shown that the main climatic effect of wind forcing over the northern Barents Sea shelf is to induce temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20212157','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20212157"><span>Two millennia of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> seasonality and implications for Norse colonies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patterson, William P; Dietrich, Kristin A; Holmden, Chris; Andrews, John T</p> <p>2010-03-23</p> <p>delta(18)O values of mollusks recovered from near-shore marine cores in northwest Iceland quantify significant variation in seasonal temperature over the <span class="hlt">period</span> from approximately 360 B.C. to approximately A.D. 1660. Twenty-six aragonitic bivalve specimens were selected to represent intervals of climatic interest by using core sedimentological characteristics. Carbonate powder was sequentially micromilled from shell surfaces concordant with growth banding and analyzed for stable oxygen (delta(18)O) and carbon (delta(13)C) isotope values. Because delta(18)O values record subseasonal temperature variation over the lifetime of the bivalves, these data provide the first 2,000-year secular record of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> seasonality from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 360 cal yr B.C. to cal yr A.D. 1660. Notable cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> (360 B.C. to 240 B.C.; A.D. 410; and A.D. 1380 to 1420) and warm <span class="hlt">periods</span> (230 B.C. to A.D. 140 and A.D. 640 to 760) are resolved in terms of contrast between summer and winter temperatures and seasonal temperature variability. Literature from the Viking Age (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 790 to 1070) during the establishment of Norse colonies (and later) in Iceland and Greenland permits comparisons between the delta(18)O temperature record and historical records, thereby demonstrating the impact of seasonal climatic extremes on the establishment, development, and, in some cases, collapse of societies in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRI...95...99B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRI...95...99B"><span>Sex-structure, depth distribution, intermoult <span class="hlt">period</span> and reproductive pattern of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon affinis (Brachyura, Geryonidae) in two populations in the north-eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biscoito, Manuel; Freitas, Mafalda; Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Santana, José I.; Costa, Ana L.; Delgado, João; González, José A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This work investigated the biology of Chaceon affinis in two isolated populations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including depth distribution, sexual structure, reproductive patterns and intermoult <span class="hlt">period</span>. Males were larger and heavier than females. Mean size decreased with depth for both males and females. The highest abundance was found at 600-799 m of depth for males and at 800-999 m depth stratum for females. The highest abundance of ovigerous females was found at the 800-999 m depth stratum. Of the different ovaries' colour or colour shades recorded, only six categories were histologically characterized. The presence of spermatophores in the spermatheca of females in carapace stages II and III suggests that spermatophores are viable and used during the intermoult <span class="hlt">period</span>. The size at sexual maturity in females was estimated at 104.4-104.7 mm carapace width (CW) in Madeira, and 109.3-110.5 mm CW in the Canary Islands. Only three categories of testes were identified. Mature testes consisted in a large mass, with highly coiled vasa deferentia visible to the naked eye. The size at sexual maturity in males was estimated at 113.8 mm CW in Madeira and 118.9 mm CW in the Canaries. The relative growth of males showed significant changes along the ontogeny and size at which allometric growth changes, as an indicator of morphometric maturity, occurred between 103.2 and 103.6 mm CW in Madeira and between 111.4 and 113.1 mm CW in the Canaries. In females, size at which allometric growth changes was found for maximum width of fifth abdominal somite (AS5W) at 98.2 mm CW in Madeira and 103.0 mm CW in the Canaries. The size at maturity obtained for C. affinis indicates that the minimum landing size (MLS) should not be set smaller than 125 mm CW in Madeira and 130 mm CW in the Canaries. This conservative MLS, higher than length at functional maturity, would safeguard immature individuals until they reach the size at which they can contribute to the reproductive capacity of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0653.photos.378578p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0653.photos.378578p/"><span>Photocopy of ground floor plan, <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 12939. Plans and renovations ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Photocopy of ground floor plan, <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 12939. Plans and renovations required for the 1940-1941 addition are overlaid on the original plan - Stamford Post Office, 421 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Street, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917734M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917734M"><span>Constraining the mechanisms driving coccolith δ44/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations: new perspectives from cultures, cellular models, and the sediment record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>María Mejía, Luz; Paytan, Adina; Eisenhauer, Anton; Kolevica, Ana; Bolton, Clara; Méndez-Vicente, Ana; Abrevaya, Lorena; Isensee, Kirsten; Stoll, Heather</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Coccoliths comprise a major fraction of the calcium carbonate (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3) production, with contributions varying from 95% of the global carbonate sink during the Cenozoic, to 50% in the modern ocean. Therefore, significant changes in coccolith <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic fractionation could have affected past seawater <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic composition (δ44/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>), with potential important implications for the interpretation of the global <span class="hlt">Ca</span> cycle and related changes in seawater chemistry. Here we evaluate the mechanisms driving coccolith <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic fractionation in a quantitative framework, by deriving a steady-state mass balance geochemical model (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Sri-Co), which assumes that fractionation is solely associated with desolvation (i.e. dehydration) of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> during cellular transport through membranes. The application of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Sri-Co model to previously published and to our new δ44/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> results from cultured coccolithophores (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Calcidiscus leptoporus) allowed us to identify calcification rates, <span class="hlt">Ca</span> retention efficiency and water structure strength as main regulators of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic fractionation and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of cultured coccolith calcite. Higher calcification rates, higher <span class="hlt">Ca</span> retention efficiencies and higher water structure strength (slower <span class="hlt">Ca</span> solvation-desolvation reactions) increase both coccolith Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic fractionation. The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Sri-Co model shows that coccolith <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic fractionation is especially sensitive to changes in water structure strength. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">Ca</span> retention efficiency appears to be the main driver of the observed Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> trends, which results from the incomplete usage of the Sr transported to the calcification vesicle and subsequent Sr enrichment of the cytosol, while <span class="hlt">Ca</span> inside the calcification vesicle is assumed to be completely utilized in the model. In this study we also measured δ44/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in two coccolith size fraction from site 925 in the Western Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> representing the last</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061355','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061355"><span>At the Feet of the Fortress: Analysis of Inka <span class="hlt">Period</span> (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 1430-1536) Archaeofaunal Assemblages from Residential Unit 1 (RU1), Pucara de Tilcara (Jujuy, Argentina)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the results of a zooarchaeological analysis conducted on the occupation layer of a compound structure (Residential Unit 1) of the Pucara de Tilcara archaeological site (Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina). Its occupation span extends between the 13th and 15th centuries AD, but evidence diagnostic of the Inka <span class="hlt">Period</span> (AD 1430–1536) is predominant. Residential Unit 1 was a house-workshop that hosted specialized crafts like metallurgy and lapidary during the Inka <span class="hlt">Period</span>. It was proposed in previous works that artisans living at Pucara de Tilcara were provisioned with agropastoral products by the Inka administration. This paper aims to test that hypothesis against the zooarchaeological evidence of Residential Unit 1. Three variables were used as proxies for state-sponsored distribution: taxonomic diversity (family and species ranks), and skeletal and age profiles of the predominant zoological family (Camelidae) in the assemblage. The results show a high degree of continuity with the regional record, characterized by a herding-hunting strategy focused on domestic and wild species of Camelidae and a mixed mortality pattern. The skeletal profile shows a strong and negative correlation with the desiccation potential of elements, which could be indicative of local production of chalona. Overall, faunal evidence does not show any sign of centralized distribution. PMID:27732648</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/189/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/189/"><span>PRISM3 DOT1 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin Reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dowsett, Harry; Robinson, Marci; Dwyer, Gary S.; Chandler, Mark; Cronin, Thomas</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>PRISM3 DOT1 (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping 3, Deep Ocean Temperature 1) provides a three-dimensional temperature reconstruction for the mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin, the first of several regional data sets that will comprise a global mid-Pliocene reconstruction. DOT1 is an alteration of modern temperature values for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean in 4 degree x 5 degree cells in 13 depth layers for December 1 based on Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-derived BWT estimates from seventeen DSDP and ODP Sites and SST estimates from the PRISM2 reconstruction (Dowsett et al., 1999). DOT1 reflects a vaguely modern circulation system, assuming similar processes of deep-water formation; however, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) production is increased, and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production is decreased. Pliocene NADW was approximately 2 degreesC warmer than modern temperatures, and Pliocene AABW was approximately 0.3 degreesC warmer than modern temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..114.1108M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..114.1108M"><span>Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mellinger, David K.; Clark, Christopher W.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Sounds of blue whales were recorded from U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The most common signals were long, patterned sequences of very-low-frequency sounds in the 15-20 Hz band. Sounds within a sequence were hierarchically organized into phrases consisting of one or two different sound types. Sequences were typically composed of two-part phrases repeated every 73 s: a constant-frequency tonal ``A'' part lasting approximately 8 s, followed 5 s later by a frequency-modulated ``B'' part lasting approximately 11 s. A common sequence variant consisted only of repetitions of part A. Sequences were separated by silent <span class="hlt">periods</span> averaging just over four minutes. Two other sound types are described: a 2-5 s tone at 9 Hz, and a 5-7s inflected tone that swept up in frequency to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 70 Hz and then rapidly down to 25 Hz. The general characteristics of repeated sequences of simple combinations of long-duration, very-low-frequency sound units repeated every 1-2 min are typical of blue whale sounds recorded in other parts of the world. However, the specific frequency, duration, and repetition interval features of these North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sounds are different than those reported from other regions, lending further support to the notion that geographically separate blue whale populations have distinctive acoustic displays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12942988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12942988"><span>Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mellinger, David K; Clark, Christopher W</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Sounds of blue whales were recorded from U.S. Navy hydrophone arrays in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The most common signals were long, patterned sequences of very-low-frequency sounds in the 15-20 Hz band. Sounds within a sequence were hierarchically organized into phrases consisting of one or two different sound types. Sequences were typically composed of two-part phrases repeated every 73 s: a constant-frequency tonal "A" part lasting approximately 8 s, followed 5 s later by a frequency-modulated "B" part lasting approximately 11 s. A common sequence variant consisted only of repetitions of part A. Sequences were separated by silent <span class="hlt">periods</span> averaging just over four minutes. Two other sound types are described: a 2-5 s tone at 9 Hz, and a 5-7 s inflected tone that swept up in frequency to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 70 Hz and then rapidly down to 25 Hz. The general characteristics of repeated sequences of simple combinations of long-duration, very-low-frequency sound units repeated every 1-2 min are typical of blue whale sounds recorded in other parts of the world. However, the specific frequency, duration, and repetition interval features of these North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sounds are different than those reported from other regions, lending further support to the notion that geographically separate blue whale populations have distinctive acoustic displays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..77..276P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..77..276P"><span>The potential of the coral species Porites astreoides as a paleoclimate archive for the Tropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereira, N. S.; Sial, A. N.; Frei, R.; Ullmann, C. V.; Korte, C.; Kikuchi, R. K. P.; Ferreira, V. P.; Kilbourne, K. H.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The aragonitic skeletons of corals are unique archives of geochemical tracers that can be used as proxies for environmental conditions with high fidelity and sub-annual resolution. Such records have been extensively used for reconstruction of climatic conditions in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, Red Sea and Caribbean, but lack for the Equatorial South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Here we present coral-based records of Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, δ18O and δ13C and the first δ18O-SST calibration for the scleractinian coral species Porites astreoides from the Rocas Atoll, Equatorial South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The investigated geochemical proxies for P. astreoides presented a very well-developed seasonal cyclicity in all proxies. We use the monthly means of δ18O and SST from the <span class="hlt">period</span> of 2001-2013 to propose a calibration for a paleothermometer based on Porites, which gives T(°C) = -8.69(±0.79)* δ18O -7.05(±3.14), and yielded a SST δ18O-depended reconstruction with fidelity better than 0.5 °C for most of the record. Biases of up to 2 °C might be associated with reduced growth rate <span class="hlt">periods</span> of the coral record. The Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data show systematic, annual fluctuations but analyses are too imprecise to propose a Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-SST calibration. The δ13C values are found to vary in phase with δ18O and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and are interpreted to be controlled by solar irradiation-modulated photosynthetic activity on the annual level. Our findings extend the global data base of coral records, contributing to further investigations using coral skeleton as environmental archives. In particular, the present study helps to better understand the climate variability of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical ocean-atmosphere system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...90...80Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...90...80Y"><span>Deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate chemistry and increased interocean deep water exchange during last deglaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Jimin; Anderson, Robert F.; Jin, Zhangdong; Menviel, Laurie; Zhang, Fei; Ryerson, Fredrick J.; Rohling, Eelco J.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Carbon release from the deep ocean at glacial terminations is a critical component of past climate change, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We present a 28,000-year high-resolution record of carbonate ion concentration, a key parameter of the global carbon cycle, at 5-km water depth in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. We observe similar carbonate ion concentrations between the Last Glacial Maximum and the late Holocene, despite elevated concentrations in the glacial surface ocean. This strongly supports the importance of respiratory carbon accumulation in a stratified deep ocean for atmospheric CO2 reduction during the last ice age. After ˜9 μmol/kg decline during Heinrich Stadial 1, deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate ion concentration rose by ˜24 μmol/kg from the onset of Bølling to Pre-boreal, likely caused by strengthening North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation (Bølling) or increased ventilation in the Southern Ocean (Younger Drays) or both (Pre-boreal). The ˜15 μmol/kg decline in deep water carbonate ion since ˜10 ka is consistent with extraction of alkalinity from seawater by deep-sea <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 compensation and coral reef growth on continental shelves during the Holocene. Between 16,600 and 15,000 years ago, deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate ion values converged with those at 3.4-km water depth in the western equatorial Pacific, as did carbon isotope and radiocarbon values. These observations suggest a <span class="hlt">period</span> of enhanced lateral exchange of carbon between the deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific Oceans, probably due to an increased transfer of momentum from southern westerlies to the Southern Ocean. By spreading carbon-rich deep Pacific waters around Antarctica for upwelling, invigorated interocean deep water exchange would lead to more efficient CO2 degassing from the Southern Ocean, and thus to an atmospheric CO2 rise, during the early deglaciation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-10/pdf/2010-5183.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-10/pdf/2010-5183.pdf"><span>75 FR 11129 - Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Mackerel, Butterfish, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefish, Spiny...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-10</p> <p>...; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Mackerel, Butterfish, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefish, Spiny Dogfish, Summer Flounder, Scup, Black Sea Bass... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> mackerel, butterfish, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefish, spiny dogfish, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass... Council has been in the process of developing an Omnibus Amendment to the FMPs for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21560021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21560021"><span>Electronic structure of HgBa{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Ca</span>{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n+2} (n= 1, 2, 3) superconductor parent compounds from <span class="hlt">periodic</span> hybrid density functional theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moreira, Iberio de P. R.; Rivero, Pablo; Illas, Francesc</p> <p>2011-02-21</p> <p>The electronic structure of HgBa{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Ca</span>{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n+2} (n= 1, 2, and 3) high T{sub c} superconductor parent compounds has been investigated by means of <span class="hlt">periodic</span> hybrid density functional theory. Similar to other cuprates, these materials are predicted to exhibit an antiferromagnetic ground state with well localized S= 1/2 magnetic centers at the Cu{sup 2+} sites. However, the presence of the HgO{sub 2} structural units largely defines the nature of states dominating the energy range around Fermi energy. This results in a complex charge transfer character of the insulating gap which decreases when increasing the number of CuO{sub 2} planes in the unit cell, to the point that in the HgBa{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Ca</span>{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} compound it becomes so small that one can claim that the resulting material is metallic. Nevertheless, the metallic character arises from the HgO{sub 2} structural units and coexists with the antiferromagnetic order arising from the localized spins at the Cu{sup 2+} sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26556506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26556506"><span><span class="hlt">Periodicity</span> Dependence of the Built-in Electric Field in (Ba0.7<span class="hlt">Ca</span>0.3)TiO3/Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 Ferroelectric Superlattices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Qianru; Wang, Danyang; Chen, Zhigang; Liu, Wenfeng; Lim, Sean; Li, Sean</p> <p>2015-12-02</p> <p>Symmetric ferroelectric superlattices consisting of (Ba0.7<span class="hlt">Ca</span>0.3)TiO3 (BCT) and Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (BZT) layers were successfully grown on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 electroded (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. With the monitor of reflective high-energy electron diffraction, the growth mode and rate were precisely controlled to realize the desired superlattice <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> as confirmed by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results. The microscopic piezoelectric response and macroscopic ferroelectric properties were investigated as a function of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> of the BCTm/BZTm (m = 3, 5, 10, and 15 unit cells) superlattices. The existence of a built-in electric field was confirmed in all the superlattices and its strength was highly dependent on the <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>. The excellent tunability of built-in electric field opens a path for designing microelectronic devices with various functionalities based on BCTm/BZTm superlattices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1000677','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1000677"><span>Matching effect and dynamic phases of vortex matter in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8} nanoribbon with a <span class="hlt">periodic</span> array of holes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Avci, S.; Xiao, Z. L.; Hua, J.; Imre, A.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.; Northern Illinois Univ.</p> <p>2010-07-30</p> <p>We report investigations on the dynamics of vortex matter with <span class="hlt">periodic</span> pinning in crystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8} nanoribbons containing an array of nanoscale holes. We found that the matching effect is enhanced near the melting field and persists to higher fields beyond the melting line. We attribute this enhancement to the existence of a soft-solid phase and a mixture of solid-liquid phases near the melting line, enabling the vortices to pin more effectively. We observed distinct regions in the voltage-current curves attributed to transitions of various dynamic phases which also account for the driving current dependent appearance of the matching effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP33A..03C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP33A..03C"><span>Evolution of Seawater 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> Through the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castillo, P. R.; Gopalan, K.; Norris, R. D.; MacIsaac, C.; Liu, X.; MacDougall, J. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We analyzed the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> concentrations and 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of surface ocean planktonic (Morozovella, Acarinina, Dentoglobigerina) and benthic (Gavelinella) foraminifera of Late Cretaceous to Late Oligocene ages from DSDP and ODP sites in the Pacific, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian oceans in order to fill a major gap in the Phanerozoic seawater 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> curve (Farkass et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 2007). Our new 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data indicate a general increase in foraminiferan-based seawater 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> from ~-1.3 ‰ δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SW in Late Cretaceous to ~0.0 ‰ δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SW in Early Miocene (Heuser et al., Paleocean. 20, 2005; Sime et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 2007). In detail, the 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratio stepped abruptly from ~-1.3 ‰ δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SW to a slightly higher value of ~-1.1 ‰ δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SW across the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. A slight positive excursion of ~0.2 ‰ above the background value occurred after the Paleocene Thermal Maximum (55 Ma) but otherwise, the Paleocene to Middle Eocene ratio is relatively stable at ~-1.0 ‰ δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SW. The most prominent increase in foraminiferan-based seawater 44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> occurred from Late Eocene to Late Oligocene, roughly coincident with the initial phase of the rapid and steady rise of marine carbonate 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Tertiary (e.g., DePaolo and Ingram, Science 227, 1985).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052295&hterms=rain+Gauge&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drain%2BGauge','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052295&hterms=rain+Gauge&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drain%2BGauge"><span>Rain rate statistics and fade distributions at 20 and 30 GHz derived from a network of rain gauges in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast over a five year <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldhirsh, Julius; Krichevsky, Vladimir; Gebo, Norman E.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A network of ten tipping bucket rain gauges located within a grid 70 km north-south and 47 km east-west in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast of the United States was used to analyze rain rate and modeled slant path attenuation distributions at 20 and 30 GHz. It was shown that, for realistic fade margins at 20 GHz and above, the variable integration times results are adequate to estimate slant path attenuations using models which require 1 min averages. Crane's Global Model was used to derive fade distributions at 20 and 30 GHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052295&hterms=Atlantic+Coastal+Plain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAtlantic%2BCoastal%2BPlain','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052295&hterms=Atlantic+Coastal+Plain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAtlantic%2BCoastal%2BPlain"><span>Rain rate statistics and fade distributions at 20 and 30 GHz derived from a network of rain gauges in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast over a five year <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldhirsh, Julius; Krichevsky, Vladimir; Gebo, Norman E.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A network of ten tipping bucket rain gauges located within a grid 70 km north-south and 47 km east-west in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast of the United States was used to analyze rain rate and modeled slant path attenuation distributions at 20 and 30 GHz. It was shown that, for realistic fade margins at 20 GHz and above, the variable integration times results are adequate to estimate slant path attenuations using models which require 1 min averages. Crane's Global Model was used to derive fade distributions at 20 and 30 GHz.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245350','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245350"><span>Climatic and limnological changes associated with the Younger Dryas in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilson, S.E.; Smol, J.P.; Walker, I.R.</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Pollen, diatom and chironomid fossils from the sediments of a core from Brier Island Bog Lake, Nova Scotia were studied in an attempt to relate changes in microfossil composition to a climatic cooling in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada correlative with the European Younger Dryas <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 10 to 11 ka. Our paleolimnological data were then compared to similar types of data from Splan Pond, New Brunswick to determine if there were any significant differences between a coastal and a more inland site. Nonarboreal pollen was dominant throughout the Brier Island core and the interval 10.0-11.0 ka did not show the typical decline in Picea and increases in tundra-like vegetation characteristic of many sites in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada. However, the limnological indicators did undergo marked changes in taxon composition. The chironomid assemblage was initially dominated by shallow-water, warm-adapted chironomid taxa followed by abundant Sergentia (a cold stenotherm) during 10-11 ka. Sergentia disappeared in the {open_quotes}post Younger Dryas{close_quotes} interval and the warm-adapted genera resumed dominance. Chironomid-inferred paleotemperature reconstructions revealed that at both Brier Island Bog Lake and Splan Pond, summer surface-water temperatures dropped abruptly to between 13 and 17{degrees}C during the 10-11 ka interval, suggesting that a cooler climate was present in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada correlative with the European Younger Dryas. Diatom assemblage changes during the same <span class="hlt">period</span> corroborate the occurrence of limnological fluctuations. 40 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP31C2258R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP31C2258R"><span>Late Holocene climate change in the western Mediterranean: centennial-scale vegetation and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramos Román, M. J.; Jimenez-Moreno, G.; Anderson, R. S.; García-Alix, A.; Toney, J. L.; Jiménez-Espejo, F. J. J.; Carrión, J. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sediments from alpine peat bogs and lakes from the Sierra Nevada in southeastern Spain (western Mediterranean area) have been very informative in terms of how vegetation and wetland environments were impacted by past climate change. Recently, many studies try to find out the relationship between solar activity, atmosphere and ocean dynamics and changes in the terrestrial environments. The Mediterranean is a very sensitive area with respect to atmospheric dynamics due to (1) its location, right in the boundary between subtropical and temperate climate systems and (2) the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) is one of the main mechanism that influence present climate in this area. Here we present a multi-proxy high-resolution study from Borreguil de la Caldera (BdlC), a peat bog that records the last <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 4500 cal yr BP of vegetation, fire, human impact and climate history from the Sierra Nevada. The pollen, charcoal and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) reconstruction in the BdlC-01 record evidence relative humidity changes in the last millennia interrupting the late Holocene aridification trend. This study shows a relative arid <span class="hlt">period</span> between <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 4000 and 3100 cal yr BP; the Iberian Roman humid <span class="hlt">period</span> (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 2600 to 1600 cal yr BP); a relative arid <span class="hlt">period</span> during the Dark Ages (from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 500 to AD 900) and Medieval Climate Anomaly (from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 900 to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 1300) and predominantly wetter conditions corresponding with The Little Ice Age <span class="hlt">period</span> (from <span class="hlt">ca</span>. AD 1300 to AD 1850). This climate variability could be explained by centennial scale changes in the NAO and solar activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7249H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7249H"><span>Subsurface warming in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during rapid climate events in the Early and Mid-Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Sierro, Francisco; Cacho, Isabel; Abel Flores, José</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A new high-resolution reconstruction of the temperature and salinity of the subsurface waters using paired Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-δ18O measurements on the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistrorsa (sin.) was conducted on a deep-sea sediment core in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Site U1314). This study aims to reconstruct millennial-scale subsurface hydrography variations during the Early and Mid-Pleistocene (MIS 31-19). These rapid climate events are characterized by abrupt shifts between warm/cold conditions, and ice-sheet oscillations, as evidenced by major ice rafting events recorded in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediments (Hernández-Almeida et al., 2012), similar to those found during the Last Glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> (Marcott et al, 2011). The Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> derived paleotemperature and salinity oscillations prior and during IRD discharges at Site U1314 are related to changes in intermediate circulation. The increases in Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleotemperatures and salinities during the IRD event are preceded by short episodes of cooling and freshening of subsurface waters. The response of the AMOC to this perturbation is an increased of warm and salty water coming from the south, transported to high latitudes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> beneath the thermocline. This process is accompanied by a southward shift in the convection cell from the Nordic Seas to the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and better ventilation of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at mid-depths. Poleward transport of warm and salty subsurface subtropical waters causes intense basal melting and thinning of marine ice-shelves, that culminates in large-scale instability of the ice sheets, retreat of the grounding line and iceberg discharge. The mechanism proposed involves the coupling of the AMOC with ice-sheet dynamics, and would explain the presence of these fluctuations before the establishment of high-amplitude 100-kyr glacial cycles. Hernández-Almeida, I., Sierro, F.J., Cacho, I., Flores, J.A., 2012. Impact of suborbital climate changes in the North</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A42B..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A42B..02F"><span>Observed Influence of Amazon rainfall on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, R.; Wang, H.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Most of previous studies on climate variabilities of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean have been focused on remote and internal oceanic processes or atmosphere-ocean interaction. In comparison, relatively few studies have examined the influences from adjacent continents, especially the influence of rainfall over the South American continent. Using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) daily rain-rate dada, the QuikSCAT ocean surface wind and PIRATA buoy data, we have found that convection developed over the Amazonia appears to propagate eastward across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and then into Africa. Such changes modulate the intensity and location of the convection within the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ and result in a zonal oscillation of the ITCZ between the west and east equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. The eastward propagating disturbances appear to be an atmospheric Kelvin wave with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 6 to 7 days and a phase speed of around 12 m s-1. Such convectively coupled Kelvin wave is particularly strong during boreal spring and dominates the synoptic variations of the lower and upper troposphere winds. Our results further suggest that the interannual changes of these convective coupled Kelvin waves have an important influence on trigging the onset of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ninos. In particular, anomalously late northward withdraw of the South American rainfall in boreal spring lead to stronger Kelvin wave activities and stronger westerly wind anomalies in the western equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The latter triggers a change of the slope of the thermocline in the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and induces sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These changes contribute to the onset of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino in earlier boreal summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107068p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107068p/"><span>3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> WITH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> WITH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> OCEAN IN THE FOREGROUND. DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL, AND MARLBOROUGH HOTEL (LEFT TO RIGHT) ARE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CLARIDGE HOTEL IS THE HIGHRISE IMMEDIATELY TO THE RIGHT OF THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ211633.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ211633.pdf"><span>The Evolution of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCoy, Floyd W.; Rabinowitz, Philip D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The development of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> continental margins through geological time is discussed in a series of three time slices, all of which depict various characteristics in the initial formation of this margin during the Cretaceous <span class="hlt">period</span> (180 to 65 million years ago) of the Mesozoic era. (BT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mesozoic&id=EJ211633','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mesozoic&id=EJ211633"><span>The Evolution of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCoy, Floyd W.; Rabinowitz, Philip D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The development of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> continental margins through geological time is discussed in a series of three time slices, all of which depict various characteristics in the initial formation of this margin during the Cretaceous <span class="hlt">period</span> (180 to 65 million years ago) of the Mesozoic era. (BT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037464','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037464"><span>Evidence of multidecadal climate variability and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation from a Gulf of Mexico sea-surface temperature-proxy record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poore, R.Z.; DeLong, K.L.; Richey, J.N.; Quinn, T.M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A comparison of a Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based sea-surface temperature (SST)-anomaly record from the northern Gulf of Mexico, a calculated index of variability in observed North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and a tree-ring reconstruction of the AMO contain similar patterns of variation over the last 110 years. Thus, the multidecadal variability observed in the instrumental record is present in the tree-ring and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> proxy data. Frequency analysis of the Gulf of Mexico SST record and the tree-ring AMO reconstruction from 1550 to 1990 found similar multidecadal-scale <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> (???30-60 years). This multidecadal <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> is about half the observed (60-80 years) variability identified in the AMO for the 20th century. The historical records of hurricane landfalls reveal increased landfalls in the Gulf Coast region during time intervals when the AMO index is positive (warmer SST), and decreased landfalls when the AMO index is negative (cooler SST). Thus, we conclude that alternating intervals of high and low hurricane landfall occurrences may continue on multidecadal timescales along the northern Gulf Coast. However, given the short length of the instrumental record, the actual frequency and stability of the AMO are uncertain, and additional AMO proxy records are needed to establish the character of multidecadal-scale SST variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. ?? 2009 US Government.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GML....29..477P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GML....29..477P"><span>Evidence of multidecadal climate variability and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation from a Gulf of Mexico sea-surface temperature-proxy record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poore, Richard Z.; Delong, Kristine L.; Richey, Julie N.; Quinn, Terrence M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A comparison of a Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based sea-surface temperature (SST)-anomaly record from the northern Gulf of Mexico, a calculated index of variability in observed North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and a tree-ring reconstruction of the AMO contain similar patterns of variation over the last 110 years. Thus, the multidecadal variability observed in the instrumental record is present in the tree-ring and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> proxy data. Frequency analysis of the Gulf of Mexico SST record and the tree-ring AMO reconstruction from 1550 to 1990 found similar multidecadal-scale <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> (~30-60 years). This multidecadal <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> is about half the observed (60-80 years) variability identified in the AMO for the 20th century. The historical records of hurricane landfalls reveal increased landfalls in the Gulf Coast region during time intervals when the AMO index is positive (warmer SST), and decreased landfalls when the AMO index is negative (cooler SST). Thus, we conclude that alternating intervals of high and low hurricane landfall occurrences may continue on multidecadal timescales along the northern Gulf Coast. However, given the short length of the instrumental record, the actual frequency and stability of the AMO are uncertain, and additional AMO proxy records are needed to establish the character of multidecadal-scale SST variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25609544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25609544"><span>Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature seasonality at the end of the last interglacial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Felis, Thomas; Giry, Cyril; Scholz, Denis; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pfeiffer, Madlene; Pätzold, Jürgen; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R</p> <p>2015-01-22</p> <p>The end of the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, ~118 kyr ago, was characterized by substantial ocean circulation and climate perturbations resulting from instabilities of polar ice sheets. These perturbations are crucial for a better understanding of future climate change. The seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean, however, which play an important role in seasonal climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods and droughts at the present day, are not well known for this <span class="hlt">period</span> that led into the last glacial. Here we present a monthly resolved snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean for 117.7±0.8 kyr ago, using coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ(18)O records. We find that temperature seasonality was similar to today, which is consistent with the orbital insolation forcing. Our coral and climate model results suggest that temperature seasonality of the tropical surface ocean is controlled mainly by orbital insolation changes during interglacials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317504','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317504"><span>Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature seasonality at the end of the last interglacial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Felis, Thomas; Giry, Cyril; Scholz, Denis; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pfeiffer, Madlene; Pätzold, Jürgen; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The end of the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, ~118 kyr ago, was characterized by substantial ocean circulation and climate perturbations resulting from instabilities of polar ice sheets. These perturbations are crucial for a better understanding of future climate change. The seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean, however, which play an important role in seasonal climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods and droughts at the present day, are not well known for this <span class="hlt">period</span> that led into the last glacial. Here we present a monthly resolved snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean for 117.7±0.8 kyr ago, using coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O records. We find that temperature seasonality was similar to today, which is consistent with the orbital insolation forcing. Our coral and climate model results suggest that temperature seasonality of the tropical surface ocean is controlled mainly by orbital insolation changes during interglacials. PMID:25609544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712105F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712105F"><span>Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature seasonality at the end of the last interglacial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Felis, Thomas; Giry, Cyril; Scholz, Denis; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pfeiffer, Madlene; Pätzold, Jürgen; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The end of the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, ~118 kyr ago, was characterized by substantial ocean circulation and climate perturbations resulting from instabilities of polar ice sheets. It has been suggested that these perturbations at the end of the last interglacial are crucial for a better understanding of future climate change. The seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean, however, which play an important role in seasonal climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods and droughts at the present day, are not well known for this <span class="hlt">period</span> that led into the last glacial. Here we present a monthly resolved snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean for 117.7 ± 0.8 kyr ago, using coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O records in a precisely 230Th/U dated shallow-water fossil coral recovered from the southern Caribbean (Bonaire). We find that temperature seasonality was similar to today, which is consistent with the orbital insolation forcing. Our coral records and simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (COSMOS) indicate an orbital control on temperature seasonality in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at the end of the last interglacial, despite the large-scale perturbations of ocean circulation and climate during this <span class="hlt">period</span>, and suggest that temperature seasonality of the tropical surface ocean is controlled mainly by orbital insolation changes during interglacials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003156','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003156"><span>Sensitivity of the Oceanic Turbulent Boundary Layer to Cyclic Insolation Change with Response <span class="hlt">Periods</span> of 23 to 2.5 Ky: an Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Record for the Last 200 Ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcintyre, Andrew</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Time series of sea-surface temperature in cores sited beneath the region of maximum divergence centered on 10 degrees W are characterized by two sets of <span class="hlt">periodic</span> signals. The dominant signal is centered on a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 23 Ky and is coherent with and lags, approx. 2.5 Ky, the precessional component of orbitally controlled insolation. The subdominant <span class="hlt">periods</span> occur between 4.0 and 2.5 Ky. Both sets of signals record variation in the seasonal intensity of oceanic divergence modulated by variation in tropical easterly intensity. The longer <span class="hlt">periods</span> are a response to precessional forcing. The forcing responsible for the shorter <span class="hlt">periods</span> is unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1342648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1342648"><span>Commensurate 4 <i>a</i> <sub>0</sub> -<span class="hlt">period</span> charge density modulations throughout the Bi <sub>2</sub> Sr <sub>2</sub> <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu <sub>2</sub> O <sub>8+x</sub> pseudogap regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mesaros, Andrej; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Edkins, Stephen D.; Hamidian, Mohammad H.; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Davis, J. C. Seamus; Lawler, Michael J.; Kim, Eun-Ah</p> <p>2016-10-20</p> <p>Theories based upon strong real space (r-space) electron–electron interactions have long predicted that unidirectional charge density modulations (CDMs) with four-unit-cell (4<sub>a0</sub>) <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> should occur in the hole-doped cuprate Mott insulator (MI). But, increasing the hole density p is reported to cause the conventionally defined wavevector Q<sub>A</sub> of the CDM to evolve continuously as if driven primarily by momentum-space (k-space) effects. We introduce phase-resolved electronic structure visualization for determination of the cuprate CDM wavevector. Remarkably, this technique reveals a virtually doping-independent locking of the local CDM wavevector at |Q<sub>0</sub>|=2π/4<sub>a0</sub> throughout the underdoped phase diagram of the canonical cuprate Bi<sub>2</sub>Sr<sub>2</sub><span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cu<sub>2</sub>O<sub>8</sub>. Our observations have significant fundamental consequences because they are orthogonal to a k-space (Fermi-surface)–based picture of the cuprate CDMs but are consistent with strong-coupling r-space–based theories. Our findings imply that it is the latter that provides the intrinsic organizational principle for the cuprate CDM state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP21A2271G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP21A2271G"><span>Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subsurface Temperatures reflect AMOC Variability during Marine Isotope Stages 4-5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glaubke, R.; Schmidt, M. W.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Both coupled ocean-atmosphere models and geochemical proxy reconstructions have linked <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meriodional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) variability to tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (TNA) subsurface temperature change through an oceanic teleconnection mechanism (Chang et al., 2008; Schmidt et al., 2012). Today, the warm salinity maximum waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical cell (STC) are blocked from flowing into the deep tropics by the upper return limb of the AMOC cell along the western boundary current in the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Studies show that when AMOC weakens beyond a threshold (such as during cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> like the Younger-Dryas (YD)), waters previously trapped in the STC can then flow south into the equatorial zone, causing an abrupt subsurface warming in the TNA. Coupled ocean-atmosphere models demonstrate that this oceanic teleconnection mechanism operated under modern, YD and last glacial maximum boundary conditions (Schmidt et al., 2012; Schmidt et al., submitted). Furthermore, Schmidt et al. (2012) and Parker et al. (2015) found that abrupt warming events coincided with the initiation of the Heinrich 1, the YD and some Daansgard-Oscheger events during MIS 3, suggesting that these cold stadials were associated with a weakening of AMOC. Nevertheless, the NGRIP δ18O record indicates that abrupt millennial-scale climate oscillations continued into both the cold MIS 4 and the previous interglacial, MIS 5, suggesting that AMOC may have also played a role in these events. Therefore, we will utilize Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleothermometry of the deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera G. crassaformis from sediment core VM12-109 recovered from the Bonaire Basin (11.80°N, 68.55°W; 1701 m depth) to construct a TNA subsurface temperature record across MIS 4 - 5 ( 50-100 kyr) as a fingerprint for AMOC variability. If confirmed, this record will provide some of the first evidence of AMOC variability during the previous interglacial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76694&keyword=mine+AND+drainage+AND+United+AND+States&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76694&keyword=mine+AND+drainage+AND+United+AND+States&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>INTERACTIVE HABITAT MODELS FOR MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> HIGHLAND STREAM FISHES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In most wadeable streams of the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highland region of the eastern United States, habitat alteration resulting from development in the watershed is the primary stressor for fish. Models that predict the presence of stream fish species based on habitat characteristics <span class="hlt">ca</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76694&keyword=prediction+AND+probability&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=88545681&CFTOKEN=70174417','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76694&keyword=prediction+AND+probability&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=88545681&CFTOKEN=70174417"><span>INTERACTIVE HABITAT MODELS FOR MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> HIGHLAND STREAM FISHES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In most wadeable streams of the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highland region of the eastern United States, habitat alteration resulting from development in the watershed is the primary stressor for fish. Models that predict the presence of stream fish species based on habitat characteristics <span class="hlt">ca</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029402','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029402"><span>Catastrophic meltwater discharge down the Hudson Valley: a potential trigger for the Intra-Allerød cold <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Driscoll, Neal W.; Uchupi, Elazar; Keigwin, Loyd D.; Schwab, William C.; Thieler, E. Robert; Swift, Stephen A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Glacial freshwater discharge to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean during deglaciation may have inhibited oceanic thermohaline circulation, and is often postulated to have driven climatic fluctuations. Yet attributing meltwater-discharge events to particular climate oscillations is problematic, because the location, timing, and amount of meltwater discharge are often poorly constrained. We present evidence from the Hudson Valley and the northeastern U.S. continental margin that establishes the timing of the catastrophic draining of Glacial Lake Iroquois, which breached the moraine dam at the Narrows in New York City, eroded glacial lake sediments in the Hudson Valley, and deposited large sediment lobes on the New York and New Jersey continental shelf <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 13,350 yr B.P. Excess 14C in Cariaco Basin sediments indicates a slowing in thermohaline circulation and heat transport to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at that time, and both marine and terrestrial paleoclimate proxy records around the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> show a short-lived (<400 yr) cold event (Intra-Aller??d cold <span class="hlt">period</span>) that began <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 13,350 yr B.P. The meltwater discharge out the Hudson Valley may have played an important role in triggering the Intra-Aller??d cold <span class="hlt">period</span> by diminishing thermohaline circulation. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13C1542L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13C1542L"><span>Mid-Pliocene Sea Surface Temperature of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Gyre</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lutz, B. P.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene (~3.5-3.0 Ma) was a warm and variable <span class="hlt">period</span> during which mean global surface temperatures were 2-3°C warmer than today despite similar external forcing. As the magnitude of this warming is similar to that which is projected for the late 21st century, the mid-Pliocene is considered a useful (albeit imperfect) analog for future climate change. It also provides a natural test bed for proxy data-climate model integration and the calibration of general circulation models (GCMs) used to predict future climate changes. Proxy data and GCM simulations have provided clear evidence that the mid-Pliocene ocean was characterized by reduced vertical and meridional temperature gradients, leading to the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturn circulation (AMOC) and associated tropical heat advection were more vigorous than today. The zone of maximum oceanic-atmospheric northward mass and energy transport in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lies between ~15°N and ~35°N latitude. A detailed understanding of sea surface conditions in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Gyre (NASG; ~15°-40° N latitude) is therefore critical to our understanding of tropical-extratropical heat fluxes during the mid-Pliocene. Because <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean circulation patterns were similar to today, planktic foraminifer assemblages and sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions of the NASG can be used to further elucidate and partition the causes of mid-Pliocene warmth, better describe to role of ocean circulation in climate change, and understand changes in biogeography during a geologically recent warm <span class="hlt">period</span>. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) project, this study provides a faunal analysis and multi-proxy (Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-, alkenone-, and faunal assemblage-based) SST reconstruction of the NASG during the mid-Pliocene. Preliminary faunal results indicate that relative to modern conditions, gyre circulation was stronger (particularly the Gulf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021534','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021534"><span>Tectonics of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Williams, H.; Dehler, S.A.; Grant, A.C.; Oakey, G.N.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The tectonic history of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada is summarized according to a model of multiple ocean opening-closing cycles. The modern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is in the opening phase of its cycle. It was preceded by an early Paleozoic lapetus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Appalachian Orogen. lapetus was preceded by the Neoproterozoic Uranus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Grenville Orogen. The phenomenon of coincident, or almost coincident orogens and modern continental margins that relate to repeated ocean opening-closing cycles is called the Accordion Effect. An understanding of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and its continental margins provides insights into the nature of lapetus and the evolution of the Appalachian Orogen. Likewise, an understanding of lapetus and the Appalachian Orogen raises questions about Uranus and the development of the Grenville Orogen. Modern tectonic patterns in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> may have been determined by events that began before 1000 m.y.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910041720&hterms=thermohaline+circulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dthermohaline%2Bcirculation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910041720&hterms=thermohaline+circulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dthermohaline%2Bcirculation"><span>South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> interbasin exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rintoul, Stephen Rich</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The exchange of mass and heat between the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910041720&hterms=thermohaline&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dthermohaline','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910041720&hterms=thermohaline&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dthermohaline"><span>South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> interbasin exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rintoul, Stephen Rich</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The exchange of mass and heat between the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP21B1999M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP21B1999M"><span>Sea Surface Temperature Seesaw between the Subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Norwegian Sea during the Late Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miettinen, A.; Divine, D.; Koc, N.; Godtliebsen, F.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>August sea surface temperature (aSST) record based on fossil diatom assemblages is generated from a 2800-year-long marine sediment core Rapid 21-COM from the Iceland Basin, in the northern subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The record has a resolution of 2-10 years for interval 800-2004 AD representing the highest-resolution diatom SST reconstruction from the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> for this <span class="hlt">period</span>, and 40 years for interval 800 BC-800 AD. The record is compared with the high-resolution aSST record from core CR948/2011 from the Vøring Plateau, in the Norwegian Sea, to explore the variability of the aSST gradient between these areas during the late Holocene. The aSST records show persistent opposite climate trends toward warming in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and cooling in the Norwegian Sea during the late Holocene. An apparent tendency to coherent antiphased aSST variations between the sites is also revealed for the shorter time scales implying an aSST seesaw between the northern subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Norwegian Sea to operate during the late Holocene. At the multicentennial scale of aSST variability of 600-900 years, the records are nearly in antiphase with warmer (colder) <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corresponding to the colder (warmer) <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the Norwegian Sea. At the shorter time scale of 200-450 years, the records display a phase-locked behaviour with a tendency for the positive aSST anomalies in the Norwegian Sea to lead by <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 30 years the negative aSST anomalies in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This aSST seesaw might have had a strong effect on two major climate anomalies in the northwest Europe during the past Millennium: Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). During the MWP warming of the sea surface in the Norwegian Sea occurred in parallel with cooling in the northern subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, whereas the opposite pattern emerged during the LIA. Coupled changes in aSST between the northern subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..216V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..216V"><span>600 yr High-Resolution Climate Reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation deduced from a Puerto Rican Speleothem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieten, Rolf; Winter, Amos; Scholz, Denis; Black, David; Spoetl, Christoph; Winterhalder, Sophie; Koltai, Gabriella; Schroeder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Terzer, Stefan; Zanchettin, Davide; Mangini, Augusto</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">periods</span> of decreased rainfall. Before 1800 there were two intervals of increased Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ13C values (dryer conditions) lasting several decades in our speleothem record centered around 1680 CE and 1470 CE. The elevated ratios indicate that drier conditions than present may have occurred in the region during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...99..122M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...99..122M"><span>Similarities and dissimilarities between the last two deglaciations and interglaciations in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martrat, Belen; Jimenez-Amat, Patricia; Zahn, Rainer; Grimalt, Joan O.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) recorded by alkenones and oxygen isotopes in the Alboran basin are used here to describe, at an unprecedented fine temporal resolution, the present interglaciation (PIG, initiated at 11.7 ka BP), the last interglaciation (LIG, onset approximately at 129 ka) and respective deglaciations. Similarities and dissimilarities in the progression of these <span class="hlt">periods</span> are reviewed in comparison with ice cores and stalagmites. Cold spells coeval with the Heinrich events (H) described in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> include multi-decadal scale oscillations not previously obvious (up to 4 °C in less than eight centuries within the stadials associated with H1 and H11, <span class="hlt">ca</span> 133 ka and 17 ka respectively). These abrupt oscillations precede the accumulation of organic rich layers deposited when perihelion moves from alignment with NH spring equinox to the summer solstice, a reference for deglaciations. Events observed during the last deglaciation at 17 ka, 14.8 ka and 11.7 ka are reminiscent of events occurred during the penultimate deglaciation at <span class="hlt">ca</span> 136 ka, 132 ka and 129 ka, respectively. The SST trend during the PIG is no more than 2 °C (from 20 °C to 18 °C; up to -0.2 °C/ka). The trend is steeper during the LIG, i.e. up to a 5 °C change from the early interglaciation to immediately before the glacial inception (from 23 °C to 18 °C; up to -0.4 °C/ka). Events are superimposed upon a long term trend towards colder SSTs, beginning with SST maxima followed by temperate <span class="hlt">periods</span> until perihelion aligned with the NH autumn equinox (before <span class="hlt">ca</span> 5.3 ka for the PIG and 121 ka for the LIG). A cold spell of around eight centuries at 2.8 ka during the PIG was possibly mimicked during the LIG at <span class="hlt">ca</span> 118 ka by a SST fall of around 1 °C in a millennium. These events led interglacial SST to stabilise at around 18 °C. The glacial inception, barely evident at the beginning <span class="hlt">ca</span> 115 ka (North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> event C25, after perihelion passage in the NH winter solstice), culminated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5251937','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5251937"><span><span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ dynamics in zebrafish morphogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tsutsui, Kenta; Ogawa, Tomohisa</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Intracellular calcium ion (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+) signaling is heavily involved in development, as illustrated by the use of a number of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ indicators. However, continuous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ patterns during morphogenesis have not yet been studied using fluorescence resonance energy transfer to track the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sensor. In the present study, we monitored <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ levels during zebrafish morphogenesis and differentiation with yellow cameleon, YC2.12. Our results show not only clear changes in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ levels but also continuous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ patterns at 24 hpf and later <span class="hlt">periods</span> for the first time. Serial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+dynamics during early pharyngula <span class="hlt">period</span> (Prim-5-20; 24–33 hpf) was successfully observed with cameleon, which have not reported anywhere yet. In fact, high <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ level occurred concurrently with hindbrain development in segmentation and pharyngula <span class="hlt">periods</span>. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ patterns in the late gastrula through segmentation <span class="hlt">periods</span> which were obtained with cameleon, were similar to those obtained previously with other <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+sensor. Our results suggested that the use of various <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sensors may lead to novel findings in studies of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ dynamics. We hope that these results will prove valuable for further research in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling. PMID:28133572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... shore on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean may be conducted for <span class="hlt">periods</span> not to exceed 4 hours, then suspended and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.514 Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... shore on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean may be conducted for <span class="hlt">periods</span> not to exceed 4 hours, then suspended and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.514 Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-514.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.514 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intracoastal Waterway and connecting waters, vicinity of Marine Corps Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... shore on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean may be conducted for <span class="hlt">periods</span> not to exceed 4 hours, then suspended and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.514 Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP13A1369R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP13A1369R"><span>Variability in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bottom Water nutrients and carbonate ion during the last 467,000 years BP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rashid, H.; Marchitto, T.; Boyle, E. A.; Smith, M. E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is essential since it reorganizes heat and moisture between high and low latitudes and thus exerts control on the global climate. Boyle and Keigwin (1985/86) reconstructed the MOC of the last 215 ka BP using the sediment core CHN82-4PC from the subtropical northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. The authors inferred that the net export of the nutrient-depleted North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) was reduced by a factor of two relative to the inflow of the nutrient-rich Southern Ocean Waters (SOW) during the glacial marine isotope stages (MIS) 2, 4 and 6. In this study, we extend the records up to 467 ka BP (i.e. MIS 12) by patching CHN82-4PC records with IODP Site 1313 (41oN, 32.57oW; 3,425 mwd). We have measured the B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ13C in benthic foraminifers. B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios were converted to carbonate ion concentration using the newly developed equations of Yu and Elderfield (2007). We found that the Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios were higher in glacial MISs 8.4, 9.2, 10 and 12 than in glacial MISs 2, 4 and 6. In general, we observe a mode shift to higher Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios at around 225 ka BP. Furthermore, the lower bottom water carbonate ion concentrations were accompanied by higher Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios. Enriched benthic δ18O values with the concomitant depleted δ13C in Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi were found in MISs 10 and 12 compared to MISs 2 and 6. However, the magnitude of differences in δ18O between MISs2/6 and MISs10/12 do not equate with the magnitude of changes in δ13C for the same <span class="hlt">period</span>. The multi-proxy sea-surface temperature (SST) estimates at Site 1313 from the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in Globigerina bulloides and alkenone (Uk37) concentrations show 3 and 4oC cooler SSTs in MISs 10 and 12, respectively, than in MIS 2. Given that there were no appreciable increases in atmospheric dust loading or decreases in pCO2 and CH4 in the EPICA records during MISs 10 and 12 compared to the preceding or subsequent ice ages, it can be inferred that there were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IzAOP..53..359A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IzAOP..53..359A"><span>Thermohaline circulation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and its simulation with a box model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Averyanova, E. A.; Polonsky, A. B.; Sannikov, V. F.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Features of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation response to <span class="hlt">periodic</span>, stochastic, and instantaneous forcing are studied using a four-box model. The present-day circulation is shown to be characterized by a stable quasi-<span class="hlt">periodic</span> oscillatory mode that manifests itself as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation. The thermohaline catastrophe is unlikely in the modern climate epoch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714099S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714099S"><span>Early Holocene variability in the Arctic Gateway - High-resolution records reflecting <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water advection and ice coverage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spielhagen, Robert F.; Bauch, Henning A.; Maudrich, Martin; Not, Christelle; Telesinski, Maciej M.; Werner, Kirstin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Arctic Gateway between Greenland and Svalbard is the main passage for the advection of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water to the Arctic Ocean. Water temperature and intensity of this advection largely determine the degree of ice coverage which is fed by sea ice export from the north. Supported by a maximum in insolation, the Early Holocene was a <span class="hlt">period</span> of extraordinarily strong advection and relatively high near-surface water temperatures in the eastern Nordic Seas (cf. Risebrobakken et al., 2011, Paleoceanography v. 26). Here we present a synthesis of radiocarbon-dated records from the northern and western part of this area, reaching from the SW Greenland Sea (73°N) to the Yermak Plateau (81°N) and revealing temporal and spatial differences in the development of the so-called Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). In the northern part of this region, the HTM started <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 11-10.5 ka as indicated by rapidly increasing amounts of subpolar planktic foraminifers in the sediments. In the eastern Fram Strait and on the Yermak Plateau, our records of (sub)millennial scale resolution show that the maximum influx terminated already 2,000 years later (9-8 ka). Most likely, this development went along with a N-S relocation of the sea ice margin. According to the current stratigraphic model for a core with submillennial-scale resolution from Vesterisbanken seamount (73°N) in the Greenland Sea, the timing was different there. Increasing total amounts of planktic foraminifers in the sediment indicate an early (11-10 ka) reduction in sea ice coverage also in this region. However, evidence from subpolar planktic foraminifers for maximum <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water advection is younger (9-6 ka) than in the north. Apparently, the site in the SW Greenland Sea was affected by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water in the Greenland Gyre that decoupled from the northward flowing Norwegian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current/Westspitsbergen Current south of the Fram Strait. Thus, in a suite of events, strong <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water advection first affected the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8815M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8815M"><span>Impact of the salt leakage through the Indian-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean gateway on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> MOC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marino, G.; Zahn, R.; Ziveri, P.; Ziegler, M.; Hall, I. R.; Elderfield, H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Freshwater perturbation in the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> exerts a strong influence on the stability of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) with potentially severe impacts on the regional and global climates. The occurrence of ice rafted detritus (IRD) in the glacial sediments of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> testifies to past episodes of Laurentide ice sheet surging that also coincided with AMOC curtailments and prominent climate deterioration in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Western Europe. The equally abrupt warming shifts observed in Greenland ice core and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediment core records that characterize the end of each IRD event have been related to the rapid resumption of AMOC and its associated heat transport. The hysteresis response, under glacial boundary conditions, of the AMOC to freshwater forcing suggests that a reduction in this forcing may have been sufficient to trigger the rapid AMOC resumptions revealed by several palaeoceanographic records. But recent modelling studies allude to the potential importance of a salt surplus, originating in the Indian Ocean and transported to the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> via the Agulhas leakage, that may have acted as a positive feedback on the AMOC strengthening. This possibility, however, has yet to be adequately tested with palaeoproxy reconstructions. We present a suite of multi-centennial-scale palaeoceanographic records spanning a full glacial cycle from the Southwest African margin and Agulhas Plateau that have been generated as part of the EU Marie Curie GATEWAYS project. The sediment cores are positioned such that they monitor the leakage of Agulhas water into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Agulhas Return Current that straddles the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical front on its way to the Indian Ocean. Paired Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-δ18O analyses on the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerina bulloides reveal millennial-scale surface ocean temperature and salinity changes at the core sites that reflect recurrent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP41F..05F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP41F..05F"><span>Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Temperature Seasonality at the End of the Last Interglacial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Felis, T.; Giry, C.; Scholz, D.; Lohmann, G.; Pfeiffer, M.; Pätzold, J.; Kölling, M.; Scheffers, S. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The end of the last interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, ~118 kyr ago, was characterized by substantial ocean circulation and climate perturbations resulting from instabilities of polar ice sheets, which are partially comparable to those projected for future climate change. The seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean, however, which play an important role in seasonal climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods and droughts at the present day, are not well known for this <span class="hlt">period</span> that lead into the last glacial. Here we present a monthly resolved snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature variability in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean for 117.7 ± 0.8 kyr ago, using fossil coral (Diploria strigosa) Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O records from Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands). Our 20-year snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature variability for the end of the last interglacial is compared with Bonaire monthly coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O records for snapshots since the mid-Holocene, comprising a total length of 295 years. We find that temperature seasonality in the southern Caribbean Sea at the end of the last interglacial was relatively stable and similar to today. Our coral records and simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (COSMOS) indicate an orbital control on temperature seasonality in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> at the end of the last interglacial, despite the large-scale perturbations of ocean circulation and climate during this <span class="hlt">period</span>, and suggest that temperature seasonality of the tropical surface ocean was a relatively stable feature of the ocean-atmosphere system at the end of the last interglacial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259279','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259279"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M.</p> <p>2015-12-10</p> <p>The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, ‘Agulhas leakage’, forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. Lastly, this is relevant for climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1259279-atlantic-multi-decadal-oscillation-covaries-agulhas-leakage','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1259279-atlantic-multi-decadal-oscillation-covaries-agulhas-leakage"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; ...</p> <p>2015-12-10</p> <p>The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, ‘Agulhas leakage’, forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. Lastly, this is relevant for climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5511625','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5511625"><span>Radiocarbon age of waters in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Broecker, W.S.; Virgilio, A. ); Peng, T.H. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The authors use a simple box model to evaluate the impact of temporal changes of the atmosphere's {sup 14}C/C on ventilation fluxes for the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> calculated from radiocarbon measurements. The conclusion is that despite the fact that over the 300 year <span class="hlt">period</span> from 1650 to 1950 the atmosphere's radiocarbon content declined at the same rate as radiocarbon decays, this temporal change has a relatively small impact (10-15%) on radiocarbon-based estimates of the ventilation rate of the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The reason is that the radiocarbon content of the source waters for deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are reasonably well buffered against changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C/C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26656850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26656850"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V; Morrison, Adele K; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M</p> <p>2015-12-10</p> <p>The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, 'Agulhas leakage', forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1870-2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. This is relevant for climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682045','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682045"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, ‘Agulhas leakage', forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. This is relevant for climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. PMID:26656850</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025982','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025982"><span>Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ~2-4oC in Chesapeake Bay (CB) temperature ~2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) paleothermometry. These include large temperature excursions during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (~800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long <span class="hlt">period</span> of sustained regional and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ~450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ~70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3oC, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S"><span>Deglacial Subsurface Temperature Change in the Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Linked to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments indicate that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; and Chiang et al., 2008). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). In addition, observational records of detrended 20th century ocean temperature and salinity variability show a strong anticorrelation between surface cooling and subsurface warming in the TNA over the past several decades, suggesting changing vertical temperature gradients in this region may be a distinct fingerprint of AMOC variability (Zhang 2007). In order to test the hypothesis that subsurface temperature change in the TNA is coupled to AMOC variability across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstructed high-resolution Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature and δ18O records from both surface (G. ruber) and sub-thermocline dwelling (G. truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth and G. crassaformis, 450-580 m) planktonic foraminifera in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Sea surface temperatures indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5oC during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, last glacial maximum subsurface temperatures were as much as 2.5oC warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface temperatures characterized by abrupt temperature increases as large as 4-5oC. Furthermore, a comparison of our subsurface temperature record with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC variability (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912941R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912941R"><span>How predictable are equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface winds?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richter, Ingo; Doi, Takeshi; Behera, Swadhin</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Sensitivity tests with the SINTEX-F general circulation model (GCM) as well as experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) are used to examine the extent to which sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies contribute to the variability and predictability of monthly mean surface winds in the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In the SINTEX-F experiments, a control experiment with prescribed observed SST for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1982-2014 is modified by inserting climatological values in certain regions, thereby eliminating SST anomalies. When SSTs are set to climatology in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> only (30S to 30N), surface wind variability over the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (5S-5N) decreases by about 40% in April-May-June (AMJ). This suggests that about 60% of surface wind variability is due to either internal atmospheric variability or SSTs anomalies outside the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. A further experiment with climatological SSTs in the equatorial Pacific indicates that another 10% of variability in AMJ may be due to remote influences from that basin. Experiments from the CMIP5 archive, in which climatological SSTs are prescribed globally, tend to confirm the results from SINTEX-F but show a wide spread. In some models, the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface wind variability decreases by more than 90%, while in others it even increases. Overall, the results suggest that about 50-60% of surface wind variance in AMJ is predictable, while the rest is due to internal atmospheric variability. Other months show significantly lower predictability. The relatively strong internal variability as well as the influence of remote SSTs suggest a limited role for coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985EOSTr..66..107M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985EOSTr..66..107M"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.</p> <p></p> <p>The intensity of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADB025006','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADB025006"><span>U. S. Maritime Interests in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Appendix 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-10-01</p> <p>Harlan Ullman (the National War College) and other members of the study group. In his formal presentation, Professor Kemp offered the following...the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was aptly demonstrated during World War II. Of considerable relevance to the current issue of the security of commercial...During the post- war <span class="hlt">period</span> and until 1967, the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> received virtually no significant attention. However, growth in traffic passing through</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4176K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4176K"><span>Holocene sea surface temperatures in the East African Coastal Current region and their relationship with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhnert, Henning; Kuhlmann, Holger; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Pätzold, Jürgen</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The East African Coastal Current (EACC) is one of the western boundary currents of the Indian Ocean and represents the only pathway for southern water masses to enter the Arabian Sea. Today, sea surface temperatures (SST) in the western boundary currents region covary with those in large parts of the central tropical Indian Ocean. The latter play an important role in global climate by influencing the mean state of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) and associated <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST anomalies (Hoerling et al., 2001). In the EACC region paleoclimate data are sparse and its Holocene temperature history is unexplored. We present data from a 5 m long sediment core retrieved off northern Tanzania where the EACC flows northward year-round. Proximity to the Pangani River mouth provides a steady sediment supply. We have reconstructed SST from Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and stable oxygen isotope ratios (^18O) of the surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifera species Globigerinoides ruber (sensu stricto). Our record spans the time <span class="hlt">period</span> from 9700 to 1400 years BP at an average temporal resolution of 40 years. The Holocene is characterized by a sequence of intervals representing cool, warm, cool, and intermediate SST, with boundaries at 7.8, 5.6, and 4.4 ka BP. SST anomalies relative to the series mean range from -0.6 to +0.75 ° C. This pattern strikingly resembles a Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> foraminiferal ^18O record (Cléroux et al., 2012), with warm Indian SST corresponding to low <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> foraminiferal ^18O (indicating low sea surface density). This matches the modern situation on the interdecadal time-scale, where a warm Indian Ocean leads to a shift of the NAO towards a positive mean state, which is accompanied by SST warming over much of the low- and mid-latitude western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and a displacement of the Gulf Stream path. We hypothesize that this mechanism also operates on millennial time-scales to explain the obvious similarities in the SST patterns observed in the Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and western</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.380...52L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.380...52L"><span>Asynchronous Little Ice Age glacier fluctuations in Iceland and European Alps linked to shifts in subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, Darren J.; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Records of past glacier fluctuations are an important source of paleoclimate data and provide context for future changes in global ice volume. In the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, glacier chronologies can be used to track the response of terrestrial environments to variations in marine conditions including circulation patterns and sea ice cover. However, the majority of glacier records are discontinuous and temporally restricted, owing in part to the extensive advance of Northern Hemisphere glaciers during the Little Ice Age (LIA), the most recent and severe climate anomaly of the Neoglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Here, we combine an absolutely dated and continuous record of Langjökull ice marginal fluctuations with new reconstructions of sediment flux through the past 1.2 ka using varved sediments from Hvítárvatn, a proglacial lake in Iceland's central highlands. Large spatial and temporal variations in sediment flux related to changing ice cap dimensions are reconstructed from six sediment cores and seismic reflection profiles. Sediment data reveal two discrete phases of ice expansion occurring <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1400 to 1550 AD and <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1680 to 1890 AD. These advances are separated by a persistent interval of ice retreat, suggesting that a substantial <span class="hlt">period</span> of warming interrupted LIA cold. The pattern of Icelandic glacier activity contrasts with that of European glaciers but shows strong similarities to reconstructed changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oceanographic conditions, indicating differing regional responses to coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice variations. Our data suggest that subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation dynamics may have led to coherent asynchronous glacier fluctuations during the mid LIA and highlight the importance of circulation variability in triggering and transmitting multidecadal scale climate changes to nearby terrestrial environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP13E..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP13E..08L"><span>Asynchronous Little Ice Age glacier fluctuations in Iceland and European Alps linked to shifts in subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, D. J.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Records of past glacier fluctuations are an important source of paleoclimate data and provide context for future changes in global ice volume. In the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, glacier chronologies can be used to track the response of terrestrial environments to variations in marine conditions including circulation patterns and sea ice cover. However, the majority of glacier records are discontinuous and temporally restricted, owing in part to the extensive advance of Northern Hemisphere glaciers during the Little Ice Age (LIA), the most recent and severe climate anomaly of the Neoglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Here, we combine an absolutely dated and continuous record of Langjökull ice marginal fluctuations with new reconstructions of sediment flux through the past 1.2 ka using varved sediments from Hvítárvatn, a proglacial lake in Iceland's central highlands. Large spatial and temporal variations in sediment flux related to changing ice cap dimensions are reconstructed from six sediment cores and seismic reflection profiles. Sediment data reveal two discrete phases of ice expansion occurring <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1400 to 1550 AD and <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1680 to 1890 AD. These advances are separated by a persistent interval of ice retreat, suggesting that a substantial <span class="hlt">period</span> of warming interrupted LIA cold. The pattern of Icelandic glacier activity contrasts with that of European glaciers but shows strong similarities to reconstructed changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oceanographic conditions, indicating differing regional responses to coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice variations. Our data suggest that subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation dynamics may have led to coherent asynchronous glacier fluctuations during the mid LIA and highlight the importance of circulation variability in triggering and transmitting multidecadal scale climate changes to nearby terrestrial environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614020H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614020H"><span>An Anatomy of the 1960s <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Cooling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hodson, Dan; Robson, Jon; Sutton, Rowan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability during the 20th Century. In particular, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs exhibited a rapid warming between 1920 and 1940 followed by a rapid cooling between 1960 and 1980. SSTs outside the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> display a much smaller level of decadal variability over the 20th Century. This pattern of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming and cooling has been linked to subsequent changes in rainfall over the Sahel and Nordeste Brazil, Summertime North American Climate and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Hurricane Genesis. Several hypotheses for the rapid 1960s <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cooling have been proposed, including a reduction in northward ocean heat transport due to a reduced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the significant rise in anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions during the latter half of the 20th century. Here we examine the observed 1960s <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cooling in more detail. We describe the evolution of the rapid cooling by constructing a detailed multivariate anatomy of the cooling <span class="hlt">period</span> in order to illuminate the possible explanations and mechanisms involved. We show that the observed 1960s cooling began around 1964-68 in the Greenland-Iceland-Norway (GIN) seas, later spreading to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sub Polar Gyre and much of the subtropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This initial cooling of the Sub Polar Gyre is associated with a marked reduction in salinity (the Great Salinity Anomaly). The cooling peaked between 1972-76, extending into the Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This <span class="hlt">period</span> also saw the development of a significant Winter North-South Dipole Mean Sea Level Pressure dipole pattern reminiscent of a positive NAO (High over the Azores, Low over Iceland). The cooling then retreated back to higher latitudes during 1976:80. Our analysis demonstrates that the cooling of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the 1960s cannot be understood as a simple thermodynamic response to aerosol induced reductions in shortwave radiation. Dynamical changes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRI...71...21G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRI...71...21G"><span>South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garzoli, Silvia L.; Baringer, Molly O.; Dong, Shenfu; Perez, Renellys C.; Yao, Qi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The properties of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and associated meridional heat transport (MHT) and salt fluxes are analyzed in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The oceanographic data used for the study consist of Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data collected along 27 sections at nominally 35°S for the <span class="hlt">period</span> of time 2002-2011, and Argo profile data collected in the region. Previous estimates obtained with a shorter record are improved and extended, using new oceanographic sections and wind fields. Different wind products are analyzed to determine the uncertainty in the Ekman component of the MHT derived from their use. Results of the analysis provide a 9-year time series of MHT, and volume transport in the upper layer of the MOC. Salt fluxes at 35°S are estimated using a parameter introduced by numerical studies, the Mov that represents the salt flux and helps determine the basin scale salt feedback associated with the MOC. Volume and heat transport by the western and eastern boundary currents are estimated, and their covariablity is examined. Analysis of the data shows that the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is responsible for a northward MHT with a mean value of 0.54±0.14 PW. The MHT exhibits no significant trend from 2002 to 2011. The MOC varies from 14.4 to 22.7 Sv with a mean value of 18.1±2.3 Sv and the maximum overturning transport is found at a mean depth of 1250 m. Statistical analysis suggests that an increase of 1 Sv in the MOC leads to an increase of the MHT of 0.04±0.02 PW. Estimates of the Mov from data collected from three different kinds of observations, contrary to those obtained from models, feature a positive salt advection feedback (Mov<0) suggesting that freshwater perturbations will be amplified and that the MOC is bistable. In other words, the MOC might collapse with a large enough freshwater perturbation. Observations indicate that the mean value of the Brazil Current is -8.6±4.1 Sv at 24°S and -19.4±4.3 Sv at 35°S, increasing towards the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26972928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26972928"><span>Isotopic perspectives (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(34) S) of diet, social complexity, and animal husbandry during the proto-shang <span class="hlt">period</span> (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 2000-1600 BC) of China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T; Wei, Dong; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>To examine dietary patterns and animal husbandry practices and assess the links between human diet and sex, age, burial direction/position, and social status (as inferred by type of grave goods) during the transformative Proto-Shang (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 2000-1600 BC) <span class="hlt">period</span> of China. Stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13) C), nitrogen (δ(15) N), and sulfur (δ(34) S) were analyzed from human (n = 83) and animal (n = 36) bone collagen at the site of Nancheng in Hebei Province, China. The Proto-Shang population consumed a predominately C4 diet (δ(13) C = -6.8 ± 0.4‰; δ(15) N = 9.4 ± 0.6‰), but a single individual (M70) had a mixed C3 /C4 diet (δ(13) C = -14.9‰; δ(15) N = 10.1‰). The δ(34) S measurement of M70 (8.8‰) is similar to the local animals (8.2 ± 2.6‰) and the other members of the population (7.0 ± 0.8‰) suggesting this individual may not have been a migrant even though the burial direction (north-south) and position (flexed) was different than the majority of the graves in the cemetery. From comparison with the faunal bone collagen stable isotope results, the Nancheng population ate millets with varying levels of animal protein consumption focused primarily on pigs and possibly cattle and dogs, but sheep/goats, and deer were not eaten in significant amounts. Analysis of the isotopic results in relation to other contemporary sites such as Liuzhuang and Xinzhai show strikingly similar patterns, suggesting that the sheep/goats were likely raised mainly for their secondary products (e.g., wool). No link between diet and sex was found at the population level, but when the data were sorted by age and sex, the older males (>40 years old) were found to have significantly lower δ(13) C values (-6.6 ± 0.3‰; n = 18) compared to the younger males (<40 years old) (-7.3 ± 0.5‰; n = 8). Further, no significant correlations between diet and burial direction/position or social status (based on the type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8634M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8634M"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyres variability during the last millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mignot, Juliette; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Khodri, Myriam; Ezat, Ullah; Jacob, Jérémy; Hall, Ian; Servonnat, Jérome; Xuang Truong, Minh</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We investigate the low frequency variability of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subpolar and subtropical gyres over the last millennium. First, a compilation of the several recent proxy recontructions (e.g. Sicre et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009 for the subpolar gyre, Mc Gregor et al. 2007 and unpublished data from Sicre et al. in the subtropical gyre) will allow to assess the low frequency hydrographic variability in key areas related to the horizontal circulation in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the upper limb of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation. Second, we use a simulation of the IPSL model to explore the link between the gyres circulation and the local hydrography. In a simulation reproducing the climate over the last millennium, we assess the low frequency variability of the gyres circulation over this <span class="hlt">period</span> and the role of the external forcing and low frequency atmospheric variability in the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The aim is to help the interpretation of the data cited above at the basin-scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1267L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1267L"><span>Palaeoceanographic productivity changes in the Eastern Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> since the penultimate glaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lem, Rachael; Marshall, Jim; Leng, Melanie; Marret, Fabienne</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A 150,000 year multiproxy record from the eastern equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, offshore Gabon, has been investigated in order to examine the effects of changing glacial - interglacial climate on marine productivity. Higher δ13C values of the benthic foraminifera Planulina wuellerstorfi are documented during the penultimate glaciation (150 -130 kyr BP) in comparison to the Last Glacial Maximum [LGM] (24.5 - 19 kyr BP). In conjunction with higher <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 and larger variability in the isotopic difference between surface and bottom waters during the penultimate glaciation, this suggests that the eastern equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was much more productive at this time than the LGM, most likely driven by increased nutrient input through strong bottom water upwelling. The benthic δ18O and planktonic δ18O record of Globigerinoides ruber (white) infer that both the surface and bottom waters were warmer during the penultimate glaciation than the LGM. The sea surface temperature [SST] record assimilated through Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> analysis of the G. ruber evidences much lower SSTs during the last deglaciation in comparison with other regional records, and with the present day SST, which together with high Fe input, we attribute this to a greatly enhanced discharge of the Ogooué River. Bulk coccolith carbonate δ13C demonstrates a shift towards lower δ13C values from the penultimate glaciation towards present day which does not dovetail the other proxies. The δ18O coccolith record mirrors that of G. ruber during the two glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>, but presents much higher isotopic values during the interglacials. We interpret this as a shift in seasonality in the calcification of the coccoliths between glacial and interglacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>, which in combination with the long term decline in δ13C values reflects a change in the habitat preferences of this phytoplankton over the last glacial - interglacial cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf"><span>46 CFR 42.30-35 - The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. 42.30-35 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Periods</span> § 42.30-35 The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. (a) The part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> referred to in § 42.20-75(d)(1) comprises: (1) That part of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf"><span>46 CFR 42.30-35 - The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. 42.30-35 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Periods</span> § 42.30-35 The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. (a) The part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> referred to in § 42.20-75(d)(1) comprises: (1) That part of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf"><span>46 CFR 42.30-35 - The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. 42.30-35 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Periods</span> § 42.30-35 The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. (a) The part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> referred to in § 42.20-75(d)(1) comprises: (1) That part of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf"><span>46 CFR 42.30-35 - The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. 42.30-35 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Periods</span> § 42.30-35 The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. (a) The part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> referred to in § 42.20-75(d)(1) comprises: (1) That part of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol2-sec42-30-35.pdf"><span>46 CFR 42.30-35 - The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. 42.30-35 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Periods</span> § 42.30-35 The Winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Load Line. (a) The part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> referred to in § 42.20-75(d)(1) comprises: (1) That part of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..950G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..950G"><span>Abrupt changes in the southern extent of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water during Dansgaard-Oeschger events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Misra, Sambuddha; Waelbroeck, Claire; Menviel, Laurie; Timmermann, Axel</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The glacial climate system transitioned rapidly between cold (stadial) and warm (interstadial) conditions in the Northern Hemisphere. This variability, referred to as Dansgaard-Oeschger variability, is widely believed to arise from perturbations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation. Evidence for such changes during the longer Heinrich stadials has been identified, but direct evidence for overturning circulation changes during Dansgaard-Oeschger events has proven elusive. Here we reconstruct bottom water [CO32-] variability from B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of benthic foraminifera and indicators of sedimentary dissolution, and use these reconstructions to infer the flow of northern-sourced deep water to the deep central sub-Antarctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. We find that nearly every Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadial is accompanied by a rapid incursion of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water into the deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Based on these results and transient climate model simulations, we conclude that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> stadial-interstadial climate variability was associated with significant <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation changes that were rapidly transmitted across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. However, by demonstrating the persistent role of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation changes in past abrupt climate variability, our reconstructions of carbonate chemistry further indicate that the carbon cycle response to abrupt climate change was not a simple function of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-s65-61824.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-s65-61824.html"><span>GEMINI-6 - RECOVERY - <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1965-12-16</p> <p>S65-61824 (16 Dec. 1965) --- A helicopter hovers over the Gemini-6 spacecraft after it splashed down 12 miles from the aircraft carrier USS Wasp in the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> recovery area at 10:29 a.m. Dec. 16, 1965. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9992R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9992R"><span>Surface heat storage in the subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the LGM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Repschlaeger, Janne; Weinelt, Mara; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Andersen, Nils; Schneider, Ralph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The transport of warm saline waters from the subtropical into the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> plays a major role in the stabilization of AMOC. During the Late Pleistocene this system experienced millennial scale variability with weak AMOC phases that are associated with heat and salt storage within the subtropics. The subsequent onset of AMOC is supposed to be fueled by the release and transport of the warm saline water into the northern hemisphere deepwater convection sites. Despite this conceptual model, contradicting reconstructions for such warm water storage exist for the Deglaciation to early Holocene and full glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>, either asserting a southward movement of the Subtropical gyre (STG) and subsurface heat storage or northward extension of the STG with warming of the surface waters. Here we investigate the heat and salt storage patterns and extension of the warm subtropical gyre (STG) during MIS 2 well into MIS 3 (16- 30 ka BP) at centennial scale resolution using sediment core MD08-3181 (38°N; 31.13°W, 3060 m w.d.) retrieved immediately east of the Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge south of the Azores Islands with sedimentation rates up to 100 cm/ ka. At present, this site is located at the northern rim of the Azores Current, which delineates the STG, recirculating warm waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current. Due to its position at the boundary between temperate Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters and warm STG waters, the coring site is ideal to trace past changes in the influence of both water masses. Parallel stable-oxygen isotope and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> temperature records of surface-water dwelling foraminifera Globigerina bulloides (habitat depth 0-200 m) and subsurface dweller Globorotalia inflata (habitat depth 100-300 m) and foraminiferal transfer functions are used to reconstruct the temperature and salinity structure of the mixed layer. Additionally, the AF position is reconstructed using the abundance of the tropical to subtropical species Globigerinoides ruber white. Preliminary</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..349M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..349M"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mann, Michael E.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Holland, Greg J.; Webster, Peter J.</p> <p></p> <p>Vigorous discussions have taken place recently in Eos [e.g., Mann and Emanuel, 2006; Landsea, 2007] and elsewhere [Emanuel, 2005; Webster et al., 2005; Hoyos et al., 2006; Trenberth and Shea, 2006; Kossin et al., 2007] regarding trends in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone (TC) activity and their potential connection with anthropogenic climate change. In one study, for example [Landsea, 2007], it is argued that a substantial underestimate of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone counts in earlier decades arising from insufficient observing systems invalidates the conclusion that trends in TC behavior may be connected to climate change. Here we argue that such connections are in fact robust with respect to uncertainties in earlier observations.Several recent studies have investigated trends in various measures of TC activity. Emanuel [2005] showed that a measure of total power dissipation by TCs (the power dissipation index, or PDI) is highly correlated with August-October sea surface temperatures (SST) over the main development region (MDR) for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TCs over at least the past half century. Some support for this conclusion was provided by Sriver and Ruber [2006]. Webster et al. [2005] demonstrated a statistically significant increase in recent decades in both the total number of the strongest category cyclones (categories 4 and 5) and the proportion of storms reaching hurricane intensity. Hoyos et al. [2006] showed that these increases were closely tied to warming trends in tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST, while, for example, the modest decrease in vertical wind shear played a more secondary role. Kossin et al. [2007] called into question some trends in other basins, based on a reanalysis of past TC data, but they found the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> trends to be robust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6929905','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6929905"><span>South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> summary report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Havran, K.J.; Wiese, J.D.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>To date, four Federal offshore oil-and-gas leasing actions have occurred in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region. Two additional South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lease offerings remain on the July 1982 final 5-year OCS oil-and-gas leasing schedule before June 1987. The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region consists of three major sedimentary basins: the Carolina Trough, the Blake Plateau, and the Southeast Georgia Embayment. Lease Sale 43, the first in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region, featured blocks for exploration in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. Offshore operators drilled a total of six exploratory wells on blocks leased in Lease Sale 43. All were dry. The 43 leases from Lease Sale 43 have now expired, some blocks were relinquished earlier by their lease-holders. In the recent Lease Sales 56 and RS-2, and in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Lease Offering (July 1983), blocks leased were largely concentrated in the Carolina Trough Basin. Exploration of these blocks may begin anew in early 1984. The blocks are in deep water and will require careful, long-range planning before drilling can commence. As of July 1983, all 66 leases from the above three sales are active. Two plans of exploration have been approved by Minerals Management Service for exploration on blocks leased in Lease Sale 56. The plans are for Russell Area, Blocks 709 and 710, and Manteo Area, Block 510. Blocks 709 and 710 are held by ARCO, and Block 510 is held by Chevron. Based on current plans of exploration, operations will begin in 1984, first by Chevron, and sometime later by ARCO. Operations will be supported by a temporary service base to be established at Morehead City, North Carolina. 6 references, 4 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP23B0962P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP23B0962P"><span>Linking North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Teleconnections to Latitudinal Variability of Wave Climate Along the North American <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Provancha, C.; Adams, P. N.; Hegermiller, C.; Storlazzi, C. D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Shoreline change via coastal erosion and accretion is largely influenced by variations in ocean wave climate. Identifying the sources of these variations is challenging because the timing of wave energy delivery varies over multiple timescales within ocean basins. We present the results of an investigation of USACE Wave Information Studies hindcast hourly wave heights, <span class="hlt">periods</span>, and directions along the North American <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast from 1980-2012, designed to explore links between wave climate and teleconnection patterns. Trends in median and extreme significant wave heights (SWHs) demonstrate that mean monthly SWHs increased from 1 to 5 cm/yr along the roughly 3000 km reach of study area, with changes in hurricane season waves appearing to be most influential in producing the overall trends. Distributions of SWHs categorized by North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) phase, show that positive-<span class="hlt">period</span> NAO SWHs are greater than negative-<span class="hlt">period</span> NAO SWHs along the entire eastern seaboard (25°N to 45°N). The most prominent wave direction off Cape Cod, MA during positive-<span class="hlt">period</span> NAO is approximately 105°, as compared to approximately 75° during negative-<span class="hlt">period</span> NAO. Prominent wave directions between Cape Canaveral, FL, and Savannah, GA exhibit a similar shift but during opposite phases of the NAO. The results of this analysis suggest that the atmosphere-ocean interactions associated with contrasting NAO phases can significantly change the wave climate observed offshore along the North American <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast, altering alongshore wave energy fluxes and sediment transport patterns along the coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21593764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21593764"><span>Interannual atmospheric variability forced by the deep equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brandt, Peter; Funk, Andreas; Hormann, Verena; Dengler, Marcus; Greatbatch, Richard J; Toole, John M</p> <p>2011-05-26</p> <p>Climate variability in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is determined by large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, which particularly affect deep atmospheric convection over the ocean and surrounding continents. Apart from influences from the Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation, the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability is thought to be dominated by two distinct ocean-atmosphere coupled modes of variability that are characterized by meridional and zonal sea-surface-temperature gradients and are mainly active on decadal and interannual timescales, respectively. Here we report evidence that the intrinsic ocean dynamics of the deep equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> can also affect sea surface temperature, wind and rainfall in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region and constitutes a 4.5-yr climate cycle. Specifically, vertically alternating deep zonal jets of short vertical wavelength with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of about 4.5 yr and amplitudes of more than 10 cm s(-1) are observed, in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, to propagate their energy upwards, towards the surface. They are linked, at the sea surface, to equatorial zonal current anomalies and eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature anomalies that have amplitudes of about 6 cm s(-1) and 0.4 °C, respectively, and are associated with distinct wind and rainfall patterns. Although deep jets are also observed in the Pacific and Indian oceans, only the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep jets seem to oscillate on interannual timescales. Our knowledge of the persistence and regularity of these jets is limited by the availability of high-quality data. Despite this caveat, the oscillatory behaviour can still be used to improve predictions of sea surface temperature in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Deep-jet generation and upward energy transmission through the Equatorial Undercurrent warrant further theoretical study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4070277','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4070277"><span>The Influence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Buffers on Free [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] Fluctuations and the Effective Volume of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Microdomains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weinberg, Seth H.; Smith, Gregory D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Intracellular calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+) plays a significant role in many cell signaling pathways, some of which are localized to spatially restricted microdomains. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ binding proteins (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers) play an important role in regulating <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration ([<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]). Buffers typically slow [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] temporal dynamics and increase the effective volume of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ domains. Because fluctuations in [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] decrease in proportion to the square-root of a domain’s physical volume, one might conjecture that buffers decrease [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] fluctuations and, consequently, mitigate the significance of small domain volume concerning <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling. We test this hypothesis through mathematical and computational analysis of idealized buffer-containing domains and their stochastic dynamics during free <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx with passive exchange of both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ and buffer with bulk concentrations. We derive Langevin equations for the fluctuating dynamics of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ and buffer and use these stochastic differential equations to determine the magnitude of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] fluctuations for different buffer parameters (e.g., dissociation constant and concentration). In marked contrast to expectations based on a naive application of the principle of effective volume as employed in deterministic models of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling, we find that mobile and rapid buffers typically increase the magnitude of domain [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] fluctuations during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx, whereas stationary (immobile) <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers do not. Also contrary to expectations, we find that in the absence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx, buffers influence the temporal characteristics, but not the magnitude, of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] fluctuations. We derive an analytical formula describing the influence of rapid <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers on [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] fluctuations and, importantly, identify the stochastic analog of (deterministic) effective domain volume. Our results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers alter the dynamics of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] fluctuations in a nonintuitive manner. The finding that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers do not suppress intrinsic domain [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GGG.....9.5V03W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GGG.....9.5V03W"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Warm Pool acting as a link between <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Chunzai; Lee, Sang-Ki; Enfield, David B.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Multidecadal variability of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone activity is observed to relate to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), a mode manifesting primarily in sea surface temperature (SST) in the high latitudes of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In the low latitudes of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, a large body of warm water called the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Warm Pool (AWP) comprises the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the western tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. AWP variability occurs on both interannual and multidecadal timescales as well as with a secular variation. The AWP multidecadal variability coincides with the signal of the AMO; that is, the warm (cool) phases of the AMO are characterized by repeated large (small) AWPs. Since the climate response to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST anomalies is primarily forced at the low latitudes and the AWP is in the path of or a birthplace for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones, the influence of the AMO on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone activity may operate through the mechanism of the AWP-induced atmospheric changes. The AWP-induced changes related to tropical cyclones that we emphasize here include a dynamical parameter of tropospheric vertical wind shear and a thermodynamical parameter of convective instability. More specifically, an anomalously large (small) AWP reduces (enhances) the vertical wind shear in the hurricane main development region and increases (decreases) the moist static instability of the troposphere, both of which favor (disfavor) <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone activity. This is the most plausible way in which the AMO relationship with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones can be understood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPD..11.2649M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPD..11.2649M"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) forcing on the late Holocene Cauca paleolake dynamics, northern Andes of Colombia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez, J. I.; Obrochta, S.; Yokoyama, Y.; Battarbee, R. W.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), is a major driving climate mechanism, in the eastern Caribbean Sea and the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean in relation to the dynamics of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) for the late Holocene. Here we document the AMO signal in the San Nicolás-1 core of the Cauca paleolake (Santa Fé-Sopetrán Basin) in the northern Andes. Wavelet spectrum analysis of the gray scale of the San Nicolás-1 core provides evidence for a 70 yr AMO <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> for the 3750 to 350 yr BP time interval, whose pattern is analogous to the one documented for the Cariaco Basin. This supports a possible correlation between enhanced precipitation and ENSO variability with a positive AMO phase during the 2000 to 1500 yr BP interval, and its forcing role on the Cauca ria lake deposits, which led to increased precipitation and to the transition from a igapo (black water) to a varzea (white water) environment <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 3000 yr BP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP42A..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP42A..04M"><span>Sudden intrusion of corrosive bottom water into the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meissner, K. J.; Alexander, K.; Bralower, T. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, ˜55 million years before present, was a <span class="hlt">period</span> of rapid warming marked by a negative carbon isotope excursion and widespread dissolution of seafloor carbonate. These changes have been attributed to a massive release of carbon into the exogenic carbon cycle, and thus, the event provides an analog for future climate and environmental changes given the current anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Previous attempts to constrain the amount of carbon released have produced widely diverging results, between 2000 and 10,000 gigatons carbon (GtC). Sediment records indicate that acidification of deep waters was generally more extensive and severe in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Caribbean regions, with more modest changes in the Southern and Pacific Oceans. Here we compare simulations integrated with the UVic Earth System Climate Model with reconstructions of temperature and dissolution to present a mechanism that might explain the observed spatial differences and to constrain the total mass of carbon released. Due to the late Paleocene topography, highly corrosive waters accumulate in the deep North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> before the PETM in our simulations. Several thousand years into the event, deep ocean warming destabilizes the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water column and triggers deep water formation. This causes the corrosive bottom water to spill over an equatorial sill into the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and through the Southern and Pacific Oceans, progressively gaining alkalinity. The simulated pattern of sediment dissolution along the path taken by this corrosive water is consistent with most dissolution estimates made from <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 measurements in the Paleocene-Eocene sediment record. We find two scenarios that agree best with proxy data: a carbon release of 7000 GtC in combination with pre-event atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of 840 ppm and a carbon release of 7000-10,000 GtC with pre-event CO2 concentrations of 1680 ppm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP51A2263W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP51A2263W"><span>600 yr High-Resolution Climate Reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Variability deduced from a Puerto Rican Speleothem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winter, A.; Vieten, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A multi-proxy speleothem study tracks the regional hydrological variability in Puerto Rico and highlights its close relation to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation. Our proxy record extends instrumental observations 600 years into the past, and reveals the range of natural hydrologic variability for the region. A detailed interpretation and understanding of the speleothem climate record is achieved by the combination of multi-proxy measurements, thin section petrography, XRD analysis and cave monitoring results. The speleothem was collected in Cueva Larga, a one mile-long cave system that has been monitored since 2012. MC-ICPMS 230Th/U-dating reveals that the speleothem grew constantly over the last 600 years. Trace element ratios (Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) as well as stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C) elucidate significant changes in atmospheric precipitation at the site. Monthly cave monitoring results demonstrate that the epikarst system responds to multi-annual changes in seepage water recharge. The drip water isotope and trace element composition lack short term or seasonal variability. This hydrological system creates favorable conditions to deduce decadal climate variability from Cueva Larga's climate record. The speleothem time series mimics the most-recently published AMO reconstruction over the last 200 years with a time lag of 10-20 years. The time lag seems to results from slow atmospheric signal transmission through the epikarst but the effect of dating uncertainties cannot be ruled out. Warm SSTs in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are related to drier conditions in Puerto Rico. During times of decreased rainfall a relative increase in prior calcite precipitation seems to be the main process causing increased Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> trace element ratios. High trace element ratios correlate to higher δ13C values. The increase in both proxies indicates a shift towards time <span class="hlt">periods</span> of decreased rainfall. Over the past 600 years there are two intervals of increased Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ13C values</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1793S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1793S"><span>Deglacial Subsurface Temperature Change in the Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Linked to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Hertzberg, J. E.; Them, T. R.; Parker, A. O.; Chang, P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments conducted under both the present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions indicate that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; Chiang et al., 2008; Otto-Bliesner and Brady, 2009). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). To test the hypothesis that subsurface temperature change in the TNA is coupled to AMOC variability across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstruct Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature and δ18O records from both surface (Globigerinoides ruber, upper mixed layer) and sub-thermocline dwelling (Globorotalia truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth) planktonic foraminifera, as well as from the benthic species Cibicidoides pachyderma in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33 °N, 66.63 °W; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5 °C during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, LGM subsurface temperatures were as much as 2.5 °C warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface temperatures characterized by abrupt temperature increases as large as 4-5 °C. In addition, benthic Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios during the YD and H1 increase by 50% relative to Holocene intervals, suggesting significant warming extending to 1079 m water depth across these events. Comparison of our subsurface temperature records with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC variability (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong correlation between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4725475','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4725475"><span>Evolution of South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> density and chemical stratification across the last deglaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Skinner, Luke C.; Peck, Victoria L.; Kender, Sev; Elderfield, Henry; Waelbroeck, Claire; Hodell, David A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Explanations of the glacial–interglacial variations in atmospheric pCO2 invoke a significant role for the deep ocean in the storage of CO2. Deep-ocean density stratification has been proposed as a mechanism to promote the storage of CO2 in the deep ocean during glacial times. A wealth of proxy data supports the presence of a “chemical divide” between intermediate and deep water in the glacial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, which indirectly points to an increase in deep-ocean density stratification. However, direct observational evidence of changes in the primary controls of ocean density stratification, i.e., temperature and salinity, remain scarce. Here, we use Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-derived seawater temperature and salinity estimates determined from temperature-corrected δ18O measurements on the benthic foraminifer Uvigerina spp. from deep and intermediate water-depth marine sediment cores to reconstruct the changes in density of sub-Antarctic South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water masses over the last deglaciation (i.e., 22–2 ka before present). We find that a major breakdown in the physical density stratification significantly lags the breakdown of the deep-intermediate chemical divide, as indicated by the chemical tracers of benthic foraminifer δ13C and foraminifer/coral 14C. Our results indicate that chemical destratification likely resulted in the first rise in atmospheric pCO2, whereas the density destratification of the deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lags the second rise in atmospheric pCO2 during the late deglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Our findings emphasize that the physical and chemical destratification of the ocean are not as tightly coupled as generally assumed. PMID:26729858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729858"><span>Evolution of South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> density and chemical stratification across the last deglaciation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roberts, Jenny; Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Peck, Victoria L; Kender, Sev; Elderfield, Henry; Waelbroeck, Claire; Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Hodell, David A</p> <p>2016-01-19</p> <p>Explanations of the glacial-interglacial variations in atmospheric pCO2 invoke a significant role for the deep ocean in the storage of CO2. Deep-ocean density stratification has been proposed as a mechanism to promote the storage of CO2 in the deep ocean during glacial times. A wealth of proxy data supports the presence of a "chemical divide" between intermediate and deep water in the glacial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, which indirectly points to an increase in deep-ocean density stratification. However, direct observational evidence of changes in the primary controls of ocean density stratification, i.e., temperature and salinity, remain scarce. Here, we use Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-derived seawater temperature and salinity estimates determined from temperature-corrected δ(18)O measurements on the benthic foraminifer Uvigerina spp. from deep and intermediate water-depth marine sediment cores to reconstruct the changes in density of sub-Antarctic South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water masses over the last deglaciation (i.e., 22-2 ka before present). We find that a major breakdown in the physical density stratification significantly lags the breakdown of the deep-intermediate chemical divide, as indicated by the chemical tracers of benthic foraminifer δ(13)C and foraminifer/coral (14)C. Our results indicate that chemical destratification likely resulted in the first rise in atmospheric pCO2, whereas the density destratification of the deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lags the second rise in atmospheric pCO2 during the late deglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Our findings emphasize that the physical and chemical destratification of the ocean are not as tightly coupled as generally assumed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88Q.570S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88Q.570S"><span>In Brief: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> seasonal hurricane forecast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Two hurricane forecasters are predicting that 2008 will be an above-average <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin tropical cyclone season with an above-average probability of a major hurricane making landfall in the United States. During 2008, there could be about seven hurricanes (the annual average is 5.9) and 13 named storms (the average is 9.6), according to a 7 December report by Philip Klotzbach, research scientist at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, and William Gray, university professor emeritus of atmospheric sciences. The forecasters indicate that they believe the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin is in an active hurricane cycle that is associated with a strong thermohaline circulation and an active phase of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation. The report notes that, ``real-time operational early December forecasts have not shown forecast skill over climatology during this 16-year <span class="hlt">period</span> [1992-2007]. This has occurred despite the fact that the skill over the hindcast <span class="hlt">period</span>...showed appreciable skill.'' For more information, visit the Web site: http://hurricane.atmos.colostate.edu/Forecasts/2007/dec2007/dec2007.pdf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8959G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8959G"><span>Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles in the deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: important insights into the dynamics of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning and interhemispheric teleconnections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Hodell, David A.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Waelbroeck, Claire; Menviel, Laurie; Timmermann, Axel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles are a characteristic climate pattern of the northern hemisphere during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. It is generally assumed that DO cycles are caused by variations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and associated sea ice feedback mechanisms. However, until recently, it was unclear whether significant AMOC changes contributed to all DO cycles or only to strong and long-lasting DO events associated with Heinrich events. In this contribution, we outline recent proxy evidence for persistent perturbations of the AMOC geometry/overturning across the entire <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean during each DO cycle of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Specifically, we present decadally to sub-millennially resolved proxy records from the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (sediment cores MD07-3076Q and TN057-21) that indicate abrupt variations in the carbonate saturation state of the deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in parallel with abrupt climate variability over Greenland. We argue that these variations manifest abrupt shifts in the presence of northern- versus southern-sourced water masses in time with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate events. The quasi-instantaneous transmission of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate anomalies to the deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> raises questions on the mechanisms of interhemispheric climate connectivity which we will discuss in the light of numerical model output data. Decadal ocean processes such as the propagation of oceanic waves and advective adjustments are particularly important in this context. Although our findings leave the cause of DO cycles yet unresolved, they contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms that make DO events an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-wide, if not global, glacial climate phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7246961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7246961"><span>Earthquakes at North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> passive margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gregersen, S. ); Basham, P.W. )</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The main focus of this volume is the earthquakes that occur at and near the continental margins on both sides of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The book, which contains the proceedings of the NATO workshop on Causes and Effects of Earthquakes at Passive Margins and in Areas of Postglacial Rebound on Both Sides of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, draws together the fields of geophysics, geology and geodesy to address the stress and strain in the Earth's crust. The resulting earthquakes produced on ancient geological fault zones and the associated seismic hazards these pose to man are also addressed. Postglacial rebound in North America and Fennoscandia is a minor source of earthquakes today, during the interglacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, but evidence is presented to suggest that the ice sheets suppressed earthquake strain while they were in place, and released this strain as a pulse of significant earthquakes after the ice melted about 9000 years ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..113...49D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..113...49D"><span>Distribution and at-sea activity of a nocturnal seabird, the Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulwerii, during the incubation <span class="hlt">period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dias, Maria P.; Romero, Joana; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Catry, Teresa; Pollet, Ingrid L.; Catry, Paulo</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Bulwer's petrels are nocturnal seabirds that mostly prey on mesopelagic fauna. As aerial foragers and shallow divers, their feeding opportunities are limited by near-surface availability of their prey, which is highly variable both temporally (reflecting diurnal and lunar cycles) and spatially. Here we studied how Bulwer's petrels cope with these constraints by analysing their at-sea distribution and activity during the incubation <span class="hlt">period</span>. We tracked the movements of 20 birds from Selvagem Grande (NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) during a complete lunar cycle, and recorded 30 foraging trips that lasted 11 days on average. Birds were both distributed around the colony and in waters close to the Azorean archipelago (mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) located 1700 km away, and were significantly more active at night (especially just after sunset and before sunrise), when mesopelagic fauna is also closer to the sea surface due to their diel vertical migrations. Bulwer's petrels spent significantly more time flying during moonlight, although the effect of the moon was relatively weak (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 10-15% difference between moonlit and dark <span class="hlt">periods</span> of the night), and not obvious when birds were foraging in mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters, which were also targeted more often during full-moon. These results reveal key adaptations of the Bulwer's petrel to the highly dynamic ecology of its mesopelagic prey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5613785','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5613785"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Libby-French, J.; Amato, R.V.</p> <p>1981-10-01</p> <p>Exploratory drilling in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal plain region decreased in 1980. Seven wells were drilled, five of which were completed, for a total footage of 80,968 ft (24,679 m). Six of the wells were located in the Baltimore Canyon Trough, and one was located in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. No exploratory wells were drilled in the Georges Bank Basin or in the onshore portion of this region in 1980. Tenneco and Exxon reported gas shows in two wells in the Baltimore Canyon Trough; the remaining completed wells were reported as dry holes. No lease sales were held in 1980, but two sales are scheduled for 1981 in the Middle and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. 1 figure, 2 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0653.photos.378565p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0653.photos.378565p/"><span>Photocopy of photograph, <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1915, photographer Marshall. Original photograph property ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Photocopy of photograph, <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1915, photographer Marshall. Original photograph property of U.S. Postal Service which is also the source for views and drawings 44 to 56. Undeveloped site of Stamford Post Office looking southwest. - Stamford Post Office, 421 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Street, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11526827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11526827"><span><span class="hlt">Ca</span> fluxes in single twitch muscle fibers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Curtis, B A</p> <p>1966-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ca</span> influx and efflux in single twitch muscle fibers were determined by the movement of 45<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. The isotope was assayed by counting the center 1 cm of a fiber while it was in nonradioactive Rnger's solution. The average resting influx in 1.0 mM <span class="hlt">Ca</span> Ringer's was 0.26 pM <span class="hlt">Ca</span>/cm2. sec for 5 to 20 min influx <span class="hlt">periods</span>. The average additional influx upon stimulation in 1.0 mM <span class="hlt">Ca</span> was 0.73 pM <span class="hlt">Ca</span>/cm2. twitch. The efflux after both resting and stimulated 45<span class="hlt">Ca</span> influx can be described by a single exponential curve with an average time constant of 125 min. This relationship is an indication of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> exchange with a single intracellular compartment. This compartment contains an estimated 47% of the total muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span> at 1.0 mM <span class="hlt">Ca</span>. When the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> in the Ringer was reduced to 0.5 mM <span class="hlt">Ca</span>, both the resting and stimulated <span class="hlt">Ca</span> fluxes decreased. When <span class="hlt">Ca</span> was raised to 1.8 mM, the stimulated influxes increased but the resting influx did not.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052589&hterms=1093&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231093','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052589&hterms=1093&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231093"><span>Mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 after exposure to LiF-22<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2, air, and vacuum at 1093 K for <span class="hlt">periods</span> up to 10,000 hours</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whittenberger, J. D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>As part of a program to provide reassurance that the cobalt-base superalloy Haynes Alloy 188 can adequately contain a LiF-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 eutectic thermal energy storage salt, 4900- and 10,000-hr exposures of Haynes Alloy 188 to LiF-22<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2, its vapor, vacuum, and air at 1093 K have been undertaken. Following such exposures, the microstructure has been characterized and the 77 to 1200 K tensile properties measured. In addition, 1050 K vacuum creep-rupture testing of as-received and molten salt- and vacuum-exposed samples has been undertaken. Although slight degradation of the mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 due to prior exposure was observed, basically none of the losses could be ascribed to a particular environment. Hence, observed decreases in properties are due to thermal aging effects, not corrosive attack. In view of these findings, Haynes Alloy 188 is still deemed to be suitable for containment of the eutectic LiF-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 thermal energy storage media.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6240119','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6240119"><span>Mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 after exposure to LiF-22<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2, air, and vacuum at 1093 K for <span class="hlt">periods</span> up to 10,000 hours</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whittenberger, J.D. )</p> <p>1992-08-01</p> <p>As part of a program to provide reassurance that the cobalt-base superalloy Haynes Alloy 188 can adequately contain a LiF-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 eutectic thermal energy storage salt, 4900- and 10,000-hr exposures of Haynes Alloy 188 to LiF-22<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2, its vapor, vacuum, and air at 1093 K have been undertaken. Following such exposures, the microstructure has been characterized and the 77 to 1200 K tensile properties measured. In addition, 1050 K vacuum creep-rupture testing of as-received and molten salt- and vacuum-exposed samples has been undertaken. Although slight degradation of the mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 due to prior exposure was observed, basically none of the losses could be ascribed to a particular environment. Hence, observed decreases in properties are due to thermal aging effects, not corrosive attack. In view of these findings, Haynes Alloy 188 is still deemed to be suitable for containment of the eutectic LiF-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 thermal energy storage media. 8 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052589&hterms=1093&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231093','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930052589&hterms=1093&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231093"><span>Mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 after exposure to LiF-22<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2, air, and vacuum at 1093 K for <span class="hlt">periods</span> up to 10,000 hours</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whittenberger, J. D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>As part of a program to provide reassurance that the cobalt-base superalloy Haynes Alloy 188 can adequately contain a LiF-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 eutectic thermal energy storage salt, 4900- and 10,000-hr exposures of Haynes Alloy 188 to LiF-22<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2, its vapor, vacuum, and air at 1093 K have been undertaken. Following such exposures, the microstructure has been characterized and the 77 to 1200 K tensile properties measured. In addition, 1050 K vacuum creep-rupture testing of as-received and molten salt- and vacuum-exposed samples has been undertaken. Although slight degradation of the mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 due to prior exposure was observed, basically none of the losses could be ascribed to a particular environment. Hence, observed decreases in properties are due to thermal aging effects, not corrosive attack. In view of these findings, Haynes Alloy 188 is still deemed to be suitable for containment of the eutectic LiF-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 thermal energy storage media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/period-cramps.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/period-cramps.html"><span><span class="hlt">Period</span> Cramps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Getting Your <span class="hlt">Period</span> at School Do <span class="hlt">Periods</span> Ever End? When Will I Get My <span class="hlt">Period</span>? ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.7143C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.7143C"><span>Potential tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> impacts on Pacific decadal climate trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chikamoto, Y.; Mochizuki, T.; Timmermann, A.; Kimoto, M.; Watanabe, M.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The tropical Pacific cooling from the early 1990s to 2013 has contributed to the slowdown of globally averaged sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The origin of this regional cooling trend still remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the remote impact of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST anomalies, as well as local atmosphere-ocean interactions, contributed to the eastern Pacific cooling during this <span class="hlt">period</span>. By assimilating observed three-dimensional <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature and salinity anomalies into a coupled general circulation model, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the observed Pacific decadal trends of SST and sea level pressure (SLP), albeit with reduced amplitude. Although a major part of the Pacific SLP trend can be explained by equatorial Pacific SST forcing only, the origin of this low-frequency variability can be traced back further to the remote impacts of equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST trends. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST impacts on the atmospheric circulation can also be detected for the Northeastern Pacific, thus providing a linkage between <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate and Western North American drought conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5021255','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5021255"><span>Fine tuning of cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ oscillations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ oscillations, a widespread mode of cell signaling, were reported in non-excitable cells for the first time more than 25 years ago. Their fundamental mechanism, based on the <span class="hlt">periodic</span> <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cytoplasm, has been well characterized. However, how the kinetics of cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ changes are related to the extent of a physiological response remains poorly understood. Here, we review data suggesting that the downstream targets of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ are controlled not only by the frequency of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ oscillations but also by the detailed characteristics of the oscillations, such as their duration, shape, or baseline level. Involvement of non-endoplasmic reticulum <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ stores, mainly mitochondria and the extracellular medium, participates in this fine tuning of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ oscillations. The main characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ exchange fluxes with these compartments are also reviewed. PMID:27630768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010711','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010711"><span>Two Distinct Roles of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Two distinct roles of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (NTA) SST and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6101973','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6101973"><span>Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Van Den Avyle, M.J.</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus, is an anadromous species that occupies rivers, estuaries, and nearshore waters along the entire <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast of the United States. The species once supported significant commercial fisheries throughout its range, but stocks have declined because of overfishing, deterioration of water quality, and damming of rivers. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon spawn in rivers and the young remain in freshwater for several years prior to emigration to the ocean. Little is known about spawning areas and associated environmental factors. Females typically do not mature until age X and the age at first spawning ranges from 5 to 13 years for males and 7 to 19 years for females. Longevity may frequently exceed 25 years. Immature and adult sturgeons are bottom feeders and consume a variety of mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and other small bottom-dwelling invertebrates and fishes. Little is know about competitors, predators, or effects of environmental factors on recruitment. The long <span class="hlt">period</span> required to reach maturity, possibly irregular spawning thereafter, and prolonged reliance on river systems make juvenile and adult <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon highly susceptible to habitat alterations, pollution, and over exploitation. 49 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4062526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4062526"><span>An Electrical Analogy Relating the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kurtz, Bruce E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is the northward flow of surface water to subpolar latitudes where deepwater is formed, balanced by southward abyssal flow and upwelling in the vicinity of the Southern Ocean. It is generally accepted that AMOC flow oscillates with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 60–80 years, creating a regular variation in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation (AMO). This article attempts to answer two questions: how is the AMOC driven and why does it oscillate? Using methods commonly employed by chemical engineers for analyzing processes involving flowing liquids, apparently not previously applied to trying to understand the AMOC, an equation is developed for AMOC flow as a function of the meridional density gradient or the corresponding temperature gradient. The equation is based on the similarity between the AMOC and an industrial thermosyphon loop cooler, which circulates a heat transfer liquid without using a mechanical pump. Extending this equation with an analogy between the flow of heat and electricity explains why the AMOC flow oscillates and what determines its <span class="hlt">period</span>. Calculated values for AMOC flow and AMO oscillation <span class="hlt">period</span> are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:24940739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940739"><span>An electrical analogy relating the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kurtz, Bruce E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is the northward flow of surface water to subpolar latitudes where deepwater is formed, balanced by southward abyssal flow and upwelling in the vicinity of the Southern Ocean. It is generally accepted that AMOC flow oscillates with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 60-80 years, creating a regular variation in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation (AMO). This article attempts to answer two questions: how is the AMOC driven and why does it oscillate? Using methods commonly employed by chemical engineers for analyzing processes involving flowing liquids, apparently not previously applied to trying to understand the AMOC, an equation is developed for AMOC flow as a function of the meridional density gradient or the corresponding temperature gradient. The equation is based on the similarity between the AMOC and an industrial thermosyphon loop cooler, which circulates a heat transfer liquid without using a mechanical pump. Extending this equation with an analogy between the flow of heat and electricity explains why the AMOC flow oscillates and what determines its <span class="hlt">period</span>. Calculated values for AMOC flow and AMO oscillation <span class="hlt">period</span> are in good agreement with measured values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP53A2376C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP53A2376C"><span>Late Quaternary carbonate accumulation along eastern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crabill, K.; Slowey, N. C.; Foreman, A. D.; Charles, C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Water masses originating from both the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and the Southern Ocean intersect the Walvis Ridge and Namibian margin of southwest Africa. Changes in the distribution and properties of these water masses through time are reflected by variations in the nature of the sediments accumulating along this margin. A suite of piston and gravity cores that possess sediment records corresponding to the most recent glacial-interglacial cycles were collected from the water depth range of 550 to 3700 meters. Sediment dry bulk density, XRF analyses and the concentration of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 were precisely determined at regular depth intervals in these cores. Foraminiferal δ18O along with XRF Fe/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data provide an age-depth model for key cores. The age-depth model and dry bulk density will be used with the calcium carbonate contents to calculate the accumulation rates of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 during each MIS 1-5e. The spatial and temporal variability in both the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 content and the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 mass accumulation rates along the Namibian continental slope will be described. Based on comparisons of these two parameters, inferences will be made about how variations of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 production, dilution of by non-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 sediment components, and dissolution of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 due to changes in ocean circulation/climate have occurred during intervals of the last glacial-interglacial cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q..86B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q..86B"><span>Continuous observations of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which transports warm water northward and cold water back southward, is important in transferring heat to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Some models predict that AMOC will slow down as Earth's temperatures rise due to anthropogenic warming, which could have serious climate consequences for the Northern Hemisphere. However, the response of AMOC to global warming is uncertain—different models predict different rates of slowdown—and there have been few continuous observations of AMOC heat transport. Hobbs and Willis used temperature, salinity, and displacement data measured from foats in the Argo array, combined with sea surface heights measured by satellites, to estimate a continuous time series of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional heat transport from 2002 to 2010 at 41°N latitude. They found that the mean heat transport was about 0.5 petawatt. The authors note that this estimate is consistent with previous studies in similar latitudes based on atmospheric flux data but is lower than most hydrographic estimates. Heat transport varied on an annual cycle as well as on shorter time scales, with atmospheric variability explaining most of the short-term variance. The researchers note that the <span class="hlt">period</span> of study was too short to infer any long-term trends, and they emphasize the need for continued monitoring of AMOC. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2011JC007039, 2012)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PalOc..30.1425P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PalOc..30.1425P"><span>Tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subsurface warming events as a fingerprint for AMOC variability during Marine Isotope Stage 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parker, Andrew O.; Schmidt, Matthew W.; Chang, Ping</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as the driver of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) variability that characterized Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) has long been hypothesized. Although there is ample proxy evidence suggesting that DO events were robust features of glacial climate, there is little data supporting a link with AMOC. Recently, modeling studies and subsurface temperature reconstructions have suggested that subsurface warming across the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> can be used to fingerprint a weakened AMOC during the deglacial because a reduction in the strength of the western boundary current allows warm salinity maximum water of the subtropical gyre to enter the deep tropics. To determine if AMOC variability played a role during the DO cycles of MIS 3, we present new, high-resolution Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O records spanning 24-52 kyr from the near-surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber and the lower thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia truncatulinoides in Southern Caribbean core VM12-107 (11.33°N, 66.63°W, 1079 m depth). Our subsurface Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> record reveals abrupt increases in Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios (the largest equal to a 4°C warming) during the interstadial-stadial transition of most DO events during this <span class="hlt">period</span>. This change is consistent with reconstructions of subsurface warming events associated with cold events across the deglacial using the same core. Additionally, our data support the conclusion reached by a recently published study from the Florida Straits that AMOC did not undergo significant reductions during Heinrich events 2 and 3. This record presents some of the first high-resolution marine sediment derived evidence for variable AMOC during MIS 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186755','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186755"><span>Twentieth century warming of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> captured by Sr-U paleothermometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Alpert, Alice E.; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hernandez-Delgado, Edwin A.; Winter, Amos; Gonneea, Meagan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Coral skeletons are valuable archives of past ocean conditions. However, interpretation of coral paleotemperature records is confounded by uncertainties associated with single-element ratio thermometers, including Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. A new approach, Sr-U, uses U/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> to constrain the influence of Rayleigh fractionation on Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. Here we build on the initial Pacific Porites Sr-U calibration to include multiple <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific coral genera from multiple coral reef locations spanning a temperature range of 23.15–30.12°C. Accounting for the wintertime growth cessation of one Bermuda coral, we show that Sr-U is strongly correlated with the average water temperature at each location (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001, n = 19). We applied the multispecies spatial calibration between Sr-U and temperature to reconstruct a 96 year long temperature record at Mona Island, Puerto Rico, using a coral not included in the calibration. Average Sr-U derived temperature for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1900–1996 is within 0.12°C of the average instrumental temperature at this site and captures the twentieth century warming trend of 0.06°C per decade. Sr-U also captures the timing of multiyear variability but with higher amplitude than implied by the instrumental data. Mean Sr-U temperatures and patterns of multiyear variability were replicated in a second coral in the same grid box. Conversely, Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records from the same two corals were inconsistent with each other and failed to capture absolute sea temperatures, timing of multiyear variability, or the twentieth century warming trend. Our results suggest that coral Sr-U paleothermometry is a promising new tool for reconstruction of past ocean temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PalOc..32..146A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PalOc..32..146A"><span>Twentieth century warming of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> captured by Sr-U paleothermometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alpert, Alice E.; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hernandez-Delgado, Edwin A.; Winter, Amos; Gonneea, Meagan E.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Coral skeletons are valuable archives of past ocean conditions. However, interpretation of coral paleotemperature records is confounded by uncertainties associated with single-element ratio thermometers, including Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. A new approach, Sr-U, uses U/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> to constrain the influence of Rayleigh fractionation on Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. Here we build on the initial Pacific Porites Sr-U calibration to include multiple <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific coral genera from multiple coral reef locations spanning a temperature range of 23.15-30.12°C. Accounting for the wintertime growth cessation of one Bermuda coral, we show that Sr-U is strongly correlated with the average water temperature at each location (r2 = 0.91, P < 0.001, n = 19). We applied the multispecies spatial calibration between Sr-U and temperature to reconstruct a 96 year long temperature record at Mona Island, Puerto Rico, using a coral not included in the calibration. Average Sr-U derived temperature for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1900-1996 is within 0.12°C of the average instrumental temperature at this site and captures the twentieth century warming trend of 0.06°C per decade. Sr-U also captures the timing of multiyear variability but with higher amplitude than implied by the instrumental data. Mean Sr-U temperatures and patterns of multiyear variability were replicated in a second coral in the same grid box. Conversely, Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records from the same two corals were inconsistent with each other and failed to capture absolute sea temperatures, timing of multiyear variability, or the twentieth century warming trend. Our results suggest that coral Sr-U paleothermometry is a promising new tool for reconstruction of past ocean temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23460832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23460832"><span>Marine ecosystem response to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edwards, Martin; Beaugrand, Gregory; Helaouët, Pierre; Alheit, Jürgen; Coombs, Stephen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Against the backdrop of warming of the Northern Hemisphere it has recently been acknowledged that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature changes undergo considerable variability over multidecadal <span class="hlt">periods</span>. The leading component of natural low-frequency temperature variability has been termed the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Presently, correlative studies on the biological impact of the AMO on marine ecosystems over the duration of a whole AMO cycle (∼60 years) is largely unknown due to the rarity of continuously sustained biological observations at the same time <span class="hlt">period</span>. To test whether there is multidecadal cyclic behaviour in biological time-series in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> we used one of the world's longest continuously sustained marine biological time-series in oceanic waters, long-term fisheries data and historical records over the last century and beyond. Our findings suggest that the AMO is far from a trivial presence against the backdrop of continued temperature warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and accounts for the second most important macro-trend in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> plankton records; responsible for habitat switching (abrupt ecosystem/regime shifts) over multidecadal scales and influences the fortunes of various fisheries over many centuries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21267','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21267"><span>Restoration practicesin Brazil's <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> rainforest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060033988&hterms=Arctic+Ocean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DArctic%2BOcean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060033988&hterms=Arctic+Ocean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DArctic%2BOcean"><span>Recent Changes in Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Motion Associated with the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kwok, R.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Examination of a new ice motion dataset of the Arctic Ocean over a recent eighteen year <span class="hlt">period</span> (1978-1996) reveals patterns of variability that can be linked directly to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..469O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..469O"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> observations sharpen meridional overturning projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olson, R.; An, S.-I.; Fan, Y.; Evans, J. P.; Caesar, L.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) projections are uncertain due to both model errors, as well as internal climate variability. An AMOC slowdown projected by many climate models is likely to have considerable effects on many aspects of global and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate. Previous studies to make probabilistic AMOC projections have broken new ground. However, they do not drift-correct or cross-validate the projections, and do not fully account for internal variability. Furthermore, they consider a limited subset of models, and ignore the skill of models at representing the temporal North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> dynamics. We improve on previous work by applying Bayesian Model Averaging to weight 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 models by their skill at modeling the AMOC strength, and its temporal dynamics, as approximated by the northern North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> temperature-based AMOC Index. We make drift-corrected projections accounting for structural model errors, and for the internal variability. Cross-validation experiments give approximately correct empirical coverage probabilities, which validates our method. Our results present more evidence that AMOC likely already started slowing down. While weighting considerably moderates and sharpens our projections, our results are at low end of previously published estimates. We project mean AMOC changes between <span class="hlt">periods</span> 1960-1999 and 2060-2099 of -4.0 Sv and -6.8 Sv for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emissions scenarios respectively. The corresponding average 90% credible intervals for our weighted experiments are [-7.2, -1.2] and [-10.5, -3.7] Sv respectively for the two scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039048','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039048"><span>Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Regional Wind Energy Institute</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Courtney Lane</p> <p>2011-12-20</p> <p>As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant <span class="hlt">period</span>, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..135L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..135L"><span>Remote impact of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature on rainfall in southwestern China during boreal spring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Gang; Chen, Jiepeng; Wang, Xin; Luo, Xia; Yang, Daoyong; Zhou, Wen; Tan, Yanke; Yan, Hongming</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>As an important oceanic signal, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature (SST) affects not only the climate variability over East China and Northeast China but also can affect climate variability over southwestern China (SWC). Based on station rainfall data and reanalysis datasets, the present study investigates the relationship of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST with SWC rainfall during boreal spring for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1979-2016. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. The atmospheric circulation over southern Asia associated with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST is favorable for positive rainfall anomalies. Further analyses show that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST can induce a North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-western Russia-western Tibetan Plateau-SWC (NRTC) teleconnection wave train from upper level to low level. At low level, two anomalous anticyclones are found over the mid-high latitude of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the western Tibetan Plateau, and two anomalous cyclones are observed over the western Russia and Bay of Bengal (BOB), respectively. The NRTC teleconnection wave train plays a bridging role between the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. Both the observational analysis and two numerical experiments suggest that the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST during boreal spring can induce an anomalous cyclone over BOB by the NRTC teleconnection pattern. The anomalous cyclone over BOB favors moisture transport to SWC, accompanying with significant anomalous ascending motion, and thus results in positive rainfall anomalies in SWC during boreal spring.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13A1048B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13A1048B"><span>Water level changes for Lake Turkana and climate variability during the African Humid <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bloszies, C.; Forman, S. L.; Wright, D. K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The chronology of East African paleoclimate suggests the transition through the African Humid <span class="hlt">Period</span> (AHP) at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 15 to 5 ka was a binary shift from wet conditions in the Late Pleistocene to current aridity. Previous studies indicate that water levels for Lake Turkana for the AHP were stable at ~88 to 98 m above current level with outflow into the White Nile Basin. This study of relict beaches around Lake Turkana indicates surprisingly >50 m variability in water level between 14 and 4 ka. The elevation of past water level is constrained by barometric and GPS-based altimetry of relict beaches and age control by 14C dating of associated mollusks and OSL dating of quartz grains from surrounding littoral and sublittoral deposits. We also include well provenanced lake level data from prior studies to constrain more fully the timing and height of water level fluctuations in the Late Quaternary. Additionally, previous studies indicate that peak water levels may be regionally amplified by increased precipitation causing overflow into the Lake Turkana Basin from the adjacent Suguta and Chew Bahir basins, particularly during high stands at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. >8.5 ka and at 6.3 ka. Our analysis of the Lake Turkana strandplain reveals that water level may have varied by × 60 m, potentially reaching the outlet elevation at <span class="hlt">ca</span>.11.3, 10.3, 9.0, 6.3 and 5.1 ka. There are other possible high stands at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 13.0, 8.4, 7.8 and 7.0 ka with limited elevational and age constraints; it is unknown if these lake stands reached the outlet elevation. Evidence from relict strand plains indicate that lake level was probably below 20 m since <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 4.5 ka, though there were two noticeable high stands up to >12 to 18 m at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 830 years ago and <100 years, the latter consistent with the historic record of lake levels. Inferences on the source of moisture to sustain these many high stands are based on the isotopic data on leaf wax (δDwax) from lakes Tanganika and Victoria and associated sea surface temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=107121&keyword=Fear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90708220&CFTOKEN=59915028','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=107121&keyword=Fear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90708220&CFTOKEN=59915028"><span>LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> ESTUARIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates from estuaries along the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast of North America from Cape Cod, MA, to Biscayne Bay, FL, were compared. Benthic data were collected over a 5 year <span class="hlt">period</span> (1990 to 1995) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Envi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=107121&keyword=Fear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=107121&keyword=Fear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN BENTHIC COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> ESTUARIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates from estuaries along the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast of North America from Cape Cod, MA, to Biscayne Bay, FL, were compared. Benthic data were collected over a 5 year <span class="hlt">period</span> (1990 to 1995) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Envi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10578&hterms=Turquoise&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTurquoise','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10578&hterms=Turquoise&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTurquoise"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bloom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10578&hterms=Food+chain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DFood%2Bchain','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10578&hterms=Food+chain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DFood%2Bchain"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bloom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Reminiscent of the distinctive swirls in a Van Gogh painting, millions of microscopic plants color the waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> with strokes of blue, turquoise, green, and brown. Fed by nutrients that have built up during the winter and the long, sunlit days of late spring and early summer, the cool waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> come alive every year with a vivid display of color. The microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, that give the water this color are the base of the marine food chain. Some species of phytoplankton are coated with scales of calcium (chalk), which turn the water electric blue. Chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments in others give the water a deep green hue. The proliferation of many different species in various stages of growth and decay provides many nuances of color in this concentrated bloom. The bloom stretches across hundreds of kilometers, well beyond the edges of this photo-like image, captured on June 23, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The upper left edge of the image is bounded by Greenland. Iceland is in the upper right. Plumes of dust are blowing off the island, probably adding nutrients to the surface waters to its south. NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, Ocean Color Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-13/pdf/2010-467.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-13/pdf/2010-467.pdf"><span>75 FR 1753 - Fisheries of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker and...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-13</p> <p>..., Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> menhaden; Public Meetings AGENCY: National...: Notice of SEDAR Review Workshop for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> croaker and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> menhaden. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment review of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> stocks of croaker and menhaden will be conducted at a Review Workshop. This is the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/irregular-periods.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/irregular-periods.html"><span>Irregular <span class="hlt">Periods</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first <span class="hlt">period</span> between the ... to skip <span class="hlt">periods</span> or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..108...23S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..108...23S"><span>Sea-level changes in Iceland and the influence of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation during the last half millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saher, Margot H.; Gehrels, W. Roland; Barlow, Natasha L. M.; Long, Antony J.; Haigh, Ivan D.; Blaauw, Maarten</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present a new, diatom-based sea-level reconstruction for Iceland spanning the last ˜500 years, and investigate the possible mechanisms driving the sea-level changes. A sea-level reconstruction from near the Icelandic low pressure system is important as it can improve understanding of ocean-atmosphere forcing on North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea-level variability over multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Our reconstruction is from Viðarhólmi salt marsh in Snæfellsnes in western Iceland, a site from where we previously obtained a 2000-yr record based upon less precise sea-level indicators (salt-marsh foraminifera). The 20th century part of our record is corroborated by tide-gauge data from Reykjavik. Overall, the new reconstruction shows <span class="hlt">ca</span> 0.6 m rise of relative sea level during the last four centuries, of which <span class="hlt">ca</span> 0.2 m occurred during the 20th century. Low-amplitude and high-frequency sea-level variability is super-imposed on the pre-industrial long-term rising trend of 0.65 m per 1000 years. Most of the relative sea-level rise occurred in three distinct <span class="hlt">periods</span>: AD 1620-1650, AD 1780-1850 and AD 1950-2000, with maximum rates of ˜3 ± 2 mm/yr during the latter two of these <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Maximum rates were achieved at the end of large shifts (from negative to positive) of the winter North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) Index as reconstructed from proxy data. Instrumental data demonstrate that a strong and sustained positive NAO (a deep Icelandic Low) generates setup on the west coast of Iceland resulting in rising sea levels. There is no strong evidence that the <span class="hlt">periods</span> of rapid sea-level rise were caused by ocean mass changes, glacial isostatic adjustment or regional steric change. We suggest that wind forcing plays an important role in causing regional-scale coastal sea-level variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, not only on (multi-)annual timescales, but also on multi-decadal to centennial timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E3323K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E3323K"><span>Evidence for external forcing of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation since termination of the Little Ice Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Jacobsen, Bo Holm; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) represents a significant driver of Northern Hemisphere climate, but the forcing mechanisms pacing the AMO remain poorly understood. Here we use the available proxy records to investigate the influence of solar and volcanic forcing on the AMO over the last ~450 years. The evidence suggests that external forcing played a dominant role in pacing the AMO after termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA; <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1400-1800), with an instantaneous impact on mid-latitude sea-surface temperatures that spread across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> over the ensuing ~5 years. In contrast, the role of external forcing was more ambiguous during the LIA. Our study further suggests that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation is important for linking external forcing with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea-surface temperatures, a conjecture that reconciles two opposing theories concerning the origin of the AMO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP41C1780M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP41C1780M"><span>Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mecking, J.; Hetzinger, S.; Halfar, J.; Keenlyside, N. S.; Kronz, A.; Steneck, R. S.; Adey, W. H.; Lebednik, P. A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Decadal- to multidecadal variability in the extra-tropical North Pacific is evident in 20th century instrumental records and has significant impacts on Northern Hemisphere climate and marine ecosystems. Several studies have discussed a potential linkage between North Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate on various time scales. On decadal time scales no relationship could be confirmed, potentially due to sparse instrumental observations before 1950. Proxy data are limited and no multi-centennial high-resolution marine geochemical proxy records are available from the subarctic North Pacific. Here we present an annually-resolved record (1818-1967) of Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations from a North Pacific/ Bering Sea coralline alga that extends our knowledge in this region beyond available data. It shows for the first time a statistically significant link between decadal fluctuations in sea-level pressure (SLP) in the North Pacific and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The record is a lagged proxy for decadal-scale variations of the Aleutian Low. It is significantly related to regional sea surface temperature (SST) and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) index in late boreal winter on these time scales. Our data show that on decadal time scales a weaker Aleutian Low precedes a negative NAO by several years. This atmospheric link can explain the coherence of decadal North Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Variability (AMV), as suggested by earlier studies using climate models and limited instrumental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMGP11A0060G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMGP11A0060G"><span>Constraining the History of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Igneous Province: a Palaeomagnetic and Geochronologic Ballad in the British Tertiary Volcanics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ganerød, M.; Rousse, S.; Smethurst, M.; Prestvik, T.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Large Igneous Provinces (LIP), overwhelmingly of basaltic affinity constitute the surface expressions of catastrophically rapid dissipation of large quantities of internal heat. Subsequent to their extrusion, most LIPs have changed position in the Earth's surface due to plate motions. With an estimated volume of <span class="hlt">ca</span> 107 km3 the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Igneous Province (NAIP) represents the third largest magmatic event on Earth during the last 150 Myr. The NAIP formed during two major magmatic phases: a pre- break-up phase (62-58 Ma) and a syn- break-up phase (56-54 Ma) contemporaneous with the onset of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea-floor spreading. The formation of the NAIP has been linked to the proto-Icelandic plume through paleogeographic reconstructions and geochemical observations. Since the late 1980's much of the research focus on the NAIP has been guided by the understanding of the genetic relationship between North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> magmatism that began in the earliest Palaeocene, the genesis/position of the Iceland Hotspots and/or related mantle plume(s) through the Cenozoic, and the change at c. 54 Ma from a long <span class="hlt">period</span> of continental rifting and thinning of sea- floor spreading. However, despite the number of data available, the temporal and physio-chemical ties between NAIP rocks, hotspot motion and continental break-up have not been demonstrated to fit a single regionally applicable and consistent geodynamic model. For example, discrepancies between recent palaeomagnetic poles from western Greenland and the Faeroe Islands (Riisager et al. 2002a,b) and older data from the British Tertiary Igneous Province (BTIP) have questioned the reliability of the latest. Therefore, to ultimately understand the Tertiary evolution of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, extensive palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar sampling on the lava fields of the British Igneous Provinces (Isle of Skye, Isle of Mull, Antrim Plateau) has been initiated. Our findings are in agreement with older published poles from the BTIP and support</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..319Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..319Y"><span>Sequestration of carbon in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last glaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, J.; Menviel, L.; Jin, Z. D.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Barker, S.; Marino, G.; Rohling, E. J.; Cai, Y.; Zhang, F.; Wang, X.; Dai, Y.; Chen, P.; Broecker, W. S.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric CO2 concentrations declined markedly about 70,000 years ago, when the Earth’s climate descended into the last glaciation. Much of the carbon removed from the atmosphere has been suspected to have entered the deep oceans, but evidence for increased carbon storage remains elusive. Here we use the B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios of benthic foraminifera from several sites across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean to reconstruct changes in the carbonate ion concentration and hence the carbon inventory of the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> across this transition. We find that deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate ion concentration declined by around 25 μmol kg-1 between ~80,000 and 65,000 years ago. This drop implies that the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbon inventory increased by at least 50 Gt around the same time as the amount of atmospheric carbon dropped by about 60 Gt. From a comparison with proxy records of deep circulation and climate model simulations, we infer that the carbon sequestration coincided with a shoaling of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation. We thus conclude that changes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean circulation may have played an important role in reductions of atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the last glaciation, by increasing the carbon storage in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-28/pdf/2013-25319.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-28/pdf/2013-25319.pdf"><span>78 FR 64199 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-28</p> <p>.... SUMMARY: The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: (800) 445-8667 or (843) 308- 9330. Council address: South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council, 4055...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019489','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019489"><span>Mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation Not Unlike Modern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Z.-S.; Nisancioglu, K. H.; Chandler, M. A.; Haywood, A. M.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Ramstein, G.; Stepanek, C.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Chan, W. -L.; Sohl, L. E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP), eight state-of-the-art coupled climate models have simulated the mid-Pliocene warm <span class="hlt">period</span> (mPWP, 3.264 to 3.025 Ma). Here, we compare the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), northward ocean heat transport and ocean stratification simulated with these models. None of the models participating in PlioMIP simulates a strong mid-Pliocene AMOC as suggested by earlier proxy studies. Rather, there is no consistent increase in AMOC maximum among the PlioMIP models. The only consistent change in AMOC is a shoaling of the overturning cell in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and a reduced influence of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) at depth in the basin. Furthermore, the simulated mid-Pliocene <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> northward heat transport is similar to the pre-industrial. These simulations demonstrate that the reconstructed high-latitude mid-Pliocene warming can not be explained as a direct response to an intensification of AMOC and concomitant increase in northward ocean heat transport by the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44..957O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44..957O"><span>Amplified North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming in the late Pliocene by changes in Arctic gateways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Jahn, Alexandra; Feng, Ran; Brady, Esther C.; Hu, Aixue; Löfverström, Marcus</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Under previous reconstructions of late Pliocene boundary conditions, climate models have failed to reproduce the warm sea surface temperatures reconstructed in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Using a reconstruction of mid-Piacenzian paleogeography that has the Bering Strait and Canadian Arctic Archipelago Straits closed, however, improves the simulation of the proxy-indicated warm sea surface temperatures in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in the Community Climate System Model. We find that the closure of these small Arctic gateways strengthens the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation, by inhibiting freshwater transport from the Pacific to the Arctic Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to the Labrador Sea, leading to warmer sea surface temperatures in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This indicates that the state of the Arctic gateways may influence the sensitivity of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate in complex ways, and better understanding of the state of these Arctic gateways for past time <span class="hlt">periods</span> is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP13D..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP13D..05H"><span>The Relationship between <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Overturning and Climate in the Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howe, J. N. W.; Piotrowski, A. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Changes in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation play an important role in modulating global climate by controlling northward heat transport in the surface ocean and carbon storage in the deep ocean. We present a new high resolution 1.2 Myr record of neodymium isotopes (ɛNd) - a proxy for water mass mixing - measured on foraminifera and fish debris from site ODP 929 [6.0°N, 43.7°W, 4356 m] on the Ceara Rise in the western equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. This record reveals a fundamental step-change in the nature of glacial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition as well as providing new insight into the relationship between ocean circulation and greenhouse gas forcing during the <span class="hlt">period</span> known as the "lukewarm" interglacials.Comparison with benthic foraminiferal carbon isotopes from the same core reveals <span class="hlt">periods</span> of significant decoupling between ɛNd and δ13C, demonstrating that deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water mass mixing proportions and nutrient chemistry can vary independently of one another. In contrast, comparison of the ɛNd record with benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes reveals a tight coupling, exhibiting the control of Northern Hemisphere climate on both ice volume and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning. The high resolution of the records allows cross spectral analysis of the phasing between authigenic ɛNd and both benthic foraminiferal δ13C and δ18O. This reveals that the different proxy records are coherent at time <span class="hlt">periods</span> of 100-, 40- and 23-kyr which correlate with orbital forcing. However, the changes in each variable at these <span class="hlt">periods</span> are not always in phase, indicating that the proxies exhibit different temporal responses to climatic forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52RsZ12lErw','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52RsZ12lErw"><span>Dual Hurricanes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cameras on the International Space Station show views of Hurricane Julia and Hurricane Igor, both moving west-northwest across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> on Sept. 14, 2010. At the time the video was captured, Ju...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230273&keyword=jamaica&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230273&keyword=jamaica&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Tidal Wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal wetlands. The book c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230273&keyword=national+AND+park+AND+conservation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78797969&CFTOKEN=61232580','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230273&keyword=national+AND+park+AND+conservation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78797969&CFTOKEN=61232580"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Tidal Wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal wetlands. The book c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/region8/atlantic-richfield-monthly-progress-reports','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/region8/atlantic-richfield-monthly-progress-reports"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Richfield Monthly Progress Reports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Last three monthly progress reports submitted by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Richfield Company on cleanup activities at the Silver Bow Creek/Butte Area Superfund Site, as required by the Butte Priority Soils UAO, Docket No. CERCLA 08-2011-0011.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850017717','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850017717"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water Formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6764226','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6764226"><span>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climate Change Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Molinari, R.L. ); Battisti, D. ); Bryan, K. ); Walsh, J. )</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6872349','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6872349"><span>Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bight): <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and shortnosed sturgeons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gilbert, C.R. )</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal species. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and shortnose sturgeons (especially the former) were commercially important fishes between 1880 and 1900, but stocks have since decreased markedly and the shortnose sturgeon is now classified as federally endangered. Although the two species are anadromous, the shortnose sturgeon tends to spawn farther upstream, and spawning in both species usually occurs over a clean, hard substrate washed by a moderate to strong current. The shortnose sturgeon usually spawn earlier at the same latitude, with spawning of this species in the St. John River, New Brunswick, being completed by mid-May, as opposed to late June or even July for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon. During non-spawning <span class="hlt">periods</span>, the shortnose is largely confined to estuaries and apparently does not undergo the extensive coastal migrations that are characteristic of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon mature more slowly than shortnose sturgeon at comparable latitudes, with male and female <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon from the Hudson River, New York, requiring at least 11 and 18 years, respectively, to reach maturity, compared with less than half that time for the shortnose sturgeon. Spawning in both sexes may occur thereafter only once every several years. Both species are usually indiscriminate feeders and feed by sucking materials off the bottom with their protrusible mouths. Feeding apparently occurs mostly at night in the shortnose sturgeon. 71 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6377405','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6377405"><span>On the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmitz, W.J. Jr.; McCartney, M.S. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>A summary for North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation is proposed to replace the circulation scheme hypothesized by Worthington in 1976. Divergences from the previous model are in thermohaline circulation, cross-equatorical transport and Florida Current sources, flow in the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, circulation in the Newfoundland Basin, slope water currents, and flow pattern near the Bahamas. The circulation patterns presented here are consistent with the majority of of published accounts of flow components. 77 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP41B0645D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP41B0645D"><span>Constraining Mid Pliocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Warming Using a Multiproxy Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Dwyer, G.; Cronin, T.; Chandler, M.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Relatively high sea surface temperature during the mid Pliocene (~3.0 Ma) has been documented in many oceanic regions. Constraining the magnitude, variability, and regional extent of warming is critical for modeling experiments being undertaken based upon reconstruction of mid Pliocene conditions. A comprehensive re-evaluation of the mid Pliocene of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region using a multiproxy approach that includes quantitative planktic foraminifer analysis, and Mg:<span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleothermometry on Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Globigerina bulloides yields new insights into conditions occurring 3 million years ago. While the overall pattern of warming documented by the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping) Project remains unchanged, mean regional warming in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> may have been underestimated in earlier reconstructions. Model simulations using maximum and minimum probable SST reconstructions provide a more useful measure of the spatial variability of mid-Pliocene warmth and should produce more realistic model simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1121B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1121B"><span>Sea surface temperatures in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean from 30ka to 10ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrack, Kerr; Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Barker, Stephen; Chalk, Thomas; Crocker, Anya</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Some of the most striking features of the Late Pleistocene interval are the rapid changes in climate between warmer interstadial and cold stadial <span class="hlt">periods</span> which, when coupled, are termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. This shift between warm and cold climates has been interpreted to result from changes in the thermohaline circulation (Broecker et al., 1985) triggered by, for instance, freshwater input from the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet (Zahn et al., 1997). However, a recent study suggests that major ice rafting events cannot be the 'trigger' for the centennial to millennial scale cooling events identified over the past 500kyr (Barker at al., 2015). Polar planktic foraminiferal and lithogenic/terrigenous grain counts reveal that the southward migration of the polar front occurs before the deposition of ice rafted debris and therefore the rafting of ice during stadial <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Based upon this evidence, Barker et al. suggest that the transition to a stadial state is a non-linear response to gradual cooling in the region. In order to test this hypothesis, our study reconstructs sea surface temperature across D-O events and the deglaciation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> between 30ka and 10ka using Mg/ <span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleothermometry in Globigerina bulloides at ODP Sites 980 and 983 (the same sites as used in Barker et al., 2015) with an average sampling resolution of 300 years. With our new record we evaluate the timing of surface ocean temperature change, frontal shift movement, and ice rafting to investigate variations in the temperature gradient across the polar front over D-O events. References: Barker, S., Chen, J., Gong, X., Jonkers, L., Knorr, G., Thornalley, D., 2015. Icebergs not the trigger for North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cold events. Nature, 520(7547), pp.333-336. Broecker, W.S., Peteer, D.M., Rind, D., 1985. Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature, 315 (6014), pp.21-26. Zahn, R., Schönfeld, J., Kudrass, H.-R., Park, M</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2964180','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2964180"><span>Cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Buffers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schwaller, Beat</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>“<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers,” a class of cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-binding proteins, act as modulators of short-lived intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signals; they affect both the temporal and spatial aspects of these transient increases in [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i. Examples of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers include parvalbumins (α and β isoforms), calbindin-D9k, calbindin-D28k, and calretinin. Besides their proven <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffer function, some might additionally have <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ sensor functions. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers have to be viewed as one of the components implicated in the precise regulation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ homeostasis. Each cell is equipped with proteins, including <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels, transporters, and pumps that, together with the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers, shape the intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signals. All of these molecules are not only functionally coupled, but their expression is likely to be regulated in a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-dependent manner to maintain normal <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling, even in the absence or malfunctioning of one of the components. PMID:20943758</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51A1815M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51A1815M"><span>Late Holocene (0-1.2 ka BP) centennial to decadal time scales surface and deep water variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moffa Sanchez, P.; Hall, I. R.; Barker, S.; Thornalley, D. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is a key region for understanding climate variability, as it is one of the world's main localities of deepwater formation. On decadal to multidecadal time-scales two interrelated modes of natural climate variability have been identified that contribute to changes observed in the recent North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate system (mostly through their impact on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation, AMOC): the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) have often been highlighted as a good example of the impact of climate oscillations on society. Although the causality of these intervals still remains controversial, a commonly cited explanation is a weak solar trigger which was amplified and transmitted globally through positive feedbacks, possibly including some internal climatic modes (such as the NAO/AMO) and the AMOC. In this study, sediment cores RAPiD-35-25B and RAPiD-17-5P recovered from the Eirik Drift (south of Greenland) and Björn Drift (Iceland Basin) respectively, are used to produce multi-proxy reconstructions of some of the main constituents of the AMOC at sub-decadal to multidecadal resolution during the last 1.2 ka BP. Near-bottom flow speed reconstructions based on the sortable silt mean grain size proxy show multidecadal variability in both of the Nordic Overflows. In particular, the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water vigour presents a range of decadal to centennial <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> similar to the AMO (55 years) and deVries solar cycles (200 years). Additionally, surface water reconstructions from multi-species planktonic foraminiferal δ18O, Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and assemblage counts reveal changes in the properties of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current and summer season stratification of the upper water column in the Eastern Labrador Sea, with a possible common link to changes in Subpolar Gyre dynamics. As yet, no clear consensus has emerged as to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......144F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......144F"><span>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation in models and observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frankcombe, L. M.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>We use a simplified model of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean to study the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which is a low-frequency variation found in sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean. A mechanism for the AMO has previously been described; here we study the excitation of the variability when atmospheric noise is included in the system. It is found that spatial and temporal patterns in the atmospheric noise (such as the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) in the real atmosphere) can be effective at exciting the AMO. One important phenomenon associated with the minimal model mechanism is the westward propagation of temperature anomalies in the surface ocean. This propagation is observed in temperature measurements taken below the surface of the ocean in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. No firm conclusions about the time scale can be drawn due to the limited length of the observational record but it appears that the variability occurs on a time scale closer to 20-30 years than to 50-70 years, which is the <span class="hlt">period</span> more usually associated with the AMO. The variability of temperature causes variability in sea surface height (SSH). Tide gauges on the North American and European sides of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> both show coherent variability along the coast. The link between SSH and the AMO is made using results a coupled climate model (the GFDL CM2.1 GCM) which shows AMO-like variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> on 20-30 year time scales. The longer time series of tide gauge observations that is available around the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> allows us to distinguish the 20-30 year <span class="hlt">period</span> variability from the 50-70 year <span class="hlt">period</span>. We found that the 20-30 year <span class="hlt">period</span> is present in other data sets such as the Central England Temperature record and two records of net snow accumulation from ice cores in Greenland. The 20-30 year <span class="hlt">period</span> can be found, along with the 50-70 year <span class="hlt">period</span>, upon closer analysis of the SST record. The two time scales are also found in the control run of the GFDL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..509D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatGe...9..509D"><span>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation as a driver of rapid climate change in the Northern Hemisphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delworth, Thomas L.; Zeng, Fanrong; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Yang, Xiaosong; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Rong</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Pronounced climate changes have occurred since the 1970s, including rapid loss of Arctic sea ice, large-scale warming and increased tropical storm activity in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Anthropogenic radiative forcing is likely to have played a major role in these changes, but the relative influence of anthropogenic forcing and natural variability is not well established. The above changes have also occurred during a <span class="hlt">period</span> in which the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation has shown marked multidecadal variations. Here we investigate the role of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation in these rapid changes through its influence on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation and ocean heat transport. We use climate models to show that observed multidecadal variations of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation can induce multidecadal variations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation and poleward ocean heat transport in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, extending to the Arctic. Our results suggest that these variations have contributed to the rapid loss of Arctic sea ice, Northern Hemisphere warming, and changing <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical storm activity, especially in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These multidecadal variations are superimposed on long-term anthropogenic forcing trends that are the dominant factor in long-term Arctic sea ice loss and hemispheric warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://jfr.geoscienceworld.org/content/29/4/465.abstract','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://jfr.geoscienceworld.org/content/29/4/465.abstract"><span>Sensitivity of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin to cyclic climatic forcing during the early Cretaceous</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dean, W.E.; Arthur, M.A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Striking cyclic interbeds of laminated dark-olive to black marlstone and bioturbated white to light-gray limestone of Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) age have been recovered at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) sites in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These Neocomian sequences are equivalent to the Maiolica Formation that outcrops in the Tethyan regions of the Mediterranean and to thick limestone sequences of the Vocontian Trough of France. This lithologic unit marks the widespread deposition of biogenic carbonate over much of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Tethyan seafloor during a time of overall low sealevel and a deep carbonate compensation depth. The dark clay-rich interbeds typically are rich in organic carbon (OC) with up to 5.5% OC in sequences in the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sequences off northwest Africa, contain more abundant and better preserved hydrogen-rich, algal organic matter (type II kerogen) relative to the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, probably in response to coastal upwelling induced by an eastern boundary current in the young North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. The more abundant algal organic matter in sequences in the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is also expressed in the isotopic composition of the carbon in that organic matter. In contrast, organic matter in Neocomian sequences in the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> along the continental margin of North America has geochemical and optical characteristics of herbaceous, woody, hydrogen-poor, humic, type III kerogen. The inorganic geochemical characteristics of the dark clay-rich (80% <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3) interbeds in both the eastern and western basins of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> suggest that they contain minor amounts of relatively unweathered eolian dust derived from northwest Africa during dry intervals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO44A3119H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO44A3119H"><span>Forced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Variability Over the Past Millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halloran, P. R.; Reynolds, D.; Scourse, J. D.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Paul R. Halloran, David J. Reynolds, Ian R. Hall and James D. Scourse Multidecadal variability in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SSTs) plays a first order role in determining regional atmospheric circulation and moisture transport, with major climatic consequences. These regional climate impacts range from drought in the Sahel and South America, though increased hurricane activity and temperature extremes, to modified monsoonal rainfall. Multidecadal <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST variability could arise through internal variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) (e.g., Knight et al., 2006), or through externally forced change (e.g. Booth et al., 2012). It is critical that we know whether internal or external forcing dominates if we are to provide useful near-term climate projections in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. A persuasive argument that internal variability plays an important role in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Variability is that <span class="hlt">periodic</span> SST variability has been observed throughout much of the last millennium (Mann et al., 2009), and the hypothesized external forcing of historical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Variability (Booth et al., 2012) is largely anthropogenic in origin. Here we combine the first annually-resolved millennial marine reconstruction with multi-model analysis, to show that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST variability of the last millennium can be explained by a combination of direct volcanic forcing, and indirect, forced, AMOC variability. Our results indicate that whilst climate models capture the timing of both the directly forced SST and forced AMOC-mediated SST variability, the models fail to capture the magnitude of the forced AMOC change. Does this mean that models underestimate the 21st century reduction in AMOC strength? J. Knight, C. Folland and A. Scaife., Climate impacts of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation, GRL, 2006 B.B.B Booth, N. Dunstone, P.R. Halloran et al., Aerosols implicated as a prime driver of twentieth-century North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1319.photos.038184p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1319.photos.038184p/"><span>1. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOWN OF <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY, LOOKING ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOWN OF <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY, LOOKING NORTH FROM NINTH FLOOR OF CEASAR'S PARKING GARAGE ON KENTUCKY AVENUE - Town of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, North end of Absecon Island, South of Absecon Channel, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037606','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037606"><span>The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age in Chesapeake Bay and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K.; Thunell, R.C.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Willard, D.A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A new 2400-year paleoclimate reconstruction from Chesapeake Bay (CB) (eastern US) was compared to other paleoclimate records in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region to evaluate climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Using Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios from ostracodes and oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera as proxies for temperature and precipitation-driven estuarine hydrography, results show that warmest temperatures in CB reached 16-17. ??C between 600 and 950. CE (Common Era), centuries before the classic European Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> (950-1100. CE) and peak warming in the Nordic Seas (1000-1400. CE). A series of centennial warm/cool cycles began about 1000. CE with temperature minima of ~. 8 to 9. ??C about 1150, 1350, and 1650-1800. CE, and intervening warm <span class="hlt">periods</span> (14-15. ??C) centered at 1200, 1400, 1500 and 1600. CE. Precipitation variability in the eastern US included multiple dry intervals from 600 to 1200. CE, which contrasts with wet medieval conditions in the Caribbean. The eastern US experienced a wet LIA between 1650 and 1800. CE when the Caribbean was relatively dry. Comparison of the CB record with other records shows that the MCA and LIA were characterized by regionally asynchronous warming and complex spatial patterns of precipitation, possibly related to ocean-atmosphere processes. ?? 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSA54A..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSA54A..01G"><span>Influence of Solar Variability on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> / European Sector.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gray, L. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The 11year solar cycle signal in December-January-February averaged mean-sea-level pressure and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>/European blocking frequency is examined using multilinear regression with indices to represent variability associated with the solar cycle, volcanic eruptions, the El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Results from a previous 11-year solar cycle signal study of the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1870-2010 (140 years; 13 solar cycles) that suggested a 3-4 year lagged signal in SLP over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are confirmed by analysis of a much longer reconstructed dataset for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1660-2010 (350 years; 32 solar cycles). Apparent discrepancies between earlier studies are resolved and stem primarily from the lagged nature of the response and differences between early- and late-winter responses. Analysis of the separate winter months provide supporting evidence for two mechanisms of influence, one operating via the atmosphere that maximises in late winter at 0-2 year lags and one via the mixd-layer ocean that maximises in early winter at 3-4 year lags. Corresponding analysis of DJF-averaged <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> / European blocking frequency shows a highly statistically significant signal at 1-year lag that originates promarily from the late winter response. The 11-year solar signal in DJF blocking frequency is compared with other known influences from ENSO and the AMO and found to be as large in amplitude and have a larger region of statistical significance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/periodpain.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/periodpain.html"><span><span class="hlt">Period</span> Pain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. <span class="hlt">Period</span> pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10144057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10144057"><span><span class="hlt">Periodized</span> wavelets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The properties of <span class="hlt">periodized</span> Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of <span class="hlt">periodized</span> wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110230','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110230"><span>The Response of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bloom to NAO Forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mizoguchi, Ken-Ichi; Worthen, Denise L.; Hakkinen, Sirpa; Gregg, Watson W.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Results from the climatologically forced coupled ice/ocean/biogeochemical model that covers the Arctic and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans are presented and compared to the chlorophyll fields of satellite-derived ocean color measurements. Biogeochemical processes in the model are determined from the interactions among four phytoplankton functional groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) and four nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, silicate and dissolved iron). The model simulates the general large-scale pattern in April, May and June, when compared to both satellite-derived and in situ observations. The subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was cool in the 1980s and warm in the latter 1990s, corresponding to the CZCS and SeaWiFS satellite observing <span class="hlt">periods</span>, respectively. The oceanographic conditions during these <span class="hlt">periods</span> resemble the typical subpolar upper ocean response to the NAO+ and NAO-phases, respectively. Thus, we use the atmospheric forcing composites from the two NAO phases to simulate the variability of the mid-ocean bloom during the satellite observing <span class="hlt">periods</span>. The model results show that when the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is cool, the NAO+ case, more nutrients are available in early spring than when the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is warm, the NAO-case. However, the NAO+ simulation produces a later bloom than the NAO-simulation. This difference in the bloom times is also identified in SeaWiFS and CZCS satellite measurements. In the model results, we can trace the difference to the early diatom bloom due to a warmer upper ocean. The higher nutrient abundance in the NAO+ case did not provide larger total production than in the NAO- case, instead the two cases had a comparable area averaged amplitude. This leads us to conclude that in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom depends on surface temperature and the magnitude of the bloom is not significantly impacted by the nutrient abundance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...154...61H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...154...61H"><span>The influences of the AMO and NAO on the sedimentary infill in an Azores Archipelago lake since <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1350 CE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernández, Armand; Sáez, Alberto; Bao, Roberto; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Doolittle, Sara; Masqué, Pere; Rull, Valentí; Gonçalves, Vítor; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Rubio-Inglés, María J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Giralt, Santiago</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The location of the Azores Archipelago in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> makes this group of islands an excellent setting to study the long-term behavior of large oceanic and atmospheric climate dynamic patterns, such as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO). Here, we present the impacts of these patterns on Lake Empadadas (Azores Archipelago) from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) - Little Ice Age (LIA) transition to the present based on sedimentological, geochemical and biological characterizations of the sedimentary record. Multivariate analyses of a number of proxies including X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), total organic and inorganic carbon (TOC and TIC) and diatom life forms abundance reveal that the sedimentary infill evolution has been controlled by (i) fluctuations in the lake level and (ii) variations in organic matter accumulation. Both processes are governed by climate variability and modulated by anthropogenic activities associated with changes on the lake catchment. Changes in these two sedimentary processes have been used to infer five stages: (i) the MCA-LIA transition (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1350-1450 CE) was characterized by a predominantly positive AMO phase, which led to intermediate lake levels and high organic matter concentration; (ii) the first half of the LIA (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1450-1600 CE) was characterized by predominant lowstand conditions and intermediate organic matter deposition mainly related to negative AMO phases; (iii) the second half of the LIA (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1600-1850 CE) was characterized by negative AMO and NAO phases, implying intermediate lake levels and high organic matter deposition; (iv) the Industrial era (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1850-1980 CE) was characterized by the lowest lake level and organic matter accumulation associated with negative AMO phases; and (v) the <span class="hlt">period</span> spanning between 1980 CE and the present reveals the highest lake levels and low organic matter deposition, being associated with very positive AMO</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.173..142G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.173..142G"><span>Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope ratios in benthonic foraminifers related to test structure, mineralogy and environmental controls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gussone, Nikolaus; Filipsson, Helena L.; Kuhnert, Henning</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We analysed Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope ratios of benthonic foraminifers from sediment core tops retrieved during several research cruises in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, in order to improve the understanding of isotope fractionation and element partitioning resulting from biomineralisation processes and changes in ambient conditions. Species include foraminifers secreting tests composed of hyaline low magnesium calcite, porcelaneous high magnesium calcite as well as aragonite. Our results demonstrate systematic isotope fractionation and element partitioning patterns specific for these foraminiferal groups. Calcium isotope fractionation is similar in porcelaneous and hyaline calcite tests and both groups demonstrate the previously described anomaly with enrichment of heavy isotopes around 3-4 °C (Gussone and Filipsson, 2010). Calcium isotope ratios of the aragonitic species Hoeglundina elegans, on the other hand, are about 0.4‰ lighter compared to the calcitic species, which is in general agreement with stronger fractionation in inorganic aragonite compared to calcite. However, the low and strongly variable Sr content suggests additional processes during test formation, and we propose that transmembrane ion transport or a precursor phase to aragonite may be involved. Porcelaneous tests, composed of high Mg calcite, incorporate higher amounts of Sr compared to hyaline low Mg calcite, in agreement with inorganic calcite systematics, but also porcelaneous tests with reduced Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> show high Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. While calcium isotopes, Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in benthonic foraminifers primarily appear to fractionate and partition with a dominant inorganic control, δ44/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> temperature and growth rate dependencies of benthonic foraminifer tests favour a dominant contribution of light <span class="hlt">Ca</span> by transmembrane transport relative to unfractionated seawater <span class="hlt">Ca</span> to the calcifying fluid, thus controlling the formation of foraminiferal δ44/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> proxy signals.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3777989','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3777989"><span>Burst Feeding of Pelagia noctiluca ephyrae on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Eggs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gordoa, Ana; Acuña, José Luis; Farrés, Roser; Bacher, Kathrin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the predation of P. noctiluca ephyrae on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin tuna (ABFT) eggs under different experimental conditions. The specific factors considered in the experimental design were: a) water mix conditions to explore predation under two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) prey distributions, b) prey density to investigate the ingestion rate capacity, and c) incubation time to inspect gut saturation. The eggs and jellyfish ephyrae were collected during the 2012 ABFT spawning survey off Ibiza (Balearic Isl., Western Mediterranean). The results showed that the proportion of feeding ephyrae increased with size. The mean clearance rate of feeding ephyrae, 4.14 L h-1, was the highest ever recorded for ephyrae. Under calm conditions the eggs floated at the surface (2D spatial arrangement) and the clearance rates, at low prey densities, were at least twice those under mixed conditions (3D spatial arrangement). At high prey density, clearance rate did not differ between mix conditions, probably due to the fast gut saturation, which was reached in <span class="hlt">c.a</span>. 15 min, as revealed by time series observations of gut contents. The fast saturation of ephyrae and their slow digestion time of approximately 18 h suggest the existence of a diel feeding <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>. We conclude that in the Western Mediterranean, P. noctiluca ephyrae are capable of predating on ABFT eggs, a highly pulsed and spatially restricted resource that potentially switches from a 3D to a 2D configuration in the absence of wind-generated turbulence. The P. noctiluca and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin tuna egg system might represent an example of a general mechanism linking pelagic and neustonic food webs. PMID:24069335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..129..296P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..129..296P"><span>Mid to late Holocene strengthening of the East Greenland Current linked to warm subsurface <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; Lloyd, Jeremy M.; Jansen, Eystein; Stein, Rüdiger</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The relatively fresh and cold East Greenland Current (EGC) connects the Arctic with the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Its strength and influence on the freshwater balance in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> affects both the Subpolar Gyre dynamics and deep convection in the Labrador Sea. Enhanced freshwater and sea-ice expansion in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is suggested to modify the northward heat transport within the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current. High-resolution palaeoceanographic reconstructions, based on planktic and benthic foraminifera assemblage data, from the central East Greenland shelf (Foster Bugt) reveal distinct centennial to millennial-scale oceanographic variability that relates to climatic changes during the mid to late Holocene (the last c. 6.3 ka BP). Our data highlight intervals of cooling and freshening of the polar surface EGC waters that accompany warming in the subsurface <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters, which are a combination of chilled <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Intermediate Water (AIW) from the Arctic Ocean and of the Return <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current (RAC) from the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). Mid Holocene thermal optimum conditions prevailed until c. 4.5 ka BP. A thin/absent surface Polar Water layer, low drift/sea-ice occurrence and strong contribution of recirculating warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters at the subsurface, suggest a relatively weak EGC during this <span class="hlt">period</span>. Subsequently, between 1.4 and 4.5 ka BP, the water column became well stratified as the surface Polar Water layer thickened and cooled, indicating a strong EGC. This EGC strengthening parallelled enhanced subsurface chilled AIW contribution from the Arctic Ocean after c. 4.5 ka BP, which culminated from 1.4 to 2.3 ka BP. This coincides with warming identified in earlier work of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current, the Irminger Current, and the West Greenland Current. We link the enhanced contribution of chilled <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Water during this <span class="hlt">period</span> to the time of the 'Roman Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>'. The observed warming offshore East Greenland, centred at c. 1.8 ka</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17234694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17234694"><span>Modulation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations in HeLa cells and fibroblasts by mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uniporter stimulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vay, Laura; Hernández-Sanmiguel, Esther; Santo-Domingo, Jaime; Lobatón, Carmen D; Moreno, Alfredo; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The recent availability of activators of the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uniporter allows direct testing of the influence of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uptake on the overall <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) homeostasis of the cell. We show here that activation of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uptake by 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) or kaempferol stimulates histamine-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that this effect is enhanced if the mitochondrial Na(+)-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) exchanger is simultaneously inhibited with CGP37157. This suggests that both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uptake and release from mitochondria control the ability of local <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) microdomains to produce feedback inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP(3)Rs). In addition, the ability of mitochondria to control <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release from the ER allows them to modulate cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations. In histamine stimulated HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, both PPT and kaempferol initially stimulated and later inhibited oscillations, although kaempferol usually induced a more prolonged <span class="hlt">period</span> of stimulation. Both compounds were also able to induce the generation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations in previously silent fibroblasts. Our data suggest that cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations are exquisitely sensitive to the rates of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) uptake and release, which precisely control the size of the local <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) microdomains around InsP(3)Rs and thus the ability to produce feedback activation or inhibition of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2075421','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2075421"><span>Modulation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations in HeLa cells and fibroblasts by mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uniporter stimulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vay, Laura; Hernández-SanMiguel, Esther; Santo-Domingo, Jaime; Lobatón, Carmen D; Moreno, Alfredo; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The recent availability of activators of the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uniporter allows direct testing of the influence of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uptake on the overall <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ homeostasis of the cell. We show here that activation of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uptake by 4,4′,4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) or kaempferol stimulates histamine-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that this effect is enhanced if the mitochondrial Na+–<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ exchanger is simultaneously inhibited with CGP37157. This suggests that both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uptake and release from mitochondria control the ability of local <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ microdomains to produce feedback inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs). In addition, the ability of mitochondria to control <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release from the ER allows them to modulate cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations. In histamine stimulated HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, both PPT and kaempferol initially stimulated and later inhibited oscillations, although kaempferol usually induced a more prolonged <span class="hlt">period</span> of stimulation. Both compounds were also able to induce the generation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations in previously silent fibroblasts. Our data suggest that cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations are exquisitely sensitive to the rates of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ uptake and release, which precisely control the size of the local <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ microdomains around InsP3Rs and thus the ability to produce feedback activation or inhibition of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release. PMID:17234694</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP14C..04W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP14C..04W"><span>The timing of deglacial circulation changes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waelbroeck, C.; Skinner, L.; Gersonde, R.; Mackensen, A.; Michel, E.; Labeyrie, L. D.; Duplessy, J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We present new benthic isotopic data from core MD07-3076 retrieved in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector of the Southern Ocean (44°09’S, 14°13’W, 3770 m water depth), and place them in the context of well-dated published <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> benthic foraminifera isotopic records covering the last 30 ky. Dating of core MD07-3076 was achieved by a combination of 14C AMS measurements on planktonic foraminifera and correlation of sea surface temperature signals derived from both planktonic foraminifera Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and census counts, with Antarctic ice isotopic records (Skinner et al., submitted). Comparison of benthic isotopic records from various depths in the North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> reveals that circulation changes over the last deglaciation did not take place simultaneously in the 1000-2000 m and in the 3000-4500 m depth ranges. Circulation changes first occurred at lower depth, causing large and relatively rapid changes in benthic δ18O and δ13C at the beginning of Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas. Below 3000 m depth, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep water hydrology changed only gradually until a large increase in deep water ventilation took place, resulting from the resumption of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation at the end of HS1. In contrast, our deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> record indicates that Circumpolar Deep Water around 3800 m depth remained quasi-isolated from northern water masses until the end of HS1. Furthermore, our record shows that core MD07-3076 site was then flushed with better ventilated waters for a few hundred years from ~14.5 to 14 calendar ky BP, before benthic δ18O and δ13C values resumed their progression towards Holocene levels. In conclusion, this set of well-dated <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> records demonstrates that benthic δ18O records followed different time evolutions across the last deglaciation, depending on the site latitude and water depth, so that benthic δ18O can not be used as a global correlation tool with a precision better than 3 ky.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA447536','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA447536"><span>Aerosol Optical Depth Analysis with NOAA GOES and POES in the Western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-02-17</p> <p>Monterey, <span class="hlt">CA</span>, 73 pp . Charlson, R. J., S. E. Swartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, Jr., J. E. Hansen and D. J. Hoffman, 1992: Climate forcing by...in the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. M.S. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, <span class="hlt">CA</span>, 81 pp . Maring, H., D. L. Savoie, M. A. Izaguirre, C. McCormick, R...properties using the NOAA POES AVHRR during ACE-l, TARFOX, and ACE-2. M.S. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, <span class="hlt">CA</span>, 58 pp . 20 Turner, R., 1973</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-22/pdf/2010-23689.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-22/pdf/2010-23689.pdf"><span>75 FR 57698 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-22</p> <p>... operator of a vessel for which a Purse Seine category <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas category permit has been issued under... another vessel for which a Purse Seine category <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas permit has been issued, provided the amount... INFORMATION: Background <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> HMS are managed under the dual authority of the MSA and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-19/pdf/2013-14661.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-19/pdf/2013-14661.pdf"><span>78 FR 36685 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2013 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-19</p> <p>... Species; 2013 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: NMFS establishes 2013 quota specifications for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) fishery and closes the... Commission for the Conservation of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas (ICCAT), as required by the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tunas Convention...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940787"><span>The influence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>²⁺ buffers on free [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>²⁺] fluctuations and the effective volume of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>²⁺ microdomains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weinberg, Seth H; Smith, Gregory D</p> <p>2014-06-17</p> <p>Intracellular calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)) plays a significant role in many cell signaling pathways, some of which are localized to spatially restricted microdomains. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) binding proteins (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) buffers) play an important role in regulating <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) concentration ([<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)]). Buffers typically slow [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] temporal dynamics and increase the effective volume of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) domains. Because fluctuations in [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] decrease in proportion to the square-root of a domain's physical volume, one might conjecture that buffers decrease [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations and, consequently, mitigate the significance of small domain volume concerning <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signaling. We test this hypothesis through mathematical and computational analysis of idealized buffer-containing domains and their stochastic dynamics during free <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) influx with passive exchange of both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) and buffer with bulk concentrations. We derive Langevin equations for the fluctuating dynamics of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) and buffer and use these stochastic differential equations to determine the magnitude of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations for different buffer parameters (e.g., dissociation constant and concentration). In marked contrast to expectations based on a naive application of the principle of effective volume as employed in deterministic models of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signaling, we find that mobile and rapid buffers typically increase the magnitude of domain [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) influx, whereas stationary (immobile) <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) buffers do not. Also contrary to expectations, we find that in the absence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) influx, buffers influence the temporal characteristics, but not the magnitude, of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations. We derive an analytical formula describing the influence of rapid <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) buffers on [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations and, importantly, identify the stochastic analog of (deterministic) effective domain volume. Our results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) buffers alter the dynamics of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] fluctuations in a nonintuitive manner. The finding that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PalOc..32..780L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PalOc..32..780L"><span>Carbon storage in the mid-depth <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during millennial-scale climate events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacerra, Matthew; Lund, David; Yu, Jimin; Schmittner, Andreas</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Carbon isotope minima were a ubiquitous feature of the mid-depth <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1, 14.5-17.5 kyr BP) and the Younger Dryas (YD, 11.5-12.9 kyr BP), yet their cause remains unclear. Recent evidence indicates that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> processes triggered the δ13C anomalies, with weakening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) being the most likely driver. Model simulations suggest that slowing of the AMOC increases the residence time of mid-depth waters in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, resulting in the accumulation of respired carbon. Here we assess ΣCO2 variability in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> using benthic foraminiferal B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, a proxy for [CO32-]. Using replicated high-resolution B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> records from 2 km water depth on the Brazil Margin, we show that [CO32-] decreased during HS1 and the YD, synchronous with apparent weakening of the AMOC. The [CO32-] response is smaller than in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during HS1, indicating there was a north-south gradient in the [CO32-] signal similar to that for δ13C. The implied variability in ΣCO2 is consistent with model results, suggesting that carbon is temporarily sequestered in the mid-depth <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during millennial-scale stadial events. Using a carbon isotope mass balance, we estimate that approximately 75% of the HS1 δ13C signal at the Brazil Margin was driven by accumulation of remineralized carbon, highlighting the nonconservative behavior of δ13C during the last deglaciation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000791','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000791"><span>Meridional Distribution of Aerosol Optical Thickness over the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kishcha, P.; Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, B.; Long, C. N.; Kalashnikova, O.; Alpert, P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies showed that, over the global ocean, there is hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and no noticeable asymmetry in cloud fraction (CF). In the current study, we focus on the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (30 Deg N 30 Deg S) which is characterized by significant amounts of Saharan dust dominating other aerosol species over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. We found that, by contrast to the global ocean, over a limited area such as the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, strong meridional asymmetry in dust aerosols was accompanied by meridional CF asymmetry. During the 10-year study <span class="hlt">period</span> (July 2002 June 2012), NASA Aerosol Reanalysis (aka MERRAero) showed that, when the meridional asymmetry in dust aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was the most pronounced (particularly in July), dust AOT averaged separately over the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was one order of magnitude higher than dust AOT averaged over the tropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In the presence of such strong meridional asymmetry in dust AOT in July, CF averaged separately over the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> exceeded CF averaged over the tropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> by 20%. Our study showed significant cloud cover, up to 0.8 - 0.9, in July along the Saharan Air Layer which contributed to above-mentioned meridional CF asymmetry. Both Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) measurements and MERRAero data were in agreement on seasonal variations in meridional aerosol asymmetry. Meridional asymmetry in total AOT over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was maximal. In September and October, there was no noticeable meridional asymmetry in total AOT and meridional CF distribution over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was almost symmetrical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15014495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15014495"><span>Links between salinity variation in the Caribbean and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Matthew W; Spero, Howard J; Lea, David W</p> <p>2004-03-11</p> <p>Variations in the strength of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean thermohaline circulation have been linked to rapid climate changes during the last glacial cycle through oscillations in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation and northward oceanic heat flux. The strength of the thermohaline circulation depends on the supply of warm, salty water to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which, after losing heat to the atmosphere, produces the dense water masses that sink to great depths and circulate back south. Here we analyse two Caribbean Sea sediment cores, combining Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> palaeothermometry with measurements of oxygen isotopes in foraminiferal calcite in order to reconstruct tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface salinity during the last glacial cycle. We find that Caribbean salinity oscillated between saltier conditions during the cold oxygen isotope stages 2, 4 and 6, and lower salinities during the warm stages 3 and 5, covarying with the strength of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation. At the initiation of the Bølling/Allerød warm interval, Caribbean surface salinity decreased abruptly, suggesting that the advection of salty tropical waters into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> amplified thermohaline circulation and contributed to high-latitude warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5211411','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5211411"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Seaduck Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESSD....2....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESSD....2....1S"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> CFC data in CARINA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinfeldt, R.; Tanhua, T.; Bullister, J. L.; Key, R. M.; Rhein, M.; Köhler, J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC)). The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ESSDD...2...27S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ESSDD...2...27S"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> CFC data in CARINA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinfeldt, R.; Tanhua, T.; Bullister, J. L.; Key, R. M.; Rhein, M.; Köhler, J.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC)). The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Bases on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor" quality flag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002memi.conf..143H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002memi.conf..143H"><span>Climatic Variability over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hurrell, J.; Hoerling, M. P.; Folland, C. K.</p> <p></p> <p>INTRODUCTION WHAT IS THE NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> OSCILLATION AND HOW DOES IT IMPACT REGIONAL - CLIMATE? WHAT ARE THE MECHANISMS THAT GOVERN NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> OSCILLATION VARIABILITY? Atmospheric Processes Ocean Forcing of the Atmosphere CONCLUDING COMMENTS ON THE OTHER ASPECTS OF NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CLIMATE - VARIABILITY REFERENCES</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span>49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span>49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span>49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.2025 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area. 165.2025 Section... Vessels § 165.2025 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable waters of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area, which includes...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span>49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol1-sec71-3.pdf"><span>49 CFR 71.3 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> zone. The first zone, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PrOce..45..109H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PrOce..45..109H"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nordic Seas exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, B.; Østerhus, S.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>The northeastern part of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is unique in the sense that it is much warmer in the surface than other ocean areas at similar latitudes. The main reason for this is the large northward transport of heat that extends to high latitudes and crosses the Greenland-Scotland Ridge to enter the Nordic Seas and the Arctic. There the warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water is converted to colder water masses that return southwards over the ridge partly as surface outflows and partly as overflows through the deep passages across the ridge. In this paper, the state of knowledge on the exchanges especially across the eastern part of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge is reviewed based on results from the ICES NANSEN (North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Norwegian Sea Exchanges) project, from the Nordic WOCE project and from other sources. The accumulated evidence allows us to describe the exchanges in fair detail; the origins of the waters, the patterns of their flow towards and over the ridge and their ultimate fate. There is also increasing information on temporal variations of the exchanges although dynamical changes are still not well understood. Quantitative estimates for the volume transport of most of the overflow branches seem reasonably well established, and transport measurements of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> inflows to the Nordic Seas are approaching acceptable levels of confidence which allows preliminary budgets to be presented. The deep overflows are driven by pressure gradients set up by the formation of deep and intermediate water. The dominance of deep overflows over surface outflows in the water budget argues that this thermohaline forcing also dominates over direct wind stress and estuarine forcing in driving the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water inflow across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, while wind stress seems to influence the characteristics and distribution of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water north of the ridge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24696145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24696145"><span>Spontaneous and nicotine-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations mediated by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx in rat pinealocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mizutani, Hiroya; Yamamura, Hisao; Muramatsu, Makoto; Kiyota, Keiko; Nishimura, Kaori; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Ohya, Susumu; Imaizumi, Yuji</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The pineal gland regulates circadian rhythm through the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. The rise of intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) concentration ([<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)]i) following nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation due to parasympathetic nerve activity downregulates melatonin production. Important characteristics and roles of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) mobilization due to nAChR stimulation remain to be clarified. We report here that spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations can be observed in ∼15% of the pinealocytes in slice preparations from rat pineal glands when this dissociation procedure is done within 6 h from a dark-to-light change. The frequency and half-life of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)]i rise were 0.86 min(-1) and 19 s, respectively. Similar spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations were recorded in 17% of rat pinealocytes that were primary cultured for several days. Simultaneous measurement of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)]i and membrane potential revealed that spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations were triggered by <span class="hlt">periodic</span> membrane depolarizations. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations in cultured pinealocytes were abolished by extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) removal or application of nifedipine, a blocker of voltage-dependent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) channel (VDCC). In contrast, blockers of intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-release channels, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate and ryanodine, have no effect. Our results also reveal that, in 23% quiescent pinealocytes, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations were observed following the withdrawal of nicotine. Norepinephrine-induced melatonin secretion from whole pineal glands was significantly decreased by the coapplication of acetylcholine (ACh). This inhibitory effect of ACh was attenuated by nifedipine. In conclusion, both spontaneous and evoked <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) oscillations are due to membrane depolarization following activation of VDCCs. This consists of VDCC α1F subunit, and the associated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) influx can strongly regulate melatonin secretion in pineal glands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeCoA..71.3979S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeCoA..71.3979S"><span>Interpreting the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope record of marine biogenic carbonates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sime, Neil G.; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Tipper, Edward T.; Tripati, Aradhna; Galy, Albert; Bickle, Michael J.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>An 18 million year record of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic composition (δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) of planktonic foraminiferans from ODP site 925, in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, on the Ceara Rise, provides the opportunity for critical analysis of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope-based reconstructions of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> cycle. δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in this record averages +0.37 ± 0.05 (1 σ SD) and ranges from +0.21‰ to +0.52‰. The record is a good match to previously published Neogene <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope records based on foraminiferans, but is not similar to the record based on bulk carbonates, which has values that are as much as 0.25‰ lower. Bulk carbonate and planktonic foraminiferans from core tops differ slightly in their δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> (i.e., by 0.06 ± 0.06‰ ( n = 5)), while the difference between bulk carbonate and foraminiferan values further back in time is markedly larger, leaving open the question of the cause of the difference. Modeling the global <span class="hlt">Ca</span> cycle from downcore variations in δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> by assuming fixed values for the isotopic composition of weathering inputs (δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> w) and for isotope fractionation associated with the production of carbonate sediments (Δ sed) results in unrealistically large variations in the total mass of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ in the oceans over the Neogene. Alternatively, variations of ±0.05‰ in the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope composition of weathering inputs or in the extent of fractionation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopes during calcareous sediment formation could entirely account for variations in the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopic composition of marine carbonates. <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope fractionation during continental weathering, such as has been recently observed, could easily result in variations in δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> w of a few tenths of permil. Likewise a difference in the fractionation factors associated with aragonite versus calcite formation could drive shifts in Δ sed of tenths of permil with shifts in the relative output of calcite and aragonite from the ocean. Until better constraints on variations in δ 44/42<span class="hlt">Ca</span> w and Δ sed have been established, modeling the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> 2+ content</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41B1503W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41B1503W"><span>A new calibration for the Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature relationship in sclerosponges reveals synchronous changes in Caribbean specimens indicative of warming and multi-decadal climate variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.; Rosenheim, B. E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Previous work defined the calibration between the skeletal Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratio of the sclerosponge Ceratoporella nicholsoni and the ambient seawater temperature. However, application of this calibration to records throughout the Caribbean reveals a nearly 4°C warming over the last 150 years, in excess of what one might expect from global climate averages. As the original C. nicholsoni Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-temperature relationship was calibrated between 26 and 30°C, it is possible that the relationship differed outside of the examined temperature window. This suspicion is confirmed by the measurement of Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios from additional specimens of the same species. These show a significantly different slope between Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and temperature at lower temperatures (21 to 26°C). Using this information, the calibration equation has been refined and the subsequent reconstructions of temperature are much more realistic, indicating a warming of approximately 1°C over the last 150 years. Applying this new calibration to additional published sclerosponge records of Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> reveals remarkable agreements between records from the Bahamas and Jamaica, both in amplitude of warming and smaller scale variability. In addition, the depth versus temperature relationship associated with these specimens is preserved. The refined temperature reconstruction of a 600 year record from Exuma Sound, Bahamas, demonstrates the cyclic nature of its variability (~15 and 28 year <span class="hlt">periodicities</span>). Further use of these data and stable oxygen isotopes to calculate salinity reveals variability on multi-decadal timescales. This includes an approximately 20 year <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> between 1400 and 1790. From 1790 to 2000, the dominant mode appears to switch to a roughly 60 year <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>, consistent with that of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARF11005T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARF11005T"><span><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> Polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Edwin</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Periodic</span> polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D <span class="hlt">periodic</span> nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based <span class="hlt">periodic</span> materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..261W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..261W"><span>Arctic warming will promote <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific fish interchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Throughout much of the Quaternary <span class="hlt">Period</span>, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6214M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6214M"><span>Naturally forced multidecadal variability of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menary, Matthew; Scaife, Adam</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The mechanisms by which natural forcing factors alone could drive simulated multidecadal variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are assessed in an ensemble of climate model simulations. It is shown for a new state-of-the-art general circulation model, HadGEM2-ES, that the most important of these natural forcings, in terms of the multidecadal response of the AMOC, is solar rather than volcanic forcing. AMOC strengthening occurs through a densification of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, driven by anomalous surface freshwater fluxes due to increased evaporation. These are related to persistent North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> atmospheric circulation anomalies, driven by forced changes in the stratosphere, associated with anomalously weak solar irradiance during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Within a <span class="hlt">period</span> of approximately 100 years the 11-year smoothed ensemble mean AMOC strengthens by 1.5Sv and subsequently weakens by 1.9Sv, representing respectively approximately 3 and 4 standard deviations of the 11-year smoothed control simulation. The solar-induced variability of the AMOC has various relevant climate impacts, such as a northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone, anomalous Amazonian rainfall, and a sustained increase in European temperatures. While this model has only a partial representation of the atmospheric response to solar variability, these results demonstrate the potential for solar variability to have a multidecadal impact on North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..501H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..501H"><span>Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Korea teleconnection pattern during boreal summer season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ham, Yoo-Geun; Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Kug, Jong-Seong; Kimoto, Masahide; Mochizuki, Takashi</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The remote impact of tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature (SST) variability on Korean summer precipitation is examined based on observational data analysis along with the idealized and hindcast model experiments. Observations show a significant correlation (i.e. 0.64) between Korean precipitation anomalies (averaged over 120-130°E, 35-40°N) and the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST index (averaged over 60°W-20°E, 30°S-30°N) during the June-July-August (JJA) season for the 1979-2010 <span class="hlt">period</span>. Our observational analysis and partial-data assimilation experiments using the coupled general circulation model demonstrate that tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST warming induces the equatorial low-level easterly over the western Pacific through a reorganization of the global Walker Circulation, causing a decreased precipitation over the off-equatorial western Pacific. As a Gill-type response to this diabatic forcing, an anomalous low-level anticyclonic circulation appears over the Philippine Sea, which transports wet air from the tropics to East Asia through low-level southerly, resulting an enhanced precipitation in the Korean peninsula. Multi-model hindcast experiments also show that predictive skills of Korean summer precipitation are improved by utilizing predictions of tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST anomalies as a predictor for Korean precipitation anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12110074Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12110074Q"><span>Impact of the December North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation on the following February East Asian trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Shaobo; Feng, Guolin</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>During winter, the December North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) has an impact on the following February East Asian trough (EAT), and a significant positive correlation exists between them. It is shown that the circulation anomalies affected by the December NAO for December and for the following January are primarily confined to the Euro-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector while they extend to East Asia during the following February, and this is related to anomalous wave trains originating from the southwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and spreading to the northeastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, northern Europe, western Siberia, and East Asia. When the NAO is positive phase in December, the sea surface temperature (SST) tripole pattern is forced by persistence positive NAO from December to the following January, contributing to pronounced positive SST anomalies in midlatitude areas of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the following February. The pronounced positive SST anomalies found during this <span class="hlt">period</span> can generate feedback for atmospheric anomalies, and the westerly winds are enhanced (reduced) to the north (south) side of the positive SST anomalies, which result from strengthened (weakened) baroclinicity there. In addition, the Rossby wave source over the northeastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shows a positive anomaly, establishing a link between the positive SST anomalies in midlatitude areas of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the deepened EAT downstream.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..427V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..427V"><span>Multi-model ensemble forecasting of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Villarini, Gabriele; Luitel, Beda; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Ghosh, Joyee</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones (TCs) and hurricanes are responsible for a large number of fatalities and economic damage. Skillful seasonal predictions of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TC activity can provide basic information critical to our improved preparedness. This study focuses on the development of statistical-dynamical seasonal forecasting systems for different quantities related to the frequency and intensity of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TCs. These models use only tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and tropical mean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to describe the variability exhibited by the observational records because they reflect the importance of both local and non-local effects on the genesis and development of TCs in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin. A set of retrospective forecasts of SSTs by six experimental seasonal-to-interannual prediction systems from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble are used as covariates. The retrospective forecasts are performed over the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1982-2015. The skill of these statistical-dynamical models is quantified for different quantities (basin-wide number of tropical storms and hurricanes, power dissipation index and accumulated cyclone energy) for forecasts initialized as early as November of the year prior to the season to forecast. The results of this work show that it is possible to obtain skillful retrospective forecasts of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TC activity with a long lead time. Moreover, probabilistic forecasts of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> TC activity for the 2016 season are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30..312X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30..312X"><span>Solar wind: A possible factor driving the interannual sea surface temperature tripolar mode over North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Ziniu; Li, Delin</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The effect of solar wind (SW) on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature (SST) in boreal winter is examined through an analysis of observational data during 1964-2013. The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTs show a pronounced meridional tripolar pattern in response to solar wind speed (SWS) variations. This pattern is broadly similar to the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of interannual variations in the wintertime SSTs over North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The time series of this leading EOF mode of SST shows a significant interannual <span class="hlt">period</span>, which is the same as that of wintertime SWS. This response also appears as a compact north-south seesaw of sea level pressure and a vertical tripolar structure of zonal wind, which simultaneously resembles the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) in the overlying atmosphere. As compared with the typical low SWS winters, during the typical high SWS winters, the stratospheric polar night jet (PNJ) is evidently enhanced and extends from the stratosphere to the troposphere, even down to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean surface. Notably, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is an exclusive region in which the SW signal spreads downward from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Thus, it seems that the SW is a possible factor for this North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST tripolar mode. The dynamical process of stratosphere-troposphere coupling, together with the global atmospheric electric circuit-cloud microphysical process, probably accounts for the particular downward propagation of the SW signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860050541&hterms=mid+atlantic+ridge&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmid%2Batlantic%2Bridge','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860050541&hterms=mid+atlantic+ridge&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmid%2Batlantic%2Bridge"><span>Mechanisms and depths of <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> transform earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Engeln, J. F.; Wiens, D. A.; Stein, S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Mechanisms and depths of 40 earthquakes on major transforms along the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge are studied in order to identify events that deviate from the transform-parallel strike-slip motion. Long and short <span class="hlt">period</span> waves and Rayleigh wave spectral amplitudes are used to analyze focal mechanisms, depths, source time functions, and seismic moments of earthquakes. The relationship between centroid depths and transform thermal structures is examined. The data reveal that transform earthquake centroid depths occur above the predicted 400 C isotherms and the oceanic intraplate depths extend to the 750 C isotherm. Slip rates inferred from seismic moment releases are compared to those predicted by plate motions and good correlation is detected. The difference in the centroid depths of transform and interplate seismicity indicates transforms are either weaker or higher temperatures than expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NuPhA.929....9G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NuPhA.929....9G"><span>Fusion calculations for 40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>+40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, 48<span class="hlt">Ca</span>+48<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, 40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>+48<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and p+208Pb systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Jie; Zhang, Haifei; Bao, Xiaojun; Li, Junqing; Zhang, Hongfei</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The fusion cross sections of calcium isotopes and proton induced fusion have been calculated in terms of a coupled-channels formulation. Results indicated that there are big differences between the two fusion types. In the calculations of calcium isotopes fusion, the pair-transfer coupling has been applied in addition to the vibrational coupling, the combined effects showed that pair-transfer has played a significant role in the fusion process for the asymmetric 40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>+48<span class="hlt">Ca</span> system. The result of proton induced fusion for p+208Pb system successfully presents the fusion oscillation, which agrees with the experimental data rather well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817008G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817008G"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Mediterranean netflow variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guerreiro, Catarina; Peliz, Alvaro; Miranda, Pedro</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The exchanges at the Strait of Gibraltar are extremely difficult to measure due to the strong temporal and across-strait variabilities; yet the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> inflow into the Mediterranean is extremely important both for climate and to ecosystems. Most of the published numerical modeling studies do not resolve the Strait of Gibraltar realistically. Models that represent the strait at high resolution focus primarily in high frequency dynamics, whereas long-term dynamics are studied in low resolution model studies, and for that reason the Strait dynamics are poorly resolved. Estimating the variability of the exchanges requires long term and high-resolutions studies, thus an improved simulation with explicit and realistic representation of the Strait is necessary. On seasonal to inter-annual timescales the flow is essentially driven by the net evaporation contribution and consequently realistic fields of precipitation and evaporation are necessary for model setup. A comparison between observations, reanalysis and combined products shows ERA-Interim Reanalysis has the most suitable product for Mediterranean Sea. Its time and space variability are in close agreement with NOC 1.1 for the common <span class="hlt">period</span> (1980 - 1993) and also with evaporation from OAFLUX (1989 - 2014). Subinertial fluctuations, <span class="hlt">periods</span> from days to a few months, are the second most energetic, after tides, and are the response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations and local winds. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the Mediterranean cause sea level oscillations that induce a barotropic flow through the Strait. Candela's analytical model has been used to quantify this response in later studies, though comparison with observations points to an underestimation of the flow at strait. An improved representation of this term contribution to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> - Mediterranean exchange must be achieved on longer time-scales. We propose a new simulation for the last 36 years (1979 - 2014) for the Mediterranean - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9064A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9064A"><span>The effect of the Mediterranean Overflow Water on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aldama Campino, Aitor; Döös, Kristofer</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Mediterranean Overflow Water is created due to an excess of evaporation over precipitation and river runoffs in the Mediterranean Sea. As a result, the incoming surface waters from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> become denser and saltier. These waters return to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> through Gibraltar Strait and start mixing with the surrounding waters in the vicinity of the Gulf of Cadiz forming a warm and saline tongue of water, which spreads westward. In this exchange of waters between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Mediterranean, other magnitudes such as heat and salt are transported. In the last case, the salt transport between the two basins shows a variability with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of few decades. These oscillations produce two different states, one where the Mediterranean exports salt to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and another where the Mediterranean imports salt from it. The Mediterranean-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> system alternates these two states. The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of these multidecadal oscillations on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This study is performed using data from the climate model EC-EARTH run under pre-industrial conditions, where the greenhouse gas forcing is constant. Different magnitudes such as the total salt and volume transport through Gibraltar Strait, salinity profiles in the vicinity of the Gulf of Cadiz, the net freshwater fluxes in the Mediterranean basin are studied. The analysis of the total salt transport through Gibraltar show <span class="hlt">periods</span> where salt is imported from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and vice versa. Our guess is that the Mediterranean Sea acts as a reservoir which alternates between exporting and importing salt from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> through the strait. The impact of this salt transport in Gibraltar on the total salt transport of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is studied. The results show a larger impact of the outgoing salt transport on the total <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salt transport north of Gibraltar strait (in a region between 40°N-50°N). These results oppose the ones obtained when the impact of the outgoing salt</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..327..531P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..327..531P"><span>New 40Ar/39Ar ages and revised 40K/40Ar* data from nephelinitic-phonolitic volcanic successions of the Trindade Island (South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pires, G. L. C.; Bongiolo, E. M.; Geraldes, M. C.; Renac, C.; Santos, A. C.; Jourdan, F.; Neumann, R.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The Trindade Island is located in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, 1170 km from the Brazilian coast and represents the eastern end of the submarine E-W Vitória-Trindade Chain. This is interpreted as the Trindade plume track beneath the South American plate during the Cenozoic. Almeida (1961) recognized five volcanogenic successions at Trindade in decreasing age: the Trindade Complex (TC) and the Desejado (DF), Morro Vermelho (MV), Valado (VF) and Paredão (PF) formations, composed of nephelinitic to phonolitic effusive-pyroclastic deposits, dykes and necks. Here, we present new 40Ar/39Ar ages and re-evaluation of available 40K/40Ar* data that, coupled with previous petrological information, allowed us to reconstruct the volcanic history of the island (i.e., 3.9-0.25 Ma) distinguishing near synchronous volcanic episodes and solving several stratigraphic uncertainties reported in the literature. The geochronological dataset show that the nephelinitic-phonolitic volcanism at Trindade was discontinuous throught time, being marked by <span class="hlt">periods</span> of high volcanic activity and <span class="hlt">periods</span> of quiescence, which suggests variable melt production and eruption rates. The peak of the volcanic activity occurred between 3.9 and 2.5 Ma (i.e., Lower Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene) that is represented by the TC, which correspond to the largest volume of volcanic deposits preserved in the island. The volcanic activity slows down progressively from 2.5 Ma to cease at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1.6 Ma, <span class="hlt">period</span> that is represented by the DF. This volcanism was followed by a quiescent <span class="hlt">period</span> that lasted until the ephemeral nephelinitic volcanism of the MV (no age), VA (no age) and PF (<span class="hlt">ca</span>. 0.25 Ma). Thus, the volcanic activity in Trindade was ceased completely at <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 0.25 Ma, event registered in the uppermost volcanic deposits of the PF and that represents the last volcanic activity in the Brazilian territory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=witchcraft&id=EJ672251','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=witchcraft&id=EJ672251"><span>Witches in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> World.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Breslaw, Elaine</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.6802M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.6802M"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> opportunities for ENSO prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martín-Rey, Marta; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén.; Polo, Irene</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability with worldwide impacts. The knowledge of ENSO drivers and the underlying mechanisms is crucial to improve ENSO prediction, which still remains a challenge. The recently discovered connection between an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niño (Niña) and a Pacific Niña (Niño), through an air-sea coupled mechanism during the first and last decades of the twentieth century, highlights an opportunity for ENSO prediction. Here a statistical cross-validated hindcast of ENSO along the twentieth century is presented, considering the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures as the unique predictor field, and a set of atmospheric and oceanic variables related to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific connection as the predictand field. The observed ENSO phase is well reproduced, and the skill is enhanced at the beginning and the end of the twentieth century. Understanding this multidecadal modulation of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific connection could help to improve seasonal-to-decadal forecasts of ENSO and its associated impacts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Salem&pg=3&id=EJ672251','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Salem&pg=3&id=EJ672251"><span>Witches in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> World.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Breslaw, Elaine</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.8961K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.8961K"><span>Nutrients in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermocline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawase, M.; Sarmiento, J. L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A set of maps are presented of nutrient distribution on isopycnal surfaces in the North and tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean main thermocline. The data used in producing these maps are from the Transient Tracers in the Oceans (TTO) North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Study and Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Study, an associated German study (Meteor 56/5), two cross-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sections from cruise 109 of the Atlantis II, and the GEOSECS program. The nutrient distributions reflect primarily the sources at the northern and southern outcrops of the isopycnal surfaces, the in situ regeneration due to decomposition of sinking organic materials, and the interior physical processes as inferred from thermocline models and the distribution of conservative properties such as salinity. However, silica also exhibits behavior that cannot be explained by in situ regeneration. A simple phenomenological model suggests that cross-isopycnal advection and mixing in the equatorial region may play an important role in the nutrient dynamics. These data should prove of great value in constraining models of physical as well as biogeochemical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457924','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6457924"><span>Geology of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olsson, R.K.; Gohn, G.S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Plain developed landward of a hinge zone on slowly subsiding continental crust during the postrift phase of the opening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Generally, a wedge of marine and non-marine sediments reaches 2000m thickness near the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastline. Variations in deposition along strike in the coastal plain was controlled by tectonic movement of basins and structural highs which from north to south include the Raritan Embayment, South New Jersey High, Chesapeake-Delaware Basin, Norfolk Arch, Albemarle Embayment, Cape Fear Arch, Southeast Georgia Embayment and South Florida Basin. Postrift sedimentation was initiated during late Jurassic and early Cretaceous time adjacent to the faulted hinge zone which separates thicker unstretched continental crust beneath the coastal plain from thinner stretched crust beneath the outer <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> margin. Continental clastic and deltaic sediments were deposited in onlapping sequence from Long Island to northern Florida. During this time carbonate deposition was initiated in the South Florida Basin. Marine deposition of terrigenous sands, silts and clays occurred along the coastal plain in late Cenomanian time. Shallow carbonate deposition continued in Florida. Transgressive and regressive marine deposition was dominant in the coastal plain during late Cretaceous and Paleogene time. Deposition during the Neogene was affected by numerous changes in sea level and consequently it is stratigraphically incomplete and irregularly distributed. Many units lack precise biostratigraphic resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6001862','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6001862"><span>Nutrients in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermocline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kawase, M.; Sarmiento, J.L.</p> <p>1985-09-20</p> <p>A set of maps are presented of nutrient distribution on isopycnal surfaces in the North and tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean main thermocline. The data used in producing these maps are from the Transient Tracers in the Oceans (TTO) North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Study and Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Study, an associated German study (Meteor 56/5), two cross-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sections from cruise 109 of the Atlantis II, and the GEOSECS program. The nutrient distributions reflect primarily the sources at the northern and southern outcrops of the isopycnal surfaces, the in situ regeneration due to decomposition of sinking organic materials, and the interior physical processes as inferred from thermocline models and the distribution of conservative properties such as salinity. However, silica also exhibits behavior that cannot be explained by in situ regeneration. A simple phenomenological model suggests that cross-isopycnal advection and mixing in the equatorial region may play an important role in the nutrient dynamics. These data should prove of great value in constraining models of physical as well as biogeochemical processes. 43 references, 12 figures, 1 table.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/642337','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/642337"><span>Hydrogeochemical processes and facies in confining units of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Plain in New Jersey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pucci, A.A. Jr.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Pore water solutes and sediments in the New Jersey Coastal Plain were studied to assess processes that control pore water chemistry in confining units and interactions with aquifer water chemistry. Solute chemistry and variations with depth are reported for 19 samples collected from a continuously cored borehole in the lower Miocene Kirkwood Formation at <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, New Jersey. In 14 pore water samples collected from the Lower Confining Unit overlying the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City 800-foot sand, and from the silt interbeds in the Upper Part of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City 800-foot sand, linear regressions showed especially high correlations (R{sup 2}>0.89) between concentrations of Mg and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>; between concentrations of Na and the sum of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg; between concentrations of SO{sub 4} and the sum of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and Mg; and between concentrations of Na and SO{sub 4}. There were three distinct water quality types: <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-SO{sub 4}, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>-Na-SO{sub 4}-Cl-HCO{sub 3}, and Na-SO{sub 4}-HCO{sub 3}Cl. Each water type generally is within distinct intervals (tens of meters), or hydrogeochemical facies, in the core. The first two facies were found only in the units overlying the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City 800-foot Sand; the third type was found only in samples from the underlying composite confining unit. Significant variation of pore water solute concentrations was indicated on a scale smaller than the sampling interval (about 3.5 m). Two principal components explained 82.5% of the total variation in pore water chemistry. The processes which control the variation in water quality include (1) chemical processes such as shell dissolution, incongruent carbonate dissolution, and clay transformations; (2) a hypothesized physical-chemical mechanism of differential migration of sulfate accompanied by divalent cations; and (3) fresh water flushing of, and mixing with, residual sea water at paleoflow rates. Cation-exchange reactions do not appear to be an important process in these sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP14B..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP14B..05H"><span>Modelling non-analogue elements of Pliocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, D. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The strong warming seen in records of mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> has proved difficult to reproduce in climate model simulations. The results of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Experiment 2 fail to produce a single simulation with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures (SSTs) as high as those indicated by the PRISM3 (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) data set. Direct comparisons between the data and models are hampered by differing techniques used in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and physical climate simulations. However, even if current simulations are not directly comparable to the reconstructions of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, something must have forced these particularly high temperatures for at least parts of the mid-Pliocene warm <span class="hlt">period</span>. The boundary condition changes defined in the PlioMIP Experiment 2 protocol are limited to CO2, ice sheets, vegetation, land area change due to sea level rise and orography. Apart from small orographic changes imposed outside of the ice sheet regions, the rest of these factors would be expected to change under future anthropogenic climate change. As such the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has referred to the mid-Pliocene as 'an accessible example of a world that is similar in many respects to ... the late 21st century'. However, there are a number of different palaeogeographic changes documented in published literature that are not incorporated into the PRISM3 palaeoenvironmental reconstruction used as model boundary conditions, particularly in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. Although some of these would be expected under future climate change, e.g. a reduction in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> icebergs, many would not. Changes in the intensity of Icelandic mantle plume upwelling have resulted in changes in the sill depth of the Greenland-Scotland ridge over at least the last 40 million years. Pleistocene glacial erosion has created new ocean areas in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP23A1378Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP23A1378Y"><span>Toward quantifying the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbon storage increase during the last glaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, J.; Menviel, L.; Jin, Z.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Ice core records show that atmospheric CO2 concentrations during peak glacial time were ~30% lower than the levels during interglacial <span class="hlt">periods</span>. The terrestrial biosphere carbon stock was likely reduced during glacials. Increased carbon storage in the deep ocean is thought to play an important role in lowering glacial atmospheric CO2. However, it has been challenging to quantify carbon storage changes in the deep ocean using existing proxy data. Here, we present deepwater carbonate ion reconstructions for a few locations in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These data allow us to estimate the minimum carbon storage increase in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean during the last glaciation. Our results show that, despite its relative small volume, the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean may contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2 variations at major climate transitions. Furthermore, our results suggest a strong coupling of ocean circulation and carbon cycle in the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last glaciation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.414..156G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.414..156G"><span>The Cretaceous opening of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Granot, Roi; Dyment, Jérôme</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The separation of South America from Africa during the Cretaceous is poorly understood due to the long <span class="hlt">period</span> of stable polarity of the geomagnetic field, the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS, lasted between ∼121 and 83.6 Myr ago). We present a new identification of magnetic anomalies located within the southern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> magnetic quiet zones that have arisen due to past variations in the strength of the dipolar geomagnetic field. Using these anomalies, together with fracture zone locations, we calculate the first set of magnetic anomalies-based finite rotation parameters for South America and Africa during that <span class="hlt">period</span>. The kinematic solutions are generally consistent with fracture zone traces and magnetic anomalies outside the area used to construct them. The rotations indicate that seafloor spreading rates increased steadily throughout most of the Cretaceous and decreased sharply at around 80 Myr ago. A change in plate motion took place in the middle of the superchron, roughly 100 Myr ago, around the time of the final breakup (i.e., separation of continental-oceanic boundary in the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). Prominent misfit between the calculated synthetic flowlines (older than Anomaly Q1) and the fracture zones straddling the African Plate in the central South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> could only be explained by a combination of seafloor asymmetry and internal dextral motion (<100 km) within South America, west of the Rio Grande fracture zone. This process has lasted until ∼92 Myr ago after which both Africa and South America (south of the equator) behaved rigidly. The clearing of the continental-oceanic boundaries within the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Gateway was probably completed by ∼95 Myr ago. The clearing was followed by a progressive widening and deepening of the passageway, leading to the emergence of north-south flow of intermediate and deep-water which might have triggered the global cooling of bottom water and the end for the Cretaceous greenhouse <span class="hlt">period</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-14/pdf/2011-5858.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-14/pdf/2011-5858.pdf"><span>76 FR 13583 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Quotas and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Tuna Fisheries...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-14</p> <p>...., <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> yellowfin tuna (YFT) and swordfish) year-round with less risk of fishery interruption due to... the 2011 fishing year; reinstate pelagic longline target catch requirements for retaining BFT in the... limit adjustments, if needed, for the 2011 fishing year via Federal Register notices separate from the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP31E..08F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP31E..08F"><span>The State of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> Isotope Proxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fantle, M. S.; Tipper, E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>At the Earth's surface, <span class="hlt">Ca</span> is a critical element at a variety of scales. It is both a biological nutrient and water-soluble, and is a major constituent of the dominant mineral sink for carbon in the ocean. Additionally, the 5‰ range in the stable isotope ratios of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> (44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) suggests that <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopes may be a promising tracer of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> cycle, specifically the oceanic budget over time. Despite ~15 years of concentrated effort on high-precision <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope measurements, the utility of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotopes as a proxy remains far from clear. A variety of basic questions have yet to be resolved, both in the marine and terrestrial realms. To provide perspective, the current work presents a data compilation of over 60 published <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope studies. The compilation includes δ44/40<span class="hlt">Ca</span>SRM-915a measurements of the modern <span class="hlt">Ca</span> cycle, including rivers and groundwater, dust, soils and soil pore fluids, vegetation, rainwater, silicate minerals/rocks, and marine carbonates. The focus of this work is to quantify the leverage of inputs to change the isotopic composition of the ocean. One of the tenets of the weathering proxy is that there is little isotopic leverage to change seawater. If this assumption is valid, then significant variations in the isotopic composition of seawater can be explained <u>to some extent</u> by mass flux imbalances between <span class="hlt">Ca</span> inputs and outputs, requiring the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> cycle to be out of steady state for significant <span class="hlt">periods</span> of time. Despite evidence that <span class="hlt">Ca</span> fractionates in the modern system during continental cycling, the δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span> range of riverine inputs to the ocean is very narrow (especially when compared to the spread in marine carbonates). Thus, there appears to be minimal isotopic leverage amongst inputs to shift the ocean δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span>. In order to develop our understanding of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span> isotope proxy, we identify two probable mechanisms for shifting ocean δ44<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and evaluate them using a series of simple box models. In the terrestrial realm, plants exhibit a wide range of </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3297783','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3297783"><span>Single-Channel Monitoring of Reversible L-Type <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Channel <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vα1-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ Subunit Interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Kuzmenkina, Elza; Böhnke, Ann Kristin; Herzig, Stefan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Voltage-dependent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels are heteromultimers of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vα1 (pore), <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ- and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vα2δ-subunits. The stoichiometry of this complex, and whether it is dynamically regulated in intact cells, remains controversial. Fortunately, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ-isoforms affect gating differentially, and we chose two extremes (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ1a and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ2b) regarding single-channel open probability to address this question. HEK293α1C cells expressing the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>V1.2 subunit were transiently transfected with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vα2δ1 alone or with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ1a, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ2b, or (2:1 or 1:1 plasmid ratio) combinations. Both <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ-subunits increased whole-cell current and shifted the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation to hyperpolarization. Time-dependent inactivation was accelerated by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ1a-subunits but not by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ2b-subunits. Mixtures induced intermediate phenotypes. Single channels sometimes switched between <span class="hlt">periods</span> of low and high open probability. To validate such slow gating behavior, data were segmented in clusters of statistically similar open probability. With <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ1a-subunits alone, channels mostly stayed in clusters (or regimes of alike clusters) of low open probability. Increasing <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ2b-subunits (co-)expressed (1:2, 1:1 ratio or alone) progressively enhanced the frequency and total duration of high open probability clusters and regimes. Our analysis was validated by the inactivation behavior of segmented ensemble averages. Hence, a phenotype consistent with mutually exclusive and dynamically competing binding of different <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Vβ-subunits is demonstrated in intact cells. PMID:22261054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP51D2334D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP51D2334D"><span>A Multi-Proxy Approach to Reconstruct Climate Variability in the Western Mediterranean across the Penultimate and Last Glacial <span class="hlt">Period</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dixit, Y.; Toucanne, S.; Bonnin, L.; Fontanier, C.; Jouet, G.; Tripati, A. K.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Mediterranean as a model miniature ocean is an ideal study area for the links between climate change and anoxia. Organic rich-sapropelic deposits punctuate Quaternary sediments series in the basin. These deposits reveal the occurrence of anoxic conditions during times when the circulation of the Mediterranean ocean was deeply perturbed. The `'Nilotic paradigm' proposes anoxia was a direct result of massive inputs of fresh water from the Nile. It is also possible that these sapropels could occur in response to <span class="hlt">periods</span> of intense rainfall and riverine discharge on the northern Mediterranean coast. To resolve the sequence of events linked to sapropel deposition in the western Mediterranean, we use a multi-proxy (oxygen and carbon isotopes, benthic foraminifera assemblage and trace element geochemistry of foraminifera calcite) approach to examine sediments from the Tyrhennian Sea off the eastern Corsica margin in order to reconstruct climate variability during the penultimate glacial termination, and we compare results to those for the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Our preliminary results show increased abundance of epifaunal and deep infaunal benthic species during MIS 5e ( 122-125 kyr BP), accompanied by a rise in Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based sea surface temperature (SST) using G. bulloides. A sharp decline in SST at 135 kyr BP coincides with Heinrich Stadial 5 in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. We will compare the timing of Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based SST minima and reconstructed water d18O variations to Heinrich Stadials in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in order to infer the mechanisms responsible for cooling in the Tyrrhenian Sea. This analysis should shed light on the proposed atmospheric teleconnection causing cooling of western Mediterranean waters via intensification of the Northern Hemisphere high-latitude wind systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP31A1848E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP31A1848E"><span>Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ezat, M.; Rasmussen, T. L.; Groeneveld, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Benthic foraminiferal δ18O-Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> from the SE Nordic seas during the last 65 kyr Mohamed M. Ezat1,2*, Tine L. Rasmussen1, Jeroen Groeneveld3 1 CAGE - Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, and Department of Geology, University of Tromsø, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway. 2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. 3 Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Klagenfurter Strasse, 28359, Bremen, Germany. * e-mail: mohamed.ezat@uit.no The climate during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> underwent rapid millennial-scale variability known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events of warm interstadials and cold stadials. DO events are manifested in marine and continental records in the circum-North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region and throughout the globe. Several studies suggest a crucial role of the Nordic seas in regulating the climate during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Previous studies from the Nordic seas revealed low benthic δ18O values during stadials and high values during interstadials. The causes of the depletions in benthic 18O during stadials are highly debated. Sinking of isotope depleted-brines formed due to sea ice production has previously been proposed. Another explanation has indicated warming of the intermediate water in the Nordic seas based on the finding of warm water benthic foraminiferal species during stadials. Here we present the first benthic foraminiferal Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>-based bottom water temperature (BWT) record from the Nordic seas that, along with other proxies, aims to resolve the hydrographic changes at intermediate water depth on DO timescale during the last 65 kyr. The results show pronounced and gradual BWT increases during all cold stadials followed by an abrupt drop to modern-like BWT at interstadials onsets. The increase in BWT, caused by the subsurface inflow of warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> intermediate water, substantially contributed to the halocline collapse and onset of interstadial conditions throughout complex ocean-sea ice</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27922004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27922004"><span>Annually resolved North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine climate over the last millennium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reynolds, D J; Scourse, J D; Halloran, P R; Nederbragt, A J; Wanamaker, A D; Butler, P G; Richardson, C A; Heinemeier, J; Eiríksson, J; Knudsen, K L; Hall, I R</p> <p>2016-12-06</p> <p>Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental <span class="hlt">period</span>, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ(18)O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ(18)O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial <span class="hlt">period</span> (AD 1000-1800) variability in the sub-polar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5150573','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5150573"><span>Annually resolved North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine climate over the last millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental <span class="hlt">period</span>, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial <span class="hlt">period</span> (AD 1000–1800) variability in the sub-polar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing. PMID:27922004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713502R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713502R"><span>Annually resolved North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine climate over the last millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental <span class="hlt">period</span>, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial <span class="hlt">period</span> (AD 1000-1800) variability in the sub-polar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986434','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986434"><span>An updated anthropogenic CO2 inventory in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, K.; Choi, S.-D.; Park, G.-H.; Peng, T.-H.; Key, Robert; Sabine, Chris; Feely, R. A.; Bullister, J.L.; Millero, F. J.; Kozyr, Alexander</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the basin-wide inventory of anthropogenic CO2 in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean based on high-quality inorganic carbon, alkalinity, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) surveys of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean between 1990 and 1998. Anthropogenic CO2 was separated from the large pool of dissolved inorganic carbon using an extended version of the DC* method originally developed by Gruber et al. [1996]. The extension of the method includes the use of an optimum multiparameter analysis to determine the relative contributions from various source water types to the sample on an isopycnal surface. Total inventories of anthropogenic CO2 in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean are highest in the subtropical regions at 20 40, whereas anthropogenic CO2 penetrates the deepest in high-latitude regions (>40N). The deeper penetration at high northern latitudes is largely due to the formation of deep water that feeds the Deep Western Boundary Current, which transports anthropogenic CO2 into the interior. In contrast, waters south of 50S in the Southern Ocean contain little anthropogenic CO2. Analysis of the data collected during the 1990 1998 <span class="hlt">period</span> yielded a total anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 28.4 4.7 Pg C in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (equator-70N) and of 18.5 3.9 Pg C in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (equator-70S). These estimated basin-wide inventories of anthropogenic CO2 are in good agreement with previous estimates obtained by Gruber [1998], after accounting for the difference in observational <span class="hlt">periods</span>. Our calculation of the anthropogenic CO2 inventory in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, in conjunction with the inventories calculated previously for the Indian Ocean [Sabine et al., 1999] and for the Pacific Ocean [Sabine et al., 2002], yields a global anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 112 17 Pg C that has accumulated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5729P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5729P"><span>Summer North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation and flood variability in Switzerland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peña, Juan Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Badoux, Alexandre</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The study analyses the possible links between flood frequency in Switzerland and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> dynamics over the last two centuries. Given the intricate topography of Switzerland, it will generate a territorial division to retain main physiographic and environmental dissimilarities between different regions. The flood variability in Switzerland over the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1800-2010 has been determined from a flood damage index for July and August months. The index considers very severe and catastrophic floods from existing flood inventories, summarizing both the severity of these events, their spatial extent and the regional differences. Special attention will be focused on the disparities between flood dynamics at northern and southern slopes of the Alps. The analysis of the possible links between floods and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> dynamics is focused on the low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Summer climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-European sector shows a principal pattern of year-to-year variability, although this pattern is weaker than the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) in winter and is confined to northern latitudes. By analogy the climatology community refers to this pattern as the Summer North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (SNAO), which is defined as the main empirical orthogonal function of the standardized anomalies of the European mean sea level pressure during July and August. The flood damage index provides evidences of floods clusters in: 1830-1851, 1881-1927, 1977-1990 and 2005 to present. These clusters coincide with those reported from Switzerland and from some areas of the European continent such as the Czech Republic, Italy and the eastern half of the Iberian Peninsula. This link is not so close when compared with the flood occurrences in Germany. The analysis of the principal mode of low-frequency atmospheric variability shows that the Swiss river catchments situated on the center and southern flank of the Alps are affected by atmospherically unstable areas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP51D..03G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP51D..03G"><span>The Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Mg Incorporation in Planktonic Foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white): Results from a Global Sediment Trap Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gray, W. R.; Weldeab, S.; Lea, D. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in Globigerinoides ruber is arguably the most important proxy for sea surface temperature (SST) in tropical and sub tropical regions, and as such guides our understanding of past climatic change in these regions. However, the sensitivity of Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> to salinity is debated; while analysis of foraminifera grown in cultures generally indicates a sensitivity of 3 - 6% per salinity unit, core-top studies have suggested a much higher sensitivity of between 15 - 27% per salinity unit, bringing the utility of Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> as a SST proxy into dispute. Sediment traps circumvent the issues of dissolution and post-depositional calcite precipitation that hamper core-top calibration studies, whilst allowing the analysis of foraminifera that have calcified under natural conditions within a well constrained <span class="hlt">period</span> of time. We collated previously published sediment trap/plankton tow G. ruber (white) Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data, and generated new Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data from a sediment trap located in the highly-saline tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, close to West Africa. Calcification temperature and salinity were calculated for the time interval represented by each trap/tow sample using World Ocean Atlas 2013 data. The resulting dataset comprises >240 Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> measurements (in the size fraction 150 - 350 µm), that span a temperature range of 18 - 28 °C and 33.6 - 36.7 PSU. Multiple regression of the dataset reveals a temperature sensitivity of 7 ± 0.4% per °C (p < 2.2*10-16) and a salinity sensitivity of 4 ± 1% per salinity unit (p = 2*10-5). Application of this calibration has significant implications for both the magnitude and timing of glacial-interglacial temperature changes when variations in salinity are accounted for.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020113','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020113"><span>Synchronous climate changes in Antarctica and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Steig, E.J.; Brook, E.J.; White, J.W.C.; Sucher, C.M.; Bender, M.L.; Lehman, S.J.; Morse, D.L.; Waddington, E.D.; Clow, G.D.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Central Greenland ice cores provide evidence of abrupt changes in climate over the past 100,000 years. Many of these changes have also been identified in sedimentary and geochemical signatures in deep-sea sediment cores from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, confirming the link between millennial-scale climate variability and ocean thermohaline circulation. It is shown here that two of the most prominent North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> events - the rapid warming that makes the end of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> and the Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas oscillation - are also recorded in an ice core from Taylor Dome, in the western Ross Sea sector of Antarctica. This result contrasts with evidence from ice cores in other regions of Antarctica, which show an asynchronous response between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9756484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9756484"><span>Synchronous climate changes in antarctica and the north <span class="hlt">atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steig; Brook; White; Sucher; Bender; Lehman; Morse; Waddington; Clow</p> <p>1998-10-02</p> <p>Central Greenland ice cores provide evidence of abrupt changes in climate over the past 100,000 years. Many of these changes have also been identified in sedimentary and geochemical signatures in deep-sea sediment cores from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, confirming the link between millennial-scale climate variability and ocean thermohaline circulation. It is shown here that two of the most prominent North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> events-the rapid warming that marks the end of the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span> and the Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas oscillation-are also recorded in an ice core from Taylor Dome, in the western Ross Sea sector of Antarctica. This result contrasts with evidence from ice cores in other regions of Antarctica, which show an asynchronous response between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.463..118P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.463..118P"><span>Rapid deglacial injection of nutrients into the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> via Antarctic Intermediate Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poggemann, David-Willem; Hathorne, Ed C.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Frank, Martin; Bruhn, Imke; Reißig, Stefan; Bahr, André</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>As part of the return flow of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation, Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) redistributes heat, salt, CO2 and nutrients from the Southern Ocean to the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and thus plays a key role in ocean-atmosphere exchange. It feeds (sub)tropical upwelling linking high and low latitude ocean biogeochemistry but the dynamics of AAIW during the last deglaciation remain poorly constrained. We present new multi-decadal benthic foraminiferal Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and stable carbon isotope (δ13 C) records from tropical W-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediment cores indicating abrupt deglacial nutrient enrichment of AAIW as a consequence of enhanced deglacial Southern Ocean upwelling intensity. This is the first clear evidence from the intermediate depth tropical W-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> that the deglacial reconnection of shallow and deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning cells effectively altered the AAIW nutrient budget and its geochemical signature. The rapid nutrient injection via AAIW likely fed temporary low latitude productivity, thereby dampening the deglacial rise of atmospheric CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-08/pdf/2010-22305.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-08/pdf/2010-22305.pdf"><span>75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-08</p> <p>... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Red Snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 24 Assessment Stage 2, Webinar 3. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> stock of red...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-25/pdf/2013-04156.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-25/pdf/2013-04156.pdf"><span>78 FR 12705 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-25</p> <p>... in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT... coastal states on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Pursuant to 15 CFR...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-24/pdf/2011-27474.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-24/pdf/2011-27474.pdf"><span>76 FR 65700 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species Southeast...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-24</p> <p>..., used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea... sharks in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. While the SEDAR Pool was...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170003310','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170003310"><span>Saharan Dust as a Causal Factor of Significant Cloud Cover Along the Saharan Air Layer in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinet, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions. Based on MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data during the ten-year study <span class="hlt">period</span>, we found that these dust intrusions contribute to significant cloud cover along the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Below the temperature inversion at the SAL's base, the presence of large amounts of settling dust particles, together with marine aerosols, produces meteorological conditions suitable for the formation of shallow stratocumulus clouds. The significant cloud fraction along the SAL together with clouds over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Inter-tropical Convergence Zone contributes to the 20% hemispheric CF asymmetry between the tropical North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This leads to the imbalance in strong solar radiation, which reaches the sea surface between the tropical North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and, consequently, affects climate formation in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Therefore, despite the fact that, over the global ocean, there is no noticeable hemispheric asymmetry in cloud fraction, over the significant area such as the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> the hemispheric asymmetry in CF takes place. Saharan dust is also the major contributor to hemispheric aerosol asymmetry over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The NASA GEOS-5 model with aerosol data assimilation was used to extend the MERRA reanalysis with five atmospheric aerosol species (desert dust, sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, and sea-salt). The obtained ten-year (2002 - 2012) MERRA-driven aerosol reanalysis dataset (aka MERRAero) showed that, over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, dust and carbonaceous aerosols were distributed asymmetrically relative to the equator, while other aerosol species were distributed more symmetrically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4434K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.4434K"><span>Water Mass Variability at the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge and in the Eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Roessler, Achim; Rhein, Monika</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the sub-polar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the sub-tropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Current (NAC) can be regarded as the southern border of the sub-polar gyre transporting water from the tropical regions northward. On its way towards the Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge (MAR) the NAC has partly mixed with waters from the sub-polar gyre and crosses the MAR split into several branches. For the study we analyzed data of water mass variability and transport fluctuations from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) project (2012-2015) which provided time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the MAR. The time depending positions of the NAC branches over the MAR were obtained from mooring time series and compared to sea surface velocities from altimeter data. The results show a high variability of NAC pathways over the MAR. Transition regimes with strong meandering and eddies could be observed as well as <span class="hlt">periods</span> of strong NAC branches over the Fracture Zones affecting water mass exchange at all depth levels. A positive temperature trend at depths between 1000-2000 m was found at the Faraday Fracture Zone (FFZ). This warming trend was also detected by Argo floats crossing the MAR close to the FFZ region. During the second phase of RACE (RACE-II, 2016-2018) a mooring array across the eastern shelf break at Goban Spur was deployed to monitor the poleward Eastern Boundary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH21C..02Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH21C..02Z"><span>On the Prediction of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> CATEGORY-5 Hurricans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zapotitla Rpman, J.; Juarez-Zuñiga, A.; Pérez-Peraza, J. A.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Category-5 Hurricanes are the most devastating from the standpoint of human and economic losses. To minimize such damages we propose here a method to predict those kinds of hurricanes. We consider north <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> category-5 hurricanes since 1920. Data was transformed into a series of Pulses with unitary value at the dates of hurricanes occurrence and 0 for dates of no occurrence. Under the hypothesis that the occurrence of hurricanes of this category behave in a sinusoidal manner we can define the dominant <span class="hlt">periods</span> of oscillation and establish correspondence rules that delimit the occurrence of the next hurricane. By means of the Wavelet transform we determine the dominant oscillation <span class="hlt">periods</span> and we search for associations between the hurricanes occurrence and the behavior of the harmonics. The Wavelet Power Spectrum yields the following <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> 2, 9, 14 and 24 yrs. The 24 years <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> divides exactly the events in four groups, where we observe that each of the <span class="hlt">periodicities</span> have a similar peculiar behavior through all the four groups. According to the behavior of the harmonics it is found that their combination restricts regions of probability of Hurricane occurrence. Interpolation of this sinusoidal behavior allows for a good reconstruction of past Hurricanes dates as well as extrapolation to the future. In this way we conclude that there is a good probability that the next category-5 Hurricane in the north <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> occurs in the course of this year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS043-96-002&hterms=many+oceans+world&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmany%2Boceans%2Bworld','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS043-96-002&hterms=many+oceans+world&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmany%2Boceans%2Bworld"><span>Dust Cloud, Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This view of a dust cloud from a Sahara Desert, North Africa dust storm was taken over the Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, some 1700 miles from the African coast (24.5N, 45.0W). Dust, sand and other particulate matter from arid regions is frequently stirred up by fast blowing desert winds and carried aloft to high altitudes where it may be transported great distances, sometimes as much as half way around the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS043-96-002&hterms=african+desert&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dafrican%2Bdesert','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS043-96-002&hterms=african+desert&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dafrican%2Bdesert"><span>Dust Cloud, Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This view of a dust cloud from a Sahara Desert, North Africa dust storm was taken over the Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, some 1700 miles from the African coast (24.5N, 45.0W). Dust, sand and other particulate matter from arid regions is frequently stirred up by fast blowing desert winds and carried aloft to high altitudes where it may be transported great distances, sometimes as much as half way around the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP51A2098H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP51A2098H"><span>Multi-proxy Reconstructions of Deglacial Variability of Antarctic Intermediate Water Circulation in the Western Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, K.; Oppo, D.; Curry, W. B.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Reconstruction of changes in Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) circulation across the last deglaciation is critical in constraining the links between AAIW and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and understanding how AAIW influences oceanic heat transport and carbon budget across abrupt climate events. Here we systematically establish in situ calibrations for carbonate saturation state (B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>), nutrient (Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ13C) and watermass proxies (ɛNd) in foraminifera using multicore tops and ambient seawater samples collected from the Demerara Rise, western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Through the multi-proxy reconstructions, deglacial variability of intermediate water circulation in the western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> can be further constrained. The reconstructed seawater Cd record from the Demerara Rise sediment core (KNR197-3-46CDH, at 947 m water depth) over the last 21 kyrs suggests reduced presence of AAIW during the cold intervals (LGM, H1 and YD) when AMOC was reduced. Down-core B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> record shows elevated intermediate water Δ[CO32-] during these cold intervals, further indicating a weaker influence of AAIW in the western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The δ13C record exhibits a pronounced deglacial minimum and a clear decoupling between δ13C and Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> after the AMOC completely recovered at around 8 kyr BP. This could be due to the carbonate ion effect on benthic Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> or the influence of organic matter remineralization on benthic δ13C. A new ɛNd record for the last deglaciation will be provided to evaluate the relative proportions of southern and northern waters at this intermediate site in the western tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107073p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107073p/"><span>8. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ACROSS <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY WITH THE SHELBOURNE, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>8. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ACROSS <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY WITH THE SHELBOURNE, DENNIS, BLENHEIM, MARLBOROUGH, AND PART OF THE CLARIDGE HOTELS VISABLE (LEFT TO RIGHT) - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107070p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1218.photos.107070p/"><span>5. VIEW LOOKING AT <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY WITH THE SHELBOURNE, DENNIS, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>5. VIEW LOOKING AT <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> CITY WITH THE SHELBOURNE, DENNIS, BLENHEIM, MARLBOROUGH AND CLARIDGE HOTELS IN THE FOREGROUND (LEFT TO RIGHT) - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-13/pdf/2010-16967.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-13/pdf/2010-16967.pdf"><span>75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-13</p> <p>... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> red snapper. AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 24 Assessment Webinars 3 & 4 and Review Workshop for South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> red snapper. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> stock of red snapper will consist of a series of workshops and webinars: a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-22/pdf/2010-15061.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-22/pdf/2010-15061.pdf"><span>75 FR 35432 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Swordfish Quotas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-22</p> <p>... fishing for swordfish in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XV31 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Swordfish Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-21/pdf/2010-23528.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-21/pdf/2010-23528.pdf"><span>75 FR 57407 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Swordfish Quotas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-21</p> <p>... fishing for swordfish in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XV31 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Swordfish Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18784.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-30/pdf/2010-18784.pdf"><span>75 FR 44938 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Shark Fishery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-30</p> <p>... 0648-XX28 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coastal Shark... cancellation of the Federal moratorium on fishing for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey... Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES: Effective July 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: Emily Menashes, Acting Director...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-31/pdf/2011-28083.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-31/pdf/2011-28083.pdf"><span>76 FR 67121 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2012 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Commercial Fishing Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-31</p> <p>... Species; 2012 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-16/pdf/2011-23877.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-16/pdf/2011-23877.pdf"><span>76 FR 57709 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-16</p> <p>... Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine Fisheries... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on September 20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-29/pdf/2012-26535.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-29/pdf/2012-26535.pdf"><span>77 FR 65498 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-29</p> <p>... Northeastern United States; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Herring Fishery; Adjustment to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Herring Management Area 1A Sub... fishing year sub-annual catch limit for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Herring Management Area 1A due to an under-harvest in the... processing, U.S. at-sea processing, border transfer and sub-ACLs for each management area. The 2012...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-02/pdf/2010-13204.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-02/pdf/2010-13204.pdf"><span>75 FR 30730 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-02</p> <p>... Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... retention limit adjustment. SUMMARY: NMFS has determined that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas General category daily <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted for the June through August 2010 time...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-03/pdf/2011-13832.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-03/pdf/2011-13832.pdf"><span>76 FR 32086 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-03</p> <p>... Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... retention limit adjustment. SUMMARY: NMFS has determined that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas General category daily <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted for the June through August 2011 time...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-24/pdf/2011-21651.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-24/pdf/2011-21651.pdf"><span>76 FR 52886 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-08-24</p> <p>... Species; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... retention limit adjustment. SUMMARY: NMFS has determined that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tunas General category daily <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> bluefin tuna (BFT) retention limit should be adjusted from one to three large medium or giant...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27449752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27449752"><span>The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)/Calmodulin/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MKK2 Axis: Nature's Metabolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Mshaft.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marcelo, Kathrina L; Means, Anthony R; York, Brian</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)) is an essential ligand that binds its primary intracellular receptor calmodulin (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M) to trigger a variety of downstream processes and pathways. Central to the actions of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M is the activation of a highly conserved <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M kinase (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MK) cascade that amplifies <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signals through a series of subsequent phosphorylation events. Proper regulation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) flux is necessary for whole-body metabolism and disruption of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) homeostasis has been linked to various metabolic diseases. Here we provide a synthesis of recent advances that highlight the roles of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>MK axis in key metabolic tissues. An appreciation of this information is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>M-dependent signaling contributes to metabolic homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23447918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23447918"><span>Imperforate hymen with elevated serum <span class="hlt">CA</span> 125 and <span class="hlt">CA</span> 19-9 levels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Evsen, Mehmet Siddik; Soydinc, Hatice Ender; Sak, Sibel; Yalinkaya, Ahmet</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To report the clinical characteristics of 14 patients with imperforate hymen and their levels of tumor markers (<span class="hlt">CA</span> 19-9 and <span class="hlt">CA</span> 125). Fourteen patients with imperforate hymen who followed-up between September 2006 and September 2010 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakir, Turkey, were evaluated retrospectively. The clinical features and the management of the patients are discussed. The mean age of the patients was 13.8 years. All patients had primary amenorrhea and pelvic pain. The most common clinical symptoms were cryptomenorrhea in 14 patients, pelvic pain in 11, palpable abdominal mass in 6, voiding difficulties in 7, and defecation problems in 2. In 6 patients with palpable pelvic mass, the mean + standard deviation values of tumor markers were as follows: <span class="hlt">CA</span> 125, 84.0 +/- 23.7 and <span class="hlt">CA</span> 19-9, 162 +/- 189. One week after surgery we measured <span class="hlt">CA</span> 125 and <span class="hlt">CA</span> 19-9 levels once again. The postoperative mean <span class="hlt">CA</span> 125 level was 13.8 +/- 3.6, and the mean postoperative <span class="hlt">CA</span> 19-9 level was 17.5 +/- 3.5. Preoperative levels of <span class="hlt">CA</span> 125 and <span class="hlt">CA</span> 19-9 were significantly higher than those of the postoperative <span class="hlt">period</span> (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). Six patients were treated by T-shaped incision and 8 patients by a central surgical incision through the hymenal membrane. Diagnosis of imperforate hymen is very important before undergoing surgery in a different clinic. Many patients have seen several doctors before receiving a clear diagnosis and have had tumor markers evaluated because the presence of pelvic mass in patients suggests the possibility of a gynecologic malignancy. Imperforate hymen is one of the benign conditions that increase serum <span class="hlt">CA</span> 125 and <span class="hlt">CA</span> 19-9 levels and which is not listed in the classical medical textbooks. These markers are not needed for the diagnosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GMS...147..121X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GMS...147..121X"><span>Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability: Patterns, mechanisms, and impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Shang-Ping; Carton, James A.</p> <p></p> <p>This chapter reviews the progress made in the past decade in understanding tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate variability. In addition to an equatorially anti-symmetric seasonal cycle forced directly by the seasonal march of the sun, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperature (SST) displays a pronounced annual cycle on the equator that results from continental monsoon forcing and air-sea interaction. This cycle interacts with and regulates the meridional excursions of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). On interannual timescales, there is an equatorial mode of variability that is similar to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific. This <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niño is most pronounced in boreal summer coinciding with the seasonal development of the equatorial cold tongue. In boreal winter, both ENSO and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation exert a strong influence on the northeast trades and SST over the northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In boreal spring when the equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is uniformly warm, anomalies of cross-equatorial SST gradient and the ITCZ are closely coupled, resulting in anomalous rainfall over northeastern Brazil. There is evidence for a positive air-sea feedback through wind-induced surface evaporation that organizes off-equatorial SST anomalies to maximize their cross-equatorial gradient. The resultant anomalous shift of the ITCZ may affect the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation, helping to organize ocean-atmospheric anomalies into a pan-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1792X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1792X"><span>Abrupt changes in Antarctic Intermediate Water strength lead <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation changes during the last deglacial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, R.; Marcantonio, F.; Schmidt, M. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Reorganization of meridional overturning circulation that is a response to or a trigger of climate change in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> has been a subject of intense interest. During the last deglaciation, cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> such as the Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich 1 (H1) are thought to be coincident with significant reductions in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) formation. Yet, the role that Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) played during these cold events is still poorly constrained. Benthic Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> data from sediment cores in the Florida Straits suggest a reduced contribution of AAIW in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> western boundary current during the YD [1]. However, ɛNd evidence in sediment cores from Tobago basin suggests a greater influence of AAIW in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during YD and H1 [2]. In this study, we measure ɛNd values in the authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide fraction of sediment from three cores, KNR166-2-26JPC (24°19.62'N, 83°15.14'W; 546 m) and KNR166-2-31JPC (24°13.18'N, 83°17.75'W; 751 m) within the Florida Straits, and VM12-107 (11.33°N, 66.63°W; 1079 m) in the Southern Carribean Sea. All three cores lie within the path of AAIW and are, therefore, useful to gauge the waxing and waning of AAIW during the last deglaciation. Cores 26JPC and 31JPC are located within the Florida Current, which under modern conditions represents a mixture of recirculated North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical gyre water and Southern origin waters. Our preliminary results from 26JPC and 31JPC show significantly less radiogenic ɛNd values during the YD and H1 than during the Holocene (~1 epsilon unit for 26JPC and ~0.6 epsilon units for 31JPC during both <span class="hlt">periods</span>). We interpret the lower ɛNd during the YD and H1 as signifying a decreased input of Southern-sourced waters (i.e., AAIW) arriving at these sites, in agreement with the study of Came et al.[1], but not that of Pahnke et al. in the Tobago Basin [2]. We suggest that ɛNd values in the latter study, in which the core site location is at a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48.1108L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MMTB...48.1108L"><span>Desulfurizing Ability of the <span class="hlt">CaOsatd.-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 Slags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Jiazhan; Kobayashi, Yoshinao</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Desulfurizing ability of the <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 slags saturated with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O has been investigated from the viewpoint of the sulfide capacity and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O solubility. The <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 slags containing small amounts of Cu2O and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S were inserted in a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible with metallic copper. The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible was sealed in a nickel holder to prevent the evaporation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2, then heated up and kept at temperatures from 1573 K (1300 °C) to 1673 K (1400 °C) for 24 hours, which enabled the system inside the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible to reach the equilibrium. As expected, the sulfide capacity derived from the data obtained as well as <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O solubility of the slag increase with an increase in temperature at a constant ratio of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2. The solubility of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O increases by the replacement of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2, whereas the sulfide capacity slightly decreases and the activity coefficient of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S ( γ <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S) increases. This suggests that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 has stronger interaction with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S than <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2. The sulfur distribution ratio between carbon-saturated iron melts and the <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2 slag has been calculated to be about 10 000 at 1573 K (1300 °C) using the sulfide capacity obtained, which value is still large enough even with the replacement of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB..tmp..323L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB..tmp..323L"><span>Desulfurizing Ability of the <span class="hlt">CaOsatd.-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 Slags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Jiazhan; Kobayashi, Yoshinao</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Desulfurizing ability of the <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 slags saturated with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O has been investigated from the viewpoint of the sulfide capacity and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O solubility. The <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 slags containing small amounts of Cu2O and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S were inserted in a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible with metallic copper. The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible was sealed in a nickel holder to prevent the evaporation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2, then heated up and kept at temperatures from 1573 K (1300 °C) to 1673 K (1400 °C) for 24 hours, which enabled the system inside the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O crucible to reach the equilibrium. As expected, the sulfide capacity derived from the data obtained as well as <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O solubility of the slag increase with an increase in temperature at a constant ratio of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2. The solubility of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>O increases by the replacement of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2, whereas the sulfide capacity slightly decreases and the activity coefficient of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S (γ <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S) increases. This suggests that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 has stronger interaction with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>S than <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2. The sulfur distribution ratio between carbon-saturated iron melts and the <span class="hlt">CaO-Ca</span>Cl2 slag has been calculated to be about 10 000 at 1573 K (1300 °C) using the sulfide capacity obtained, which value is still large enough even with the replacement of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>F2 by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>Cl2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..135...54L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..135...54L"><span>Drought modulated by North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures for the last 3,000 years along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Livsey, Daniel; Simms, Alexander R.; Hangsterfer, Alexandra; Nisbet, Robert A.; DeWitt, Regina</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In 2012 the most severe United States drought since the 1930's occurred, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the climate factors driving droughts. Spatial-temporal analysis of United States precipitation data from 1900 to 1999 indicates that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) primarily modulates drought frequency. Tree rings provide the highest resolution and most spatially distributed drought records beyond secular time-series; however, as most tree-ring records only extend to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1000 years before present (BP), a new broadly distributed, quantitative, multi-millennial, proxy of past drought is needed to determine if the AMO modulated drought across North America through the late Holocene. In this study, we develop a new quantitative drought proxy from a transfer function between X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) derived elemental data from a Texas playa and a tree-ring drought record. Using this transfer function, a 954-year tree-ring drought record was extended to <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 3000 BP. Changes in the extended drought record correspond with timing of the Roman Climate Optimum, Medieval Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span>, Little Ice Age, and changes in the AMO as recorded in a proxy record derived from North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ice-rafted debris. These results indicate that lacustrine-derived XRF element data can be used as a quantitative tool to reconstruct past drought records, and suggest that AMO modulated drought in southern Texas for the last 3000 years. Additional studies using XRF-derived element data as a drought proxy are needed to determine the utility of this proxy in non-playa lacustrine systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..254K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..254K"><span>Tropical climate variability: interactions across the Pacific, Indian, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kajtar, Jules B.; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Cai, Wenju</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Complex interactions manifest between modes of tropical climate variability across the Pacific, Indian, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans. For example, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extends its influence on modes of variability in the tropical Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans, which in turn feed back onto ENSO. Interactions between pairs of modes can alter their strength, <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>, seasonality, and ultimately their predictability, yet little is known about the role that a third mode plays. Here we examine the interactions and relative influences between pairs of climate modes using ensembles of 100-year partially coupled experiments in an otherwise fully coupled general circulation model. In these experiments, the air-sea interaction over each tropical ocean basin, as well as pairs of ocean basins, is suppressed in turn. We find that Indian Ocean variability has a net damping effect on ENSO and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean variability, and conversely they each promote Indian Ocean variability. The connection between the Pacific and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is most clearly revealed in the absence of Indian Ocean variability. Our model runs suggest a weak damping influence by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability on ENSO, and an enhancing influence by ENSO on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP41B..02K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP41B..02K"><span>Surface Temperature Trends in the Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region Over the Last 2,000 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korhola, A.; Hanhijarvi, S.; Tingley, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We introduce a new reconstruction method that uses the ordering of all pairs of proxy observations within each record to arrive at a consensus time series that best agrees with all proxy records. By considering only pairwise comparisons, this method, which we call PaiCo, facilitates the inclusion of records with differing temporal resolutions, and relaxes the assumption of linearity to the more general assumption of a monotonically increasing relationship between each proxy series and the target climate variable. We apply PaiCo to a newly assembled collection of high-quality proxy data to reconstruct the mean temperature of the Northernmost <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, which we call Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, over the last 2,000 years. The Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is a dynamically important region known to feature substantial temperature variability over recent millennia, and PaiCo allows for a more thorough investigation of the Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> regional climate as we include a diverse array of terrestrial and marine proxies with annual to multidecadal temporal resolutions. Comparisons of the PaiCo reconstruction to recent reconstructions covering larger areas indicate greater climatic variability in the Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> than for the Arctic as a whole. The Arctic <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> reconstruction features temperatures during the Roman Warm <span class="hlt">Period</span> and Medieval Climate Anomaly that are comparable or even warmer than those of the twentieth century, and coldest temperatures in the middle of the nineteenth century, just prior to the onset of the recent warming trend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15616560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15616560"><span>Break-up of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep western boundary current into eddies at 8 degrees S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dengler, M; Schott, F A; Eden, C; Brandt, P; Fischer, J; Zantopp, R J</p> <p>2004-12-23</p> <p>The existence in the ocean of deep western boundary currents, which connect the high-latitude regions where deep water is formed with upwelling regions as part of the global ocean circulation, was postulated more than 40 years ago. These ocean currents have been found adjacent to the continental slopes of all ocean basins, and have core depths between 1,500 and 4,000 m. In the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean, the deep western boundary current is estimated to carry (10-40) x 10(6) m3 s(-1) of water, transporting North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water--from the overflow regions between Greenland and Scotland and from the Labrador Sea--into the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Antarctic circumpolar current. Here we present direct velocity and water mass observations obtained in the <span class="hlt">period</span> 2000 to 2003, as well as results from a numerical ocean circulation model, showing that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep western boundary current breaks up at 8 degrees S. Southward of this latitude, the transport of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water into the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is accomplished by migrating eddies, rather than by a continuous flow. Our model simulation indicates that the deep western boundary current breaks up into eddies at the present intensity of meridional overturning circulation. For weaker overturning, continuation as a stable, laminar boundary flow seems possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2831737','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2831737"><span>Cost Shifting and Timeliness of Drug Formulary Decisions in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scobie, Andrea C.; Mackinnon, Neil J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Context: Our objectives were to investigate the timeliness of formulary decision-making in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canada, including the Common Drug Review (CDR) process and the adoption of positive CDR recommendations by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canadian provincial public drug plans, and to determine the degree of cost shifting to private payers. Methods: Dates of formulary listing decisions from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canadian provincial drug plan formularies and utilization analyses from Medavie Blue Cross were used to calculate the timeliness of decisions and cost shifting from public payers to a private payer. Results: The median time <span class="hlt">period</span> between the issuance of a positive CDR recommendation and the addition of a drug to an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canadian provincial drug plan was 26.7 weeks (σ=19.1). Cost shifting to employer-sponsored health plans provided by Medavie Blue Cross was minimal. Discussion: There is significant variation in the timing of provincial drug formulary listings among the four <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canadian provinces and the uptake of CDR recommendations. Conclusion: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Canadian provincial governments should support the mandate of the CDR by aiming for a more timely consideration of recommendations. PMID:21286272</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.2173K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.2173K"><span>Tropical climate variability: interactions across the Pacific, Indian, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kajtar, Jules B.; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Cai, Wenju</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Complex interactions manifest between modes of tropical climate variability across the Pacific, Indian, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans. For example, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extends its influence on modes of variability in the tropical Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oceans, which in turn feed back onto ENSO. Interactions between pairs of modes can alter their strength, <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>, seasonality, and ultimately their predictability, yet little is known about the role that a third mode plays. Here we examine the interactions and relative influences between pairs of climate modes using ensembles of 100-year partially coupled experiments in an otherwise fully coupled general circulation model. In these experiments, the air-sea interaction over each tropical ocean basin, as well as pairs of ocean basins, is suppressed in turn. We find that Indian Ocean variability has a net damping effect on ENSO and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean variability, and conversely they each promote Indian Ocean variability. The connection between the Pacific and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is most clearly revealed in the absence of Indian Ocean variability. Our model runs suggest a weak damping influence by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability on ENSO, and an enhancing influence by ENSO on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3641520','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3641520"><span>Coralline algal Barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface ocean freshwater variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hetzinger, S.; Halfar, J.; Zack, T.; Mecking, J. V.; Kunz, B. E.; Jacob, D. E.; Adey, W. H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of long-term high-resolution marine proxy archives. Here we present the first multidecadal-length records of annually resolved Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations from Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coralline algae. We observe positive relationships between algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios from two Newfoundland sites and salinity observations back to 1950. Both records capture episodical multi-year freshening events during the 20th century. Variability in algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> is sensitive to freshwater-induced changes in upper ocean stratification, which affect the transport of cold, Ba-enriched deep waters onto the shelf (highly stratified equals less Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>). Algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios therefore may serve as a new resource for reconstructing past surface ocean freshwater changes. PMID:23636135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636135"><span>Coralline algal barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface ocean freshwater variability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hetzinger, S; Halfar, J; Zack, T; Mecking, J V; Kunz, B E; Jacob, D E; Adey, W H</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of long-term high-resolution marine proxy archives. Here we present the first multidecadal-length records of annually resolved Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> variations from Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coralline algae. We observe positive relationships between algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios from two Newfoundland sites and salinity observations back to 1950. Both records capture episodical multi-year freshening events during the 20th century. Variability in algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> is sensitive to freshwater-induced changes in upper ocean stratification, which affect the transport of cold, Ba-enriched deep waters onto the shelf (highly stratified equals less Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>). Algal Ba/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios therefore may serve as a new resource for reconstructing past surface ocean freshwater changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PrOce..59..443H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PrOce..59..443H"><span>The Iceland-Faroe inflow of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water to the Nordic Seas [review article</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, B.; Østerhus, S.; Hátún, H.; Kristiansen, R.; Larsen, K. M. H.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The flow of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water between Iceland and the Faroe Islands is one of three current branches flowing from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean into the Nordic Seas across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. By the heat that it carries along, it keeps the subarctic regions abnormally warm and by its import of salt, it helps maintain a high salinity and hence density in the surface waters as a precondition for thermohaline ventilation. From 1997 to 2001, a number of ADCPs have been moored on a section going north from the Faroes, crossing the inflow. Combining these measurements with decade-long CTD observations from research vessel cruises along this section, we compute the fluxes of water (volume), heat, and salt. For the <span class="hlt">period</span> June 1997-June 2001, we found the average volume flux of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water to be 3.5±0.5 Sv (1 Sv=10 6 m 3·s -1). When compared to recent estimates of the other branches, this implies that the Iceland-Faroe inflow is the strongest branch in terms of volume flux, transporting 47% of the total <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> inflow to the Arctic Mediterranean (Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean with shelf areas). If all of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> inflow were assumed to be cooled to 0 °C, before returning to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the Iceland-Faroe inflow carries a heat flux of 124±15 TW (1 TW=10 12 W), which is about the same as the heat carried by the inflow through the Faroe-Shetland Channel. The Iceland-Faroe <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water volume flux was found to have a negligible seasonal variation and to be remarkably stable with no reversals, even on daily time scales. Out of a total of 1348 daily flux estimates, not one was directed westwards towards the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000085549','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000085549"><span>Contributions of Tropical Cyclones to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The tropical cyclone rainfall climatology study that was performed for the North Pacific was extended to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Similar to the North Pacific tropical cyclone study, mean monthly rainfall within 444 km of the center of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones (i.e., that reached storm stage and greater) was estimated from passive microwave satellite observations during, an eleven year <span class="hlt">period</span>. These satellite-observed rainfall estimates were used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> total rainfall during, June-November when tropical cyclones were most abundant. The main results from this study indicate: 1) that tropical cyclones contribute, respectively, 4%, 3%, and 4% to the western, eastern, and entire North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>; 2) similar to that observed in the North Pacific, the maximum in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone rainfall is approximately 5 - 10 deg poleward (depending on longitude) of the maximum non-tropical cyclone rainfall; 3) tropical cyclones contribute regionally a maximum of 30% of the total rainfall 'northeast of Puerto Rico, within a region near 15 deg N 55 deg W, and off the west coast of Africa; 4) there is no lag between the months with maximum tropical cyclone rainfall and non-tropical cyclone rainfall in the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, while in the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, maximum tropical cyclone rainfall precedes maximum non-tropical cyclone rainfall; 5) like the North Pacific, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclones Of hurricane intensity generate the greatest amount of rainfall in the higher latitudes; and 6) warm ENSO events inhibit tropical cyclone rainfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf"><span>22 CFR 120.31 - North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization (NATO) is..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Netherlands,...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol1-sec120-31.pdf"><span>22 CFR 120.31 - North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Treaty Organization (NATO) is..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Netherlands,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040013512&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040013512&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution"><span>Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Paradoxical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ozone Maxima</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chatfield, Robert B.; Guan, Hong; Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We describe a broad resolution of the "<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Paradox" concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We describe <span class="hlt">periods</span> of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.-April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO)O3 maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.- March highest column-O3 <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 30 or 60 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> pollution make important contributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060009189&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060009189&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution"><span>Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ozone maxima</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We describe a broad resolution of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Parado concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution, of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight <span class="hlt">periods</span> of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.- April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, possible stratospheric input, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.-March highest column-O3 <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 20-50 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> pollution make important contributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeoRL..31.6103C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeoRL..31.6103C"><span>Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ozone maxima</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>We describe a broad resolution of the ``<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Parado'' concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight <span class="hlt">periods</span> of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.-April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, possible stratospheric input, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.-March highest column-O3 <span class="hlt">periods</span> in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 20-50 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> pollution make important contributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B3A9C90DA-5D98-49E5-9435-2655A7DFA5D4%7D','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B3A9C90DA-5D98-49E5-9435-2655A7DFA5D4%7D"><span><span class="hlt">CAED</span> Document Repository</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) documents to all <span class="hlt">CAED</span> staff. The respository will also include supporting documents, images, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007217.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007217.htm"><span><span class="hlt">CA</span>-125 blood test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... above 35 U/mL is considered abnormal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some ... 125 usually does not mean ovarian cancer is present. Most healthy women with an elevated <span class="hlt">CA</span>-125 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-30/pdf/2010-10051.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-30/pdf/2010-10051.pdf"><span>75 FR 22872 - California Disaster # <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00154</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-30</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00154 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of California dated 04/21/2010. Incident: Northern Baja California Earthquake. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>: 04/04/2010 and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-29/pdf/2011-16241.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-29/pdf/2011-16241.pdf"><span>76 FR 38263 - California Disaster #<span class="hlt">CA</span>-00172</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-29</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office Small Business Administration California Disaster <span class="hlt">CA</span>-00172 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of California (FEMA- 1968-DR), dated 06/20/2011. Incident: Tsunami Waves. Incident <span class="hlt">Period</span>:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531580"><span>Retinoic acid cross-talk with calcitriol activity in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ørnsrud, R; Lock, E J; Glover, C N; Flik, G</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Vitamins A (VA) and D (VD) are metabolised by vertebrates to bioactive retinoic acid (RA) and calcitriol (CTR). RA and CTR involvement in bone metabolism requires fine-tuned regulation of their synthesis and breakdown. In mammals antagonism of VA and VD is observed, but the mechanism of interaction is unknown. We investigated VA-VD interactions in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon (Salmo salar L.) following i.p. injection of RA and/or CTR. VA metabolites, CTR, calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) were determined in plasma. Expression of bone matrix Gla protein (mgp), collagen 1 alpha2 chain (col1a2) and alkaline phosphatase (alp) mRNA was quantified to reflect osteogenesis. Branchial epithelial <span class="hlt">Ca</span> channel (ecac listed as trpv6 in ZFIN Database) mRNA levels and intestinal <span class="hlt">Ca</span> and P influx were determined to study <span class="hlt">Ca</span>/P handling targets of RA and CTR. RA-injection (with or without CTR) decreased plasma CTR-levels three- to sixfold. CTR injection did not affect RA metabolites, but lowered CTR in plasma 3 and 5 days after injection. Lowered plasma CTR correlated with decreased mgp and col1a2 expression in all groups and with decreased alp in CTR-injected fish. RA-treated salmon had enhanced alp expression, irrespective of reduced plasma CTR. Expression of ecac and unidirectional intestinal influx of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> were stimulated following RA-CTR treatment. Plasma <span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Mg and P were not affected by any treatment. The results suggest cross-talk of RA with the VD endocrine system in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon. Enhanced <span class="hlt">Ca</span> flux and osteogenesis (alp transcription) in RA-treated fish and inhibition of mgp expression revealed unprecedented disturbance of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> physiology in hypervitaminosis A.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..11322106C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..11322106C"><span>Multidecadal variability of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane activity: 1851-2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>An analysis of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane data (HURDAT), using a hurricane activity index that integrates over hurricane numbers, durations, and strengths during the years 1851-2007, suggests a quasi-<span class="hlt">periodic</span> behavior with a <span class="hlt">period</span> around 60 years superimposed upon a linearly increasing background. The linearly increasing background is significantly reduced or removed when various corrections were applied for hurricane undercounting in the early portion of the record. The <span class="hlt">periodic</span>-like behavior is persistent in uncorrected HURDAT data as well as in data corrected for possible missing storms. The record contains two complete cycles: 1860-1920 and 1920-1980. The 2004 and 2005 hurricane seasons were unusual in that two intense hurricane seasons occurred in consecutive years. The probability for this happening in any given year is estimated to be less then 1%. Comparing the last 28 years (1980-2007) with the preceding 28 years (1953-1980), we find a modest increase in the number of minor hurricanes (category 1 and 2); however, we find no increase in the number of major hurricanes (category 3-5). The hurricane activity index is found to be highly correlated with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Mode (AMM). If there is an increase in hurricane activity connected to a greenhouse gas induced global warming, it is currently obscured by the 60 year quasi-<span class="hlt">periodic</span> cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2269497','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2269497"><span><span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx in resting rat sensory neurones that regulates and is regulated by ryanodine-sensitive <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Usachev, Yuriy M; Thayer, Stanley A</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Store-operated, voltage-independent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels are activated by depletion of intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores and mediate <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx into non-excitable cells at resting membrane potential. We used microfluorimetry, patch-clamp and Mn2+-quench techniques to explore the possibility that a similar mechanism exists in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones in primary culture. Following caffeine-induced depletion, ryanodine-sensitive <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores refilled with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ at resting membrane potential. The refilling process required extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+, was blocked by 2 mM Ni2+, and was facilitated by membrane hyperpolarization from −55 to −80 mV, indicating a key role for <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx. This influx of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ was not affected by the voltage-operated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channel (VOCC) antagonists nicardipine (10 μM), nimodipine (10 μm) or ω-grammotoxin SIA (1 μm). When ryanodine-sensitive <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores were depleted in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-free media, a return to 2 mM external <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ resulted in a pronounced [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i overshoot, indicating an increased permeability to <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+. Depletion of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores also produced a 2-fold increase in the rate of Mn2+ influx. The [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i overshoot and Mn2+ entry were both inhibited by Ni2+, but not by VOCC antagonists. Caffeine induced <span class="hlt">periodic</span> <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release from, and reuptake into, ryanodine-sensitive stores. The [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i oscillations were arrested by removal of extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ or by addition of Ni2+, but they were not affected by VOCC antagonists. Hyperpolarization increased the frequency of this rhythmic activity. These data suggest the presence of a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ entry pathway in mammalian sensory neurones that is distinct from VOCCs and is regulated by ryanodine-sensitive <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores. This pathway participates in refilling intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores and maintaining [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i oscillations and thus controls the balance between intra- and extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ reservoirs in resting DRG neurones. PMID:10432343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LanB.37B1...37C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LanB.37B1...37C"><span>Ag-Al-<span class="hlt">Ca</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.</p> <p></p> <p>This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-<span class="hlt">Ca</span> to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-<span class="hlt">Ca</span>' with the content:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7862M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7862M"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> early 20th century warming and impact on European summer: Mechanisms and Predictability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller, Wolfgang</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>. Lohmann,G. P. Compo, and J. Marotzke, 2015: A 20th-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate variation during the 1920s, Climate Dynamics. doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2267-5 Müller, W. A., H. Pohlmann, F. Sienz, and D. Smith, 2014: Decadal climate prediction for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1901-2010 with a coupled climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, pp 2100-2107.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-28/pdf/2011-16168.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-28/pdf/2011-16168.pdf"><span>76 FR 37788 - Fisheries of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Gulf of Mexico; South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Fishery Management Council...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-28</p> <p>... Catch (ABC) recommendation for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Migratory Group Spanish mackerel and assessment priorities for... deriving ABC for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Migratory Group Spanish Mackerel and SEDAR assessment priorities for 2013...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3091G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3091G"><span>Abrupt transitions in the NAO control of explosive North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cyclone development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gómara, Iñigo; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Zurita-Gotor, Pablo; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Explosive cyclones are intense extra-tropical low pressure systems featuring large deepening rates. In the Euro-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector, they are a major source of life-threatening weather impacts due to their associated strong wind gusts, heavy precipitation and storm surges. The wintertime variability of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cyclonic activity is primarily modulated by the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO). In this study, we investigate the interannual and multi-decadal variability of explosive North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cyclones using track density data from two reanalysis datasets (NCEP and ERA-40) and a control simulation of an atmosphere/ocean coupled General Circulation Model (GCM—ECHAM5/MPIOM1). The leading interannual and multi-decadal modes of variability of explosive cyclone track density are characterized by a strengthening/weakening pattern between Newfoundland and Iceland, which is mainly modulated by the NAO at both timescales. However, the NAO control of interannual cyclone variability is not stationary in time and abruptly fluctuates during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of 20-25 years long both in NCEP and ECHAM5/MPIOM1. These transitions are accompanied by structural changes in the leading mode of explosive cyclone variability, and by decreased/enhanced baroclinicity over the sub-polar/sub-tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The influence of the ocean is apparently important for both the occurrence and persistence of such anomalous <span class="hlt">periods</span>. In the GCM, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation appears to influence the large-scale baroclinicity and explosive cyclone development over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These results permit a better understanding of explosive cyclogenesis variability at different climatic timescales and might help to improve predictions of these hazardous events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27539113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27539113"><span>A randomised, family-focused dietary intervention to evaluate the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> diet: the GALIAT study protocol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Calvo-Malvar, Maria Del Mar; Leis, Rosaura; Benítez-Estévez, Alfonso Javier; Sánchez-Castro, Juan; Gude, Francisco</p> <p>2016-08-18</p> <p>The traditional diet of northwestern Spain and northern Portugal follows an '<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> diet' pattern. Adherence to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> diet has been related to the good metabolic health and low coronary mortality recorded for these regions. The GALIAT (Galicia Alimentación Atlántica [Galicia <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Diet]) study is a randomised, controlled, dietary intervention clinical trial designed to examine the effect of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> diet on the lipid profile, glucose metabolism, inflammation makers and adiposity of the general population. The trial involved 250 randomly selected families (715 adults and children over 3 years of age) from a town in Spain's northwest, randomly allocated to follow either a control diet (C group) or the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> diet (AD group) for a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 6 months. The families of the AD group received educational sessions on food, diet and gastronomy and were provided written supporting material with nutritional recommendations and recipes for the preparation of menus. They also attended cooking classes. Throughout the study <span class="hlt">period</span>, these families were provided a range of foods (free of charge) that form part of the traditional <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> diet. The C group families took part in none of the above activities, nor were they provided with any food. Lipid profile variables (primary variables), and anthropometric, inflammation marker and glucose metabolism status (secondary variables), were measured at baseline, three and six months. The GALIAT study is the first clinical trial to examine the effects of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> diet on metabolic and cardiovascular health and adiposity. If the study hypothesis is confirmed, this dietary pattern could be included in strategies to promote health. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02391701 on March 18, 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A23A..04F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A23A..04F"><span>New criterion to select the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Convergence Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferraz, S. E.; Ambrizzi, T.; Rocha, R. P.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Convergence Zone (SACZ) is a climatic aspect of the intraseasonal scale that produces intense precipitation in Southeast Brazil during summer Austral. The SACZ is characterized for a high variability convective region located in eastern Cordilheiras of the Andes with northeast-southeast orientation. In addition extend Southeast Amazon until South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Zhou and Lau 1998; Liebmann et al, 1999; Carvalho et al, 2004). The many works that studied SACZ (Carvalho, Jones e Liebmann, 2004; Jones et al, 2004, for example) long wave radiation (ROL), is used which proxy of precipitation. In the first moment, it describes the position of event; however the precipitation is more adequate, principally in the used data series obtain of the climatic models. A study of the characterization of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Convergence Zone (SACZ) is presented. It was determined 48 events of ZCAS between 1995 to 2005 during the November to March <span class="hlt">period</span>. Based on rainfall data, a new criterion was defined in order to select the SACZ events and their results were compared with the previous events. The results indicated that the new criterion did a good job in representing the SACZ. For this reason, um test with climatic model data series (REGCM3 Model, Giorgi et al., 1993) is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.4985S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.4985S"><span>Multidecadal variability and climate shift in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seidov, Dan; Mishonov, Alexey; Reagan, James; Parsons, Rost</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Decadal variability of ocean heat content (OHC) and temperature trends over 60 years in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean were analyzed using a new high-resolution ocean climatology based on quality-controlled historic in situ observations. Two 30 year ocean climates of 1955-1984 and 1985-2012 were compared to evaluate the climate shift in this region. The spatial distribution of the OHC climate shift is highly inhomogeneous, with the climate shift being the strongest southeast of the Gulf Stream Extension. This may be caused by the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown in conjunction with heaving of warm subtropical water. The 30 year climate shift shows higher OHC gain in the Gulf Stream region than reported in shorter timescale estimates. The OHC change is generally coherent with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation index. This coherence suggests that quasi-cyclicity of the OHC may exist, with a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 60 to 80 years, superimposed on the slow basin-wide warming trend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17051216','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17051216"><span>Eastern Pacific cooling and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation during the last deglaciation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kienast, Markus; Kienast, Stephanie S; Calvert, Stephen E; Eglinton, Timothy I; Mollenhauer, Gesine; François, Roger; Mix, Alan C</p> <p>2006-10-19</p> <p>Surface ocean conditions in the equatorial Pacific Ocean could hold the clue to whether millennial-scale global climate change during glacial times was initiated through tropical ocean-atmosphere feedbacks or by changes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation. North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> during Heinrich events and millennial-scale cold events (stadials) have been linked with climatic changes in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and South America, as well as the Indian and East Asian monsoon systems, but not with tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures. Here we present a high-resolution record of sea surface temperatures in the eastern tropical Pacific derived from alkenone unsaturation measurements. Our data show a temperature drop of approximately 1 degrees C, synchronous (within dating uncertainties) with the shutdown of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich event 1, and a smaller temperature drop of approximately 0.5 degrees C synchronous with the smaller reduction in the overturning circulation during the Younger Dryas event. Both cold events coincide with maxima in surface ocean productivity as inferred from 230Th-normalized carbon burial fluxes, suggesting increased upwelling at the time. From the concurrence of equatorial Pacific cooling with the two North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> cold <span class="hlt">periods</span> during deglaciation, we conclude that these millennial-scale climate changes were probably driven by a reorganization of the oceans' thermohaline circulation, although possibly amplified by tropical ocean-atmosphere interaction as suggested before.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.2025 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area, which includes the...): The boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area and the First, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth U... within a naval defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.2025 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area, which includes the...): The boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area and the First, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth U... within a naval defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.2025 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area, which includes the...): The boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area and the First, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth U... within a naval defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-2025.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.2025 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area, which includes the...): The boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Area and the First, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth U... within a naval defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246635&keyword=sea+AND+boundaries&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90786958&CFTOKEN=62459046','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246635&keyword=sea+AND+boundaries&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90786958&CFTOKEN=62459046"><span>Ecosystem Effects of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Multidecadal variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and its importance to the Earth’s climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillati...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+african+AND+american+AND+slavery&pg=6&id=EJ939024','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+african+AND+american+AND+slavery&pg=6&id=EJ939024"><span>The Red <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weaver, Jace</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The development of David Armitage's "white <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246635&keyword=ocean+AND+circulation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246635&keyword=ocean+AND+circulation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Ecosystem Effects of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Multidecadal variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and its importance to the Earth’s climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillati...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cold+AND+war+AND+history&id=EJ939024','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cold+AND+war+AND+history&id=EJ939024"><span>The Red <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weaver, Jace</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The development of David Armitage's "white <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED291546.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED291546.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Science Curriculum Project in Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McFadden, C.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Science Curriculum Project was launched in 1976 at the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Institute of Education in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, as a regional initiative. This account of the project provides its aims, its experience, and its lessons for others similarly engaged in the task of improving curriculum and instruction. This paper was written at a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002memi.conf..185R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002memi.conf..185R"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Air-Sea Interaction Revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodwell, M. J.</p> <p></p> <p>INTRODUCTION DATA AND MODELS THE ANALYSIS METHOD ATMOSPHERIC FORCING OF NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FORCING OF THE ATMOSPHERE Observational Evidence Model Results POTENTIAL SEASONAL PREDICTABILITY BASED ON THE ATMOSPHERE GENERAL - CIRCULATION MODEL CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION REFERENCES</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/181947','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/181947"><span>Origin of the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic`s</span> Heinrich events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Broecker, W.; Bond, G.; Klas, M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>As first noted by Heinrich, 1988, glacial age sediments in the eastern part of the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> contain layers with unusually high ratios of ice-rafted lithic fragments of foraminifera shells. He estimated that these layers are spaced at intervals of roughly 10000 years. In this paper we present detailed information documenting the existence of the upper five of these layers in ODP core 609 from 50{degrees}N and 24{degrees}W. Their ages are respectively 15000 radiocarbon years, 20000 radiocarbon years, 27000 radiocarbon years, about 40000 years, and about 50000 years. We also note that the high lithic fragment to foram ratio is the result of a near absence of shells in these layers. Although we are not of one mind regarding the origin of these layers, we lean toward an explanation that the Heinrich layers are debris released during the melting of massive influxes of icebergs into the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These sudden inputs may be the result of surges along the eastern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP21A2275L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP21A2275L"><span>Evidence for Increased Carbon Storage in the Mid-Depth South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> During the Last Deglaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacerra, M.; Lund, D. C.; Yu, J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Carbon isotope anomalies were a ubiquitous feature in the mid-depth <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1, 14.5-17.5 kyr BP) yet their cause is a matter of ongoing debate. New evidence points towards North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> processes as the source of the δ13C anomalies, with the most likely driver being weakening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) (1, 2). Model simulations suggest that slowing of the AMOC 1) minimizes sinking of high δ13C surface water in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and 2) increases the residence time of deep water, leading to the accumulation of isotopically light respired carbon (3). The simulated tracer field shows the largest anomalies in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and progressively smaller anomalies in the tropical and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, similar to observations. Here, we assess the accumulation of carbon in the mid-depth South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> using foraminiferal B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, a proxy for [CO32-] (which is inversely related to ΣCO2) (4). Using two high resolution records from the Brazil Margin, we show that [CO32-] decreased by 23±6 μmol/kg during HS1 and 15±7 μmol/kg during the Younger Dryas (YD, 11.5-12.9 kyr BP), synchronous with the apparent AMOC weakening recorded in 231Pa/230Th records (5). The [CO32-] response at the Brazil Margin is smaller than at 12°N (6), implying there was a north-south gradient in [CO32-] signals during HS1. The implied millennial scale increases in ΣCO2 are consistent with model results of AMOC shutdown, suggesting the mid-depth <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> acted as a temporary reservoir of stored carbon during both HS1 and the YD. On longer time-scales, changes in [CO32-] at the Brazil Margin likely reflect exchange with an atmosphere with progressively higher pCO2. Our results suggest that mid-depth δ13C anomalies were partly due to increased carbon storage, meaning δ13C behaved non-conservatively during the deglaciation. Our results also imply that mechanisms responsible for rising atmospheric CO2levels must have counteracted increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18475022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18475022"><span>P2Y2 receptor-mediated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling and spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ releases in human valvular myofibroblasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Willmann; McDonald, Paul; McManus, Bruce; van Breemen, Cornelis; Wang, Xiaodong</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Valvular myofibroblasts (VMFs), being the most predominant cells in the cardiac valve, perform a variety of functions to maintain normal valvular physiology. These functions, such as contraction, proliferation, and wound repair, are all directly or indirectly mediated by intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) concentrations ([<span class="hlt">Ca</span> (2+)](i)). Knowing how [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](i) is regulated by vasoactive agents in VMFs enriches the understanding of valvular biology in both health and diseases. In this study we examined the characteristics of purinergic agonist-induced [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)] (i) responses and observed spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) releases in cultured human VMFs. Secondary cultures of human mitral VMFs were incubated with the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicator fura-2 or fluo-4 and visualized with fluorescence microscopy. Both ATP and UTP activated P(2Y2) receptors and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) release and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) influx. The lack of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)](i) responses in VMFs challenged with the selective P(2Y1) agonists ADPbetaS and 2-Me-S-ATP further supported that functional P(2Y2) receptors are responsible for the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) signals. Finally, in a small number of VMFs spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) releases in localized areas were observed. Blockade of the RyR elongated the latency <span class="hlt">period</span> between each <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) releasing event, demonstrating the presence of functional RyRs in VMFs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6504269','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6504269"><span>Spawning and rearing <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> menhaden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hettler, W.F.</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>Two-year-old <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2886618','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2886618"><span>Luminal <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ content regulates intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release in subepicardial myocytes of intact beating mouse hearts: effect of exogenous buffers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kornyeyev, Dmytro; Reyes, Mariano</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ca</span>+-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release tightly controls the function of ventricular cardiac myocytes under normal and pathological conditions. Two major factors contributing to the regulation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release are the cytosolic free <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ content. We hypothesized that the amount of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ released from the SR during each heart beat strongly defines the refractoriness of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release. To test this hypothesis, EGTA AM, a high-affinity, slow-association rate <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ chelator, was used as a tool to modify luminal SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ content. An analysis of the cytosolic and luminal SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ dynamics recorded from the epicardial layer of intact mouse hearts indicated that the presence of EGTA reduced the diastolic SR free <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration and fraction of SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ depletion during each beat. In addition, this maneuver shortened the refractory <span class="hlt">period</span> and accelerated the restitution of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release. As a consequence of the accelerated restitution, the frequency dependence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ alternans was significantly shifted toward higher heart rates, suggesting a role of luminal SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ in the genesis of this highly arrhythmogenic phenomenon. Thus, intra-SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ dynamics set the refractoriness and frequency dependence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ transients in subepicardial ventricular myocytes. PMID:20382849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4538673','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4538673"><span>Decadal acidification in the water masses of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ríos, Aida F.; Resplandy, Laure; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Fajar, Noelia M.; Velo, Anton; Padin, Xose A.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Rosón, Gabriel; Pérez, Fiz F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Global ocean acidification is caused primarily by the ocean’s uptake of CO2 as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. We present observations of the oceanic decrease in pH at the basin scale (50°S–36°N) for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean over two decades (1993–2013). Changes in pH associated with the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 (ΔpHCant) and with variations caused by biological activity and ocean circulation (ΔpHNat) are evaluated for different water masses. Output from an Institut Pierre Simon Laplace climate model is used to place the results into a longer-term perspective and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for pH change. The largest decreases in pH (∆pH) were observed in central, mode, and intermediate waters, with a maximum ΔpH value in South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Central Waters of −0.042 ± 0.003. The ΔpH trended toward zero in deep and bottom waters. Observations and model results show that pH changes generally are dominated by the anthropogenic component, which accounts for rates between −0.0015 and −0.0020/y in the central waters. The anthropogenic and natural components are of the same order of magnitude and reinforce one another in mode and intermediate waters over the time <span class="hlt">period</span>. Large negative ΔpHNat values observed in mode and intermediate waters are driven primarily by changes in CO2 content and are consistent with (i) a poleward shift of the formation region during the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and (ii) an increase in the rate of the water mass formation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. PMID:26216947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.epa.gov/bioiweb1/pdf/EPA-903-B-05-001AnIntroductiontoMid-AtlanticSeasonalPools.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.epa.gov/bioiweb1/pdf/EPA-903-B-05-001AnIntroductiontoMid-AtlanticSeasonalPools.pdf"><span>An introduction to mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> seasonal pools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brown, L.J.; Jung, R.E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Seasonal pools, also known as vernal ponds, provide important ecological services to the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. This publication serves as an introduction to seasonal pool ecology and management; it also provides tools for exploring seasonal pools, including a full-color field guide to wildlife. Seasonal pools are defined as having four distinctive features: surface water isolation, <span class="hlt">periodic</span> drying, small size and shallow depth, and support of a characteristic biological community. Seasonal pools experience regular drying that excludes populations of predatory fish. Thus, pools in the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region provide critical breeding habitat for amphibian and invertebrate species (e.g., spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), wood frog (Rana sylvatica), and fairy shrimp (Order Anostraca)) that would be at increased risk of predation in more permanent waters. The distinctive features of seasonal pools also make them vulnerable to human disturbance. In the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, land-use changes pose the greatest challenges to seasonal pool conservation. Seasonal pools are threatened by direct loss (e.g., filling or draining of the pool) as well as by destruction and fragmentation of adjoining terrestrial habitat. Many of the species that depend on seasonal pools for breeding spend the majority of their lives in the surrounding lands that extend a radius of 1000 feet or more from the pools; these vital habitats are being transected by roads and converted to other land uses. Other threats to seasonal pools include biological introductions and removals, mosquito control practices, amphibian diseases, atmospheric deposition, and climate change. The authors recommend a three-pronged strategy for seasonal pool conservation and management in the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region: education and research, inventory and monitoring of seasonal pools, and landscape-level planning and management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216947"><span>Decadal acidification in the water masses of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ríos, Aida F; Resplandy, Laure; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I; Fajar, Noelia M; Velo, Anton; Padin, Xose A; Wanninkhof, Rik; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Rosón, Gabriel; Pérez, Fiz F</p> <p>2015-08-11</p> <p>Global ocean acidification is caused primarily by the ocean's uptake of CO2 as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. We present observations of the oceanic decrease in pH at the basin scale (50 °S-36 °N) for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean over two decades (1993-2013). Changes in pH associated with the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 (ΔpHCant) and with variations caused by biological activity and ocean circulation (ΔpHNat) are evaluated for different water masses. Output from an Institut Pierre Simon Laplace climate model is used to place the results into a longer-term perspective and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for pH change. The largest decreases in pH (∆pH) were observed in central, mode, and intermediate waters, with a maximum ΔpH value in South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Central Waters of -0.042 ± 0.003. The ΔpH trended toward zero in deep and bottom waters. Observations and model results show that pH changes generally are dominated by the anthropogenic component, which accounts for rates between -0.0015 and -0.0020/y in the central waters. The anthropogenic and natural components are of the same order of magnitude and reinforce one another in mode and intermediate waters over the time <span class="hlt">period</span>. Large negative ΔpHNat values observed in mode and intermediate waters are driven primarily by changes in CO2 content and are consistent with (i) a poleward shift of the formation region during the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and (ii) an increase in the rate of the water mass formation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2057W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2057W"><span>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multi-Decadal Oscillation Impact on Regional Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitar; Atanassov, Atanas; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta; Kirillov, Andrey S.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) shows a <span class="hlt">period</span> of about 60-70 years. Over the time span from 1860 up to 2014 the AMO has had a strong climate impact on the Northern Hemisphere. The AMO is considered to be related to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation, but the origin of the oscillation is not fully understood up till now. To study the AMO impact on climate, the Hadcrut4, Crut4 and HadSST3 temperature data sets have been employed in the current study. The influence of the AMO on the zonal and meridional temperature distribution has been investigated in detail. The strongest zonal AMO impact was obtained in the Arctic region. The results indicated that the AMO influence on temperature at Southern latitudes was opposite in phase compared to the temperature influence in the Northern Hemisphere, in agreement with the well known heat transfer phenomenon from South to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In the Northern Hemisphere the strongest AMO temperature impact was found over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and America. In the West from American continent, over the Pacific, the AMO impact was the lowest obtained over the whole Northern Hemisphere. The Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre, connected with it southwards, built up an atmospheric circulation barrier preventing a strong propagation of the AMO temperature signal westerly. The amplitude of the AMO index itself was greater during summer-fall. However stronger AMO influence on the Northern Hemisphere temperatures was found during the fall-winter season, when the differences between the Northern Hemisphere temperatures and the temperatures in the tropics were the greatest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18365003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18365003"><span>Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> leatherback turtles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caut, Stéphane; Fossette, Sabrina; Guirlet, Elodie; Angulo, Elena; Das, Krishna; Girondot, Marc; Georges, Jean-Yves</p> <p>2008-03-26</p> <p>The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time <span class="hlt">period</span> termed the remigration interval (RI). Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal) and foraging latitude (North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> vs. West African coasts, respectively). Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in order to protect this species from incidental take by commercial fisheries. Our results also emphasize the use of eggs, a less-invasive sampling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......148M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......148M"><span>The Indian Ocean Dipole's influence on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marinaro, Alan Joseph</p> <p></p> <p>Improving early tropical cyclone forecasts would assist reinsurance decision makers as they seek information that can minimize risks. Early lead forecasts are based on model variables before December 1 (Year 0) that predict <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone activity (Year +1). The autumn Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) has an 8 to 14 month antecedent correlation with the El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO is traditionally the best non-lead and overall predictor of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclone activity. Analyses were performed over a 30-year <span class="hlt">period</span> from 1984/85-2013/14, with some time variation depending on the test. Correlation, spatial, and wavelet analyses were utilized to find associations between the IOD, west and east components of the IOD, and four other variables related to the following season's ENSO state and tropical cyclone activity. The prior western pole of the October IOD (WIOD) was demonstrated to have statistically significant r-squared values (i.e. 99% confidence interval) to upcoming tropical storm activity (i.e. explained 25% of the variance), named storm counts (28%), and ENSO (21%). The WIOD has no connection with U.S. hurricane landfalls. Wavelet analysis between October IOD variables and following August-October ENSO data was observed to have the best time-frequency relationship. Dynamic reasoning for these relationships reside within the idealized biennial IOD-ENSO cycle, Walker circulation process, and the impact of ENSO on the state of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin. The WIOD's integration into early-lead forecast models could be an advantage for those in the reinsurance industry and other decision makers impacted by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> tropical cyclonesn.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2267998','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2267998"><span>Isotope Analysis Reveals Foraging Area Dichotomy for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Leatherback Turtles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Angulo, Elena; Das, Krishna; Girondot, Marc</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time <span class="hlt">period</span> termed the remigration interval (RI). Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. Methodology/Principal Findings Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal) and foraging latitude (North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> vs. West African coasts, respectively). Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. Conclusions/Significance Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in order to protect this species from incidental take by commercial fisheries. Our</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186595','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70186595"><span>The <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> salmon: Genetics, conservation and management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Verspoor, Eric; Stradmeyer, Lee; Nielsen, Jennifer L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Salmon is a cultural icon throughout its North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> range; it is the focus of probably the World’s highest profile recreational fishery and is the basis for one of the World’s largest aquaculture industries. Despite this, many wild stocks of salmon are in decline and underpinning this is a dearth of information on the nature and extent of population structuring and adaptive population differentiation, and its implications for species conservation.This important new book will go a long way to rectify this situation by providing a thorough review of the genetics of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon. Sponsored by the European Union and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Salmon Trust, this book comprises the work of an international team of scientists, carefully integrated and edited to provide a landmark book of vital interest to all those working with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMOS31B1443M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMOS31B1443M"><span>Multi-Proxy Approach to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Indian Water Interchange Along the Last Three Glacial-Interglacial Cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez Méndez, G.; Zahn, R.; Hall, I.; Rickaby, R.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Multi-centennial mean grainsize (SS), paired planktonic ( G. bulloides) and benthic foraminifera ( C. wuellerstorfi ) stable isotope and trace element records of IMAGES core MD96-2080 are used to document surface and deep interchange of waters between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian oceans. The core is from the western slope of the Agulhas Bank, off the southern tip of Africa, within the main gateway of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Indian ocean interbasin exchange. At a water depth of 2488 m it is currently located within the southern extension of NADW bounded above and below by Upper and Lower CDW. The records display prominent orbital modulation and faster sub-orbital variability that is linked to climate variability seen in marine records at high southern latitudes, and in Antarctic ice core records. Departures from the orbitally modulated pattern occur in benthic C-13 along MIS 5 suggesting an alternation between water masses with similar C-13 signature. Low C-13 levels during glacial <span class="hlt">periods</span> point to a substitution of NADW by CDW, while flow speeds are increased as indicated by high values of SS. The pattern mimics that seen at a mid-depth SW Pacific core site (Hall et al., 2001) suggesting a hemisphere-wide significance for the southern hemisphere oceans. The combined benthic C-13 and Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> patterns are used to discriminate between water masses and to separate preformed from THC-related signals contained in the glacial-interglacial and millennial patterns. The data profiles show significant differences in the rate of change of ice volume (O-18), chemical ventilation (C-13) and physical circulation (SS) during glacial to interglacial transitions and interglacial to glacial transitions that suggest a large inertia of ocean physics but also confirm the significance of Southern Ocean THC water mass formation for changing deep ocean ventilation. Coherency between the planktonic and benthic isotope records points to the existence of a direct connection between Agulhas leakage and deep outflow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20718730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20718730"><span><span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox injury mediated through TRPC channels in mouse ventricular myocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kojima, Akiko; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nosaka, Shuichi</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) paradox is an important phenomenon associated with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) overload-mediated cellular injury in myocardium. The present study was undertaken to elucidate molecular and cellular mechanisms for the development of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) paradox. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Fluorescence imaging was performed on fluo-3 loaded quiescent mouse ventricular myocytes using confocal laser scanning microscope. KEY RESULTS The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) paradox was readily evoked by restoration of the extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) following 10-20 min of nominally <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-free superfusion. The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) paradox was significantly reduced by blockers of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, Gd(3+), La(3+)) and anti-TRPC1 antibody. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) content, assessed by caffeine application, gradually declined during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-free superfusion, which was further accelerated by metabolic inhibition. Block of SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) leak by tetracaine prevented <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) paradox. The Na(+) /<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) exchange (NCX) blocker KB-R7943 significantly inhibited <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) paradox when applied throughout superfusion <span class="hlt">period</span>, but had little effect when added for a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 3 min before and during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) restoration. The SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) content was better preserved during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) depletion by KB-R7943. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the expression of TRPC1, in addition to TRPC3 and TRPC4, in mouse ventricular myocytes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide evidence that (i) the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) paradox is primarily mediated by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) entry through TRPC (probably TRPC1) channels that are presumably activated by SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) depletion; and (ii) reverse mode NCX contributes little to the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) paradox, whereas inhibition of NCX during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) depletion improves SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) loading, and is associated with reduced incidence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) paradox in mouse ventricular myocytes. © 2010 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010579','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010579"><span><span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox injury mediated through TRPC channels in mouse ventricular myocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kojima, Akiko; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nosaka, Shuichi</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox is an important phenomenon associated with <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ overload-mediated cellular injury in myocardium. The present study was undertaken to elucidate molecular and cellular mechanisms for the development of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Fluorescence imaging was performed on fluo-3 loaded quiescent mouse ventricular myocytes using confocal laser scanning microscope. KEY RESULTS The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox was readily evoked by restoration of the extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ following 10–20 min of nominally <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-free superfusion. The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox was significantly reduced by blockers of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, Gd3+, La3+) and anti-TRPC1 antibody. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ content, assessed by caffeine application, gradually declined during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-free superfusion, which was further accelerated by metabolic inhibition. Block of SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ leak by tetracaine prevented <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox. The Na+/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ exchange (NCX) blocker KB-R7943 significantly inhibited <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox when applied throughout superfusion <span class="hlt">period</span>, but had little effect when added for a <span class="hlt">period</span> of 3 min before and during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ restoration. The SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ content was better preserved during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ depletion by KB-R7943. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the expression of TRPC1, in addition to TRPC3 and TRPC4, in mouse ventricular myocytes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide evidence that (i) the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox is primarily mediated by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ entry through TRPC (probably TRPC1) channels that are presumably activated by SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ depletion; and (ii) reverse mode NCX contributes little to the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox, whereas inhibition of NCX during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ depletion improves SR <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ loading, and is associated with reduced incidence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ paradox in mouse ventricular myocytes. PMID:20718730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653679','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653679"><span>Routes of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Shuttling during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ Oscillations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pecze, László; Blum, Walter; Schwaller, Beat</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In some cell types, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations are strictly dependent on <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx across the plasma membrane, whereas in others, oscillations also persist in the absence of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx. We observed that, in primary mesothelial cells, the plasmalemmal <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ influx played a pivotal role. However, when the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ transport across the plasma membrane by the “lanthanum insulation method” was blocked prior to the induction of the serum-induced <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations, mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ transport was found to be able to substitute for the plasmalemmal <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ exchange function, thus rendering the oscillations independent of extracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+. However, in a physiological situation, the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-buffering capacity of mitochondria was found not to be essential for <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations. Moreover, brief spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ changes were observed in the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration without apparent changes in the cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration, indicating the presence of a mitochondrial autonomous <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling mechanism. In the presence of calretinin, a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-buffering protein, the amplitude of cytosolic spikes during oscillations was decreased, and the amount of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ ions taken up by mitochondria was reduced. Thus, the increased calretinin expression observed in mesothelioma cells and in certain colon cancer might be correlated to the increased resistance of these tumor cells to proapoptotic/pronecrotic signals. We identified and characterized (experimentally and by modeling) three <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ shuttling pathways in primary mesothelial cells during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ oscillations: <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ shuttled between (i) the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, (ii) the ER and the extracellular space, and (iii) the ER and cytoplasmic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ buffers. PMID:26396196</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80174&keyword=hawaii&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80174&keyword=hawaii&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIATION AND CHANGE ON MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> REGION HYDROLOGY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study analyzes <span class="hlt">periodic</span> variations in the climate of the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region over the last 100 years and uses general circulation models (GCMs) to project major climate trends for the next hundred years. Historical data include the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80174&keyword=nino+AND+4&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90469312&CFTOKEN=81093460','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80174&keyword=nino+AND+4&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90469312&CFTOKEN=81093460"><span>IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIATION AND CHANGE ON MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> REGION HYDROLOGY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study analyzes <span class="hlt">periodic</span> variations in the climate of the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Region over the last 100 years and uses general circulation models (GCMs) to project major climate trends for the next hundred years. Historical data include the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-11/pdf/2011-20378.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-11/pdf/2011-20378.pdf"><span>76 FR 49663 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Jersey Intracoastal Waterway (NJICW); <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, NJ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-08-11</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> City, NJ. The deviation allows the bridges to limit the number of openings to accommodate heavy... opening changes and closures have been requested to ensure the safety of the heavy volumes of vehicular... immediately at the end of the designated time <span class="hlt">period</span>. This deviation from the operating regulations is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172..901O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172..901O"><span>Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> from Near- and Far-Field Tectonic Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Matias, L.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this article, we present the first study on probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Northeast (NE) <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region related to earthquake sources. The methodology combines the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, tsunami numerical modeling, and statistical approaches. We consider three main tsunamigenic areas, namely the Southwest Iberian Margin, the Gloria, and the Caribbean. For each tsunamigenic zone, we derive the annual recurrence rate for each magnitude range, from Mw 8.0 up to Mw 9.0, with a regular interval, using the Bayesian method, which incorporates seismic information from historical and instrumental catalogs. A numerical code, solving the shallow water equations, is employed to simulate the tsunami propagation and compute near shore wave heights. The probability of exceeding a specific tsunami hazard level during a given time <span class="hlt">period</span> is calculated using the Poisson distribution. The results are presented in terms of the probability of exceedance of a given tsunami amplitude for 100- and 500-year return <span class="hlt">periods</span>. The hazard level varies along the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast, being maximum along the northern segment of the Morocco <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast, the southern Portuguese coast, and the Spanish coast of the Gulf of Cadiz. We find that the probability that a maximum wave height exceeds 1 m somewhere in the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region reaches 60 and 100 % for 100- and 500-year return <span class="hlt">periods</span>, respectively. These probability values decrease, respectively, to about 15 and 50 % when considering the exceedance threshold of 5 m for the same return <span class="hlt">periods</span> of 100 and 500 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80433&keyword=tree+AND+rings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77883982&CFTOKEN=81705140','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80433&keyword=tree+AND+rings&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77883982&CFTOKEN=81705140"><span>INDICATORS OF CHANGE IN MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> WATERSHEDS, AND CONSEQUENCES IN UPPER CHESAPEAKE BAY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The rate of change of atmospheric temperature in the Northern Hemisphere in the past century relative to the preceding millennium strongly suggests that we are in a <span class="hlt">period</span> of rapid global climate change. The mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region is quite sensitive to larger-scale climate variation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80433&keyword=ferry&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80433&keyword=ferry&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>INDICATORS OF CHANGE IN MID-<span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> WATERSHEDS, AND CONSEQUENCES IN UPPER CHESAPEAKE BAY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The rate of change of atmospheric temperature in the Northern Hemisphere in the past century relative to the preceding millennium strongly suggests that we are in a <span class="hlt">period</span> of rapid global climate change. The mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region is quite sensitive to larger-scale climate variation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-01/pdf/2012-24136.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-01/pdf/2012-24136.pdf"><span>77 FR 59842 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... the public. NMFS also received comments from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> HMS Advisory Panel and heard additional comments from constituents who attended the six public hearings held in Puerto Rico, St. Croix, and St. Thomas. A summary of the comments received on the proposed rule during the public comment <span class="hlt">period</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6581F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6581F"><span>Evidence for external forcing of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation since the termination of the Little Ice Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faurschou Knudsen, Mads; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Variations in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are particularly prominent on multidecadal timescales. These changes, which exert a strong influence on climate in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, are dominated by the alternation between warm and cold SST anomalies on a timescale of 60-80 years, a phenomenon known as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The forcing mechanism pacing the AMO remains subject to considerable debate. One school of thought holds that the AMO is driven by internal ocean variability and related to multidecadal fluctuations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). In contrast, a recent model study concluded that the combined external forcing due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions has dictated the pace and phasing of the AMO over the past 600 years, as the combined solar and volcanic forcing is highly correlated to the AMO in the model with the forcing leading this AMO by ~5 years. Identifying the relative roles of internal ocean variability and external forcing agents in driving multi-decadal SST variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is important, in particular because the AMO purportedly influence climate variables of key importance to society, such as precipitation and hurricane activity. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the AMO and potential external forcing agents over the past 450 years based on statistical analyses of available high-resolution proxy data. The evidence suggests that external forcing played a dominant role in pacing the AMO after termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA; <span class="hlt">ca</span>. 1400-1800), with an instantaneous impact on mid-latitude sea-surface temperatures that spread across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> over the ensuing ~5 years. In contrast, the role of external forcing was more ambiguous during the LIA. Our study further suggests that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is important for linking external forcing with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2008PA001608.shtml','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2008PA001608.shtml"><span>Reevaluation of mid-Pliocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Lawrence, Kira T.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Multiproxy temperature estimation requires careful attention to biological, chemical, physical, temporal, and calibration differences of each proxy and paleothermometry method. We evaluated mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from multiple proxies at Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes 552A, 609B, 607, and 606, transecting the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Drift. SST estimates derived from faunal assemblages, foraminifer Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, and alkenone unsaturation indices showed strong agreement at Holes 552A, 607, and 606 once differences in calibration, depth, and seasonality were addressed. Abundant extinct species and/or an unrecognized productivity signal in the faunal assemblage at Hole 609B resulted in exaggerated faunal-based SST estimates but did not affect alkenone-derived or Mg/Ca–derived estimates. Multiproxy mid-Pliocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST estimates corroborate previous studies documenting high-latitude mid-Pliocene warmth and refine previous faunal-based estimates affected by environmental factors other than temperature. Multiproxy investigations will aid SST estimation in high-latitude areas sensitive to climate change and currently underrepresented in SST reconstructions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP51B0482L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMPP51B0482L"><span>Age differences between <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific benthic d18O change at terminations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lisiecki, L. E.; Raymo, M. E.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Because a large fraction of benthic δ18O change is due to global ice volume change, benthic δ18O is often used as stratigraphic tool to place marine records on a common age model and as a proxy for the timing of ice volume/sea level change. These applications require the assumptions that δ18O change is rapidly transmitted throughout the deep ocean and that the effects of hydrographic changes are in phase with ice volume. Recently, Skinner and Shackleton [2005] found that the timing of benthic δ18O change at the last termination differed by 4500 years between two sites in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific. Based on Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> paleothermometry, they argued that these age discrepancies resulted from a late temperature increase in the Pacific and millennial-scale circulation changes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Do these results imply that benthic δ18O change may not accurately record the timing of terminations? We compare benthic δ18O records from 34 sites in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific to evaluate the impact of ocean mixing rates and deep water changes on the relative timing of terminations recorded in benthic δ18O. Statistical analysis of sedimentation rates derived from the alignment of benthic δ18O suggests an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lead over Pacific benthic δ18O change for all terminations of the last 600 kyr. The magnitude of sedimentation rate change suggests an average termination age difference of 1000-1500 years between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific, consistent with or slightly greater than the delay expected due to ocean mixing rates, given that most glacial meltwater probably enters the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP22B..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP22B..08H"><span>A 400-kyr record of millennial-scale carbonate preservation events in the Southern Ocean: Implications for <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation and atmospheric CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hodell, D. A.; Vautravers, M. J.; Barker, S.; Charles, C.; Crowhurst, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hodell et al. (2001) suggested that carbonate preservation in the deep Cape Basin represented a qualitative, high-resolution record of the temporal evolution of the carbonate saturation state of the deep sea. The carbonate signal reflects both transient events in the redistribution of alkalinity and DIC in the deep ocean and steady-state mass balance processes. Here we re-analyzed the carbonate records of Sites 1089/TN057-21 using an Avaatech XRF core scanner and measured elemental variations at 2.5-mm resolution for the past 400 kyrs. Log <span class="hlt">Ca</span>/Ti is highly correlated to weight percent carbonate content and other dissolution proxies and resolves millennial-scale events in carbonate preservation. A high-pass filter removes the low-frequency (orbital) variability in carbonate preservation, which is attributed mainly to steady-state mass balance processes. The high-frequency (suborbital) component reflects transient responses to the redistribution of carbonate ion that is related mainly to changing deep-water circulation. During the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>, distinct millennial-scale increases in carbonate preservation in piston core TN057-21 occurred during times of enhanced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overtunring Circulation (AMOC) (Barker et al., 2010; Barker and Diz, 2014), as supported by increases in benthic δ13C and less radiogenic ɛNd values. Carbonate preservation peaked particularly during long, warm interstadials in Greenland when a deep water mass with high carbonate ion concentration was formed in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Export of NADW may have been greater than the Holocene during some of these events ("overshoots") and/or preformed carbonate ion concentrations in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> source areas may have been higher owing to lower atmospheric CO2 and less carbonate production in surface water. Each South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbonate peak is associated with the start of Antarctic cooling and declining or leveling of atmospheric CO2, reflecting the signature of a thermal bipolar seesaw</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5247943','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5247943"><span>Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> silverside</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fay, C.W.; Neves, R.J.; Pardue, G.B.</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> silverside (Menidia menidia) is an important link in estuarine food webs as an opportunistic omnivore and as forage for large piscivores such as striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Many times the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> silverside is the most abundant fish species encountered in estuaries and tributaries. They mature at age 1 and spawn in the intertidal zone of estuaries from March to June in the mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region. Few 2-year-old fish are ever encountered, so the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> silverside is basically a short-lived species. Most spawning occurs at high tide during new or full moon phases. Eggs are adhesive and are found attached to submerged vegetation. Larvae, juveniles, and adults generally inhabit similar areas. Sex is determined in larval development 32 to 46 days after hatching, and is a function of parental genotype and water temperature regime during the critical <span class="hlt">period</span>. Fisheries for this species are not documented. Eggs can tolerate water temperatures between 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/C, and larvae need temperatures above 15/sup 0/C for survival. Larvae tolerate relatively acute temperature increases. Upper lethal temperatures for juveniles and adults range from 30.5/sup 0/ to 33.8/sup 0/C, depending on acclimation temperature. Salinities of 20 ppt or lower significantly delay hatching and affect larval survival. Juveniles and adults tolerate the full range of naturally occurring salinities (i.e., freshwater to at least 37.8 ppt). 57 references, 2 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1221473-saharan-dust-causal-factor-hemispheric-asymmetry-aerosols-cloud-cover-over-tropical-atlantic-ocean','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1221473-saharan-dust-causal-factor-hemispheric-asymmetry-aerosols-cloud-cover-over-tropical-atlantic-ocean"><span>Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; ...</p> <p>2015-07-09</p> <p>Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Only over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Over the 10-year <span class="hlt">period</span> under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOTmore » asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this <span class="hlt">period</span> the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. During the same 10-year <span class="hlt">period</span>, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221473','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221473"><span>Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Long, Charles N.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas</p> <p>2015-07-09</p> <p>Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Only over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Over the 10-year <span class="hlt">period</span> under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOT asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this <span class="hlt">period</span> the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. During the same 10-year <span class="hlt">period</span>, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11557890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11557890"><span>Glacial surface temperatures of the southeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sachs, J P; Anderson, R F; Lehman, S J</p> <p>2001-09-14</p> <p>A detailed record of sea surface temperature from sediments of the Cape Basin in the subtropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> indicates a previously undocumented progression of marine climate change between 41 and 18 thousand years before the present (ky B.P.), during the last glacial <span class="hlt">period</span>. Whereas marine records typically indicate a long-term cooling into the Last Glacial Maximum (around 21 ky B.P.) consistent with gradually increasing global ice volume, the Cape Basin record documents an interval of substantial temperate ocean warming from 41 to 25 ky B.P. The pattern is similar to that expected in response to changes in insolation owing to variations in Earth's tilt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4392894','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4392894"><span>Hippocampal <span class="hlt">CA</span>2 activity patterns change over time to a larger extent than between spatial contexts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mankin, Emily A.; Diehl, Geoffrey W.; Sparks, Fraser T.; Leutgeb, Stefan; Leutgeb, Jill K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary The hippocampal <span class="hlt">CA</span>2 subregion has a different anatomical connectivity pattern within the entorhino-hippocampal circuit than either the <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 or <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 subregion. Yet major differences in the neuronal activity patterns of <span class="hlt">CA</span>2 compared to the other <span class="hlt">CA</span> subregions have not been reported. We show that standard spatial and temporal firing patterns of individual hippocampal principal neurons in behaving rats, such as place fields, theta modulation, and phase precession, are also present in <span class="hlt">CA</span>2, but that the <span class="hlt">CA</span>2 subregion differs substantially from the other <span class="hlt">CA</span> subregions in its population coding. <span class="hlt">CA</span>2 ensembles do not show a persistent code for space or for differences in context. Rather, <span class="hlt">CA</span>2 activity patterns become progressively dissimilar over time <span class="hlt">periods</span> of hours to days. The weak coding for a particular context is consistent with recent behavioral evidence that <span class="hlt">CA</span>2 circuits preferentially support social, emotional, and temporal rather than spatial aspects of memory. PMID:25569350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10363361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10363361"><span>Attenuation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> paradox injury in guinea pig heart by K+ channel blocker, d-sotalol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tribulova, N; Sosner, I; Varon, D; Manoach, M</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>D-sotalol was shown to prevent <span class="hlt">Ca</span> overload and intermyocyte uncoupling. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of d-sotalol in <span class="hlt">Ca</span> paradox conditions. Guinea pig hearts were perfused at 37 degrees C and constant pressure with oxygenated Tyrode solution. <span class="hlt">Ca</span> paradox was induced by 10 min <span class="hlt">Ca</span> free perfusion followed by 10 min <span class="hlt">Ca</span> repletion. 10(-6) M d-sotalol was administered either during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> depletion or during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> repletion <span class="hlt">period</span>. Electrical activity and ventricular contraction were simultaneously recorded and subcellular alterations were analysed. The contraction terminated in 5 min of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> free perfusion and electrical activity disappeared within 5 min of <span class="hlt">Ca</span> repletion. Nonuniform injury of myocardial tissue was observed. The majority of cardiomyocytes were irreversibly injured and profound dissociation of intercellular junctions was detected. Administration of d-sotalol during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> free <span class="hlt">period</span> preserved electrical activity and restored ventricular contraction accompanied by apparent protection of the ultrastructure, including intercellular connections. Uniform patterns of sarcomeres reflected synchronous contraction and protection of junctional couplings. In conclusion, d-sotalol attenuates <span class="hlt">Ca</span> paradox injury. It seems that the protective effect of d-sotalol is most likely related to inhibition of potassium efflux antagonizing Na loading during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> depletion <span class="hlt">period</span>, as well as to attenuation of excess of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]i via acceleration of sarcoplasmic <span class="hlt">Ca</span> exchange during <span class="hlt">Ca</span> repletion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=53242','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=53242"><span>Inhibition by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ of inositol trisphosphate-mediated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ liberation: a possible mechanism for oscillatory release of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parker, I; Ivorra, I</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Light-flash photolysis of caged inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) was used to generate reproducible transients of free InsP3 in Xenopus oocytes, and the resulting liberation of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ from intracellular stores was monitored by recording <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-activated membrane currents and by use of the fluorescent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ indicator fluo-3. InsP3-mediated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release was inhibited by elevating the intracellular free <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ level, either by microinjecting <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ into the cell or by applying conditioning light flashes to liberate <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+. This inhibition followed a slow time course, being maximal after about 2 s and subsequently declining over several seconds. Negative feedback of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ ions on InsP3-mediated <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ liberation may explain the oscillatory release of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ seen during activation of inositol phospholipid signaling in the oocyte, and the time course of the inhibition is consistent with the <span class="hlt">period</span> of the oscillations. PMID:2296584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4388M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4388M"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane response to geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Devastating <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22389135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22389135"><span>Chronic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid redistribution effect on muscle calcium in healthy subjects during prolonged hypokinesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zorbas, Yan G; Deogenov, Victor A; Merkov, Pavel L; Federenko, Yuri F</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Studies have shown that chronic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid shifting upwards is not sensed as excessive fluid volume and excretion mechanisms are not activated. To determine if chronic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid and volume shifting upwards can affect muscle calcium (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)) during hypokinesia (HK) we measured muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) content, plasma <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) concentration, and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) losses in urine and feces. Studies were conducted on 40 healthy male volunteers. They were divided into four equal groups: active control subjects (ACS), hypokinetic subjects (HKS), <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid redistribution control subjects (PFRCS), and <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid redistribution hypokinetic subjects (PFRHS). Plasma <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) level decreased (p < 0.05) in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) repleted muscle, muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) level increased (p < 0.05), and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) losses in urine and feces decreased (p < 0.05) in the PFRHS group compared with the HKS group. Plasma <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) level increased (p < 0.05) in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) deficient muscle, muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) level decreased (p < 0.05), and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) losses in urine and feces increased (p < 0.05) in the HKS group compared with their pre-experimental levels and the values in their respective control groups (ACS and PFRCS). This study shows that the muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) content increases and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) excretion decreases, suggesting the clinical potential of chronic <span class="hlt">periodic</span> fluid and volume redistribution in treatment of muscle <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+) deficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28783913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28783913"><span>Sea level anomaly in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and seas around Europe: Long-term variability and response to North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> teleconnection patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iglesias, Isabel; Lorenzo, M Nieves; Lázaro, Clara; Fernandes, M Joana; Bastos, Luísa</p> <p>2017-12-31</p> <p>Sea level anomaly (SLA), provided globally by satellite altimetry, is considered a valuable proxy for detecting long-term changes of the global ocean, as well as short-term and annual variations. In this manuscript, monthly sea level anomaly grids for the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1993-2013 are used to characterise the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean variability at inter-annual timescales and its response to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> main patterns of atmospheric circulation variability (North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation, Eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, Eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>/Western Russia, Scandinavian and Polar/Eurasia) and main driven factors as sea level pressure, sea surface temperature and wind fields. SLA variability and long-term trends are analysed for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean and several sub-regions (North, Baltic and Mediterranean and Black seas, Bay of Biscay extended to the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula, and the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean), depicting the SLA fluctuations at basin and sub-basin scales, aiming at representing the regions of maximum sea level variability. A significant correlation between SLA and the different phases of the teleconnection patterns due to the generated winds, sea level pressure and sea surface temperature anomalies, with a strong variability on temporal and spatial scales, has been identified. Long-term analysis reveals the existence of non-stationary inter-annual SLA fluctuations in terms of the temporal scale. Spectral density analysis has shown the existence of long-<span class="hlt">period</span> signals in the SLA inter-annual component, with <span class="hlt">periods</span> of ~10, 5, 4 and 2years, depending on the analysed sub-region. Also, a non-uniform increase in sea level since 1993 is identified for all sub-regions, with trend values between 2.05mm/year, for the Bay of Biscay region, and 3.98mm/year for the Baltic Sea (no GIA correction considered). The obtained results demonstrated a strong link between the atmospheric patterns and SLA, as well as strong long-<span class="hlt">period</span> fluctuations of this variable in spatial and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JGR....8911365R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JGR....8911365R"><span>Hydrothermal activity at the Trans-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Geotraverse Hydrothermal Field, Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge crest at 26°N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rona, P. A.; Thompson, G.; Mottl, M. J.; Karson, J. A.; Jenkins, W. J.; Graham, D.; Mallette, M.; von Damm, K.; Edmond, J. M.</p> <p>1984-12-01</p> <p>The first submersible observations of the only known active submarine hydrothermal field on a slow-spreading oceanic ridge are incorporated with results of 10 prior years of investigation to derive an understanding of <span class="hlt">periodicity</span>, duration, and varying intensity of hydrothermal activity at the Trans-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Geotraverse (TAG) Hydrothermal Field on the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge crest near latitude 26°N. Hydrothermal activity has persisted at this location for at least 1×106 years based on the distribution of hydrothermal and hydrogenous mineralization with respect to crustal age. The hydrothermal activity has been cyclic, multistage, and episodic. Prior high-temperature hydrothermal venting stages with a <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> of the order of 1×104 years and duration of the order of 101 years are deduced from the estimated ages of discrete sedimentary layers anomalously enriched in Cu, Fe, and Zn and correspond with the independently determined <span class="hlt">periodicity</span> of volcanic eruptive cycles on the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge. The most recent episode of high-temperature venting is inferred to have ceased in the recent past based on metal enrichment (Cu, Fe, Zn) in the surficial sediment layer. Low-temperature hydrothermal venting stages with a duration of the order of 1×104 years intervene between the short high-temperature stages and produce stratiform deposits of layered and earthy manganese oxide, iron oxide, hydroxide, and silicate. Bivalve-like forms with the characteristics of vent clams in various stages of dissolution are identified on bottom photographs. The fresh appearance of intact tubules composed of iron hydroxide that acted as vents on relict deposits, conductive heat flow anomalies in the sediment column, and the record of temperature anomalies and excess 3He in the near-bottom water column, suggest that the low-temperature hydrothermal discharge is intermittent at individual vents on a time scale of years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1571692','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1571692"><span>Novel antimigraineur dotarizine releases <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ from caffeine-sensitive <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ stores of chromaffin cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Novalbos, Jesús; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Zapater, Pedro; Alvarez, Javier; Alonso, María Teresa; Montero, Mayte; García, Antonio G</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The novel antimigraineur, dotarizine (30 μM), increased cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration, [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c, in fura-2-loaded bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. This increase was transient, reached a peak in about 2–5 min (0.53±0.07 μM; n=19) and then declined to basal levels over a further 5 min <span class="hlt">period</span>.This transient rise of [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c was mimicked by 1 μM thapsigargin and by 30 μM cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), but not by 30 μM flunarizine. Both thapsigargin and CPA occluded the effects of dotarizine and vice versa.All three compounds suppressed the transient [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c rises induced by caffeine (10 mM, 10 s); blockade induced by thapsigargin was irreversible and that induced by CPA and dotarizine was reversible.Of the three compounds, only dotarizine blocked reversibly the [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c spikes induced by short pulses of high K+ (70 mM, 5 s), suggesting that dotarizine blocks voltage-dependent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels but CPA and thapsigargin do not.Dotarizine caused a gradual and reversible depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ in chromaffin cells transfected with ER-targeted aequorin. CPA had a similar effect.These data show that dotarizine shares with thapsigargin and CPA the ability to deplete <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ in the ER; this novel action of dotarizine could be relevant to its prophylactic effects in migraine. Unlike thapsigargin and CPA, however, dotarizine additionally and reversibly blocks <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ entry through voltage-dependent <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ channels. PMID:10516641</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-19/pdf/2013-22728.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-19/pdf/2013-22728.pdf"><span>78 FR 57534 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-19</p> <p>... following domestic fisheries in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Caribbean coral... shrimp, Gulf coral, Gulf and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coastal migratory pelagics, Gulf and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> spiny lobster, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coral, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> snapper-grouper, South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shrimp, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> dolphin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ECSS..173...65Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ECSS..173...65Z"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surfclam connectivity within the Middle <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bight: Mechanisms underlying variation in larval transport and settlement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xinzhong; Munroe, Daphne; Haidvogel, Dale; Powell, Eric N.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Larval transport and settlement have been shown in various studies to be essential in determining population abundance and connectivity for benthic invertebrates. This transport is influenced by both the physical environment and biological behavior. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surfclam, Spisula solidissima, is a commercially important benthic invertebrate fishery species along the U.S northeastern coast. In this study, a physical circulation model is coupled to a surfclam larval model to investigate the dynamics of larval transport and settlement within the Middle <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bight (MAB) shelf in 2006. The main physical mechanisms causing variability in larval transport and settlement are also examined. Model results show that surfclam larvae released from July to early October experience relatively larger settlement rates, due to higher average temperatures experienced by larvae. Larval along-shore transport exhibits a mean down-coast pattern following the coastal current from the northeast to the southwest, with most high-frequency (<span class="hlt">period</span> of 2-10 days) variations caused by fluctuations in the along-shore surface wind stress, and with seasonal variations speculated to be driven mainly by changes in the across-shelf density gradient. Larval across-shelf movement is highly correlated with the along-shore surface wind stress mediated by coastal upwelling and downwelling episodes, but the correlation is further dependent on the vertical distribution of the larvae, particularly their position relative to the thermocline. Most surfclam larvae released from the Middle <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> shelf stay below the thermocline and experience a net onshore transport during the summer-stratified season when upwelling-favorable wind forcing dominates. A proposed critical value of water temperature at the thermocline successfully regulates the observed patterns of vertical distribution of surfclam larvae and their across-shelf movement off the New Jersey and South Virginia shelves; that is, when the water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM41B2487J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM41B2487J"><span>Drift of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Anomaly over Solar Cycles 22-24</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, A. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Klecker, B.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Near Brazil, a weakened region of Earth's magnetic field allows energetic particles from the Van Allen radiation belts to travel close to Earth's surface. This region, called the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Anomaly, varies slowly in geospatial location over the course of many years. We present a methodology to quantify the location of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Anomaly using energetic proton rates measured by sensors onboard the SAMPEX spacecraft. We examine the spatial variability of the SAA over a <span class="hlt">period</span> spanning nearly two solar cycles. SAMPEX, which was in a low Earth high inclination orbit, provided high quality data from the time of its launch in 1992 to its re-entry in 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1302778','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1302778"><span>Ionic Mechanisms Underlying Spontaneous <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 Neuronal Firing in <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+-Free Solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shuai, Jianwei; Bikson, Marom; Hahn, Philip J.; Lian, Jun; Durand, Dominique M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Hippocampal <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 neurons exposed to zero-[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] solutions can generate <span class="hlt">periodic</span> spontaneous synchronized activity in the absence of synaptic function. Experiments using hippocampal slices showed that, after exposure to zero-[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]0 solution, <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal cells depolarized 5–10 mV and started firing spontaneous action potentials. Spontaneous single neuron activity appeared in singlets or was grouped into bursts of two or three action potentials. A 16-compartment, 23-variable cable model of a <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 pyramidal neuron was developed to study mechanisms of spontaneous neuronal bursting in a calcium-free extracellular solution. In the model, five active currents (a fast sodium current, a persistent sodium current, an A-type transient potassium current, a delayed rectifier potassium current, and a muscarinic potassium current) are included in the somatic compartment. The model simulates the spontaneous bursting behavior of neurons in calcium-free solutions. The mechanisms underlying several aspects of bursting are studied, including the generation of triplet bursts, spike duration, burst termination, after-depolarization behavior, and the prolonged inactive <span class="hlt">period</span> between bursts. We show that the small persistent sodium current can play a key role in spontaneous <span class="hlt">CA</span>1 activity in zero-calcium solutions. In particular, it is necessary for the generation of an after-depolarizing potential and prolongs both individual bursts and the interburst interval. PMID:12609911</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP22A..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP22A..04K"><span>Northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate since late Medieval times from Northern Caribbean coral geochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Paleoclimate reconstructions of different global climate modes over the last 1000 years provide the basis for testing the relative roles of forced and unforced variability climate system, which can help us improve projections of future climate change. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) has been characterized by a combination of persistent La Niña-like conditions, a positive North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (+NAO), and increased <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is sensitive to each of these climate patterns, but not all of them have the same regional fingerprint in the modern northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The relative influence of different processes related to these climate patterns can help us better understand regional responses to climate change. The regional response of the northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is important because the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean is a large source of heat and moisture to the global climate system that can feedback onto global climate patterns. This study presents new coral Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> and δ18O data from the northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Anegada, British Virgin Islands). Comparison of the sub-fossil corals that grew during the 13th and 14th Centuries with modern coral geochemical data from this site indicates relatively cooler mean conditions with a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the water consistent with lower salinities. Similar average annual cycles between modern and sub-fossil Sr/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> indicate no change in seasonal temperature range, but a difference in the relative phasing of the δ18O seasonal cycles indicates that the fresher mean conditions may be due to a more northerly position of the regional salinity front. This localized response is consistent with some, but not all of the expected regional responses to a La Niña-like state, a +NAO state, and increased AMOC. Understanding these differences can provide insight into the relative importance of advection versus surface fluxes for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP62A0315G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP62A0315G"><span>Decadal Scale Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sea Surface Temperature Indices as Recorded by a Modern Dominican Coral (1935-1996)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greer, L.; Swart, P. K.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>In contrast to research in the tropical Pacific, there have been few definitive studies utilizing proxy records within <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coral skeletons to provide information on the climate dynamics in this region. In order to study associations between salinity and temperature in the Subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, a core was retrieved from a colony of the coral species Montastraea annularis at El Pe¤¢n located in the northwestern region of Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic. Decadal oscillations in the δ18O of the coral skeleton correlate with SST anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> for much of the <span class="hlt">period</span> from 1935 to 1996. Cospectral analyses of coral δ18O and documented tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTAs reveal a dominant frequency of ~12-15 years. This decadal frequency is well documented in observed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST data and models of tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate. We do not believe that fluctuations in the δ18O of this coral reflect local temperature or precipitation patterns. Instead we suggest that the δ18O of the coral is related to Caribbean wide salinity anomalies, which are in turn related to tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTAs. The correlation between coral δ18O and tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SSTA may indicate that when a southward SSTA gradient is pronounced, tradewinds north of the ITCZ increase, enhancing evaporation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Gyre. The net increase in evaporation coupled with a strengthening of gyre circulation could result in a relative increase in the transport of more saline water into the Caribbean via the Mona Passage. When a northward SST gradient is present, precipitation associated with the northern extent of the ITCZ may decrease the mean salinity of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Subtropical Gyre and/or gyre circulation. A relative increase in the transport of less saline South Equatorial waters to the Caribbean could result. However, the correlation between coral δ18O and tropical SST anomalies changes significantly between 1960 and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019936','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019936"><span>CAPE for <span class="hlt">Ca</span>PE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brooks, Joni</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In an effort to improve short-term forecasting for the Kennedy Space Center region, Holle et al. (1992) investigated the effects of low level wind regimes on the distribution of cloud-to-ground lightning in central Florida. With a study <span class="hlt">period</span> of 455 days, Holle et al. (1992) found 'southwest flow contributed 66 percent of the total network flashes while also occurring on the most days (142).' Relationships among mesoscale thermodynamic variables and precipitation and/or lightning have been addressed in previous studies in Canada and the Tennessee valley. Zawadzki et al. (1981) found 'soundings, surface pressure, temperature and humidity obtained from a standard observation network were correlated with rain rates given by raingages and radar.' Buechler et al. (1990) found 'a fair relationship between CAPE (convective available potential energy) and daily cloud-to-ground activity' with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.68. The present research will investigate the relationships among rainfall, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, CAPE, and low level wind flow using data collected during the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>PE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment) field program. The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>PE field program was conducted in east central Florida from July 8, 1991 to August 18, 1991.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT........19R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT........19R"><span>Interannual-to-decadal air-sea interactions in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>The present research identifies modes of atmosphere-ocean interaction in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region and the mechanisms by which air-sea interactions influence the regional climate. Novelties of the present work are (1)the use of relevant ocean and atmosphere variables important to identity coupled variability in the system. (2)The use of new data sets, including realistic diabatic heating. (3)The study of interactions between ocean and atmosphere relevant at interannual-to-decadal time scales. Two tropical modes of variability are identified during the <span class="hlt">period</span> 1958-1993, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niño mode and the Interhemispheric mode. Those modes have defined structures in both ocean and atmosphere. Anomalous sea surface temperatures and winds are associated to anomalous placement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). They develop maximum amplitude during boreal summer and spring, respectively. The anomalous positioning of the ITCZ produces anomalous precipitation in some places like Nordeste, Brazil and the Caribbean region. Through the use of a diagnostic primitive equation model, it is found that the most important terms controlling local anomalous surface winds over the ocean are boundary layer temperature gradients and diabatic heating anomalies at low levels (below 780 mb). The latter is of particular importance in the deep tropics in producing the anomalous meridional response to the surface circulation. Simulated latent heat anomalies indicate that a thermodynamic feedback establishes positive feedbacks at both sides of the equator and west of 20°W in the deep tropics and a negative feedback in front of the north west coast of Africa for the Interhemispheric mode. This thermodynamic feedback only establishes negative feedbacks for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niño mode. Transients establish some connection between the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and other basins. Interhemispheric gradients of surface temperature in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> influence winds in the midlatitude North</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26020631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26020631"><span>Dual annual spawning races in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999DSRII..46..979R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999DSRII..46..979R"><span>Silver in the far North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rivera-Duarte, I.; Flegal, A. R.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Véron, A. J.</p> <p></p> <p>Total (unfiltered) silver concentrations in higher latitudes of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (52-68°N) are reported for the second Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Global Investigation of Pollutants in the Marine Environment (GIPME) baseline survey of 1993. These silver concentrations (0.69-7.2 pM) are oceanographically consistent with those (0.24-9.6 pM) previously reported for lower latitudes in the eastern North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ( Flegal et al., 1995). However, surface (⩽200 m) water concentrations of silver (0.69-4.6 pM) in the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters are, on average, ten-fold larger than those (0.25 pM) considered natural background concentrations in surface waters of the central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In contrast, variations in deep far North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> silver concentrations are associated with discrete water masses. Consequently, the cycling of silver in the far North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> appears to be predominantly controlled by external inputs and the advection of distinct water masses, in contrast to the nutrient-like biogeochemical cycling of silver observed in the central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4447295','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4447295"><span>Dual Annual Spawning Races in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Sturgeon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3988121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3988121"><span>Longitudinal study of CEA and <span class="hlt">CA</span>125 in ovarian cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brioschi, P A; Bischof, P; Rapin, C; De Roten, M; Irion, O; Krauer, F</p> <p>1985-05-01</p> <p>Carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 125 (<span class="hlt">Ca</span>125) levels were measured at regular intervals over a 24-month <span class="hlt">period</span> in 19 patients with proven ovarian cancers. In 91.5% of the cases with recurrent or progressive disease, <span class="hlt">Ca</span>125 levels were increased whereas only 34% of these patients had increased CEA levels. Furthermore, reduction of the tumoral mass was associated with a decrease of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>125 levels in all patients. It is proposed that determination of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>125 levels in ovarian cancer might provide a valuable prognostic tool for the assessment of the evolution of the disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1158670','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1158670"><span>Dissociation of subsarcolemmal from global cytosolic [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+] in myocytes from guinea-pig coronary artery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ganitkevich, V Y; Isenberg, G</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>1. Changes in cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration (delta[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c) were measured by global indo-1 fluorescence and compared with changes in subsarcolemmal <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration (delta[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]sl) indicated by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-activated K+ currents (IK(<span class="hlt">Ca</span>)). 2. At -50 mV holding potential, 10mM caffeine increased both IK(<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) and [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c without measurable delay. While IK(<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) peaked within 0.3 +/- 0.16 s (mean +/- S.D.) and decayed to 50% within 0.4 +/- 0.2 s, delta[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c peaked within 1.5 +/- 0.5 s and decayed to 50% within 5.2 +/- 1.0 s. The different time courses support the idea that [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]sl and [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c deviate. 3. When 10 mM caffeine was applied 20 s after an initial 2 s caffeine application, IK(<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) was suppressed to 22 +/- 5% and delta [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c to 40 +/- 4%. During the following 1 min caffeine-free <span class="hlt">period</span>, IK(<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) recovered to 61 +/- 7% while delta [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c remained at 40 +/- 3%. The differences between IK(<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) and delta[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c suggest that <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ deprivation and <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ refilling is faster in peripheral than in central sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). 4. During the loading <span class="hlt">period</span> of indo-1, a spontaneous delta[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c of 30-80 nM appeared both at -50 mV and at more positive potentials. The amplitude of spontaneous delta[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c increased with the amplitude, the frequency or the fusion of spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs). 5. Block of sarcolemmal <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ fluxes by 1 mM La3+ increased [<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c by 250 +/- 100 nM and suppressed the spontaneous delta[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c. However, La3+ did not significantly retard the rate of decay of STOCs which may therefore be limited by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ diffusion into the cytosol and not by <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ extrusion. 6. The dissociation of IK(<span class="hlt">Ca</span>) (or STOCs) and delta[<span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+]c may indicate a <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentration gradient during <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ release directed from the sarcolemma towards the centre of the cell, which later reverses direction. PMID:8821130</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4553C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPD..10.4553C"><span>Thermal evolution of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the adjacent continent during Termination 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiessi, C. M.; Mulitza, S.; Mollenhauer, G.; Silva, J. B.; Groeneveld, J.; Prange, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>During Termination 1, millennial-scale weakening events of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) supposedly produced major changes in sea surface temperatures (SST) of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and in mean air temperatures (MAT) over southeastern South America. It was suggested, for instance, that the Brazil Current (BC) would strengthen (weaken) and the North Brazil Current (NBC) would weaken (strengthen) during slowdown (speed-up) events of the AMOC. This anti-phase pattern was claimed to be a necessary response to the decreased North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat piracy during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of weak AMOC. However, the thermal evolution of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the adjacent continent is largely unknown and a compelling record of the BC-NBC anti-phase behavior remains elusive. Here we address this issue, presenting high temporal resolution SST and MAT records from the BC and southeastern South America, respectively. We identify a warming in the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), which is followed first by a drop and then by increasing temperatures during the Bølling-Allerød, in-phase with an existing NBC record. Additionally, a similar SST evolution is shown by a southernmost eastern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> record, suggesting a South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-wide pattern in SST evolution during most of Termination 1. Over southeastern South America, our MAT record shows a two-step increase during Termination 1, synchronous with atmospheric CO2 rise (i.e., during the second half of HS1 and during the Younger Dryas), and lagging abrupt SST changes by several thousand years. This delay corroborates the notion that the long duration of HS1 was fundamental to drive the Earth out of the last glacial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..915C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11..915C"><span>Thermal evolution of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the adjacent continent during Termination 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiessi, C. M.; Mulitza, S.; Mollenhauer, G.; Silva, J. B.; Groeneveld, J.; Prange, M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>During Termination 1, millennial-scale weakening events of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) supposedly produced major changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and in mean air temperatures (MATs) over southeastern South America. It has been suggested, for instance, that the Brazil Current (BC) would strengthen (weaken) and the North Brazil Current (NBC) would weaken (strengthen) during slowdown (speed-up) events of the AMOC. This anti-phase pattern was claimed to be a necessary response to the decreased North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat piracy during <span class="hlt">periods</span> of weak AMOC. However, the thermal evolution of the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the adjacent continent is so far largely unknown. Here we address this issue, presenting high-temporal-resolution SST and MAT records from the BC and southeastern South America, respectively. We identify a warming in the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), which is followed first by a drop and then by increasing temperatures during the Bølling-Allerød, in phase with an existing SST record from the NBC. Additionally, a similar SST evolution is shown by a southernmost eastern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> record, suggesting a South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-wide pattern in SST evolution during most of Termination 1. Over southeastern South America, our MAT record shows a two-step increase during Termination 1, synchronous with atmospheric CO2 rise (i.e., during the second half of HS1 and during the Younger Dryas), and lagging abrupt SST changes by several thousand years. This delay corroborates the notion that the long duration of HS1 was fundamental in driving the Earth out of the last glacial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036538','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036538"><span>Habitat selection and overlap of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon and smallmouth bass juveniles in nursery streams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wathen, G.; Coghlan, S.M.; Zydlewski, J.; Trial, J.G.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Introduced smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have invaded much of the historic freshwater habitat of<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon Salmo salar in North America, yet little is known about the ecological interactions between the two species.We investigated the possibility of competition for habitat between age-0 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon and age-0 and age-1 smallmouth bass by means of in situ observations and a mesocosm experiment.We used snorkel observation to identify the degree and timing of overlap in habitat use in our in situ observations and to describe habitat shifts by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon in the presence of smallmouth bass in our mesocosm experiments. In late July 2008, we observed substantial overlap in the depths and mean water column velocities used by both species in sympatric in situ conditions and an apparent shift by age-0 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon to shallower water that coincided with the <span class="hlt">period</span> of high overlap. In the mesocosm experiments, we detected no overlap or habitat shifts by age-0 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon in the presence age-1 smallmouth bass and low overlap and no habitat shifts of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in fall 2009. In 2009, summer floods with sustained high flows and low temperatures resulted in the nearly complete reproductive failure of the smallmouth bass in our study streams, and we did not observe a midsummer habitat shift by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon similar to that seen in 2008. Although this prevented us from replicating our 2008 experiments under similar conditions, the virtual year-class failure of smallmouth bass itself is enlightening. We suggest that future studies incorporate the effects of varying temperature and discharge to determine how abiotic factors affect the interactions between these species and thus mediate the outcomes of potential competition. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PalOc..21.4102V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PalOc..21.4102V"><span>Temporal stability of the neodymium isotope signature of the Holocene to glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van de Flierdt, Tina; Robinson, Laura F.; Adkins, Jess F.; Hemming, Sidney R.; Goldstein, Steven L.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The neodymium isotopic composition of marine precipitates is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool for identifying changes in ocean circulation and mixing on million year to millennial timescales. Unlike nutrient proxies such as δ13C or Cd/<span class="hlt">Ca</span>, Nd isotopes are not thought to be altered in any significant way by biological processes, and thus they can serve as a quasi-conservative water mass tracer. However, the application of Nd isotopes in understanding the role of thermohaline circulation in rapid climate change is currently hindered by the lack of direct constraints on the signature of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> end-member through time. Here we present the first results of Nd isotopes measured in U-Th-dated deep-sea corals from the New England seamounts in the northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean. Our data are consistent with the conclusion that the Nd isotopic composition of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deep and intermediate water has remained nearly constant through the last glacial cycle. The results address long-standing concerns that there may have been significant changes in the Nd isotopic composition of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> end-member during this interval and substantiate the applicability of this novel tracer on millennial timescales for paleoceanography research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PalOc..22.2202Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PalOc..22.2202Y"><span>B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in planktonic foraminifera as a proxy for surface seawater pH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Jimin; Elderfield, Henry; HöNisch, BäRbel</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Boron isotope systematics indicate that boron incorporation into foraminiferal <span class="hlt">Ca</span>CO3 is determined by the partition coefficient, KD (= ?), and [B(OH)4-/HCO3-]seawater, providing, in principle, a method to estimate seawater pH and PCO2. We have measured B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in Globigerina bulloides and Globorotaliainflata for a series of core tops from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Southern Ocean and in Globigerinoides ruber (white) from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 668B on the Sierra Leone Rise in the eastern equatorial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> ratios in these species of planktonic foraminifera seem unaffected by dissolution on the seafloor. KD shows a strong species-specific dependence on calcification temperature, which can be corrected for using the Mg/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> temperature proxy. A preliminary study of G. inflata from Southern Ocean sediment core CHAT 16K suggests that temperature-corrected B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> was ˜30% higher during the last glacial. Correspondingly, pH was 0.15 units higher and aqueous PCO2 was 95 μatm lower at this site at the Last Glacial Maximum. The covariation between reconstructed PCO2 and the atmospheric pCO2 from the Vostok ice core demonstrates the feasibility of using B/<span class="hlt">Ca</span> in planktonic foraminifera for reconstructing past variations in pH and PCO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8947828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8947828"><span><span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling and intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ binding proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niki, I; Yokokura, H; Sudo, T; Kato, M; Hidaka, H</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Changes in cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ concentrations evoke a wide range of cellular responses and intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-binding proteins are the key molecules to transduce <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling via enzymatic reactions or modulation of protein/protein interations (Fig.1). The EF hand proteins, like calmodulin and S100 proteins, are considered to exert <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-dependent actions in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. The <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+/phospholipid binding proteins are classified into two groups, the annexins and the C2 region proteins. These proteins, distributed mainly in the cytoplasm, translocate to the plasma membrane in response to an increase in cytosolic <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ and function in the vicinity of the membrane. <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ storage proteins in the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum provide the high <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ capacity of the <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ store sites, which regulate intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ distribution. The variety and complexity of <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling result from the cooperative actions of specific <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-binding proteins. This review describes biochemical properties of intracellular <span class="hlt">Ca</span>(2+)-binding proteins and their proposed roles in mediating <span class="hlt">Ca</span>2+ signaling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3859S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3859S"><span>Anisotropic tomography of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silveira, G.; Stutzmann, E.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>We present a regional tri-dimensional model of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean with anisotropy. The model, derived from Rayleigh and Love phase velocity measurements, is defined from the Moho down to 300 km depth with a lateral resolution of about 500 km and is presented in terms of average isotropic S-wave velocity, azimuthal anisotropy and transverse isotropy. The cratons beneath North America, Brazil and Africa are clearly associated with fast S-wave velocity anomalies. The Mid <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge is a shallow structure in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corresponding to a negative velocity anomaly down to about 150 km depth. In contrast, the ridge negative signature is visible in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> down to the deepest depth inverted, that is 300~km depth. This difference is probably related to the presence of hot-spots along or close to the ridge axis in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and may indicate a different mechanism for the ridge between the North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Negative velocity anomalies are clearly associated with hot-spots from the surface down to at least 300km depth, they are much broader that the supposed size of the hot-spots and seem to be connected along a North-South direction. Down to 100 km depth, a fast S-wave velocity anomaly is extenting from Africa into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean within the zone defined as the Africa superswell area. This result indicates that the hot material rising from below does not reach the surface in this area but may be pushing the lithosphere upward. In most parts of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the azimuthal anisotropy directions remain stable with increasing depth. Close to the ridge, the fast S-wave velocity direction is roughly parallel to the sea floor spreading direction. The hot-spot anisotropy signature is striking beneath Bermuda, Cape Verde and Fernando Noronha islands where the fast S-wave velocity direction seems to diverge radially from the hot-spots. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> average radial anisotropy is similar to that of the PREM model, that is positive down to about</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PEPI..132..237S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PEPI..132..237S"><span>Anisotropic tomography of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silveira, Graça.; Stutzmann, Eléonore</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>We present the first regional three-dimensional model of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean with anisotropy. The model, derived from Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity measurements, is defined from the Moho down to 300 km depth with a lateral resolution of about 500 km and is presented in terms of average isotropic S-wave velocity, azimuthal anisotropy and transverse isotropy. The cratons beneath North America, Brazil and Africa are clearly associated with fast S-wave velocity anomalies. The mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ridge (MAR) is a shallow structure in the north <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> corresponding to a negative velocity anomaly down to about 150 km depth. In contrast, the ridge negative signature is visible in the south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> down to the deepest depth inverted, that is 300 km depth. This difference is probably related to the presence of hot-spots along or close to the ridge axis in the south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and may indicate a different mechanism for the ridge between the north and south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Negative velocity anomalies are clearly associated with hot-spots from the surface down to at least 300 km depth, they are much broader than the supposed size of the hot-spots and seem to be connected along a north-south direction. Down to 100 km depth, a fast S-wave velocity anomaly is extenting from Africa into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ocean within the zone defined as the Africa superswell area. This result indicates that the hot material rising from below does not reach the surface in this area but may be pushing the lithosphere upward. In most parts of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the azimuthal anisotropy directions remain stable with increasing depth. Close to the ridge, the fast S-wave velocity direction is roughly parallel to the sea floor spreading direction. The hot-spot anisotropy signature is striking beneath Bermuda, Cape Verde and Fernando Noronha islands where the fast S-wave velocity direction seems to diverge radially from the hot-spots. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> average radial anisotropy is similar to that of the PREM model, that is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4016685','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4016685"><span>Prenatal morphine exposure reduces pyramidal neurons in <span class="hlt">CA</span>1, <span class="hlt">CA</span>2 and <span class="hlt">CA</span>3 subfields of mice hippocampus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ghafari, Soraya; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective(s): This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation <span class="hlt">period</span> on pyramidal neurons of hippocampus in 18 and 32 day mice offspring. Materials and Methods: Thirty female m