Science.gov

Sample records for atlas big wheel

  1. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Big Sky Carbon Atlas is an online geoportal designed for you to discover, interpret, and access geospatial data and maps relevant to decision support and education on carbon sequestration in the Big Sky Region. In serving as the public face of the Partnership's spatial Data Libraries, the Atlas provides a gateway to geographic information characterizing CO2 sources, potential geologic sinks, terrestrial carbon fluxes, civil and energy infrastructure, energy use, and related themes. In addition to directly serving the BSCSP and its stakeholders, the Atlas feeds regional data to the NatCarb Portal, contributing to a national perspective on carbon sequestration. Established components of the Atlas include a gallery of thematic maps and an interactive map that allows you to: • Navigate and explore regional characterization data through a user-friendly interface • Print your map views or publish them as PDFs • Identify technical references relevant to specific areas of interest • Calculate straight-line or pipeline-constrained distances from point sources of CO2 to potential geologic sink features • Download regional data layers (feature under development) (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  2. ATLAS: Big Data in a Small Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, Larry; Tonry, John

    2015-08-01

    For even small telescope projects, the petabyte scale is now upon us. The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS; Tonry 2011) will robotically survey the entire visible sky from Hawaii multiple times per night to search for near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) on impact trajectories. While the ATLAS optical system is modest by modern astronomical standards -- two 0.5 m F/2.0 telescopes -- each year the ATLAS system will obtain ~103 measurements of 109 astronomical sources to a photometric accuracy of <5%. This ever-growing dataset must be searched in real-time for moving objects then archived for further analysis, and alerts for newly discovered near-Earth NEAs disseminated within tens of minutes from detection. ATLAS's all-sky coverage ensures it will discover many ``rifle shot'' near-misses moving rapidly on the sky as they shoot past the Earth, so the system will need software to automatically detect highly-trailed sources and discriminate them from the thousands of satellites and pieces of space junk that ATLAS will see each night. Additional interrogation will identify interesting phenomena from beyond the solar system occurring over millions of transient sources per night. The data processing and storage requirements for ATLAS demand a ``big data'' approach typical of commercial Internet enterprises. We describe our approach to deploying a nimble, scalable and reliable data processing infrastructure, and promote ATLAS as steppingstone to eventual processing scales in the era of LSST.

  3. The Read Out Controller for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coliban, R.-M.; Popa, S.; Tulbure, T.; Nicula, D.; Ivanovici, M.; Martoiu, S.; Levinson, L.; Vermeulen, J.

    2016-02-01

    In the upgrade process of the ATLAS detector, the innermost stations of the endcaps (Small Wheels) will be replaced. The New Small Wheel will have two chamber technologies, small-strip Thin Gap Chambers and Micromegas, each providing triggering and precision track measurement. Custom front-end Application Specific Integrated Circuits will be used to read and filter information from both types of detectors. In the context of the New Small Wheel data path, the Read Out Controller ASIC is used for handling, preprocessing and formatting the data generated by the VMM upstream chips. The Read Out Controller will concentrate the data streams from 8 VMMs, filter data based on the ATLAS Level-1 trigger which identifies bunch crossings of interest and transmit the data to FELIX via the L1DDC. The Read Out Controller is composed of 8 VMM Capture modules, a cross-bar and 4 sROC modules. The output data is sent via up to 4 serial links with a configurable speed of 80, 160 or 320 Mbps per link.

  4. ATLAS: Big Data in a Small Package?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, Larry

    2016-01-01

    For even small astronomy projects, the petabyte scale is now upon us. The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (Tonry 2011) will survey the entire visible sky from Hawaii multiple times per night to search for near-Earth asteroids on impact trajectories. While the ATLAS optical system is modest by modern astronomical standards - two 0.5 m F/2.0 telescopes - each night the ATLAS system will measure nearly 109 astronomical sources to a photometric accuracy of <5%, totaling 1012 individual observations over its initial 3-year mission. This ever-growing dataset must be searched in real-time for moving objects and transients then archived for further analysis, and alerts for newly discovered near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) disseminated within tens of minutes from detection. ATLAS's all-sky coverage ensures it will discover many `rifle shot' near-misses moving rapidly on the sky as they shoot past the Earth, so the system will need software to automatically detect highly-trailed sources and discriminate them from the thousands of low-Earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous orbit (GEO) satellites ATLAS will see each night. Additional interrogation will identify interesting phenomena from millions of transient sources per night beyond the solar system. The data processing and storage requirements for ATLAS demand a `big data' approach typical of commercial internet enterprises. We describe our experience in deploying a nimble, scalable and reliable data processing infrastructure, and suggest ATLAS as steppingstone to data processing capability needed as we enter the era of LSST.

  5. Trigger algorithms and electronics for the ATLAS muon new small wheel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, L.

    2016-01-01

    The New Small Wheel Upgrade for the ATLAS experiment will replace the innermost station of the Muon Spectrometer in the forward region in order to maintain its current performance during high luminosity data-taking after the LHC Phase-I upgrade. The New Small Wheel, comprising Micromegas and small Thin Gap Chambers, will reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from backgrounds in the forward region and significantly improve the Level-1 muon trigger selectivity by providing precise on-line segment measurements with ~ 1 mrad angular resolution. Such demanding precision, together with the short time (~ 1 μs) to prepare trigger data and perform on-line reconstruction, implies very stringent requirements on the design of trigger system and trigger electronics. This paper presents an overview of the design of the New Small Wheel trigger system, trigger algorithms and processor hardware.

  6. Radiation-hard power electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameel, J.; Amidei, D.; Baccaro, S.; Citterio, M.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; Sekhon Edgar, K.; Edgar, R.; Fiore, S.; Lanza, A.; Latorre, S.; Lazzaroni, M.; Yang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade for the ATLAS detector to provide enhanced triggering and reconstruction of muons in the forward region. The large LV power demands of the NSW necessitate a point-of-load architecture with on-detector power conversion. The radiation load and magnetic field of this environment, while significant, are nevertheless still in the range where commercial-off-the-shelf power devices may suffice. We present studies on the radiation-hardness and magnetic-field tolerance of several candidate buck converters and linear regulators. Device survival and performance are characterized when exposed to gamma radiation, neutrons, protons and magnetic fields.

  7. Application of imaging geodesy to assess kinematics of the Medicine Wheel Landslide, Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, B. M.; Gomez, F.; Corley, J.

    2012-12-01

    Radar interferometry provides a means of imaging spatially varying kinematics of slow mass movements, such as earthflows. These observations provide critical constraints for understanding earth flow mechanics when considered with topography and meteorological forcings. This study focuses the Medicine Wheel Landslide located on the western side of the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. The mass movement is 1km by 1km and is on a 7 degree slope and consists of multiple rotational slumps within the larger mass which is detaching along the Mowry and Thermopolis Shales. The slide regularly damages the highway that intersects it. Preliminary results of a combination of satellite-based and ground-based radar interferometry document variations in the rates of done-slope movement. Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) analysis utilized L-band data acquired by the ALOS PALSAR system. Resulting interferograms indicated that the Medicine Wheel Slide is active even during the summer months moving up to 7.5cm from July to October 2011. This movement corresponds with record amounts of snowfall during the 2010-2011 winter. Ground based interferometric radar (GBIR) was chosen for this application due to millimeter scale sensitivity to motion, and its ability to perform observations from the same point. GBIR observation point was chosen to maximize line-of-site sensitivity to motion and to provide a more complete view of the entire slide surface. In addition, ground truth measurements of displacement are provided by a network of 20 monuments measured using rapid static GPS, acquired during the same observation campaign as the GBIR imaging. Seasonal amounts of movement derived from radar interferometry and ground-truthed by GPS, can then be compared meteorological data to determine if the relationship shown for 2011 persists.

  8. Trigger Data Serializer ASIC chip for the ATLAS New Small Wheel sTGC Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangting; Wang, Jinhong; Guan, Liang; Sang, Ziru; Chapman, John; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie

    2015-04-01

    The small-strip thin-gap chambers (sTGC) will be used as the trigger device for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS new small wheel (nSW) muon detector. An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip is needed to collect digital signals from both pad and strip detectors and serialize the outputs to the circuitry located on the rim of the nSW. The large number of input channels (128 differential input channels), short time available to prepare and transmit trigger data (<100 ns), high speed output data rate (4.8 Gbps), harsh radiation environment (about 300 kRad), and low power consumption (<1 W) impose great challenges for the design of this ASIC chip using the IBM 130 nm CMOS process. We will present our design and test results based on the prototype chip we build.

  9. The identification and repair of anomalous measurements in the measurement of big diameter based on rolling-wheel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haiou; Yu, Xiaofen

    2010-12-01

    Rolling-wheel method is an effective way of measuring big diameter. After amending the temperature error and pressure error, the uncertainty of measurement can not be φ =5um/m stably because of the influence of skid. The traditional method of identifying skid loses sight of the influences of the unstable motor speed, the appearance form error and the eccentric of installation of the big axis and rolling wheel and so on, so the method has its limitation. In this paper, a new method of multiple identification and repair is introduced, namely n diameters are measured and Chauvenet standard is used for identifying the anomalous measurements one by one, and then the average value of the remaining data is used for repairing identified anomalous measurements, and the next round identification and repair is carried out until the accuracy requirement of the measurement is satisfied. The result of experiments indicates that the method can identify anomalous measurements whose offsets caused by the skid are greater than 0.2φ , and the uncertainty of measurement has improved substantially.

  10. The identification and repair of anomalous measurements in the measurement of big diameter based on rolling-wheel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haiou; Yu, Xiaofen

    2011-05-01

    Rolling-wheel method is an effective way of measuring big diameter. After amending the temperature error and pressure error, the uncertainty of measurement can not be φ =5um/m stably because of the influence of skid. The traditional method of identifying skid loses sight of the influences of the unstable motor speed, the appearance form error and the eccentric of installation of the big axis and rolling wheel and so on, so the method has its limitation. In this paper, a new method of multiple identification and repair is introduced, namely n diameters are measured and Chauvenet standard is used for identifying the anomalous measurements one by one, and then the average value of the remaining data is used for repairing identified anomalous measurements, and the next round identification and repair is carried out until the accuracy requirement of the measurement is satisfied. The result of experiments indicates that the method can identify anomalous measurements whose offsets caused by the skid are greater than 0.2φ , and the uncertainty of measurement has improved substantially.

  11. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  12. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  13. Cart Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Edson R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper draws attention to cart wheels, two wheels rotating freely about a common axle and rolling on an inclined plane, both as a demonstration and as a satisfying application of dynamical analysis. (BB)

  14. Performance of a full-size small-strip thin gap chamber prototype for the ATLAS new small wheel muon upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusleme, A.; Bélanger-Champagne, C.; Bellerive, A.; Benhammou, Y.; Botte, J.; Cohen, H.; Davies, M.; Du, Y.; Gauthier, L.; Koffas, T.; Kuleshov, S.; Lefebvre, B.; Li, C.; Lupu, N.; Mikenberg, G.; Mori, D.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Codina, E. Perez; Rettie, S.; Robichaud-Véronneau, A.; Rojas, R.; Shoa, M.; Smakhtin, V.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Toro, A.; Torres, H.; Ulloa, P.; Vachon, B.; Vasquez, G.; Vdovin, A.; Viel, S.; Walker, P.; Weber, S.; Zhu, C.

    2016-05-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the present design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. The most important upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward regions with the so-called New Small Wheels (NSWs). The NSWs will be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2019/2020. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chamber (sTGC) detectors are designed to provide fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under the high luminosity LHC conditions. To validate the design, a full-size prototype sTGC detector of approximately 1.2 × 1.0m2 consisting of four gaps has been constructed. Each gap provides pad, strip and wire readouts. The sTGC intrinsic spatial resolution has been measured in a 32 GeV pion beam test at Fermilab. At perpendicular incidence angle, single gap position resolutions of about 50 μm have been obtained, uniform along the sTGC strip and perpendicular wire directions, well within design requirements. Pad readout measurements have been performed in a 130 GeV muon beam test at CERN. The transition region between readout pads has been found to be 4 mm, and the pads have been found to be fully efficient.

  15. Big wheels keep on turning

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, K.

    2008-05-15

    Although the structure of the market for bucketwheel and bucket chain based equipment has changed over the years, design advances have enabled the technology to retain a significant place in the production and distribution of coal and minerals. 4 photos.

  16. Bicycle Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An aerodynamic bicycle wheel developed by two DuPont engineers and a California company incorporates research into NASA airfoils. Computer modeling was accomplished with MSC/NASTRAN. Each of the three spokes in the wheel is, in effect, an airfoil, maximizing aerodynamic efficiency for racing.

  17. Art on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of wheels in children's art. Focuses on collecting wheels, ideas for decorating different artworks with wheels, and objects that can move on wheels. Sees wheels as an inspiration for children's art, reflecting on the use of this object in the art classroom. (CMK)

  18. EXTERIOR VIEW, RIGHT SIDE OF LOCOMOTIVE SHOWING WHEEL ASSEMBLY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, RIGHT SIDE OF LOCOMOTIVE SHOWING WHEEL ASSEMBLY WITH BIG END OF MAIN ROD (TOP), ECCENTRIC CRANK (CENTER), AND BIG END CONCENTRIC ROD (BOTTOM). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 611, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Piezoelectric Wheel System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, Puu-An

    2007-10-01

    A piezoelectric wheel system is proposed for used as a microstepping displacement device including a carrier and two displacement members, which are separately pivoted on the carrier. Each displacement member includes two wheels, and which can not rotate. In addition, each wheel includes a wheel sheet and a piezoelectric element embedded on its surface. When the piezoelectricity element generates and transmits power to the wheel sheet, the wheel induces vibration and deformation. Therefore, owing to the wheel sheets and the touched ground involving their relative motion, the displacement device can be moved or can be oriented its motion direction. The wheel system involves direct movement, and has no rotor requirement. In this research, a three-dimensional (3D) mechanical element with an extra electrical degree of freedom is employed to simulate the dynamic vibration modes of the linear piezoelectric, mechanical, and piezoelectric-mechanical behaviours of the piezoelectric wheel.

  20. Three-Wheel Brush-Wheel Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duckworth, Geoffrey A.; Liu, Jun; Brown, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    A new sampler is similar to a common snow blower, but is robust and effective in sample collection. The brush wheels are arranged in a triangle shape, each driven by a brushless DC motor and planetary gearhead embedded in the wheel shaft. Its speed can be varied from 800 - 2,000 rpm, depending on the surface regolith resistance. The sample-collecting flow path, and internal features, are designed based on flow dynamics, and the sample-collecting rates have consistently exceeded the requirement under various conditions that span the range of expected surface properties. The brush-wheel sampler (BWS) is designed so that the flow channel is the main body of the apparatus, and links the brush-wheel assembly to the sample canister. The combination of the three brush wheels, the sample flow path, and the canister location make sample collection, storage, and transfer an easier task.

  1. Running Wheel for Earthworms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed.

  2. Running Wheel for Earthworms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  3. Running Wheel for Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  4. Small turbines, big unknown

    SciTech Connect

    Gipe, P.

    1995-07-01

    While financial markets focus on the wheeling and dealing of the big wind companies, the small wind turbine industry quietly keeps churning out its smaller but effective machines. Some, the micro turbines, are so small they can be carried by hand. Though worldwide sales of small wind turbines fall far short of even one large windpower plant, figures reach $8 million to $10 million annually and could be as much as twice that if batteries and engineering services are included.

  5. Effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jian; Wang, Ruiqian; Wang, Di; Guan, Qinghua; Zhang, Yumei; Xiao, Xinbiao; Jin, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    The current researches of wheel vibration and sound radiation mainly focus on the low noise damped wheel. Compared with the traditional research, the relationship between the sound and wheel/rail contact is difficulty and worth studying. However, there are few studies on the effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation. In this paper, laboratory test carried out in a semi-anechoic room investigates the effect of wheel load on wheel natural frequencies, damping ratios, wheel vibration and its sound radiation. The laboratory test results show that the vibration of the wheel and total sound radiation decrease significantly with the increase of the wheel load from 0 t to 1 t. The sound energy level of the wheel decreases by 3.7 dB. When the wheel load exceeds 1 t, the attenuation trend of the vibration and sound radiation of the wheel becomes slow. And the increase of the wheel load causes the growth of the wheel natural frequencies and the mode damping ratios. Based on the finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM), a rolling noise prediction model is developed to calculate the influence of wheel load on the wheel vibration and sound radiation. In the calculation, the used wheel/rail excitation is the measured wheel/rail roughness. The calculated results show that the sound power level of the wheel decreases by about 0.4 dB when the wheel load increases by 0.5 t. The sound radiation of the wheel decreases slowly with wheel load increase, and this conclusion is verified by the field test. This research systematically studies the effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation, gives the relationship between the sound and wheel/rail contact and analyzes the reasons, therefore, it provides a reference for further research.

  6. Aircraft wheel life assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, B. F., Jr.; Kirkner, D. J.; Schudt, E. E.; Kandarpa, S.

    1993-07-01

    The important part of wheel life assessment problems is the accurate determination of the tire/wheel interface pressure distribution under various loading conditions. A combined analytical/experimental methodology for obtaining this pressure distribution was developed. The principal analytical tool in this methodology is the finite element program ANTWILL (Analysis of Tire Wheel Interface Loads) which recovers the pressure distribution given a number of experimental strain measurements on the wheel. The major activity consisted of a study of the F-16 Block 30 and the Block 40 main landing gear wheels to determine the optimal number and location of the strain gages for subsequent experiments. Experiments to be conducted will record strains at the specified locations and this data will be used to determine tire/wheel interface pressures.

  7. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  8. Grinding Wheel System

    DOEpatents

    Malkin, Stephen; Gao, Robert; Guo, Changsheng; Varghese, Biju; Pathare, Sumukh

    2003-08-05

    A grinding wheel system includes a grinding wheel with at least one embedded sensor. The system also includes an adapter disk containing electronics that process signals produced by each embedded sensor and that transmits sensor information to a data processing platform for further processing of the transmitted information.

  9. Grinding Wheel System

    DOEpatents

    Malkin, Stephen; Gao, Robert; Guo, Changsheng; Varghese, Biju; Pathare, Sumukh

    2006-01-10

    A grinding wheel system includes a grinding wheel with at least one embedded sensor. The system also includes an adapter disk containing electronics that process signals produced by each embedded sensor and that transmits sensor information to a data processing platform for further processing of the transmitted information.

  10. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  11. Reinventing the Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon; Bland, Lori C.; Chandler, Kimberley

    2009-01-01

    "The Wheel of Scientific Investigation and Reasoning" (Kramer 1987; Paul and Binker 1992) is a graphic representation of the scientific investigative process. The scientific process is depicted in a wheel rather than in a list because "the process of scientific inquiry can begin from any stage, and that stage may be revisited as often as the…

  12. Tire/wheel concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, P. M., Sr. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tire and wheel assembly is disclosed in which a low profile pneumatic tire (having sidewalls which deflect inwardly under load) and a wheel (having a rim featuring a narrow central channel and extended rim flanges) form the combination. The extended rim flanges support the tire sidewalls under static and dynamic loading conditions to produce a combination particularly suited to aircraft applications.

  13. Two wheeled lunar dumptruck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brus, Michael R.; Haleblain, Ray; Hernandez, Tomas L.; Jensen, Paul E.; Kraynick, Ronald L.; Langley, Stan J.; Shuman, Alan G.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a two wheel bulk material transport vehicle is described in detail. The design consists of a modified cylindrical bowl, two independently controlled direct drive motors, and two deformable wheels. The bowl has a carrying capacity of 2.8 m (100 ft) and is constructed of aluminum. The low speed, high HP motors are directly connected to the wheels, thus yielding only two moving parts. The wheels, specifically designed for lunar applications, utilize the chevron tread pattern for optimum traction. The vehicle is maneuvered by varying the relative angular velocities of the wheels. The bulk material being transported is unloaded by utilizing the motors to oscillate the bowl back and forth to a height at which dumping is achieved. The analytical models were tested using a scaled prototype of the lunar transport vehicle. The experimental data correlated well with theoretical predictions. Thus, the design established provides a feasible alternative for the handling of bulk material on the moon.

  14. Science Can Be Wheel Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how teachers can use wheels of tricycles, bicycles, and trains to stimulate children with mathematics, relative position, and engineering concepts. Techniques are offered for measuring circumference of a bicycle wheel, gear ratios, and pedal wheel circumferences. Comparative data are given for various sized wheels. (Author/SA)

  15. Wheeled hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  16. NICMOS Filter Wheel Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    This is an engineering test {described in SMOV4 Activity Description NICMOS-04} to verify the aliveness, functionality, operability, and electro-mechanical calibration of the NICMOS filter wheel motors and assembly after NCS restart in SMOV4. This test has been designed to obviate concerns over possible deformation or breakage of the fitter wheel "soda-straw" shafts due to excess rotational drag torque and/or bending moments which may be imparted due to changes in the dewar metrology from warm-up/cool-down. This test should be executed after the NCS {and filter wheel housing} has reached and approximately equilibrated to its nominal operating temperature.Addition of visits G0 - G9 {9/9/09}: Ten visits copied from proposal 11868 {visits 20, 30, ..., 90, A0, B0}. Each visit moves two filter positions, takes lamp ON/OFF exposures and then moves back to the blank position. Visits G0, G1 and G2 will leave the filter wheels disabled. The remaining visits will leave the filter wheels enabled. There are sufficient in between times to allow for data download and analysis. In the case of problem is encountered, the filter wheels will be disabled through a real time command. The in between times are all set to 22-50 hours. It is preferable to have as short as possible in between time.

  17. Rotating target wheel for the FMA

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.B.; Davids, C.N.; Falout, J.

    1995-08-01

    In anticipation of high intensity beams that will be available from the PII-ECR source injector to ATLAS, a new rotating target wheel was developed for the sliding seal chamber at the FMA. The wheel is 9 inch in diameter and contains up to ten targets. The rotation of the wheel is achieved by a DC motor, a ferrofluidic feedthrough, and a gear mechanism that allows both target rotation and changing the target angle relative to the beam. The nominal rotation speed is 1000 RPM, although higher speeds can be achieved if necessary. The assembly is equipped with an absolute encoder which is read out via a newly developed CAMAC module. This module provides the following main functions: (1) a TTL signal to be used for sweeping the beam when a target frame is about to pass through the beam, (2) a read-out of the target position that can be included in the data event structure, (3) programmable set points for the beam-off signal. The system is presently being tested and will be used in experiments scheduled for March 1995.

  18. Sustainable Rural Energy: Traditional Water Wheels in Padang (PWW) Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Gusri Akhyar; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Azhari, Che Husna

    2010-06-01

    Renewable and sustainable energy is increasingly gaining interest in current research circles due to the debates on renewable energy resources. It is essential for scientists and researchers to search for solutions in renewable energy resources, with effective technologies, and low cost in operation and maintenance. Hydro resources can be considered a potential renewable energy resource. The traditional water wheel with simple construction coupled with a basic concept of technology can be utilised as a renewable and sustainable rural energy system. This paper discusses the case of the water wheel as a renewable energy system employed in Padang, Indonesia. The Padang water wheel is constructed from hardwood material with a diameter of 300 cm and width of 40 cm. It is built on a river using water flow to generate the movement of the wheel. The water wheel application in the area showed that it is suitable to be utilised to elevate and distribute water to rice fields located at a higher level than the water level of the river. The water wheel capacity is about 100-120 liters/min. It could continuously irrigate ±5 ha. of the rice fields. One of the advantages of this water wheel type is to function as a green technology concept promising no negative effect on the environment. The traditional water wheel has also a big economic impact on the rural economy, increasing the productivity of the rice fields. The people of Padang live in a water landscape encompassing the water wheel as an ubiquitous part of their lives, hence they relate to it and the technology of fabrication as well as the utilisation, making it an amenable and effective technology, finding relevance in the modern world.

  19. Wheel Electrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Buehler, Martin G.; Mantovani, James G.; Buhler, Charles; Nomicki, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Two documents describe a prototype system of electrometers for measuring electrostatic fields and electrostatic responses of soils on Mars and the Moon. The electrodes of this electrometer are embedded in a wheel of an exploratory robotic vehicle, utilizing the wheel motion to bring the electrodes into proximity or contact with the soil. Each electrode resides in one of two types of sensor modules: electric-field (ELF) or triboelectric (TRIBO). In either type, what is measured is simply the electric charge induced on the electrode by exposure to the external distribution of electrostatic charge. In an ELF module, the electrode is bare and recessed radially from the wheel surface. The ELF sensor provides a measure of the charge on a small patch of undisturbed soil as the wheel rolls forward. In a TRIBO module, the electrode is only slightly recessed and covered with a polymeric insulator flush with the wheel surface. Through contact electrification, the insulator exchanges charge with the soil. There are five TRIBO sensors, each containing an insulator made of a different polymer. The charge data gathered by the five TRIBO sensors can be used to determine how the soil fits into a triboelectric series.

  20. 129. SECTION OF BREAST WHEEL AND FOREBAY, REBUILT WHEELS 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. SECTION OF BREAST WHEEL AND FOREBAY, REBUILT WHEELS 1, 2, 3, 1843 Frederic Graff, Jr., Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 14. MACHINERY DETAILS: CENTER WHEEL FRAME AND AXEL, JACK WHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MACHINERY DETAILS: CENTER WHEEL FRAME AND AXEL, JACK WHEEL FRAME, JACK NUT HOUSING, JACK NUT, ETC. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  2. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  3. Portable, wheeled cooler apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, A.E.; Miller, J.L.

    1988-02-16

    A portable, wheeled cooler apparatus adapted to be supported on and easily moved along a support surface is described comprising; (a) a cooler chest assembly including a support container member having an enclosure lid member connected thereto to hold ice and/or other contents therein for insulating purposes; (b) a support wheel assembly connected to the cooler chest assembly operable for supporting on the support surface; and (c) a combination handle and lock assembly connected to an upright wall of the support container member of the cooler chest assembly and operable (1) in one position extended over the enclosure lid member and against another upright wall of the support container member to hold the cooler chest assembly in an enclosed, locked condition; and (2) in a second extended rigid condition to provide a handle assembly for ease of inclining and moving the cooler chest assembly by pulling or pushing on the support wheel assembly.

  4. Rover wheel & tracks - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view from the Sojourner rover's rear color camera shows wheel tracks in the orange-red martian soil. One of the rover's cleated wheels is visible at left.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  5. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall...

  6. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall...

  7. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall...

  8. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall...

  9. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall...

  10. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlich, D.

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  11. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFelice, Audrey

    2012-10-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 19 Program 12771.

  12. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chris

    2011-10-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 18 Program 12410.

  13. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFelice, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 20 Program 13140.

  14. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 17 Program 11851.

  15. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. 3-D Color Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  17. Testing Spirit on Five Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture shows a model of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit being tested for performance on five wheels at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Spirit's right front wheel, now operating at six times its design life, has been showing signs of age, so rover planners devised a creative approach to keep the rover moving. They will drive Spirit backwards on five wheels, engaging the sixth wheel only sparingly to ensure its availability for tougher terrain. Tests performed at JPL allowed the rover planners to come up with this roundabout solution, and to develop commands that will help the five-wheeled rover steer.

  18. Hydrodynamic analysis of the wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehr, Young-Zehr

    The flow distribution in a propeller and the effect of the wheel on the propeller were investigated. The quasistationary flow distribution was determined on the basis of the lifting-line theory with lifting-surface correction. The unsteady static pressure and the resulting cavitation number at the propeller part of the wheel were determined. The geometry of the free vortex surfaces was approximated using experimental data and an iteration process. The calculated effect of the wheel on the propeller with respect to induced speeds shows good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that the calculated thrust gain by the wheel is hardly influenced by the distance propeller-wheel, in agreement with measured data. Application of the proposed discretization method to propeller-wheel systems gives satisfactory results, and shows that cavitation danger at the propeller part of the wheel in free-floating conditions is not to be expected, while the usual wake concentration certainly leads to cavitation danger.

  19. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Type 27A cutting-off wheels. (g) Certain internal wheels. (h) Type 4 tapered wheels. (i) Diamond wheels, except certain vitrified diamond wheels. (j) Modified Types 6 and 11 wheel (terrazzo)—blotters... internal wheels. (viii) Type 4 tapered wheels. (ix) Diamond wheels, except certain vitrified diamond...

  20. Wheel loader round up

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-02-15

    Operator comfort and serviceability remain important features of front-end loaders or wheel loaders. The article reports on features of the latest large loaders from three companies: Caterpillar (the 992G and 994F), Komatsu (the WA800-3, WA900-3 and WA1200-3), and Le Tourneau (the L-950, L-1350, L-1850 and L-2350). 1 tab., 4 photos.

  1. Experiments with Electrodynamic Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Nathan; Corey, Daniel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian

    2015-04-01

    Our experiments were involving inductive magnetic levitation. A Halbach array is a system in which a series of magnets is arranged in a manner such that the magnetic field is cancelled on one side of the array while strengthening the field on the other. We constructed two circular Halbach wheels, making the strong magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such system is usually dubbed as an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We demonstrated that these interactions produce both drag and lift forces on the EDW which can theoretically be used for lift and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is determining how to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio by the proper choice of the induction element. We will also describe our experiments with a rotating circular Halbach array having the strong magnetic field of about 1 T on the flat side of the ring, and acting as a hovercraft.

  2. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  3. 49 CFR 393.205 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels. 393.205 Section 393.205 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.205 Wheels. (a) Wheels and rims shall not be cracked or broken. (b) Stud or bolt holes on the wheels...

  4. 49 CFR 393.205 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels. 393.205 Section 393.205 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.205 Wheels. (a) Wheels and rims shall not be cracked or broken. (b) Stud or bolt holes on the wheels...

  5. 49 CFR 393.205 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels. 393.205 Section 393.205 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.205 Wheels. (a) Wheels and rims shall not be cracked or broken. (b) Stud or bolt holes on the wheels...

  6. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must...

  7. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must...

  8. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must...

  9. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must...

  10. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c)...

  11. 49 CFR 393.205 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels. 393.205 Section 393.205 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.205 Wheels. (a) Wheels and rims shall not be cracked or broken. (b) Stud or bolt holes on the wheels...

  12. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c)...

  13. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must...

  14. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c)...

  15. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c)...

  16. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c)...

  17. 49 CFR 393.205 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels. 393.205 Section 393.205 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.205 Wheels. (a) Wheels and rims shall not be cracked or broken. (b) Stud or bolt holes on the wheels...

  18. Portrait of an Aging Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This plot maps the increasing amounts of energy needed to spin Spirit's right front wheel drive, which has been showing signs of age. The wheel has now traveled six times farther than its design life. Since Spirit's 126th day on Mars, this wheel has required additional electric current to run at normal speeds, as indicated with blue diamonds on this graph. Efforts to improve the situation by redistributing the lubricant in the wheel with heat and rest were only mildly successful (pink squares). To cope with the condition, rover planners have come up with a creative solution: they will drive the rover backwards using five of six wheels. The sixth wheel will be activated only when the terrain demands it.

  19. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  20. Control of Single Wheel Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yangsheng; Ou, Yongsheng

    This monograph presents a novel concept of a mobile robot, which is a single-wheel, gyroscopically stabilized robot. The robot is balanced by a spinning wheel attached through a two-link manipulator at the wheel bearing, and actuated by a drive motor. This configuration conveys significant advantages including insensitivity to attitude disturbances, high maneuverability, low rolling resistance, ability to recover from falls, and amphibious capability for potential applications on both land and water.

  1. Robotic Two-Wheeled Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesnas, Issa A. D. (Inventor); Matthews, Jaret B. (Inventor); Edlund, Jeffrey E. (Inventor); Burdick, Joel (Inventor); Abad-Manterola, Pablo (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic two-wheeled vehicle comprising a connection body interposed between the two wheels are described. A drum can be coaxially located in a central region of the connection body and can support a hollow arm projecting radially from the drum. A tether can be inserted in the arm and connected to a second drum. Instruments and sensors can be accommodated in a case housed inside each wheel.

  2. Robotic Two-Wheeled Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesnas, Issa A. D. (Inventor); Matthews, Jaret B. (Inventor); Edlund, Jeffrey E. (Inventor); Burdick, Joel (Inventor); Abad-Manterola, Pablo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic two-wheeled vehicle comprising a connection body interposed between the two wheels are described. A drum can be coaxially located in a central region of the connection body and can support a hollow arm projecting radially from the drum. A tether can be inserted in the arm and connected to a second drum. Instruments and sensors can be accommodated in a case housed inside each wheel.

  3. ATLAS Large Scale Thin Gap Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aria

    2014-04-29

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of the ATLAS sTGC New Small Wheel collaboration who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the FY2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program.

  4. Periodic roads and quantized wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple approach to determine all possible wheels that can roll smoothly without slipping on a periodic roadbed, while maintaining the center of mass at a fixed height. We also address the inverse problem that of obtaining the roadbed profile compatible with a specific wheel and all other related "quantized wheels." The role of symmetry is highlighted, which might preclude the center of mass from remaining at a fixed height. A straightforward consequence of such geometric quantization is that the gravitational potential energy and the moment of inertia are discrete, suggesting a parallelism between macroscopic wheels and nano-systems, such as carbon nanotubes.

  5. Magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocking, G.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly (MSRWA) is the product of a development effort funded by the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) at Wright Patterson AFB. The specific objective of the project was to establish the manufacturing processes for samarium cobalt magnets and demonstrate their use in a space application. The development was successful on both counts. The application portion of the program, which involves the magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly, is emphasized. The requirements for the reaction wheel were based on the bias wheel requirements of the DSP satellite. The tasks included the design, fabrication, and test of the unit to the DSP program qualification requirements.

  6. Self-Damping Sprung Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Self-damping sprung wheel provides shock-absorbing suspension for wheelchair, reducing user's discomfort when traversing rough terrain or obstacles. Pair of self-damping sprung wheels installed in place of conventional large rear wheels of standard wheelchair, which user operates in conventional manner. Rim deflects in vicinity of contact with ground or floor. Includes inner and outer hoops bending when obstacle encountered. Shear deformation of elastomeric hoop between them absorbs energy. Thus, three hoops act together as damping spring. Alternative version of wheel designed for bicycle.

  7. Four-wheel dual braking for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    Each master cylinder applies braking power to all four wheels unlike conventional systems where cylinder operates only two wheels. If one master system fails because of fluid loss, other stops car by braking all four wheels although at half force.

  8. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

  9. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  10. Constructing a Celestial Calendar Wheel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousineau, Sarah M.

    1999-01-01

    Explains how to create a paper replica of the Bighorn Medicine Wheel, an ancient timepiece thought to have been constructed by the Lakota Indians around 1700 A.D. The Bighorn Wheel uses four key seasonal stars as well as the solstice sunrise and sunset to mark the passage of time through the summer. (WRM)

  11. Color Wheels Can Be Creative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating color wheels is an appropriate assignment in the art classroom for students of all ages, including high school students, because it still offers older students a challenge. Discusses how students can create color wheels and lists the materials that are needed. (CMK)

  12. How Big Is Too Big?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  13. Rover Wheel Sizes (Isometric)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars rovers keep getting bigger. This photo provides a comparison of the wheel sizes for three generations of them. The first rover on Mars was Sojourner, on the Mars Pathfinder mission launched in 1996. It was small and didn't go far. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, launched in 2003, are bigger and have driven many times farther than expected. The Mars Science Laboratory, in development for a 200 launch, represents another leap in capability. It will carry its onboard chemistry laboratory long distances.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, built Sojourner, Spirit and Opportunity, and is building the Mars Science Laboratory. It has managed these missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  14. Wheel running in the wild.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

    2014-07-01

    The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

  15. Three-wheeled motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Irimajiri, S.; Komuro, K.; Aikawa, K.

    1986-03-04

    A three-wheeled motor vehicle is described consisting of: (a) a vehicle body; (b) two front wheels rotatably mounted on the vehicle body; (c) a single rear wheel rotatably mounted on the vehicle body; (d) an engine disposed on the vehicle body between the front wheels; (e) a driver's compartment defined in the vehicle body; (f) the vehicle body including a front portion covering the engine and the front wheels and a rear portion disposed behind the front portion and covering the compartment and the rear wheel, the front portion having a relatively wide and flat shape and the rear portion being narrower than the front portion and progressively higher in a rearward direction for a substantial proportion of the rear portion; and (g) the vehicle body also including lateral wing portions on each side extending longitudinally rearwardly from behind the front wheels and tapering into the rear portion for causing the vehicle body to have a substantially constant cross-sectional area throughout a substantial proportion of both the front and rear portions and the transition between the front and rear portions for producing an aerodynamically improved vehicle body shape.

  16. Big science and big administration. Confronting the governance, financial and legal challenges of FuturICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, J.; Scott, M.; McCarthy, J. B.; Tan, K. T.; Argyrakis, P.; Bishop, S.; Conte, R.; Havlin, S.; San Miguel, M.; Stauffacher, D.

    2012-11-01

    This paper considers the issues around managing large scientific projects, and draws conclusions for the governance and management of FuturICT, based on previous experience of Big Science projects, such as CERN and ATLAS. We also consider the legal and ethical issues of the FuturICT project as the funding instrument moves from the Seventh Framework Programme to Horizon 2020.

  17. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  18. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  19. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  20. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit...

  1. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheels. 29.731 Section 29.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  2. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  3. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  4. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheels. 27.731 Section 27.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  5. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  6. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheels. 27.731 Section 27.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  7. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit...

  8. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheels. 29.731 Section 29.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  9. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheels. 29.731 Section 29.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  10. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit...

  11. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  12. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheels. 29.731 Section 29.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  13. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit...

  14. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheels. 27.731 Section 27.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  15. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit...

  16. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  17. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheels. 27.731 Section 27.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  18. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheels. 29.731 Section 29.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  19. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheels. 27.731 Section 27.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  20. Micromegas chambers for the experiment ATLAS at the LHC (A Brief Overview)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongadze, A. L.

    2016-03-01

    The increase in luminosity and energy of the Large hadron collider (LHC) in the next upgrade (Phase-1) in 2018-2019 will lead to a significant increase in radiation load on the ATLAS detector, primarily in the areas close to the interaction point of the LHC proton beams. One of these regions is the Small Wheel of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. It is planned to be replaced with the New Small Wheel that will have Micromegas chambers as main coordinate detectors. The paper gives an overview of all existing types of Micromegas detectors with special focus on the Micromegas chambers for the ATLAS detector upgrade.

  1. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective wheel. 215.103 Section 215.103... § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange... tread of the wheel; (b) The height of a wheel flange on the car, from the tread to the top of the...

  2. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective wheel. 215.103 Section 215.103... § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange... tread of the wheel; (b) The height of a wheel flange on the car, from the tread to the top of the...

  3. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective wheel. 215.103 Section 215.103... § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange... tread of the wheel; (b) The height of a wheel flange on the car, from the tread to the top of the...

  4. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective wheel. 215.103 Section 215.103... § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange... tread of the wheel; (b) The height of a wheel flange on the car, from the tread to the top of the...

  5. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    PubMed

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running.

  6. Wind wheel electric power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.W.

    1980-03-04

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus is disclosed as including a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertically disposed support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixedly mounted upon the housing for capturing wind currents and for conducting the same to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel, all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature , together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  7. Wind wheel electric power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus includes a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertical support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixed onto the housing for capturing wind currents and conducting to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with the generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel; all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature, together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  8. Grinding Wheel Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graphic dubbed by engineers as the 'Grinding Wheel Profile' is the detective's tool used by the Opportunity team to help them understand one of the processes that formed the interior of a rock called 'McKittrick.' Scientists are looking for clues as to how layers, grains and minerals helped create this rock, and the engineers who built the rock abrasion tool (RAT) wanted to ensure that their instrument's handiwork did not get confused with natural processes.

    In the original microscopic image underlaying the graphics, engineers and scientists noticed 'layers' or 'scratches' on the spherical object nicknamed 'blueberry' in the lower right part of the image. The designers of the rock abrasion tool noticed that the arc length and width of the scratches were similar to the shape and size of the rock abrasion tool's grinding wheel, which is made out of a pad of diamond teeth.

    The scrapes on the bottom right blueberry appear to be caused by the fact that the berry got dislodged slightly and its surface was scraped with the grinding pad. In this image, the largest yellow circle is the overall diameter of the hole ground by the rock abrasion tool and the largest yellow rectangular shape is the area of the grinding wheel bit. The smaller yellow semi-circle is the path that the center of the grinding tool follows. The orange arrow arcing around the solid yellow circle (center of grinding tool) indicates the direction that the grinding tool spins around its own center at 3,000 revolutions per minute. The tool simultaneously spins in an orbit around the center of the hole, indicated by the larger orange arrow to the left.

    The grinding tool is 22 millimeters (0.9 inches) in length and the actual grinding surface, which consists of the diamond pad, is 1.5 millimeters (0.06 inches) in length, indicated by the two smaller rectangles. You can see that the smaller bottom rectangle fits exactly the width of the scrape marks.

    The grooves on the blueberry are also the

  9. Chopping-Wheel Optical Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    Star-shaped rotating chopping wheel provides adjustable time-averaged attenuation of narrow beam of light without changing length of optical path or spectral distribution of light. Duty cycle or attenuation factor of chopped beam controlled by adjusting radius at which beam intersects wheel. Attenuation factor independent of wavelength. Useful in systems in which chopping frequency above frequency-response limits of photodetectors receiving chopped light. Used in systems using synchronous detection with lock-in amplifiers.

  10. Rim seal for turbine wheel

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Boyd, Gary L.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine wheel assembly includes a disk having a plurality of blades therearound. A ceramic ring is mounted to the housing of the turbine wheel assembly. A labyrinth rim seal mounted on the disk cooperates with the ceramic ring to seal the hot gases acting on the blades from the disk. The ceramic ring permits a tighter clearance between the labyrinth rim seal and the ceramic ring.

  11. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  12. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  13. The ubiquitous photonic wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Andrea; Banzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    A circularly polarized electromagnetic plane wave carries an electric field that rotates clockwise or counterclockwise around the propagation direction of the wave. According to the handedness of this rotation, its longitudinal spin angular momentum (AM) density is either parallel or antiparallel to the propagation of light. However, there are also light waves that are not simply plane and carry an electric field that rotates around an axis perpendicular to the propagation direction, thus yielding transverse spin AM density. Electric field configurations of this kind have been suggestively dubbed ‘photonic wheels’. It has been recently shown that photonic wheels are commonplace in optics as they occur in electromagnetic fields confined by waveguides, in strongly focused beams, in plasmonic and evanescent waves. In this work we establish a general theory of electromagnetic waves propagating along a well defined direction, and carrying transverse spin AM density. We show that depending on the shape of these waves, the spin density may be either perpendicular to the mean linear momentum (globally transverse spin) or to the linear momentum density (locally transverse spin). We find that the latter case generically occurs only for non-diffracting beams, such as the Bessel beams. Moreover, we introduce the concept of meridional Stokes parameters to operationally quantify the transverse spin density. To illustrate our theory, we apply it to the exemplary cases of Bessel beams and evanescent waves. These results open a new and accessible route to the understanding, generation and manipulation of optical beams with transverse spin AM density.

  14. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  15. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  16. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  17. Rock Outcrop Under Spirit's Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After months of traveling across a cratered plain, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image of a large, continuous rock outcrop at the base of the 'Columbia Hills.' The image was taken on sol 189 (July 15, 2004) with the rover's rear hazard-avoidance camera. Spirit's left rear wheel is visible in the image, along with rocks that have a somewhat layered appearnce.

    The rover drove over this area backward on five wheels -- a new strategy that will conserve the rover's sixth, aging wheel for those times when it is needed most. Spirit is on its way to the north-facing slope of the hills, where it can look at rock outcrop in more detail, using more solar power.

  18. 5. Credit PEM. Interior of Martinsburg Plant, showing Atlas Corliss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Credit PEM. Interior of Martinsburg Plant, showing Atlas Corliss 1000 hp steam engine and sheave wheel which powered a Warren 500 KW revolving field generator (which doesn't appear in this photo). Photo c. 1907. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  19. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Weber, Steven J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Rogers, James Jonathan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  20. Optical wheel-rotation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeser, Lynn R.; Rodriguez, Patrick A.; Forman, Peter; Deeter, Merritt N.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a fiber-optic rotation sensor being developed for anti-lock braking systems. The basis of the sensor is the magneto-optic detection of the magnetic fields generated by a wheel of alternating magnetized magnets fixed to a wheel of the automobile. Highly sensitive iron garnet crystals serve as the magneto-optic sensing elements. For films with perpendicularly- magnetized domains, the domain structure produces diffraction which is magnetic-field dependent. Exploitation of this effect permits the construction of magneto-optic magnetic field sensors requiring no polarization elements or lenses.

  1. 75 FR 56469 - Safety Zone; Ohio River, Wheeling, WV, Wheeling Heritage Port Sternwheel Foundation Fireworks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ohio River, Wheeling, WV, Wheeling Heritage... marine traffic during the Wheeling Heritage Port Sternwheel Foundation fireworks display. Entry into the... traffic during the Wheeling Heritage Port Sternwheel Foundation fireworks display that will occur in...

  2. Experimental heat and mass transfer of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie; Satake, Akira; Yoshie, Ryuichiro; Mitamura, Tiruaki; Baba, Seizo

    2010-07-15

    The experimental evaluation of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel is reported. The study aims to investigate the performance of the desiccant wheel and of the heat wheel both when operated separately and jointly. The performance evaluation of the desiccant wheel is based on its moisture removal capacity (MRC), moisture removal regeneration (MRR), and moisture mass balance (MMB). In addition, the study used the total energy balance (TEB), sensible coefficient of performance (COP{sub Sensible}), latent coefficient of performance (COP{sub Latent}) and, total coefficient of performance (COP{sub Total}). The performance of the heat wheel is based on its effectiveness. The COP{sub Sensible}, COP{sub Latent} and, COP{sub Total} are used in the performance evaluation of the coupled desiccant wheel and heat wheel. The general results of the study show that the MRC, MRR and MMB coupled with the TEB, COP{sub Latent}, COP{sub Sensible} and COP{sub Total} predict adequately the performance of the desiccant wheel. In addition, the coupled operation of the desiccant wheel and heat wheel, contributed to the reduction of the external thermal energy requirement for the regeneration of the desiccant wheel. This study can be applied in other researches seeking evaluation of the desiccant wheel, heat wheel, and their combined operation. Moreover, the data presented here are significant for the desiccant wheel benchmarking and for evaluation of the desiccant wheel models. (author)

  3. Maximal Torque and Muscle Strength is Affected by Seat Distance from the Steering Wheel when Driving

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyung-Tae; An, Ho-Jung; Lee, Sun-Kyung; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This research analyzed how seat distance and gender affect maximal torque and muscle strength when driving to present base data for the optimal driving posture. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 27 college students in their 20's, 15 males and 12 females. After had been measured, the subjects sat in front of a steering wheel with the distance between the steering wheel and the seat set in turns. at 50, 70, and 90% their arm length, and the maximal torque and muscle strength were measured. [Results] Both the maximal torque and muscle strength were found to be greater in male subjects than female subjects whether they turned the steering wheel clockwise or counterclockwise. The difference was big enough to be statistically significant. Maximal torque was greatest when the seat distance was 50% of arm length, whether turning the steering wheel clockwise or counterclockwise. There were statistically significant differences in maximal torque between seat distances of 50 and 70% and 90% of the arm length. Muscle strength, in contrast, was found to be the greatest at a seat distance of 70% of arm length. [Conclusion] We conclude that greater torque can be obtained when the steering wheel is nearer the seat while greater muscle strength can be obtained when the seat distance from the steering wheel is 70% of the arm length. PMID:24259937

  4. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  5. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  6. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  7. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  8. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  9. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  10. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  11. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  12. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  14. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  15. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  17. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  18. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  19. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  2. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  3. Getting Off the Hamster Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammon, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Even with all the external elements of school reform in place, educators can end up spinning their wheels. To make progress, schools must identify the nonnegotiable key elements of their reform plans and use the habits of highly effective schools to turn them into school practice. These habits are: (1) demonstrate high expectations and a vision…

  4. Potter's Wheel I: Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinaccio, Louis

    A course in forming medium size pottery on the potter's wheel and developing skill to reproduce matching forms is presented. Abilities which will be expected of the student at the end of the course include: (1) defining important terms relating to pottery, (2) identifying and differentiating between certain aspects of ceramic art, and (3)…

  5. Desiccant Dehumidification Wheel Test Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Slayzak, S.J.; Ryan, J.P.

    2001-01-25

    NREL's Desiccant Dehumidification Wheel Test Guide intends to facilitate execution of the new standards by certification labs and manufacturers. The Test Guide is a product of more than 20 years of experience gained at NREL's desiccant research facilities. It details practical experimental experience with rotary mass exchangers in relation to the standards and aims to develop testing expertise in industry quickly and cost effectively.

  6. Optical wheel-rotation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Veeser, L.; Rodriguez, P.; Forman, P.; Deeter, M.

    1994-05-01

    We describe a fiber-optic rotation sensor based on diffraction of light in a magneto-optic crystal (BIG). Exploitation of this effect permits the construction of a sensor requiring no polarization elements or lenses.

  7. Space shuttle wheels and brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsley, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

  8. Lightweight, Self-Deployable Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur; Sokolowski, Witold; Rand, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-lightweight, self-deployable wheels made of polymer foams have been demonstrated. These wheels are an addition to the roster of cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) structural applications. Intended originally for use on nanorovers (very small planetary-exploration robotic vehicles), CHEM wheels could also be used for many commercial applications, such as in toys. The CHEM concept was reported in "Cold Hibernated Elastic Memory (CHEM) Expandable Structures" (NPO-20394), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 56. To recapitulate: A CHEM structure is fabricated from a shape-memory polymer (SMP) foam. The structure is compressed to a very small volume while in its rubbery state above its glass-transition temperature (Tg). Once compressed, the structure can be cooled below Tg to its glassy state. As long as the temperature remains

  9. Four-wheel drive car

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.

    1986-03-25

    A drive train in a four-wheel drive vehicle is described having an engine mounted on one end with a crankshaft oriented transverse to the direction of vehicle travel which consists of: a transmission having an output gear driven by the crankshaft and rotatable around an axis parallel to the axis of the crankshaft; a reduction gear operatively engaged with the output gear; a first differential gear having a gear and being concentrically engaged with the reduction gear to transmit the output of the reduction gear in a divided manner; a second differential gear transmitting power from one output of the differential gear to left and right wheels of the one end of the vehicle; a transmission gear meshing with the gear of the first differential gear for transmitting power from another output of the first differential gear in a direction generally perpendicular to the crankshaft through a propeller shaft to the other end of the vehicle, opposite the one end; a third differential gear receiving power from the propeller shaft for transmitting power to left and right wheels on the other end; and wherein a mesh portion where the transmission gear meshes with the gear of the first differential gear is closer to the crankshaft axis of engine than is the axis of the reduction gear.

  10. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Apparatus For Wheeled Vehicles In Ground Effect

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2005-12-13

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a wheeled vehicle in a flowstream, the vehicle having a vehicle body and a wheel assembly supporting the vehicle body. The apparatus includes a baffle assembly adapted to be positioned upstream of the wheel assembly for deflecting airflow away from the wheel assembly so as to reduce the incident pressure on the wheel assembly.

  11. Reaction wheels for kinetic energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to all existing reaction wheel implementations, an order of magnitude increase in speed can be obtained efficiently if power to the actuators can be recovered. This allows a combined attitude control-energy storage system to be developed with structure mounted reaction wheels. The feasibility of combining reaction wheels with energy storage wwheels is demonstrated. The power required for control torques is a function of wheel speed but this energy is not dissipated; it is stored in the wheel. The I(2)R loss resulting from a given torque is shown to be constant, independent of the design speed of the motor. What remains, in order to efficiently use high speed wheels (essential for energy storage) for control purposes, is to reduce rotational losses to acceptable levels. Progress was made in permanent magnet motor design for high speed operation. Variable field motors offer more control flexibility and efficiency over a broader speed range.

  12. Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Four-wheel suspension system uses simple system of levers with no compliant components to provide three-point suspension of chassis of vehicle while maintaining four-point contact with uneven terrain. Provides stability against tipping of four-point rectangular base, without rocking contact to which rigid four-wheel frame susceptible. Similar to six-wheel suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354).

  13. Wheel brakes and their application to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, G H

    1928-01-01

    The advantages to be gained from braking have not been ignored, and in the search for a suitable method many schemes have been suggested and tried. Some of the methods discussed in this paper include: 1) increasing the height of the landing gear; 2) air brakes of various forms; 3) sprags on tail skid and axle; and 4) wheel brakes. This report focuses on the design of wheel brakes and wheel brake controls.

  14. Electronic 4-wheel drive control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayato, S.; Takanori, S.; Shigeru, H.; Tatsunori, S.

    1984-01-01

    The internal rotation torque generated during operation of a 4-wheel drive vehicle is reduced using a control device whose clutch is attached to one part of the rear-wheel drive shaft. One torque sensor senses the drive torque associated with the rear wheel drive shaft. A second sensor senses the drive torque associated with the front wheel drive shaft. Revolution count sensors sense the revolutions of each drive shaft. By means of a microcomputer, the engagement of the clutch is changed to insure that the ratio of the torque sensors remains constant.

  15. Control Electronics For Reaction Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Bidirectional operation achieved with single-polarity main power supply. Control circuitry generates pulse-width-modulated 800-Hz waveforms to drive two-phase ac motor and reaction wheel. Operates partly in response to digital magnitude-and-direction torque command generated by external control subsystem and partly in response to tachometric feedback in form of two once-per-revolution sinusoids with amplitudes proportional to speed. Operation in either of two modes called "normal" and "safehold." In normal mode, drive pulses timed so that, on average over one or few cycles, motor applies commanded torque. In safehold mode, pulses timed to keep motor running at set speed in one direction.

  16. Vehicle front wheel assist drive overspeed control system

    SciTech Connect

    Riehl, D.C.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes a front wheel drive speed control system for a vehicle having a rear wheel drive and an assisting front wheel drive, comprising: (a) a hydraulic pump means operably connected by a hydraulic circuit to a hydraulic motor at each driven front wheel to cause rotation of that wheel; (b) an overrunning clutch assembly interposed between the motor and each associated wheel, engageable to facilitate rotation of the driven front wheel in both forward and reverse directions; (c) a speed sensing means has main rear wheel drive sensor mounted with a vehicle transmission output to the driven rear wheels thereof operable to provide pulse signals indicative of the speed of rotation of the driven rear wheels; (d) a driven front wheel sensor mounted with the vehicle and operable to provide pulse signals indicative of the speed of rotation of the driven front wheel; (e) a comparator means operable to compare the rate of rear wheel pulse signals with a first predetermined rate to produce a front wheel enabling signal when the rear wheel pulse signals are below the first predetermined rate; and (f) a front wheel drive operating circuit means connected to the comparator means to receive the front wheel enabling signal and operable to activate the hydraulic pump means to cause rotation of the front wheel.

  17. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall...

  18. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall...

  19. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall...

  20. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall...

  1. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall...

  2. Non-Circular Wheels: Reuleaux and Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Circular wheels are so familiar on vehicles of all types that it is seldom realized that alternatives do exist. This short non-mathematical article describes Reuleaux and square wheels that, rolling along appropriate tracks, can maintain a moving platform at a constant height. Easily made working models lend themselves to demonstrations at science…

  3. 21 CFR 880.6910 - Wheeled stretcher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheeled stretcher. 880.6910 Section 880.6910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... platform mounted on a wheeled frame that is designed to transport patients in a horizontal position....

  4. Next NASA Mars Rover Gets Its Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Wheels were first attached to NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover in August 2008. The rover and its descent stage and cruise stage are being assembled and tested at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for launch in 2009.

    The rover has a ground clearance of about 60 centimeters, or 2 feet. The wheel base is 2.2 meters, or 7 feet.

  5. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  6. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange on the car is worn to a thickness of 7/8 of an inch, or less, at a point 3/8 of an inch above...

  7. Retail wheeling: Is this revolution necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    As of a former state regulator and a once enthusiastic practitioner of public utility law, I find it fascinating to see the latest nostrum to burst on the electric utility scene: retail wheeling. Wheeling became a personal interest in the Texas interconnection fight of the late seventies and may have led to the interconnection and wheeling provision of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Retail wheeling contemplates that every electric power customer should be given an opportunity to seek out the lowest cost source of power wherever it can be found. As a practical matter, the drums for retail wheeling are presently being beaten by large industrial users, who believe that they have the capability to find low cost sources and to make advantageous commercial arrangements to acquire electricity. Large industrials have long been fighting the utilities for cheaper electricity, frequently using the threat of self-generation and cogeneration.

  8. Development of the FASTER Wheeled Bevameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Eder, V.; Hoheneder, W.; Imhof, B.; Lewinger, W.; Ransom, S.; Saaj, C.; Weclewski, P.; Waclavicek, R.,

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) within the FASTER project (Forward Acquisition of Soil and Terrain Data for Exploration Rovers), funded by the European Union's FP7 programme. In FASTER, novel and innovative concepts for in situ forward sensing of soil properties and terrain conditions in the planned path of a planetary rover are developed. Terrain strength measurements for assessment of the mobility of crosscountry vehicles have decades of heritage on Earth, but typically trafficability of terrains is only gauged by human operators ahead of vehicle operations rather than in-line by probes deployed from the vehicle itself, as is intended for FASTER. For FASTER, a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) has been selected as the terrain sensing instrument for the vehicle. Wheeled Bevameters are suitable for terrain measurements while driving but traditionally have mostly been employed on terrestrial vehicles to evaluate particular wheel designs. The WB as conceived in FASTER uses a dedicated, passive-rolling test wheel (‚test wheel') placed on the terrain as the loading device to enable to determine bearing strength, compressive strength and shear strength of the terrain immediately ahead of the vehicle, as well as rover-terrain interaction parameters used in semi-empirical vehicle-terrain traction models. The WB includes a placement mechanism for the test wheel. The test wheel would remain lowered onto the ground during nominal rover motion, including when climbing and descending slopes. During normal operations, the placement mechanism assumes the function of a passive suspension of the wheel, allowing it to follow the terrain contour. Quantities measured with the WB are: test wheel sinkage (through a laser sensor), test wheel vertical load, test wheel horizontal reaction force, and test wheel rotation rate. Measurements are performed while the rover is in motion. Measured test wheel rotation rate (with appropriate corrections for slight skid) can

  9. Influence of polygonal wear of railway wheels on the wheel set axle stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xingwen; Chi, Maoru; Wu, Pingbo

    2015-11-01

    The coupled vehicle/track dynamic model with the flexible wheel set was developed to investigate the effects of polygonal wear on the dynamic stresses of the wheel set axle. In the model, the railway vehicle was modelled by the rigid multibody dynamics. The wheel set was established by the finite element method to analyse the high-frequency oscillation and dynamic stress of wheel set axle induced by the polygonal wear based on the modal stress recovery method. The slab track model was taken into account in which the rail was described by the Timoshenko beam and the three-dimensional solid finite element was employed to establish the concrete slab. Furthermore, the modal superposition method was adopted to calculate the dynamic response of the track. The wheel/rail normal forces and the tangent forces were, respectively, determined by the Hertz nonlinear contact theory and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins model. Using the coupled vehicle/track dynamic model, the dynamic stresses of wheel set axle with consideration of the ideal polygonal wear and measured polygonal wear were investigated. The results show that the amplitude of wheel/rail normal forces and the dynamic stress of wheel set axle increase as the vehicle speeds rise. Moreover, the impact loads induced by the polygonal wear could excite the resonance of wheel set axle. In the resonance region, the amplitude of the dynamic stress for the wheel set axle would increase considerably comparing with the normal conditions.

  10. The response of a high-speed train wheel to a harmonic wheel-rail force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yuxia; Zhou, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The maximum speed of China's high-speed trains currently is 300km/h and expected to increase to 350-400km/h. As a wheel travels along the rail at such a high speed, it is subject to a force rotating at the same speed along its periphery. This fast moving force contains not only the axle load component, but also many components of high frequencies generated from wheel-rail interactions. Rotation of the wheel also introduces centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. How the wheel responds is fundamental to many issues, including wheel-rail contact, traction, wear and noise. In this paper, by making use of its axial symmetry, a special finite element scheme is developed for responses of a train wheel subject to a vertical and harmonic wheel-rail force. This FE scheme only requires a 2D mesh over a cross-section containing the wheel axis but includes all the effects induced by wheel rotation. Nodal displacements, as a periodic function of the cross-section angle 6, can be decomposed, using Fourier series, into a number of components at different circumferential orders. The derived FE equation is solved for each circumferential order. The sum of responses at all circumferential orders gives the actual response of the wheel.

  11. 75 FR 3948 - Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc., Biosys, Inc., Bolder Technologies Corp., Boyds Wheels, Inc., Breakaway Solutions, Inc., and BRE-X Minerals, Ltd.; Order of Suspension of...

  12. Wheel Abrasion Experiment Conducted on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1998-01-01

    Sojourner rover showing Lewis' wheel abrasion experiment. The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft soft-landed on Mars on July 4, 1997. Among the many experiments on its small Sojourner rover are three technology experiments from the NASA Lewis Research Center, including the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The WAE was designed, built, delivered, and operated on Mars by a team of engineers and scientists from Lewis' Photovoltaics and Space Environments Branch. This experiment collected data to assess wheel surface wear on the Sojourner. It used a specially designed rover wheel, with thin films (200 to 1000 angstroms) of aluminum, nickel, and platinum deposited on black, anodized aluminum strips attached to the rover's right center wheel. As the wheel spun in the Martian soil, a photovoltaic sensor monitored changes in film reflectivity. These changes indicated abrasion of the metal films by Martian surface material. Rolling wear data were accumulated by the WAE. Also, at frequent intervals, all the rover wheels, except the WAE test wheel, were locked to hold the rover stationary while the test wheel alone was spun and dug into the Martian regolith. These tests created wear conditions more severe than simple rolling. The WAE will contribute substantially to our knowledge of Martian surface characteristics. Marked abrasion would indicate a surface composed of hard, possibly sharply edged grains, whereas lack of abrasion would suggest a somewhat softer surface. WAE results will be correlated with ground simulations to determine which terrestrial materials behave most like those on Mars. This knowledge will enable a deeper understanding of erosion processes on Mars and the role they play in Martian surface evolution. Preliminary results show that electrostatic charging of the rover wheels sometimes caused dust to accumulate on the WAE wheel, making interpretation of the reflectance data problematic. If electrostatic charging is the mechanism for dust attraction, this indicates

  13. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  14. 49 CFR 393.209 - Steering wheel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steering wheel systems. 393.209 Section 393.209... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.209 Steering wheel systems. (a) The steering wheel shall be secured and must not have any...

  15. 14 CFR 27.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 27.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  16. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  17. 14 CFR 27.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 27.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  18. 14 CFR 29.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 29.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  19. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  20. 14 CFR 29.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 29.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  1. 49 CFR 393.209 - Steering wheel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steering wheel systems. 393.209 Section 393.209... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.209 Steering wheel systems. (a) The steering wheel shall be secured and must not have any...

  2. 14 CFR 27.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 27.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  3. 14 CFR 27.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 27.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  4. 14 CFR 29.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 29.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  5. 14 CFR 29.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 29.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  6. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  7. 14 CFR 27.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 27.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  8. 14 CFR 29.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 29.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  9. Why Animals Run on Legs, Not on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Jared

    1983-01-01

    Speculates why animals have not developed wheels in place of inefficient legs. One study cited suggests three reasons why animals are better off without wheels: wheels are efficient only on hard surfaces, limitation of wheeled motion due to vertical obstructions, and the problem of turning in spaces cluttered with obstacles. (JN)

  10. Atlas Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are the Anti-Atlas Mountains, part of the Atlas Mountain range in southern Morocco, Africa. The region contains some of the world's largest and most diverse mineral resources, most of which are still untouched. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on June 22, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  11. Dynamics and wheel's slip ratio of a wheel-legged robot in wheeled motion considering the change of height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xilun; Li, Kejia; Xu, Kun

    2012-09-01

    The existing research on dynamics and slip ratio of wheeled mobile robot (WMR) are derived without considering the effect of height, and the existing models can not be used to analyze the dynamics performance of the robot with variable height while moving such as NOROS-II. The existing method of dynamics modeling is improved by adding the constraint equation between perpendicular displacement of body and horizontal displacement of wheel into the constraint conditions. The dynamic model of NOROS-II in wheel motion is built by the Lagrange method under nonholonomic constraints. The inverse dynamics is calculated in three different paths based on this model, and the results demonstrate that torques of hip pitching joints are inversely proportional to the height of robot. The relative error of calculated torques is less than 2% compared with that of ADAMS simulation, by which the validity of dynamic model is verified. Moreover, the relative horizontal motion between fore/hind wheels and body is produced when the height is changed, and thus the accurate slip ratio can not be obtained by the traditional equation. The improved slip ratio equations with the parameter of the vertical velocity of body are introduced for fore wheels and hind wheels respectively. Numerical simulations of slip ratios are conducted to reveal the effect of varied height on slip ratios of different wheels. The result shows that the slip ratios of fore/hind wheels become larger/smaller respectively as the height increases, and as the height is reduced, the reverse applies. The proposed research of dynamic model and slip ratio based on the robot height provides the effective method to analyze the dynamics of WMRs with varying height.

  12. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum which the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical implementation strategies for specific wheel configurations are also considered.

  13. [Fracture of the diaphyseal radius during Cyr wheel practice - an uncommon injury of wheel gymnastics].

    PubMed

    Kauther, M D; Rummel, S; Hussmann, B; Lendemans, S; Nast-Kolb, D; Wedemeyer, C

    2011-12-01

    The cyr wheel is a modified gymnastic wheel with only one ring that can lead to extreme forces on the gymnast. We report on a distal radius shaft fracture (AO 22 A 2.1) and a fracture of the styloid process of the ulna that occurred after holding on to a slipping Cyr wheel and exposition to high pressure on the lower arm. The fracture was fixed by screws and a plate. PMID:22161268

  14. The Drag of Airplane Wheels, Wheel Fairings, and Landing Gears - III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrnstein, William H , Jr; Biermann, David

    1936-01-01

    The tests reported in this report conclude the investigation of landing-gear drag that has been carried out in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. They supplement earlier tests (reported in Technical Report No. 485) made with full-scale dummy wheels, wheel fairings, and landing gears intended for airplanes of 3,000 pounds gross weight and include tests of tail wheels and tail skids.

  15. Injuries among wheeled shoe users: A comparison with other nonmotorized wheeled activities

    PubMed Central

    Thakore, Siddharth; Tram, Janna; Hagel, Brent E; Kyle, Tania; Senger, Trudi; Belanger, Francois

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nonmotorized wheeled activities are popular among children. However, these activities can result in significant injury if effective injury prevention measures are not taken. Recently, nonmotorized wheeled shoes have become increasingly popular among children. Preliminary research shows that these activities also result in significant injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the injury profiles of nonmotorized wheeled activities among Canadian children presenting to the emergency department. METHODS: A two-year retrospective study was conducted using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database, specific to the Alberta Children’s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta. Data were analyzed using cross tabulations of the type and nature of injury, helmet use, age and sex, with type of nonmotorized wheeled activity. RESULTS: The most common mechanism of injury for a nonmotorized wheeled activity was bicycling (66.9%), while wheeled shoe use produced the fewest injuries (2.7%). The upper extremity was the most frequently injured body region in all groups, comprising more than 75% of the injuries in wheeled shoe users and approximately 50% of the injuries in participants of other nonmotorized wheeled activities. Forearm fractures were the most common type of injury. Wheeled shoe users had the greatest proportion of forearm fractures. Helmet use was most prevalent in bicyclists (84.6%) and least prevalent in wheeled shoe users (4.7%). DISCUSSION: Nonmotorized wheeled activities can result in significant morbidity. Results from the present study suggest that wheeled shoe and push scooter activities can result in upper extremity injuries. Protective equipment, particularly wrist guards and helmets, should be used when participating in these activities. PMID:20885801

  16. Progress toward a performance based specification for diamond grinding wheels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.; Piscotty, M.S.; Blaedel, K.L.

    1996-11-12

    This work sought to improve the communication between users and makers of fine diamond grinding wheels. A promising avenue for this is to formulate a voluntary product standard that comprises performance indicators that bridge the gap between specific user requirements and the details of wheel formulations. We propose a set of performance specifiers of figures-of-merit, that might be assessed by straightforward and traceable testing methods, but do not compromise proprietary information of the wheel user of wheel maker. One such performance indicator might be wheel hardness. In addition we consider technologies that might be required to realize the benefits of optimized grinding wheels. A non-contact wheel-to- workpiece proximity sensor may provide a means of monitoring wheel wear and thus wheel position, for wheels that exhibit high wear rates in exchange for improved surface finish.

  17. Five Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  18. 77 FR 67400 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a Division of RG Steel, LLC, Doing Business as Wheeling Corrugating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a Division of RG Steel, LLC, Doing Business as Wheeling Corrugating Company, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Severstal Wheeling, Beech... Wheeling Corrugating Company, Beech Bottom, West Virginia. The Department's notice of determination...

  19. Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Metal Bond Diamond Wheels- Part II: Wheel Wear Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-22

    The use of stereo scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to investigate the wear mechanism of the wire EDM true metal bond diamond wheel for ceramic grinding is presented. On the grinding wheel, a wedge-shape removal part was machined to enable the examination and measurement of the worn wheel surfaces using the stereo SEM. The stereo SEM was calibrated by comparing results of depth profile of a wear groove with the profilometer measurements. On the surface of the grinding wheel after wire EDM truing and before grinding, the diamond protruding heights were measured in the level of 35 {micro}m, comparing to the 54 {micro}m average size of the diamond in the grinding wheel. The gap between the EDM wire and rotating grinding wheel is estimated to be about 35 to 40 {micro}m. This observation indicates that, during the wire EDM, electrical sparks occur between the metal bond and EDM wire, which leaves the diamond protruding in the gap between the wire and wheel. The protruding diamond is immediately fractured at the start of the grinding process, even under a light grinding condition. After heavy grinding, the grinding wheel surface and the diamond protrusion heights are also investigated using the stereo SEM. The height of diamond protrusion was estimated in the 5 to 15 {micro}m range. This study has demonstrated the use of stereo SEM as a metrology tool to study the grinding wheel surface.

  20. The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Claire

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an “in-service” wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing). The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets. PMID:24526883

  1. The influence of wheel/rail contact conditions on the microstructure and hardness of railway wheels.

    PubMed

    Molyneux-Berry, Paul; Davis, Claire; Bevan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an "in-service" wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing). The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets.

  2. Development of a read out driver for ATLAS micromegas based on the Scalable Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibell, A.

    2014-01-01

    With future LHC luminosity upgrades, part of the ATLAS muon spectrometer has to be changed, to cope with the increased flux of uncorrelated neutron and gamma particles. Micromegas detectors were chosen as precision tracker for the New Small Wheels, that will replace the current Small Wheel muon detector stations during the LHC shutdown foreseen for 2018. To read out these detectors together with all other ATLAS subsystems, a readout driver was developed to integrate these micromegas detectors into the ATLAS data acquisition infrastructure. The readout driver is based on the Scalable Readout System, and its tasks include trigger handling, slow control, event building and data transmission to the high-level readout systems. This article describes the layout and functionalities of this readout driver and its components, as well as a test of its functionalities in the cosmic ray facility of Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich.

  3. Track of Right-Wheel Drag (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama combines several frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 313th martian day (Nov. 19, 2004). The site, labeled Spirit site 93, is in the 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev Crater. The rover tracks point westward. Spirit had driven eastward, in reverse and dragging its right front wheel, for about 30 meters (100 feet) on the day the picture was taken. Driving backwards while dragging that wheel is a precautionary strategy to extend the usefulness of the wheel for when it is most needed, because it has developed more friction than the other wheels. The right-hand track in this look backwards shows how the dragging disturbed the soil. This view is presented in a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. Track of Right-Wheel Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama combines several frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 313th martian day (Nov. 19, 2004). The site, labeled Spirit site 93, is in the 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev Crater. The rover tracks point westward. Spirit had driven eastward, in reverse and dragging its right front wheel, for about 30 meters (100 feet) on the day the picture was taken. Driving backwards while dragging that wheel is a precautionary strategy to extend the usefulness of the wheel for when it is most needed, because it has developed more friction than the other wheels. The right-hand track in this look backwards shows how the dragging disturbed the soil. This view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. Track of Right-Wheel Drag (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama combines several frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 313th martian day (Nov. 19, 2004). The site, labeled Spirit site 93, is in the 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev Crater. The rover tracks point westward. Spirit had driven eastward, in reverse and dragging its right front wheel, for about 30 meters (100 feet) on the day the picture was taken. Driving backwards while dragging that wheel is a precautionary strategy to extend the usefulness of the wheel for when it is most needed, because it has developed more friction than the other wheels. The right-hand track in this look backwards shows how the dragging disturbed the soil. This view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Fifth wheel modification assembly, Issue U

    SciTech Connect

    Arning, C.

    1994-12-31

    This report consists of one engineering drawing showing modifications to the Fifth Wheel System for a semi-tractor trailer truck. Notes give instructions for installation of some items, where other items may be purchased, testing instructions, and shipping instructions.

  7. Mechanics of wheel-soil interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houland, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    An approximate theory for wheel-soil interaction is presented which forms the basis for a practical solution to the problem. It is shown that two fundamental observations render the problem determinate: (1) The line of action of the resultant of radial stresses acting at the wheel soil interface approximately bisects the wheel-soil contact angle for all values of slip. (2) A shear stress surface can be hypothesized. The influence of soil inertia forces is also evaluated. A concept of equivalent cohesion is introduced which allows a convenient experimental comparison for both cohesive and frictional soils. This theory compares favorably with previous analyses and experimental data, and shows that soil inertia forces influencing the motion of a rolling wheel can be significant.

  8. An Ultrasonic Wheel-Array Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, B. W.; Brotherhood, C. J.; Freemantle, R. J.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the development and modeling of an ultrasonic array wheel probe scanning system. The system operates at 10 MHz using a 64 element array transducer which is 50 mm in length and located in a fluid filled wheel. The wheel is coupled to the test structure dry, or with a small amount of liquid couplant. When the wheel is rolled over the surface of the test structure a defect map (C-Scan) is generated in real-time. The tyre is made from a soft, durable polymer which has very little acoustic loss. Two application studies are presented; the inspection of sealant layers in an aluminum aircraft wing structure and the detection of embedded defects in a thick section carbon composite sample.

  9. Magnetic Levitation Experiments with the Electrodynamic Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordrey, Vincent; Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Gaul, Nathan; Majewski, Walerian

    Our experiments explored inductive magnetic levitation using circular Halbach arrays with the strong variable magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such a system is usually called an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We constructed two Electrodynamic Wheels with different diameters and demonstrated that the magnetic interactions produce both lift and drag forces on the EDW which can be used for levitation and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is the direct measurement of lift and drag forces to compare with theoretical models using wheels of two different radii. Supported by Grants from the Virginia Academy of Science, Society of Physics Students, Virginia Community College System, and the NVCC Educational Foundation.

  10. Multiple Wheel Throwing: And Chess Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1978-01-01

    A chess set project is suggested to teach multiple throwing, the creation on a potter's wheel of several pieces of similar configuration. Processes and finished sets are illustrated with photographs. (SJL)

  11. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combined Federal Campaign Text to Give Donate a Vehicle Shop for Good Give Stock Corporate Giving Ways ... UP Meals on Wheels America is thrilled to launch a first-of-its-kind national awareness campaign ...

  12. Constant four wheel drive vehicle transaxle

    SciTech Connect

    Weismann, P.H.; Cameron, D.

    1986-04-15

    A dual differential four-wheel drive assembly is described adapted for a two-wheel drive front transaxle vehicle having an internal combustion engine with a transverse oriented crankshaft for driving the vehicle with front and rear pairs of road wheels, a transmission gear unit for the transaxle including transverse input and output shafts, and right and left laterally extending front axle drive shafts, each drive shaft having front wheel mounting means on its outboard end. The dual differential assembly consists of: housing means having a laterally extending passage therethrough aligned on a transverse axis, the housing means having first and second differential casings for associated first and second bevel gear differentials, the casings supported in laterally spaced alignment for rotation about the transverse axis, each first and second differential casing enclosing inboard and outboard side gears in meshing relation with planetary pinion gears, each casing having opposed inboard and outboard axial extensions thereon.

  13. Fiber optic sensor system for detecting movement or position of a rotating wheel bearing

    DOEpatents

    Veeser, Lynn R.; Rodriguez, Patrick J.; Forman, Peter R.; Monahan, Russell E.; Adler, Jonathan M.

    1997-01-01

    An improved fiber optic sensor system and integrated sensor bearing assembly for detecting movement or position of a rotating wheel bearing having a multi-pole tone ring which produces an alternating magnetic field indicative of movement and position of the rotating member. A magneto-optical material, such as a bismuth garnet iron (B.I.G.) crystal, having discrete magnetic domains is positioned in the vicinity of the tone ring so that the domains align themselves to the magnetic field generated by the tone ring. A single fiber optic cable, preferably single mode fiber, carries light generated by a source of light to the B.I.G. crystal. The light passes through the B.I.G. crystal and is refracted at domain boundaries in the crystal. The intensity of the refracted light is indicative of the amount of alignment of the domains and therefore the strength of the magnetic field. The refracted light is carried by the fiber optic cable to an optic receiver where the intensity is measured and an electrical signal is generated and sent to a controller indicating the frequency of the changes in light intensity and therefore the rotational speed of the rotating wheel bearing.

  14. A Nontoxic Barlow's Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Barlow's wheel has been a favorite demonstration since its invention by Peter Barlow (1776-1862) in 1822. In the form shown in Fig. 1, it represents the first electric motor. The interaction between the electric current passing from the axle of the wheel to the rim and the magnetic field produced by the U-magnet produces a torque that turns…

  15. Multilevel Workflow System in the ATLAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, M.; De, K.; Garcia Navarro, J.; Golubkov, D.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Vaniachine, A.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The ATLAS experiment is scaling up Big Data processing for the next LHC run using a multilevel workflow system comprised of many layers. In Big Data processing ATLAS deals with datasets, not individual files. Similarly a task (comprised of many jobs) has become a unit of the ATLAS workflow in distributed computing, with about 0.8M tasks processed per year. In order to manage the diversity of LHC physics (exceeding 35K physics samples per year), the individual data processing tasks are organized into workflows. For example, the Monte Carlo workflow is composed of many steps: generate or configure hard-processes, hadronize signal and minimum-bias (pileup) events, simulate energy deposition in the ATLAS detector, digitize electronics response, simulate triggers, reconstruct data, convert the reconstructed data into ROOT ntuples for physics analysis, etc. Outputs are merged and/or filtered as necessary to optimize the chain. The bi-level workflow manager - ProdSys2 - generates actual workflow tasks and their jobs are executed across more than a hundred distributed computing sites by PanDA - the ATLAS job-level workload management system. On the outer level, the Database Engine for Tasks (DEfT) empowers production managers with templated workflow definitions. On the next level, the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI) is integrated with PanDA to provide dynamic job definition tailored to the sites capabilities. We report on scaling up the production system to accommodate a growing number of requirements from main ATLAS areas: Trigger, Physics and Data Preparation.

  16. OCILOW-Wheeled Platform Controls Executable Set

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, John F.

    2005-11-30

    The OCILOW Controls Executable Set is the complete set of machine executable instructions to control the motion of wheeled platforms that incorporate Off-Centered In-Line Omni-directional Wheels (OCILOW). The controls utilize command signals for the desired motion of the platform (X, Y and Theta) and calculate and control the steering and rolling motion required of each OCILOW wheels to achieve the desired translational and rotational platform motion. The controls utilize signals from the wheel steering and rolling resolvers, and from three load cells located at each wheels, to coordinate the motion of all wheels, while respecting their non-holonomic constraints (i.e., keeping internal stresses and slippage due to possible errors, uneven floors, bumps, misalignment, etc. bounded). The OCILOW Controls Executable Set, which is copyrighted here, is an embodiment of the generic OCILOW algorithms (patented separately) developed specifically for controls of the Proof-of-Principle-Transporter (POP-T) system that has been developed to demonstrate the overall OCILOW controls feasibility and capabilities.

  17. OCILOW-Wheeled Platform Controls Executable Set

    2005-11-30

    The OCILOW Controls Executable Set is the complete set of machine executable instructions to control the motion of wheeled platforms that incorporate Off-Centered In-Line Omni-directional Wheels (OCILOW). The controls utilize command signals for the desired motion of the platform (X, Y and Theta) and calculate and control the steering and rolling motion required of each OCILOW wheels to achieve the desired translational and rotational platform motion. The controls utilize signals from the wheel steering andmore » rolling resolvers, and from three load cells located at each wheels, to coordinate the motion of all wheels, while respecting their non-holonomic constraints (i.e., keeping internal stresses and slippage due to possible errors, uneven floors, bumps, misalignment, etc. bounded). The OCILOW Controls Executable Set, which is copyrighted here, is an embodiment of the generic OCILOW algorithms (patented separately) developed specifically for controls of the Proof-of-Principle-Transporter (POP-T) system that has been developed to demonstrate the overall OCILOW controls feasibility and capabilities.« less

  18. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2014-08-01

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  19. Demisable Reaction-Wheel Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, Russell; Ahronovich, Eliezer; Davis, Milton C., III

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the concept of a demisable motor-drive-and-flywheel assembly [reaction-wheel assembly (RWA)] used in controlling the attitude of a spacecraft. Demisable as used here does not have its traditional legal meaning; instead, it signifies susceptible to melting, vaporizing, and/or otherwise disintegrating during re-entry of the spacecraft into the atmosphere of the Earth so as not to pose a hazard to anyone or anything on the ground. Prior RWAs include parts made of metals (e.g., iron, steel, and titanium) that melt at high temperatures and include structures of generally closed character that shield some parts (e.g., magnets) against re-entry heating. In a demisable RWA, the flywheel would be made of aluminum, which melts at a lower temperature. The flywheel web would not be a solid disk but would have a more open, nearly-spoke-like structure so that it would disintegrate more rapidly; hence, the flywheel rim would separate more rapidly so that parts shielded by the rim would be exposed sooner to re-entry heating. In addition, clearances between the flywheel and other components would be made greater, imparting a more open character and thus increasing the exposure of those components.

  20. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-10-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors.

  1. Model Predictive Control considering Reachable Range of Wheels for Leg / Wheel Mobile Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Naito; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    Obstacle avoidance is one of the important tasks for mobile robots. In this paper, we study obstacle avoidance control for mobile robots equipped with four legs comprised of three DoF SCARA leg/wheel mechanism, which enables the robot to change its shape adapting to environments. Our previous method achieves obstacle avoidance by model predictive control (MPC) considering obstacle size and lateral wheel positions. However, this method does not ensure existence of joint angles which achieves reference wheel positions calculated by MPC. In this study, we propose a model predictive control considering reachable mobile ranges of wheels positions by combining multiple linear constraints, where each reachable mobile range is approximated as a convex trapezoid. Thus, we achieve to formulate a MPC as a quadratic problem with linear constraints for nonlinear problem of longitudinal and lateral wheel position control. By optimization of MPC, the reference wheel positions are calculated, while each joint angle is determined by inverse kinematics. Considering reachable mobile ranges explicitly, the optimal joint angles are calculated, which enables wheels to reach the reference wheel positions. We verify its advantages by comparing the proposed method with the previous method through numerical simulations.

  2. The Goal Wheel: Adapting Navajo Philosophy and the Medicine Wheel to Work with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Holly; Bruce, Mary Alice; Stellern, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a group counseling model that is based on the indigenous medicine wheel as well as Navajo philosophy by which to help troubled adolescents restore harmony and balance in their lives, through establishing goals and sequential steps to accomplish these goals. The authors call this model the Goal Wheel. A…

  3. Diamond wheel wear sensing with acoustic emission --wheel wear mechanisms and the effects of process variables

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jianshe; Dornfeld, D.; Syoji, Katsuo

    1996-12-31

    The wear of diamond wheels has significant influence on the surface finish of ground ceramics and the resulting subsurface fracture damage. For optimization and control of the grinding process it is necessary to monitor the wear states of the grinding wheels. A project on diamond wheel wear sensing with acoustic emission was started recently in the Laboratory of Manufacturing Automation at the University of California at Berkeley. The main aims of the project are: (a) to identify the possible wheel wear patterns at different combinations of bond materials, grits, and grinding conditions; (b) to develop suitable AE signal processing methods to extract the AE features to represent the wheel wear characteristics, and establish a strategy for using AE for in-process monitoring of diamond wheel wear in grinding of ceramics. This paper presents the results of part of the project. It mainly focuses on the diamond wheel wear mechanisms, the effects of process variables including basic wheel elements and grinding parameters, and the relationship with AErms and AE frequency content.

  4. Wire Electrical Discharge Truing of Metal Bond Diamond Grinding Wheels

    SciTech Connect

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-24

    Cylindrical wire EDM profile truing of the metal bond diamond wheel for precision form grinding of ceramics is presented in this report. First a corrosion-resistant, precise spindle with the high-electrical current capability for wire EDM truing of grinding wheel was fabricated. An arc profile was adopted in order to determine form tolerances capabilities of this process. Results show the wire EDM process can generate {micro}m-scale precision form on the diamond wheel efficiently. The wheel, after truing, was used to grind silicon nitride. Grinding forces, surface finish of ground components, and wheel wear were measured. The EDM trued wheel showed a reduction in grinding force from that of the stick dressed wheel. Surface finishes between the two truing methods were similar. In the beginning of the grinding, significant wheel wear rate was identified. The subsequent wheel wear rate stabilized and became considerably lower.

  5. Project considerations and design of systems for wheeling cogenerated power

    SciTech Connect

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Boyle, J.R.; Fish, J.H. III; Martin, W.A.

    1994-08-01

    Wheeling electric power, the transmission of electricity not owned by an electric utility over its transmission lines, is a term not generally recognized outside the electric utility industry. Investigation of the term`s origin is intriguing. For centuries, wheel has been used to describe an entire machine, not just individual wheels within a machine. Thus we have waterwheel, spinning wheel, potter`s wheel and, for an automobile, wheels. Wheel as a verb connotes transmission or modification of forces and motion in machinery. With the advent of an understanding of electricity, use of the word wheel was extended to be transmission of electric power as well as mechanical power. Today, use of the term wheeling electric power is restricted to utility transmission of power that it doesn`t own. Cogeneration refers to simultaneous production of electric and thermal power from an energy source. This is more efficient than separate production of electricity and thermal power and, in many instances, less expensive.

  6. Thermal fatigue performance of integrally cast automotive turbine wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, V. E.; Hofer, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized bed thermal fatigue testing was conducted on 16 integrally cast automotive turbine wheels for 1000-10,000 (600 sec total) thermal cycles at 935/50 C. The 16 wheels consisted of 14 IN-792 + 1% Hf and 2 gatorized AF2-1DA wheels; 6 of the IN-792 + Hf wheels contained crack arrest pockets inside the blade root flange. Temperature transients during the thermal cycling were measured in three calibration tests using either 18 or 30 thermocouples per wheel. Thermal cracking based on crack length versus accumulated cycles was greatest for unpocketed wheels developing cracks in 8-13 cycles compared to 75-250 cycles for unpocketed wheels. However, pocketed wheels survived up to 10,000 cycles with crack lengths less than 20 mm, whereas two unpocketed wheels developed 45 mm long cracks in 1000-2000 cycles.

  7. Part-load performance of energy wheels: Part 1 -- Wheel speed control

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, C.J.; Shang, W.; Besant, R.W.

    2000-07-01

    Controlling the performance of HVAC systems and air-to-air energy exchangers, to prevent overheating and overhumidifying of the supply air during part-load operating conditions is discussed in this paper. Equations are developed to facilitate the calculation of the optimal energy exchanger performance and the optimal recirculation air flow rate during part-load operating conditions. If these optimal values are applied, it is possible to simultaneously save energy and improve indoor air quality. Numerical and experimental investigations are applied to investigate the potential of using wheel speed control to control the energy and moisture transfer rates in energy wheels. The results show that, during wheel speed control, a numerical model is necessary to predict the part-load performance because the performance is affected by the operating conditions. The effectiveness decreases as the wheel speed decreases for some operating conditions, while the effectiveness increases as the wheel speed decreases for other operating conditions.

  8. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software - RWDMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaurock, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The RWDMES is a tool for modeling the disturbances imparted on spacecraft by spinning reaction wheels. Reaction wheels are usually the largest disturbance source on a precision pointing spacecraft, and can be the dominating source of pointing error. Accurate knowledge of the disturbance environment is critical to accurate prediction of the pointing performance. In the past, it has been difficult to extract an accurate wheel disturbance model since the forcing mechanisms are difficult to model physically, and the forcing amplitudes are filtered by the dynamics of the reaction wheel. RWDMES captures the wheel-induced disturbances using a hybrid physical/empirical model that is extracted directly from measured forcing data. The empirical models capture the tonal forces that occur at harmonics of the spin rate, and the broadband forces that arise from random effects. The empirical forcing functions are filtered by a physical model of the wheel structure that includes spin-rate-dependent moments (gyroscopic terms). The resulting hybrid model creates a highly accurate prediction of wheel-induced forces. It accounts for variation in disturbance frequency, as well as the shifts in structural amplification by the whirl modes, as the spin rate changes. This software provides a point-and-click environment for producing accurate models with minimal user effort. Where conventional approaches may take weeks to produce a model of variable quality, RWDMES can create a demonstrably high accuracy model in two hours. The software consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) that enables the user to specify all analysis parameters, to evaluate analysis results and to iteratively refine the model. Underlying algorithms automatically extract disturbance harmonics, initialize and tune harmonic models, and initialize and tune broadband noise models. The component steps are described in the RWDMES user s guide and include: converting time domain data to waterfall PSDs (power spectral

  9. Brush-Wheel Samplers for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivellini, Tommaso

    2003-01-01

    A report proposes brush-wheel mechanisms for acquiring samples of soils from remote planets. In simplest terms, such a mechanism would contain brush wheels that would be counter-rotated at relatively high speed. The mechanism would be lowered to the ground from a spacecraft or other exploratory vehicle. Upon contact with the ground, the counter-rotating brush wheels would kick soil up into a collection chamber. Thus, in form and function, the mechanism would partly resemble traditional street and carpet sweepers. The main advantage of using of brush wheels (in contradistinction to cutting wheels or other, more complex mechanisms) is that upon encountering soil harder than expected, the brushes could simply deflect and the motor(s) could continue to turn. That is, sufficiently flexible brushes would afford resistance to jamming and to overloading of the motors used to rotate the brushes, and so the motors could be made correspondingly lighter and less power hungry. Of course, one could select the brush stiffnesses and motor torques and speeds for greatest effectiveness in sampling soil of a specific anticipated degree of hardness.

  10. Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantrowitz, Arthur

    1937-01-01

    In many installations of castering rubber-tired wheels there is a tendency for the wheel to oscillate violently about the spindle axis. This phenomenon, popularly called 'shimmy,' has occurred in some airplane tail wheels and has been corrected in two ways: first by the application of friction in the spindles of the tail wheels; and, second, by locking the wheels while taxiing at high speeds. Shimmy is common with the large wheels used as nose wheels in tricycle landing gears and, since it is impossible to lock the wheels, friction in the nose-wheel spindle has been the sole means of correction. Because the nose wheel is larger than the conventional tail wheel and usually carries a greater load, the larger amounts of spindle friction necessary to prevent shimmy are objectionable. the present paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the problem of the stability of castering wheels for airplane landing gears. On the basis of simplified assumptions induced from experimental observations, a theoretical study has been made of the shimmy of castering wheels. The theory is based on the discovery of a phenomenon called 'kinematic shimmy' and is compared quantitatively with the results of model experiments. Experimental checks, using a model having low-pressure tires, are reported and the applicability of the results to full scale is discussed. Theoretical methods of estimating the spindle viscous damping and spindle solid friction necessary to avoid shimmy - lateral freedom - is introduced.

  11. Slow Progress in Dune (Right Rear Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The right rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The wheel is largely hidden by a cable bundle. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  12. SU-E-J-128: Two-Stage Atlas Selection in Multi-Atlas-Based Image Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, T; Ruan, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In the new era of big data, multi-atlas-based image segmentation is challenged by heterogeneous atlas quality and high computation burden from extensive atlas collection, demanding efficient identification of the most relevant atlases. This study aims to develop a two-stage atlas selection scheme to achieve computational economy with performance guarantee. Methods: We develop a low-cost fusion set selection scheme by introducing a preliminary selection to trim full atlas collection into an augmented subset, alleviating the need for extensive full-fledged registrations. More specifically, fusion set selection is performed in two successive steps: preliminary selection and refinement. An augmented subset is first roughly selected from the whole atlas collection with a simple registration scheme and the corresponding preliminary relevance metric; the augmented subset is further refined into the desired fusion set size, using full-fledged registration and the associated relevance metric. The main novelty of this work is the introduction of an inference model to relate the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, based on which the augmented subset size is rigorously derived to ensure the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. Results: The performance and complexity of the proposed two-stage atlas selection method were assessed using a collection of 30 prostate MR images. It achieved comparable segmentation accuracy as the conventional one-stage method with full-fledged registration, but significantly reduced computation time to 1/3 (from 30.82 to 11.04 min per segmentation). Compared with alternative one-stage cost-saving approach, the proposed scheme yielded superior performance with mean and medium DSC of (0.83, 0.85) compared to (0.74, 0.78). Conclusion: This work has developed a model-guided two-stage atlas selection scheme to achieve significant cost reduction while guaranteeing high segmentation accuracy. The benefit

  13. 14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance with § 23.925(b), the... absorption device; and (2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption...

  14. 19. Credit Pelton Water Wheel Company. Photocopy of drawing (perspective) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Credit Pelton Water Wheel Company. Photocopy of drawing (perspective) showing layout of powerhouse in 1901. (Pelton Water Wheel Company, Catalog, 11th ed., 1909, p. 75). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  15. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Reynolds, Reid G.; Liu, Frank X.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum that the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical strategies for distributing a prescribed torque or momentum among the n wheels are presented, with special emphasis on configurations of four, five, and six wheels.

  16. Evaluation of the 30 Ton CHA Crane Wheel Axle Modification

    SciTech Connect

    RICH, J.W.

    2002-06-04

    An existing design for eccentric bushings was utilized and updated as necessary to accommodate minor adjustment as required to correct wheel alignment on the North West Idler wheel. The design is revised to install eccentric bushings on only one end.

  17. 76. Credit FM. Detail showing belts running from water wheel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Credit FM. Detail showing belts running from water wheel to governor and from water wheel to tachometer (foreground). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  18. Pilothouse bridge with steering gear at center, ship's wheel has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pilothouse bridge with steering gear at center, ship's wheel has been removed. Vertical shaft is connected to flying bridge steering wheel. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  19. Development of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    An engineering model of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel was designed, fabricated, and tested under laboratory conditions. The basic unit consisted of two magnet bearings, a sculptured aluminum rotor, brushless dc spin motor, and electronics. The magnet bearings, utilizing rare-earth cobltrat-samarium magnets were active radially and passive axially. The results of the program showed that momentum wheels with magnetic bearings are feasible and operable, and that magnetic bearings of this type are capable of being used for applications where high capacity, high stiffness, and low power consumption are required. The tests performed developed criteria for improved performance for future designs.

  20. Warning system against locomotive driving wheel flaccidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peng

    2014-09-01

    Causes of locomotive relaxation are discussed. Alarm system against locomotive driving wheel flaccidity is designed by means of techniques of infrared temperature measurement and Hall sensor measurement. The design scheme of the system, the principle of detecting locomotive driving wheel flaccidity with temperature and Hall sensor is introduced, threshold temperature of infrared alarm is determined. The circuit system is designed by microcontroller technology and the software is designed with the assembly language. The experiment of measuring the flaccid displacement with Hall sensor measurement is simulated. The results show that the system runs well with high reliability and low cost, which has a wide prospect of application and popularization.

  1. Roulette-wheel selection via stochastic acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam; Lipowska, Dorota

    2012-03-01

    Roulette-wheel selection is a frequently used method in genetic and evolutionary algorithms or in modeling of complex networks. Existing routines select one of N individuals using search algorithms of O(N) or O(logN) complexity. We present a simple roulette-wheel selection algorithm, which typically has O(1) complexity and is based on stochastic acceptance instead of searching. We also discuss a hybrid version, which might be suitable for highly heterogeneous weight distributions, found, for example, in some models of complex networks. With minor modifications, the algorithm might also be used for sampling with fitness cut-off at a certain value or for sampling without replacement.

  2. A rover wheel in soil - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The image was taken by a camera aboard the Sojourner rover on Sol 4. A rover wheel is at center, and tracks are visible in the soil at top where the cleated wheel passed over the surface.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  3. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-15

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory.

  4. The Big Loser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity in which the subject is the identity of the team in the greatest jeopardy of becoming the big loser in a basketball tournament. Explores several facts about the big loser, offering them in a hierarchy appropriate for creating various short- and long-term projects for a high school mathematics class. (ASK)

  5. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  6. Big data for health.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled. PMID:26173222

  7. Big data for health.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  8. Performance of the Boeing LRV wheels in a lunar soil simulant. Report 2: Effects of speed, Wheel load, and soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melzer, K.

    1971-01-01

    Two nearly identical Boeing-GM wire-mesh Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) wheels were laboratory tested in a lunar soil simulant to determine the influence of wheel speed and acceleration, wheel load, presence of a fender, travel direction, and soil strength on the wheel performance. Constant-slip and three types of programmed-slip tests were conducted with a single-wheel dynamometer system. Test results indicated that performance of single LRV wheels in terms of pull coefficient, power number, and efficiency were not influenced by wheel speed and acceleration, travel direction, the presence of a fender, or wheel load. Of these variables, only load influenced sinkage, which increased with increasing load. For a given slip, the pull coefficient and power number increased with increasing soil strength. However, for a given pull coefficient or slope, slip was less in firmer soil; thus, the power number decreased and efficiency increased with increasing soil strength.

  9. 32. DETAIL OF MAIN DRIVE WHEELS AND BELT TENSIONING DEVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF MAIN DRIVE WHEELS AND BELT TENSIONING DEVICE OF MAIN POWER TRAIN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, LOOKING FORM BEHIND THE CLASSIFIER. THESE WHEELS DROVE THE BULL WHEELS ON THE STAMP BATTERIES ABOVE. THE TENSIONING DEVICE AT CENTER RIGHT CONTROLLED THE SPEED OF THE STAMPS. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. Propulsion and Levitation with a Large Electrodynamic Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Nathan; Lane, Hannah

    We constructed an electrodynamic wheel using a motorized bicycle wheel with a radius of 12 inches and 36 one-inch cube magnets attached to the rim of the wheel. The radial magnetic field on the outside of the wheel was maximized by arranging the magnets into a series of Halbach arrays which amplify the field on one side of the array and reduce it on the other side. Rotating the wheel produces a rapidly oscillating magnetic field. When a conductive metal ``track'' is placed in this area of strong magnetic flux, eddy currents are produced in the track. These eddy currents create magnetic fields that interact with the magnetic fields from the electrodynamic wheel. The interaction of the magnetic fields produces lift and drag forces on the track which were measured with force gauges. Measurements were taken at a variety of wheel speeds, and the results were compared to the theoretical prediction that there should be a linear relationship between the lift and drag forces with increasing wheel speed. Partial levitation was achieved with the current electrodynamic wheel. In the future, the wheel will be upgraded to include 72 magnets rather than 36 magnets. This will double the frequency at which the magnetic field oscillates, increasing the magnetic flux. Electrodynamic wheels have applications to the transportation industry, since multiple electrodynamic wheels could be used on a vehicle to produce a lift and propulsion force over a conductive track.

  11. 14 CFR 23.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 23.483 Section 23.483 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Ground Loads § 23.483 One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the airplane...

  12. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  13. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  14. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  15. 14 CFR 23.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 23.483 Section 23.483 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Ground Loads § 23.483 One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the airplane...

  16. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  17. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  18. 14 CFR 23.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 23.483 Section 23.483 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Ground Loads § 23.483 One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the airplane...

  19. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abrasive wheels and tools. 1926.303 Section 1926.303 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.303 Abrasive wheels... Institute, B7.1-1970, Safety Code for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, and paragraph (d)...

  1. 16 CFR 1512.11 - Requirements for wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for wheels. 1512.11 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.11 Requirements for wheels. (a) Spokes. There shall be no missing spokes. (b) Alignment. The wheel assembly shall be aligned such that no less than...

  2. 14 CFR 23.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 23.483 Section 23.483 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Ground Loads § 23.483 One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the airplane...

  3. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  4. 6. VIEW OF BORING MILL. Chuck action of locomotive wheel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BORING MILL. Chuck action of locomotive wheel Wheel weight 1200 pounds, 3'-0' diameter. Table 53' in diameter Wheel is 48'. Largest hole that can be bored is 9-1/2' plus (GE axle is 10'). - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  5. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplementary conditions for nose wheels... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  6. 16 CFR 1512.11 - Requirements for wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for wheels. 1512.11 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.11 Requirements for wheels. (a) Spokes. There shall be no missing spokes. (b) Alignment. The wheel assembly shall be aligned such that no less than...

  7. 16 CFR 1512.11 - Requirements for wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for wheels. 1512.11 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.11 Requirements for wheels. (a) Spokes. There shall be no missing spokes. (b) Alignment. The wheel assembly shall be aligned such that no less than...

  8. 16 CFR 1512.11 - Requirements for wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for wheels. 1512.11 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.11 Requirements for wheels. (a) Spokes. There shall be no missing spokes. (b) Alignment. The wheel assembly shall be aligned such that no less than...

  9. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  10. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of...

  11. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  12. Design of the cryogenic wheel mechanisms for IRCS and NIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, James; Douglass, Jeffrey W.; Hodapp, Klaus-Werner; Kobayashi, Naoto; Robertson, Louis; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Young, Tony T.

    1998-08-01

    The IR camera and spectrograph (IRCS) for SUBARU and Gemini near-IR imager (NIRI) instruments have a common design for all wheels, based on a modified geneva mechanisms with a locking cam actuated detent pin. The geneva design, in combination with the spring loaded detent mechanism, allows the stepper motor/spur gear drive to decouple from the wheel at each aperture position. The detent mechanism positions the wheel precisely. The need for precise motor control and wheel position encoding is reduced because of the detent mechanism. Six of these mechanism are filters wheels requiring repeatable aperture positing. The other seven mechanisms include of a slit wheel, grism wheel, pupil mask wheel, 2 beam steerers, a focal p;lane mask wheel, and a beamsplitter wheel. These mechanisms require repeatable, stable and accurate positioning. The number of aperture positions for the 13 wheels range from 2 to 16. The mechanisms are aligned and tested at room temperature and operated at 60 K, requiring an athermal design, for which the modified geneva mechanism is ideally suited. This paper will discuss the prototype development and final mechanical design of specific wheel mechanisms completed for the IRCS and NIRI instruments at the Institute for Astronomy.

  13. 49 CFR 393.42 - Brakes required on all wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brakes required on all wheels. 393.42 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.42 Brakes required on all wheels. (a) Every commercial motor vehicle shall be equipped with brakes acting on all wheels. This requirement also applies...

  14. 49 CFR 393.42 - Brakes required on all wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brakes required on all wheels. 393.42 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.42 Brakes required on all wheels. (a) Every commercial motor vehicle shall be equipped with brakes acting on all wheels. This requirement also applies...

  15. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority. PMID:26218867

  16. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  17. Accelerating Science Impact through Big Data Workflow Management and Supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Ryabinkin, E.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the the history of science, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. To manage the workflow for all data processing on hundreds of data centers the PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis)Workload Management System is used. An ambitious program to expand PanDA to all available computing resources, including opportunistic use of commercial and academic clouds and Leadership Computing Facilities (LCF), is realizing within BigPanDA and megaPanDA projects. These projects are now exploring how PanDA might be used for managing computing jobs that run on supercomputers including OLCF's Titan and NRC-KI HPC2. The main idea is to reuse, as much as possible, existing components of the PanDA system that are already deployed on the LHC Grid for analysis of physics data. The next generation of PanDA will allow many data-intensive sciences employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS experience and proven tools in highly scalable processing.

  18. Fifth wheel installation, S97556, Issue H

    SciTech Connect

    Arning, C.

    1994-12-31

    This report consists of one engineering drawing showing the design of the Fifth Wheel System for a semi-tractor trailer truck. Notes on the drawing give instructions for installation of some items, references to other drawings and instructions, and testing procedures.

  19. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exceeded. (j) All employees using abrasive wheels shall be protected by eye protection equipment in accordance with the requirements of subpart I of this part except when adequate eye protection is afforded by eye shields which are permanently attached to the bench or floor stand....

  20. Putting the Brakes on "Squeaky Wheel" Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crafton, John A.

    1997-01-01

    An Economic Institute study concludes that real per-pupil spending between 1967 and 1991 increased by 61%. Regular education's share declined from 80% to 59%. The biggest "squeaky wheel" is special education, followed by bilingual education, alternative instruction, dropout prevention, school lunch, and higher education Pell grants. The newest…

  1. Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

  2. Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasetti, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

  3. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  4. Wheel for Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Each of the six wheels for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover is about half a meter (20 inches) in diameter.

    JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  5. Ultrasonic measurement of stress in railroad wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Raymond E.

    1999-02-01

    The equipment described here generates ultrasonic shear waves using an electromagnetic-acoustic transducer. Precise measurement of the velocity of two orthogonally polarized signals determines the birefringence and allows the calculation of stress. It is necessary to account for the effect of metallurgical texture which can contribute to the birefringence and appear as moderate stress. This system sends a signal through the thickness of a railroad wheel rim, digitizes the first echo, locks onto a cycle, and calculates the time when it crosses zero amplitude. Signal averaging yields the arrival time of a signal at about 90 μs with a standard deviation of 2-4 ns. In screening the residual stress in the rims of cast-steel railroad wheels, this system has a total error of ≈±60 MPa; most of this is due to variability of the texture measured in several stress-relieved blocks cut from wheels. The initial measurements were on wheels in which the manufacture had induced known levels of thermal damage. Results from destructive radial saw cuts through the rims allowed qualitative evaluation of the nondestructive measurements. Most components in this equipment are commercially available.

  6. Empirical analysis of electricity wheeling in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, V.; Scott, M.

    1988-01-01

    This report examines in detail the potential effect of wheeling on electrical rates for all customers. Empirical estimates of the costs of increasing levels of wheeling were prepared using a detailed model of electric utility production and finance. Scenarios were constructed for Commonwealth Edison and Illinois Power Companies. Results of the analysis show that moderate amounts of bypass for Commonwealth Edison (150 to 1000 MW), produce increases in average costs between 0.8% and 10.8%. For Illinois Power, wheeling levels of between 75 to 300 MW, produce increases between 3 and 14%. The results of the analysis suggest that the costs of bypass are closely linked to the capacity situation of the affected utility at the time wheeling takes place. Estimates were prepared of the secondary economic impacts of bypass. Losses in employment and personal income could be expected if rates were raised to 'reimburse' utilities for revenue losses. These losses would amount to less than one-half of one percent of total employment, personal income, and Gross State Product.

  7. Wheeling Your Way Through the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the use of the "Plant Wheel" by the University of California Botanical Garden as a means of providing elementary school children with a structured activity as they explore the Garden at their own pace. This activity accommodates the children's curiosity, energy, and attention span. (JR)

  8. Fifth-wheel fork truck adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.

    1969-01-01

    Standard fifth wheel mounted on a rectangular steel structure adapted for use with a fork lift truck provides a fast, safe, and economical way of maneuvering semitrailers in close quarters at plants and warehouses. One operator can move and locate a semitrailer without dismounting from a fork lift truck.

  9. Big Data in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  10. The Big Bang Theory

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  11. The Big Bang Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-09-30

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  12. Wear Characteristics of Vitrified cBN Grinding Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Masakazu; Ichida, Yoshio; Sato, Ryunosuke

    To clarify the wheel wear characteristics in grinding process using vitrified cBN wheels, we have investigated the change in wheel wear behavior when the load on the grain cutting edge is increased by increasing work speed. Wheel wear behavior in the grinding process may be classified into two main types, a) wheel wear process-type 1, that is consists of initial and steady-state wheel wear regions, and b) wheel wear process-type 2, that is consists of initial, steady-state and abnormal wheel wear regions. In the steady-state wear region of wheel wear process-type 1, lower wheel wear rate, lower stable grinding forces and good finished surface roughness are obtained, because self-sharpening due to micro fractures of the cutting edges takes place. In grinding with wheel wear process-type 2, it is very hard to obtain good finished surface and high grinding ratio, because of occurrences of fracture or releasing of cBN grains.

  13. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  14. Wheel pose measurement based on cross structure light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Ding, Xun; Wang, Xian; Zhao, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    It's necessary for automobile to detect and adjust four-wheel alignment parameters regularly, due to the significant effect on improving stability, enhancing security and reducing tire wear of automobiles. In order to measure the parameters that determined by relative position and posture of four wheels to the automobile cab, this paper proposes a method which applies monocular vision of linear structure light to wheel pose measurement. Firstly, space coordinates of feature point cloud are calculated out from the principle of structured light. Then, an algorithm is designed to determine the normal vector of wheel tangent plane and measure the wheel pose. Finally, actual experiments that by evaluation of adjusted wheel angle measurement are carried out to verify the system accuracy. The corresponding studies can be applied in designing and developing 3D four-wheel alignment system that based on structured light.

  15. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  16. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  17. Agricultural Census 2012: Publishing Mashable GIS Big Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2012 Agricultural Census was released by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) on May 2nd 2014; published on a quinquennial basis covering all facets of American production agriculture. The Agricultural Census is a comprehensive source of uniform published agricultural data for every state and county in the US. This is the first Agricultural Census that is disseminated with web mapping services using REST APIs. USDA developed an open GIS mashable web portal that depicts over 250 maps on Crops and Plants, Economics, Farms, Livestock and Animals, and Operators. These mapping services written in JavaScript replace the traditional static maps published as the Ag Atlas. Web users can now visualize, interact, query, and download the Agricultural Census data in a means not previously discoverable. Stakeholders will now be able to leverage this data for activities such as community planning, agribusiness location suitability analytics, availability of loans/funds, service center locations and staffing, and farm programs and policies. Additional sites serving compatible mashable USDA Big Data web services are as follows: The Food Environment Atlas, The Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America, The Farm Program Atlas, SNAP Data System, CropScape, and VegScape. All portals use a similar data organization scheme of "Categories" and "Maps" providing interactive mashable web services for agricultural stakeholders to exploit.

  18. The Big Bang Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  19. Opportunity Rolls Free Again (Four Wheels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This animated piece illustrates the recent escape of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from dangerous, loose material on the vast plains leading to the rover's next long-term target, 'Victoria Crater.'

    A series of images from the front and rear hazard-avoidance cameras make up this brief movie chronicling the challenge Opportunity faced to free itself from the ripple dubbed 'Jammerbugt.' Each quadrant shows one of the rover's four corner wheels: left front wheel in upper left, right front wheel in upper right, rear wheels in the lower quadrants. The wheels became partially embedded in the ripple at the end of a drive on Opportunity's 833rd Martian day, or sol (May 28, 2006). The images in this clip were taken on sols 836 through 841 (May 31 through June 5, 2006).

    Scientists and engineers who had been elated at the meters of progress the rover had been making in earlier drives were happy for even centimeters of advance per sol as they maneuvered their explorer through the slippery material of Jammerbugt. The wheels reached solid footing on a rock outcrop on the final sol of this sequence.

    The science and engineering teams appropriately chose the ripple's informal from name the name of a bay on the north coast of Denmark. Jammerbugt, or Jammerbugten, loosely translated, means Bay of Lamentation or Bay of Wailing. The shipping route from the North Sea to the Baltic passes Jammerbugt on its way around the northern tip of Jutland. This has always been an important trade route and many ships still pass by the bay. The prevailing wind directions are typically northwest to southwest with the strongest winds and storms tending to blow from the northwest. A northwesterly wind will blow straight into the Jammerbugt, towards shore. Therefore, in the age of sail, many ships sank there during storms. The shore is sandy, but can have strong waves, so running aground was very dangerous even though there are no rocks.

    Fortunately, Opportunity

  20. The Molecular Atlas Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Jesse; Yin, Peng

    The promise of super-resolution microscopy is a technology to discover new biological mechanisms that occur at smaller length scales then previously observable. However, with higher-resolution, we generally lose the larger spatial context of the image itself. The Molecular Atlas Project (MAP) directly asks how these competing interests between super-resolution imaging and broader spatially contextualized information can be reconciled. MAP enables us to acquire, visualize, explore, and annotate proteomic image data representing 7 orders of magnitude in length ranging from molecular (nm) to tissue (cm) scales. This multi-scale understanding is made possible by combining multiplexed DNA-PAINT, a DNA nanotechnology approach to super-resolution imaging, with ``big-data'' strategies for information management and image visualization. With these innovations combined, MAP enables us to explore cell-specific heterogeneity in ductal carcinoma for every cellin a cm-sized tissue section, analyze organoid growth for advances in high-throughput tissue-on-a-chip technology, and examine individual synapses for connectome mapping over extremely wide areas. Ultimately, MAP is a fundamentally new way to interact with multiscale biophysical data.

  1. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own "big" words and dreams. During the one…

  2. System of color wheels for streptomycete taxonomy.

    PubMed

    TRESNER, H D; BACKUS, E J

    1963-07-01

    In the sundry systems of streptomycete taxonomy, color of the sporulating aerial mycelium is frequently employed as a systematic criterion. Color series, each containing species of similar spore colors, are generally erected; however, the range of colors encompassed within a series is often not clearly delineated by the usual word description. Therefore, a system is proposed in which the color content of each series is more accurately defined by means of color tabs. Seven spore-color series are recognized (i.e., red, gray, yellow, blue, green, violet, and white), each of which is represented by a color wheel that displays the range of colors included therein. By comparing spore colors with the color wheels, unclassified isolates can readily be assigned to appropriate color groups.

  3. Non-backdriveable free wheeling coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llewellin, William R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A rotary coupling for connecting a driven part to a source of rotary force is described. This device transmits rotary force in one direction only and disengages to permit the driven part to free wheel when the input member is stopped and precludes the backdriving of rotary force from output member to input member. The coupling includes an input member having a splined shaft, a coupling member connected to the splined shaft, and a coaxial output member. The coupling member and the output member having complementary sets of axially facing clutch teeth. Guides in the form of helical grooves on the coupling member and spring loaded followers acting with the guides affect the engagement and disengagement of the clutch teeth by moving the coupling member toward and away from output member, the followers and guides themselves disengaging to permit free wheeling of output member when input member is stopped.

  4. Slow Progress in Dune (Right Front Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The right front wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's front hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  5. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Rear Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The left rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  6. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Front Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The left front wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's front hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  7. Flow Visualization around a Simplified Two-Wheel Landing Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmekci, Alis; Feltham, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The flow topology around a simplified two-wheel landing gear model is investigated experimentally by employing the hydrogen bubble flow visualization technique in a recirculating water channel. The landing gear test model consists of two identical wheels, an axle, a main strut and a support strut. The flow Reynolds number based on wheel diameter is 31,500 and wheels with varying geometric details are considered. Flow structures have been identified through analysis of long-time video recordings and linked to the model geometry. In the flow region above the wheels (wing side), the flow in the inter-wheel region either separates prematurely from the inner surfaces of the wheels and forms slant vortices in the near-wake, or remains attached till the aft wheel perimeter. Inclusion of interior wheel wells are found to result in a jet-like ejection as a result of the interaction with the axle and main strut. In the flow region below the wheels (ground side) the near wake contains periodically forming, complex, large-scale structures.

  8. Influence of wheel configuration on wheelchair basketball performance: wheel stiffness, tyre type and tyre orientation.

    PubMed

    Mason, B S; Lemstra, M; van der Woude, L H V; Vegter, R; Goosey-Tolfrey, V L

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to explore the lateral stiffness of different sports wheelchair wheels available to athletes in 'new' and 'used' conditions and to determine the effect of (a) stiffness, (b) tyre type (clincher vs. tubular) and (c) tyre orientation on the physiological and biomechanical responses to submaximal and maximal effort propulsion specific to wheelchair basketball. Eight able-bodied individuals participated in the laboratory-based testing, which took place on a wheelchair ergometer at two fixed speeds (1.1 and 2.2 m s(-1)). Outcome measures were power output and physiological demand (oxygen uptake and heart rate). Three participants with experience of over-ground sports wheelchair propulsion also performed 2 × 20 m sprints in each wheel configuration. Results revealed that wheels differed significantly in lateral stiffness with the 'new' Spinergy wheel shown to be the stiffest (678.2 ± 102.1 N mm(-1)). However the effects of stiffness on physiological demand were minimal compared to tyre type whereby tubular tyres significantly reduced the rolling resistance and power output in relation to clincher tyres. Therefore tyre type (and subsequently inflation pressure) remains the most important aspect of wheel specification for athletes to consider and monitor when configuring a sports wheelchair. PMID:25726151

  9. Influence of wheel configuration on wheelchair basketball performance: wheel stiffness, tyre type and tyre orientation.

    PubMed

    Mason, B S; Lemstra, M; van der Woude, L H V; Vegter, R; Goosey-Tolfrey, V L

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to explore the lateral stiffness of different sports wheelchair wheels available to athletes in 'new' and 'used' conditions and to determine the effect of (a) stiffness, (b) tyre type (clincher vs. tubular) and (c) tyre orientation on the physiological and biomechanical responses to submaximal and maximal effort propulsion specific to wheelchair basketball. Eight able-bodied individuals participated in the laboratory-based testing, which took place on a wheelchair ergometer at two fixed speeds (1.1 and 2.2 m s(-1)). Outcome measures were power output and physiological demand (oxygen uptake and heart rate). Three participants with experience of over-ground sports wheelchair propulsion also performed 2 × 20 m sprints in each wheel configuration. Results revealed that wheels differed significantly in lateral stiffness with the 'new' Spinergy wheel shown to be the stiffest (678.2 ± 102.1 N mm(-1)). However the effects of stiffness on physiological demand were minimal compared to tyre type whereby tubular tyres significantly reduced the rolling resistance and power output in relation to clincher tyres. Therefore tyre type (and subsequently inflation pressure) remains the most important aspect of wheel specification for athletes to consider and monitor when configuring a sports wheelchair.

  10. PowerWheel - A new look at waterwheels

    SciTech Connect

    Weisman, R.N.; Broome, K.R.; Mayo, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    The PowerWheel is an advanced overshot water wheel, designed to generate electric power at drop structures on canals or on overflow spillways. Unlike the wheels of the 18th and 19th century which were designed to have maximum efficiency at a single flow rate, the current applications demand a wheel that can operate efficiently over a wide range of flows. The prototype PowerWheel will have a width to diameter ratio of 3 or more, in contrast to the wheels of the 19th century, which had large diameters and narrow widths. A model PowerWheel was built of plexiglass and delivered for testing to the Imbt Hydraulics Laboratory at Lehigh University. The wheel has a diameter of 3.5 ft and is 16 in wide. The wheel contains 20 buckets and the bucket depth can be varied from a shallow depth of 4 in to a mid depth of 7 in to 10 in for the deep bucket. The blades have a rather simple geometry with a 4 in radius quarter circle at the outside of the wheel and then straight to the bottom of the bucket. The flume in which the wheel was tested has a width of 18 in. A hole was cut in the head box of the flume and a delivery chute was connected to the head box. The position of the chute can readily be moved up or down in relation to the wheel; for a fixed position of the chute on the head box, the slope of the chute can be changed because the chute was attached to the head box with a piano hinge. The laboratory flow system can deliver flow up to 6 cfs through a calibrated Venturi meter. The PowerWheel was subjected to flows ranging from 0.3 to 3.5 cfs.

  11. Report to users of ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Glagola, B.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains discussing in the following areas: Status of the Atlas accelerator; highlights of recent research at Atlas; concept for an advanced exotic beam facility based on Atlas; program advisory committee; Atlas executive committee; and Atlas and ANL physics division on the world wide web.

  12. Design of a wheeled articulating land rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Larry; Dilorenzo, Mathew; Yandle, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The WALRUS is a wheeled articulating land rover that will provide Ames Research Center with a reliable, autonomous vehicle for demonstrating and evaluating advanced technologies. The vehicle is one component of the Ames Research Center's on-going Human Exploration Demonstration Project. Ames Research Center requested a system capable of traversing a broad spectrum of surface types and obstacles. In addition, this vehicle must have an autonomous navigation and control system on board and its own source of power. The resulting design is a rover that articulates in two planes of motion to allow for increased mobility and stability. The rover is driven by six conical shaped aluminum wheels, each with an independent, internally coupled motor. Mounted on the rover are two housings and a removable remote control system. In the housings, the motor controller board, tilt sensor, navigation circuitry, and QED board are mounted. Finally, the rover's motors and electronics are powered by thirty C-cell rechargeable batteries, which are located in the rover wheels and recharged by a specially designed battery charger.

  13. Rover Wheel-Actuated Tool Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Janet; Ahmad, Norman; Wilcox, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A report describes an interface for utilizing some of the mobility features of a mobile robot for general-purpose manipulation of tools and other objects. The robot in question, now undergoing conceptual development for use on the Moon, is the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) rover, which is designed to roll over gentle terrain or walk over rough or steep terrain. Each leg of the robot is a six-degree-of-freedom general purpose manipulator tipped by a wheel with a motor drive. The tool interface includes a square cross-section peg, equivalent to a conventional socket-wrench drive, that rotates with the wheel. The tool interface also includes a clamp that holds a tool on the peg, and a pair of fold-out cameras that provides close-up stereoscopic images of the tool and its vicinity. The field of view of the imagers is actuated by the clamp mechanism and is specific to each tool. The motor drive can power any of a variety of tools, including rotating tools for helical fasteners, drills, and such clamping tools as pliers. With the addition of a flexible coupling, it could also power another tool or remote manipulator at a short distance. The socket drive can provide very high torque and power because it is driven by the wheel motor.

  14. A gimbaled low noise momentum wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichler, U.; Eckardt, T.

    1993-01-01

    The bus actuators are the heart and at the same time the Achilles' heel of accurate spacecraft stabilization systems, because both their performance and their perturbations can have a deciding influence on the achievable pointing accuracy of the mission. The main task of the attitude actuators, which are mostly wheels, is the generation of useful torques with sufficiently high bandwidth, resolution and accuracy. This is because the bandwidth of the whole attitude control loop and its disturbance rejection capability is dependent upon these factors. These useful torques shall be provided, without - as far as possible - parasitic noise like unbalance forces and torques and harmonics. This is because such variable frequency perturbations excite structural resonances which in turn disturb the operation of sensors and scientific instruments. High accuracy spacecraft will further require bus actuators for the three linear degrees of freedom (DOF) to damp structural oscillations excited by various sources. These actuators have to cover the dynamic range of these disturbances. Another interesting feature, which is not necessarily related to low noise performance, is a gimballing capability which enables, in a certain angular range, a three axis attitude control with only one wheel. The herein presented Teldix MWX, a five degree of freedom Magnetic Bearing Momentum Wheel, incorporates all the above required features. It is ideally suited to support, as a gyroscopic actuator in the attitude control system, all High Pointing Accuracy and Vibration Sensitive space missions.

  15. Uniform Big Bang-Chaotic Big Crunch optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatas, Bilal

    2011-09-01

    This study proposes methods to improve the convergence of the novel optimization method, Big Bang-Big Crunch (BB-BC). Uniform population method has been used to generate uniformly distributed random points in the Big Bang phase. Chaos has been utilized to rapidly shrink those points to a single representative point via a center of mass in the Big Crunch phase. The proposed algorithm has been named as Uniform Big Bang-Chaotic Big Crunch (UBB-CBC). The performance of the UBB-CBC optimization algorithm demonstrates superiority over the BB-BC optimization for the benchmark functions.

  16. ATLAS F MISSILE FIELDS IN THE UNITED STATES, ATLAS F ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ATLAS F MISSILE FIELDS IN THE UNITED STATES, ATLAS F- TEXAS RING OF TWELVE - Dyess Air Force Base, Atlas F Missle Site S-8, Approximately 3 miles east of Winters, 500 feet southwest of Highway 177, Winters, Runnels County, TX

  17. 76 FR 23294 - Certain Steel Wheels From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... includes steel wheels, discs, and rims of carbon and/or alloy composition and clad wheels, discs, and rims... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wheels From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of... steel wheels (``steel wheels'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') filed in proper form...

  18. A simulation model for risk assessment of turbine wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Hage, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation model has been successfully developed to evaluate the risk of the Space Shuttle auxiliary power unit (APU) turbine wheels for a specific inspection policy. Besides being an effective tool for risk/reliability evaluation, the simulation model also allows the analyst to study the trade-offs between wheel reliability, wheel life, inspection interval, and rejection crack size. For example, in the APU application, sensitivity analysis results showed that the wheel life limit has the least effect on wheel reliability when compared to the effect of the inspection interval and the rejection crack size. In summary, the simulation model developed represents a flexible tool to predict turbine wheel reliability and study the risk under different inspection policies.

  19. A Wavelet-Based Methodology for Grinding Wheel Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, T. W.; Ting, C.F.; Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian

    2007-01-01

    Grinding wheel surface condition changes as more material is removed. This paper presents a wavelet-based methodology for grinding wheel condition monitoring based on acoustic emission (AE) signals. Grinding experiments in creep feed mode were conducted to grind alumina specimens with a resinoid-bonded diamond wheel using two different conditions. During the experiments, AE signals were collected when the wheel was 'sharp' and when the wheel was 'dull'. Discriminant features were then extracted from each raw AE signal segment using the discrete wavelet decomposition procedure. An adaptive genetic clustering algorithm was finally applied to the extracted features in order to distinguish different states of grinding wheel condition. The test results indicate that the proposed methodology can achieve 97% clustering accuracy for the high material removal rate condition, 86.7% for the low material removal rate condition, and 76.7% for the combined grinding conditions if the base wavelet, the decomposition level, and the GA parameters are properly selected.

  20. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  1. Magnetic bearing reaction wheel. [for spacecraft attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabnis, A.; Schmitt, F.; Smith, L.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a program for the development, fabrication and functional test of an engineering model magnetically suspended reaction wheel are described. The reaction wheel develops an angular momentum of + or - 0.5 foot-pound-second and is intended for eventual application in the attitude control of long-life interplanetary and orbiting spacecraft. A description of the wheel design and its major performance characteristics is presented. Recommendations for flight prototype development are made.

  2. Big data in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science.

  3. Bayesian big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2011-09-01

    We show that the flow of particles corresponding to Bayes' rule has a number of striking similarities with the big bang, including cosmic inflation and cosmic acceleration. We derive a PDE for this flow using a log-homotopy from the prior probability density to the posteriori probability density. We solve this PDE using the gradient of the solution to Poisson's equation, which is computed using an exact Green's function and the standard Monte Carlo approximation of integrals. The resulting flow is analogous to Coulomb's law in electromagnetics. We have used no physics per se to derive this flow, but rather we have only used Bayes' rule and the definition of normalized probability and a loghomotopy parameter that could be interpreted as time. The details of this big bang resemble very recent theories much more closely than the so-called new inflation models, which postulate enormous inflation immediately after the big bang.

  4. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-08-27

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  5. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  6. 125. SECTION OF BREAST WHEEL, 1843 Frederic Graff, Jr., Collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. SECTION OF BREAST WHEEL, 1843 Frederic Graff, Jr., Collection of Philadelphia Museum of Art - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 118. STUDY DRAWING FOR WATER WHEELS, CA. 1822 Frederic Graff, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. STUDY DRAWING FOR WATER WHEELS, CA. 1822 Frederic Graff, Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 51. Credit JTL. View of Doble wheel housing, exciter, generator, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Credit JTL. View of Doble wheel housing, exciter, generator, switchboard with overhead field rheostat (above). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  9. EXTERIOR ELEVATION AND OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTH, WITH DRIVE WHEELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATION AND OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTH, WITH DRIVE WHEELS IN FOREGROUND. - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Opportunity Rolls Free Again (Left Front Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This animated piece illustrates the recent escape of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from dangerous, loose material on the vast plains leading to the rover's next long-term target, 'Victoria Crater.'

    A series of images of the rover's left front wheel, taken by the front hazard-avoidance camera, make up this brief movie. It chronicles the challenge Opportunity faced to free itself from a ripple dubbed 'Jammerbugt.' The rover's wheels became partially embedded in the ripple at the end of a drive on Opportunity's 833rd Martian day, or sol (May 28, 2006). The images in this clip were taken on sols 836 through 841 (May 31 through June 5, 2006).

    Scientists and engineers who had been elated at the meters of progress the rover had been making in earlier drives were happy for even centimeters of advance per sol as they maneuvered their explorer through the slippery material of Jammerbugt. The wheels reached solid footing on a rock outcrop on the final sol of this sequence.

    The science and engineering teams appropriately chose the ripple's informal from name the name of a bay on the north coast of Denmark. Jammerbugt, or Jammerbugten, loosely translated, means Bay of Lamentation or Bay of Wailing. The shipping route from the North Sea to the Baltic passes Jammerbugt on its way around the northern tip of Jutland. This has always been an important trade route and many ships still pass by the bay. The prevailing wind directions are typically northwest to southwest with the strongest winds and storms tending to blow from the northwest. A northwesterly wind will blow straight into the Jammerbugt, towards shore. Therefore, in the age of sail, many ships sank there during storms. The shore is sandy, but can have strong waves, so running aground was very dangerous even though there are no rocks.

    Fortunately, Opportunity weathered its 'Jammerbugt' and is again on its way toward Victoria Crater.

  11. Opportunity Rolls Free Again (Right Front Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This animated piece illustrates the recent escape of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from dangerous, loose material on the vast plains leading to the rover's next long-term target, 'Victoria Crater.'

    A series of images of the rover's right front wheel, taken by the front hazard-avoidance camera, make up this brief movie. It chronicles the challenge Opportunity faced to free itself from a ripple dubbed 'Jammerbugt.' The rover's wheels became partially embedded in the ripple at the end of a drive on Opportunity's 833rd Martian day, or sol (May 28, 2006). The images in this clip were taken on sols 836 through 841 (May 31 through June 5, 2006).

    Scientists and engineers who had been elated at the meters of progress the rover had been making in earlier drives were happy for even centimeters of advance per sol as they maneuvered their explorer through the slippery material of Jammerbugt. The wheels reached solid footing on a rock outcrop on the final sol of this sequence.

    The science and engineering teams appropriately chose the ripple's informal from name the name of a bay on the north coast of Denmark. Jammerbugt, or Jammerbugten, loosely translated, means Bay of Lamentation or Bay of Wailing. The shipping route from the North Sea to the Baltic passes Jammerbugt on its way around the northern tip of Jutland. This has always been an important trade route and many ships still pass by the bay. The prevailing wind directions are typically northwest to southwest with the strongest winds and storms tending to blow from the northwest. A northwesterly wind will blow straight into the Jammerbugt, towards shore. Therefore, in the age of sail, many ships sank there during storms. The shore is sandy, but can have strong waves, so running aground was very dangerous even though there are no rocks.

    Fortunately, Opportunity weathered its 'Jammerbugt' and is again on its way toward Victoria Crater.

  12. Inertia-Wheel Vibration-Damping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Joseph V.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed electromechanical system would damp vibrations in large, flexible structure. In active vibration-damping system motors and reaction wheels at tips of appendages apply reaction torques in response to signals from accelerometers. Velocity signal for vibrations about one axis processes into control signal to oppose each of n vibrational modes. Various modes suppressed one at a time. Intended primarily for use in spacecraft that has large, flexible solar panels and science-instrument truss assembly, embodies principle of control interesting in its own right and adaptable to terrestrial structures, vehicles, and instrument platforms.

  13. NIRCam filter wheel optic mount design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privári, Béla I.; Hom, Craig; Jacoby, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The mechanical design of any optic mount requires an understanding of the sensitivities of the optical design. The design of the filter optic mounts used on the James Webb Space Telescope - NIRCam filter wheel assemblies have been designed to support the optics in a manner that does not compromise optical performance, while coping with several environmental conditions. We will review the design of the NIRCam filter optic assemblies and confirm the merits of the approach chosen to mount the optics, considering thermal, vibration and stress effects.

  14. Innovative stair climber using associated wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, Girish Sudhir; Bhoomkar, Manmohan Manikrao

    2016-09-01

    The study proposes an innovative and completely new but low-cost configuration of a platform that can easily climb stairs. This platform serves the purpose of a chassis. Different versions, such as staircase-climbing wheelchair or staircase-climbing trolley for material transferring, can be derived depending on the structure built on the platform. The driving wheels have a shape that completely matches with the profile of the steps. Complex components are eliminated. Thus, this platform is conveniently applicable in the configurations useful for climbing staircases.

  15. Strangulation--Suicide at the wheel.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Schmidt, Peter; Kernbach-Wighton, Gerhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2015-11-01

    In cases of suicide at the wheel mostly velocity is used to cause death by a single occupant vehicle crash against a fixed roadside object or collision with other vehicles. A further well known mode of death is e.g. carbon monoxide poisoning. In the recent years several cases of vehicle assisted ligature strangulation resulting even in decapitation have been reported. However, cars are also used in rare cases just as places for a suicide by hanging or ligature strangulation. Not only forensic pathologists but also police officers have to be aware of this rare type of suicide to avoid unnecessary investigations.

  16. A Sobering Big Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Since Susan Adler, Alberta Dougan, and Jesus Garcia like "big ideas," the author offers one to ponder: young people in this country can not read with comprehension. The saddest thing about this crisis is that it is no secret. The 2001 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for reading, published in every major newspaper,…

  17. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  18. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  19. Big-City Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to implementing innovative classroom technology programs, urban school districts face significant challenges stemming from their big-city status. These range from large bureaucracies, to scalability, to how to meet the needs of a more diverse group of students. Because of their size, urban districts tend to have greater distance…

  20. A Big Bang Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  1. Big Enough for Everyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coote, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The UK's coalition government wants to build a "Big Society." The Prime Minister says "we are all in this together" and building it is the responsibility of every citizen as well as every government department. The broad vision is welcome, but everything depends on how the vision is translated into policy and practice. The government aims to put…

  2. The big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event that set the universe in motion. Joseph Silk begins his story with the first microseconds of the big bang, on through the evolution of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, and into the distant future of our universe. He also explores the fascinating evidence for the big bang model and recounts the history of cosmological speculation. Revised and updated, this new edition features all the most recent astronomical advances, including: Photos and measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE), and Infrared Space Observatory; the latest estimates of the age of the universe; new ideas in string and superstring theory; recent experiments on neutrino detection; new theories about the presence of dark matter in galaxies; new developments in the theory of the formation and evolution of galaxies; the latest ideas about black holes, worm holes, quantum foam, and multiple universes.

  3. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  4. Big Data and Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  5. Business and Science - Big Data, Big Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Data Science is more than the creation, manipulation, and transformation of data. It is more than Big Data. The business world seems to have a hold on the term 'data science' and, for now, they define what it means. But business is very different than science. In this talk, I address how large datasets, Big Data, and data science are conceptually different in business and science worlds. I focus on the types of questions each realm asks, the data needed, and the consequences of findings. Gone are the days of datasets being created or collected to serve only one purpose or project. The trick with data reuse is to become familiar enough with a dataset to be able to combine it with other data and extract accurate results. As a Data Curator for the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS), my specialty is communication. Our team enables Arctic sciences by ensuring datasets are well documented and can be understood by reusers. Previously, I served as a data community liaison for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Again, my specialty was communicating complex instructions and ideas to a broad audience of data users. Before entering the science world, I was an entrepreneur. I have a bachelor's degree in economics and a master's degree in environmental social science. I am currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Geography. Because my background has embraced both the business and science worlds, I would like to share my perspectives on data, data reuse, data documentation, and the presentation or communication of findings. My experiences show that each can inform and support the other.

  6. Development Tests of a Cryogenic Filter Wheel Assembly for the NIRCam Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCully, Sean; Clark, Charles; Schermerhorn, Michael; Trojanek, Filip; O'Hara, Mark; Williams, Jeff; Thatcher, John

    2006-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is an infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 201 3. Its 6.5-m diameter primary mirror will collect light from some of the first galaxies formed after the big bang. The Near Infrared camera (NIRCam) will detect the first light from these galaxies, provide the necessary tools for studying the formation of stars, aid in discovering planets around other stars, and adjust the wave front error on the primary mirror (Fig. 1). The instrument and its complement of mechanisms and optics will operate at a cryogenic temperature of 35 K. This paper describes tests and test results of the NIRCam Filter Wheel assembly prototype.

  7. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a) General requirements—(1) Machine guarding. Abrasive wheels shall be used only on machines provided with... omitted; and (ii) The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as...

  8. Experiments on the resistance of airplane wheels and radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1924-01-01

    Experiments were made on the resistance of four airplane wheels of different sizes and coverings and two Lamblin radiators. The results show the important influence of the wheel coverings. The closing of a shutter, which was fitted to one of the radiators, considerably lessened the resistance.

  9. 47. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL VANE ASSEMBLY AND TWO WHEEL SECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL VANE ASSEMBLY AND TWO WHEEL SECTIONS FROM ELI WINDMILLS, THE VANE SHEET BEARING STENCILED PAINTED INSCRIPTION, 'KREGEL WINDMILL CO. ELI NEBRASKA CITY, NEB.' VISIBLE IN THE IMAGE ARE BOTH SIDES OF THE WHEEL SECTIONS, SHOWING THE METHOD OF BLADE MOUNTING FOR ELI WINDMILLS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  10. Anthropometry and Standards for Wheeled Mobility: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana; Feathers, David; D'Souza, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Space requirements for accommodating wheeled mobility devices and their users in the built environment are key components of standards for accessible design. These requirements typically include dimensions for clear floor areas, maneuvering clearances, seat and knee clearance heights, as well as some reference dimensions on wheeled mobility device…

  11. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abrasive wheels and tools. 1926.303 Section 1926.303...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abrasive wheels and tools. 1926.303 Section 1926.303...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.303 - Abrasive wheels and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools. (a) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abrasive wheels and tools. 1926.303 Section 1926.303...

  14. A compact magnetic bearing for gimballed momentum wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yabu-Uchi, K.; Inoue, M.; Akishita, S.; Murakami, C.; Okamoto, O.

    1983-01-01

    A three axis controlled magnetic bearing and its application to a momentum wheel are described. The four divided stators provide a momentum wheel with high reliability, low weight, large angular momentum storage capacity, and gimbal control. Those characteristics are desirable for spacecraft attitude control.

  15. 18. Credit Pelton Water Wheel Company. View from the older ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Credit Pelton Water Wheel Company. View from the older portion of the powerhouse with the 750 kW 1901 generating units in the left foreground. An exciter unit and the switchboard are in the right foreground. (Pelton Water Wheel Company, Pelton Impulse & Reaction Turbine Installations, 1920, p. 33). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  16. 76 FR 29265 - Certain Steel Wheels From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Register of April 5, 2011 (76 FR 18781). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on April 20, 2011, and... COMMISSION Certain Steel Wheels From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... threatened with material injury by reason of imports from China of certain steel wheels, provided for...

  17. 77 FR 27249 - Certain Steel Wheels From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72441). The hearing... COMMISSION Certain Steel Wheels From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... of imports of certain steel wheels from China, provided for in subheading 8708.70 of the...

  18. 16 CFR 1512.11 - Requirements for wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.11 Requirements for wheels. (a) Spokes. There shall be no missing spokes. (b) Alignment. The wheel assembly shall be aligned such that no less than 1.6... rotated to any position. (c) Rims. Rims shall retain the spokes and tire when side-loaded with 2000 N...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pot balls where the work offers protection. (2) Guard design. The safety guard shall cover the spindle... protection for all sizes of wheel used. EC27OC91.064 Figure No. O-20Figure No. O-21 correct Showing movable guard with opening small enough to give required protection for smallest size wheel used....

  20. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pot balls where the work offers protection. (2) Guard design. The safety guard shall cover the spindle... protection for all sizes of wheel used. EC27OC91.064 Figure No. O-20Figure No. O-21 correct Showing movable guard with opening small enough to give required protection for smallest size wheel used....

  1. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF FLUTTER WHEEL IN BASEMENT OF GRISTMILL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF FLUTTER WHEEL IN BASEMENT OF GRISTMILL. THE RECTANGULAR ENCLOSED FLUME PROTRUDING FROM THE WALL AT CENTER/LEFT CARRIED WATER FROM THE EQUALIZING VAT THAT POWERED THE WHEEL - San Jose Grist Mill, Southwest of San Jose Drive, east of Espada Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  2. 15. Photocopied June 1978. WHEEL HOUSE RUINS OF 'NEW' FURNACE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopied June 1978. WHEEL HOUSE RUINS OF 'NEW' FURNACE. SEGMENT GEAR REMNANTS VISIBLE STANDING IN WHEEL PIT IN FOREGROUND. SOURCE: MCINTYRE DEVELOPMENT, NL INDUSTRIES, TAHAWUS, N.Y. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

  3. Considering the Influence of Prerequisite Performance on Wheel Spinning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Hao; Beck, Joseph Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of wheel spinning refers to students attempting to solve problems on a particular skill, but becoming stuck due to an inability to learn the skill. Past research has found that students who do not master a skill quickly tend not to master it at all. One question is why do students wheel spin? A plausible hypothesis is that students…

  4. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may not have tires with a minimum thickness less than that indicated in the table in this paragraph (d). When retaining rings are used, measurements of tires to be taken from the outside circumference of the ring,...

  5. The Wheels of Stress Go 'Round and 'Round

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    "The Wheels of Stress Go Round and Round" teaching idea uses three activity wheels to reinforce stress-related content and concepts. After presenting a definition of stress, the instructor assists students in identifying stressors, and aids in formulating a list of negative, reactive behaviors and a list of positive coping mechanisms. Using…

  6. 13. VIEW OF PELTON WHEELS AND GENERATORS IN CAVITY PLANT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF PELTON WHEELS AND GENERATORS IN CAVITY PLANT, AS SEEN FROM PELTON WHEEL-GENERATOR UNIT #1; GENERATOR #1, #2, #3, #4 WERE MANUFACTURED BY WESTINGHOUSE, EACH RATED AT 1,500 KW - Snoqualmie Falls Hydroelectric Project, .5 mile north of Snoqualmie, Snoqualmie, King County, WA

  7. Magnetic suspension options for spacecraft inertia-wheel applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Design criteria for spacecraft inertia-wheel suspensions are listed. The advantages of magnetic suspensions over other suspension types for spacecraft inertia-wheel applications are cited along with the functions performed by magnetic suspension. The common designs for magnetic suspensions are enumerated. Materials selection of permanent magnets and core materials is considered.

  8. The Development of Wheels for the Lunar Roving Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake; Delap, Damon; Creager, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was developed for NASA s Apollo program so astronauts could cover a greater range on the lunar surface, carry more science instruments, and return more soil and rock samples than by foot. Because of the unique lunar environment, the creation of flexible wheels was the most challenging and time consuming aspect of the LRV development. Wheels developed for previous lunar systems were not sufficient for use with this manned vehicle; therefore, several new designs were created and tested. Based on criteria set by NASA, the choices were narrowed down to two: the wire mesh wheel developed by General Motors (GM), and the hoop spring wheel developed by the Bendix Corporation. Each of these underwent intensive mechanical, material, and terramechanical analyses, and in the end, the wire mesh wheel was chosen for the LRV. Though the wire mesh wheel was determined to be the best choice for its particular application, it may be insufficient towards achieving the objectives of future lunar missions that could require higher tractive capability, increased weight capacity, or extended life. Therefore lessons learned from the original LRV wheel development and suggestions for future Moon wheel projects are offered.

  9. Autonomous terrain parameter estimation for wheeled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Laura E.

    2008-04-01

    This paper reports a methodology for inferring terrain parameters from estimated terrain forces in order to allow wheeled autonomous vehicles to assess mobility in real-time. Terrain force estimation can be used to infer the ability to accelerate, climb, or tow a load independent of the underlying terrain model. When a terrain model is available, physical soil properties and stress distribution parameters that relate to mobility are inferred from vehicle-terrain forces using multiple-model estimation. The approach uses Bayesian statistics to select the most likely terrain parameters from a set of hypotheses, given estimated terrain forces. The hypotheses are based on the extensive literature of soil properties for soils with cohesions from 1 - 70 kPa. Terrain parameter estimation is subject to mathematical uniqueness of the net forces resulting from vehicle-terrain interaction for a given set of terrain parameters; uniqueness properties are characterized in the paper motivating the approach. Terrain force and parameter estimation requires proprioceptive sensors - accelerometers, rate gyros, wheel speeds, motor currents, and ground speed. Simulation results demonstrate efficacy of the method on three terrains - low cohesion sand, sandy loam, and high cohesion clay, with parameter convergence times as low as .02 sec. The method exhibits an ability to interpolate between hypotheses when no single hypothesis adequately characterizes the terrain.

  10. Longitudinal wheel slip during ABS braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartikainen, Lassi; Petry, Frank; Westermann, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Anti-lock braking system (ABS) braking tests with two subcompact passenger cars were performed on dry and wet asphalt, as well as on snow and ice surfaces. The operating conditions of the tyres in terms of wheel slip were evaluated using histograms of the wheel slip data. The results showed different average slip levels for different road surfaces. It was also found that changes in the tyre tread stiffness affected the slip operating range through a modification of the slip value at which the maximum longitudinal force is achieved. Variation of the tyre footprint length through modifications in the inflation pressure affected the slip operating range as well. Differences in the slip distribution between vehicles with different brake controllers were also observed. The changes in slip operating range in turn modified the relative local sliding speeds between the tyre and the road. The results highlight the importance of the ABS controller's ability to adapt to changing slip-force characteristics of tyres and provide estimates of the magnitude of the effects of different tyre and road operating conditions.

  11. Fatigue Properties of Cast Magnesium Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenming; Luo, Alan A.; Wang, Qigui; Peng, Liming; Zhang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the fatigue properties and deformation behavior of a newly developed Mg-2.96Nd-0.21Zn-0.39Zr magnesium alloy wheel in both as-cast and T6 conditions. Compared with the as-cast alloy, the T6-treated alloy shows a significant increase in fatigue strength and cyclic stress amplitude. This is believed to be attributed to the change of defect type from porosity to oxides and the increased matrix strength in the T6 (peak-aged) condition. For the as-cast alloy wheel, fatigue failure mainly originated from the cast defects including porosity, oxide film, and inclusion at or near the sample surface. In the T6-treated alloy, however, oxides and inclusions or slip bands initiate the fatigue cracks. Solution treatment appears to reduce or eliminate the shrinkage porosity because of grain growth and dissolution of as-cast eutectic phases in the grain boundaries. The cyclic stress amplitude of the as-cast alloy increases with increasing the number of cycles, while the T6-treated alloy shows cyclic softening after the stress reaches a maximum value. The Coffin-Manson law and Basquin equation can be used to evaluate the life of low cycle fatigue. The developed long crack model and multi-scale fatigue (MSF) models can be used to predict high-cycle fatigue life of the Mg-2.96Nd-0.21Zn-0.39Zr alloys with or without casting defects.

  12. Scaling up ATLAS production system for the LHC Run 2 and beyond: project ProdSys2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, M.; De, K.; Garcia, J.; Navarro; Golubkov, D.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Vaniachine, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Big Data processing needs of the ATLAS experiment grow continuously, as more data and more use cases emerge. For Big Data processing the ATLAS experiment adopted the data transformation approach, where software applications transform the input data into outputs. In the ATLAS production system, each data transformation is represented by a task, a collection of many jobs, submitted by the ATLAS workload management system (PanDA) and executed on the Grid. Our experience shows that the rate of task submission grows exponentially over the years. To scale up the ATLAS production system for new challenges, we started the ProdSys2 project. PanDA has been upgraded with the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI). Patterns in ATLAS data transformation workflows composed of many tasks provided a scalable production system framework for template definitions of the many-tasks workflows. These workflows are being implemented in the Database Engine for Tasks (DEfT) that generates individual tasks for processing by JEDI. We report on the ATLAS experience with many-task workflow patterns in preparation for the LHC Run 2.

  13. Characterization of Wheel Surface Topography in cBN Grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Masakazu; Ichida, Yoshio; Sato, Ryunosuke; Morimoto, Yoshitaka

    The wheel surface topography in the grinding process with vitrified cBN wheels has been investigated on the basis of 3-dimensional analysis using a multi-probe SEM, and the relationships between these results and the grinding characteristic parameters have been discussed. Moreover, the change of the wheel surface profile in the grinding process has been evaluated using fractal analysis. There are two regions: an initial wear region and a steady-state wear region, in the grinding process. In the initial wear region, a rapid decrease of grinding force and a rapid increase of wheel wear occur with increasing stock removal. In the steady-state wear region, the micro self-sharpening phenomenon owing to the micro fracture as well as the attritious wear of cutting edge occurs. The change in fractal dimension of the wheel surface is closely related to the change of grinding force dominated by the wear behavior of grain cutting edges.

  14. 77 FR 70478 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, Wheeling Office, A Division Of RG Steel, LLC, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Pro Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives LLC, Including Workers...-site leased workers from Pro Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives, LLC, Wheeling, West Virginia (TA-W...-site leased workers from Pro Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives, LLC, Wheeling, West Virginia...

  15. DARPA's Big Mechanism program.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul R

    2015-07-16

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  16. DARPA's Big Mechanism program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Paul R.

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  17. The Next Big Idea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract George S. Eisenbarth will remain in our memories as a brilliant scientist and great collaborator. His quest to discover the cause and prevention of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes started from building predictive models based on immunogenetic markers. Despite his tremendous contributions to our understanding of the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes and potential mechanisms, George left us with several big questions to answer before his quest is completed. PMID:23786296

  18. Big Bang Circus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Big Bang Circus is an opera I composed in 2001 and which was premiered at the Venice Biennale Contemporary Music Festival in 2002. A chamber group, four singers and a ringmaster stage the story of the Universe confronting and interweaving two threads: how early man imagined it and how scientists described it. Surprisingly enough fancy, myths and scientific explanations often end up using the same images, metaphors and sometimes even words: a strong tension, a drumskin starting to vibrate, a shout…

  19. Big3. Editorial

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Séroussi, Brigitte; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. Methods A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. Results ‘Big Data’ has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that ‘Big Data’ will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics – some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of ‘Big Data’ today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. Conclusions For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016. PMID:24853037

  20. A big first step.

    PubMed

    Jones, Howard W

    2004-11-01

    The singleton, term gestation, live birth rate per cycle initiated (BESST) endpoint proposed at the beginning of 2004 is a first big step which should be added to by the consideration of multiple pregnancy rates in relation to singleton rates, by recording of fetal reductions and of pregnancies resulting from cryopreserved material. After three or more steps we may have an accurate reporting system which helps patients to distinguish the pros and cons for singleton term delivery. PMID:15479704

  1. Big Data Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Dagliati, Arianna; Sacchi, Lucia; Segagni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The so-called big data revolution provides substantial opportunities to diabetes management. At least 3 important directions are currently of great interest. First, the integration of different sources of information, from primary and secondary care to administrative information, may allow depicting a novel view of patient’s care processes and of single patient’s behaviors, taking into account the multifaceted nature of chronic care. Second, the availability of novel diabetes technologies, able to gather large amounts of real-time data, requires the implementation of distributed platforms for data analysis and decision support. Finally, the inclusion of geographical and environmental information into such complex IT systems may further increase the capability of interpreting the data gathered and extract new knowledge from them. This article reviews the main concepts and definitions related to big data, it presents some efforts in health care, and discusses the potential role of big data in diabetes care. Finally, as an example, it describes the research efforts carried on in the MOSAIC project, funded by the European Commission. PMID:25910540

  2. The commercial Atlas today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzer, Mike; White, Robert C.

    1990-07-01

    Spanning more than three decades, the General Dynamics Atlas launch vehicle program has contributed greatly to the productive exploitation of space. This paper briefly reviews Atlas history and achievements and then focuses on present Atlas launch vehicle configurations, capabilities, and propulsion systems. The four-vehicle Atlas family is described, inluding manufacturing, performance, and design differences. Vehicle launch options including the fairing and spacecraft adapter are discussed. A mission profile, flight environments, and a nominal sequence of events are described for a standard GTO mission. Details on vehicle enhancements are presented including the addition of solid rocket motors, booster and Centaur engine uprates, and avionics improvements.

  3. Fusion set selection with surrogate metric in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ruan, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Multi-atlas based image segmentation sees unprecedented opportunities but also demanding challenges in the big data era. Relevant atlas selection before label fusion plays a crucial role in reducing potential performance loss from heterogeneous data quality and high computation cost from extensive data. This paper starts with investigating the image similarity metric (termed ‘surrogate’), an alternative to the inaccessible geometric agreement metric (termed ‘oracle’) in atlas relevance assessment, and probes into the problem of how to select the ‘most-relevant’ atlases and how many such atlases to incorporate. We propose an inference model to relate the surrogates and the oracle geometric agreement metrics. Based on this model, we quantify the behavior of the surrogates in mimicking oracle metrics for atlas relevance ordering. Finally, analytical insights on the choice of fusion set size are presented from a probabilistic perspective, with the integrated goal of including the most relevant atlases and excluding the irrelevant ones. Empirical evidence and performance assessment are provided based on prostate and corpus callosum segmentation.

  4. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel.

    The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life.

    Spirit acquired this mosaic with the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. The view presented here is an approximately true-color rendering.

  5. Determining Spacecraft Reaction Wheel Friction Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarani, Siamak

    2009-01-01

    Software was developed to characterize the drag in each of the Cassini spacecraft's Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWAs) to determine the RWA friction parameters. This tool measures the drag torque of RWAs for not only the high spin rates (greater than 250 RPM), but also the low spin rates (less than 250 RPM) where there is a lack of an elastohydrodynamic boundary layer in the bearings. RWA rate and drag torque profiles as functions of time are collected via telemetry once every 4 seconds and once every 8 seconds, respectively. Intermediate processing steps single-out the coast-down regions. A nonlinear model for the drag torque as a function of RWA spin rate is incorporated in order to characterize the low spin rate regime. The tool then uses a nonlinear parameter optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method to determine the viscous coefficient, the Dahl friction, and the two parameters that account for the low spin-rate behavior.

  6. Power transmission device for four wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, T.; Kawamoto, M.; Kano, T.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes a power transmission device with an improved differential motion limiting mechanism for a four wheel drive vehicle having automatic transmission means, front wheel differential gear means, differential motion limiting means and transfer unit means including center differential gear means, comprising: a first gear mount casing having a gear adapted to mesh with an output of a transmission; a differential motion limiting device arranged together with a front wheel differential gear in the first gear mount casing. The front wheel differential gear having a first diff-carrier and the differential motion limiting device comprising a hydraulic friction clutch for engaging and disengaging the first gear mount casing with the first diff-carrier of the front wheel differential gear; a second gear mount casing disposed coaxially with respect to the first gear mount casing; and a transfer unit including a center differential gear arranged in the second gear mount casing, the center differential gear comprising a second diff-carrier coupled with the first gear mount casing, a first side gear coupled with the first diff-carrier of the front wheel differential gear, and a second side gear coupled with the second gear mount casing for transmitting power to the rear wheels.

  7. Optimization of Resilient Wheels for Rolling Noise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BOUVET, PASCAL; VINCENT, NICOLAS; COBLENTZ, ARNAUD; DEMILLY, FRANÇOIS

    2000-03-01

    Resilient wheels are currently used on light rail systems such as tramways to prevent squealing noise and to reduce impact noise. On the other hand, they are rarely found on main lines (passenger rolling stock and freight rolling stock). Although manufacturers often claim that resilient wheels are favourable for rolling noise control, no extensive theoretical investigation confirming this statement has been published to date. In this paper, it is shown how resilient wheels can be effectively optimised in order to reduce rolling noise emission, compared to a conventional monobloc wheel. A preliminary analysis of the physical phenomena accounting for rolling noise generation emphasizes the key design parameters affecting both wheel and radiation. These parameters are the radial dynamic stiffness and damping loss factor of the rubber layer. The tread mass is also relevant. The influence of these design parameters is then qualified by a parametric study performed with the TWINS software. An optimum radial dynamic stiffness of the resilient layer is found which depends on operating conditions. Reductions in overall rolling noise up to 3 dB(A) are calculated for the configurations investigated. However, poor selection of the design parameters can lead to a noise increase compared to a standard monobloc wheel. It is also shown that a proper design for rolling noise control will not affect wheel efficiency with regard to squeal noise.

  8. Power transfer device for four-wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, H.

    1986-10-21

    A power transfer device is described for a four-wheel drive vehicle having a transmission drivingly connected to a prime mover of the vehicle and having a set of front road wheels and a set of rear road wheels adapted to be driven from the transmission. The transfer device comprises: a first differential of the bevel gear type including a differential case arranged to be applied with drive torque from the transmission, a pinion gear rotatably mounted within the differential case, and a pair or side gears rotatably mounted within the differential case and in mesh with the pinion gear; a first output shaft connected to one of the side gears for driving the front or rear road wheels; a second output shaft connected to the other side gear for driving the rear or front road wheels; a second differential of the planetary gear type including a differential carrier formed to contain the differential case therein; and a selector mechanism arranged to selectively provide a drive connection between the second output shaft and the rear or front road wheels or a drive connection between the differential carrier and the rear or front road wheels.

  9. Prior voluntary wheel running attenuates neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Grace, Peter M; Fabisiak, Timothy J; Green-Fulgham, Suzanne M; Anderson, Nathan D; Strand, Keith A; Kwilasz, Andrew J; Galer, Erika L; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Maier, Steven F; Fleshner, Monika; Watkins, Linda R

    2016-09-01

    Exercise is known to exert a systemic anti-inflammatory influence, but whether its effects are sufficient to protect against subsequent neuropathic pain is underinvestigated. We report that 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running terminating before chronic constriction injury (CCI) prevented the full development of allodynia for the ∼3-month duration of the injury. Neuroimmune signaling was assessed at 3 and 14 days after CCI. Prior exercise normalized ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord expression of neuroexcitatory interleukin (IL)-1β production and the attendant glutamate transporter GLT-1 decrease, as well as expression of the disinhibitory P2X4R-BDNF axis. The expression of the macrophage marker Iba1 and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1), and a neuronal injury marker (activating transcription factor 3), was attenuated by prior running in the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Prior exercise suppressed macrophage infiltration and/or injury site proliferation, given decreased presence of macrophage markers Iba1, iNOS (M1), and Arg-1 (M2; expression was time dependent). Chronic constriction injury-driven increases in serum proinflammatory chemokines were suppressed by prior running, whereas IL-10 was increased. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also stimulated with lipopolysaccharide ex vivo, wherein CCI-induced increases in IL-1β, nitrite, and IL-10 were suppressed by prior exercise. Last, unrestricted voluntary wheel running, beginning either the day of, or 2 weeks after, CCI, progressively reversed neuropathic pain. This study is the first to investigate the behavioral and neuroimmune consequences of regular exercise terminating before nerve injury. This study suggests that chronic pain should be considered a component of "the diseasome of physical inactivity," and that an active lifestyle may prevent neuropathic pain. PMID:27355182

  10. Modeling and Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Patrick Fred

    The accurate model-based servo-control of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) relies upon the formulation of realistic kinematic and dynamic models. We identify six special WMR characteristics (closed-chains, higher-pair joints, unactuated and unsensed joints, friction, and pulse-width modulation) that require methodologies for modeling and control beyond those conventionally applied to stationary manipulators. Then, we develop methodologies for the kinematic and dynamic modeling of robotic mechanisms incorporating these special characteristics. We introduce instantaneously coincident coordinate systems and the wheel Jacobian to resolve WMR kinematic modeling. We introduce the concepts of force/torque propagation and frictional coupling at a joint to formulate a powerful unifying dynamic modeling framework. We compute the inverse and forward kinematic and dynamic solutions for model-based WMR servo-control and simulation. We demonstrate the applicability of (kinematics -based) resolved motion rate and (dynamics-based) resolved acceleration servo-control methodologies to WMRs through computer simulation evaluation studies. We exemplify our modeling and servo-control methodologies through Uranus, a three degree-of-freedom (DOF) WMR, and Bicsun-Bicas, a two DOF WMR. Our results show that resolved motion rate servo-control is adequate for general-purpose applications of Uranus. In contrast, the mechanically simpler Bicsun -Bicas requires the computationaly complex resolved acceleration servo-control to compensate for the significant coupling and nonlinear components in its dynamic model. We recommend Bicsun-Bicas with resolved acceleration servo-control for general-purpose indoor applications because it is mechanically simple, capable of tracking any spatial x-y path, and if a turret is added, provides onboard manipulators, sensors, or docking instruments with three DOFs.

  11. Prior voluntary wheel running attenuates neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Grace, Peter M; Fabisiak, Timothy J; Green-Fulgham, Suzanne M; Anderson, Nathan D; Strand, Keith A; Kwilasz, Andrew J; Galer, Erika L; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Maier, Steven F; Fleshner, Monika; Watkins, Linda R

    2016-09-01

    Exercise is known to exert a systemic anti-inflammatory influence, but whether its effects are sufficient to protect against subsequent neuropathic pain is underinvestigated. We report that 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running terminating before chronic constriction injury (CCI) prevented the full development of allodynia for the ∼3-month duration of the injury. Neuroimmune signaling was assessed at 3 and 14 days after CCI. Prior exercise normalized ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord expression of neuroexcitatory interleukin (IL)-1β production and the attendant glutamate transporter GLT-1 decrease, as well as expression of the disinhibitory P2X4R-BDNF axis. The expression of the macrophage marker Iba1 and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1), and a neuronal injury marker (activating transcription factor 3), was attenuated by prior running in the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Prior exercise suppressed macrophage infiltration and/or injury site proliferation, given decreased presence of macrophage markers Iba1, iNOS (M1), and Arg-1 (M2; expression was time dependent). Chronic constriction injury-driven increases in serum proinflammatory chemokines were suppressed by prior running, whereas IL-10 was increased. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also stimulated with lipopolysaccharide ex vivo, wherein CCI-induced increases in IL-1β, nitrite, and IL-10 were suppressed by prior exercise. Last, unrestricted voluntary wheel running, beginning either the day of, or 2 weeks after, CCI, progressively reversed neuropathic pain. This study is the first to investigate the behavioral and neuroimmune consequences of regular exercise terminating before nerve injury. This study suggests that chronic pain should be considered a component of "the diseasome of physical inactivity," and that an active lifestyle may prevent neuropathic pain.

  12. Characterization of a starch based desiccant wheel dehumidifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beery, Kyle Edward

    Starch, cellulose, and hemicellulose have an affinity for water, and adsorb water vapor from air. Materials made from combinations of these biobased sugar polymers also have been found to possess adsorptive properties. An interesting possible application of these starch-based adsorbents is the desiccant wheel dehumidifier. The desiccant wheel dehumidifier is used in conjunction with a standard air conditioning system. In this process, ambient air is passed through a stationary section while a wheel packed with desiccant rotates through that section. The desiccant adsorbs humidity (latent load) from the air, and the air conditioning system then cools the air (sensible load). Several starch based adsorbents were developed and tested for adsorptive capacity in a new high throughput screening system. The best formulations from the high throughput screening system, also taking into account economic considerations and structural integrity, were considered for use in the desiccant wheel dehumidifier. A suitable adsorbent was chosen and formulated into a matrix structure for the desiccant wheel system. A prototype desiccant wheel system was constructed and the performance was investigated under varying regeneration temperatures and rotation speeds. The results from the experiments showed that the starch based desiccant wheel dehumidification system does transfer moisture from the inlet process stream to the outlet regeneration stream. The DESSIM model was modified for the starch based adsorbent and compared to the experimental results. Also, the results when the wheel parameters were varied were compared to the predicted results from the model. The results given by the starch based desiccant wheel system show the desired proof of concept.

  13. Control system for a four wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, Y.; Mizutani, H.; Fuchigami, T.

    1986-11-11

    A control system is described for a four wheel drive vehicle, comprising: a first sensor for detecting a rotational frequency of a front propeller shaft; a second sensor for detecting a rotational frequency of a rear propeller shaft; a control circuit for determining the rotational frequency difference between the front propeller shaft and the rear propeller shaft and for generating control signals relative to a predetermined set point; a contact actuated by the control circuit; the vehicle including an automatic shift type four wheel drive; and the control circuit preventing engagement of the four wheel drive when the frequency difference is greater than the predetermined set point.

  14. 14 CFR 29.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 29.511 Section 29.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Requirements Ground Loads § 29.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. (a) In dual-wheel gear units, 60 percent of the total ground reaction for the gear unit must be applied to one wheel...

  15. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units... distribution, to the dual wheels and tires in each dual wheel landing gear unit. (c) Deflated tire loads....

  16. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units... distribution, to the dual wheels and tires in each dual wheel landing gear unit. (c) Deflated tire loads....

  17. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units... distribution, to the dual wheels and tires in each dual wheel landing gear unit. (c) Deflated tire loads....

  18. 14 CFR 29.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 29.511 Section 29.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Requirements Ground Loads § 29.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. (a) In dual-wheel gear units, 60 percent of the total ground reaction for the gear unit must be applied to one wheel...

  19. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units... distribution, to the dual wheels and tires in each dual wheel landing gear unit. (c) Deflated tire loads....

  20. 14 CFR 29.497 - Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Rotorcraft with landing gear with two wheels forward and one wheel aft of the center of gravity must be... be resisted by angular inertia forces. (c) Level landing attitude with all wheels contacting the... gravity; or (2) The probability of landing with initial contact on the rear wheel must be shown to...

  1. 14 CFR 27.497 - Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Rotorcraft with landing gear with two wheels forward, and one wheel aft, of the center of gravity must be... be resisted by angular inertia forces. (c) Level landing attitude with all wheels contacting the... gravity; or (2) The probability of landing with initial contact on the rear wheel must be shown to...

  2. Determining Wheel-Soil Interaction Loads Using a Meshfree Finite Element Approach Assisting Future Missions with Rover Wheel Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Peng, Chia-Yen; Wang, Dongdong; Chen, Jiun-Shyan

    2012-01-01

    A wheel experiencing sinkage and slippage events poses a high risk to rover missions as evidenced by recent mobility challenges on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project. Because several factors contribute to wheel sinkage and slippage conditions such as soil composition, large deformation soil behavior, wheel geometry, nonlinear contact forces, terrain irregularity, etc., there are significant benefits to modeling these events to a sufficient degree of complexity. For the purposes of modeling wheel sinkage and slippage at an engineering scale, meshfree finite element approaches enable simulations that capture sufficient detail of wheel-soil interaction while remaining computationally feasible. This study demonstrates some of the large deformation modeling capability of meshfree methods and the realistic solutions obtained by accounting for the soil material properties. A benchmark wheel-soil interaction problem is developed and analyzed using a specific class of meshfree methods called Reproducing Kernel Particle Method (RKPM). The benchmark problem is also analyzed using a commercially available finite element approach with Lagrangian meshing for comparison. RKPM results are comparable to classical pressure-sinkage terramechanics relationships proposed by Bekker-Wong. Pending experimental calibration by future work, the meshfree modeling technique will be a viable simulation tool for trade studies assisting rover wheel design.

  3. How Big is Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  4. BNL ATLAS Grid Computing

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Ernst

    2016-07-12

    As the sole Tier-1 computing facility for ATLAS in the United States and the largest ATLAS computing center worldwide Brookhaven provides a large portion of the overall computing resources for U.S. collaborators and serves as the central hub for storing,

  5. BNL ATLAS Grid Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Ernst

    2008-10-02

    As the sole Tier-1 computing facility for ATLAS in the United States and the largest ATLAS computing center worldwide Brookhaven provides a large portion of the overall computing resources for U.S. collaborators and serves as the central hub for storing,

  6. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  7. Language Industries Atlas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, P. M., Ed.; Button, D. F., Ed.

    This atlas describes the activities of public and private organizations that create the infrastructure within which languages are able to develop and interact in the European Community (EC). It contains over 1,000 descriptions of activities that play a role in shaping the language industries, from a user or provider perspective. The atlas is…

  8. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  9. Development and Experiments of a Test-Bed for Wheel-Soil Interaction of Lunar Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jianguo; Ding, Liang; Quan, Qiquan; Gao, Haibo

    2012-07-01

    Wheel-soil interaction of lunar exploring rover plays a critical role in rover mechanical design, control and simulation. For presenting and validating effective terramechanics models, as well as evaluating rover wheel performance, a set of wheel-soil interaction test- bed was developed. The test-bed can control the wheel rolling or steering movement at different slippage rates and different speeds, and through a variety of sensors to acquire the measured values of mechanical properties of wheel-soil interaction such as drawbar pull, side force, wheel sinkage displacement, steering torque. In this paper, some characteristics of the test-bed are described, and some experimental works in a rigid rover wheel design and wheel-soil interaction modeling by means of this test-bed are summarized. Experimental results show that the test-bed can accurately and efficiently test wheel-soil interaction for various wheels and loose soil types.

  10. Performance of Boeing LRV wheels in a lunar soil simulant. Report 1: Effect of wheel design and soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. J.; Melzer, K.

    1971-01-01

    Six versions of the wire mesh wheel were laboratory tested in a lunar soil simulant, consisting of a crushed basalt with a grainsize distribution similar to that of samples collected during Apollo 11 and 12 flights, to determine their relative performance. The consistency of the soil was varied to cover a range of cohesive and frictional properties to simulate soil conditions assumed to exist on the moon. Programmed-slip and constant-slip tests conducted with the single wheel dynamometer system showed that the performance of the wheel covered with a metal chevron tread over 50 percent of its contact surface was slightly superior to that of other tread designs.

  11. National Atlas maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1991-01-01

    The National Atlas of the United States of America was published by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1970. Its 765 maps and charts are on 335 14- by 19-inch pages. Many of the maps span facing pages. It's worth a quick trip to the library just to leaf through all 335 pages of this book. Rapid scanning of its thematic maps yields rich insights to the geography of issues of continuing national interest. On most maps, the geographic patterns are still valid, though the data are not current. The atlas is out of print, but many of its maps can be purchased separately. Maps that span facing pages in the atlas are printed on one sheet. The maps dated after 1970 are either revisions of original atlas maps, or new maps published in atlas format. The titles of the separate maps are listed here.

  12. Diabetes Interactive Atlas.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Karen A; Burrows, Nilka R; Geiss, Linda S

    2014-02-06

    The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas' maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity.

  13. A Glimpse of Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Saturn's little moon Atlas orbits Saturn between the outer edge of the A ring and the fascinating, twisted F ring. This image just barely resolves the disk of Atlas, and also shows some of the knotted structure for which the F ring is known. Atlas is 32 kilometers (20 miles) across.

    The bright outer edge of the A ring is overexposed here, but farther down the image several bright ring features can be seen.

    The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on April 25, 2005, at a distance of approximately 2.4 million kilometers (1.5 million miles) from Atlas and at a Sun-Atlas-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 60 degrees. Resolution in the original image was 14 kilometers (9 miles) per pixel.

  14. 119. ELEVATION AND DETAIL OF CASTIRON BREAST WHEEL, 1834 Frederic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. ELEVATION AND DETAIL OF CAST-IRON BREAST WHEEL, 1834 Frederic Graff, Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 130. REVERSE SECTION OF BREAST WHEEL AND FOREBAY, 1846 Frederic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. REVERSE SECTION OF BREAST WHEEL AND FOREBAY, 1846 Frederic Graff, Jr., Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 143. INTERIOR OF THE MILL HOUSE SHOWING BREAST WHEEL, 1853 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. INTERIOR OF THE MILL HOUSE SHOWING BREAST WHEEL, 1853 Collection of the Free Library of Philadelphia - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 117. SECTION THROUGH MILL HOUSE AND FOREBAY SHOWING BREAST WHEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. SECTION THROUGH MILL HOUSE AND FOREBAY SHOWING BREAST WHEEL, SECTION THROUGH PUMP CHAMBER, CA. 1820 Frederic Graff, Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 114. PLAN OF THE MILL HOUSE WITH BREAST WHEELS, 1819 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. PLAN OF THE MILL HOUSE WITH BREAST WHEELS, 1819 Frederic Graff, Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 126. SECTION OF BREAST WHEELS 7 AND 8, 1843 Frederic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. SECTION OF BREAST WHEELS 7 AND 8, 1843 Frederic Graff, Jr., Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 127. REVERSE SECTION OF BREAST WHEELS 7 AND 8, 1843 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. REVERSE SECTION OF BREAST WHEELS 7 AND 8, 1843 Frederic Graff, Jr., Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 30. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE CRANKSHAFT, BALANCE WHEEL, AND REVERSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE CRANKSHAFT, BALANCE WHEEL, AND REVERSING MECHANISM. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 UNIT IN POSITION. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST IN THE POWERHOUSE, Print No. 234, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  3. 27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 28. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL ROOM, SAFETY BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL ROOM, SAFETY BRAKE ADJUSTING MACHINERY. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 26. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL. Monongahela Incline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 13. DETAIL OF BOOM'S GEARED WHEEL, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF BOOM'S GEARED WHEEL, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), FLYBRIDGE IS AT LEFT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed.

  8. 16 CFR 1512.12 - Requirements for wheel hubs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the frame or fork when locked, except on fiber reinforced plastics. (c) Front hubs. Front hubs not... devices are released the wheel will not separate from the fork. [43 FR 60034, Dec. 22, 1978, as amended...

  9. Characterization of grinding wheels: An annotated Bibliography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    The characteristics of grinding wheels, after both fabrication and periods of operation, have a significant effect on the processed surface and the mechanical properties of advanced ceramics. An extensive literature survey and review has been conducted to determine and catalogue the various characterization methods that have been investigated and reported. Although many of the references have addressed the grinding of metals, the historical and technical merit justify their inclusion in this bibliography. For convenience, the references have been subdivided into nine subheadings: Nondestructive examination; elasticity and stiffness; wheel hardness; topography and profilometry; observation of texture of wheel surfaces wheel wear; in process monitoring of grinding, acoustic emission, other; characteristics of ground surfaces; and miscellaneous.

  10. Loading spout and wheel for 1913 power grain shovel inside ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Loading spout and wheel for 1913 power grain shovel inside covered hopper loading dock at railroad level looking west - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 7. Band Wheel, Showing Cloth Web Belt and Wooden Bearing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Band Wheel, Showing Cloth Web Belt and Wooden Bearing Blocks, Looking West - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  12. 13. Bull Wheel Core Showing Name of Manufacturer (National Supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Bull Wheel Core Showing Name of Manufacturer (National Supply Co.), Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  13. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  14. Scaling Relations for Wheeled Locomotion in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonaker, James; Kamrin, Ken

    Vehicular wheel design for use on granular material has not currently been perfected. Resistive Force Theory (RFT) is a reduced-order empirical model for granular drag, which shows promise to help simulate and understand locomotion processes to design more efficient wheels. Here we explore the fundamental scaling relations derived from RFT and their experimental validation. Similar to the non-dimensional scaling relations in fluid mechanics, the relative simplicity of RFT asserts that only one material parameter, the ''grain-structure coefficient'', is required, which reduces the complexity of the non-dimensional groups implied by the system. Therefore, wheels with differing input design parameters like size, mass, shape and even gravity, can be tested and their performance related to each other in predictable ways. We experimentally confirmed these relations by testing with 3D printed wheel geometries in a controlled sand bed.

  15. 49 CFR 393.209 - Steering wheel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rotation for manual steering systems, and 30 degrees angular rotation for power steering systems. (c... arm on the steering gear output shaft shall not be loose. Steering wheels shall turn freely...

  16. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  17. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  18. 22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen boom has been removed for repairs (note boom cradle just forward of steering gear box). - Schooner C.A. THAYER, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  20. 68. Penstock at left with operating wheel mechanism. The two ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Penstock at left with operating wheel mechanism. The two outlets, center and right, have never been used. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. The optical components of the NIRSpec wheel mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenrieder, Marc M.; Weidlich, K.; Nelles, B.; Ploss, B.; Bruynooghe, S.; Köhler, J.; Te Plate, M.

    2008-07-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSPEC) on board the James Webb Space Telescope can be reconfigured in space for astronomical observation in a range of NIR sub-bands as well as spectral resolutions. Reconfiguration of the NIRSpec instrument will be achieved using a Filter Wheel Mechanism (FWA) which carries 7 transmission filters and one reflective mirror and a Grating Wheel Mechanism (GWA) which carries six gratings and one prism. The dispersive components on the grating wheel (GWA) cooperate with the edge transmission filters mounted on the filter wheel (FWA) which block the higher dispersion orders of the gratings. The paper gives an overview on the design of all optical elements, their key requirements and the employed manufacturing approach. Test results from breadboard and component level qualification phase are also given.

  2. 9. TRANSMISSION GEARING FROM SPUR WHEEL (right) USED TO INCREASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. TRANSMISSION GEARING FROM SPUR WHEEL (right) USED TO INCREASE REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE William E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  3. The Training Wheel. A Simple Model for Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogoff, Rosalind L.

    1984-01-01

    The author developed an instructional-design model consisting of four simple steps. The model is in a circular format, rather than the usual linear series form, so it is named the training wheel. (SSH)

  4. 23. VIEW OF 'PROCECO' WHEEL WASHER (uses spaulk and hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF 'PROCECO' WHEEL WASHER (uses spaulk and hot alkaline solution), Don N. Calabese, operator. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  5. 15. MACHINERY DETAILS: LATCH WHEEL BRACKET, LATCH POCKET, LOCK BAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MACHINERY DETAILS: LATCH WHEEL BRACKET, LATCH POCKET, LOCK BAR, LATCH CRADLE, SPLIT COLLAR, ETC. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  6. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  7. Stereotypic wheel running decreases cortical activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Simon P.; Cui, Nanyi; McKillop, Laura E.; Gemignani, Jessica; Bannerman, David M.; Oliver, Peter L.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness is thought to gradually increase ‘sleep need' and influence subsequent sleep duration and intensity, but the role of specific waking behaviours remains unclear. Here we report the effect of voluntary wheel running during wakefulness on neuronal activity in the motor and somatosensory cortex in mice. We find that stereotypic wheel running is associated with a substantial reduction in firing rates among a large subpopulation of cortical neurons, especially at high speeds. Wheel running also has longer-term effects on spiking activity across periods of wakefulness. Specifically, cortical firing rates are significantly higher towards the end of a spontaneous prolonged waking period. However, this increase is abolished when wakefulness is dominated by running wheel activity. These findings indicate that wake-related changes in firing rates are determined not only by wake duration, but also by specific waking behaviours. PMID:27748455

  8. 2. VIEW OF WATER WHEEL SHOWING WEST ELEVATION OF FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WATER WHEEL SHOWING WEST ELEVATION OF FRAME SECTION TO RIGHT, AND CORNER OF STONE SECTION ON LEFT - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Charles Mill, 106.0 miles above tidewater (above Lock 44), Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  9. 8. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading crane, manufactured by Cleveland Tramrail, 2-1/2 ton capacity. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  10. 9. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading crane, manufactured by Cleveland Tramrail, 2-1/2 ton capacity. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  11. ILC TARGET WHEEL RIM FRAGMENT/GUARD PLATE IMPACT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, L

    2008-07-17

    A positron source component is needed for the International Linear Collider Project. The leading design concept for this source is a rotating titanium alloy wheel whose spokes rotate through an intense localized magnetic field. The system is composed of an electric motor, flexible motor/drive-shaft coupling, stainless steel drive-shaft, two Plumber's Block tapered roller bearings, a titanium alloy target wheel, and electromagnet. Surrounding the target wheel and magnet is a steel frame with steel guarding plates intended to contain shrapnel in case of catastrophic wheel failure. Figure 1 is a layout of this system (guard plates not shown for clarity). This report documents the FEA analyses that were performed at LLNL to help determine, on a preliminary basis, the required guard plate thickness for three potential plate steels.

  12. 69. Credit TCL. Housing of Pelton exciter impulse wheel and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Credit TCL. Housing of Pelton exciter impulse wheel and attached General Electric 60 kW exciter generator. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  13. Fluid Mechanics of a High Performance Racing Bicycle Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercat, Jean-Pierre; Cretoux, Brieuc; Huat, Francois-Xavier; Nordey, Benoit; Renaud, Maxime; Noca, Flavio

    2013-11-01

    In 2012, MAVIC released the most aerodynamic bicycle wheel on the market, the CXR 80. The french company MAVIC has been a world leader for many decades in the manufacturing of bicycle wheels for competitive events such as the Olympic Games and the Tour de France. Since 2010, MAVIC has been in a research partnership with the University of Applied Sciences in Geneva, Switzerland, for the aerodynamic development of bicycle wheels. While most of the development up to date has been performed in a classical wind tunnel, recent work has been conducted in an unusual setting, a hydrodynamic towing tank, in order to achieve low levels of turbulence and facilitate quantitative flow visualization (PIV). After a short introduction on the aerodynamics of bicycle wheels, preliminary fluid mechanics results based on this novel setup will be presented.

  14. NICMOS Filter Wheel/Mechanisms Mini-Functional Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn

    2001-07-01

    This is an early engineering test to verify the aliveness, functionality, operability, and electro-mechanical calibration of the NICMOS filter wheel motors and assembly. This is the FIRST use of the NICMOS filter wheel mechanisms since they were disabled by ground command in January, 1999. This test has been designed to obviate concerns over possible deformation or breakage of the fitter wheel "soda-straw" shafts due to excess rotational drag torque and/or bending moments which may be imparted due to changes in the dewar metrology from warm-up/cool-down. This test should be executed after the VCS {and filter wheel housing} has reached and approximately equilibrated to its nominal Cycle 11 operating temperature.

  15. 6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  16. 4. VIEW SHOWING OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Clements Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 6.5 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  17. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  18. 5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (28' WIDE HARDESTY CAST IRON SLIDE HEADGATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Duck Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  19. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  20. 5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, (12' DIAMETER HARDESTY MODEL 112 CIRCULAR GATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Island Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  1. 6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (18' HARDESTY GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Long Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  2. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (15' HARDESTY MODEL 115 GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Marjorie Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  3. 5. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Island Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.8 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  4. 7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM GUIDE (14' DIAMETER CIRCULAR CALCO CAST IRON SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  5. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (HARDESTY CAST IRON RECTANGULAR SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Lost Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  6. 6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  7. 18. Post Lathe. View of wheel, motor, belt, casing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Post Lathe. View of wheel, motor, belt, casing and grooved steel base. Camera pointed NW. See photo WA-116-17. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. 20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK PRESSURE GAUGE, AND GOVERNOR OIL SET. VIEW TO EAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and generators, interior of Childs Powerhouse. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  10. View of governor, water wheel, generator #1 and exciter (west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of governor, water wheel, generator #1 and exciter (west end of Childs Powerhouse). Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  11. DETAIL OF SPARE CONICAL CRUSHER AND GRINDING BURR WHEELS REMOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SPARE CONICAL CRUSHER AND GRINDING BURR WHEELS REMOVED FROM THE MILLING MACHINE. - F. & H. Benning Company Oyster Mill, 14430 Solomons Island Road (moved from 1014 Benning Road, Galesville, Anne Arundel County, Maryland), Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  12. Four-wheel alignment based on computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dongzhao; Zhao, Qiancheng; Yang, Tianlong

    2015-02-01

    A model was built for four-wheel alignment on a vehicle based on computer vision. Such parameters as toe-in angle, camber angle, kingpin inclination and kingpin caster were accurately defined and calculation formulas were formulated for the parameters, especially the calculation methods for vector N and vector E. A kind of new 3D four-wheel aligner vas developed. Simulation results and actual measurements indicated that the model and solution method were feasible and effective.

  13. Finite element analysis of a composite wheelchair wheel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, Rene

    1994-01-01

    The finite element analysis of a composite wheelchair wheel design is presented. The design is the result of a technology utilization request. The designer's intent is to soften the riding feeling by incorporating a mechanism attaching the wheel rim to the spokes that would allow considerable deflection upon compressive loads. A finite element analysis was conducted to verify proper structural function. Displacement and stress results are presented and conclusions are provided.

  14. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, S.

    1997-03-01

    It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. We establish that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  15. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, S.

    1996-06-01

    It is widely accepted that dead-reckoning based on the rolling with no-slip condition on the wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The authors establish that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  16. New profilable bond system for diamond and CBN grinding wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macina, R.

    Attempts to use diamond or CBN grinding wheels for full cut or deep cutting processes in the machining of hard materials, were initially limited to grinding wheels coated by electrodeposition. The tool body was provided with the required profile and the diamond or CBN coating was electrodeposited in accordance with known methods. Success could be achieved with these grinding wheels in certain cases. The greater projection of abrasive grit obtained with electrodeposited coatings as opposed to impregnated coatings was removed by subsequent profiling with diamond profile grinding wheels, so that accurate tolerances for workpieces could be achieved up to a certain limit. The grain wear of the engaged tools is uneven and commences in those areas that are subjected to the greatest load such as at the edges or the projected radii so that recoating usually becomes necessary when the coating has worn away at only one point. For all practical purposes this amounts to a new coating. Efforts were therefore directed towards adapting the conventional grinding technique, involving the crushing of a profile onto the wheel periphery with the aid of a crushing device mounted on a grinding machine, to diamond and CBN grinding wheels. A prerequisite for this was to develop a bonding material which could be profiled by crushing. This method opened up new possibilities, particularly for deep and full cut grinding.

  17. Optimization of Angular-Momentum Biases of Reaction Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Clifford; Lee, Allan

    2008-01-01

    RBOT [RWA Bias Optimization Tool (wherein RWA signifies Reaction Wheel Assembly )] is a computer program designed for computing angular momentum biases for reaction wheels used for providing spacecraft pointing in various directions as required for scientific observations. RBOT is currently deployed to support the Cassini mission to prevent operation of reaction wheels at unsafely high speeds while minimizing time in undesirable low-speed range, where elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication films in bearings become ineffective, leading to premature bearing failure. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem in which maximum wheel speed limit is a hard constraint and a cost functional that increases as speed decreases below a low-speed threshold. The optimization problem is solved using a parametric search routine known as the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. To increase computational efficiency for extended operation involving large quantity of data, the algorithm is designed to (1) use large time increments during intervals when spacecraft attitudes or rates of rotation are nearly stationary, (2) use sinusoidal-approximation sampling to model repeated long periods of Earth-point rolling maneuvers to reduce computational loads, and (3) utilize an efficient equation to obtain wheel-rate profiles as functions of initial wheel biases based on conservation of angular momentum (in an inertial frame) using pre-computed terms.

  18. In-wheel hub SRM simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Milton W., III

    Is it feasible to replace the conventional gasoline engine and subsequent drive system in a motorcycle with an electric switched reluctance motor (SRM) by placing the SRM inside the rear wheel, thereby removing the need for things such as a clutch, chain, transmission, gears and sprockets? The goal of this thesis is to study the theoretical aspect of prototyping and analyzing an in-wheel electric hub motor to replace the standard gasoline engine traditionally found on motorcycles. With the recent push for clean energy, electric vehicles are becoming more common. All currently produced electric motorcycles use conventional, prefabricated electric motors connected to the traditional sprocket and chain design. This greatly restricts the efficiency and range of these motorcycles. My design stands apart by turning the rear wheel into a SRM which uses electromagnets around a non-magnetic core to convert electrical energy into mechanical force driving the rear wheel. To my knowledge, there is currently no motorcycle designed with an in-wheel hub SRM. A three-phase SRM and a five-phase SRM will be simulated and analyzed using MATLAB with Simulink. Factors such as friction, weight, power, etc. will be taken into account in order to create a realistic simulation as if it were inside the rear wheel of a motorcycle. Since time and finances will not allow for a full scale build, a scaled model three-phase SRM will be attempted for demonstration purposes.

  19. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big History" is a…

  20. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…