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Sample records for atm research network

  1. Integrated Service Provisioning in an Ipv6 over ATM Research Network

    SciTech Connect

    Eli Dart; Helen Chen; Jerry Friesen; Jim Brandt; Jim Hutchins; Perry Robertson

    1999-02-01

    During the past few years, the worldwide Internet has grown at a phenomenal rate, which has spurred the proposal of innovative network technologies to support the fast, efficient and low-latency transport of a wide spectrum of multimedia traffic types. Existing network infrastructures have been plagued by their inability to provide for real-time application traffic as well as their general lack of resources and resilience to congestion. This work proposes to address these issues by implementing a prototype high-speed network infrastructure consisting of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) on top of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) transport medium. Since ATM is connection-oriented whereas IP uses a connection-less paradigm, the efficient integration of IPv6 over ATM is especially challenging and has generated much interest in the research community. We propose, in collaboration with an industry partner, to implement IPv6 over ATM using a unique approach that integrates IP over fast A TM hardware while still preserving IP's connection-less paradigm. This is achieved by replacing ATM's control software with IP's routing code and by caching IP's forwarding decisions in ATM's VPI/VCI translation tables. Prototype ''VR'' and distributed-parallel-computing applications will also be developed to exercise the realtime capability of our IPv6 over ATM network.

  2. Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Fahmy, Sonia; Vandalore, Bobby; Goyal, Mukul

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Traffic management issues for TCP/IP based data services over satellite-ATM networks; 2) Design issues for TCP/IP over ATM; 3) Optimization of the performance of TCP/IP over ATM for long delay networks; and 4) Evaluation of ATM service categories for TCP/IP traffic.

  3. Adaptive Neural Network Controller for ATM Traffic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    IEEE Communications Magazine (October 1995). 2. Baum, Eric B...Adaptive Control in ATM Networks," IEEE Communications Magazine (October 1995). 9. Evanowsky, John B. "Information for the Warrior," IEEE Communications Magazine (October...Network Applications in ATM," IEEE Communications Magazine (October 1995). 78 16. Imrich, et al. "A counter based congestion control for ATM

  4. Research and implement on the high speed network system with CIINS based on ATM for aero manufacturing enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhi-qiang; Feng, Xi-lan; Zong, Xue-wen; Ding, Yu-cheng

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, the design and implementation on the high-speed network system of the Computer Integrated and Information Network System (CIINS) for aeronautical manufacturing enterprise based on ATM is explained. And designing the high-speed network, choosing the devices, network administration, and developing the network application are discussed. And also, the key technology of the network design is analyzed. The system safety is ensured, when the ATM with QoS in the main backbone network and the work team with network layer in intelligent Ethernet equipment are adapted, and a kind of firewall based on Hard-wall technology is implemented.

  5. Ultrafast networks (ATM): first clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Duerinckx, A J; Valentino, D J; Hayrapetian, A; Hagan, G; Grant, E G

    1996-06-01

    Ultrafast networks using asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology can provide the bandwidth and throughput that may be sufficient to satisfy the medical imaging community. Several trials are underway to assess the effect of ATM network capabilities on the clinical practice of radiology, by providing immediate interactive radiology consultations between subspecialists and general radiologists at affiliated academic institutions. The hardware to build such networks is now commercially available and its cost is decreasing steadily, but the monthly charges for ATM bandwidth use are still high. Nevertheless, given the tremendous increase in communication capability and data transfer rates possible with ATM networks, cost alone should not be the determining factor for selecting this technology. The ATM concept in general is first reviewed, followed by a description of early clinical ATM network installation in four medical environments worldwide. These medical clusters include: the UCLA affiliated hospitals (UCLA Medical Center, West LA VAMC and Olive-View UCLA Medical Center), the UCSF affiliated hospitals, Duke University Hospitals and a cluster of medical centers in Berlin which have all been connected via ATM networks. The use of ATM technology in these realistic clinical environments is discussed and evaluated for its potential impact on patient care and clinical teaching within radiology departments. From this preliminary study it is concluded that image communications over a regional PACS using an ATM network can allow interactive consultations between different subspecialist and general radiologists or other specialized radiologists spread over different medical centers.

  6. Satellite ATM Networks: Architectures and Guidelines Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.; Yegendu, Ferit

    1999-01-01

    An important element of satellite-supported asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networking will involve support for the routing and rerouting of active connections. Work published under the auspices of the Telecommunications Industry Association (http://www.tiaonline.org), describes basic architectures and routing protocol issues for satellite ATM (SATATM) networks. The architectures and issues identified will serve as a basis for further development of technical specifications for these SATATM networks. Three ATM network architectures for bent pipe satellites and three ATM network architectures for satellites with onboard ATM switches were developed. The architectures differ from one another in terms of required level of mobility, supported data rates, supported terrestrial interfaces, and onboard processing and switching requirements. The documentation addresses low-, middle-, and geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite configurations. The satellite environment may require real-time routing to support the mobility of end devices and nodes of the ATM network itself. This requires the network to be able to reroute active circuits in real time. In addition to supporting mobility, rerouting can also be used to (1) optimize network routing, (2) respond to changing quality-of-service requirements, and (3) provide a fault tolerance mechanism. Traffic management and control functions are necessary in ATM to ensure that the quality-of-service requirements associated with each connection are not violated and also to provide flow and congestion control functions. Functions related to traffic management were identified and described. Most of these traffic management functions will be supported by on-ground ATM switches, but in a hybrid terrestrial-satellite ATM network, some of the traffic management functions may have to be supported by the onboard satellite ATM switch. Future work is planned to examine the tradeoffs of placing traffic management functions onboard a satellite as

  7. Dynamics of TCP traffic over ATM networks

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, S.; Romanow, A.

    1994-08-01

    The authors investigate the performance of TCP (Transport Control Protocol) connections over ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks without ATM-level congestion control, and compare it to the performance of TCP over packet-based networks. For simulations of congested networks, the effective throughput of TCP over ATM can be quite low when cells are dropped at the congested ATM switch. The low throughput is due to wasted bandwidth as the congested link transmits cells from ``corrupted`` packets, i.e., packets in which at least one cell is dropped by the switch. This fragmentation effect can be corrected and high throughput can be achieved if the switch drops whole packets prior to buffer overflow; they call this strategy Early Packet Discard. They also discuss general issues of congestion avoidance for best-effort traffic in ATM networks.

  8. NASA Ames ATM Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Ames research Center, in cooperation with the FAA and the industry, has a series of major research efforts underway that are aimed at : 1) improving the flow of traffic in the national airspace system; and 2) helping to define the future air traffic management system. The purpose of this presentation will be to provide a brief summary of some of these activities.

  9. MSFC institutional area network and ATM technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1994-01-01

    The New Institutional Area Network (NEWIAN) at Marshall supports over 5000 end users with access to 26 file servers providing work presentation services. It is comprised of some 150 Ethernet LAN's interconnected by bridges/routers which are in turn connected to servers over two dual FDDI rings. The network supports various higher level protocols such as IP, IPX, AppleTalk (AT), and DECNet. At present IPX and AT protocols packets are routed, and IP protocol packets are bridged; however, work is in progress to route all IP packets. The impact of routing IP packets on network operation is examined. Broadband Integrated Services Data Network (BISDN), presently at various stages of development, is intended to provide voice, video, and data transfer services over a single network. BISDN will use asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) as a data transfer technique which provides for transmission, multiplexing, switching, and relaying of small size data units called cells. Limited ATM Wide Area Network (WAN) services are offered by Wiltel, AT&T, Sprint, and others. NASA is testing a pilot ATM WAN with a view to provide Program Support Communication Network services using ATM. ATM supports wide range of data rates and quality of service requirements. It is expected that ATM switches will penetrate campus networks as well. However, presently products in these areas are at various stages of development and standards are not yet complete. We examine development of ATM to help assess its role in the evolution of NEWIAN.

  10. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  11. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  12. Design Issues for Traffic Management for the ATM UBR + Service for TCP Over Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj

    1999-01-01

    This project was a comprehensive research program for developing techniques for improving the performance of Internet protocols over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based satellite networks. Among the service categories provided by ATM networks, the most commonly used category for data traffic is the unspecified bit rate (UBR) service. UBR allows sources to send data into the network without any feedback control. The project resulted in the numerous ATM Forum contributions and papers.

  13. Integrated network management framework for ATM-over-ADSL service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Won-Kyu; Yoon, Sung-Sook; Hong, Seong-Ik; Kim, Dong-Il; Jung, Mun-Jo; Song, Joong-Goo

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, we describe an integrated network management system for ATM over ADSL service provisioning. There are two distinct networks of ATM and Internet. Most of routers in Internet connected with WDM. The Network Access Server (NAS) in the Internet provides the Internet access service for the ATM over ADSL subscriber. The ATM network takes the roles of backbone network for the pure ATM PVC and SVC services and the access network for the ATM over ADSL service. In order to define the generic network model that can be commonly applicable for the backbone network for pure ATM service and the access network for ATM over ADSL service taking into account the scalability, we suggest two fragments of the topological fragment and connectivity fragment to maximize the scalability in accordance with the ITU-T G.805 layering and partitioning concepts and the RM-ODP information viewpoint. In addition, we propose the distributed computational model of the ATM over ADSL network management system using the RM-ODP computational viewpoint and TMN functional decomposition of FCAPS taking into account the functional distribution and the modularity. Lastly, we describe the scenario for providing the integrated ADSL service.

  14. Traffic Management in ATM Networks Over Satellite Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Goyal, Mukul; Fahmy, Sonia; Vandalore, Bobby; vonDeak, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the traffic management Issues in the design and implementation of satellite Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The report focuses on the efficient transport of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) traffic over satellite ATM. First, a reference satellite ATM network architecture is presented along with an overview of the service categories available in ATM networks. A delay model for satellite networks and the major components of delay and delay variation are described. A survey of design options for TCP over Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR), Guaranteed Frame Rate (GFR) and Available Bit Rate (ABR) services in ATM is presented. The main focus is on traffic management issues. Several recommendations on the design options for efficiently carrying data services over satellite ATM networks are presented. Most of the results are based on experiments performed on Geosynchronous (GEO) latencies. Some results for Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) latencies are also provided.

  15. Terminal Area ATM Research at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard

    1997-01-01

    The presentation will highlight the following: (1) A brief review of ATC research underway 15 years ago; (2) A summary of Terminal Area ATM Tool Development ongoing at NASA Ames; and (3) A projection of research activities 10-15 years from now.

  16. Running TCP/IP over ATM Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet protocol (IP) and subnets and describes how IP may operate over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Topics include TCP (transmission control protocol), ATM cells and adaptation layers, a basic architectural model for IP over ATM, address resolution, mapping IP to a subnet technology, and connection management strategy. (LRW)

  17. ATM: The Key To Harnessing the Power of Networked Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rod

    1996-01-01

    ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) network technology handles the real-time continuous traffic flow necessary to support desktop multimedia applications. Describes network applications already used: desktop video collaboration, distance learning, and broadcasting video delivery. Examines the architecture of ATM technology, video delivery and sound…

  18. Remote facility sharing with ATM networks [PC based ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS)]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H. T.

    2001-06-01

    The ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS) adds propagation delay to the ATM link on which it is installed, to allow control of link propagation delay in network protocol experiments simulating an adjustable piece of optical fiber. Our LDS simulates a delay of between 1.5 and 500 milliseconds and is built with commodity PC hardware, only the ATM network interface card is not generally available. Our implementation is special in that it preserves the exact spacing of ATM data cells a feature that requires sustained high performance. Our implementation shows that applications demanding sustained high performance are possible on commodity PC hardware. This illustrates the promise that PC hardware has for adaptability to demanding specialized testing of high speed network.

  19. Toward multidomain integrated network management for ATM and SDH networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, Alex; Gantenbein, Dieter; Covaci, Stefan; Bianza, Carlo; Karayannis, Fotis; Mykoniatis, George

    1996-12-01

    ACTS Project AC080 MISA has embarked upon the task of realizing and validating via European field trials integrated end-to-end management of hybrid SDH and ATM networks in the framework of open network provision. This paper reflects the initial work of the project and gives an overview of the proposed MISA system architecture and initial design. We describe our understanding of the underlying enterprise model in the network management context, including the concept of the MISA Global Broadband Connectivity Management service. It supports Integrated Broadband Communication by defining an end-to-end broadband connection service in a multi-domain business environment. Its implementation by the MISA consortium within trials across Europe aims for an efficient management of network resources of the SDH and ATM infrastructure, considering optimum end-to-end quality of service and the needs of a number of telecommunication actors: customers, value-added service providers, and network providers.

  20. ATM Technology Adoption in U.S. Campus Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Engui; Perry, John F.; Anderson, Larry S.; Brook, R. Dan; Hare, R. Dwight; Moore, Arnold J.; Xu, Xiaohe

    This study examined the relationships between ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) adoption in universities and four organizational variables: university size, type, finances, and information processing maturity. Another purpose of the study was to identify the current status of ATM adoption in campus networking. Subjects were university domain LAN…

  1. The Relationships Between Selected Organizational Variables and ATM Technology Adoption in Campus Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Engui

    1998-06-01

    ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is an emerging technology in computer networking, which, in turn, is the physical media of information systems and networking/telecommunication systems. The technology provides potentiality for universities to build their networks based on the future vision of uniting voice, data, and video communications on ATM-technology-based equipment. A review of the literature revealed that minimal evidence exists to indicate whether the size, type, financial factors, and information processing maturity of a university affect a university's high-tech innovation adoptions. No research of this nature has been undertaken in the study of ATM adoption in any institutions of higher learning, nor has any research of this nature been found in other organizations, either. Such evidence is needed by university administrators, information systems managers, and LAN managers to understand their universities better, whether they have or have not adopted ATM, and to evaluate their current administrative, academic, and financial situations and current campus networking situations. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between ATM adoption and four organizational variables: university size, type, finances, and information processing maturity. Another purpose of the study was to identify the current status of ATM adoption in campus networking in the United States. Logistic regression was used as the statistical data analysis method. The results of the study provided evidence to show that ATM adoption in campus networking is significantly related to university size, university type, university finances, and university information processing maturity.

  2. Assessment of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks for regional teleradiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Andre J.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Grant, Edward G.; Rahbar, Darius; Kiszonas, Mike; Franco, Ricky; Shimabuku, Guy H.; Hagan, Girish T.; Melany, Michelle; Narin, Sherelle L.; Ragavendra, Nagesh

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ATM network capabilities on the clinical practice of regional teleradiology, by providing immediate interactive radiology consultations between subspecialists and general radiologists at affiliated academic institutions. PACS installed at three affiliated hospitals (UCLA Medical Center, West LA VAMC and UCLA Olive-View Medical Centers) were connected via an ATM network. Two commercial PACS (Agfa) systems, one at the VAMC and one in an ultrasound outpatient clinic at UCLA were connected via ATM switches (Newbridge, Inc.) and a Santa Monica GTE central office switch. We evaluated this initial system configuration and measured image transfer performance, including memory-to-memory, disk-to-disk, disk-to-archive with and without DICOM protocols. Although the memory-to-memory data rate was 25 Mbps, the average remote disk-to-disk image transfer performance, using DICOM 3.0 communications protocols on SUN SPARCstation 10 servers, was 3 to 5 Mbps. Using these capabilities, timely interactive subspecialty consultations between radiologists was successfully performed while both were at different physical locations. We present the use of ATM technology in a realistic clinical environment and evaluate its impact on patient care and clinical teaching within the radiology departments of 2 institutions. Image communications over a regional PACS using an ATM network can allow interactive consultations between different subspecialist and general radiologists or other specialized radiologist spread over three different medical centers.

  3. Using ATM over hybrid fiber-coax networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, Mark

    1995-11-01

    Cable TV companies and regional Bell operating companies, e.g. PacBell, are preparing for the future by installing or rebuilding existing all-coaxial cable plants into hybrid-fiber coaxial plants and by offering a wide range of interactive services which they feel will be most attractive to their subscriber base. These new-to-cable services span a wide range of performance attributes, each placing its own demands on the capabilities of the broadband bearer service system. These services include, but are not limited to: video-on-demand, digital video, video telephony, voice telephony, and a suite of interactive digital data services ranging from traditional Internet and information service access (e.g., Compuserve and Prodigy) to multi-player gaming. The future broadband infrastructure challenge can be met by developing a novel family of integrated bearer service products which communicate using asynchronous transfer mode protocols over the cable TV network. This paper summarizes the ATM over HFC definition work taking place in the ATM Forum's Residential Broadband Working Group and the standards progress in the IEEE P802.14 Cable TV Media Access Control and Physical Protocol Working Group. Finally, an example of bridging Ethernet packets over ATM over HFC is discussed. This paper focuses on the aspects of ATM and the MAC layer and does not detail the rf or physical environment.

  4. The Relationships between Selected Organizational Variables and ATM Technology Adoption in Campus Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Engui

    1998-01-01

    Determines the relationships between ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) adoption and four organizational variables: university size, type, finances, and information-processing maturity. Identifies the current status of ATM adoption in campus networking in the United States. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  5. Management of ATM-based networks supporting multimedia medical information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Robert A.; Blaine, G. James; Fritz, Kevin; Goodgold, Ken; Heisinger, Patrick

    1997-05-01

    Medical information systems are acquiring the ability to collect and deliver many different types of medical information. In support of the increased network demands necessitated by these expanded capabilities, asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) based networks are being deployed in medical care systems. While ATM supplies a much greater line rate than currently deployed networks, the management and standards surrounding ATM are yet to mature. This paper explores the management and control issues surrounding an ATM network supporting medical information systems, and examines how management impacts network performance and robustness. A multivendor ATM network at the BJC Health System/Washington University and the applications using the network are discussed. Performance information for specific applications is presented and analyzed. Network management's influence on application reliability is outlined. The information collected is used to show how ATM network standards and management tools influence network reliability and performance. Performance of current applications using the ATM network is discussed. Special attention is given to issues encountered in implementation of hypertext transfer protocol over ATM internet protocol (IP) communications. A classical IP ATM implementation yields greater than twenty percent higher network performance over LANE. Maximum performance for a host's suite of applications can be obtained by establishing multiple individually engineered IP links through its ATM network connection.

  6. Achieving High Throughput for Data Transfer over ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; Townsend, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    File-transfer rates for ftp are often reported to be relatively slow, compared to the raw bandwidth available in emerging gigabit networks. While a major bottleneck is disk I/O, protocol issues impact performance as well. Ftp was developed and optimized for use over the TCP/IP protocol stack of the Internet. However, TCP has been shown to run inefficiently over ATM. In an effort to maximize network throughput, data-transfer protocols can be developed to run over UDP or directly over IP, rather than over TCP. If error-free transmission is required, techniques for achieving reliable transmission can be included as part of the transfer protocol. However, selected image-processing applications can tolerate a low level of errors in images that are transmitted over a network. In this paper we report on experimental work to develop a high-throughput protocol for unreliable data transfer over ATM networks. We attempt to maximize throughput by keeping the communications pipe full, but still keep packet loss under five percent. We use the Bay Area Gigabit Network Testbed as our experimental platform.

  7. Sandia`s network for Supercomputer `96: Linking supercomputers in a wide area Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.J.; Martinez, L.G.; Vahle, M.O.

    1997-04-01

    The advanced networking department at Sandia National Laboratories has used the annual Supercomputing conference sponsored by the IEEE and ACM for the past several years as a forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments. At Supercomputing 96, for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory combined their Supercomputing 96 activities within a single research booth under the ASO banner. Sandia provided the network design and coordinated the networking activities within the booth. At Supercomputing 96, Sandia elected: to demonstrate wide area network connected Massively Parallel Processors, to demonstrate the functionality and capability of Sandia`s new edge architecture, to demonstrate inter-continental collaboration tools, and to demonstrate ATM video capabilities. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations support Sandia`s overall strategies in ATM networking.

  8. Wide-area ATM networking for large-scale MPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, P.M.; Geist, G.A. II

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents early experiences with using high-speed ATM interfaces to connect multiple Intel Paragons on both local and wide area networks. The testbed includes the 1024 and 512 node Paragons running the OSF operating system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the 1840 node Paragon running the Puma operating system at Sandia National Laboratories. The experimental OC-12 (622 Mbits/sec) interfaces are built by GigaNet and provide a proprietary API for sending AAL-5 encapsulated packets. PVM is used as the massaging infrastructure and significant modifications have been made to use the GigaNet API, operate in the Puma environment, and attain acceptable performance over local networks. These modifications are described along with a discussion of roadblocks to networking MPPs with high-performance interfaces. Our early prototype utilizes approximately 25 percent of an OC-12 circuit and 80 percent of an OC-3 circuit in send plus acknowledgment ping-pong tests.

  9. Video transmission on ATM networks. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yun-Chung

    1993-01-01

    The broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) is expected to provide high-speed and flexible multimedia applications. Multimedia includes data, graphics, image, voice, and video. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the adopted transport techniques for B-ISDN and has the potential for providing a more efficient and integrated environment for multimedia. It is believed that most broadband applications will make heavy use of visual information. The prospect of wide spread use of image and video communication has led to interest in coding algorithms for reducing bandwidth requirements and improving image quality. The major results of a study on the bridging of network transmission performance and video coding are: Using two representative video sequences, several video source models are developed. The fitness of these models are validated through the use of statistical tests and network queuing performance. A dual leaky bucket algorithm is proposed as an effective network policing function. The concept of the dual leaky bucket algorithm can be applied to a prioritized coding approach to achieve transmission efficiency. A mapping of the performance/control parameters at the network level into equivalent parameters at the video coding level is developed. Based on that, a complete set of principles for the design of video codecs for network transmission is proposed.

  10. Reliable medical imaging transmission for PACS over ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wang; Subramanian, K. R.; Zhang, Liren

    2000-05-01

    In an ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)-based PAC system, cell losses during the transmission might cause degradation on the quality of medical images. This in turn will affect the accuracy of the diagnosis. A three-step scheme to minimize the effect of cell losses on the quality of medical images is proposed in this paper. The first step is related to the medical imaging coding before it enters the network, in which, ROIs (Regions of Interest) of the medical imaging which are crucial to diagnosis are kept non-compressed and packetized with pixel-level inter-leaving. Non-compression can make the data of ROIs to be more robust to cell losses than any compression algorithms, while pixel-level inter-leaving is strong for bursty cell losses recovery combined with FEC (Forward Error Correction) at the receiver. The background part of the medical imaging will be compressed using fractal algorithm, which can get very high compression ratio to balance the large amount data of the ROIs. In the second step, the ROIs will be allocated the highest priority during transmission. While in the third step, FEC will be used to minimize the existed cell losses at the receiver. The balance and optimal of these three stages are discussed from the system-level point of view.

  11. Final report for the protocol extensions for ATM Security Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.; Pierson, L.G.; Brenkosh, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    This is the summary report for the Protocol Extensions for Asynchronous Transfer Mode project, funded under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. During this one-year effort, techniques were examined for integrating security enhancements within standard ATM protocols, and mechanisms were developed to validate these techniques and to provide a basic set of ATM security assurances. Based on our experience during this project, recommendations were presented to the ATM Forum (a world-wide consortium of ATM product developers, service providers, and users) to assist with the development of security-related enhancements to their ATM specifications. As a result of this project, Sandia has taken a leading role in the formation of the ATM Forum`s Security Working Group, and has gained valuable alliances and leading-edge experience with emerging ATM security technologies and protocols.

  12. Sandia`s network for SC `97: Supporting visualization, distributed cluster computing, and production data networking with a wide area high performance parallel asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.J.; Martinez, L.G.; Vahle, M.O.; Archuleta, T.V.; Williams, V.K.

    1998-05-01

    The advanced networking department at Sandia National Laboratories has used the annual Supercomputing conference sponsored by the IEEE and ACM for the past several years as a forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments. At SC `97, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) combined their SC `97 activities within a single research booth under the Advance Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) banner. For the second year in a row, Sandia provided the network design and coordinated the networking activities within the booth. At SC `97, Sandia elected to demonstrate the capability of the Computation Plant, the visualization of scientific data, scalable ATM encryption, and ATM video and telephony capabilities. At SC `97, LLNL demonstrated an application, called RIPTIDE, that also required significant networking resources. The RIPTIDE application had computational visualization and steering capabilities. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations support Sandia`s overall strategies in ATM networking.

  13. Sandia`s network for supercomputing `95: Validating the progress of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, T.J.; Vahle, O.; Gossage, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Networking Integration Department at Sandia National Laboratories has used the annual Supercomputing conference sponsored by the IEEE and ACM for the past three years as a forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments. For Supercomputing `95, Sandia elected: to demonstrate the functionality and capability of an AT&T Globeview 20Gbps Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switch, which represents the core of Sandia`s corporate network, to build and utilize a three node 622 megabit per second Paragon network, and to extend the DOD`s ACTS ATM Internet from Sandia, New Mexico to the conference`s show floor in San Diego, California, for video demonstrations. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations supports Sandia`s overall strategies in ATM networking.

  14. Demonstration of medical communications based on an ATM broadband network technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Blaine, G. James; Dubetz, Martin W.; Krieger, Kenneth; Jost, R. Gilbert; Moore, Stephen M.; Richard, William D.; Turner, Jonathan S.; Winterbauer, Albert

    1992-07-01

    The research and development efforts of several university and industry groups have brought digital imaging technologies into the practice of medicine. Radiographic images based on a digital data set can now be acquired, stored, communicated and presented for both primary interpretation and access by the referring physician. Moreover, conferences between a specialist and a primary care physician can be supported with audio and video links. A demonstration project at Washington University in collaboration with Southwestern Bell and NEC-America provides a testbed for deployment of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) broadband network technology supporting both LAN and WAN experiments in multimedia medical communications. A network based on four geographically dispersed ATM switches supports rapid display of high-resolution medical images, patient information, digital video and digitized real-time physiological signals at channel rates of 100 Mb/s. A prototype configuration of an Inquiry station is based on the NeXT computer with auxiliary displays for the medical images. Observations and preliminary performance results will be presented.

  15. The ATM signaling network in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Stracker, Travis H.; Roig, Ignasi; Knobel, Philip A.; Marjanović, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) rapidly recognizes DNA lesions and initiates the appropriate cellular programs to maintain genome integrity. This includes the coordination of cell cycle checkpoints, transcription, translation, DNA repair, metabolism, and cell fate decisions, such as apoptosis or senescence (Jackson and Bartek, 2009). DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and defects in their metabolism underlie many human hereditary diseases characterized by genomic instability (Stracker and Petrini, 2011; McKinnon, 2012). Patients with hereditary defects in the DDR display defects in development, particularly affecting the central nervous system, the immune system and the germline, as well as aberrant metabolic regulation and cancer predisposition. Central to the DDR to DSBs is the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a master controller of signal transduction. Understanding how ATM signaling regulates various aspects of the DDR and its roles in vivo is critical for our understanding of human disease, its diagnosis and its treatment. This review will describe the general roles of ATM signaling and highlight some recent advances that have shed light on the diverse roles of ATM and related proteins in human disease. PMID:23532176

  16. The ATM signaling network in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Stracker, Travis H; Roig, Ignasi; Knobel, Philip A; Marjanović, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) rapidly recognizes DNA lesions and initiates the appropriate cellular programs to maintain genome integrity. This includes the coordination of cell cycle checkpoints, transcription, translation, DNA repair, metabolism, and cell fate decisions, such as apoptosis or senescence (Jackson and Bartek, 2009). DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and defects in their metabolism underlie many human hereditary diseases characterized by genomic instability (Stracker and Petrini, 2011; McKinnon, 2012). Patients with hereditary defects in the DDR display defects in development, particularly affecting the central nervous system, the immune system and the germline, as well as aberrant metabolic regulation and cancer predisposition. Central to the DDR to DSBs is the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a master controller of signal transduction. Understanding how ATM signaling regulates various aspects of the DDR and its roles in vivo is critical for our understanding of human disease, its diagnosis and its treatment. This review will describe the general roles of ATM signaling and highlight some recent advances that have shed light on the diverse roles of ATM and related proteins in human disease.

  17. Experiences in teleradiology using a combination of ATM and ISDN wide-area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberg, Marco; Cordonnier, Emmanuel; Piqueras, Joachim; Hewett, Andrew J.; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-05-01

    The current developments in the health care sector facilitate the deployment of telemedical applications which promise to decrease costs and improve treatment quality. The regular use of telemedicine as a means of exchanging knowledge and patient information over long distance requires a natural integration of human communication with all available information sources like imaging modalities and patient data. ATM and ISDN are network technologies which allow the transmission of both digital data and real-time information like video and speech and therefore recommend themselves for telemedical applications. In the future a heterogeneous infrastructure with ATM, ISDN and other network technologies can be expected, increasing the importance of `connectivity' among the network services. This contribution describes an application scenario for teleradiology using a combination of ATM and ISDN wide area networks and experiences with the experimental use of such a system.

  18. Performance analysis and comparison of PTOP and LANE for IP transmission over ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairi, Junaid A.; Al-Irhayim, Sufyan; Al-Khateeb, Wajdi; Wajdi, Yahya

    1998-12-01

    Due to its traffic control and performance assurance characteristics, ATM is being employed as the core network in most campuses. However, bulk of the workstations remain on Ethernet, generating IP traffic that passes through ATM using special schemes such as PTOP or LANE. In such a network, the performance is affected due to the extra overheads in multiple conversions between cells and packets and managing virtual circuits. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of PTOP and LANE in passing the IP traffic under various conditions. This study helps in understanding the various performance issues in these environments in order to define the end-to-end quality of service for Ethernet-ATM networks.

  19. Mobile access to an ATM network using a CDMA air interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTiffin, M. J.; Hulbert, A. P.; Ketseoglou, T. J.; Heimsch, W.; Crisp, G.

    1994-06-01

    The paper presents a possible integrated system concept for a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum CDMA radio access system suitable for third-generation mobile radio. The system has been conceived to take account of such diverse services as low bit rate voice and quasi-broadband services at rates of up to 256 kb/s. Broadband services imply the use of the ATM transmission technique, and particular attention is paid to the mutual impact of CDMA and ATM. An efficient Automatic Repeat Request technique is described which gives a suitably low overall error rate and a soft capacity limit. The proposed solution represents a quantum advance on today's CDMA solutions and integrates well with the ATM fixed network.

  20. Fielded ATM network for the Air National Guard Global Yankee Fort Drum exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Robert L.; Hague, Daniel; Maciag, Chester

    1996-06-01

    This paper will review the deployment, demonstration, and test of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network to support the Air National Guard `Global Yankee' field exercise held at Fort Drum, New York. The network provided forty five (45) megabit per second (mbps) ATM connections between the Air Operations Center (AOC) and Forward Operating Location (FOL) located at Fort Drum, the State University of New York (SUNY) Health Science Center located in Syracuse, New York and Rome Laboratory located in Rome, New York. Connections were made with both fiber and free space equipment. The fiber connections used were part of the existing ATM New York Network (NYNet) between Rome Lab, SUNY Health Science Center and NYNEX Corporation. This network was extended to Watertown, New York by NYNEX to provide connectivity to Fort Drum. The free space links were provided by commercial DS-3 (45 mbps) radios, and 2 to 6 mbps Troposcatter Satellite Support Radios (TSSRs). This paper will also discuss significant digital Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence enhancements to the battlefield provided by the deployed ATM network. For example, videoconferencing and shared workspace capability was demonstrated over the AOC-to-FOL TSSR link, enabling remote intelligence briefings, pilot Battle Damage Assessment, and Search and Rescue coordination. Remote Medical Diagnostics videoconferencing with MRI high resolution digital imagery was demonstrated between the FOL, AOC, and SUNY Health Science Center. Finally, the network provided connectivity between the AOC and the Joint Surveillance System (JSS) radar's located at Griffiss Air Force BAse. The JSS data combined with the Rome Lab developed Radar Analysis Program provided AOC personnel with air picture areas of interest.

  1. Analysis of M-JPEG Video Over an ATM Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    CHARACTERISTICS................................................39 1. Baseline TARZAN Video Clip ..........................................................40...37 Figure 4-4. Physical Network Configuration. ..........................................................................38 Figure 5-1. TARZAN ...50 Figure 5-9. Effect of Compression on TARZAN Video Clip..................................................52 Figure 5-10. Effect of Compression on

  2. CIPP: a versatile analytical model for VBR traffic in ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivasakan, R.; Desai, U. B.; Karandikar, Abhay

    1999-08-01

    Correlated Interarrival time Process (CIPP) has been proposed, for modeling both the composite arrival process of packets in broadband networks and the individual source modeling. The CIPP--a generalization of the Poisson process- - is a stationary counting process and is parameterized by a correlation parameter `p' which represents the degree of correlation in adjacent interarrivals in addition to `(lambda) ' the intensity of the process. In this paper, we present the performance modeling of VBR video traffic in ATM networks, using CIPP/M/1 queue. We first give the expressions for stationary distributions for CIPP/M/1 queue. The, we derive the queuing measures of interest. We simulate a queue with smoothed VBR video trace data as input (with exponential services) to compare with the theoretical measures derived above. Experimental results show that the CIPP/M/1 queue, models well with ATM multiplexer performance with the real world VBR video traffic input.

  3. Experiences with the AEROnet/PSCN ATM Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurak, Richard S.; Lisotta, Anthony J.; McCabe, James D.; Nothaft, Alfred E.; Russell, Kelly R.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the experience gained by the AEROnet/PSCN networking team in deploying a prototype Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based network as part of the wide-area network for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. The objectives of this prototype were to test concepts in using ATM over wide-area Internet Protocol (IP) networks and measure end-to-end system performance. This testbed showed that end-to-end ATM over a DS3 reaches approximately 80% of the throughput achieved from a FDDI to DS3 network. The 20% reduction in through-put can be attributed to the overhead associated with running ATM. As a result, we conclude that if the loss in capacity due to ATM overhead is balanced by the reduction in cost of ATM services, as compared to dedicated circuits, then ATM can be a viable alternative.

  4. ATM technology and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Nim K.

    1993-01-01

    Networks based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are expected to provide cost-effective and ubiquitous infrastructure to support broadband and multimedia services. In this paper, we give an overview of the ATM standards and its associated physical layer transport technologies. We use the experimental HIPPI-ATM-SONET (HAS) interface in the Nectar Gigabit Testbed to illustrate how one can use the SONET/ATM public network to provide transport for bursty gigabit applications.

  5. Fast packet switching algorithms for dynamic resource control over ATM networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, R.P.; Keattihananant, P.; Chang, T.; Heieh, J.; Du, D.

    1996-12-01

    Real-time continuous media traffic, such as digital video and audio, is expected to comprise a large percentage of the network load on future high speed packet switch networks such as ATM. A major feature which distinguishes high speed networks from traditional slower speed networks is the large amount of data the network must process very quickly. For efficient network usage, traffic control mechanisms are essential. Currently, most mechanisms for traffic control (such as flow control) have centered on the support of Available Bit Rate (ABR), i.e., non real-time, traffic. With regard to ATM, for ABR traffic, two major types of schemes which have been proposed are rate- control and credit-control schemes. Neither of these schemes are directly applicable to Real-time Variable Bit Rate (VBR) traffic such as continuous media traffic. Traffic control for continuous media traffic is an inherently difficult problem due to the time- sensitive nature of the traffic and its unpredictable burstiness. In this study, we present a scheme which controls traffic by dynamically allocating/de- allocating resources among competing VCs based upon their real-time requirements. This scheme incorporates a form of rate- control, real-time burst-level scheduling and link-link flow control. We show analytically potential performance improvements of our rate- control scheme and present a scheme for buffer dimensioning. We also present simulation results of our schemes and discuss the tradeoffs inherent in maintaining high network utilization and statistically guaranteeing many users` Quality of Service.

  6. Reduced Synchronization Persistence in Neural Networks Derived from Atm-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Levine-Small, Noah; Yekutieli, Ziv; Aljadeff, Jonathan; Boccaletti, Stefano; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Barzilai, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by malfunction of the DNA damage response. Therefore, it is important to understand the connection between system level neural network behavior and DNA. Neural networks drawn from genetically engineered animals, interfaced with micro-electrode arrays allowed us to unveil connections between networks’ system level activity properties and such genome instability. We discovered that Atm protein deficiency, which in humans leads to progressive motor impairment, leads to a reduced synchronization persistence compared to wild type synchronization, after chemically imposed DNA damage. Not only do these results suggest a role for DNA stability in neural network activity, they also establish an experimental paradigm for empirically determining the role a gene plays on the behavior of a neural network. PMID:21519382

  7. A survey of IP over ATM architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Tsang, R.; Brandt, J.; Hutchins, J.

    1997-07-01

    Over the past decade, the Internet has burgeoned into a worldwide information highway consisting of approximately 5 million hosts on over 45,000 interconnected networks. This unprecedented growth, together with the introduction of multimedia workstations, has spurred the development of innovative applications that require high speed, low latency, and real-time transport. Today`s Internet can neither scale in its bandwidth nor guarantee the Quality of Services (QoS) necessary to meet these performance requirements. Many network researchers propose to use the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology as the underlying infrastructure for the next generation of workgroup, campus, and enterprise IP networks. Since ATM is significantly different from today`s legacy network technologies, efficient implementation of IP over ATM is especially challenging. This tutorial paper covers several existing proposals that integrate IP over ATM.

  8. TCP performance in ATM networks: ABR parameter tuning and ABR/UBR comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Chien Fang; Lin, A.

    1996-02-27

    This paper explores two issues on TOP performance over ATM networks: ABR parameter tuning and performance comparison of binary mode ABR with enhanced UBR services. Of the fifteen parameters defined for ABR, two parameters dominate binary mode ABR performance: Rate Increase Factor (RIF) and Rate Decrease Factor (RDF). Using simulations, we study the effects of these two parameters on TOP over ABR performance. We compare TOP performance with different ABR parameter settings in terms of through-puts and fairness. The effects of different buffer sizes and LAN/WAN distances are also examined. We then compare TOP performance with the best ABR parameter setting with corresponding UBR service enhanced with Early Packet Discard and also with a fair buffer allocation scheme. The results show that TOP performance over binary mode ABR is very sensitive to parameter value settings, and that a poor choice of parameters can result in ABR performance worse than that of the much less expensive UBR-EPD scheme.

  9. Aurora-A controls cancer cell radio- and chemoresistance via ATM/Chk2-mediated DNA repair networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huizhen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ziliang; Meng, Jiao; Qi, Zihao; Yang, Gong

    2014-05-01

    High expression of Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) has been found to confer cancer cell radio- and chemoresistance, however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, by using Aurora-A cDNA/shRNA or the specific inhibitor VX680, we show that Aurora-A upregulates cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and anchorage-independent growth to enhance cell resistance to cisplatin and X-ray irradiation through dysregulation of DNA damage repair networks. Mechanistic studies showed that Aurora-A promoted the expression of ATM/Chk2, but suppressed the expression of BRCA1/2, ATR/Chk1, p53, pp53 (Ser15), H2AX, γH2AX (Ser319), and RAD51. Aurora-A inhibited the focus formation of γH2AX in response to ionizing irradiation. Treatment of cells overexpressing Aurora-A and ATM/Chk2 with the ATM specific inhibitor KU-55933 increased the cell sensitivity to cisplatin and irradiation through increasing the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and inhibiting the expression of Chk2, γH2AX (Ser319), and RAD51. Further study revealed that BRCA1/2 counteracted the function of Aurora-A to suppress the expression of ATM/Chk2, but to activate the expression of ATR/Chk1, pp53, γH2AX, and RAD51, leading to the enhanced cell sensitivity to irradiation and cisplatin, which was also supported by the results from animal assays. Thus, our data provide strong evidences that Aurora-A and BRCA1/2 inversely control the sensitivity of cancer cells to radio- and chemotherapy through the ATM/Chk2-mediated DNA repair networks, indicating that the DNA repair molecules including ATM/Chk2 may be considered for the targeted therapy against cancers with overexpression of Aurora-A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Security Services Discovery by ATM Endsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, Peter; Tarman, Thomas

    1999-07-15

    This contribution proposes strawman techniques for Security Service Discovery by ATM endsystems in ATM networks. Candidate techniques include ILMI extensions, ANS extensions and new ATM anycast addresses. Another option is a new protocol based on an IETF service discovery protocol, such as Service Location Protocol (SLP). Finally, this contribution provides strawman requirements for Security-Based Routing in ATM networks.

  11. [Research advance of retinal pathological angiogenesis related to ATM protein kinase].

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Zheng, Zhi; Li, Chunxia

    2015-05-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene could cause ataxia telangiectasia which is an autosomal recessive disease. The ATM protein kinase encoded by the ATM gene mainly distributed in nucleus as a master regulator of the DNA damage response and apoptosis via cell signaling pathways. The ATM kinase plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cellular senescence and tumor genesis. Recently, some studies have indicated that ATM protein kinase is involved in pathological neovascularization, suggesting that it could be a novel potential therapeutic target in diseases associated with pathological angiogenesis.

  12. First six months of clinical usage of an ATM network link between two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Andre J.; Gentili, Amilcare; El-Saden, Suzie; Harmon, Craig; Kenagy, John J.; Grant, Edward G.

    1998-07-01

    Purpose/Background: Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network technology has recently been used for high speed transmission of radiological images between hospitals and inside hospitals. However, the number of clinical sites which routinely use this technology is limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze the very early impact of an ATM link between a large tertiary referral center and small peripheral clinic on cost and clinical practice. Methodology: An ATM link using 155 bps (OC3) technology was installed between the West Los Angeles VA Medical Center and the Sepulveda VA, a large outpatient facility which provides full service radiological services. The West Los Angeles VA Medical Center is a large tertiary referral center with sub-specialist radiologist. The clinical impact of this ATM link between a large full-scale DICOM-3 compliant PACS system at the West LA VA on a smaller PACS system at the Sepulveda VA was evaluated. Results: The ability to freely exchange complicated MRI and CT studies between a tertiary referral center and a clinic could have a direct impact on patient care. Over the last six months, all and CT studies from Sepulveda VA were readily available via the ATM connection to all radiologists at the West LA VA. On average the workload at the Sepulveda VA in CT and MRI was about one tenth of the same workload at West LA VA, thus creating interesting possibilities for sharing or radiologist resources. Conclusions: Although our preliminary data and work loads have been too limited to draw any final conclusions yet, we feel that future results will show that the ability to provide immediate and fast interactive consultation between general radiologists in a large outpatient facility and sub- specialists at a tertiary referral center can have an impact upon the quality of patient care.

  13. [Networks in cognitive research].

    PubMed

    Pléh, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    This review paper starts from discussing two models of network research: one starting from general networks, the other starting from the Ego. Ego based researches are characterized starting form the model of Dunbar as presenting networks of different size and intimacy, both in real and virtual networks. Researches into the personality determinants of networks mainly shows the effects of extroversion. The future of network research indicates a trend towards relating personal, conceptual, and neural networks.

  14. THESEUS: A wavelength division multiplexed/microwave subcarrier multiplexed optical network, its ATM switch applications and device requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Wei

    1997-10-01

    A Terabit Hybrid Electro-optical /underline[Se]lf- routing Ultrafast Switch (THESEUS) has been proposed. It is a self-routing wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) / microwave subcarrier multiplexed (SCM) asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switch for the multirate ATM networks. It has potential to be extended to a large ATM switch as 1000 x 1000 without internal blocking. Among the advantages of the hybrid implementation are flexibility in service upgrade, relaxed tolerances on optical filtering, protocol simplification and less processing overhead. For a small ATM switch, the subcarrier can be used as output buffers to solve output contention. A mathematical analysis was conducted to evaluate different buffer configurations. A testbed has been successfully constructed. Multirate binary data streams have been switched through the testbed and error free reception ([<]10-9 bit error rate) has been achieved. A simple, intuitive theoretical model has been developed to describe the heterodyne optical beat interference. A new concept of interference time and interference length has been introduced. An experimental confirmation has been conducted. The experimental results match the model very well. It shows that a large portion of optical bandwidth is wasted due to the beat interference. Based on the model, several improvement approaches have been proposed. The photo-generated carrier lifetime of silicon germanium has been measured using time-resolved reflectivity measurement. Via oxygen ion implantation, the carrier lifetime has been reduced to as short as 1 ps, corresponding to 1 THz of photodetector bandwidth. It has also been shown that copper dopants act as recombination centers in the silicon germanium.

  15. Biallelic ATM inactivation significantly reduces survival in patients treated on the United Kingdom Leukemia Research Fund Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 4 trial.

    PubMed

    Skowronska, Anna; Parker, Anton; Ahmed, Gulshanara; Oldreive, Ceri; Davis, Zadie; Richards, Sue; Dyer, Martin; Matutes, Estella; Gonzalez, David; Taylor, A Malcolm R; Moss, Paul; Thomas, Peter; Oscier, David; Stankovic, Tatjana

    2012-12-20

    The prognostic significance of ATM mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unclear. We assessed their impact in the context of a prospective randomized trial. We analyzed the ATM gene in 224 patients treated on the Leukemia Research Fund Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 4 (LRF-CLL4) trial with chlorambucil or fludarabine with and without cyclophosphamide. ATM status was analyzed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and was related to treatment response, survival, and the impact of TP53 alterations for the same patient cohort. We identified 36 ATM mutations in 33 tumors, 16 with and 17 without 11q deletion. Mutations were associated with advanced disease stage and involvement of multiple lymphoid sites. Patients with both ATM mutation and 11q deletion showed significantly reduced progression-free survival (median, 7.4 months) compared with those with ATM wild type (28.6 months), 11q deletion alone (17.1 months), or ATM mutation alone (30.8 months), but survival was similar to that in patients with monoallelic (6.7 months) or biallelic (3.4 months) TP53 alterations. This effect was independent of treatment, immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene (IGHV) status, age, sex, or disease stage. Overall survival for patients with biallelic ATM alterations was also significantly reduced compared with those with ATM wild type or ATM mutation alone (median, 42.2 v 85.5 v 77.6 months, respectively). The combination of 11q deletion and ATM mutation in CLL is associated with significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival following first-line treatment with alkylating agents and purine analogs. Assessment of ATM mutation status in patients with 11q deletion may influence the choice of subsequent therapy.

  16. Research Data Acquired in World-Class, 60-atm Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming; Wey, Changlie

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's new, world-class, 60-atmosphere (atm) combustor research facility, the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR), is in operation and producing highly unique research data. Specifically, data were acquired at high pressures and temperatures representative of future subsonic engines from a fundamental flametube configuration with an advanced fuel injector. The data acquired include exhaust emissions as well as pressure and temperature distributions. Results to date represent an improved understanding of nitrous oxide (NOx) formation at high pressures and temperatures and include an NOx emissions reduction greater than 70 percent with an advanced fuel injector at operating pressures to 800 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). ASCR research is an integral part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Propulsion Program. This program is developing critical low-emission combustion technology that will result in the next generation of gas turbine engines producing 50 to 70 percent less NOx emissions in comparison to 1996 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) limits. The results to date indicate that the AST low-emission combustor goals of reducing NOx emissions by 50 to 70 percent are feasible. U.S. gas turbine manufacturers have started testing the low-emissions combustors at the ASCR. This collaborative testing will enable the industry to develop low-emission combustors at the high pressure and temperature conditions of future subsonic engines. The first stage of the flametube testing has been implemented. Four GE Aircraft Engines low-emissions fuel injector concepts, three Pratt & Whitney concepts, and two Allison concepts have been tested at Lewis ASCR facility. Subsequently, the flametube was removed from the test stand, and the sector combustor was installed. The testing of low emissions sector has begun. Low-emission combustors developed as a result of ASCR research will enable U.S. engine manufacturers to compete on a

  17. Lymphatic Education & Research Network

    MedlinePlus

    Lymphatic Education & Research Network Donate Now Become a Supporting Member X Living with LYMPHEDEMA AND Lymphatic Disease FAQs About ... 261 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 | Lymphatic Education & Research Network is a 501(c)(3) under ...

  18. The Passive Microwave Neural Network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) for AMSU/MHS and ATMS cross-track scanning radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano', Paolo; Casella, Daniele; Panegrossi, Giulia; Cinzia Marra, Anna; Dietrich, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Spaceborne microwave cross-track scanning radiometers, originally developed for temperature and humidity sounding, have shown great capabilities to provide a significant contribution in precipitation monitoring both in terms of measurement quality and spatial/temporal coverage. The Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for cross-track scanning radiometers, originally developed for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit/Microwave Humidity Sounder (AMSU-A/MHS) radiometers (on board the European MetOp and U.S. NOAA satellites), was recently newly designed to exploit the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board the Suomi-NPP satellite and the future JPSS satellites. The PNPR algorithm is based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. The main PNPR-ATMS algorithm changes with respect to PNPR-AMSU/MHS are the design and implementation of a new ANN able to manage the information derived from the additional ATMS channels (respect to the AMSU-A/MHS radiometer) and a new screening procedure for not-precipitating pixels. In order to achieve maximum consistency of the retrieved surface precipitation, both PNPR algorithms are based on the same physical foundation. The PNPR is optimized for the European and the African area. The neural network was trained using a cloud-radiation database built upon 94 cloud-resolving simulations over Europe and the Mediterranean and over the African area and radiative transfer model simulations of TB vectors consistent with the AMSU-A/MHS and ATMS channel frequencies, viewing angles, and view-angle dependent IFOV sizes along the scan projections. As opposed to other ANN precipitation retrieval algorithms, PNPR uses a unique ANN that retrieves the surface precipitation rate for all types of surface backgrounds represented in the training database, i.e., land (vegetated or arid), ocean, snow/ice or coast. This approach prevents different precipitation estimates from being inconsistent with one

  19. Connecting Remote Clusters with ATM

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, T.C.; Wyckoff, P.S.

    1998-10-01

    Sandia's entry into utilizing clusters of networked workstations is called Computational Plant or CPlant for short. The design of CPlant uses Ethernet to boot the individual nodes, Myrinet to communicate within a node cluster, and ATM to connect between remote clusters. This SAND document covers the work done to enable the use of ATM on the CPlant nodes in the Fall of 1997.

  20. Final Report for the Scaled Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Encryption Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, L.G.; Witzke, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    This effort studied the integration of innovative methods of key management crypto synchronization, and key agility while scaling encryption speed. Viability of these methods for encryption of ATM cell payloads at the SONET OC- 192 data rate (10 Gb/s), and for operation at OC-48 rates (2.5 Gb/s) was shown. An SNL-Developed pipelined DES design was adapted for the encryption of ATM cells. A proof-of-principle prototype circuit board containing 11 Electronically Programmable Logic Devices (each holding the equivalent of 100,000 gates) was designed, built, and used to prototype a high speed encryptor.

  1. Satellite Communications for ATM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  2. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Switch Technology and Vendor Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Noemi

    1995-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switch and software features are described and compared in order to make switch comparisons meaningful. An ATM switch's performance cannot be measured solely based on its claimed switching capacity; traffic management and congestion control are emerging as the determining factors in an ATM network's ultimate throughput. Non-switch ATM products and experiences with actual installations of ATM networks are described. A compilation of select vendor offerings as of October 1994 is provided in chart form.

  3. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  4. RETAIN--an ATM pilot project for applications in health care.

    PubMed

    Eichelberg, M; Hewett, A J; Jensch, P

    1996-01-01

    The availability of ATM-based broadband wide-area networks facilitates a range of new applications in health care, especially the performance of videoconferences combined with software for computer-supported cooperative discussion and diagnosis of digital medical images. This report about a research project for applications of the 'European ATM pilot network' in radiology describes the technical, economic and structural framework for the application of broadband technology in health care.

  5. A Managerial Analysis of ATM in Facilitating Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Marlyn Kemper

    In this paper, the fundamental characteristics and capabilities of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks in a distance learning environment are examined. Current and projected ATM applications are described, and issues and challenges associated with developing ATM networking solutions for instructional delivery are explored. Other topics…

  6. Recently emerging signaling landscape of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Attar, Rukset; Arslan, Belkis Atasever; Romero, Mirna Azalea; ul Haq, Muhammad Fahim; Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Research over the years has progressively and sequentially provided near complete resolution of regulators of the DNA repair pathways which are so important for cancer prevention. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), a high-molecular-weight PI3K-family kinase has emerged as a master regulator of DNA damage signaling and extensive cross-talk between ATM and downstream proteins forms an interlaced signaling network. There is rapidly growing scientific evidence emphasizing newly emerging paradigms in ATM biology. In this review, we provide latest information regarding how oxidative stress induced activation of ATM can be utilized as a therapeutic target in different cancer cell lines and in xenografted mice. Moreover, crosstalk between autophagy and ATM is also discussed with focus on how autophagy inhibition induces apoptosis in cancer cells.

  7. ATM: Restructing Learning for Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Barbara; Stockford, David

    Governor Baxter School for the Deaf is one of six Maine pilot sites chosen by NYNEX to showcase asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology. ATM is a network connection that allows high bandwidth transmission of data, voice, and video. Its high speed capability allows for high quality two-way full-motion video, which is especially beneficial to a…

  8. Defining ATM-Independent Functions of the Mre11 Complex with a Novel Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Alessia; Nicolas, Laura; Yang-Lott, Katherine; Guryanova, Olga A; Levine, Ross L; Bassing, Craig H; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Petrini, John H J

    2016-02-01

    The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) occupies a central node of the DNA damage response (DDR) network and is required for ATM activation in response to DNA damage. Hypomorphic alleles of MRE11 and NBS1 confer embryonic lethality in ATM-deficient mice, indicating that the complex exerts ATM-independent functions that are essential when ATM is absent. To delineate those functions, a conditional ATM allele (ATM(flox)) was crossed to hypomorphic NBS1 mutants (Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) mice). Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) hematopoietic cells derived by crossing to vav(cre) were viable in vivo. Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) (VAV) mice exhibited a pronounced defect in double-strand break repair and completely penetrant early onset lymphomagenesis. In addition to repair defects observed, fragile site instability was noted, indicating that the Mre11 complex promotes genome stability upon replication stress in vivo. The data suggest combined influences of the Mre11 complex on DNA repair, as well as the responses to DNA damage and DNA replication stress. A novel mouse model was developed, by combining a vav(cre)-inducible ATM knockout mouse with an NBS1 hypomorphic mutation, to analyze ATM-independent functions of the Mre11 complex in vivo. These data show that the DNA repair, rather than DDR signaling functions of the complex, is acutely required in the context of ATM deficiency to suppress genome instability and lymphomagenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. ATM kinase sustains HER2 tumorigenicity in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Stagni, Venturina; Manni, Isabella; Oropallo, Veronica; Mottolese, Marcella; Di Benedetto, Anna; Piaggio, Giulia; Falcioni, Rita; Giaccari, Danilo; Di Carlo, Selene; Sperati, Francesca; Cencioni, Maria Teresa; Barilà, Daniela

    2015-04-16

    ATM kinase preserves genomic stability by acting as a tumour suppressor. However, its identification as a component of several signalling networks suggests a dualism for ATM in cancer. Here we report that ATM expression and activity promotes HER2-dependent tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. We reveal a correlation between ATM activation and the reduced time to recurrence in patients diagnosed with invasive HER2-positive breast cancer. Furthermore, we identify ATM as a novel modulator of HER2 protein stability that acts by promoting a complex of HER2 with the chaperone HSP90, therefore preventing HER2 ubiquitination and degradation. As a consequence, ATM sustains AKT activation downstream of HER2 and may modulate the response to therapeutic approaches, suggesting that the status of ATM activity may be informative for the treatment and prognosis of HER2-positive tumours. Our findings provide evidence for ATM's tumorigenic potential revising the canonical role of ATM as a pure tumour suppressor.

  10. Automated transportation management system (ATMS) software project management plan (SPMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Weidert, R.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-20

    The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software Project Management plan (SPMP) is the lead planning document governing the life cycle of the ATMS and its integration into the Transportation Information Network (TIN). This SPMP defines the project tasks, deliverables, and high level schedules involved in developing the client/server ATMS software.

  11. Block loss for ATM video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In BISDN, the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) requires all information to be represented as a sequence of standard data units called cells. Cell los is inherent in ATM networks due to the cell header corruption and buffer overflow in the network. Several studies have shown that cell losses are bursty for an ATM network. In this work, we encoded real video sequences with a variable bit-rate (VBR) version of the H.261 video encoder in order for us to determine the relationship between blocks in a video frame and the number of ATM cells generated. We then considered the impact of bursty cell losses on image block loss probability. Block loss distributions are given at different codec and channel parameters. We also obtained block loss results using a cell loss correction scheme. Three sequences were analyzed to obtain the cumulative block loss probability distribution. Similar maximum and minimum block loss probability values were obtained for each sequence. The block loss probability distribution varies according to the amount and type of motion present in each sequence. We show that the block loss is confined to one group of blocks (GOB). The maximum block loss probability can be two orders of magnitude larger than the channel cell loss probability. By using the cell loss correction scheme, block loss was reduced to a level equivalent to reducing cell loss probability by five orders of magnitude.

  12. ATM CMG/EPEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramowitz, R.; Kovek, J.; Teimer, W.; Haddad, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope mount double gimballed control moment gyro ATM CMG is described. Photographs of the CMG and its subassemblies are presented along with a functional block diagram of the CMG subsystem. Analog processing electronics for ATM vehicle pointing control and ATM experiment package pointing control are also described.

  13. Gigabit ATM: another technical mistake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, Paul

    1998-09-01

    Once upon a time, or more precisely during February 1988 at the CCITT Seoul plenary, and definitely arriving as a revolution, ATM hit the hard-core B-ISDN circuit-switching gang. Initiated by the Telecoms' camp, but, surprisingly, soon to be pushed by computer minded people, ATM's generic technological history is somewhat richer than single-sided stories. Here are two classical elements of that history: Firstly, together with X.25, ATM suffers from the connection versus datagram dichotomy, well known for more than twenty years. Secondly, and lesser known, ATM's use of cells in support of the 'I' of B-ISDN was questioned from the very beginning by the packet switching camp. Furthermore, in this context, there are two other essential elements to be considered: Firstly, the exponential growth of the Internet and later intranets, using Internet technology, sparked by the success of the Web and the WINTEL alliance, resulted in a corresponding demand for both aggregate and end-system network bandwidth. Secondly, servers, historically restricted to the exclusive club of HIPPI-equipped supercomputers, suddenly become ordinary high-end PCs with 64-bit wide PCI busses -- definitely aiming at the Gigabit. Here, if your aim is for Gigabit ATM with 5000-transactions per second classical supercomputers, a 65K ATM MTU -- as implemented by Cray -- might be okay. Following Clark and others, another part of the story is the adoption and redefinition, by the IETF, of the Telecoms' notion of 'Integrated Services' and QoS mechanisms. The quest for low-delay IP packet forwarding, perhaps possible over ATM cut-throughs, has resulted in the switching versus/or integrated-with-routing movement. However, a blow for ATM may be the recent results concerning fast routing table lookup algorithms. This, by making Gigabit routing possible using ordinary Pentium processors may eventually render the much prophesized ATM switching performance unnecessary. Recently, with the rise of Gigabit Ethernet

  14. Security technologies and protocols for Asynchronous Transfer Mode networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.

    1996-06-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a new data communications technology that promises to integrate voice, video, and data traffic into a common network infrastructure. In order to fully utilize ATM`s ability to transfer real-time data at high rates, applications will start to access the ATM layer directly. As a result of this trend, security mechanisms at the ATM layer will be required. A number of research programs are currently in progress which seek to better understand the unique issues associated with ATM security. This paper describes some of these issues, and the approaches taken by various organizations in the design of ATM layer security mechanisms. Efforts within the ATM Forum to address the user communities need for ATM security are also described.

  15. Hyper-Spectral Communications, Networking and ATM as Foundation for Safe and Efficient Future Flight: Transcending Aviation Operational Limitations with Diverse and Secure Multi-Band, Multi-Mode, and mmWave Wireless Links: Project Overview, Aviation Communications and New Signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) has recently solicited proposals and awarded funds for research and development to achieve and exceed the goals envisioned in the ARMD Strategic Implementation Plan (SIP). The Hyper-Spectral Communications and Networking for Air Traffic Management (ATM) (HSCNA) project is the only University Leadership Initiative (ULI) program to address communications and networking (and to a degree, navigation and surveillance). This paper will provide an overview of the HSCNA project, and specifically describe two of the project's technical challenges: comprehensive aviation communications and networking assessment, and proposed multi-band and multimode communications and networking. The primary goals will be described, as will be research and development aimed to achieve and exceed these goals. Some example initial results are also provided.

  16. Autophosphorylation and ATM Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Sergei V.; Graham, Mark E.; Jakob, Burkhard; Tobias, Frank; Kijas, Amanda W.; Tanuji, Marcel; Chen, Philip; Robinson, Phillip J.; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Suzuki, Keiji; So, Sairai; Chen, David; Lavin, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    The recognition and signaling of DNA double strand breaks involves the participation of multiple proteins, including the protein kinase ATM (mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia). ATM kinase is activated in the vicinity of the break and is recruited to the break site by the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex, where it is fully activated. In human cells, the activation process involves autophosphorylation on three sites (Ser367, Ser1893, and Ser1981) and acetylation on Lys3016. We now describe the identification of a new ATM phosphorylation site, Thr(P)1885 and an additional autophosphorylation site, Ser(P)2996, that is highly DNA damage-inducible. We also confirm that human and murine ATM share five identical phosphorylation sites. We targeted the ATM phosphorylation sites, Ser367 and Ser2996, for further study by generating phosphospecific antibodies against these sites and demonstrated that phosphorylation of both was rapidly induced by radiation. These phosphorylations were abolished by a specific inhibitor of ATM and were dependent on ATM and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex. As found for Ser(P)1981, ATM phosphorylated at Ser367 and Ser2996 localized to sites of DNA damage induced by radiation, but ATM recruitment was not dependent on phosphorylation at these sites. Phosphorylation at Ser367 and Ser2996 was functionally important because mutant forms of ATM were defective in correcting the S phase checkpoint defect and restoring radioresistance in ataxia-telangiectasia cells. These data provide further support for the importance of autophosphorylation in the activation and function of ATM in vivo. PMID:21149446

  17. [Network Research on Human Papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Paniagua, Ramón; Furuya, María ElenaYuriko

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the research in important health questions at a national and institutional levels, the Human Papillomavirus Research Network of the Health Research Coordination of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social offers this supplement with the purpose of assisting patients that daily look for attention due to the human papillomavirus or to cervical cancer.

  18. Computer Network Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-31

    munication (both satellite and ground radio channels) provides a solution. 4\\^ ;o is a multi-access broadcast medium. A signal generated by a radio...transmit signals over the same channel. (This is the multi-access capability.) Hence, a single ground radio channel provides a completely connected...network topology for a large number However, if two signals (packet transmissions) at the same carrier frequency overlap in time at a radio receiver, we

  19. Multistage shuffle networks with shortest path and deflection routing for high performance ATM switching: The open-loop Shuffleout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, Sandro; Decina, Maurizio; Giacomazzi, Paolo; Pattavina, Achille

    1994-10-01

    A new class of switching architectures for broadband packet networks, called Shuffleout, is described and analyzed in this paper. Shuffleout is basically an output-queued architecture with a multistage interconnection network built out of unbuffered b x 2b switching elements. Its structure is such that the number of cells that can be concurrently switched from the inlets to each output queue equals the number of stages in the interconnection network. The switching element operates the cell self-routing adopting a shortest path algorithm which, in case of conflict for interstage links, is coupled with deflection routing. This paper presents the basic Shuffleout architecture, called Open-Loop Shuffleout, in which the cells that cross the whole interconnection network without entering the addressed output queues are lost. A different version of this architecture, called Closed-Loop Shuffleout, in which cells are allowed to cross the interconnection network several times before entering the appropriate output queue, is described in a companion paper. The key target of the proposed architecture is coupling the implementation feasibility of a self-routing switch with the desirable traffic performance typical of output queueing.

  20. BNL-NYSERNet ATM project report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, M.; Peskin, A.; Rabinowitz, G.

    1997-07-01

    In 1994, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and NYSERNet, Incorporated embarked on a joint project to develop a prototype Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Regional Network testbed. This project was funded as a three-year effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Activity (CRADA) agreement between the parties, with half the funds being provided directly by the U.S. Department of Energy and the remainder as an in-kind contribution by NYSERNet. This report documents that effort as it comes to a close, providing an account of the original goals, the accomplishments of the projects, and the results as they might apply to the future. It is useful to remember that, when the collaboration discussions first began in 1993, it was far from certain that ATM would be the technology of choice for the then-next generation of the Internet. That, of course, has turned out to be the case, which in retrospect makes this experience particularly valuable. The investigators were not totally prescient, however, and the project changed during its duration to account for changes in technology, available infrastructure, and other circumstances.

  1. Evaluating primary care research networks.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Evelyn; Harvey, Janet; Sturt, Jackie

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework and tool kit, generated from the evaluation of five primary care research networks (PCRNs) funded by the then London, National Health Service (NHS) Executive. We employed qualitative methods designed to match the most important characteristics of PCRNs, conducting five contextualized case studies covering the five networks. A conceptual evaluation framework based on a review of the organization science literature was developed and comprised the broad, but inter-related organizational dimensions of structure, processes, boundaries and network self-evaluation as input factors and strategic emphasis as epitomized by network objectives. These dimensions were comprised of more detailed subdimensions designed to capture the potential of the networks to create ideas and knowledge, or intellectual capital, the key construct upon which our evaluation tool kit was based. We considered the congruence, or fit, between network objectives and input factors: greater congruence implied greater ability to achieve implicit and overt objectives. We conclude that network evaluation must take place, over time, recognizing stage of development and potential for long-term viability, but within a generic framework of inputs and outputs. If there is a good fit or congruence between their input factors and network objectives, networks will be internally coherent and able to operate at optimum effectiveness.

  2. Open Research Networking Gadgets (ORNG).

    PubMed

    Meeks, Eric; Turner, Brian; Chatterjee, Anirvan; Yuan, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, UCSF embarked on a journey to utilize industry-backed application standards to extend our research networking tool of choice, Profiles, into a software platform. The goal of this work was to bring extended data and functionality to our researchers' online environment and make it easier to share independently-developed software innovations with others. We used the OpenSocial standard to achieve these ends. In 2012 we extended the OpenSocial standard to support RDF and the VIVO Ontology in an effort titled "Open Research Network Gadgets" or ORNG. Our work has been adopted by two major academic open source research networking tools - Harvard Catalyst Profiles and VIVO, and the ORNG standard is now available for use by the 50+ institutions that use recent versions of the two software products.

  3. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.

  4. ATM mutations for surgeons.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Sara A; Pilarski, Robert; Agnese, Doreen M

    2016-12-17

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encodes a protein kinase involved in DNA repair. Heterozygotic carriers are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. As the use of genetic testing increases, identification of at-risk patients will also increase. The aim of this study is to review two cases of heterozygous ATM mutation carriers and review the literature to clarify the cancer risks and suggested management for breast surgeons who will be intimately involved in the care of these patients.

  5. ATM LAN Emulation: Getting from Here to There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses current LAN (local area network) configuration and explains ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) as the future telecommunications transport. Highlights include LAN emulation, which enables the interconnection of legacy LANs and the new ATM environment; virtual LANs; broadcast servers; and standards. (LRW)

  6. Research@ARL: Network Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Bruce J. West Social Sciences Distributed Algorithms for Learning and Cognitive Medium Access with Logarithmic Regret...the traditional physical sciences, social sciences, life sciences, and information sciences. No one discipline or collection of disciplines can...pathologies encountered by the Warfighter. Exploration of cooperative behavior of social networks, such as swarms, is a significant research

  7. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  8. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Technology: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-04

    IEEE Communications Magazine , April 1992, pp. 60 - 68. [5] Stallings, W.: Handbook of Computer-Communications Standards, Volume 1: The Open Systems...Conf. Digest, paper ThH3, San Jose. CA, Feb. 2-7, 1992, p.225. [14] Newman, P.: ATM Technology for Corporate Networks. IEEE Communications Magazine . April

  9. LTAR linkages with other research networks: Capitalizing on network interconnections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA ARS Research Unit based at the Jornada Experimental Range outside of Las Cruces, NM, is a member of the USDA’s Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network, the National Science Foundation’s Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network, the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON)...

  10. Canopy Research Network seeks input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In July 1993, the Canopy Research Network was established with a 2-year planning grant from the National Science Foundation to bring together forest canopy researchers, quantitative scientists, and computer specialists to establish methods for collecting, storing, analyzing, interpreting, and displaying three-dimensional data that relate to tree crowns and forest canopies. The CRN is now soliciting input from scientists in other fields who may have developed techniques and software to help obtain answers to questions that concern the complex three-dimensional structure of tree crowns and forest canopies. Over the next 3 years, the CRN plans to compile an array of research questions and issues requiring information on canopy structure, examine useful information models and software tools already in use in allied fields, and develop conceptual models and recommendations for the types and format of information and analyses necessary to answer research questions posed by canopy researchers.

  11. ATMS Step By Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    This manual is designed to provide an introduction and basic guide to the use of IBM's Advanced Text Management System (ATMS), the text processing system to be used for the creation of Australian data bases within AUSINET. Instructions are provided for using the system to enter, store, retrieve, and modify data, which may then be displayed at the…

  12. National research and education network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villasenor, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Some goals of this network are as follows: Extend U.S. technological leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; Provide wide dissemination and application of the technologies both to the speed and the pace of innovation and to serve the national economy, national security, education, and the global environment; and Spur gains in the U.S. productivity and industrial competitiveness by making high performance computing and networking technologies an integral part of the design and production process. Strategies for achieving these goals are as follows: Support solutions to important scientific and technical challenges through a vigorous R and D effort; Reduce the uncertainties to industry for R and D and use of this technology through increased cooperation between government, industry, and universities and by the continued use of government and government funded facilities as a prototype user for early commercial HPCC products; and Support underlying research, network, and computational infrastructures on which U.S. high performance computing technology is based.

  13. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J.; APPD LEARN, For

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. Aims: In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). Methods: We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. Results: We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. Conclusions: We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks. PMID:25319404

  14. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks.

  15. ATM and KAT5 safeguard replicating chromatin against formaldehyde damage.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Wong, Victor C; DeLoughery, Zachary; Luczak, Michal W; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2016-01-08

    Many carcinogens damage both DNA and protein constituents of chromatin, and it is unclear how cells respond to this compound injury. We examined activation of the main DNA damage-responsive kinase ATM and formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by formaldehyde (FA) that forms histone adducts and replication-blocking DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC). We found that low FA doses caused a strong and rapid activation of ATM signaling in human cells, which was ATR-independent and restricted to S-phase. High FA doses inactivated ATM via its covalent dimerization and formation of larger crosslinks. FA-induced ATM signaling showed higher CHK2 phosphorylation but much lower phospho-KAP1 relative to DSB inducers. Replication blockage by DPC did not produce damaged forks or detectable amounts of DSB during the main wave of ATM activation, which did not require MRE11. Chromatin-monitoring KAT5 (Tip60) acetyltransferase was responsible for acetylation and activation of ATM by FA. KAT5 and ATM were equally important for triggering of intra-S-phase checkpoint and ATM signaling promoted recovery of normal human cells after low-dose FA. Our results revealed a major role of the KAT5-ATM axis in protection of replicating chromatin against damage by the endogenous carcinogen FA. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. NPP After Launch: Characterizing ATMS Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011. Although several teams from the government and the instrument contractor will be assessing and characterizing the performance of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) sounding suite, the NASA NPP Science Team will be paying particular attention to the aspects of these sensors that affect their utility for atmospheric and climate research. In this talk we discuss relevant aspects of ATMS and our post launch analysis approach.

  17. Research Priorities in Networking and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A workshop focused on major research issues in networking and communications. This report defines the context for research priorities and initiatives and deals with issues in networking and communications. Fifteen major research priorities and four research specific initiatives were identified by participants as areas that should be pursued over…

  18. The effect of algorithm-agile encryption on ATM quality of service

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, P.; Tarman, T.; Pierson, L.; Hutchinson, R.

    1997-04-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) users often open multiple ATM Virtual Circuits (VCs) to multiple ATM users on multiple ATM networks. Each network and user may implement a different encryption policy. Hence ATM users may need shared, flexible hardware-based 3encryption that supports multiple encryption algorithms for multiple concurrent ATM users and VCs. An algorithm-agile encryption architecture, that uses multiple, parallel encryption-pipelines, is proposed. That algorithm-agile encryptor`s effect on the ATM Quality of Service (QoS) metrics, such as Cell Transfer Delay (CTD) and Cell Delay Variation (CDV), is analyzed. Bounds on the maximum CDV and the CDV`s probability density are derived.

  19. Research on the model of home networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Xiang; Feng, Xiancheng

    2007-11-01

    It is the research hotspot of current broadband network to combine voice service, data service and broadband audio-video service by IP protocol to transport various real time and mutual services to terminal users (home). Home Networking is a new kind of network and application technology which can provide various services. Home networking is called as Digital Home Network. It means that PC, home entertainment equipment, home appliances, Home wirings, security, illumination system were communicated with each other by some composing network technology, constitute a networking internal home, and connect with WAN by home gateway. It is a new network technology and application technology, and can provide many kinds of services inside home or between homes. Currently, home networking can be divided into three kinds: Information equipment, Home appliances, Communication equipment. Equipment inside home networking can exchange information with outer networking by home gateway, this information communication is bidirectional, user can get information and service which provided by public networking by using home networking internal equipment through home gateway connecting public network, meantime, also can get information and resource to control the internal equipment which provided by home networking internal equipment. Based on the general network model of home networking, there are four functional entities inside home networking: HA, HB, HC, and HD. (1) HA (Home Access) - home networking connects function entity; (2) HB (Home Bridge) Home networking bridge connects function entity; (3) HC (Home Client) - Home networking client function entity; (4) HD (Home Device) - decoder function entity. There are many physical ways to implement four function entities. Based on theses four functional entities, there are reference model of physical layer, reference model of link layer, reference model of IP layer and application reference model of high layer. In the future home network

  20. The productivity of primary care research networks.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, F; Wild, A; Harvey, J; Fenton, E

    2000-01-01

    Primary care research networks are being publicly funded in the United Kingdom to promote a culture of research and development in primary care. This paper discusses the organisational form of these networks and how their productivity can be evaluated, drawing on evidence from management science. An evaluation of a research network has to take account of the complexity of the organisation, the influence of its local context, and its stage of development. Output measures, such as number of research papers, and process measures, such as number of research meetings, may contribute to an evaluation. However, as networking relies on the development of informal, trust-based relationships, the quality of interactions within a network is of paramount importance for its success. Networks can audit and reflect on their success in promoting such relationships and a more formal qualitative evaluation by an independent observer can document their success to those responsible for funding. PMID:11141879

  1. FACET: Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmoria, Karl D.; Banavar, Sridhar; Chatterji, Gano B.; Sheth, Kapil S.; Grabbe, Shon

    2000-01-01

    FACET (Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool) is an Air Traffic Management research tool being developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. This paper describes the design, architecture and functionalities of FACET. The purpose of FACET is to provide E simulation environment for exploration, development and evaluation of advanced ATM concepts. Examples of these concepts include new ATM paradigms such as Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management, airspace redesign and new Decision Support Tools (DSTs) for controllers working within the operational procedures of the existing air traffic control system. FACET is currently capable of modeling system-wide en route airspace operations over the contiguous United States. Airspace models (e.g., Center/sector boundaries, airways, locations of navigation aids and airports) are available from databases. A core capability of FACET is the modeling of aircraft trajectories. Using round-earth kinematic equations, aircraft can be flown along flight plan routes or great circle routes as they climb, cruise and descend according to their individual aircraft-type performance models. Performance parameters (e.g., climb/descent rates and speeds, cruise speeds) are obtained from data table lookups. Heading, airspeed and altitude-rate dynamics are also modeled. Additional functionalities will be added as necessary for specific applications. FACET software is written in Java and C programming languages. It is platform-independent, and can be run on a variety of computers. FACET has been designed with a modular software architecture to enable rapid integration of research prototype implementations of new ATM concepts. There are several advanced ATM concepts that are currently being implemented in FACET airborne separation assurance, dynamic density predictions, airspace redesign (re-sectorization), benefits of a controller DST for direct-routing, and the integration of commercial space transportation system operations into the U.S. National

  2. FACET: Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmoria, Karl D.; Banavar, Sridhar; Chatterji, Gano B.; Sheth, Kapil S.; Grabbe, Shon

    2000-01-01

    FACET (Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool) is an Air Traffic Management research tool being developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. This paper describes the design, architecture and functionalities of FACET. The purpose of FACET is to provide E simulation environment for exploration, development and evaluation of advanced ATM concepts. Examples of these concepts include new ATM paradigms such as Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management, airspace redesign and new Decision Support Tools (DSTs) for controllers working within the operational procedures of the existing air traffic control system. FACET is currently capable of modeling system-wide en route airspace operations over the contiguous United States. Airspace models (e.g., Center/sector boundaries, airways, locations of navigation aids and airports) are available from databases. A core capability of FACET is the modeling of aircraft trajectories. Using round-earth kinematic equations, aircraft can be flown along flight plan routes or great circle routes as they climb, cruise and descend according to their individual aircraft-type performance models. Performance parameters (e.g., climb/descent rates and speeds, cruise speeds) are obtained from data table lookups. Heading, airspeed and altitude-rate dynamics are also modeled. Additional functionalities will be added as necessary for specific applications. FACET software is written in Java and C programming languages. It is platform-independent, and can be run on a variety of computers. FACET has been designed with a modular software architecture to enable rapid integration of research prototype implementations of new ATM concepts. There are several advanced ATM concepts that are currently being implemented in FACET airborne separation assurance, dynamic density predictions, airspace redesign (re-sectorization), benefits of a controller DST for direct-routing, and the integration of commercial space transportation system operations into the U.S. National

  3. Research of ad hoc network based on SINCGARS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Hao; Cai, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hong; Chen, Jian; Weng, Pengfei

    2016-03-01

    In today's world, science and technology make a spurt of progress, so society has entered the era of information technology, network. Only the comprehensive use of electronic warfare and network warfare means can we maximize their access to information and maintain the information superiority. Combined with the specific combat mission and operational requirements, the research design and construction in accordance with the actual military which are Suitable for the future of information technology needs of the tactical Adhoc network, tactical internet, will greatly improve the operational efficiency of the command of the army. Through the study of the network of the U.S. military SINCGARS network, it can explore the routing protocol and mobile model, to provide a reference for the research of our army network.

  4. Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN)

    Cancer.gov

    The Comprehensive Oncologic Emergencies Research Network (CONCERN) was established in March 2015 with the goal to accelerate knowledge generation, synthesis and translation of oncologic emergency medicine research through multi-center collaborations.

  5. LTAR Linkages with Other Research Networks: Capitalizing on Network Interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havstad, K.

    2015-12-01

    The USDA ARS Research Unit based at the Jornada Experimental Range outside of Las Cruces, NM, is a member of the USDA's Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network, the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network, the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON), and the USDA's Climate Hub Network. Each of these networks has distinct functions, missions, operational characteristics, and distinct scientific and management sub-cultures (though some are fairly new and developing). Some are a fairly independent collection of research sites functioning as a network in name only, and others are truly working to develop a research synergy that could be holistic and uniquely productive. All have real scientific value, and collectively represent an investment in US research infrastructure in biology and agriculture in excess of $3B. To effectively utilize and exploit this unique research infrastructure will require a concerted effort to meld attributes of each to the benefits of their common stakeholders. Real opportunities exist to collectively utilize this infrastructure to address grand research challenges.

  6. The new Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for the cross-track scanning ATMS radiometer: description and verification study over Europe and Africa using GPM and TRMM spaceborne radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanò, Paolo; Panegrossi, Giulia; Casella, Daniele; Marra, Anna C.; Di Paola, Francesco; Dietrich, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the development and evaluate the performance of a completely new version of the Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR v2), an algorithm based on a neural network approach, designed to retrieve the instantaneous surface precipitation rate using the cross-track Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) radiometer measurements. This algorithm, developed within the EUMETSAT H-SAF program, represents an evolution of the previous version (PNPR v1), developed for AMSU/MHS radiometers (and used and distributed operationally within H-SAF), with improvements aimed at exploiting the new precipitation-sensing capabilities of ATMS with respect to AMSU/MHS. In the design of the neural network the new ATMS channels compared to AMSU/MHS, and their combinations, including the brightness temperature differences in the water vapor absorption band, around 183 GHz, are considered. The algorithm is based on a single neural network, for all types of surface background, trained using a large database based on 94 cloud-resolving model simulations over the European and the African areas. The performance of PNPR v2 has been evaluated through an intercomparison of the instantaneous precipitation estimates with co-located estimates from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR) and from the GPM Core Observatory Ku-band Precipitation Radar (GPM-KuPR). In the comparison with TRMM-PR, over the African area the statistical analysis was carried out for a 2-year (2013-2014) dataset of coincident observations over a regular grid at 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. The results have shown a good agreement between PNPR v2 and TRMM-PR for the different surface types. The correlation coefficient (CC) was equal to 0.69 over ocean and 0.71 over vegetated land (lower values were obtained over arid land and coast), and the root mean squared error (RMSE) was equal to 1.30 mm h-1 over ocean and 1.11 mm h-1 over vegetated land. The results showed a

  7. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States. Seven Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  8. A Communication Network for Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jean; Cooley, William W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses application of microcomputer technology to educational research and describes the possible uses of computer networking for communication with colleagues. Focuses on the organization and structure of the Education Research Forum on CompuServe. Considers advantages and costs of networking in general and for the American Educational…

  9. ATM CMG bearing failure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The cause or causes for the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2) were investigated. Skylab telemetry data were reviewed and presented in the form of parameter distributions. The theory that the problems were caused by marginal bearing lubrication was studied along with the effects of orbital conditions on lubricants. Bearing tests were performed to investigate the effect of lubricant or lack of lubricant in the ATM CMG bearings and the dispersion and migration of the lubricant. The vacuum and weightless conditions of space were simulated in the bearing tests. Analysis of the results of the tests conducted points to inadequate lubrication as the predominant factor causing the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2).

  10. Collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macleod, Christopher Kit

    2015-04-01

    There is a need to improve the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge of catchment systems through networks of researchers, policy makers and practitioners. This requires greater levels of systems based integrative research. In parallel to the growing realization that greater levels of collaborative knowledge in scientific research networks are required, a digital revolution has been taking place. This has been driven primarily by the emergence of distributed networks of computers and standards-based interoperability. The objective of this paper is to present the status and research needs for greater levels of systems based integrative research for the production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. To enable increased levels of integrative research depends on development and application of digital technologies to improve collection, use and sharing of data and devise new knowledge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the requirements for catchment observatories that integrate existing and novel physical, social and digital networks of knowledge infrastructures. To support this focus, I present three leading international examples of collaborative networks of catchment researchers and their development of catchment observatories. In particular, the digital infrastructures they have developed to support collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks. These examples are from North America (NSF funded CUAHSI HIS) and from Europe (UK NERC funded EVOp and the German Helmholtz Association Centers funded TERENO/TEODOOR). These exemplars all supported advancing collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks through the development of catchment observatories. I will conclude by discussing the future research directions required for greater levels of production, sharing and use of collaborative knowledge in catchment research networks based on catchment systems science.

  11. Network science and oral health research.

    PubMed

    Maupome, Gerardo; McCranie, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The present overview of research methods describes a scientific enquiry paradigm that is well established in other disciplines, including health research, but that is fairly new to oral health research. Social networks analysis (SNA) or network science research is a set of relational methods purporting to identify and characterize the connections between members of a system or network, as well as the structure of the network. Persons and communities making up the members of networks have commonly been the focus of SNA studies but corporations or living organisms might just as well be organized in networks. SNA is grounded in both graphic imagery and computational models. SNA is based on the assumptions that features and structure of networks are amenable to characterization, that such information sheds light on the ways members of the network relate to each other (sharing information, diseases, norms, and so on), and that through these connections between members the overall network structure and characteristics are shaped. The overview resorts to examples specific to oral health themes and proposes a few general avenues for population-based research.

  12. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  13. Research Challenges for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melodia, Tommaso; Akyildiz, Ian F.

    This chapter discusses the state of the art and the major research challenges in architectures, algorithms, and protocols, for wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). These are networks of wirelessly interconnected smart devices designed and deployed to retrieve video and audio streams, still images, and scalar sensor data. First, applications and key factors influencing the design of WMSNs are discussed. Then, the existing solutions at the application, transport, network, link, and physical layers of the communication protocol stack are investigated. Finally, fundamental open research issues are discussed and future research trends in this area are outlined.

  14. Research Networks, Mentorship and Sustainability Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Nepal, M.; Shyamsundar, P.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, a majority of institutions are ill-equipped to undertake research on multi-disciplinary environmental problems, though these problems are increasing at a fast rate and connected to the region's poverty and growth objectives. In this context, the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE) tries to fill a research, training and knowledge gap by building skills in the area of Environment and Development Economics. In this paper, the authors argue that research networks contribute to the growth of sustainability knowledge through (a) knowledge creation, (b) knowledge transfer and (c) knowledge deepening. The paper tries to show the relationship between capacity building, mentorship and research scholarship. It demonstrates that researchers, by associating with the network and its multiple training and mentoring processes, are able to build skills, change curricula and deliver useful knowledge products. The paper discusses the need for interdisciplinary research and the challenges of bridging the gap between research outputs and policy reforms.

  15. Teacher Appraisal Research Networks 1980-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2001-01-01

    Legislation requiring site-based performance management in British schools gave rise to the development of practitioner research networks, in which instrumental performance appraisal has predominated over humanist and critical approaches. Even marginalized networks have involved important collaborations among teachers, higher education…

  16. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Kitta, Joseph P.

    1994-07-21

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  17. Network for Translational Research - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    Cooperative agreement (U54) awards to establish Specialized Research Resource Centers that will participate as members of a network of inter-disciplinary, inter-institutional research teams for the purpose of supporting translational research in optical imaging and/or spectroscopy in vivo, with an emphasis on multiple modalities.

  18. VELA Network Evaluation and Automatic Processing Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-31

    VELA NETWORK EVALUATION AND AUTOMATIC PROCESSING RESEARCH William H. Swindell Texas Instruments, Incorporated Prepared for: Air Force Technical...Incorporated Equipment Group Dallas, Texas 75222 CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Advanced Research Projects Agency Nuclear Monitor mg... RESEARCH 1. D D TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED Equipment Group Post Office Box 6015 Dallas, Texas 75222 Prepared for AIR FORCE TECHNICAL

  19. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    PubMed

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Using ATM over SATCOM links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comparetto, Gary M.

    1995-01-01

    The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) protocol is studied from the standpoint of determining what limitations, if any, exist in using it over satellite links. It is concluded that, while there is nothing intrinsic about ATM that would generally preclude its use over satellite links, there are, however, several intrinsic characteristics of satellite links, as well as some satellite system configuration-specific issues, that must be taken into account.

  1. Advances in neural networks research: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Bressler, Steven; Perlovsky, Leonid; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present Special Issue "Advances in Neural Networks Research: IJCNN2009" provides a state-of-art overview of the field of neural networks. It includes 39 papers from selected areas of the 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009). IJCNN2009 took place on June 14-19, 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and it represents an exemplary collaboration between the International Neural Networks Society and the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Topics in this issue include neuroscience and cognitive science, computational intelligence and machine learning, hybrid techniques, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, various soft computing technologies, intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition, bioinformatics and biomedicine, and engineering applications.

  2. Satellite-Terrestrial Network Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    The developing national and global information infrastructures (NII/GII) are being built upon the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) telecommunications protocol and associated protocol standards. These protocols are themselves under development through the telecommunications standards process defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which as a body is sanctioned by the United Nations. All telecommunications manufacturers use these standards to create products that can interoperate. The ITU has recognized the ATM Forum as the instrument for the development of ATM protocols. This forum is a consortium of industry, academia, and government entities formed to quickly develop standards for the ATM infrastructure. However, because the participants represent a predominately terrestrial network viewpoint, the use of satellites in the national and global information infrastructures could be severely compromised. Consequently, through an ongoing task order, the NASA Lewis Research Center asked Sterling Software, Inc., to communicate with the ATM Forum in support of the interoperability of satellite-terrestrial networks. This year, Dr. Raj Jain of the Ohio State University, under contract to Sterling, authored or coauthored 32 explanatory documents delivered to the ATM Forum in the areas of Guaranteed Frame Rate for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Available Bit Rate, performance testing, Variable Bit Rate voice over ATM, TCP over Unspecified Bit Rate+, Virtual Source/Virtual Destination, and network management. These contributions have had a significant impact on the content of the standards that the ATM Forum is developing. Some of the more significant accomplishments have been: (1) The adoption by the ATM Forum of a new definition for Message-In, Message-Out latency; and (2) Improved text (clearer wording and newly defined terms) for measurement procedures, foreground and background traffic, and scalable configuration in the

  3. Satellite-Terrestrial Network Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    The developing national and global information infrastructures (NII/GII) are being built upon the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) telecommunications protocol and associated protocol standards. These protocols are themselves under development through the telecommunications standards process defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which as a body is sanctioned by the United Nations. All telecommunications manufacturers use these standards to create products that can interoperate. The ITU has recognized the ATM Forum as the instrument for the development of ATM protocols. This forum is a consortium of industry, academia, and government entities formed to quickly develop standards for the ATM infrastructure. However, because the participants represent a predominately terrestrial network viewpoint, the use of satellites in the national and global information infrastructures could be severely compromised. Consequently, through an ongoing task order, the NASA Lewis Research Center asked Sterling Software, Inc., to communicate with the ATM Forum in support of the interoperability of satellite-terrestrial networks. This year, Dr. Raj Jain of the Ohio State University, under contract to Sterling, authored or coauthored 32 explanatory documents delivered to the ATM Forum in the areas of Guaranteed Frame Rate for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Available Bit Rate, performance testing, Variable Bit Rate voice over ATM, TCP over Unspecified Bit Rate+, Virtual Source/Virtual Destination, and network management. These contributions have had a significant impact on the content of the standards that the ATM Forum is developing. Some of the more significant accomplishments have been: (1) The adoption by the ATM Forum of a new definition for Message-In, Message-Out latency; and (2) Improved text (clearer wording and newly defined terms) for measurement procedures, foreground and background traffic, and scalable configuration in the

  4. Research into Queueing Network Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    aspects. Kleinrock [33] comments on this result, for example. In 1976, Burke [6] provided the first proof of some of what was occurring in the flow...server first passes through other servers (as for example in Jackson networks with loops) that item is delayed on its return. All current knowledge about...system simplification. A simplification is an operation on the system such that a new system is obtained subject to two requirements. First , the

  5. Evolving Research Data Sharing Networks to Clinical App Sharing Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B.; Jain, Rahul; Oliveira, Eliel; Mandel, Joshua; Klann, Jeffery; Colas, Ricardo; Patil, Prasad; Yadav, Kuladip; Mandl, Kenneth D.; Carton, Thomas; Murphy, Shawn N.

    2017-01-01

    Research networks for data sharing are growing into a large platform for pragmatic clinical trials to generate quality evidence for shared medical decision-making. Institutions partnering in the networks have made large investments in developing the infrastructure for sharing data. We investigate whether institutions partnering on Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute’s (PCORI) network can share clinical apps. At two different sites, we imported patient data in PCORI’s clinical data model (CDM) format into i2b2 repositories, and adapted the SMART-on-FHIR cell to perform CDM-to-FHIR translation, serving demographics, laboratory results and diagnoses. We performed manual validations and tested the platform using four apps from the SMART app gallery. Our study demonstrates an approach to extend the research infrastructure to allow the partnering institutions to run shared clinical apps, and highlights the involved challenges. Our results, tooling and publically accessible data service can potentially transform research networks into clinical app sharing networks and pave the way towards a learning health system. PMID:28815145

  6. Evolving Research Data Sharing Networks to Clinical App Sharing Networks.

    PubMed

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; Jain, Rahul; Oliveira, Eliel; Mandel, Joshua; Klann, Jeffery; Colas, Ricardo; Patil, Prasad; Yadav, Kuladip; Mandl, Kenneth D; Carton, Thomas; Murphy, Shawn N

    2017-01-01

    Research networks for data sharing are growing into a large platform for pragmatic clinical trials to generate quality evidence for shared medical decision-making. Institutions partnering in the networks have made large investments in developing the infrastructure for sharing data. We investigate whether institutions partnering on Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute's (PCORI) network can share clinical apps. At two different sites, we imported patient data in PCORI's clinical data model (CDM) format into i2b2 repositories, and adapted the SMART-on-FHIR cell to perform CDM-to-FHIR translation, serving demographics, laboratory results and diagnoses. We performed manual validations and tested the platform using four apps from the SMART app gallery. Our study demonstrates an approach to extend the research infrastructure to allow the partnering institutions to run shared clinical apps, and highlights the involved challenges. Our results, tooling and publically accessible data service can potentially transform research networks into clinical app sharing networks and pave the way towards a learning health system.

  7. A proposed international watershed research network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  8. Creatiing a Collaborative Research Network for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, W.

    2012-12-01

    This abstract proposes a discussion of how professional science communication and scientific cooperation can become more efficient through the use of modern social network technology, using the example of Mendeley. Mendeley is a research workflow and collaboration tool which crowdsources real-time research trend information and semantic annotations of research papers in a central data store, thereby creating a "social research network" that is emergent from the research data added to the platform. We describe how Mendeley's model can overcome barriers for collaboration by turning research papers into social objects, making academic data publicly available via an open API, and promoting more efficient collaboration. Central to the success of Mendeley has been the creation of a tool that works for the researcher without the requirement of being part of an explicit social network. Mendeley automatically extracts metadata from research papers, and allows a researcher to annotate, tag and organize their research collection. The tool integrates with the paper writing workflow and provides advanced collaboration options, thus significantly improving researchers' productivity. By anonymously aggregating usage data, Mendeley enables the emergence of social metrics and real-time usage stats on top of the articles' abstract metadata. In this way a social network of collaborators, and people genuinely interested in content, emerges. By building this research network around the article as the social object, a social layer of direct relevance to academia emerges. As science, particularly Earth sciences with their large shared resources, become more and more global, the management and coordination of research is more and more dependent on technology to support these distributed collaborations.

  9. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07270.001 PMID:26030852

  10. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, V.; Boden, Tom; Cowley, Dave; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Rob; Foster, Ian; Goldstone, Robin; Gregurick, Susan; Houghton, John; Izaurralde, Cesar; Johnston, Bill; Joseph, Renu; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin; Lipton, Mary; Monga, Inder; Pritchard, Matt; Rotman, Lauren; Strand, Gary; Stuart, Cory; Tatusova, Tatiana; Tierney, Brian; Thomas, Brian; Williams, Dean N.; Zurawski, Jason

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  11. Clinical Research: A Globalized Network

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Trevor A.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research has become increasingly globalized, but the extent of globalization has not been assessed. To describe the globalization of clinical research, we used all (n = 13,208) multinational trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov to analyzed geographic connections among individual countries. Our findings indicate that 95% (n = 185) of all countries worldwide have participated in multinational clinical research. Growth in the globalization of clinical research peaked in 2009, suggesting that the global infrastructure that supports clinical research might have reached its maximum capacity. Growth in the globalization of clinical research is attributable to increased involvement of non-traditional markets, particularly in South America and Asia. Nevertheless, Europe is the most highly interconnected geographic region (60.64% of global connections), and collectively, Europe, North America, and Asia comprise more than 85% of all global connections. Therefore, while the expansion of clinical trials into non-traditional markets has increased over the last 20 years and connects countries across the globe, traditional markets still dominate multinational clinical research, which appears to have reached a maximum global capacity. PMID:25517976

  12. The effects of mobile ATM switches on PNNI peer group operation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1997-04-01

    This contribution discusses why, and how, mobile networks and mobile switches might be discussed during Phase 1 of the WATM standards process. Next, it reviews mobile routers within Mobile IP. That IP mobility architecture may not apply to the proposed mobile ATM switches. Finally, it discusses problems with PNNI peer group formation and operation when mobile ATM switches are present.

  13. A Framework for Applying Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Technology to Command, Control and Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    available they can be implemented in ATM LANs by using different reserved signaling channels ( Biagioni , Cooper, and Sansom, 1993, p. 35). An argument...conference, San Francisco, California, 12-14 April 1994. Biagioni , E., Cooper, E. and Sansom, R., "Designing a Practical ATM LAN", IEEE Network, v. 7, March

  14. Tug of War between Survival and Death: Exploring ATM Function in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stagni, Venturina; Oropallo, Veronica; Fianco, Giulia; Antonelli, Martina; Cinà, Irene; Barilà, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is a one of the main guardian of genome stability and plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR). The deregulation of these pathways is strongly linked to cancer initiation and progression as well as to the development of therapeutic approaches. These observations, along with reports that identify ATM loss of function as an event that may promote tumor initiation and progression, point to ATM as a bona fide tumor suppressor. The identification of ATM as a positive modulator of several signalling networks that sustain tumorigenesis, including oxidative stress, hypoxia, receptor tyrosine kinase and AKT serine-threonine kinase activation, raise the question of whether ATM function in cancer may be more complex. This review aims to give a complete overview on the work of several labs that links ATM to the control of the balance between cell survival, proliferation and death in cancer. PMID:24681585

  15. Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... participate in research! Register Today For Patients and Families Find Patient Advocacy Groups The RDCRN Coalition of Patient Advocacy Groups (RDCRN-CPAG) represents the perspective and interests of all patient advocacy organizations associated ...

  16. Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

  17. Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

  18. ATM Coastal Topography-Mississippi, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS

  19. ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that

  20. Collaborative networks for both improvement and research.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Carolyn M; Margolis, Peter A; Miller, Marlene

    2013-06-01

    Moving significant therapeutic discoveries beyond early biomedical translation or T1 science and into practice involves: (1) T2 science, identifying "the right treatment for the right patient in the right way at the right time" (eg, patient-centered outcomes research) and tools to implement this knowledge (eg, guidelines, registries); and (2) T3 studies addressing how to achieve health care delivery change. Collaborative improvement networks can serve as large-scale, health system laboratories to engage clinicians, researchers, patients, and parents in testing approaches to translate research into practice. Improvement networks are of particular importance for pediatric T2 and T3 research, as evidence to establish safety and efficacy of therapeutic interventions in children is often lacking. Networks for improvement and research are also consistent with the Institute of Medicine's Learning Healthcare Systems model in which learning networks provide a system for improving care and outcomes and generate new knowledge in near real-time. Creation of total population registries in collaborative network sites provides large, representative study samples with high-quality data that can be used to generate evidence and to inform clinical decision-making. Networks use collaboration, data, and quality-improvement methods to standardize practice. Therefore, variation in outcomes due to unreliable and unnecessary care delivery is reduced, increasing statistical power, and allowing a consistent baseline from which to test new strategies. In addition, collaborative networks for improvement and research offer the opportunity to not only make improvements but also to study improvements to determine which interventions and combination of strategies work best in what settings.

  1. Sustaining Research Networks: the Twenty-Year Experience of the HMO Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, John F.; Paolino, Andrea R.; Thompson, Ella E.; Larson, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As multi-institutional research networks assume a central role in clinical research, they must address the challenge of sustainability. Despite its importance, the concept of network sustainability has received little attention in the literature, and the sustainability strategies of durable scientific networks have not been described. Innovation: The Health Maintenance Organization Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 18 research departments in integrated health care delivery systems with over 15 million members in the United States and Israel. The HMORN has coordinated federally funded scientific networks and studies since 1994. This case study describes the HMORN approach to sustainability, proposes an operational definition of network sustainability, and identifies 10 essential elements that can enhance sustainability. Credibility: The sustainability framework proposed here is drawn from prior publications on organizational issues by HMORN investigators and from the experience of recent HMORN leaders and senior staff. Conclusion and Discussion: Network sustainability can be defined as (1) the development and enhancement of shared research assets to facilitate a sequence of research studies in a specific content area or multiple areas, and (2) a community of researchers and other stakeholders who reuse and develop those assets. Essential elements needed to develop the shared assets of a network include: network governance; trustworthy data and processes for sharing data; shared knowledge about research tools; administrative efficiency; physical infrastructure; and infrastructure funding. The community of researchers within a network is enhanced by: a clearly defined mission, vision and values; protection of human subjects; a culture of collaboration; and strong relationships with host organizations. While the importance of these elements varies based on the membership and goals of a network, this framework for sustainability can enhance strategic

  2. The FIMP Medicines for Children Research Network

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The European Paediatric Regulation (EUPR) calls for the fostering of high quality ethical research and medicinal products to be used in children. The EUPR provides the background, goals, and requirements for paediatric clinical trials. Paediatric clinical trials in children are mandatory to generate data on new drugs as well as on drugs used off-label or for unlicensed indications. The Family Paediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network (FIMP-MCRN) was established in 2003 with the aim of developing competence, infrastructure, networking and education for paediatric clinical trials. The network, consisting of twenty Paediatric Regional Networks has progressed very well and has achieved valuable improvements concerning the conduct of paediatric clinical trials. Furthermore, ad hoc training programs have incremented knowledge about clinical trials in Family Paediatrician Investigators (FPI) and have made medical professionals as well as the public aware of the need and advantages of trials in children. PMID:20591168

  3. [The National Genome Research Network. Genome research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bickeböller, Heike

    2007-02-01

    In 2001 Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMFM) initiated the National Genome Research Network (NGFN). The goals of the NGFN are the investigation of the molecular basis of common diseases to improve new methods for prevention, diagnosis and therapy. The disease-oriented genome networks investigate cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diseases of the nervous system, diseases due to environmental factors and infection, and inflammation. They are supported by technological platforms and a component for technology transfer. The explicit aims include better integration of public health research and economy in order to gain an efficient economical and technological utilisation and application in community health. This article describes the creation of the NGFN in the context of international and national genome research, shows the structure and content of the NGFN and gives examples for NGFN research in networks on a highly, internationally recognised level.

  4. Asian Network of Research Resource Centers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee; Nam, Seungjoo; Jung, Paul E; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Lee, Yeonhee

    2016-10-01

    With the enactment of the Nagoya Protocol, biological resources are now increasingly considered as assets of an individual country, instead of as the common property of mankind. As worldwide interest for securing biological resources intensifies, research resource centers (RRCs), which collect, preserve, and provide resources and their information to academia and industries, are gathering more attention. The Asian Network of Research Resource Centers (ANRRC) strives for conservation and effective use of bioresources and their data by connecting resource centers of Asia, a continent with the greatest diversity of life. Since its foundation in 2009, the Network has significantly expanded to encompass 103 RRCs of 14 countries. Through the Network, member countries discuss opportunities for resource exchange and research collaboration and share biobanking information and regulations of different countries for international harmonization of resource management. ANRRC also contributes to developing of International Standards of biobanks and biological resources as a liaison to the International Organization for Standardization technical committee 276 Biotechnology.

  5. Photonic ATM Front End Processors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    b. PostDoc: Dr. Zhijian Zhang (1/2 time) and Dr. Liji Wu . (1/2 time) c. Graduate Student: Mr. S. H. Yang, (to be graduated at Dec. 1998) Circuit...Y. Chai, F. S. Choa, H. J. Chao, Z. Zhang, L. Wu , S. Yang, "A photonic ATM front-end processor", Proc. ECOC󈨦, paper TuB27, 1998. 6. H.J.Chao, Z...Zhang, L. Wu , S.H. Yang, F.S. Choa and L. Wang," A photonic ATM front-end processor", IEEE Proc. LEOS󈨦 Annual Meeting, paper WR3, 1998. 7. H. J. Chao

  6. Creating a national home visiting research network.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Anne; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Chaffin, Mark; Korfmacher, Jon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Crowne, Sarah; Filene, Jill; Gonsalves, Kay; Landsverk, John; Harwood, Robin

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting can play a key role in the early childhood system of services. For home visiting to achieve its potential, decision-makers must make informed choices regarding adoption, adaptation, coordination, scale-up, and sustainment. We need a coordinated, focused, and theory-based home visiting research infrastructure to inform such decisions. The transdisciplinary Home Visiting Research Network (HVRN) was established in July 2012 with funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration. Its goal is to promote the translation of research findings into policy and practice. Its objectives are to (1) develop a national home visiting research agenda, (2) advance the use of innovative research methods; and (3) provide a research environment that is supportive of the professional development of emerging researchers interested in home visiting. A Management Team designs and directs activities to achieve these objectives through Work Teams. A Steering Committee of national leaders representing stakeholder groups oversees progress. HVRN's Coordinating Center supports the Work Teams and HVRN's Home visiting Applied Research Collaborative, a practice-based research network of home visiting programs. This article describes HVRN's rationale, approach, and anticipated products. We use home visiting-primary care coordination as an illustration, noting potential roles for pediatric practices and pediatric researchers and research educators in HVRN activities. HVRN creates the infrastructure for a rigorous program of research to inform policy and practice on home visiting as part of the system of services to improve family functioning, parenting, and child outcomes.

  7. Bidirectional coupling of splicing and ATM signaling in response to transcription-blocking DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Tresini, Maria; Marteijn, Jurgen A.; Vermeulen, Wim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In response to DNA damage cells activate intricate protein networks to ensure genomic fidelity and tissue homeostasis. DNA damage response signaling pathways coordinate these networks and determine cellular fates, in part, by modulating RNA metabolism. Here we discuss a replication-independent pathway activated by transcription-blocking DNA lesions, which utilizes the ATM signaling kinase to regulate spliceosome function in a reciprocal manner. We present a model according to which, displacement of co-transcriptional spliceosomes from lesion-arrested RNA polymerases, culminates in R-loop formation and non-canonical ATM activation. ATM signals in a feed-forward fashion to further impede spliceosome organization and regulates UV-induced gene expression and alternative splicing genome-wide. This reciprocal coupling between ATM and the spliceosome highlights the importance of ATM signaling in the cellular response to transcription-blocking lesions and supports a key role of the splicing machinery in this process. PMID:26913497

  8. FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Jones, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Network performance evaluation; 2) traditional approaches; 3) software simulation; 4) hardware emulation; 5) test bed highlights; 6) design environment; 7) test bed architecture; 8) abstract sheared-memory switch; 9) detailed switch diagram; 10) traffic generator; 11) data collection circuit and user interface; 12) initial results; and 13) the following conclusions: Advances in FPGA make hardware emulation feasible for performance evaluation, hardware emulation can provide several orders of magnitude speed-up over software simulation; due to the complexity of hardware synthesis process, development in emulation is much more difficult than simulation and requires knowledge in both networks and digital design.

  9. ATM Quality of Service Parameters at 45 Mbps Using a Satellite Emulator: Laboratory Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Bobinsky, Eric A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of 45-Mbps DS3 intermediate-frequency loopback measurements of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service parameters (cell error ratio and cell loss ratio) are presented. These tests, which were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperability research, represent initial efforts to quantify the minimum parameters for stringent ATM applications, such as MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video transmission. Portions of these results were originally presented to the International Telecommunications Union's ITU-R Working Party 4B in February 1996 in support of their Draft Preliminary Recommendation on the Transmission of ATM Traffic via Satellite.

  10. [The German research network for mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Banaschewski, T; Heinz, A; Kamp-Becker, I; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Padberg, F; Rapp, M A; Rupprecht, R; Schneider, F; Schulze, T G; Wittchen, H-U

    2016-09-01

    Mental disorders are among the greatest medical and social challenges facing us. They can occur at all stages of life and are among the most important commonly occurring diseases. In Germany 28 % of the population suffer from a mental disorder every year, while the lifetime risk of suffering from a mental disorder is almost 50 %. Mental disorders cause great suffering for those affected and their social network. Quantitatively speaking, they can be considered to be among those diseases creating the greatest burden for society due to reduced productivity, absence from work and premature retirement. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research is funding a new research network from 2015 to 2019 with up to 35 million euros to investigate mental disorders in order to devise and develop better therapeutic measures and strategies for this population by means of basic and translational clinical research. This is the result of a competitive call for research proposals entitled research network for mental diseases. It is a nationwide network of nine consortia with up to ten psychiatric and clinical psychology partner institutions from largely university-based research facilities for adults and/or children and adolescents. Furthermore, three cross-consortia platform projects will seek to identify shared causes of diseases and new diagnostic modalities for anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHS), autism, bipolar disorders, depression, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders as well as substance-related and addictive disorders. The spectrum of therapeutic approaches to be examined ranges from innovative pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment to novel brain stimulation procedures. In light of the enormous burden such diseases represent for society as a whole, a sustainable improvement in the financial support for those researching mental disorders seems essential. This network aims to become a nucleus for long overdue and sustained

  11. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  12. Mobile phone signal exposure triggers a hormesis-like effect in Atm(+/+) and Atm(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuan; Wei, Xiaoxia; Fei, Yue; Su, Liling; Zhao, Xinyuan; Chen, Guangdi; Xu, Zhengping

    2016-11-18

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as possible carcinogens to humans; however, this conclusion is based on limited epidemiological findings and lacks solid support from experimental studies. In particular, there are no consistent data regarding the genotoxicity of RF-EMFs. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is recognised as a chief guardian of genomic stability. To address the debate on whether RF-EMFs are genotoxic, we compared the effects of 1,800 MHz RF-EMF exposure on genomic DNA in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with proficient (Atm(+/+)) or deficient (Atm(-/-)) ATM. In Atm(+/+) MEFs, RF-EMF exposure for 1 h at an average special absorption rate of 4.0 W/kg induced significant DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and activated the SSB repair mechanism. This effect reduced the DNA damage to less than that of the background level after 36 hours of exposure. In the Atm(-/-) MEFs, the same RF-EMF exposure for 12 h induced both SSBs and double-strand breaks and activated the two repair processes, which also reduced the DNA damage to less than the control level after prolonged exposure. The observed phenomenon is similar to the hormesis of a toxic substance at a low dose. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report a hormesis-like effect of an RF-EMF.

  13. ATM mediates spermidine-induced mitophagy via PINK1 and Parkin regulation in human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yongmei; Qiu, Qian; Gu, Xueyan; Tian, Yihong; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-01-01

    The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) protein has recently been proposed to play critical roles in the response to mitochondrial dysfunction by initiating mitophagy. Here, we have used ATM-proficient GM00637 cells and ATM-deficient GM05849 cells to investigate the mitophagic effect of spermidine and to elucidate the role of ATM in spermdine-induced mitophagy. Our results indicate that spermidine induces mitophagy by eliciting mitochondrial depolarization, which triggers the formation of mitophagosomes and mitolysosomes, thereby promoting the accumulation of PINK1 and translocation of Parkin to damaged mitochondria, finally leading to the decreased mitochondrial mass in GM00637 cells. However, in GM05849 cells or GM00637 cells pretreated with the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933, the expression of full-length PINK1 and the translocation of Parkin are blocked, and the colocalization of Parkin with either LC3 or PINK1 is disrupted. These results suggest that ATM drives the initiation of the mitophagic cascade. Our study demonstrates that spermidine induces mitophagy through ATM-dependent activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These findings underscore the importance of a mitophagy regulatory network of ATM and PINK1/Parkin and elucidate a novel mechanism by which ATM influences spermidine-induced mitophagy. PMID:27089984

  14. ATM mediates spermidine-induced mitophagy via PINK1 and Parkin regulation in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yongmei; Qiu, Qian; Gu, Xueyan; Tian, Yihong; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-04-19

    The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) protein has recently been proposed to play critical roles in the response to mitochondrial dysfunction by initiating mitophagy. Here, we have used ATM-proficient GM00637 cells and ATM-deficient GM05849 cells to investigate the mitophagic effect of spermidine and to elucidate the role of ATM in spermdine-induced mitophagy. Our results indicate that spermidine induces mitophagy by eliciting mitochondrial depolarization, which triggers the formation of mitophagosomes and mitolysosomes, thereby promoting the accumulation of PINK1 and translocation of Parkin to damaged mitochondria, finally leading to the decreased mitochondrial mass in GM00637 cells. However, in GM05849 cells or GM00637 cells pretreated with the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933, the expression of full-length PINK1 and the translocation of Parkin are blocked, and the colocalization of Parkin with either LC3 or PINK1 is disrupted. These results suggest that ATM drives the initiation of the mitophagic cascade. Our study demonstrates that spermidine induces mitophagy through ATM-dependent activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These findings underscore the importance of a mitophagy regulatory network of ATM and PINK1/Parkin and elucidate a novel mechanism by which ATM influences spermidine-induced mitophagy.

  15. [Progress of the ATM Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Activities for each of the following programs are discussed in separate sections for the bimonthly reporting period: Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL); Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM); Other Mission Support Activities, including modeling activities, EAARL activities, and the Scanning Radar Altimeter (SAR); Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The tasks undertaken for each program are discussed in the pertinent section of the report.

  16. [Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network (RECAVA)].

    PubMed

    García-Dorado, David; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier; Gabriel, Rafael; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan R; Ortiz de Landázuri, Manuel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Today, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death and hospitalization in Spain, and accounts for an annual healthcare budget of more than 4000 million euros. Consequently, early diagnosis, effective prevention, and the optimum treatment of cardiovascular disease present a significant social and healthcare challenge for the country. In this context, combining all available resources to increase the efficacy and healthcare benefits of scientific research is a priority. This rationale prompted the establishment of the Spanish Cooperative Cardiovascular Disease Research Network, or RECAVA (Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), 5 years ago. Since its foundation, RECAVA's activities have focused on achieving four objectives: a) to facilitate contacts between basic, clinical and epidemiological researchers; b) to promote the shared use of advanced technological facilities; c) to apply research results to clinical practice, and d) to train a new generation of translational cardiovascular researchers in Spain. At present, RECAVA consists of 41 research groups and seven shared technological facilities. RECAVA's research strategy is based on a scientific design matrix centered on the most important cardiovascular processes. The level of RECAVA's research activity is reflected in the fact that 28 co-authored articles were published in international journals during the first six months of 2007, with each involving contributions from at least two groups in the network. Finally, RECAVA also participates in the work of the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research, or CNIC (Centro Nacional de Investigación Cardiovascular), and some established Biomedical Research Network Centers, or CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en RED), with the aim of consolidating the development of a dynamic multidisciplinary research framework that is capable of meeting the growing challenge that cardiovascular disease will present

  17. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  18. Molecular Imaging of the ATM Kinase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Terence M.; Nyati, Shyam; Ross, Brian D.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including from DNA double-strand breaks. ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. We sought to create a bioluminescent reporter that dynamically and noninvasively measures ATM kinase activity in living cells and subjects. Methods and Materials: Using the split luciferase technology, we constructed a hybrid cDNA, ATM-reporter (ATMR), coding for a protein that quantitatively reports on changes in ATM kinase activity through changes in bioluminescence. Results: Treatment of ATMR-expressing cells with ATM inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent increase in bioluminescence activity. In contrast, induction of ATM kinase activity upon irradiation resulted in a decrease in reporter activity that correlated with ATM and Chk2 activation by immunoblotting in a time-dependent fashion. Nuclear targeting improved ATMR sensitivity to both ATM inhibitors and radiation, whereas a mutant ATMR (lacking the target phosphorylation site) displayed a muted response. Treatment with ATM inhibitors and small interfering (si)RNA-targeted knockdown of ATM confirm the specificity of the reporter. Using reporter expressing xenografted tumors demonstrated the ability of ATMR to report in ATM activity in mouse models that correlated in a time-dependent fashion with changes in Chk2 activity. Conclusions: We describe the development and validation of a novel, specific, noninvasive bioluminescent reporter that enables monitoring of ATM activity in real time, in vitro and in vivo. Potential applications of this reporter include the identification and development of novel ATM inhibitors or ATM-interacting partners through high-throughput screens and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of ATM inhibitors in preclinical models.

  19. Exploring Practice-Research Networks for Critical Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Yvon; Hillier, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution that practice-research networks can make to support critical professional development in the Learning and Skills sector in England. By practice-research networks we mean groups or networks which maintain a connection between research and professional practice. These networks stem from the philosophy of…

  20. Poland-AOD aerosol research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna; Markowicz, Krzysztof

    2017-04-01

    Poland-AOD research network (www.polandaod.pl) was formed in 2011. It is a consortium of Polish institutions that are involved in studies of the atmospheric aerosol impact on the climate system. In 2016 the Poland-AOD network comprised of five stations: Radiative Transfer Laboratory, University of Warsaw (urban station), the research station of the Institute of Oceanology, in Sopot (coastal station), Radiative Transfer Station SolarAOT in Strzyzow (background station in the Carpathian mountains), Meteorology and Climatology Observatory at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (urban station), and the Research station in Rzecin at Poznan University of Life Sciences (rural station). The primary goal of the network is to carry out measurements of aerosol single scattering properties, radiation budget, simulate radiative transfer and aerosol transport, validate aerosol transport and transformation models such as NAAPS and GEM-AQ, as well as carry out instrument calibration and intercomparison. We will present observations of aerosol properties collected by the network as well as results from the GEM-AQ model simulations for selected episodes of biomass burning and urban aerosol.

  1. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems

    PubMed Central

    SCHLEYER, TITUS; BUTLER, BRIAN S.; SONG, MEI; SPALLEK, HEIKO

    2013-01-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers’ need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators’ desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user’s primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  2. The long term agroecosystem research network - shared research strategy

    Treesearch

    Jean L. Steiner; Timothy Strickland; Peter J.A. Kleinman; Kris Havstad; Thomas B. Moorman; M.Susan Moran; Phil Hellman; Ray B. Bryant; David Huggins; Greg McCarty

    2016-01-01

    While current weather patterns and rapidly accelerated changes in technology often focus attention on short-term trends in agriculture, the fundamental demands on modern agriculture to meet society food, feed, fuel and fiber production while providing the foundation for a healthy environment requires long-term perspective. The Long- Term Agroecoystem Research Network...

  3. National Research Networks Facilitate Mutually Beneficial Research at ARS Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Fellows, A.; Kormos, P.; Lohse, K. A.; Marks, D. G.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    A major benefit of participation in research networks such as the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is that multidisciplinary research on a broad range of topics is facilitated. The interaction between the Agricultural Research Service long-term experimental watersheds and LTAR exemplifies this. At the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW), this is further enhanced by participation in the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network. The RCEW has a long history (55 years) of experimentation, modeling and monitoring emphasizing hydrologic processes, which are inevitably related to biogeochemical processes, but rarely linked directly in RCEW research. New research with the Reynolds Creek CZO (RC CZO) emphasizes biogeochemistry. The background research and infrastructure at the RCEW provides an ideal platform for that research. At the same time, RC CZO products are enabling ARS to extend its research activities. We highlight three examples: (i) forcing data sets used to facilitate physical modeling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, (ii) linkage of hydrology and geophyscis to extend our understanding of subsurface processes, and (iii) climate/elevation linkages to ecosystem productivity, which are closely related in water limited environments such as the RCEW. The addition of the RCEW to the LTAR is further extended ARS capabilities. For example, the RCEW is now monitoring net carbon balance and productivity at sites along an elevation/climatic gradient. The addition of LTAR research enhances that work by extending the climate gradient and introducing management and land surface change effects. We anticipate that these interactions will grow and that cross-site experiments will be initiated as the results begin to accumulate.

  4. Research Networks and Technology Migration (RESNETSII)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    Angeles (California) ucsc University of California at Santa Cruz (California) udel University of Delaware (Delaware) Some of the research...UC Santa Cruz , UCLA Multicast-based Inference of Network-internal Characteristics (MINC) multicast-based estimators of the origins of...Measurements by Laser Techniques," Italian Assn. for Laser Velocimetry, Ancona , Italy, 18-21 June 2002 7 Yima: A Second Generation Continuous Media

  5. The Evolution of the Personal Networks of Novice Librarian Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marie R.; Kennedy, David P.; Brancolini, Kristine R.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes for the first time the composition and structure of the personal networks of novice librarian researchers. We used social network analysis to observe if participating in the Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL) affected the development of the librarians' personal networks and how the networks changed over…

  6. The Evolution of the Personal Networks of Novice Librarian Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marie R.; Kennedy, David P.; Brancolini, Kristine R.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes for the first time the composition and structure of the personal networks of novice librarian researchers. We used social network analysis to observe if participating in the Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL) affected the development of the librarians' personal networks and how the networks changed over…

  7. ATM and GLUT1-S490 Phosphorylation Regulate GLUT1 Mediated Transport in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Andrisse, Stanley; Patel, Gaytri D.; Chen, Joseph E.; Webber, Andrea M.; Spears, Larry D.; Koehler, Rikki M.; Robinson-Hill, Rona M.; Ching, James K.; Jeong, Imju; Fisher, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The glucose and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) transporter GLUT1 contains a phosphorylation site, S490, for ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). The objective of this study was to determine whether ATM and GLUT1-S490 regulate GLUT1. Research Design and Methods L6 myoblasts and mouse skeletal muscles were used to study the effects of ATM inhibition, ATM activation, and S490 mutation on GLUT1 localization, trafficking, and transport activity. Results In myoblasts, inhibition of ATM significantly diminished cell surface GLUT1, glucose and DHA transport, GLUT1 externalization, and association of GLUT1 with Gα-interacting protein-interacting protein, C-terminus (GIPC1), which has been implicated in recycling of endosomal proteins. In contrast, ATM activation by doxorubicin (DXR) increased DHA transport, cell surface GLUT1, and the GLUT1/GIPC1 association. S490A mutation decreased glucose and DHA transport, cell surface GLUT1, and interaction of GLUT1 with GIPC1, while S490D mutation increased transport, cell surface GLUT1, and the GLUT1/GIPC1 interaction. ATM dysfunction or ATM inhibition reduced DHA transport in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles and decreased glucose transport in EDL and soleus. In contrast, DXR increased DHA transport in EDL. Conclusions These results provide evidence that ATM and GLUT1-S490 promote cell surface GLUT1 and GLUT1-mediated transport in skeletal muscle associated with upregulation of the GLUT1/GIPC1 interaction. PMID:23776597

  8. Cytoplasmic ATM in neurons modulates synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiali; Han, Yu R; Plummer, Mark R; Herrup, Karl

    2009-12-29

    ATM is a PI 3-kinase involved in DNA double-strand break repair. ATM deficiency leads to ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a syndrome of cancer susceptibility, hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, immune deficiency, and sterility [1, 2]-phenotypes that can straightforwardly be attributed to a defective response to DNA damage. Yet patients with A-T also suffer from ataxia, speech defects, and abnormal body movements [3-5]-neurological phenotypes whose origins remain largely unexplained. Compounding the discordance, Atm mutations in mouse interfere with DNA repair but have only mild neurological symptoms [6-9], suggesting that the link between DNA damage and the death of neurons can be broken [10-12]. We find that in neurons, ATM protein has a substantial cytoplasmic distribution. We show that in Atm(tm1Awb) mice, hippocampal long-term potentiation is significantly reduced, as is the rate of spontaneous vesicular dye release, suggesting a functional importance of cytoplasmic ATM. In the cytoplasm, ATM forms a complex with two synaptic vesicle proteins, VAMP2 and synapsin-I, both of which must be phosphorylated to bind ATM. Also, cytoplasmic ATM physically associates with the homologous PI 3-kinase, ATR. The neurological symptoms of ataxia-telangiectasia may thus result from defective nonnuclear functions of ATM not associated with DNA repair.

  9. Reaching Out: IDRC-HDFS Research Network (India). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraswathi, T. S.; And Others

    This report documents the activities of the Research Network, a coordinated effort of the International Development Research Center (IDRC) and the Human Development and Family Studies (HDFS) Department of Baroda University (India) during the period January 1990 to June 1993. The Research Network aimed to establish a network of consultative…

  10. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  11. ATM protein and p53-serine 15 phosphorylation in ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patients and at heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Delia, D; Mizutani, S; Panigone, S; Tagliabue, E; Fontanella, E; Asada, M; Yamada, T; Taya, Y; Prudente, S; Saviozzi, S; Frati, L; Pierotti, M A; Chessa, L

    2000-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) gene plays a central role in the DNA-damage response pathway. We characterized the ATM protein expression in immortalized cells from AT and AT-variant patients, and heterozygotes and correlated it with two ATM-dependent radiation responses, G1 checkpoint arrest and p53-Ser 15 phosphorylation. On Western blots, the full-length ATM protein was detected in eight of 18 AT cases, albeit at 1–32% of the normal levels, whereas a truncated ATM protein was detected in a single case, despite the prevalence among cases of truncation mutations. Of two ataxia without telangiectasia [A-(T)] cases, one expressed 20% and the other ~70% of the normal ATM levels. Noteworthy, among ten asymptomatic heterozygous carriers for AT, normal amounts of ATM protein were found in one and reduced by 40–50% in the remaining cases. The radiation-induced phosphorylation of p53 protein at serine 15, largely mediated by ATM kinase, was defective in AT, A(-T) and in 2/4 heterozygous carriers, while the G1 cell cycle checkpoint was disrupted in all AT and A(-T) cases, and in 3/10 AT heterozygotes. Altogether, our study shows that AT and A(-T) cases bearing truncation mutations of the ATM gene can produce modest amounts of full-length (and only rarely truncated) ATM protein. However, this limited expression of ATM protein provides no benefit regarding the ATM-dependent responses related to G1 arrest and p53-ser15 phosphorylation. Our study additionally shows that the majority of AT heterozygotes express almost halved levels of ATM protein, sufficient in most cases to normally regulate the ATM-dependent DNA damage-response pathway. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864201

  12. Social networks of old people in India: research and policy.

    PubMed

    van Willigen, John; Chadha, N K

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the available research on the social networks of older persons in India. Most of this research has been done in North Indian cities. The research foci of the available studies include network size, core networks and beyond, life course changes in networks, impacts of residency in old-age homes, gender differences, and joint and nuclear family residence. This research is discussed in terms of its policy implications. Because the research demonstrates that social networks are important for the welfare of older Indians, one can conclude that social policy that encourages the maintenance of robust networks throughout the life course may be worth pursuing. One aspect of policy is discussed. The analysis of the relationship between social network and gender suggests that current policies that can be seen as supporting gender inequality in terms of property may have a negative impact on the networks of older women.

  13. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Malware Distribution Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Malware Distribution Networks Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Malware Distribution Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Project Description Create an approach to graph the topological structure of a domain name based malware distribution network (MDN) by leveraging

  14. Induction into Educational Research Networks: The Striated and the Smooth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Naomi; Standish, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Educational research as an academic field can be understood as a network or group of networks and, therefore, to consist of interconnected nodes that structure the way the field operates and understands its purpose. This paper deals with the nature of the induction of postgraduate students into the network of educational research that takes place…

  15. ATM deficiency generating genomic instability sensitizes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells to therapy-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Perkhofer, Lukas; Schmitt, Anna; Romero Carrasco, Maria Carolina; Ihle, Michaela; Hampp, Stephanie; Ruess, Dietrich Alexander; Hessmann, Elisabeth; Russell, Ronan; Lechel, André; Azoitei, Ninel; Lin, Qiong; Liebau, Stefan; Hohwieler, Meike; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Lesina, Marina; Algül, Hana; Gieldon, Laura; Schröck, Evelin; Gaedcke, Jochen; Wagner, Martin; Wiesmüller, Lisa; Sipos, Bence; Seufferlein, Thomas; Reinhardt, Hans Christian; Frappart, Pierre-Olivier; Kleger, Alexander

    2017-08-08

    Pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDAC) harbour recurrent functional mutations of the master DNA damage response kinase ATM which has been shown to accelerate tumorigenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To study how ATM deficiency affects genome integrity in this setting, we evaluated the molecular and functional effects of conditional Atm deletion in a mouse model of PDAC. ATM deficiency was associated with increased mitotic defects, recurrent genomic rearrangements and deregulated DNA integrity checkpoints, reminiscent of human PDAC. We hypothesized that altered genome integrity might allow synthetic lethality-based options for targeted therapeutic intervention. Supporting this possibility, we found that the PARP inhibitor olaparib or ATR inhibitors reduced the viability of PDAC cells in vitro and in vivo associated with a genotype-selective increase in apoptosis. Overall, our results offered a preclinical mechanistic rationale for the use of PARP and ATR inhibitors to improve treatment of ATM-mutant PDAC. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  17. Connecting the Dots: Understanding the Flow of Research Knowledge within a Research Brokering Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Networks are frequently cited as an important knowledge mobilization strategy; however, there is little empirical research that considers how they connect research and practice. Taking a social network perspective, I explore how central office personnel find, understand and share research knowledge within a research brokering network. This mixed…

  18. Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon Research Coordination Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuur, E. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Canadell, J.; Harden, J. W.; Kuhry, P.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Schädel, C.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 1700 Pg (billion tons) of soil carbon are stored in the northern circumpolar permafrost zone, more than twice as much carbon than currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw, and the microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon, is considered one of the most likely positive feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a warmer world. Yet, the rate and form of release is highly uncertain but crucial for predicting the strength and timing of this carbon cycle feedback this century and beyond. Here we report on the formation of a new research coordination network (RCN) whose objective is to link biological C cycle research with well-developed networks in the physical sciences focused on the thermal state of permafrost. We found that published literature in the Science Citation Index identified with the search terms 'permafrost' and 'carbon' have increased dramatically in the last decade. Of total publications including those keywords, 86% were published since 2000, 65% since 2005, and 36% since 2008. Interconnection through this RCN is designed to produce new knowledge through research synthesis that can be used to quantify the role of permafrost carbon in driving climate change in the 21st century and beyond. An expert elicitation conducted as part of the RCN activities revealed that the total effect of carbon release from permafrost zone soils on climate is expected to be up to 30-46 Pg C over the next three decades, reaching 242-324 Pg C by 2100 and potentially up to 551-710 Pg C over the next several centuries under the strongest warming scenario presented to the group. These values, expressed in billions of tons of C in CO2 equivalents, combine the effect of C released both as CO2 and as CH4 by accounting for the greater heat-trapping capacity of CH4. Much of the actual C release by weight is expected to be in the form of CO2, with only about 3.5% of that in the form of CH4. However, the higher global warming

  19. Research in Satellite-Fiber Network Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, Burt

    1997-01-01

    This four part report evaluated the performance of high data rate transmission links using the ACTS satellite, and to provide a preparatory test framework for two of the space science applications that have been approved for tests and demonstrations as part of the overall ACTS program. The test plan will provide guidance and information necessary to find the optimal values of the transmission parameters and then apply these parameters to specific applications. The first part will focus on the satellite-to-earth link. The second part is a set of tests to study the performance of ATM on the ACTS channel. The third and fourth parts of the test plan will cover the space science applications, Global Climate Modeling and Keck Telescope Acquisition Modeling and Control.

  20. The APA and the rise of pediatric generalist network research.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Richard; Serwint, Janet R; Kuppermann, Nathan; Srivastava, Rajendu; Dreyer, Benard

    2011-01-01

    The Academic Pediatric Association (APA, formerly the Ambulatory Pediatric Association) first encouraged multi-institutional collaborative research among its members over 30 years ago. Individual APA members subsequently went on to figure prominently in establishing formal research networks. These enduring collaborations have been established to conduct investigations in a variety of generalist contexts. At present, 4 generalist networks--Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS), the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN), the COntinuity Research NETwork (CORNET), and Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS)--have a track record of extensive achievement in generating new knowledge aimed at improving the health and health care of children. This review details the history, accomplishments, and future directions of these networks and summarizes the common themes, strengths, challenges, and opportunities inherent in pediatric generalist network research. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent Themes in Social Networking Service Research

    PubMed Central

    Liu, John S.; Ho, Mei Hsiu-Ching; Lu, Louis Y. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The body of literature addressing the phenomenon related to social networking services (SNSs) has grown rather fast recently. Through a systematic and quantitative approach, this study identifies the recent SNS research themes, which are the issues discussed by a coherent and growing subset of this literature. A set of academic articles retrieved from the Web of Science database is used as the basis for uncovering the recent themes. We begin the analysis by constructing a citation network which is further separated into groups after applying a widely used clustering method. The resulting clusters all consist of articles coherent in citation relationships. This study suggests eight fast growing recent themes. They span widely encompassing politics, romantic relationships, public relations, journalism, and health. Among them, four focus their issues largely on Twitter, three on Facebook, and one generally on both. While discussions on traditional issues in SNSs such as personality, motivations, self-disclosure, narcissism, etc. continue to lead the pack, the proliferation of the highlighted recent themes in the near future is very likely to happen. PMID:28107541

  2. Action Research Networks: Role and Purpose in the Evaluation of Research Outcomes and Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zornes, Deborah; Ferkins, Lesley; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about networks in action research (AR) and to consider their role, purpose, and how networks' outcomes and impacts might be evaluated. Networks are often a by-product of AR projects, yet research focused on the network itself as part of a project is rare. The paper is one of several associated with the…

  3. Action Research Networks: Role and Purpose in the Evaluation of Research Outcomes and Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zornes, Deborah; Ferkins, Lesley; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about networks in action research (AR) and to consider their role, purpose, and how networks' outcomes and impacts might be evaluated. Networks are often a by-product of AR projects, yet research focused on the network itself as part of a project is rare. The paper is one of several associated with the…

  4. Structure of the human dimeric ATM kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wilson C. Y.; Li, Yinyin; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Qinfen; Huen, Michael S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA-double strand breaks activate the serine/threonine protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to initiate DNA damage signal transduction. This activation process involves autophosphorylation and dissociation of inert ATM dimers into monomers that are catalytically active. Using single-particle electron microscopy (EM), we determined the structure of dimeric ATM in its resting state. The EM map could accommodate the crystal structure of the N-terminal truncated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a closely related enzyme of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family, allowing for the localization of the N- and the C-terminal regions of ATM. In the dimeric structure, the actives sites are buried, restricting the access of the substrates to these sites. The unanticipated domain organization of ATM provides a basis for understanding its mechanism of inhibition. PMID:27097373

  5. Vulnerability of permafrost carbon research coordination network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädel, C.; Schuur, E. A. G.; McGuire, A. D.; Canadell, J. G.; Harden, J.; Kuhry, P.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 1700 Pg of soil carbon are stored in the northern circumpolar permafrost zone, more than twice as much carbon than currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw, and the microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon, is considered one of the most likely positive feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a warmer world. Yet, the rate and form of release is highly uncertain but crucial for predicting the strength and timing of this carbon cycle feedback this century and beyond. Here we report on the first products of a new research coordination network (RCN) whose objective is to link biological C cycle research with well-developed networks in the physical sciences focused on the thermal state of permafrost. We found that published literature in the Science Citation Index identified with the search terms 'permafrost' and 'carbon' have increased dramatically in the last decade. Of total publications including those keywords, 86% were published since 2000, 65% since 2005, and 36% since 2008. The first RCN activity consisted of an expert elicitation that revealed the total effect of carbon release from permafrost zone soils in climate is expected to be up to 30-46 Pg C over the next three decades, reaching 242-324 Pg C by 2100 and potentially up to 551-710 Pg C over the next several centuries under the strongest warming scenario presented to the group. These values, expressed in billions of tons of C in CO2 equivalents, combine the effect of C released both as CO2 and as CH4 by accounting for the greater heat-trapping capacity of CH4. However, the higher global warming potential of CH4 means that almost half of the effect of future permafrost zone carbon emissions on climate forcing was expected by this group to be a result of CH4 emissions from wetlands, lakes, and other oxygen-limited environments where organic matter will be decomposing. These results demonstrate the vulnerability of organic C stored in near

  6. The APA and the Rise of Pediatric Generalist Network Research

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Richard; Serwint, Janet R.; Kuppermann, Nathan; Srivastava, Rajendu; Dreyer, Benard

    2010-01-01

    The Academic Pediatric Association (APA – formerly the Ambulatory Pediatric Association) first encouraged multi-institutional collaborative research among its members over thirty years ago. Individual APA members went on subsequently to figure prominently in establishing formal research networks. These enduring collaborations have been established to conduct investigations in a variety of generalist contexts. At present, four generalist networks – Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS), the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Network (PECARN), the COntinuity Research NETwork (CORNET), and Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) – have a track record of extensive achievement in generating new knowledge aimed at improving the health and health care of children. This review details the history, accomplishments, and future directions of these networks and summarizes the common themes, strengths, challenges and opportunities inherent in pediatric generalist network research. PMID:21282083

  7. The ATM Kinase Induces MicroRNA Biogenesis in the DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinna; Wan, Guohui; Berger, Franklin G.; He, Xiaoming; Lu, Xiongbin

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The DNA damage response involves a complex network of processes that detect and repair DNA damage. Here we show that miRNA biogenesis is globally induced upon DNA damage in an ATM-dependent manner. About one fourth of miRNAs are significantly up-regulated after DNA damage, while loss of ATM abolishes their induction. KSRP (KH-type splicing regulatory protein) is a key player that translates DNA damage signaling to miRNA biogenesis. The ATM kinase directly binds to and phosphorylates KSRP, leading to enhanced interaction between KSRP and pri-miRNAs and increased KSRP activity in miRNA processing. Mutations of the ATM phosphorylation sites of KSRP impaired its activity in regulating miRNAs. These findings reveal a mechanism by which DNA damage signaling is linked to miRNA biogenesis. PMID:21329876

  8. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Modeling Collaboration for Community Impact.

    PubMed

    Belza, Basia; Altpeter, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-03-01

    As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships. For the 2001-2014 Prevention Research Center funding cycles, the Healthy Aging Research Network conducted prevention research and promoted the wide use of practices known to foster optimal health. Organized around components necessary for successful collaborations (i.e., governance and infrastructure, shaping focus, community involvement, and evaluation and improvement), this commentary highlights exemplars that demonstrate the Healthy Aging Research Network's unique contributions to the field. The Healthy Aging Research Network's collaboration provided a means to collectively build capacity for practice and policy, reduce fragmentation and duplication in health promotion and aging research efforts, maximize the efficient use of existing resources and generate additional resources, and ultimately, create synergies for advancing the healthy aging agenda. This collaborative model was built upon a backbone organization (coordinating center); setting of common agendas and mutually reinforcing activities; and continuous communications. Given its successes, the Healthy Aging Research Network model could be used to create new and evaluate existing thematic networks to guide the translation of research into policy and practice.

  9. Analysis of CrIS-ATMS Data Using an AIRS Science Team Version 6 - Like Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.

    2013-01-01

    CrIS/ATMS is flying on NPP and is scheduled to fly on JPSS-1. CrIS/ATMS has roughly equivalent capabilities to AIRS/AMSU. The AIRS Science Team Version 6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing very high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDR's) that will be critical for understanding climate processes AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrIS/ATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRS AMSU. I have been asked by Ramesh Kakar if CrIS/ATMS can be counted on to adequately continue the AIRS/AMSU CDRs beyond 2020, or is something better needed? This research is being done to answer that question. A minimum requirement to obtain a yes answer is that CrIS/ATMS be analyzed using an AIRS Version 6 - like algorithm. NOAA is currently generating CrIS/ATMS products using 2 algorithms: IDPS and NUCAPS

  10. Enabling collaborative research using the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN)

    PubMed Central

    Ambite, Jose Luis; Ames, Joseph; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Burns, Gully; Chervenak, Ann L; Foster, Ian; Liming, Lee; Keator, David; Macciardi, Fabio; Madduri, Ravi; Navarro, John-Paul; Potkin, Steven; Rosen, Bruce; Ruffins, Seth; Schuler, Robert; Turner, Jessica A; Toga, Arthur; Williams, Christina; Kesselman, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Objective As biomedical technology becomes increasingly sophisticated, researchers can probe ever more subtle effects with the added requirement that the investigation of small effects often requires the acquisition of large amounts of data. In biomedicine, these data are often acquired at, and later shared between, multiple sites. There are both technological and sociological hurdles to be overcome for data to be passed between researchers and later made accessible to the larger scientific community. The goal of the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) is to address the challenges inherent in biomedical data sharing. Materials and methods BIRN tools are grouped into ‘capabilities’ and are available in the areas of data management, data security, information integration, and knowledge engineering. BIRN has a user-driven focus and employs a layered architectural approach that promotes reuse of infrastructure. BIRN tools are designed to be modular and therefore can work with pre-existing tools. BIRN users can choose the capabilities most useful for their application, while not having to ensure that their project conforms to a monolithic architecture. Results BIRN has implemented a new software-based data-sharing infrastructure that has been put to use in many different domains within biomedicine. BIRN is actively involved in outreach to the broader biomedical community to form working partnerships. Conclusion BIRN's mission is to provide capabilities and services related to data sharing to the biomedical research community. It does this by forming partnerships and solving specific, user-driven problems whose solutions are then available for use by other groups. PMID:21515543

  11. Genomic organization of the ATM gene

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, T.; Savitsky, K.; Platzer, M.; Rosenthal, A.

    1996-04-15

    The ATM gene was recently identified and found to be responsible for the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. The major ATM transcript is 13 kb. Using long-distance PCR, we determined the genomic structure of this gene and identified all of its exon-intron boundaries. The ATM gene spans approximately 150 kb of genomic DNA and consists of 66 exons. The initiation codon falls within exon 4. The last exon is 3.8 kb and contains the stop codon and a 3{prime}-untranslated region of about 3600 nucleotides. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A mixed-methods study of research dissemination across practice-based research networks.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Paula Darby; Lange, Carol J; Cohen, Rachel A; Peterson, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    Practice-based research networks may be expanding beyond research into rapid learning systems. This mixed-methods study uses Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality registry data to identify networks currently engaged in dissemination of research findings and to select a sample to participate in qualitative semistructured interviews. An adapted Diffusion of Innovations framework was used to organize concepts by characteristics of networks, dissemination activities, and mechanisms for rapid learning. Six regional networks provided detailed information about dissemination strategies, organizational context, role of practice-based research network, member involvement, and practice incentives. Strategies compatible with current practices and learning innovations that generate observable improvements may increase effectiveness of rapid learning approaches.

  13. The Security Research of Digital Library Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Song, Ding-Li; Yan, Shu

    Digital library is a self-development needs for the modern library to meet the development requirements of the times, changing the way services and so on. digital library from the hardware, technology, management and other aspects to objective analysis of the factors of threats to digital library network security. We should face up the problems of digital library network security: digital library network hardware are "not hard", the technology of digital library is relatively lag, digital library management system is imperfect and other problems; the government should take active measures to ensure that the library funding, to enhance the level of network hardware, to upgrade LAN and prevention technology, to improve network control technology, network monitoring technology; to strengthen safety management concepts, to prefect the safety management system; and to improve the level of security management modernization for digital library.

  14. EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Comerón, A.; Mona, L.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Baldasano, J. M.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Fernández, A. J.; Fréville, P.; García-Vizcaíno, D.; Giunta, A.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Haefele, A.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Mattis, I.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz Porcar, C.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Nicolae, D.; Nisantzi, A.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Papayannis, A.; Pereira, S.; Preißler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Rizi, V.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Simeonov, V.; Tsaknakis, G.; Wagner, F.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-11-01

    In the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure Network) summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June-17 July 2012), EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated in the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time, the single calculus chain (SCC) - the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products - was used. All stations sent in real-time measurements of a 1 h duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC, while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 79 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on the lidar data. The paper draws present and future SCC users' attention to the most critical parameters of the SCC product configuration and their possible optimal value but also to the limitations inherent to the raw data. The continuous use of SCC direct and derived products in heterogeneous conditions is used to demonstrate two potential applications of EARLINET infrastructure: the monitoring of a Saharan dust intrusion event and the evaluation of two dust transport models. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modeling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.

  15. Transputer-based architecture for ATM LAN protocol testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Concetto, M.; Crocetti, P.; Marino, G.; Merli, E.; Pavesi, M.; Zizza, F.

    1993-10-01

    Local Area Networks (LANs) have completed two generations of development (Ethernet and Token Ring the first, and FDDI and DQDB the second); the large volumes of traffic involved in the emerging multimedia applications, however, lead towards a third generation of LANs. This generation must provide real-time capabilities needed by new services and solve the problems of interworking with ATM-based B-ISDN. Moreover the possibility to vary the subscribed bandwidth with the B-ISDN will be given to the LAN interfaces. This paper focuses on an architecture for protocol testing of a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Protocol inserted in a LAN environment based on ATM technology. In fact, the technology of the third LAN generation will be the Asynchronous Transfer Mode solving every interface problem with the public B-ISDN. A testing and debugging environment which checks the implementation of the Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Protocol at the interface host/LAN- ATM is discussed. The main concepts of the overall system architecture are analyzed, evidencing both software and hardware issues.

  16. ALEPH: Israel's Research Library Network: Background, Evolution, and Implications for Networking in a Small Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    1991-01-01

    Describes ALEPH, the research library network in Israel, and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of its decentralized structure. Highlights include comparisons between RLIN and ALEPH; centralized versus decentralized networks; the format of ALEPH; authority control in ALEPH; and non-Roman scripts in both networks. (16 references) (LRW)

  17. Contrast research of CDMA and GSM network optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanwen; Liu, Zehong; Zhou, Guangyue

    2004-03-01

    With the development of mobile telecommunication network, users of CDMA advanced their request of network service quality. While the operators also change their network management object from signal coverage to performance improvement. In that case, reasonably layout & optimization of mobile telecommunication network, reasonably configuration of network resource, improvement of the service quality, and increase the enterprise's core competition ability, all those have been concerned by the operator companies. This paper firstly looked into the flow of CDMA network optimization. Then it dissertated to some keystones in the CDMA network optimization, like PN code assignment, calculation of soft handover, etc. As GSM is also the similar cellular mobile telecommunication system like CDMA, so this paper also made a contrast research of CDMA and GSM network optimization in details, including the similarity and the different. In conclusion, network optimization is a long time job; it will run through the whole process of network construct. By the adjustment of network hardware (like BTS equipments, RF systems, etc.) and network software (like parameter optimized, configuration optimized, capacity optimized, etc.), network optimization work can improve the performance and service quality of the network.

  18. SASIL. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Kitta, J P

    1994-07-01

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD`s (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL`s (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  19. Neural Network Research: A Personal Perspective,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    These vision preprocessor and ART autonomous classifier examples are just two of the many neural network architectures now being developed by...computational theories with natural realizations as real-time adaptive neural network architectures with promising properties for tackling some of the

  20. Variable Star Research With International Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querci, F. R.; Querci, M.

    1997-05-01

    Generally speaking, variable stars are monitored through observing campaigns which coordinate multi-site telescopes at various longitudes. A new practice is in progress: devoted networks involving robotic telescopes. We will review these two technologies and will emphasize the NORT (Network of Oriental Robotic Telescopes) project which we are promoting in North Africa, Middle-Eastern countries and Asia.

  1. ATM QoS Experiments Using TCP Applications: Performance of TCP/IP Over ATM in a Variety of Errored Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frantz, Brian D.; Ivancic, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Quality of Service (QoS) experiments using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) were performed for various link delays. The link delay was set to emulate a Wide Area Network (WAN) and a Satellite Link. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate the ATM QoS requirements for applications that utilize advance TCP/IP protocols implemented with large windows and Selective ACKnowledgements (SACK). The effects of cell error, cell loss, and random bit errors on throughput were reported. The detailed test plan and test results are presented herein.

  2. Mechanistic Rationale to Target PTEN-Deficient Tumor Cells with Inhibitors of the DNA Damage Response Kinase ATM.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Nuala; Hanna, Conor; Walker, Steven M; Gonda, David; Li, Jie; Wikstrom, Katarina; Savage, Kienan I; Butterworth, Karl T; Chen, Clark; Harkin, D Paul; Prise, Kevin M; Kennedy, Richard D

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important signaling molecule in the DNA damage response (DDR). ATM loss of function can produce a synthetic lethal phenotype in combination with tumor-associated mutations in FA/BRCA pathway components. In this study, we took an siRNA screening strategy to identify other tumor suppressors that, when inhibited, similarly sensitized cells to ATM inhibition. In this manner, we determined that PTEN and ATM were synthetically lethal when jointly inhibited. PTEN-deficient cells exhibited elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, increased endogenous DNA damage, and constitutive ATM activation. ATM inhibition caused catastrophic DNA damage, mitotic cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis specifically in PTEN-deficient cells in comparison with wild-type cells. Antioxidants abrogated the increase in DNA damage and ATM activation in PTEN-deficient cells, suggesting a requirement for oxidative DNA damage in the mechanism of cell death. Lastly, the ATM inhibitor KU-60019 was specifically toxic to PTEN mutant cancer cells in tumor xenografts and reversible by reintroduction of wild-type PTEN. Together, our results offer a mechanistic rationale for clinical evaluation of ATM inhibitors in PTEN-deficient tumors. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and research trends.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-08-22

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.

  4. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  5. Establishing a multicentre clinical research network: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, N.A.; Stiles, C.R.; Biondo, P.D.; Cummings, G.G.; Fainsinger, R.L.; Moulin, D.E.; Pereira, J.L.; Spice, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Within many health care disciplines, research networks have emerged to connect researchers who are physically separated, to facilitate sharing of expertise and resources, and to exchange valuable skills. A multicentre research network committed to studying difficult cancer pain problems was launched in 2004 as part of a Canadian initiative to increase palliative and end-of-life care research capacity. Funding was received for 5 years to support network activities. Methods Mid-way through the 5-year granting period, an external review panel provided a formal mid-grant evaluation. Concurrently, an internal evaluation of the network by survey of its members was conducted. Based on feedback from both evaluations and on a review of the literature, we identified several components believed to be relevant to the development of a successful clinical cancer research network. Results These common elements of successful clinical cancer research networks were identified: shared vision, formal governance policies and terms of reference, infrastructure support, regular and effective communication, an accountability framework, a succession planning strategy to address membership change over time, multiple strategies to engage network members, regular review of goals and timelines, and a balance between structure and creativity. Conclusions In establishing and conducting a multi-year, multicentre clinical cancer research network, network members were led to reflect on the factors that contributed most to the achievement of network goals. Several specific factors were identified that seemed to be highly relevant in promoting success. These observations are presented to foster further discussion on the successful design and operation of research networks. PMID:21980256

  6. Research on centrality of urban transport network nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kui; Fu, Xiufen

    2017-05-01

    Based on the actual data of urban transport in Guangzhou, 19,150 bus stations in Guangzhou (as of 2014) are selected as nodes. Based on the theory of complex network, the network model of Guangzhou urban transport is constructed. By analyzing the degree centrality index, betweenness centrality index and closeness centrality index of nodes in the network, the level of centrality of each node in the network is studied. From a different point of view to determine the hub node of Guangzhou urban transport network, corresponding to the city's key sites and major transfer sites. The reliability of the network is determined by the stability of some key nodes (transport hub station). The research of network node centralization can provide a theoretical basis for the rational allocation of urban transport network sites and public transport system planning.

  7. ATM activation in hypoxia - causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Olcina, Monica M; Grand, Roger Ja; Hammond, Ester M

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response is a complex signaling cascade that is triggered by cellular stress. This response is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and is considered to act as a barrier to the early stages of tumorigenesis. The integral role of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase in the response to DNA damaging agents is well characterized; however, ATM can also be activated by non-DNA damaging agents. In fact, much has been learnt recently about the mechanism of ATM activation in response to physiologic stresses such as hypoxia that do not induce DNA damage. Regions of low oxygen concentrations that occur in solid tumors are associated with a poor prognostic outcome irrespective of treatment modality. Severe levels of hypoxia induce replication stress and trigger the activation of DNA damage response pathways including ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)- and ATM-mediated signaling. In this review, we discuss hypoxia-driven ATM signaling and the possible contribution of ATM activation in this context to tumorigenesis.

  8. Patient-powered research networks: building capacity for conducting patient-centered clinical outcomes research

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Sarah E; Wahba, Sarita; Fleurence, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) recently launched PCORnet to establish a single inter-operable multicenter data research network that will support observational research and randomized clinical trials. This paper provides an overview of the patient-powered research networks (PPRNs), networks of patient organizations focused on a particular health condition that are interested in sharing health information and engaging in research. PPRNs will build on their foundation of trust within the patient communities and draw on their expertise, working with participants to identify true patient-centered outcomes and direct a patient-centered research agenda. The PPRNs will overcome common challenges including enrolling a diverse and representative patient population; engaging patients in governance; designing the data infrastructure; sharing data securely while protecting privacy; prioritizing research questions; scaling small networks into a larger network; and identifying pathways to sustainability. PCORnet will be the first distributed research network to bring PCOR to national scale. PMID:24821741

  9. Diagnosing autism: Australian paediatric research network surveys.

    PubMed

    Randall, Melinda; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Brignell, Amanda; Gulenc, Alisha; Hennel, Sabine; Coates, Cathy; Symeonides, Christos; Hiscock, Harriet; Marraffa, Catherine; Silove, Natalie; Bayl, Vivian; Woolfenden, Susan; Williams, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with reported prevalence of more than 1/100. In Australia, paediatricians are often involved in diagnosing ASD and providing long-term management. However, it is not known how paediatricians diagnose ASD. This study aimed to investigate whether the way Australian paediatricians diagnose ASD is in line with current recommendations. Members of the Australian Paediatric Research Network were invited to answer questions about their ASD diagnostic practice in a multi-topic survey and also as part of a study about parents needs around the time of a diagnosis of ASD. The majority of the 124 paediatricians who responded to the multi-topic survey and most who responded to the parent needs survey reported taking more than one session to make a diagnosis of ASD. Most paediatricians included information from preschool, child care or school when making a diagnosis, and over half included information from speech pathology or psychology colleagues more than 50% of the time. The main reasons for not including assessment information in the diagnostic process were service barriers such as no regular service available or long waiting lists. More than 70% reported ordering audiology and genetic tests more than half of the time. Not all paediatricians are following current recommendations for diagnosing ASD more than 50% of the time. While there are good reasons why current diagnostic approaches may fall short of expected standards, these need to be overcome to ensure diagnostic validity and optimal services for all children and their families. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. The ETH Flux Research Network ("Swiss Fluxnet")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Zeeman, M. J.; Häsler, R.; Buchmann, N.

    2006-12-01

    Within CarboEurope more than 100 eddy covariance flux towers aim at providing spatially representative CO2 and energy fluxes from the major forest ecosystem types, grasslands, and croplands. Still, at the regional (10's of km) scale the spatial variation in topography and ecosystem types is not adequately represented in mountainous areas such as Switzerland. Therefore we have extended the cluster of three CarboEurope flux sites (Oensingen grassland; Oensingen cropland; Laegeren mixed forest) by additional sites that form an elevational transect from the low elevations of the Swiss Plateau (around 400 m a.s.l.) to the interior of the Central Alps (around 2000 m a.s.l.). As of 2006 there were the following sites operated by this research group: Elevation Ecosystem Location Since Type 2000 m Alpine pasture Crap Alv ETH 2005 seasonal 1640 m Subalpine coniferous forest Davos 1997 continuous 1000 m Montane Grassland Früebüel ETH 2006 continuous 0700 m Montane mixed forest Lägeren 2004 continuous 0400 m Lowland Grassland Chamau ETH 2006 continuous 0400 m Cropland Oensingen 2004 continuous In addition to the CarboEurope network design these sites attempt to cover all agriculturally important ecosystems in Switzerland, which are characterized by a seasonal three-stage management system where cattle are moved from their winter pastures in the lowlands to the montane meadows in spring, followed by the summer pastures above the treeline in the Alps. At the same time the two forest sites cover the two most important types with deciduous trees (beech, maple, ash) dominated mixed forest at lower elevations, and Norway spruce near the Alpine treeline. The long-term flux research to be carried out along this elevational transect will allow us to gain a better understanding of how elevation---and thus a very steep climate gradient over a relatively short horizontal distance---interrelate with land use and land management. This will greatly help to increase our ability to predict

  11. US computer research networks: Domestic and international telecommunications capacity requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.

    1990-01-01

    The future telecommunications capacity and connectivity requirements of the United States (US) research and development (R&D) community raise two concerns. First, would there be adequate privately-owned communications capacity to meet the ever-increasing requirements of the US R&D community for domestic and international connectivity? Second, is the method of piecemeal implementation of communications facilities by individual researchers cost effective when viewed from an integrated perspective? To address the capacity issue, Contel recently completed a study for NASA identifying the current domestic R&D telecommunications capacity and connectivity requirements, and projecting the same to the years 1991, 1996, 2000, and 2010. The work reported here extends the scope of an earlier study by factoring in the impact of international connectivity requirements on capacity and connectivity forecasts. Most researchers in foreign countries, as is the case with US researchers, rely on regional, national or continent-wide networks to collaborate with each other, and their US counterparts. The US researchers' international connectivity requirements, therefore, stem from the need to link the US domestic research networks to foreign research networks. The number of links and, more importantly, the speeds of links are invariably determined by the characteristics of the networks being linked. The major thrust of this study, therefore, was to identify and characterize the foreign research networks, to quantify the current status of their connectivity to the US networks, and to project growth in the connectivity requirements to years 1991, 1996, 2000, and 2010 so that a composite picture of the US research networks in the same years could be forecasted. The current (1990) US integrated research network, and its connectivity to foreign research networks is shown. As an example of projections, the same for the year 2010 is shown.

  12. Developing Primary Care: The Contribution of Primary Care Research Networks

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, Stephen; Hutchison, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The performance of Canada's primary care sector remains lacklustre relative to other wealthy industrialized countries, and it has been suggested that a lack of investment in research and evaluation may be a cause. One approach to improving and sustaining primary care research is through research networks. Over the past few years, significant investments have begun to be made in developing primary care networks in Canada. While Canadian experience in this area is relatively new, in the United Kingdom primary care research networks were first established in the 1980s. Initially developed at a local level, these have more recently been incorporated into large-scale national networks. This paper reviews the UK experience and highlights potential lessons for the development of networks in Canada. PMID:23968616

  13. Summit of the Research Coordination Networks for Undergraduate Biology Education

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Carrie Diaz; Allen, Deborah; Anderson, Laurel J.; Bowser, Gillian; Pauley, Mark A.; Williams, Kathy S.; Uno, Gordon E.

    2016-01-01

    The first summit of projects funded by the National Science Foundation’s Research Coordination Networks for Undergraduate Biology Education (RCN-UBE) program was held January 14–16, 2016, in Washington, DC. Sixty-five scientists and science educators from 38 of the 41 Incubator and Full RCN-UBE awards discussed the value and contributions of RCNs to the national biology education reform effort. The summit illustrated the progress of this innovative UBE track, first awarded in 2009. Participants shared experiences regarding network development and growth, identified best practices and challenges faced in network management, and discussed work accomplished. We report here on key aspects of network evaluation, characteristics of successful networks, and how to sustain and broaden participation in networks. Evidence from successful networks indicates that 5 years (the length of a Full RCN-UBE) may be insufficient time to produce a cohesive and effective network. While online communication promotes the activities of a network and disseminates effective practices, face-to-face meetings are critical for establishing ties between network participants. Creation of these National Science Foundation–funded networks may be particularly useful for consortia of faculty working to address problems or exchange novel solutions discovered while introducing active-learning methods and/or course-based research into their curricula.

  14. Research on scheme of applying ASON to current networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Y. F.; Li, J. R.; Deng, L. J.

    2008-10-01

    Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON) is currently a new and hot research subject in the world. It can provide high bandwidth, high assembly flexibility, high network security and reliability, but with a low management cost. It is presented to meet the requirements for high-throughput optical access with stringent Quality of Service (QoS). But as a brand new technology, ASON can not be supported by the traditional protocol software and network equipments. And the approach to build a new ASON network on the basis of completely abandoning the traditional optical network facilities is not desirable, because it costs too much and wastes a lot of network resources can also be used. So how to apply ASON to the current networks and realize the smooth transition between the existing network and ASON has been a serious problem to many network operators. In this research, the status in quo of ASON is introduced first and then the key problems should be considered when applying ASON to current networks are discussed. Based on this, the strategies should be complied with to overcome these key problems are listed. At last, the approach to apply ASON to the current optical networks is proposed and analyzed.

  15. An experimental study of VBR video over various ATM switch architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, R.P.; Hsieh, J.; Du, D.H.C.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most important components of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network is the switch. Switch design is not a part of the ATM standards so vendors use a wide variety of techniques to build their switches. In this paper, the authors present experimental results of switching and multiplexing real-time Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video traffic (JPEG, MPEG-1, and MPEG-2) through two different ATM switch architectures. Real-time VBR traffic, such as digital video, is particularly interesting due to its high demands in terms of bandwidth, real-time delivery and processing requirements. The experiments show that the fastest switches, i.e., lowest latencies, do not necessarily perform better when transmitting VBR video. The impact of the high speed network components; characteristics, such as switch fabric architecture, buffering strategies, and higher layer transport protocols (i.e., UDP, TCP/IP), are illustrated through the experimental results.

  16. Praxis-based research networks: An emerging paradigm for research that is rigorous, relevant, and inclusive.

    PubMed

    Werner, James J; Stange, Kurt C

    2014-01-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have developed a grounded approach to conducting practice-relevant and translational research in community practice settings. Seismic shifts in the health care landscape are shaping PBRNs that work across organizational and institutional margins to address complex problems. Praxis-based research networks combine PBRN knowledge generation with multistakeholder learning, experimentation, and application of practical knowledge. The catalytic processes in praxis-based research networks are cycles of action and reflection based on experience, observation, conceptualization, and experimentation by network members and partners. To facilitate co-learning and solution-building, these networks have a flexible architecture that allows pragmatic inclusion of stakeholders based on the demands of the problem and the needs of the network. Praxis-based research networks represent an evolving trend that combines the core values of PBRNs with new opportunities for relevance, rigor, and broad participation. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  17. Praxis-based research networks: an emerging paradigm for research that is rigorous, relevant and inclusive

    PubMed Central

    Werner, James J.; Stange, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have developed a grounded approach to conducting practice-relevant and translational research in community practice settings. Seismic shifts in the healthcare landscape are shaping PBRNs that work across organizational and institutional margins to address complex problems. Praxis-based research networks combine PBRN knowledge generation with multi-stakeholder learning, experimentation, and practical knowledge application. The catalytic processes in praxis-based research networks are cycles of action and reflection based on experience, observation, conceptualization, and experimentation by network members and partners. To facilitate co-learning and solution-building, these networks have a flexible architecture that allows pragmatic inclusion of stakeholders based on demands of the problem and the needs of the network. Praxis-based research networks represent an evolving trend that combines the core values of PBRNs with new opportunities for relevance, rigor, and broad participation. PMID:25381067

  18. Launching PCORnet, a national patient-centered clinical research network

    PubMed Central

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Curtis, Lesley H; Califf, Robert M; Platt, Richard; Selby, Joe V; Brown, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) has launched PCORnet, a major initiative to support an effective, sustainable national research infrastructure that will advance the use of electronic health data in comparative effectiveness research (CER) and other types of research. In December 2013, PCORI's board of governors funded 11 clinical data research networks (CDRNs) and 18 patient-powered research networks (PPRNs) for a period of 18 months. CDRNs are based on the electronic health records and other electronic sources of very large populations receiving healthcare within integrated or networked delivery systems. PPRNs are built primarily by communities of motivated patients, forming partnerships with researchers. These patients intend to participate in clinical research, by generating questions, sharing data, volunteering for interventional trials, and interpreting and disseminating results. Rapidly building a new national resource to facilitate a large-scale, patient-centered CER is associated with a number of technical, regulatory, and organizational challenges, which are described here. PMID:24821743

  19. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  20. Statistical Analysis of ATM-Dependent Signaling in Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Waardenberg, Ashley J

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, which when perturbed is associated with modified protein signaling that ultimately leads to a range of neurological and DNA repair defects. Recent advances in phospho-proteomics coupled with high-resolution mass-spectrometry provide new opportunities to dissect signaling pathways that ATM utilize under a number of conditions. This chapter begins by providing a brief overview of ATM function, its various regulatory roles and then leads into a workflow focused on the use of the statistical programming language R, together with code, for the identification of ATM-dependent substrates in the cytoplasm. This chapter cannot cover statistical properties in depth nor the range of possible methods in great detail, but instead aims to equip researchers with a set of tools to perform analysis between two conditions through examples with R functions.

  1. Towards a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network: the ECRIN programme.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the interconnection of national networks of clinical research centres (CRCs) and clinical trials units (CTUs), the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) programme aims to develop an infrastructure allowing for bottom-up harmonisation of the support and training for, and practice of, clinical research, and to provide public sponsors for biotechnology small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) with support for translational research and multicentre clinical studies in Europe. This will be achieved through an application to the next FP6 'Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives' call. However, prior work is required to improve the reciprocal knowledge of partners in the ECRIN consortium and, as a first step, country-specific workshops will be organised by national networks in order to address the organisation of CRC/CTUs and national networks, and their interaction with the national environment of clinical research; this will enable in-depth discussion addressing the bottlenecks hampering transnational studies.

  2. Developing a Virtual Network of Research Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Kirschtl, D.

    2008-12-01

    The hydrologic community has been discussing the concept of a network of observatories for the advancement of hydrologic science in areas of scaling processes, in testing generality of hypotheses, and in examining non-linear couplings between hydrologic, biotic, and human systems. The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) is exploring the formation of a virtual network of observatories, formed from existing field studies without regard to funding source. Such a network would encourage sharing of data, metadata, field methods, and data analysis techniques to enable multidisciplinary synthesis, meta-analysis, and scientific collaboration in hydrologic and environmental science and engineering. The virtual network would strive to provide both the data and the environmental context of the data through advanced cyberinfrastructure support. The foundation for this virtual network is Water Data Services that enable the publication of time-series data collected at fixed points using a services-oriented architecture. These publication services, developed in the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information Systems project, permit the discovery of data from both academic and government sources through a single portal. Additional services under consideration are publication of geospatial data sets, immersive environments based upon site digital elevation models, and a common web portal to member sites populated with structured data about the site (such as land use history and geologic setting) to permit understanding the environmental context of the data being shared.

  3. Research on Individualized Product Requirement Expression Based on Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qin; Pan, Xiuqin; Wei, Daozhu; Wu, Ke

    In order to establish an effective platform for individualized product development, the individualized product requirement expression forms were put forward. The diversity Semantic Network of product knowledge representation was researched based on the dualistic semantic network, and the product requirement framework model was established. Thereby the validity, reliability and consistency of the requirement expression process were ensured. Finally an example of customer requirement expression model about differential mechanism based on semantic network was described to satisfy with the individualized product design system.

  4. Underexpression and abnormal localization of ATM products in ataxia telangiectasia patients bearing ATM missense mutations

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemin, Virginie; Rieunier, Guillaume; Jacob, Sandrine; Bellanger, Dorine; d'Enghien, Catherine Dubois; Laugé, Anthony; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Stern, Marc-Henri

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, immune defects and predisposition to malignancies. A-T is caused by biallelic inactivation of the ATM gene, in most cases by frameshift or nonsense mutations. More rarely, ATM missense mutations with unknown consequences on ATM function are found, making definitive diagnosis more challenging. In this study, a series of 15 missense mutations, including 11 not previously reported, were identified in 16 patients with clinical diagnosis of A-T belonging to 14 families and 1 patient with atypical clinical features. ATM function was evaluated in patient lymphoblastoid cell lines by measuring H2AX and KAP1 phosphorylation in response to ionizing radiation, confirming the A-T diagnosis for 16 cases. In accordance with previous studies, we showed that missense mutations associated with A-T often lead to ATM protein underexpression (15 out of 16 cases). In addition, we demonstrated that most missense mutations lead to an abnormal cytoplasmic localization of ATM, correlated with its decreased expression. This new finding highlights ATM mislocalization as a new mechanism of ATM dysfunction, which may lead to therapeutic strategies for missense mutation associated A-T. PMID:22071889

  5. Underexpression and abnormal localization of ATM products in ataxia telangiectasia patients bearing ATM missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Virginie; Rieunier, Guillaume; Jacob, Sandrine; Bellanger, Dorine; d'Enghien, Catherine Dubois; Laugé, Anthony; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Stern, Marc-Henri

    2012-03-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, immune defects and predisposition to malignancies. A-T is caused by biallelic inactivation of the ATM gene, in most cases by frameshift or nonsense mutations. More rarely, ATM missense mutations with unknown consequences on ATM function are found, making definitive diagnosis more challenging. In this study, a series of 15 missense mutations, including 11 not previously reported, were identified in 16 patients with clinical diagnosis of A-T belonging to 14 families and 1 patient with atypical clinical features. ATM function was evaluated in patient lymphoblastoid cell lines by measuring H2AX and KAP1 phosphorylation in response to ionizing radiation, confirming the A-T diagnosis for 16 cases. In accordance with previous studies, we showed that missense mutations associated with A-T often lead to ATM protein underexpression (15 out of 16 cases). In addition, we demonstrated that most missense mutations lead to an abnormal cytoplasmic localization of ATM, correlated with its decreased expression. This new finding highlights ATM mislocalization as a new mechanism of ATM dysfunction, which may lead to therapeutic strategies for missense mutation associated A-T.

  6. How does investment in research training affect the development of research networks and collaborations?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether and how research training programs contribute to research network development is underexplored. The Fogarty International Center (FIC) has supported overseas research training programs for over two decades. FIC programs could provide an entry point in the development of research networks and collaborations. We examine whether FIC’s investment in research training contributed to the development of networks and collaborations in two countries with longstanding FIC investments – Uganda and Kenya – and the factors which facilitated this process. Methods As part of two case studies at Uganda’s Makerere University and Kenya’s University of Nairobi, we conducted 53 semi-structured in-depth interviews and nine focus group discussions. To expand on our case study findings, we conducted a focused bibliometric analysis on two purposively selected topic areas to examine scientific productivity and used online network illustration tools to examine the resulting network structures. Results FIC support made important contributions to network development. Respondents from both Uganda and Kenya confirmed that FIC programs consistently provided trainees with networking skills and exposure to research collaborations, primarily within the institutions implementing FIC programs. In both countries, networks struggled with inclusiveness, particularly in HIV/AIDS research. Ugandan respondents perceived their networks to be more cohesive than Kenyan respondents did. Network cohesiveness was positively correlated with the magnitude and longevity of FIC’s programs. Support from FIC grants to local and regional research network development and networking opportunities, such as conferences, was rare. Synergies between FIC programs and research grants helped to solidify and maintain research collaborations. Conclusions Networks developed where FIC’s programs focused on a particular institution, there was a critical mass of trainees with similar interests, and

  7. Identifying emerging research collaborations and networks: Method development

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Ann M.; Martina, Camille A.; O’Dell, Nicole L.; Fogg, Thomas T.; Lurie, Stephen J.; Rubinstein, Eric P.; Pearson, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and translational research is a multidisciplinary, collaborative team process. To evaluate this process, we developed a method to document emerging research networks and collaborations in our medical center to describe their productivity and viability over time. Using an email survey, sent to 1,620 clinical and basic science full-and part-time faculty members, respondents identified their research collaborators. Initial analyses, using Pajek software, assessed the feasibility of using social network analysis (SNA) methods with these data. Nearly 400 respondents identified 1,594 collaborators across 28 medical center departments resulting in 309 networks with 5 or more collaborators. This low-burden approach yielded a rich dataset useful for evaluation using SNA to: a) assess networks at several levels of the organization, including intrapersonal (individuals), interpersonal (social), organizational/institutional leadership (tenure and promotion), and physical/environmental (spatial proximity) and b) link with other data to assess the evolution of these networks. PMID:24019209

  8. Identifying emerging research collaborations and networks: method development.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Ann M; Martina, Camille A; O'Dell, Nicole L; Fogg, Thomas T; Lurie, Stephen J; Rubinstein, Eric P; Pearson, Thomas A

    2014-03-01

    Clinical and translational research is a multidisciplinary, collaborative team process. To evaluate this process, we developed a method to document emerging research networks and collaborations in our medical center to describe their productivity and viability over time. Using an e-mail survey, sent to 1,620 clinical and basic science full- and part-time faculty members, respondents identified their research collaborators. Initial analyses, using Pajek software, assessed the feasibility of using social network analysis (SNA) methods with these data. Nearly 400 respondents identified 1,594 collaborators across 28 medical center departments resulting in 309 networks with 5 or more collaborators. This low-burden approach yielded a rich data set useful for evaluation using SNA to: (a) assess networks at several levels of the organization, including intrapersonal (individuals), interpersonal (social), organizational/institutional leadership (tenure and promotion), and physical/environmental (spatial proximity) and (b) link with other data to assess the evolution of these networks.

  9. Activation and Inhibition of ATM by Phytochemicals: Awakening and Sleeping the Guardian Angel Naturally.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Wu, Shyh-Jong; Chang, Yung-Ting; Tang, Jen-Yang; Li, Kun-Tzu; Ismail, Muhammad; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Li, Ruei-Nian; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Double-stranded breaks (DSBs) are cytotoxic DNA lesions caused by oxygen radicals, ionizing radiation, and radiomimetic chemicals. Increasing understanding of DNA damage signaling has provided an ever-expanding list of modulators reported to orchestrate DNA damage repair and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is the master regulator and main transducer of the DSB response. Increasingly, it is being realized that DNA damage response is a synchronized and branched network that functionalizes different molecular cascades to activate special checkpoints, thus temporarily arresting progression of the cell cycle while damage is being assessed and processed. It is noteworthy that both nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics have revolutionized the field of molecular biology and rapidly accumulating experimental evidence has started to shed light on biological activities of a wide range of phytochemicals reported to modulate cell cycle, DNA repair, cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis as evidenced by cell-based studies. In this review, we have attempted to provide an overview of DNA damage signaling, how ATM signaling regulates tumor necrosis factors-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced intracellular network. We also illuminate on how resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, jaceosidin, cucurbitacin, apigenin, genistein, and others trigger activation of ATM in different cancer cells as well as agents for ATM inactivation. Understanding the interplay of TRAIL-induced intracellular signaling and ATM modulation of downstream effectors is very important. This holds particularly for a reconceptualization of the apparently paradoxical roles and therapeutically targetable for enhancing the response to DNA damage-inducing therapy.

  10. Network Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietzke, Robert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This special section explains the latest developments in networking technologies, profiles school districts benefiting from successful implementations, and reviews new products for building networks. Highlights include ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), cable modems, networking switches, Internet screening software, file servers, network management…

  11. Analysis of CrIS/ATMS and AIRS/AMSU data using scientifically equivalent retrieval algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, J.; Iredell, L. F.; Kouvaris, L. C.; Blaisdell, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    CrIS and ATMS are high spectral resolution IR and Microwave atmospheric sounders currently flying on the S-NPP satellite, and are also scheduled for flight on future NPOESS satellites. CrIS/ATMS have similar sounding capabilities to those of the AIRS/AMSU sounder suite flying on EOS Aqua. The objective of this research is to develop and implement scientifically equivalent AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithms with the goal of having a continuous data record of AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS level-3 data products with a seamless transition between them in time. The currently operational AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm has generated 13+ years of level-3 data products. The AIRS Science Team is currently working toward a scientifically improved Version-7 retrieval algorithm. The objective of this research is to develop and implement improved scientifically equivalent AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithms, along the line of what is expected to be in AIRS Version-7, to be used for the eventual processing of all AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS data. We, as part of the NASA S-NPP Science Team Sounder Discipline, are currently analyzing AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS data sets with a scientifically equivalent retrieval algorithm that performs significantly better for each instrument than did AIRS Version-6. This presentation compares AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS products, each derived using a common scientifically equivalent advanced retrieval algorithm, with each other and also with those obtained using AIRS Version-6. Particular attention will be paid to surface and atmospheric temperature profiles, water vapor profiles, total atmospheric ozone burden, heights and amounts of cloud cover, and Outgoing Long-wave Radiation (OLR). We compared and validated results on a single day basis, monthly mean basis, and most importantly, on agreement of inter-annual differences of products for select months in common.

  12. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  13. Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Bakar, Kamalrulnizam Abu; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490

  14. Learning Networks--Enabling Change through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…

  15. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, James, Comp.

    This bibliography brings together sources, through August 1991, on the National Research and Education Network (NREN) and related topics, including computer networks, databases, information technology, library automation, microcomputers, and online systems. Where possible, a brief biographical note on the author is included, and most of the…

  16. Network Utopias and Alternative Entanglements for Educational Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankham, Jo

    2006-01-01

    "The network" has achieved a form of "institutionalized utopianism" in the recent past and is posited as a neo-liberal solution to social scientific researchers and education practitioners learning with and from one another. This paper first outlines why the metaphor of the network is so persuasive. It goes on to problematize some of the key…

  17. Learning Networks--Enabling Change through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…

  18. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Western Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the western Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2-4 and 7-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used

  19. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant

  20. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Eastern Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the eastern Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create

  1. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used

  2. The adoption of alcohol pharmacotherapies in the Clinical Trials Network: the influence of research network participation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Amanda J; Knudsen, Hannah K; Rothrauff, Tanja C; Roman, Paul M

    2010-04-01

    Organizational participation in clinical research may lead to adoption of the intervention by treatment agencies, but it is not known whether research involvement enhances innovativeness beyond the specific interventions that are tested. The National Institute on Drug Abuse's Clinical Trials Network (CTN) is a platform for considering this research question. To date, the CTN has not conducted research on medications for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), so greater adoption of innovative AUD pharmacotherapies by CTN-affiliated programs would suggest an added value of research network participation. Using longitudinal data from a pooled sample of CTN and non-CTN publicly funded treatment programs, we investigate adoption of tablet naltrexone and acamprosate over a 2-year period. CTN-affiliated programs were more likely to have adopted tablet naltrexone and acamprosate at 24-month follow-up, net of the effects of a range of organizational characteristics. Research network participation may thus enhance organizational innovativeness to include interventions beyond the scope of the network.

  3. Health ATMs in Saudi Arabia: A Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Aldosari, Bakheet

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health ATMs are terminals which are connected to a centrally located database storing patients’ electronic healthcare records (EHR). These machines are capable of collecting information in a far superior fashion than humans and are also able to rectify obsolete data in a manner that humans are generally not inclined to. Objectives: The main goal of this study is to assess the importance of adopting health ATMs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which can improve the confidence of patients, reward health self-management, and achieve positive health outcomes through their easy-to-use applications that are secure and accessible through various devices. Methods: Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis was used to assess the efficiency of adopting health ATMs in KSA and reveal the said characteristics. Three focus groups assembled in the cities of Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam during the period 2013-2014. The groups consisted of individuals experienced in the function of health ATMs. Results: It was found that the sector possessed a number of strengths that would help it in reaching the goals outlined therein, thereby achieving successful outcomes. Conclusions: Health ATMs could be a promising new advancement in the field of health if the project were to be planned and implemented correctly. Their benefits would consequently reach organizational and national levels. It is, therefore, crucial to educate the project managers about the benefits of learning from others as well as educating them about the needs and the requirements of the concerned organization. PMID:28883680

  4. Innovation Network. SSTA Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan School Trustees Association, Regina.

    School systems face the challenge of meeting high expectations with limited resources. Reductions in operating grants and increasing expenditures have exaggerated the problem. The Innovation Network was established by the Saskatchewan School Trustees Association in 1995 to help boards of education make the best use of available resources. This…

  5. Unravelling the Social Network: Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) amongst children and young people in compulsory education, relatively little scholarly work has explored the fundamental issues at stake. This paper makes an original contribution to the field by locating the study of this online activity within the broader terrain of social…

  6. Unravelling the Social Network: Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) amongst children and young people in compulsory education, relatively little scholarly work has explored the fundamental issues at stake. This paper makes an original contribution to the field by locating the study of this online activity within the broader terrain of social…

  7. Clinicopathological significance of ATM-Chk2 expression in sporadic breast cancers: a comprehensive analysis in large cohorts.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Arora, Arvind; Alsubhi, Nouf; Agarwal, Devika; Moseley, Paul M; Perry, Christina; Doherty, Rachel; Chan, Stephen Y T; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad; Ball, Graham; Ellis, Ian O; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-11-01

    ATM-Chk2 network is critical for genomic stability, and its deregulation may influence breast cancer pathogenesis. We investigated ATM and Chk2 protein levels in two cohorts [cohort 1 (n = 1650) and cohort 2 (n = 252)]. ATM and Chk2 mRNA expression was evaluated in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium cohort (n = 1950). Low nuclear ATM protein level was significantly associated with aggressive breast cancer including larger tumors, higher tumor grade, higher mitotic index, pleomorphism, tumor type, lymphovascular invasion, estrogen receptor (ER)-, PR -, AR -, triple-negative, and basal-like phenotypes (Ps < .05). Breast cancer 1, early onset negative, low XRCC1, low SMUG1, high FEN1, high MIB1, p53 mutants, low MDM2, low Bcl-2, low p21, low Bax, high CDK1, and low Chk2 were also more frequent in tumors with low nuclear ATM level (Ps < .05). Low ATM protein level was significantly associated with poor survival including in patients with ER-negative tumors who received adjuvant anthracycline or cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy (Ps < .05). Low nuclear Chk2 protein was likely in ER -/PR -/AR -; HER-2 positive; breast cancer 1, early onset negative; low XRCC1; low SMUG1; low APE1; low polβ; low DNA-PKcs; low ATM; low Bcl-2; and low TOPO2A tumors (P < .05). In patients with ER + tumors who received endocrine therapy or ER-negative tumors who received chemotherapy, nuclear Chk2 levels did not significantly influence survival. In p53 mutant tumors, low ATM (P < .000001) or high Chk2 (P < .01) was associated with poor survival. When investigated together, low-ATM/high-Chk2 tumors have the worst survival (P = .0033). Our data suggest that ATM-Chk2 levels in sporadic breast cancer may have prognostic and predictive significance.

  8. Clinicopathological Significance of ATM-Chk2 Expression in Sporadic Breast Cancers: a Comprehensive Analysis in Large Cohorts1

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Arora, Arvind; Alsubhi, Nouf; Agarwal, Devika; Moseley, Paul M.; Perry, Christina; Doherty, Rachel; Chan, Stephen Y.T.; Green, Andrew R.; Rakha, Emad; Ball, Graham; Ellis, Ian O.; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    ATM-Chk2 network is critical for genomic stability, and its deregulation may influence breast cancer pathogenesis. We investigated ATM and Chk2 protein levels in two cohorts [cohort 1 (n = 1650) and cohort 2 (n = 252)]. ATM and Chk2 mRNA expression was evaluated in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium cohort (n = 1950). Low nuclear ATM protein level was significantly associated with aggressive breast cancer including larger tumors, higher tumor grade, higher mitotic index, pleomorphism, tumor type, lymphovascular invasion, estrogen receptor (ER)−, PR −, AR −, triple-negative, and basal-like phenotypes (Ps < .05). Breast cancer 1, early onset negative, low XRCC1, low SMUG1, high FEN1, high MIB1, p53 mutants, low MDM2, low Bcl-2, low p21, low Bax, high CDK1, and low Chk2 were also more frequent in tumors with low nuclear ATM level (Ps < .05). Low ATM protein level was significantly associated with poor survival including in patients with ER-negative tumors who received adjuvant anthracycline or cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil–based adjuvant chemotherapy (Ps < .05). Low nuclear Chk2 protein was likely in ER −/PR −/AR −; HER-2 positive; breast cancer 1, early onset negative; low XRCC1; low SMUG1; low APE1; low polβ; low DNA-PKcs; low ATM; low Bcl-2; and low TOPO2A tumors (P < .05). In patients with ER + tumors who received endocrine therapy or ER-negative tumors who received chemotherapy, nuclear Chk2 levels did not significantly influence survival. In p53 mutant tumors, low ATM (P < .000001) or high Chk2 (P < .01) was associated with poor survival. When investigated together, low-ATM/high-Chk2 tumors have the worst survival (P = .0033). Our data suggest that ATM-Chk2 levels in sporadic breast cancer may have prognostic and predictive significance. PMID:25425972

  9. Innovative research of AD HOC network mobility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin

    2017-08-01

    It is difficult for researchers of AD HOC network to conduct actual deployment during experimental stage as the network topology is changeable and location of nodes is unfixed. Thus simulation still remains the main research method of the network. Mobility model is an important component of AD HOC network simulation. It is used to describe the movement pattern of nodes in AD HOC network (including location and velocity, etc.) and decides the movement trail of nodes, playing as the abstraction of the movement modes of nodes. Therefore, mobility model which simulates node movement is an important foundation for simulation research. In AD HOC network research, mobility model shall reflect the movement law of nodes as truly as possible. In this paper, node generally refers to the wireless equipment people carry. The main research contents include how nodes avoid obstacles during movement process and the impacts of obstacles on the mutual relation among nodes, based on which a Node Self Avoiding Obstacle, i.e. NASO model is established in AD HOC network.

  10. 7th meeting of the global arthritis research network

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Last October, the 7th meeting of the Global Arthritis Research Network was held in Zurich, Switzerland. European and American experts who have made major recent contributions to molecular biology got together to provide insights into novel technologies and approaches useful for biomedical research, especially for research on arthritis and related conditions. PMID:21892971

  11. Research Universities as Knowledge Networks: The Role of Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirikov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the elaboration of institutional research practice, which is an important element of any research university. The study addresses three questions. First, how did institutional research arise, and what is its raison d'etre in a research university? Second, how can institutional research contribute to the improvement of the…

  12. Scottish Stroke Research Network: the first three years.

    PubMed

    McCormick, K; Langhorne, P; Graham, F E J; McFarlane, C

    2010-08-01

    Research networks were introduced in the UK to facilitate and improve clinical research and stroke was seen as a priority topic for local research network development. The Scottish Stroke Research Network (SSRN) is one of 11 stroke research networks in the UK. In this article we review the progress of the Scottish Stroke Research Network in the three years since inception. Between 2006-2009 the number of active hospital research sites has increased from 10 to 22 expanding to involve 20 stroke research nurses. There was a corresponding 58% increase in recruitment of participants into stroke studies, from 376 in 2006/07 to 594 in 2008/09. The majority (17/20) of our current studies are interventional. Data from one of these, the CLOTs trial (Clots in Legs Or sTocking after Stroke), demonstrates that the annual recruitment in Scotland increased from a median of 94 (range 6-122) patients per year in the six years before the SSRN, to 140 (135-158) patients per year after SSRN involvement. We currently screen about 50% of Scottish stroke patients and approximately 5% of Scottish stroke patients are participating in research studies that we support. The SSRN has made good progress in the first three years. Increasing the recruitment of screened patients remains a challenge.

  13. 75 FR 80853 - Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and Information Technology AGENCY: National Coordination Office (NCO) for the Networking and Information Technology Research... ``Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and...

  14. Research on key technology of space laser communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chengwu; Huang, Huiming; Liu, Hongyang; Gao, Shenghua; Cheng, Liyu

    2016-10-01

    Since the 21st century, Spatial laser communication has made a breakthrough development. Europe, the United States, Japan and other space powers have carried out the test of spatial laser communication technology on-orbit, and put forward a series of plans. In 2011, China made the first technology demonstration of satellite-ground laser communication carried by HY-2 satellite. Nowadays, in order to improve the transmission rate of spatial network, the topic of spatial laser communication network is becoming a research hotspot at home and abroad. This thesis, from the basic problem of spatial laser communication network to solve, analyzes the main difference between spatial network and ground network, which draws forth the key technology of spatial laser communication backbone network, and systematically introduces our research on aggregation, addressing, architecture of spatial network. From the perspective of technology development status and trends, the thesis proposes the development route of spatial laser communication network in stages. So as to provide reference about the development of spatial laser communication network in China.

  15. Virtual Network Computing Testbed for Cybersecurity Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-17

    traffic on the network, either by using mathematical formulas or by replaying packet streams. As a result, simulators depend deeply on the assumptions...Summary of the most important results We obtained a powerful machine, which has 768 cores and 1.25 TB memory . RBG has been implemented on the machine...is configured with 1GB memory , 10 GB disk space, and one 100M Ethernet interface. The server nodes include web servers, database servers, email

  16. ATM regulates 3-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase and promotes therapeutic resistance to alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Burrell, Kelly; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Remke, Marc; Golbourn, Brian; Chornenkyy, Yevgen; Gajadhar, Aaron; Fernandez, Nestor A; Clarke, Ian D; Barszczyk, Mark S; Pajovic, Sanja; Ternamian, Christian; Head, Renee; Sabha, Nesrin; Sobol, Robert W; Taylor, Michael D; Rutka, James T; Jones, Chris; Dirks, Peter B; Zadeh, Gelareh; Hawkins, Cynthia

    2014-10-01

    Alkylating agents are a first-line therapy for the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including pediatric glioblastoma, a lethal tumor in children. Unfortunately, many tumors are resistant to this therapy. We sought to identify ways of sensitizing tumor cells to alkylating agents while leaving normal cells unharmed, increasing therapeutic response while minimizing toxicity. Using an siRNA screen targeting over 240 DNA damage response genes, we identified novel sensitizers to alkylating agents. In particular, the base excision repair (BER) pathway, including 3-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), as well as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), were identified in our screen. Interestingly, we identified MPG as a direct novel substrate of ATM. ATM-mediated phosphorylation of MPG was required for enhanced MPG function. Importantly, combined inhibition or loss of MPG and ATM resulted in increased alkylating agent-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and prolonged survival in vivo. The discovery of the ATM-MPG axis will lead to improved treatment of alkylating agent-resistant tumors. Inhibition of ATM and MPG-mediated BER cooperate to sensitize tumor cells to alkylating agents, impairing tumor growth in vitro and in vivo with no toxicity to normal cells, providing an ideal therapeutic window. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. ATM Deficiency Is Associated with Sensitivity to PARP1- and ATR Inhibitors in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Anna; Knittel, Gero; Welcker, Daniela; Yang, Tsun-Po; George, Julie; Nowak, Michael; Leeser, Uschi; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Peifer, Martin; Reinhardt, Hans Christian

    2017-06-01

    Defects in maintaining genome integrity are a hallmark of cancer. The DNA damage response kinase ATM is frequently mutated in human cancer, but the significance of these events to chemotherapeutic efficacy has not been examined deeply in whole organism models. Here we demonstrate that bi-allelic Atm deletion in mouse models of Kras-mutant lung adenocarcinoma does not affect cisplatin responses. In marked contrast, Atm-deficient tumors displayed an enhanced response to the topoisomerase-II poison etoposide. Moreover, Atm-deficient cells and tumors were sensitive to the PARP inhibitor olaparib. This actionable molecular addiction to functional PARP1 signaling was preserved in models that were proficient or deficient in p53, resembling standard or high-risk genetic constellations, respectively. Atm deficiency also markedly enhanced sensitivity to the ATR inhibitor VE-822. Taken together, our results provide a functional rationale to profile human tumors for disabling ATM mutations, particularly given their impact on PARP1 and ATR inhibitors. Cancer Res; 77(11); 3040-56. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-12-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users.

  19. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-01-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users. PMID:22037890

  20. AZD6738, A Novel Oral Inhibitor of ATR, Induces Synthetic Lethality with ATM Deficiency in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Ahrum; Im, Seock-Ah; Jang, Hyemin; Kim, Seongyeong; Lee, Miso; Kim, Debora Keunyoung; Yang, Yaewon; Kim, Hee-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Tae-Yong; Oh, Do-Youn; Brown, Jeff; Lau, Alan; O'Connor, Mark J; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2017-04-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) can be considered an attractive target for cancer treatment due to its deleterious effect on cancer cells harboring a homologous recombination defect. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of the ATR inhibitor, AZD6738, to treat gastric cancer.In SNU-601 cells with dysfunctional ATM, AZD6738 treatment led to an accumulation of DNA damage due to dysfunctional RAD51 foci formation, S phase arrest, and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. In contrast, SNU-484 cells with functional ATM were not sensitive to AZD6738. Inhibition of ATM in SNU-484 cells enhanced AZD6738 sensitivity to a level comparable with that observed in SNU-601 cells, showing that activation of the ATM-Chk2 signaling pathway attenuates AZD6738 sensitivity. In addition, decreased HDAC1 expression was found to be associated with ATM inactivation in SNU-601 cells, demonstrating the interaction between HDAC1 and ATM can affect sensitivity to AZD6738. Furthermore, in an in vivo tumor xenograft mouse model, AZD6738 significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased apoptosis.These findings suggest synthetic lethality between ATR inhibition and ATM deficiency in gastric cancer cells. Further clinical studies on the interaction between AZD 6738 and ATM deficiency are warranted to develop novel treatment strategies for gastric cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(4); 566-77. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. [Competence Network Stroke. A successful model for stroke research].

    PubMed

    Lachmann, Ulrike; Villringer, Arno

    2016-04-01

    In 1999 the German Ministry of Education and Research initiated a funding initiative for competence networks in health research in order to improve research and health care for major diseases with high morbidity and relevance to public health. All major players in a given field were invited to cooperate. The aims were to improve horizontal as well as vertical networking in order to improve research quality and the transfer of new results into general clinical practice. Another aim was to establish sustainable structures for lasting cooperation. After a highly competitive application round, the Competence Network Stroke was among the very first to be funded. The incidence of stroke in Germany is about 250,000 new patients per year, it is the leading cause of adult impairment and its societal impact is dramatic.This article describes how the Competence Network Stroke managed to meet the above-mentioned goals and how cooperation among stroke researchers and caregivers in Germany has improved. Furthermore it provides examples of researcher achievements in the network, which have advanced research and benefited patients.

  2. Detecting and analyzing research communities in longitudinal scientific networks

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Raffaele; Kennelly Okraku, Therese; McCarty, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that collaborative teams and communities tend to produce the highest-impact scientific work. This paper proposes a new method to (1) Identify collaborative communities in longitudinal scientific networks, and (2) Evaluate the impact of specific research institutes, services or policies on the interdisciplinary collaboration between these communities. First, we apply community-detection algorithms to cross-sectional scientific collaboration networks and analyze different types of co-membership in the resulting subgroups over time. This analysis summarizes large amounts of longitudinal network data to extract sets of research communities whose members have consistently collaborated or shared collaborators over time. Second, we construct networks of cross-community interactions and estimate Exponential Random Graph Models to predict the formation of interdisciplinary collaborations between different communities. The method is applied to longitudinal data on publication and grant collaborations at the University of Florida. Results show that similar institutional affiliation, spatial proximity, transitivity effects, and use of the same research services predict higher degree of interdisciplinary collaboration between research communities. Our application also illustrates how the identification of research communities in longitudinal data and the analysis of cross-community network formation can be used to measure the growth of interdisciplinary team science at a research university, and to evaluate its association with research policies, services or institutes. PMID:28797047

  3. The CounterACT Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Jett, David A.; Yeung, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health has developed a comprehensive research program that includes research centers of excellence, individual research projects, small business projects, contracts, and interagency agreements to conduct basic, translational, and clinical research aimed at the discovery and/or identification of better medical countermeasures against chemical threat agents. Chemical threats include chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial and agricultural chemicals, and toxins and other chemicals that could be used intentionally as an act of terror or by large-scale accidents or natural disasters. The overarching goal of this research program is to enhance our medical response capabilities during an emergency. The program is named Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT). It supports translational research, applying ideas, insights, and discoveries generated through basic scientific inquiry to the treatment or prevention of mortality and morbidity caused by chemical threat agents. The categories of research supported under this program include creation and development of screening assays and animal models for therapy development, identification of candidate therapeutics, obtaining preliminary proof-of-principle data on the efficacy of candidate therapeutics, advanced efficacy and preclinical safety studies with appropriate animal models using Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), and clinical studies, including clinical trials with new drugs. Special consideration is given to research relevant to people who are particularly vulnerable, including the young, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. PMID:20601628

  4. [Training of institutional research networks as a strategy of improvement].

    PubMed

    Galván-Plata, María Eugenia; Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio Abdel

    2017-01-01

    The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) through the Coordinación de Investigación en Salud (Health Research Council) has promoted a strong link between the generation of scientific knowledge and the clinical care through the program Redes Institucionales de Investigación (Institutional Research Network Program), whose main aim is to promote and generate collaborative research between clinical, basic, epidemiologic, educational, economic and health services researchers, seeking direct benefits for patients, as well as to generate a positive impact on institutional processes. All of these research lines have focused on high-priority health issues in Mexico. The IMSS internal structure, as well as the sufficient health services coverage, allows the integration of researchers at the three levels of health care into these networks. A few years after their creation, these networks have already generated significant results, and these are currently applied in the institutional regulations in diseases that represent a high burden to health care. Two examples are the National Health Care Program for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction "Código Infarto", and the Early Detection Program on Chronic Kidney Disease; another result is the generation of multiple scientific publications, and the promotion of training of human resources in research from the same members of our Research Networks. There is no doubt that the Coordinación de Investigación en Salud advances steadily implementing the translational research, which will keep being fruitful to the benefit of our patients, and of our own institution.

  5. Participatory Research. An Introduction. Participatory Research Network Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi (India).

    Participatory research is an approach that calls for a democratic interaction between the researcher and those among whom the research is conducted. While this approach has been implemented with both individuals and groups in a wide variety of settings such as geographic communities, workplace situations, adult learning groups, community issue…

  6. Participatory Research. An Introduction. Participatory Research Network Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi (India).

    Participatory research is an approach that calls for a democratic interaction between the researcher and those among whom the research is conducted. While this approach has been implemented with both individuals and groups in a wide variety of settings such as geographic communities, workplace situations, adult learning groups, community issue…

  7. Issues in ATM Support of High-Performance, Geographically Distributed Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russell W.; Dowd, Patrick W.; Srinidhi, Saragur M.; Blade, Eric D.G

    1995-01-01

    This report experimentally assesses the effect of the underlying network in a cluster-based computing environment. The assessment is quantified by application-level benchmarking, process-level communication, and network file input/output. Two testbeds were considered, one small cluster of Sun workstations and another large cluster composed of 32 high-end IBM RS/6000 platforms. The clusters had Ethernet, fiber distributed data interface (FDDI), Fibre Channel, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network interface cards installed, providing the same processors and operating system for the entire suite of experiments. The primary goal of this report is to assess the suitability of an ATM-based, local-area network to support interprocess communication and remote file input/output systems for distributed computing.

  8. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David I.; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (α = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  9. New ATM photonic wavelength-division switching block with optical buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunshui; Chen, Wenlu; Zhang, Zhijian; Sun, Haifeng; Guo, Yili; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, BingKun

    1996-09-01

    A new 2 X 2 ATM photonic wavelength switching block has been presented. It is composed of wavelength beacon, wavelength filter and splitter, 2 X 2 LiNbO2 waveguide switches and optical buffer. Different input-line cells will be converted into the cells with the different wavelengths according to their destination address by the wavelength beacon. With the wavelength routing tag, the cell could be self-routed to the destination output-line. The routing path is both low loss and los noise. ATM cell contention is settled by an optical buffer in which the fiber delay-line, LiNbO3 waveguide switches and nonlinear semiconductor optical amplifiers are employed. Composed by various delay fibers and waveguide switches, the buffer can store 7 cells or more. This block can be easily reconfiguration and extended to the 4 X 4, 8 X 8 ATM photonic switching system. It can be used as ATM switching unit and optical cross connection component in the all optical networks. The ATM input line bit rate of our photonic switching block is 2 X 622 Mbit/s.

  10. Defining ATM-independent Functions of the Mre11 Complex with a Novel Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Balestrini, Alessia; Nicolas, Laura; Yang-lott, Katherine; Guryanova, Olga A.; Levine, Ross L.; Bassing, Craig H.; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Petrini, John H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1) occupies a central node of the DNA damage response (DDR) network, and is required for ATM activation in response to DNA damage. Hypomorphic alleles of MRE11 and NBS1 confer embryonic lethality in ATM deficient mice, indicating that the complex exerts ATM independent functions that are essential when ATM is absent. To delineate those functions, a conditional ATM allele (ATMflox) was crossed to hypomorphic NBS1 mutants (Nbs1ΔB/ΔB mice). Nbs1ΔB/ΔB Atm−/− hematopoietic cells derived by crossing to vavcre were viable in vivo. Nbs1ΔB/ΔB Atm−/− VAV mice exhibited a pronounced defect in double strand break (DSB) repair, and completely penetrant early onset lymphomagenesis. In addition to repair defects observed, fragile site instability was noted, indicating that the Mre11 complex promotes genome stability upon replication stress in vivo. The data suggest combined influences of the Mre11 complex on DNA repair, as well as the responses to DNA damage and DNA replication stress. PMID:26538284

  11. Primary care research conducted in networks: getting down to business.

    PubMed

    Mold, James W

    2012-01-01

    This seventh annual practice-based research theme issue of the Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine highlights primary care research conducted in practice-based research networks (PBRNs). The issue includes discussion of (1) theoretical and methodological research, (2) health care research (studies addressing primary care processes), (3) clinical research (studies addressing the impact of primary care on patients), and (4) health systems research (studies of health system issues impacting primary care including the quality improvement process). We had a noticeable increase in submissions from PBRN collaborations, that is, studies that involved multiple networks. As PBRNs cooperate to recruit larger and more diverse patient samples, greater generalizability and applicability of findings lead to improved primary care processes.

  12. Social network analysis of biomedical research collaboration networks in a CTSA institution.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Topaloglu, Umit; Hudson, Teresa; Eswaran, Hari; Hogan, William

    2014-12-01

    The popularity of social networks has triggered a number of research efforts on network analyses of research collaborations in the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) community. Those studies mainly focus on the general understanding of collaboration networks by measuring common network metrics. More fundamental questions about collaborations still remain unanswered such as recognizing "influential" nodes and identifying potential new collaborations that are most rewarding. We analyzed biomedical research collaboration networks (RCNs) constructed from a dataset of research grants collected at a CTSA institution (i.e., University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS)) in a comprehensive and systematic manner. First, our analysis covers the full spectrum of a RCN study: from network modeling to network characteristics measurement, from key nodes recognition to potential links (collaborations) suggestion. Second, our analysis employs non-conventional model and techniques including a weighted network model for representing collaboration strength, rank aggregation for detecting important nodes, and Random Walk with Restart (RWR) for suggesting new research collaborations. By applying our models and techniques to RCNs at UAMS prior to and after the CTSA, we have gained valuable insights that not only reveal the temporal evolution of the network dynamics but also assess the effectiveness of the CTSA and its impact on a research institution. We find that collaboration networks at UAMS are not scale-free but small-world. Quantitative measures have been obtained to evident that the RCNs at UAMS are moving towards favoring multidisciplinary research. Moreover, our link prediction model creates the basis of collaboration recommendations with an impressive accuracy (AUC: 0.990, MAP@3: 1.48 and MAP@5: 1.522). Last but not least, an open-source visual analytical tool for RCNs is being developed and released through Github. Through this study, we have developed a set

  13. Social Network Analysis of Biomedical Research Collaboration Networks in a CTSA Institution

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Topaloglu, Umit; Hudson, Teresa; Eswaran, Hari; Hogan, William

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The popularity of social networks has triggered a number of research efforts on network analyses of research collaborations in the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) community. Those studies mainly focus on the general understanding of collaboration networks by measuring common network metrics. More fundamental questions about collaborations still remain unanswered such as recognizing “influential” nodes and identifying potential new collaborations that are most rewarding. METHODS We analyzed biomedical research collaboration networks (RCNs) constructed from a dataset of research grants collected at a CTSA institution (i.e. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS)) in a comprehensive and systematic manner. First, our analysis covers the full spectrum of a RCN study: from network modeling to network characteristics measurement, from key nodes recognition to potential links (collaborations) suggestion. Second, our analysis employs non-conventional model and techniques including a weighted network model for representing collaboration strength, rank aggregation for detecting important nodes, and Random Walk with Restart (RWR) for suggesting new research collaborations. RESULTS By applying our models and techniques to RCNs at UAMS prior to and after the CTSA, we have gained valuable insights that not only reveal the temporal evolution of the network dynamics but also assess the effectiveness of the CTSA and its impact on a research institution. We find that collaboration networks at UAMS are not scale-free but small-world. Quantitative measures have been obtained to evident that the RCNs at UAMS are moving towards favoring multidisciplinary research. Moreover, our link prediction model creates the basis of collaboration recommendations with an impressive accuracy (AUC: 0.990, MAP@3: 1.48 and MAP@5: 1.522). Last but not least, an open-source visual analytical tool for RCNs is being developed and released through Github. CONCLUSIONS

  14. The Mind Research Network - Mental Illness Neuroscience Discovery Grant

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.; Calhoun, V.

    2013-12-17

    The scientific and technological programs of the Mind Research Network (MRN), reflect DOE missions in basic science and associated instrumentation, computational modeling, and experimental techniques. MRN's technical goals over the course of this project have been to develop and apply integrated, multi-modality functional imaging techniques derived from a decade of DOE-support research and technology development.

  15. Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Landulfo, Eduardo; Antuña, Juan Carlos; de Melo Jorge Barbosa, Henrique; Barja, Boris; Bastidas, Álvaro Efrain; Bedoya, Andrés Esteban; da Costa, Renata Facundes; Estevan, René; Forno, Ricardo; Gouveia, Diego Alvés; Jiménez, Cristofer; Larroza, Eliane Gonçalves; da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Montilla-Rosero, Elena; de Arruda Moreira, Gregori; Nakaema, Walker Morinobu; Nisperuza, Daniel; Alegria, Dairo; Múnera, Mauricio; Otero, Lidia; Papandrea, Sebastián; Pallota, Juan Vicente; Pawelko, Ezequiel; Quel, Eduardo Jaime; Ristori, Pablo; Rodrigues, Patricia Ferrini; Salvador, Jacobo; Sánchez, Maria Fernanda; Silva, Antonieta

    2016-02-01

    LALINET (Latin American Lidar Network), previously known as ALINE, is the first fully operative lidar network for aerosol research in South America, probing the atmosphere on regular basis since September 2013. The general purpose of this network is to attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge on aerosol vertical distribution over South America and its direct and indirect impact on weather and climate by the establishment of a vertically-resolved dataset of aerosol properties. Similarly to other lidar research networks, most of the LALINET instruments are not commercially produced and, consequently, configurations, capabilities and derived-products can be remarkably different among stations. It is a fact that such un-biased 4D dataset calls for a strict standardization from the instrumental and data processing point of view. This study has been envisaged to investigate the ongoing network configurations with the aim of highlighting the instrumental strengths and weaknesses of LALINET.

  16. WWOX guards genome stability by activating ATM.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Idit; Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hofmann, Thomas G; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) tend to break upon replication stress and have been suggested to be "hot spots" for genomic instability. Recent evidence, however, implies that in the wake of DNA damage, WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX, the gene product of the FRA16D fragile site), associates with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and regulates its activation to maintain genomic integrity.

  17. Embedding HIV Mentoring Programs in HIV Research Networks.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M Isabel; Wheeler, Darrell P; Alfonso, Sarah V

    2016-09-01

    Responding to the demands of the HIV/AIDS epidemic necessitates a diverse scientific and clinical workforce trained in applying interdisciplinary research approaches to address the epidemic domestically and internationally. Ensuring diversity in our workforce requires concerted efforts. Yet, the majority of graduate and post-graduate programs are ill-equipped to provide this type of training. Research networks, the HPTN, HVTN, CFAR and ATN, are uniquely positioned to implement interdisciplinary mentoring programs and all four have done so. We describe these programs, the nuts and bolts of program implementation and efforts to recruit and retain diversity scholars. We outline some inherent challenges such as competing demands for network resources or tension in aligning scholars' research agenda with that of the networks. We argue that the benefits to be gained from continuing these programs far outweigh their costs and that these programs are an essential component of a comprehensive strategy for developing the future HIV research workforce.

  18. ATMs, Coffee Shops Ideal Spots for Heart Defibrillators

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hortons and Starbucks, and ATMs connected to large banks. In fact, those businesses accounted for eight of ... Starbucks and Second Cup -- along with five large-bank ATMs -- made up most of the remaining top ...

  19. EEG-based research on brain functional networks in cognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niannian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, exploring the cognitive functions of the brain by establishing a network model to understand the working mechanism of the brain has become a popular research topic in the field of neuroscience. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to collect data from subjects given four different mathematical cognitive tasks: recite numbers clockwise and counter-clockwise, and letters clockwise and counter-clockwise to build a complex brain function network (BFN). By studying the connectivity features and parameters of those brain functional networks, it was found that the average clustering coefficient is much larger than its corresponding random network and the average shortest path length is similar to the corresponding random networks, which clearly shows the characteristics of the small-world network. The brain regions stimulated during the experiment are consistent with traditional cognitive science regarding learning, memory, comprehension, and other rational judgment results. The new method of complex networking involves studying the mathematical cognitive process of reciting, providing an effective research foundation for exploring the relationship between brain cognition and human learning skills and memory. This could help detect memory deficits early in young and mentally handicapped children, and help scientists understand the causes of cognitive brain disorders.

  20. A national wind erosion research network

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Public concern about wind erosion in the United States is high. This concern has arisen as a consequence of changing and intensifying land use pressures which can lead to increased soil loss and dust emission. However, there is relatively little research to support improved management. While much at...

  1. Research, Supervision, and the Network Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in distance learning environments. A quick Google search turns up as many as 178,000 links to the term. ICT has been less used and discussed as a means of communication between research student and supervisor--particularly where this is the major means of student…

  2. Collaborative research networks in health: a pragmatic scoping study for the development of an imaging network.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tracy Elizabeth; Rankin, Nicole; Janssen, Anna; Mcgregor, Deborah; Grieve, Stuart; Shaw, Timothy

    2015-12-09

    Collaborative research networks are often touted as a solution for enhancing the translation of knowledge, but questions remain about how to evaluate their impact on health service delivery. This pragmatic scoping study explored the enabling factors for developing and supporting a collaborative imaging network in a metropolitan university in Australia. An advisory group was established to provide governance and to identify key informants and participants. Focus group discussions (n = 2) and semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were facilitated with representatives from a broad range of disciplines. In addition, a survey, a review of relevant websites (n = 15) and a broad review of the literature were undertaken to elicit information on collaborative research networks and perceived needs and factors that would support their involvement in a multi-disciplinary collaborative research network. Findings were de-identified and broad themes were identified. Participants identified human factors as having priority for developing and sustaining a collaborative research network. In particular, leadership, a shared vision and a communication plan that includes social media were identified as crucial for sustaining an imaging network in health research. It is important to develop metrics that map relationships between network members and the role that communication tools can contribute to this process. This study confirms that human factors remain significant across a range of collaborative endeavours. The use of focus group discussions, interviews, and literature and website reviews means we can now strongly recommend the primacy of human factors. More work is needed to identify how the network operates and what specific indicators or metrics help build the capacity of clinicians and scientists to participate in translational research.

  3. ATM-distributed PACS server for ICU application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joseph K.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Huang, H. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Zhang, Jianguo; Andriole, Katherine P.

    1996-05-01

    In order for PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications System) to better serve our intensive care units (ICUs), we, at University of California, San Francisco, have designed and developed a client/server application that is specifically tailored to provide fast, reliable access to our PACS data from diagnostic viewing stations in the ICUs. One of our utmost design criteria is to ensure consistent delivery of high speed, high performance data throughput, and yet, the system should be cost-effective and render minimal maintenance. As high technology advances, we are able to utilize powerful mass storage device such as raid disk, which serves as a central image repository, to store images and data. We are also able to utilize Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology, which is regarded as the prevailing technology for reliable, high speed data communications, to transfer large imagery data sets across systems and networks. This paper describes the design and mechanism of how ICU viewing stations take advantages of sharing a high performance raid disk, and ATM technology in data transfer for timely delivery of images in a clinical setting.

  4. Global Network of Autonomous Observatories Dedicated to Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, R.

    2006-08-01

    We will demonstrate operation of one or more meter-class telescopes devoted to student initiated astronomical research projects. For multiple decades astronomers have promised each other the development of global networks of telescopes. For the last decade, without ever fulfilling the initial promise, we have upped the ante and promised global networks of robotic telescopes. Sometimes the network is to be composed of 20- to 40-cm aperture telescopes; other times the network will include meter-class telescopes. Sometimes the network is exclusive to a select, small group of users; other times the dream is open to any interested parties. Western Kentucky University, the Hands-On Universe project, and NASA's Kepler mission have achieved the first components of a network of telescopes established for educational programs. We will discuss the process used by teachers and students to make use of a substantial fraction of the network's observing time, and to access most of the archived data. Examples of student projects will be shared, along with immediate plans for expanding the network.

  5. Defining and measuring successful emergency care networks: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Seth W; Kit Delgado, M; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hollander, Judd E; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Jacobs, Alice K; Kilaru, Austin S; Lorch, Scott A; Mutter, Ryan L; Myers, Sage R; Owens, Pamela L; Phelan, Michael P; Pines, Jesse M; Seymour, Christopher W; Ewen Wang, N; Branas, Charles C

    2010-12-01

    The demands on emergency services have grown relentlessly, and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has asserted the need for "regionalized, coordinated, and accountable emergency care systems throughout the country." There are large gaps in the evidence base needed to fix the problem of how emergency care is organized and delivered, and science is urgently needed to define and measure success in the emerging network of emergency care. In 2010, Academic Emergency Medicine convened a consensus conference entitled "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." This article is a product of the conference breakout session on "Defining and Measuring Successful Networks"; it explores the concept of integrated emergency care delivery and prioritizes a research agenda for how to best define and measure successful networks of emergency care. The authors discuss five key areas: 1) the fundamental metrics that are needed to measure networks across time-sensitive and non-time-sensitive conditions; 2) how networks can be scalable and nimble and can be creative in terms of best practices; 3) the potential unintended consequences of networks of emergency care; 4) the development of large-scale, yet feasible, network data systems; and 5) the linkage of data systems across the disease course. These knowledge gaps must be filled to improve the quality and efficiency of emergency care and to fulfill the IOM's vision of regionalized, coordinated, and accountable emergency care systems. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  6. ATMIN defines an NBS1-independent pathway of ATM signalling

    PubMed Central

    Kanu, Nnennaya; Behrens, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The checkpoint kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) transduces genomic stress signals to halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair in response to DNA damage. Here, we report the characterisation of an essential cofactor for ATM, ATMIN (ATM INteracting protein). ATMIN interacts with ATM through a C-terminal motif, which is also present in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS)1. ATMIN and ATM colocalised in response to ATM activation by chloroquine and hypotonic stress, but not after induction of double-strand breaks by ionising radiation (IR). ATM/ATMIN complex disruption by IR was attenuated in cells with impaired NBS1 function, suggesting competition of NBS1 and ATMIN for ATM binding. ATMIN protein levels were reduced in ataxia telangiectasia cells and ATM protein levels were low in primary murine fibroblasts lacking ATMIN, indicating reciprocal stabilisation. Whereas phosphorylation of Smc1, Chk2 and p53 was normal after IR in ATMIN-deficient cells, basal ATM activity and ATM activation by hypotonic stress and inhibition of DNA replication was impaired. Thus, ATMIN defines a novel NBS1-independent pathway of ATM signalling. PMID:17525732

  7. ATM protein is deficient in over 40% of lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Villaruz, Liza C; Jones, Helen; Dacic, Sanja; Abberbock, Shira; Kurland, Brenda F; Stabile, Laura P; Siegfried, Jill M; Conrads, Thomas P; Smith, Neil R; O'Connor, Mark J; Pierce, Andrew J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2016-09-06

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and worldwide, and of the estimated 1.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed every year, over 30% are lung adenocarcinomas. The backbone of 1st-line systemic therapy in the metastatic setting, in the absence of an actionable oncogenic driver, is platinum-based chemotherapy. ATM and ATR are DNA damage signaling kinases activated at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stalled and collapsed replication forks, respectively. ATM protein is lost in a number of cancer cell lines and ATR kinase inhibitors synergize with cisplatin to resolve xenograft models of ATM-deficient lung cancer. We therefore sought to determine the frequency of ATM loss in a tissue microarray (TMA) of lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report the validation of a commercial antibody (ab32420) for the identification of ATM by immunohistochemistry and estimate that 61 of 147 (41%, 95% CI 34%-50%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma are negative for ATM protein expression. As a positive control for ATM staining, nuclear ATM protein was identified in stroma and immune infiltrate in all evaluable cases. ATM loss in lung adenocarcinoma was not associated with overall survival. However, our preclinical findings in ATM-deficient cell lines suggest that ATM could be a predictive biomarker for synergy of an ATR kinase inhibitor with standard-of-care cisplatin. This could improve clinical outcome in 100,000's of patients with ATM-deficient lung adenocarcinoma every year.

  8. US computer research networks: Current and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  9. 75 FR 57521 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... FOUNDATION Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010 Strategic Plan--URL Correction AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information... Coordination Office for Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) requests...

  10. MPEG-2 Over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Over Satellite Quality of Service (QoS) Experiments: Laboratory Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Frantz, Brian D.; Spells, Marcus J.

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service (QoS) experiments were performed using MPEG-2 (ATM application layer 5, AAL5) over ATM over an emulated satellite link. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the free-space link quality necessary to transmit high-quality multimedia information by using the ATM protocol. The detailed test plan and test configuration are described herein as are the test results. MPEG-2 transport streams were baselined in an errored environment, followed by a series of tests using, MPEG-2 over ATM. Errors were created both digitally as well as in an IF link by using a satellite modem and commercial gaussian noise test set for two different MPEG-2 decoder implementations. The results show that ITU-T Recommendation 1.356 Class 1, stringent ATM applications will require better link quality than currently specified; in particular, cell loss ratios of better than 1.0 x 10(exp -8) and cell error ratios of better than 1.0 x 10(exp -7) are needed. These tests were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperability research.

  11. Expanding Delivery System Research in Public Health Settings: Lessons from Practice-Based Research Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Glen P.; Hogg, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Delivery system research to identify how best to organize, finance, and implement health improvement strategies has focused heavily on clinical practice settings, with relatively little attention paid to public health settings – where research is made more difficult by wide heterogeneity in settings and limited sources of existing data and measures. This study examines the approaches used by Public Health Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs) to expand delivery system research and evidence-based practice in public health settings. METHODS PBRN research networks employ quasi-experimental research designs, natural experiments, and mixed-method analytic techniques to evaluate how community partnerships, economic shocks, and policy changes impact delivery processes in public health settings. Additionally, network analysis methods are used to assess patterns of interaction between practitioners and researchers within PBRNs to produce and apply research findings. RESULTS Findings from individual PBRN studies elucidate the roles of information exchange, community resources, and leadership and decision-making structures in shaping implementation outcomes in public health delivery. Network analysis of PBRNs reveals broad engagement of both practitioners and researchers in scientific inquiry, with practitioners in the periphery of these networks reporting particularly large benefits from research participation. CONCLUSIONS Public Health PBRNs provide effective mechanisms for implementing delivery system research, engaging practitioners in the process, and accelerating the translation and application of research findings into public health settings. PMID:23023272

  12. Establishment and preliminary outcomes of a palliative care research network.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Peter; Street, Annette; Graham, Suzanne; Aranda, Sanchia; O'Connor, Margaret; Thomas, Kristina; Jackson, Kate; Spruyt, Odette; Ugalde, Anna; Philip, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The difficulties in conducting palliative care research have been widely acknowledged. In order to generate the evidence needed to underpin palliative care provision, collaborative research is considered essential. Prior to formalizing the development of a research network for the state of Victoria, Australia, a preliminary study was undertaken to ascertain interest and recommendations for the design of such a collaboration. Three data-collection strategies were used: a cross-sectional questionnaire, interviews, and workshops. The questionnaire was completed by multidisciplinary palliative care specialists from across the state (n = 61); interviews were conducted with senior clinicians and academics (n = 21) followed by two stakeholder workshops (n = 29). The questionnaire was constructed specifically for this study, measuring involvement of and perceptions of palliative care research. Both the interview and the questionnaire data demonstrated strong support for a palliative care research network and aided in establishing a research agenda. The stakeholder workshops assisted with strategies for the formation of the Palliative Care Research Network Victoria (PCRNV) and guided the development of the mission and strategic plan. The research and efforts to date to establish the PCRNV are encouraging and provide optimism for the evolution of palliative care research in Australia. The international implications are highlighted.

  13. Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Telemetry Warehouse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Functionality and architecture of the NSRL Telemetry Warehouse are also described as well as the web interface, data structure, security aspects, and...Experiment Controller 6 4.5 Telemetry Sensors 7 4.6 Custom Data Processing Nodes 7 5. Web Interface 8 6. Data Structure 8 6.1 Measurements 8...telemetry in comma-separated value (CSV) format from the web interface or via custom applications developed by researchers using the client application

  14. Vela Network Evaluation and Automatic Processing Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-29

    beamed SP KSRS data. ’ Determine the improvements in long-period signal esti- mation 1ýy cascading previously developed techniques , developii-ig a...cascading previously developed technique ’!7ivoping a ) I- "seismic filter which adapts to a zimuthal wandering ihc ent \\ signals, and designing a...KOREAN SEISMIC RESEARCH STATION SHORT PERIOD ARRAY 1. -2 iv •14 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) SkGCTION TITLE PAGE IV. SIGNAL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES IV-1

  15. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  16. Stories in Networks and Networks in Stories: A Tri-Modal Model for Mixed-Methods Social Network Research on Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2015-01-01

    Social network research on teachers and schools has risen exponentially in recent years as an innovative method to reveal the role of social networks in education. However, scholars are still exploring ways to incorporate traditional quantitative methods of Social Network Analysis (SNA) with qualitative approaches to social network research. This…

  17. Stories in Networks and Networks in Stories: A Tri-Modal Model for Mixed-Methods Social Network Research on Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2015-01-01

    Social network research on teachers and schools has risen exponentially in recent years as an innovative method to reveal the role of social networks in education. However, scholars are still exploring ways to incorporate traditional quantitative methods of Social Network Analysis (SNA) with qualitative approaches to social network research. This…

  18. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  19. Performance analysis of ATM ABR service under self-similar traffic in the presence of background VBR traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Benke, G. |; Brandt, J.; Chen, H.; Dastangoo, S.; Miller, G.J.

    1996-05-01

    Recent empirical studies of traffic measurements of packet switched networks have demonstrated that actual network traffic is self-similar, or long range dependent, in nature. That is, the measured traffic is bursty over a wide range of time intervals. Furthermore, the emergence of high-speed network backbones demands the study of accurate models of aggregated traffic to assess network performance. This paper provides a method for generation of self-similar traffic, which can be used to drive network simulation models. The authors present the results of a simulation study of a two-node ATM network configuration that supports the ATM Forum`s Available Bit Rate (ABR) service. In this study, the authors compare the state of the queue at the source router at the edge of the ATM network under both Poisson and self-similar traffic loading. These findings indicate an order of magnitude increase in queue length for self-similar traffic loading as compared to Poisson loading. Moreover, when background VBR traffic is present, self-similar ABR traffic causes more congestion at the ATM switches than does Poisson traffic.

  20. NIHR Clinical Research Networks: what they do and how they help paediatric research.

    PubMed

    Lythgoe, Hanna; Price, Victoria; Poustie, Vanessa; Attar, Sabah; Hawcutt, Daniel; Preston, Jennifer; Beresford, Michael W

    2017-08-01

    This review provides paediatricians with an update on the new structure of the National Institute for Health Research's (NIHR) Clinical Research Network (CRN): Children and its role within the wider NIHR infrastructure. The network supports delivery of high-quality research within the NHS in England and supports researchers, through provision of staff and resources, with feasibility, site set-up, patient recruitment and study management. Since 2013, over 80% of commercial contract studies running within the UK sat within the UKCRN Portfolio. Of the diverse, increasing portfolio of studies supported by the network, many studies are interventional, with 33% being randomised controlled studies. Recruitment to studies supported by the network through the Children's Portfolio has consistently improved. Over 200 000 participants have been recruited to the Children's Portfolio studies to date, and there are currently approximately 500 studies open to recruitment. The CRN: Children has successfully involved patients and the public in all aspects of study design and delivery, including through the work of Generation R. Challenges remain in conducting paediatric research and the network is committed to supporting Children's research and further building on its achievements to date. Education and engagement of paediatricians within the network and research is important to further improving quality and delivery of paediatric research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Patient-powered research networks: building capacity for conducting patient-centered clinical outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Sarah E; Wahba, Sarita; Fleurence, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) recently launched PCORnet to establish a single inter-operable multicenter data research network that will support observational research and randomized clinical trials. This paper provides an overview of the patient-powered research networks (PPRNs), networks of patient organizations focused on a particular health condition that are interested in sharing health information and engaging in research. PPRNs will build on their foundation of trust within the patient communities and draw on their expertise, working with participants to identify true patient-centered outcomes and direct a patient-centered research agenda. The PPRNs will overcome common challenges including enrolling a diverse and representative patient population; engaging patients in governance; designing the data infrastructure; sharing data securely while protecting privacy; prioritizing research questions; scaling small networks into a larger network; and identifying pathways to sustainability. PCORnet will be the first distributed research network to bring PCOR to national scale. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  3. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements: ASCR Network Requirements Review Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W; Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  5. Research on complex networks' repairing characteristics due to cascading failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaoqi, Fu; Ying, Wang; Xiaoyang, Wang

    2017-09-01

    In reality, most of the topological structures of complex networks are not ideal. Considering the restrictions from all aspects, we cannot timely adjust and improve network defects. Once complex networks collapse under cascading failure, an appropriate repair strategy must be implemented. This repair process is divided into 3 kinds of situations. Based on different types of opening times, we presented 2 repair modes, and researched 4 kinds of repair strategies. Results showed that network efficiency recovered faster when the repair strategies were arranged in descending order by parameters under the immediate opening condition. However, the risk of secondary failure and additional expansion capacity were large. On the contrary, when repair strategies were in ascending order, the demand for additional capacity caused by secondary failure was greatly saved, but the recovery of network efficiency was relatively slow. Compared to immediate opening, delayed opening alleviated the contradiction between network efficiency and additional expansion capacity, particularly to reduce the risk of secondary failure. Therefore, different repair methods have different repair characteristics. This paper investigates the impact of cascading effects on the network repair process, and by presenting a detailed description of the status of each repaired node, helps us understand the advantages and disadvantages of different repair strategies.

  6. The use and significance of a research networking system.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Maninder; Yuan, Leslie; Daigre, John; Meeks, Eric; Nelson, Katie; Piontkowski, Cynthia; Reuter, Katja; Sak, Rachael; Turner, Brian; Weber, Griffin M; Chatterjee, Anirvan

    2014-02-07

    Universities have begun deploying public Internet systems that allow for easy search of their experts, expertise, and intellectual networks. Deployed first in biomedical schools but now being implemented more broadly, the initial motivator of these research networking systems was to enable easier identification of collaborators and enable the development of teams for research. The intent of the study was to provide the first description of the usage of an institutional research "social networking" system or research networking system (RNS). Number of visits, visitor location and type, referral source, depth of visit, search terms, and click paths were derived from 2.5 years of Web analytics data. Feedback from a pop-up survey presented to users over 15 months was summarized. RNSs automatically generate and display profiles and networks of researchers. Within 2.5 years, the RNS at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) achieved one-seventh of the monthly visit rate of the main longstanding university website, with an increasing trend. Visitors came from diverse locations beyond the institution. Close to 75% (74.78%, 208,304/278,570) came via a public search engine and 84.0% (210 out of a sample of 250) of these queried an individual's name that took them directly to the relevant profile page. In addition, 20.90% (214 of 1024) visits went beyond the page related to a person of interest to explore related researchers and topics through the novel and networked information provided by the tool. At the end of the period analyzed, more than 2000 visits per month traversed 5 or more links into related people and topics. One-third of visits came from returning visitors who were significantly more likely to continue to explore networked people and topics (P<.001). Responses to an online survey suggest a broad range of benefits of using the RNS in supporting the research and clinical mission. Returning visitors in an ever-increasing pool of visitors to an RNS are

  7. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  8. Research on the complex network of the UNSPSC ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingying; Zou, Shengrong; Gu, Aihua; Wei, Li; Zhou, Ta

    The UNSPSC ontology mainly applies to the classification system of the e-business and governments buying the worldwide products and services, and supports the logic structure of classification of the products and services. In this paper, the related technologies of the complex network were applied to analyzing the structure of the ontology. The concept of the ontology was corresponding to the node of the complex network, and the relationship of the ontology concept was corresponding to the edge of the complex network. With existing methods of analysis and performance indicators in the complex network, analyzing the degree distribution and community of the ontology, and the research will help evaluate the concept of the ontology, classify the concept of the ontology and improve the efficiency of semantic matching.

  9. The human face of biobank networks for translational research.

    PubMed

    Meir, Karen; Gaffney, Eoin F; Simeon-Dubach, Daniel; Ravid, Rivka; Watson, Peter H; Schacter, Brent; Morente And The Marble Arch International Working Group On Biobanking, Manuel M

    2011-09-01

    The biobanking literature frequently addresses donor and societal issues surrounding biobanking, but the biobanker's perspective is rarely highlighted. While not comprehensive, this article offers an overview of the human aspects of biobanking from the viewpoint of biobank personnel-from biobank formation, through the process, and in addressing post-biobanking issues. As every biobank and biobank network may differ, such factors may vary. Before biobanking can commence, the purpose of the biobank network must be defined, and buy-in achieved from many stakeholders. An attitude of trust and sharing is essential, as is good communication. Developing a biobank is time consuming and laborious. Forming a network requires significantly more time due to the need for cross-institutional harmonization of policies, procedures, information technology considerations, and ethics. Circumstances may dictate whether development occurs top-down and/or bottom-up, as well as whether network management may be independent or by personnel from participating biobanks. Funding tends to be a prominent issue for biobanks and networks alike. In particular, networks function optimally with some level of government support, particularly for personnel. Quality biospecimen collection involves meticulously documented coordination with a network of medical and nursing staff. Examining and sampling operative specimens requires timely collaboration between the surgical and pathology teams. "Catch rates" for samples may be difficult to predict and may occur at a frequency less than anticipated due to factors related to the institution, staff, or specimen. These factors may affect specimen quality, and have a downstream effect on competition for specimens for research. Thus, release of samples requires a fair, carefully constructed sample access policy, usually incorporating an incentive for researchers, and an encouragement to form collaborations. Finally, the public and patient groups should aim to

  10. ATM photoheliograph. [at a solar observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prout, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The design and fabrication are presented of a 65 cm photoheliograph functional verification unit (FVU) installed in a major solar observatory. The telescope is used in a daily program of solar observation while serving as a test bed for the development of instrumentation to be included in early space shuttle launched solar telescopes. The 65 cm FVU was designed to be mechanically compatible with the ATM spar/canister and would be adaptable to a second ATM flight utilizing the existing spar/canister configuration. An image motion compensation breadboard and a space-hardened, remotely tuned H alpha filter, as well as solar telescopes of different optical configurations or increased aperture are discussed.

  11. Modulation of proteostasis counteracts oxidative stress and affects DNA base excision repair capacity in ATM-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Mattia; Yang, Di; Fletcher, Sally C; Vendrell, Iolanda; Fischer, Roman; Legrand, Arnaud J; Dianov, Grigory L

    2017-09-29

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a syndrome associated with loss of ATM protein function. Neurodegeneration and cancer predisposition, both hallmarks of A-T, are likely to emerge as a consequence of the persistent oxidative stress and DNA damage observed in this disease. Surprisingly however, despite these severe features, a lack of functional ATM is still compatible with early life, suggesting that adaptation mechanisms contributing to cell survival must be in place. Here we address this gap in our knowledge by analysing the process of human fibroblast adaptation to the lack of ATM. We identify profound rearrangement in cellular proteostasis occurring very early on after loss of ATM in order to counter protein damage originating from oxidative stress. Change in proteostasis, however, is not without repercussions. Modulating protein turnover in ATM-depleted cells also has an adverse effect on the DNA base excision repair pathway, the major DNA repair system that deals with oxidative DNA damage. As a consequence, the burden of unrepaired endogenous DNA lesions intensifies, progressively leading to genomic instability. Our study provides a glimpse at the cellular consequences of loss of ATM and highlights a previously overlooked role for proteostasis in maintaining cell survival in the absence of ATM function. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR Interplay Maintains Genome Integrity during Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Downing, Susanna M; Li, Yang; Brown, Eric J; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2017-01-25

    The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates a network of cellular processes that integrates cell-cycle control and DNA repair or apoptosis, which serves to maintain genome stability. DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase, encoded by PRKDC), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are related PI3K-like protein kinases and central regulators of the DDR. Defects in these kinases have been linked to neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental syndromes. In all cases, the key neuroprotective function of these kinases is uncertain. It also remains unclear how interactions between the three DNA damage-responsive kinases coordinate genome stability, particularly in a physiological context. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify the neural function of DNA-PKcs and the interplay between ATM and ATR during neurogenesis. We found that DNA-PKcs loss in the mouse sensitized neuronal progenitors to apoptosis after ionizing radiation because of excessive DNA damage. DNA-PKcs was also required to prevent endogenous DNA damage accumulation throughout the adult brain. In contrast, ATR coordinated the DDR during neurogenesis to direct apoptosis in cycling neural progenitors, whereas ATM regulated apoptosis in both proliferative and noncycling cells. We also found that ATR controls a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in cortical progenitors, independent of ATM and DNA-PKcs. These nonoverlapping roles were further confirmed via sustained murine embryonic or cortical development after all three kinases were simultaneously inactivated. Thus, our results illustrate how DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR have unique and essential roles during the DDR, collectively ensuring comprehensive genome maintenance in the nervous system.

  13. Networking Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Seismology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardini, Domenico; van Eck, Torild; Bossu, Rémy; Wiemer, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    In the past decade, European countries have experienced a surge in funding, of the order of 100 million euro (€100 million), for new earthquake monitoring equipment and initiatives. Permanent and mobile seismograph and accelerometer networks on national, regional, and global levels are being modernized and are expanding at a significant pace. Currently, earthquakes in the European-Mediterranean region are recorded by more than 2500 short-period (SP) seismometers, 3000 accelerometers, and 800 broadband (BB) permanent seismic stations operated by more than 100 networks and observatories. An additional 400 BB and more than 1200 SP mobile stations are deployed by universities and research institutes in temporary experiments. This unprecedented and still-expanding recording capacity in Europe and its immediate surroundings opens up new research opportunities as well as new data-handling challenges. For example, maintaining optimum access to the data and integrating facilities with different types of data require a high level of networking and coordination.

  14. Activation of ATM by DNA Damaging Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    all cases, observe a dependence on ATM for phosphorylation. These phosphorylation events are attenuated by pretreatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine...Chemistry requested that I evaluate the effect of N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment on doxorubicin-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX at serine 139. In...S33/35, T68) in response to doxorubicin treatment * I detennined that phosphorylation at these sites can be partially attenuated by pretreatment of

  15. WWOX guards genome stability by activating ATM

    PubMed Central

    Hazan, Idit; Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hofmann, Thomas G; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) tend to break upon replication stress and have been suggested to be “hot spots” for genomic instability. Recent evidence, however, implies that in the wake of DNA damage, WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX, the gene product of the FRA16D fragile site), associates with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and regulates its activation to maintain genomic integrity. PMID:27308504

  16. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  17. MSFC Skylab ATM calibration rocket project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) Calibration Rocket (CALROC) performances and anomalies encountered are discussed. The performance period included six CALROC flights during the Skylab 2, 3 and 4 missions as well as those rocket flights prior to the Skylab mission which carried CALROC hardware for test purposes. Background material such as project purpose, management, launch facilities, booster and payload configuration is included for better understanding of the CALROC payload and its mission objectives.

  18. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, David I; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (α = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. © 2015 D. I. Hanauer and G. Hatfull. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Linking behavior in the physics education research coauthorship network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Katharine A.; Crespi, Matthew; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-06-01

    There is considerable long-term interest in understanding the dynamics of collaboration networks, and how these networks form and evolve over time. Most of the work done on the dynamics of social networks focuses on well-established communities. Work examining emerging social networks is rarer, simply because data are difficult to obtain in real time. In this paper, we use thirty years of data from an emerging scientific community to look at that crucial early stage in the development of a social network. We show that when the field was very young, islands of individual researchers labored in relative isolation, and the coauthorship network was disconnected. Thirty years later, rather than a cluster of individuals, we find a true collaborative community, bound together by a robust collaboration network. However, this change did not take place gradually—the network remained a loose assortment of isolated individuals until the mid 2000s, when those smaller parts suddenly knit themselves together into a single whole. In the rest of this paper, we consider the role of three factors in these observed structural changes: growth, changes in social norms, and the introduction of institutions such as field-specific conferences and journals. We have data from the very earliest years of the field, a period which includes the introduction of two different institutions: the first field-specific conference, and the first field-specific journals. We also identify two relevant behavioral shifts: a discrete increase in coauthorship coincident with the first conference, and a shift among established authors away from collaborating with outsiders, towards collaborating with each other. The interaction of these factors gives us insight into the formation of collaboration networks more broadly.

  20. Promoting Cognitive Health: A Formative Research Collaboration of the Healthy Aging Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, James N.; Beard, Renee L.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Fetterman, David; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Wu, Bei

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests that healthy lifestyles may help maintain cognitive health. The Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network, 9 universities collaborating with their communities and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is conducting a multiyear research project, begun in 2005, to understand how to translate this…

  1. Graduate students navigating social-ecological research: insights from the Long-Term Ecological Research Network

    Treesearch

    Sydne Record; Paige F. B. Ferguson; Elise Benveniste; Rose A. Graves; Vera W. Pfeiffer; Michele Romolini; Christie E. Yorke; Ben Beardmore

    2016-01-01

    Interdisciplinary, collaborative research capable of capturing the feedbacks between biophysical and social systems can improve the capacity for sustainable environmental decision making. Networks of researchers provide unique opportunities to foster social-ecological inquiry. Although insights into interdisciplinary research have been discussed elsewhere,...

  2. The American Counseling Association Practice Research Network (ACA-PRN): A New Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Sexton, Thomas L.; Smith, Howard B.

    2005-01-01

    This article features the American Counseling Association Practice Research Network (ACA-PRN). Without additional current and ongoing research data, ACA and the counseling profession are seriously hampered when they discuss counseling outcomes. Without a sound, dynamic research base that better articulates the characteristics of practicing…

  3. Patient-powered research networks aim to improve patient care and health research.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Beal, Anne C; Sheridan, Susan E; Johnson, Lorraine B; Selby, Joe V

    2014-07-01

    The era of big data, loosely defined as the development and analysis of large or complex data sets, brings new opportunities to empower patients and their families to generate, collect, and use their health information for both clinical and research purposes. In 2013 the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute launched a large national research network, PCORnet, that includes both clinical and patient-powered research networks. This article describes these networks, their potential uses, and the challenges they face. The networks are engaging patients, family members, and caregivers in four key ways: contributing data securely, with privacy protected; including diverse and representative groups of patients in research; prioritizing research questions, participating in research, and disseminating results; and participating in the leadership and governance of patient-powered research networks. If technical, regulatory, and organizational challenges can be overcome, PCORnet will allow research to be conducted more efficiently and cost-effectively and results to be disseminated quickly back to patients, clinicians, and delivery systems to improve patient health.

  4. EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Comerón, A.; Mona, L.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Fernández, A. J.; Fréville, P.; García-Vizcaíno, D.; Giunta, A.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Haefele, A.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Mattis, I.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz Porcar, C.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Nicolae, D.; Nisantzi, A.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Papayannis, A.; Pereira, S.; Preißler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Rizi, V.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Simeonov, V.; Tsaknakis, G.; Wagner, F.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of ACTRIS summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June-17 July 2012), EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated to the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time the Single-Calculus Chain (SCC), the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products, was used. All stations sent in real time measurements of 1 h of duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 84 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on lidar data. The paper shows time series of continuous and homogeneously obtained products retrieved at different levels of the SCC: range-square corrected signals (pre-processing) and daytime backscatter and nighttime extinction coefficient profiles (optical processing), as well as combined plots of all direct and derived optical products. The derived products include backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents, lidar ratios and color ratios. The combined plots reveal extremely valuable for aerosol classification. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modelling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.

  5. A community of practice: librarians in a biomedical research network.

    PubMed

    De Jager-Loftus, Danielle P; Midyette, J David; Harvey, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Providing library and reference services within a biomedical research community presents special challenges for librarians, especially those in historically lower-funded states. These challenges can include understanding needs, defining and communicating the library's role, building relationships, and developing and maintaining general and subject specific knowledge. This article describes a biomedical research network and the work of health sciences librarians at the lead intensive research institution with librarians from primarily undergraduate institutions and tribal colleges. Applying the concept of a community of practice to a collaborative effort suggests how librarians can work together to provide effective reference services to researchers in biomedicine.

  6. Intercalibrating and Validating Saphir and Atms Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, I.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of evaluating observations from microwave instruments aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP, ATMS instrument) and Megha-Tropiques (SAPHIR instrument) satellites. ATMS is a cross-track microwave sounder that currently flying on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, launched in October 2011, which is in a Sun-synchronous orbit with the ascending equatorial crossing time at 01:30 a.m. Megha-Tropiques, launched in Nov 2011, is a low-inclination satellite meaning that the satellite only visits the tropical band between 30 S and 30 N. SAPHIR is a microwave humidity sounder with 6 channels operating at the frequencies close to the water vapor absorption line at 183 GHz. Megha-Tropiques revisits the tropical regions several times a day and provide a great capability for inter-calibrating the observations with the polar orbiting satellites. The study includes inter-comparison and inter-calibration of observations of similar channels from the two instruments, evaluation of the satellite data using high-quality radiosonde data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and GPS Radio Occultaion Observations from COSMIC mission, as well as geolocation error correction. The results of this study are valuable for generating climate data records from these instruments as well as for extending current climate data records from similar instruments such as AMSU-B and MHS to the ATMS and SAPHIR instruments.

  7. Novel ATM mutations with ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Tian; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Luan, Xing-Hua; Shen, Jun-Yi; Chen, Sheng-Di; Cao, Li

    2016-01-12

    Ataxia telangiectasia is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia with onset in childhood, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, increased serum alpha-fetoprotein, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, and radiation hypersensitivity. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) is one of the known genes to be associated with ataxia telangiectasia. We reported the clinical and genetic findings of three early-onset Chinese patients who demonstrated ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis, myoclonus and telangiectasia of eyes. Sequence analysis of ATM revealed two known nonsense mutations c.8287C>T and c.9139C>T in the siblings. Though the siblings carried the same mutations, they showed different clinical features involving strephenopodia, exotropia, torsion dystonia, myoclonus and extrapyramidal impairments. The other patient was compound heterozygotes for ATM: c.8911C>T and c.7141_7151delAATGGAAAAAT, both of which were not reported previously and not found in 200 control chromosomes. This study widens the spectrum of mutations and phenotypes in ataxia telangiectasia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aven-dependent activation of ATM following DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jessie Yanxiang; Yamada, Ayumi; Kajino, Taisuke; Wu, Judy Qiju; Tang, Wanli; Freel, Christopher D.; Feng, Junjie; Chau, B. Nelson; Wang, Michael Zhuo; Margolis, Seth; Yoo, Hae Yong; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Dunphy, William G.; Irusta, Pablo M.; Hardwick, J. Marie; Kornbluth, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background In response to DNA damage, cells either undergo cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, depending on the extent of damage and the cell’s capacity for DNA repair. Cell cycle arrest induced by double-stranded DNA breaks depends on activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia (ATM) protein kinase, which phosphorylates cell cycle effectors such as Chk2 and p53 to inhibit cell cycle progression. ATM is recruited to double stranded DNA breaks by a complex of sensor proteins including Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1, resulting in autophosphorylation, monomerization, and activation of ATM kinase. Results In characterizing Aven protein, a previously reported apoptotic inhibitor, we have found that Aven can function as an ATM activator to inhibit G2/M progression. Aven bound to ATM and Aven overexpression in cycling Xenopus egg extracts prevented mitotic entry and induced phosphorylation of ATM and its substrates. Immunodepletion of endogenous Aven allowed mitotic entry even in the presence of damaged DNA, and RNAi-mediated knock-down of Aven in human cells prevented autophosphorylation of ATM at an activating site (S1981) in response to DNA damage. Interestingly, Aven is also a substrate of the ATM kinase. Mutation of ATM-mediated phosphorylation sites on Aven reduced its ability to activate ATM, suggesting that Aven activation of ATM following DNA damage is enhanced by ATM-mediated Aven phosphorylation. Conclusions These results identify Aven as a new ATM activator and describe a positive feedback loop operating between Aven and ATM. In aggregate, these findings place Aven, a known apoptotic inhibitor, as a critical transducer of the DNA damage signal. PMID:18571408

  9. Interdependent networks - Topological percolation research and application in finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di

    This dissertation covers the two major parts of my Ph.D. research: i) developing a theoretical framework of complex networks and applying simulation and numerical methods to study the robustness of the network system, and ii) applying statistical physics concepts and methods to quantitatively analyze complex systems and applying the theoretical framework to study real-world systems. In part I, we focus on developing theories of interdependent networks as well as building computer simulation models, which includes three parts: 1) We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the networks significantly changes the critical density of failures, which can trigger the total disruption of the two-network system. Specifically, we find that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. 2) We study the percolation behavior of two interdependent scale-free (SF) networks under random failure of 1-p fraction of nodes. We find that as the coupling strength q between the two networks reduces from 1 (fully coupled) to 0 (no coupling), there exist two critical coupling strengths q1 and q2 , which separate the behaviors of the giant component as a function of p into three different regions, and for q2 < q < q 1 , we observe a hybrid order phase transition phenomenon. 3) We study the robustness of n interdependent networks with partially support-dependent relationship both analytically and numerically. We study a starlike network of n Erdos-Renyi (ER), SF networks and a looplike network of n ER networks, and we find for starlike networks, their phase transition regions change with n, but for looplike networks the phase regions change with average degree k . In part II, we apply concepts and methods developed in statistical physics to study economic systems. We analyze stock market indices and foreign exchange

  10. ATM traffic-policing and traffic-shaping measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugaczewski, Jack T.; Sanderson, Dave; Hoffman, David W.

    1997-10-01

    ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) defines several Quality of Service (QoS) levels such as CBR (Constant Bit Rate) and VBR (Variable Bit Rate). Each service has parameters that are associated with its performance characteristic. The parameters used for specifying CBR service are Peak Cell Rate (PCR) and Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVTOL). The parameters used for specifying VBR service are PCR, SCR (Sustainable Cell Rate), and BT (Burst Tolerance). The network takes responsibility for monitoring and policing the traffic of each VCC/VPC at the ingress of the network. The CPE needs to traffic shape at the ingress of the network in order to meet the contracted QoS requirements. Measurement procedures and tools are required in order to provide a means of tuning the CPE and network service to meet the customer's end-to-end QoS expectations. The following paper describes how the Generic Cell Rate Algorithm variables can be adjusted to provide acceptable levels of QoS in a mixed VBR, and CBR environment. In addition, the paper examines a methodology for measuring the performance of VBR and CBR services. The authors uses this information to build a QoS measurement tool.

  11. Citation Networks as Indicators of Journalism Research Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews citation networks and discovers that the six major areas of activity in mass communication research are (1) television and politics, (2) sociological studies of journalists, (3) agenda setting, (4) the effects of mass communication, (5) the credibility of various news media, and (6) the characteristics of users and nonusers of mass media.…

  12. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  13. Exploration of Heterogeneity in Distributed Research Network Drug Safety Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Richard A.; Zeng, Peng; Ryan, Patrick; Gao, Juan; Sonawane, Kalyani; Teeter, Benjamin; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed data networks representing large diverse populations are an expanding focus of drug safety research. However, interpreting results is difficult when treatment effect estimates vary across datasets (i.e., heterogeneity). In a previous study, risk estimates were generated for selected drugs and potential adverse outcomes. Analyses were…

  14. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  15. Social Scholarship: Applying Social Networking Technologies to Research Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Participatory web-based technologies have the potential to change the way scholars engage in scholarship. One reason Web 2.0 technologies, such as online social networking, are not widely integrated in PreK-12 and postsecondary education is the lack of modeling by educators. Their lack of research-based best practices limits the ability to…

  16. Educational Research Computer Network on CompuServe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jean

    The Educational Research Forum on the CompuServe communication network consists of three parts. The online conferencing area enables users to communicate by typing messages. Communication may be private or stored in the electronic journal for other users to read. The bulletin board, or electronic mail, enables users to send or receive messages.…

  17. Exploration of Heterogeneity in Distributed Research Network Drug Safety Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Richard A.; Zeng, Peng; Ryan, Patrick; Gao, Juan; Sonawane, Kalyani; Teeter, Benjamin; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed data networks representing large diverse populations are an expanding focus of drug safety research. However, interpreting results is difficult when treatment effect estimates vary across datasets (i.e., heterogeneity). In a previous study, risk estimates were generated for selected drugs and potential adverse outcomes. Analyses were…

  18. Higher Education Change and Social Networks: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the potential for understanding higher education change processes through social network analysis (SNA). In this article, the main tenets of SNA are reviewed and, in conjunction with organizational theory, are applied to higher education change to develop a set of hypotheses that can be tested in future research.

  19. Higher Education Change and Social Networks: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the potential for understanding higher education change processes through social network analysis (SNA). In this article, the main tenets of SNA are reviewed and, in conjunction with organizational theory, are applied to higher education change to develop a set of hypotheses that can be tested in future research.

  20. Faculty Use of Author Identifiers and Researcher Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Clara Y.; Lyon, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey focused on faculty use and knowledge of author identifiers and researcher networking systems, and professional use of social media, at a large state university. Results from 296 completed faculty surveys representing all disciplines (9.3% response rate) show low levels of awareness and variable resource preferences. The…

  1. The Georgia Psychoeducational Network (GPN) Research Report, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W., Ed.; Brown, Carvin L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This research report contains seven papers on students with serious Emotional Disturbances (SED) and/or Severe Behavior Disorder (SBD) who participated in the Georgia Psychoeducational Network Program (GPN). "The 1982 Cohort of GPN Preschoolers--Where Are They in 1987-1988?" (Juanda Ponsell and others) reports the placement of 75…

  2. Using Action Research to Investigate Social Networking Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Lisa; Harris, Katy

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the first cycle of an Action Research (AR) investigation into why professional learners are not using the Social Networking Technologies (SNTs) of their bespoke website. It presents the rationale of how this study came about, the ontological and epistemological stance of the authors and how this led to the particular choice…

  3. Water resources: Research network to track alpine water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The water cycle in alpine environments worldwide supplies fresh water to vast downstream areas inhabited by more than half of humanity. The International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology (INARCH) was launched this year by the Global Energy and Water Exchanges project of the World Clim...

  4. The Adoption of Alcohol Pharmacotherapies in the Clinical Trials Network: The Influence of Research Network Participation

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Amanda J.; Knudsen, Hannah K.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Organizational participation in clinical research may lead to adoption of the intervention by treatment agencies, but it is not known whether research involvement enhances innovativeness beyond the specific interventions that are tested. The National Institute on Drug Abuse’s (NIDA) Clinical Trial Network (CTN) is a platform for considering this research question. To date, the CTN has not conducted research on medications for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), so greater adoption of innovative AUD pharmacotherapies by CTN-affiliated programs would suggest an added value of research network participation. Using longitudinal data from a pooled sample of CTN and non-CTN publicly funded treatment programs, we investigate adoption of tablet naltrexone and acamprosate over a two-year period. CTN-affiliated programs were more likely to have adopted tablet naltrexone and acamprosate at 24-month follow-up, net of the effects of a range of organizational characteristics. Research network participation may thus enhance organizational innovativeness to include interventions beyond the scope of the network. PMID:20117908

  5. Leadership in complex networks: the importance of network position and strategic action in a translational cancer research network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leadership behaviour in complex networks is under-researched, and little has been written concerning leadership of translational research networks (TRNs) that take discoveries made ‘at the bench’ and translate them into practices used ‘at the bedside.’ Understanding leaders’ opportunities and behaviours within TRNs working to solve this key problem in implementing evidence into clinical practice is therefore important. This study explored the network position of governing body members and perceptions of their role in a new TRN in Sydney, Australia. The paper asks three questions: Firstly, do the formal, mandated leaders of this TRN hold key positions of centrality or brokerage in the informal social network of collaborative ties? Secondly, if so, do they recognise the leadership opportunities that their network positions afford them? Thirdly, what activities associated with these key roles do they believe will maximise the TRN’s success? Methods Semi-structured interviews of all 14 governing body members conducted in early 2012 explored perceptions of their roles and sought comments on a list of activities drawn from review of successful transdisciplinary collaboratives combined with central and brokerage roles. An on-line, whole network survey of all 68 TRN members sought to understand and map existing collaborative connections. Leaders’ positions in the network were assessed using UCInet, and graphs were generated in NetDraw. Results Social network analysis identified that governing body members had high centrality and high brokerage potential in the informal network of work-related ties. Interviews showed perceived challenges including ‘silos’ and the mismatch between academic and clinical goals of research. Governing body members recognised their central positions, which would facilitate the leadership roles of leading, making decisions, and providing expert advice necessary for the co-ordination of effort and relevant input across

  6. Leadership in complex networks: the importance of network position and strategic action in a translational cancer research network.

    PubMed

    Long, Janet C; Cunningham, Frances C; Wiley, Janice; Carswell, Peter; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2013-10-11

    Leadership behaviour in complex networks is under-researched, and little has been written concerning leadership of translational research networks (TRNs) that take discoveries made 'at the bench' and translate them into practices used 'at the bedside.' Understanding leaders' opportunities and behaviours within TRNs working to solve this key problem in implementing evidence into clinical practice is therefore important. This study explored the network position of governing body members and perceptions of their role in a new TRN in Sydney, Australia. The paper asks three questions: Firstly, do the formal, mandated leaders of this TRN hold key positions of centrality or brokerage in the informal social network of collaborative ties? Secondly, if so, do they recognise the leadership opportunities that their network positions afford them? Thirdly, what activities associated with these key roles do they believe will maximise the TRN's success? Semi-structured interviews of all 14 governing body members conducted in early 2012 explored perceptions of their roles and sought comments on a list of activities drawn from review of successful transdisciplinary collaboratives combined with central and brokerage roles. An on-line, whole network survey of all 68 TRN members sought to understand and map existing collaborative connections. Leaders' positions in the network were assessed using UCInet, and graphs were generated in NetDraw. Social network analysis identified that governing body members had high centrality and high brokerage potential in the informal network of work-related ties. Interviews showed perceived challenges including 'silos' and the mismatch between academic and clinical goals of research. Governing body members recognised their central positions, which would facilitate the leadership roles of leading, making decisions, and providing expert advice necessary for the co-ordination of effort and relevant input across domains. Brokerage potential was recognised

  7. The Use and Significance of a Research Networking System

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Leslie; Daigre, John; Meeks, Eric; Nelson, Katie; Piontkowski, Cynthia; Reuter, Katja; Sak, Rachael; Turner, Brian; Weber, Griffin M; Chatterjee, Anirvan

    2014-01-01

    Background Universities have begun deploying public Internet systems that allow for easy search of their experts, expertise, and intellectual networks. Deployed first in biomedical schools but now being implemented more broadly, the initial motivator of these research networking systems was to enable easier identification of collaborators and enable the development of teams for research. Objective The intent of the study was to provide the first description of the usage of an institutional research “social networking” system or research networking system (RNS). Methods Number of visits, visitor location and type, referral source, depth of visit, search terms, and click paths were derived from 2.5 years of Web analytics data. Feedback from a pop-up survey presented to users over 15 months was summarized. Results RNSs automatically generate and display profiles and networks of researchers. Within 2.5 years, the RNS at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) achieved one-seventh of the monthly visit rate of the main longstanding university website, with an increasing trend. Visitors came from diverse locations beyond the institution. Close to 75% (74.78%, 208,304/278,570) came via a public search engine and 84.0% (210 out of a sample of 250) of these queried an individual’s name that took them directly to the relevant profile page. In addition, 20.90% (214 of 1024) visits went beyond the page related to a person of interest to explore related researchers and topics through the novel and networked information provided by the tool. At the end of the period analyzed, more than 2000 visits per month traversed 5 or more links into related people and topics. One-third of visits came from returning visitors who were significantly more likely to continue to explore networked people and topics (P<.001). Responses to an online survey suggest a broad range of benefits of using the RNS in supporting the research and clinical mission. Conclusions Returning

  8. The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research: A model of capacity-building research.

    PubMed

    Koso-Thomas, Marion; McClure, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    In response to the global effort to accelerate progress towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, a partnership was created between the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to establish the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research (Global Network) in 2000. The Global Network was developed with a goal of building local maternal and child health research capacity in resource-poor settings. The objective of the network was to conduct research focused on several high-need areas, such as preventing life-threatening obstetric complications, improving birth weight and infant growth, and improving childbirth practices in order to reduce mortality. Scientists from developing countries, together with peers in the USA, lead research teams that identify and address population needs through randomized clinical trials and other research studies. Global Network projects develop and test cost-effective, sustainable interventions for pregnant women and newborns and provide guidance for national policy and for the practice of evidence-based medicine. This article reviews the results of the Global Network's research, the impact on policy and practice, and highlights the capacity-building efforts and collaborations developed since its inception.

  9. The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research: A model of capacity-building research

    PubMed Central

    Koso-Thomas, Marion; McClure, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY In response to the global effort to accelerate progress towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, a partnership was created between the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to establish the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research (Global Network) in 2000. The Global Network was developed with a goal of building local maternal and child health research capacity in resource-poor settings. The objective of the network was to conduct research focused on several high-need areas, such as preventing life-threatening obstetric complications, improving birth weight and infant growth, and improving childbirth practices in order to reduce mortality. Scientists from developing countries, together with peers in the USA, lead research teams that identify and address population needs through randomized clinical trials and other research studies. Global Network projects develop and test cost-effective, sustainable interventions for pregnant women and newborns and provide guidance for national policy and for the practice of evidence-based medicine. This article reviews the results of the Global Network's research, the impact on policy and practice, and highlights the capacity-building efforts and collaborations developed since its inception. PMID:26043962

  10. Aurora-B Mediated ATM Serine 1403 Phosphorylation Is Required For Mitotic ATM Activation and the Spindle Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Tang, Xi; Guo, Xiaojing; Niikura, Yohei; Kitagawa, Katsumi; Cui, Kemi; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Summary The ATM kinase plays a critical role in the maintenance of genetic stability. ATM is activated in response to DNA damage and is essential for cell cycle checkpoints. Here, we report that ATM is activated in mitosis in the absence of DNA damage. We demonstrate that mitotic ATM activation is dependent on the Aurora-B kinase and that Aurora-B phosphorylates ATM on serine 1403. This phosphorylation event is required for mitotic ATM activation. Further, we show that loss of ATM function results in shortened mitotic timing and a defective spindle checkpoint, and that abrogation of ATM Ser1403 phosphorylation leads to this spindle checkpoint defect. We also demonstrate that mitotically-activated ATM phosphorylates Bub1, a critical kinetochore protein, on Ser314. ATM-mediated Bub1 Ser314 phosphorylation is required for Bub1 activity and is essential for the activation of the spindle checkpoint. Collectively, our data highlight mechanisms of a critical function of ATM in mitosis. PMID:22099307

  11. Aurora-B mediated ATM serine 1403 phosphorylation is required for mitotic ATM activation and the spindle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunying; Tang, Xi; Guo, Xiaojing; Niikura, Yohei; Kitagawa, Katsumi; Cui, Kemi; Wong, Stephen T C; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo

    2011-11-18

    The ATM kinase plays a critical role in the maintenance of genetic stability. ATM is activated in response to DNA damage and is essential for cell-cycle checkpoints. Here, we report that ATM is activated in mitosis in the absence of DNA damage. We demonstrate that mitotic ATM activation is dependent on the Aurora-B kinase and that Aurora-B phosphorylates ATM on serine 1403. This phosphorylation event is required for mitotic ATM activation. Further, we show that loss of ATM function results in shortened mitotic timing and a defective spindle checkpoint, and that abrogation of ATM Ser1403 phosphorylation leads to this spindle checkpoint defect. We also demonstrate that mitotically activated ATM phosphorylates Bub1, a critical kinetochore protein, on Ser314. ATM-mediated Bub1 Ser314 phosphorylation is required for Bub1 activity and is essential for the activation of the spindle checkpoint. Collectively, our data highlight mechanisms of a critical function of ATM in mitosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Building Research Infrastructure in Community Health Centers: A Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) Report

    PubMed Central

    Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and “matchmaking” between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings. PMID:24004710

  13. Social networking and online recruiting for HIV research: ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brenda L

    2014-02-01

    Social networking sites and online advertising organizations provide HIV/AIDS researchers access to target populations, often reaching difficult-to-reach populations. However, this benefit to researchers raises many issues for the protections of prospective research participants. Traditional recruitment procedures have involved straightforward transactions between the researchers and prospective participants; online recruitment is a more complex and indirect form of communication involving many parties engaged in the collecting, aggregating, and storing of research participant data. Thus, increased access to online data has challenged the adequacy of current and established procedures for participants' protections, such as informed consent and privacy/confidentiality. Internet-based HIV/AIDS research recruitment and its ethical challenges are described, and research participant safeguards and best practices are outlined.

  14. Social Networking and Online Recruiting for HIV Research: Ethical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites and online advertising organizations provide HIV/AIDS researchers access to target populations, often reaching difficult-to-reach populations. However, this benefit to researchers raises many issues for the protections of prospective research participants. Traditional recruitment procedures have involved straightforward transactions between the researchers and prospective participants; online recruitment is a more complex and indirect form of communication involving many parties engaged in the collecting, aggregating, and storing of research participant data. Thus, increased access to online data has challenged the adequacy of current and established procedures for participants’ protections, such as informed consent and privacy/confidentiality. Internet-based HIV/AIDS research recruitment and its ethical challenges are described, and research participant safeguards and best practices are outlined. PMID:24572084

  15. Research trends in wireless visual sensor networks when exploiting prioritization.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-15

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors.

  16. Research Trends in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks When Exploiting Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel G.; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors. PMID:25599425

  17. Exploring Knowledge Processes Based on Teacher Research in a School-University Research Network of a Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    School-university research networks aim at closer integration of research and practice by means of teacher research. Such practice-oriented research can benefit both schools and universities. This paper reports on a multiple-case study of five participants in a school-university research network in a Dutch master's program. The research question…

  18. Temporally distinct roles of ATM and ROS in genotoxic-stress-dependent induction and maintenance of cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Nair, Raji R; Bagheri, Meisam; Saini, Deepak Kumar

    2015-01-15

    Cells exposed to genotoxic stress induce cellular senescence through a DNA damage response (DDR) pathway regulated by ATM kinase and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we show that the regulatory roles for ATM kinase and ROS differ during induction and maintenance of cellular senescence. Cells treated with different genotoxic agents were analyzed using specific pathway markers and inhibitors to determine that ATM kinase activation is directly proportional to the dose of the genotoxic stress and that senescence initiation is not dependent on ROS or the p53 status of cells. Cells in which ROS was quenched still activated ATM and initiated the DDR when insulted, and progressed normally to senescence. By contrast, maintenance of a viable senescent state required the presence of ROS as well as activated ATM. Inhibition or removal of either of the components caused cell death in senescent cells, through a deregulated ATM-ROS axis. Overall, our work demonstrates existence of an intricate temporal hierarchy between genotoxic stress, DDR and ROS in cellular senescence. Our model reports the existence of different stages of cellular senescence with distinct regulatory networks.

  19. Assessing citation networks for dissemination and implementation research frameworks.

    PubMed

    Skolarus, Ted A; Lehmann, Todd; Tabak, Rachel G; Harris, Jenine; Lecy, Jesse; Sales, Anne E

    2017-07-28

    A recent review of frameworks used in dissemination and implementation (D&I) science described 61 judged to be related either to dissemination, implementation, or both. The current use of these frameworks and their contributions to D&I science more broadly has yet to be reviewed. For these reasons, our objective was to determine the role of these frameworks in the development of D&I science. We used the Web of Science™ Core Collection and Google Scholar™ to conduct a citation network analysis for the key frameworks described in a recent systematic review of D&I frameworks (Am J Prev Med 43(3):337-350, 2012). From January to August 2016, we collected framework data including title, reference, publication year, and citations per year and conducted descriptive and main path network analyses to identify those most important in holding the current citation network for D&I frameworks together. The source article contained 119 cited references, with 50 published articles and 11 documents identified as a primary framework reference. The average citations per year for the 61 frameworks reviewed ranged from 0.7 to 103.3 among articles published from 1985 to 2012. Citation rates from all frameworks are reported with citation network analyses for the framework review article and ten highly cited framework seed articles. The main path for the D&I framework citation network is presented. We examined citation rates and the main paths through the citation network to delineate the current landscape of D&I framework research, and opportunities for advancing framework development and use. Dissemination and implementation researchers and practitioners may consider frequency of framework citation and our network findings when planning implementation efforts to build upon this foundation and promote systematic advances in D&I science.

  20. Enabling research in care homes: an evaluation of a national network of research ready care homes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the UK care homes are one of the main providers of long term care for older people with dementia. Despite the recent increase in care home research, residents with dementia are often excluded from studies. Care home research networks have been recommended by the Ministerial Advisory Group on Dementia Research (MAGDR) as a way of increasing research opportunities for residents with dementia. This paper reports on an evaluation of the feasibility and early impact of an initiative to increase care home participation in research. Methods A two phase, mixed methods approach was used; phase 1 established a baseline of current and recent studies including the National Institute for Health Research portfolio. To explore the experiences of recruiting care homes and research participation, interviews were conducted with researchers working for the Dementia and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Network (DeNDRoN) and care home managers. In phase 2, four DeNDRoN area offices recruited care homes to a care home network for their region. The care home networks were separate from the DeNDRoN research network. Diaries were used to document and cost recruitment; DeNDRoN staff were interviewed to understand the barriers, facilitators and impact of the care home networks. Results Thirty three current or recent studies were identified as involving care homes as care home specific studies or those which included residents. Further details of care home recruitment were obtained on 20 studies by contacting study teams. Care home managers were keen to be involved in research that provided staff support, benefits for residents and with minimal disruption. In phase 2, 141 care homes were recruited to the care home research networks, through corporate engagement and individual invitation. Pre-existing relationships with care homes facilitated recruitment. Sites with minimal experience of working with care homes identified the need for care home training for researchers

  1. Existing and Required Modeling Capabilities for Evaluating ATM Systems and Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odoni, Amedeo R.; Bowman, Jeremy; Delahaye, Daniel; Deyst, John J.; Feron, Eric; Hansman, R. John; Khan, Kashif; Kuchar, James K.; Pujet, Nicolas; Simpson, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    ATM systems throughout the world are entering a period of major transition and change. The combination of important technological developments and of the globalization of the air transportation industry has necessitated a reexamination of some of the fundamental premises of existing Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. New ATM concepts have to be examined, concepts that may place more emphasis on: strategic traffic management; planning and control; partial decentralization of decision-making; and added reliance on the aircraft to carry out strategic ATM plans, with ground controllers confined primarily to a monitoring and supervisory role. 'Free Flight' is a case in point. In order to study, evaluate and validate such new concepts, the ATM community will have to rely heavily on models and computer-based tools/utilities, covering a wide range of issues and metrics related to safety, capacity and efficiency. The state of the art in such modeling support is adequate in some respects, but clearly deficient in others. It is the objective of this study to assist in: (1) assessing the strengths and weaknesses of existing fast-time models and tools for the study of ATM systems and concepts and (2) identifying and prioritizing the requirements for the development of additional modeling capabilities in the near future. A three-stage process has been followed to this purpose: 1. Through the analysis of two case studies involving future ATM system scenarios, as well as through expert assessment, modeling capabilities and supporting tools needed for testing and validating future ATM systems and concepts were identified and described. 2. Existing fast-time ATM models and support tools were reviewed and assessed with regard to the degree to which they offer the capabilities identified under Step 1. 3 . The findings of 1 and 2 were combined to draw conclusions about (1) the best capabilities currently existing, (2) the types of concept testing and validation that can be carried

  2. Experiments at SRT Using the NOAA CrIS/ATMS Proxy Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the talk are: (1) Assess the performance of NGAS Version-1.5.03.00 CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithm as delivered by LaRC, modified to include the MW and IR tuning coefficients and new CrIS noise model (a) Percent acceptance (b) RMS and mean differences of T(p) vs. ECMWF truth as a function of % yield (2) Compare performance of NGAS retrieval algorithm with an AIRS Science Team Version-6 like retrieval algorithm modified at Sounder Research Team (SRT) for CrIS/ATMS

  3. Neural Network Research on Tilt-Rotor Hover Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozapalli, S.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Results from a neural network study on XV-15 tilt-rotor hover performance are presented. Two XV-15 test data bases, acquired during separate tests conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex at NASA Ames, were used in this study. The two XV-15 test data bases used were: the 1997 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel test data base and the 1984 Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility (OARF) test data base. The objectives associated with the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel test data were to conduct data quality checks, obtain neural network representations, and demonstrate sensitivity to test conditions. The objectives associated with the OARF outdoor test data were to obtain a 'zero wind' neural network representation, and formulate and implement a neural network based wind correction procedure. An additional objective, common to both test data bases, was to conduct error comparisons. The conclusions from the present study were as follows: Compared to measured parameters (i.e., collective pitch angle), derived parameters (i.e., thrust coefficient) were found preferable as neural network inputs. For the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel test data base, the neural network based figure of merit representations did not extrapolate rotor stall. Using the OARF outdoor test database, a neural network based wind correction procedure was formulated and successfully implemented. Based on an error comparison, the present neural network based wind correction procedure was found to be more accurate compared to the existing, momentum-theory-based wind correction procedure. Also, a separate error comparison showed that the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel hover performance data were comparable to non-wind-corrected outdoor test data.

  4. Research and development of network virtual instrument laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hongmei; Pei, Xichun; Ma, Hongyue; Ma, Shuoshi

    2006-11-01

    A software platform of the network virtual instrument test laboratory has been developed to realize the network function of the test and signal analysis as well as the share of the hardware based on the data transmission theory and the study of the present technologies of the network virtual instrument. The whole design procedure was also presented in this paper. The main work of the research is as follows. 1. A suitable scheme of the test system with B/S mode and the virtual instrument laboratory with BSDA (Browser/Server/Database/Application) mode was determined. 2. The functions were classified and integrated by adopting the multilayer structure. The application for the virtual instruments running in the client terminal and the network management server managing the multiuser in the test laboratory according to the "Concurrent receival, sequential implementation" strategy in Java as well as the code of the test server application responding the client's requests of test and signal analysis in LabWindows/CVI were developed. As the extending part of network function of the original virtual test and analysis instruments, a software platform of network virtual instrument test laboratory was built as well. 3. The communication of the network data between Java and the LabWindows/CVI was realized. 4. The database was imported to store the data as well as the correlative information acquired by the server and help the network management server to manage the multiuser in the test laboratory. 5. A website embedding Java Applet of virtual instrument laboratory with the on-line help files was designed.

  5. ATM mutations uniformly lead to ATM dysfunction in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: application of functional test using doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Navrkalova, Veronika; Sebejova, Ludmila; Zemanova, Jana; Kminkova, Jana; Kubesova, Blanka; Malcikova, Jitka; Mraz, Marek; Smardova, Jana; Pavlova, Sarka; Doubek, Michael; Brychtova, Yvona; Potesil, David; Nemethova, Veronika; Mayer, Jiri; Pospisilova, Sarka; Trbusek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    ATM abnormalities are frequent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and represent an important prognostic factor. Sole 11q deletion does not result in ATM inactivation by contrast to biallelic defects involving mutations. Therefore, the analysis of ATM mutations and their functional impact is crucial. In this study, we analyzed ATM mutations in predominantly high-risk patients using: i) resequencing microarray and direct sequencing; ii) Western blot for total ATM level; iii) functional test based on p21 gene induction after parallel treatment of leukemic cells with fludarabine and doxorubicin. ATM dysfunction leads to impaired p21 induction after doxorubicin exposure. We detected ATM mutation in 16% (22 of 140) of patients, and all mutated samples manifested demonstrable ATM defect (impaired p21 upregulation after doxorubicin and/or null protein level). Loss of ATM function in mutated samples was also evidenced through defective p53 pathway activation after ionizing radiation exposure. ATM mutation frequency was 34% in patients with 11q deletion, 4% in the TP53-defected group, and 8% in wild-type patients. Our functional test, convenient for routine use, showed high sensitivity (80%) and specificity (97%) for ATM mutations prediction. Only cells with ATM mutation, but not those with sole 11q deletion, were resistant to doxorubicin. As far as fludarabine is concerned, this difference was not observed. Interestingly, patients from both these groups experienced nearly identical time to first treatment. In conclusion, ATM mutations either alone or in combination with 11q deletion uniformly led to demonstrable ATM dysfunction in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mutation presence can be predicted by the functional test using doxorubicin. PMID:23585524

  6. ATM mutations uniformly lead to ATM dysfunction in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: application of functional test using doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Navrkalova, Veronika; Sebejova, Ludmila; Zemanova, Jana; Kminkova, Jana; Kubesova, Blanka; Malcikova, Jitka; Mraz, Marek; Smardova, Jana; Pavlova, Sarka; Doubek, Michael; Brychtova, Yvona; Potesil, David; Nemethova, Veronika; Mayer, Jiri; Pospisilova, Sarka; Trbusek, Martin

    2013-07-01

    ATM abnormalities are frequent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and represent an important prognostic factor. Sole 11q deletion does not result in ATM inactivation by contrast to biallelic defects involving mutations. Therefore, the analysis of ATM mutations and their functional impact is crucial. In this study, we analyzed ATM mutations in predominantly high-risk patients using: i) resequencing microarray and direct sequencing; ii) Western blot for total ATM level; iii) functional test based on p21 gene induction after parallel treatment of leukemic cells with fludarabine and doxorubicin. ATM dysfunction leads to impaired p21 induction after doxorubicin exposure. We detected ATM mutation in 16% (22 of 140) of patients, and all mutated samples manifested demonstrable ATM defect (impaired p21 upregulation after doxorubicin and/or null protein level). Loss of ATM function in mutated samples was also evidenced through defective p53 pathway activation after ionizing radiation exposure. ATM mutation frequency was 34% in patients with 11q deletion, 4% in the TP53-defected group, and 8% in wild-type patients. Our functional test, convenient for routine use, showed high sensitivity (80%) and specificity (97%) for ATM mutations prediction. Only cells with ATM mutation, but not those with sole 11q deletion, were resistant to doxorubicin. As far as fludarabine is concerned, this difference was not observed. Interestingly, patients from both these groups experienced nearly identical time to first treatment. In conclusion, ATM mutations either alone or in combination with 11q deletion uniformly led to demonstrable ATM dysfunction in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mutation presence can be predicted by the functional test using doxorubicin.

  7. Isolation and characterization of Xenopus ATM (X-ATM): expression, localization, and complex formation during oogenesis and early development.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Hensey, C; Gautier, J

    1999-11-25

    ATM, the gene product mutated in Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T) encodes a 350-kDa protein involved in the regulation of several cellular responses to DNA breaks. We used a degenerate PCR-based strategy to isolate a partial clone of X-ATM, the Xenopus homologue of human ATM. Sequence analysis and confirmed that the clone was most closely related to human ATM. Xenopus ATM protein (X-ATM) is 85% identical to human ATM within the kinase domain and 71% identical over the carboxyl-terminal half of the protein. Polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant X-ATM are highly specific for the ATM protein and recognize a single polypeptide of 370-kDa in oocytes, embryos, egg extracts and a Xenopus cell line. We found that X-ATM was expressed maternally in eggs and as early as stage II pre-vitellogenic oocytes, and the protein and mRNA were present at relatively constant levels throughout development. Subcellular fractionation showed that the protein was nuclear in both the female and male germlines. The level of X-ATM protein did not change throughout the meiotic divisions or the synchronous mitotic cycles of cleavage stage embryos. In addition, we did not observe any change in the level or mobility of X-ATM protein following gamma-irradiation of embryos. Finally, we also demonstrated that X-ATM was present in a high molecular weight complex of approximately 500 kDa containing the X-ATM protein and other, as yet unidentified component(s).

  8. UltraSciencenet: High- Performance Network Research Test-Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S; Wing, William R; Poole, Stephen W; Hicks, Susan Elaine; DeNap, Frank A; Carter, Steven M; Wu, Qishi

    2009-04-01

    The high-performance networking requirements for next generation large-scale applications belong to two broad classes: (a) high bandwidths, typically multiples of 10Gbps, to support bulk data transfers, and (b) stable bandwidths, typically at much lower bandwidths, to support computational steering, remote visualization, and remote control of instrumentation. Current Internet technologies, however, are severely limited in meeting these demands because such bulk bandwidths are available only in the backbone, and stable control channels are hard to realize over shared connections. The UltraScience Net (USN) facilitates the development of such technologies by providing dynamic, cross-country dedicated 10Gbps channels for large data transfers, and 150 Mbps channels for interactive and control operations. Contributions of the USN project are two-fold: (a) Infrastructure Technologies for Network Experimental Facility: USN developed and/or demonstrated a number of infrastructure technologies needed for a national-scale network experimental facility. Compared to Internet, USN's data-plane is different in that it can be partitioned into isolated layer-1 or layer-2 connections, and its control-plane is different in the ability of users and applications to setup and tear down channels as needed. Its design required several new components including a Virtual Private Network infrastructure, a bandwidth and channel scheduler, and a dynamic signaling daemon. The control-plane employs a centralized scheduler to compute the channel allocations and a signaling daemon to generate configuration signals to switches. In a nutshell, USN demonstrated the ability to build and operate a stable national-scale switched network. (b) Structured Network Research Experiments: A number of network research experiments have been conducted on USN that cannot be easily supported over existing network facilities, including test-beds and production networks. It settled an open matter by demonstrating

  9. Linking ATM Promoter Methylation to Cell Cycle Protein Expression in Brain Tumor Patients: Cellular Molecular Triangle Correlation in ATM Territory.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, P; Karami, F; Javan, Firouzeh; Mehrazin, M

    2015-08-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a key gene in DNA double-strand break (DSB), and therefore, most of its disabling genetic alterations play an important initiative role in many types of cancer. However, the exact role of ATM gene and its epigenetic alterations, especially promoter methylation in different grades of brain tumors, remains elusive. The current study was conducted to query possible correlations among methylation statue of ATM gene, ATM/ retinoblastoma (RB) protein expression, D1853N ATM polymorphism, telomere length (TL), and clinicopathological characteristics of various types of brain tumors. Isolated DNA from 30 fresh tissues was extracted from different types of brain tumors and two brain tissues from deceased normal healthy individuals. DNAs were treated with bisulfate sodium using DNA modification kit (Qiagen). Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP-PCR) was implicated to determine the methylation status of treated DNA templates confirmed by promoter sequencing. Besides, the ATM and RB protein levels were determined by immunofluorescence (IF) assay using monoclonal mouse antihuman against ATM, P53, and RB proteins. To achieve an interactive correlation, the methylation data were statistically analyzed by considering TL and D1853N ATM polymorphism. More than 73% of the brain tumors were methylated in ATM gene promoter. There was strong correlation between ATM promoter methylation and its protein expression (p < 0.001). As a triangle, meaningful correlation was also found between methylated ATM promoter and ATM protein expression with D1853N ATM polymorphism (p = 0.01). ATM protein expression was not in line with RB protein expression while it was found to be significantly correlated with ATM promoter methylation (p = 0.01). There was significant correlation between TL neither with ATM promoter methylation nor with ATM protein expression nor with D1853N polymorphism. However, TL has shown strong correlation with patient's age and

  10. Research on service bus of network-centric simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Mao, Shao-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Jun; Zhang, You-Liang; Zhu, Yu

    2013-03-01

    When high level architecture is used to build complex systems in support of modeling and simulation, the problems are low level of interoperability and poor reusage. Based on the concept of service-oriented and distributed technologies, a service bus of network-centric simulation is proposed. Definite the concept of community of service and service bus, establish the architecture of simulation service bus and its implementation framework, analyze three key technologies of its implementation process. The primary research and practice show that: the proposed simulation service bus can support to run community simulation tasks based on Internet and provide a reference for building a service-oriented environment of network centric simulation.

  11. Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: establishing an infrastructure for efficient conduct of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Anjum; Nauman, Elizabeth; Carton, Tom; Horswell, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The state of Louisiana, like the nation as a whole, is facing the salient challenge of improving population health and efficiency of healthcare delivery. Research to inform innovations in healthcare will best enhance this effort if it is timely, efficient, and patient-centered. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) will increase the capacity to conduct robust comparative effectiveness research by building a health information technology infrastructure that provides access to comprehensive clinical data for more than 1 million patients statewide. To ensure that network-based research best serves its end-users, the project will actively engage patients and providers as key informants and decision-makers in the implementation of LACDRN. The network's patient-centered research agenda will prioritize patients’ and clinicians’ needs and aim to support evidence-based decisions on the healthcare they receive and provide, to optimize patient outcomes and quality of life. PMID:24821735

  12. The role of research in integrated healthcare systems: the HMO Research Network.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Thomas M; Elston-Lafata, Jennifer; Tolsma, Dennis; Greene, Sarah M

    2004-09-01

    Science is the basis of medicine. Good science leads to better decisions and more effective systems to support those decisions. Most individuals associate science primarily with academic institutions. However, top-quality research relevant to managing the health of populations and the care of specific clinical conditions is increasingly being carried out by investigators working in integrated healthcare systems. This introduction outlines the activities of the HMO Research Network, whose researchers have made and continue to make important contributions to the field of health research. Its objective is to inform readers of the activities and value of systems-based health research. We describe the importance and extent of the research conducted by HMO Research Network members, as well as the advantages of conducting research in such settings.

  13. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, T.; Giardini, D.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-12-01

    NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology) is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) project within the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC). The project consortium consists of 25 participants from 13 different European countries. It is currently the largest earth science project ever funded by the EC. The goal of NERIES is to integrate European seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated cyber-infrastructure for seismological data serving the research community, civil protection authorities and the general public. The EC provides funds for the networking and research. The participants provide the necessary hardware investments, mostly through national resources. NERIES consists of 13 subprojects (networking and research activities) and 5 facilities providing access through grants (Transnational Access). The project is coordinated by ORFEUS in close cooperation with the EMSC. The individual subprojects address different issues such as: extension of the Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) from 140 to about 500 stations, implementing the core European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA) consisting of ODC-KNMI, GFZ, INGV and IPGP and a distributed archive of historical Data. Providing access to data gathered by acceleration networks within Europe and its surroundings and deploys Ocean Bottom Seismometers in coordination with relevant Ocean bottom projects like ESONET. Tot facilitate access to this diverse and distributed data NERIES invests a significant portion of its resources to implementing a portal for which a beta release is planned to be release in the autumn of 2008. The research project main goal is to produce products and tools facilitating data interpretation and analysis. These tools include a European reference (velocity) model, real-time hazard tools, shakemaps and lossmaps, site response determination software and tools, and automatic tools to manage and

  14. Switch with large optical buffers (SLOB) for ATM traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, David K.

    1996-11-01

    Recently, optical ATM switches, composed of optical switches, fiber delay lines and other devices, have been proposed by researchers world-wide as a way of overcoming the EMI, pinout and interconnection problems that would be encountered in future large electronic switch cores. Attaining the size of buffers in optical ATM fabrics that would be required in practice is a major problem; in this paper, an architectural solution is presented. A technique is introduced for cascading many small switches to form a bigger switch with a larger buffer depth. A special feature of this scheme is that the number of cascaded switches is proportional to the logarithm of the buffer depth, providing an economical and feasible hardware solution. Architectural concepts are discussed and justified mathematically, and an electronic control scheme is introduced. Cell loss and delay performance, and buffer dimensioning are considered. The performance in terms of crosstalk and noise will be covered in a companion paper. In conclusion, it is clear that optical switching elements, with a buffer depth of several hundred required for bursty traffic, can be constructed using fewer components than other schemes, and, by implication, better noise and crosstalk performance.

  15. Prognostic Significance of Nuclear Phospho-ATM Expression in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhandaru, Madhuri; Martinka, Magdalena; McElwee, Kevin J.; Rotte, Anand

    2015-01-01

    UV radiation induced genomic instability is one of the leading causes for melanoma. Phosphorylation of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) is one of the initial events that follow DNA damage. Phospho-ATM (p-ATM) plays a key role in the activation of DNA repair and several oncogenic pathways as well as in the maintenance of genomic integrity. The present study was therefore performed to understand the significance of p-ATM in melanoma progression and to correlate it with patient prognosis. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis were employed to study the expression of p-ATM in melanoma patients. A total of 366 melanoma patients (230 primary melanoma and 136 metastatic melanoma) were used for the study. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to elucidate the prognostic significance of p-ATM expression. Results revealed that both loss of, and gain in, p-ATM expression were associated with progression of melanoma from normal nevi to metastatic melanoma. Patients whose samples showed negative or strong p-ATM staining had significantly worse 5-year survival compared to patients who had weak to moderate expression. Loss of p-ATM expression was associated with relatively better 5-year survival, but the corresponding 10-year survival curve almost overlapped with that of strong p-ATM expression. p-ATM expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for 5-year but not for 10-year patient survival. In conclusion our findings show that loss of p-ATM expression and gain-in p-ATM expression are indicators of worse melanoma patient survival. PMID:26275218

  16. Prognostic Significance of Nuclear Phospho-ATM Expression in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bhandaru, Madhuri; Martinka, Magdalena; McElwee, Kevin J; Rotte, Anand

    2015-01-01

    UV radiation induced genomic instability is one of the leading causes for melanoma. Phosphorylation of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) is one of the initial events that follow DNA damage. Phospho-ATM (p-ATM) plays a key role in the activation of DNA repair and several oncogenic pathways as well as in the maintenance of genomic integrity. The present study was therefore performed to understand the significance of p-ATM in melanoma progression and to correlate it with patient prognosis. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis were employed to study the expression of p-ATM in melanoma patients. A total of 366 melanoma patients (230 primary melanoma and 136 metastatic melanoma) were used for the study. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to elucidate the prognostic significance of p-ATM expression. Results revealed that both loss of, and gain in, p-ATM expression were associated with progression of melanoma from normal nevi to metastatic melanoma. Patients whose samples showed negative or strong p-ATM staining had significantly worse 5-year survival compared to patients who had weak to moderate expression. Loss of p-ATM expression was associated with relatively better 5-year survival, but the corresponding 10-year survival curve almost overlapped with that of strong p-ATM expression. p-ATM expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for 5-year but not for 10-year patient survival. In conclusion our findings show that loss of p-ATM expression and gain-in p-ATM expression are indicators of worse melanoma patient survival.

  17. ATM Quality of Service Tests for Digitized Video Using ATM Over Satellite: Laboratory Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Brooks, David E.; Frantz, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    A digitized video application was used to help determine minimum quality of service parameters for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over satellite. For these tests, binomially distributed and other errors were digitally inserted in an intermediate frequency link via a satellite modem and a commercial gaussian noise generator. In this paper, the relation- ship between the ATM cell error and cell loss parameter specifications is discussed with regard to this application. In addition, the video-encoding algorithms, test configurations, and results are presented in detail.

  18. [Research on Zhejiang blood information network and management system].

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Xing; Xu, Yan; Meng, Zhong-Hua; Kong, Chang-Hong; Wang, Jian-Min; Jin, Zhen-Liang; Wu, Shi-Ding; Chen, Chang-Shui; Luo, Ling-Fei

    2007-02-01

    This research was aimed to develop the first level blood information centralized database and real time communication network at a province area in China. Multiple technology like local area network database separate operation, real time data concentration and distribution mechanism, allopatric backup, and optical fiber virtual private network (VPN) were used. As a result, the blood information centralized database and management system were successfully constructed, which covers all the Zhejiang province, and the real time exchange of blood data was realised. In conclusion, its implementation promote volunteer blood donation and ensure the blood safety in Zhejiang, especially strengthen the quick response to public health emergency. This project lays the first stone of centralized test and allotment among blood banks in Zhejiang, and can serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems in China.

  19. Analyzing Enterprise Networks Needs: Action Research from the Mechatronics Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnazzo, Luca; Taticchi, Paolo; Bidini, Gianni; Baglieri, Enzo

    New business models and theories are developing nowadays towards collaborative environments direction, and many new tools in sustaining companies involved in these organizations are emerging. Among them, a plethora of methodologies to analyze their needs are already developed for single companies. Few academic works are available about Enterprise Networks (ENs) need analysis. This paper presents the learning from an action research (AR) in the mechatronics sector: AR has been used in order to experience the issue of evaluating network needs and therefore define, develop, and test a complete framework for network evaluation. Reflection on the story in the light of the experience and the theory is presented, as well as extrapolation to a broader context and articulation of usable knowledge.

  20. A global spacecraft control network for spacecraft autonomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and implementation of the Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) space operations and control network, is reported on. This network will serve as a command and control architecture for spacecraft operations and will offer a real testbed for the application and validation of advanced autonomous spacecraft operations strategies. The proposed network will initially consist of globally distributed amateur radio ground stations at locations throughout North America and Europe. These stations will be linked via Internet to various control centers. The Stanford (CA) control center will be capable of human and computer based decision making for the coordination of user experiments, resource scheduling and fault management. The project's system architecture is described together with its proposed use as a command and control system, its value as a testbed for spacecraft autonomy research, and its current implementation.

  1. A global spacecraft control network for spacecraft autonomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and implementation of the Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) space operations and control network, is reported on. This network will serve as a command and control architecture for spacecraft operations and will offer a real testbed for the application and validation of advanced autonomous spacecraft operations strategies. The proposed network will initially consist of globally distributed amateur radio ground stations at locations throughout North America and Europe. These stations will be linked via Internet to various control centers. The Stanford (CA) control center will be capable of human and computer based decision making for the coordination of user experiments, resource scheduling and fault management. The project's system architecture is described together with its proposed use as a command and control system, its value as a testbed for spacecraft autonomy research, and its current implementation.

  2. Online Social Networks and Smoking Cessation: A Scientific Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M. Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Objective Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. Methods We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. Results We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Conclusions Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward. PMID:22182518

  3. Online social networks and smoking cessation: a scientific research agenda.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-12-19

    Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward.

  4. Revisiting practice-based research networks as a platform for mental health services research.

    PubMed

    Curtis McMillen, J; Lenze, Shannon L; Hawley, Kristin M; Osborne, Victoria A

    2009-09-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs)-collaborations of practice settings that work together to generate research knowledge-are underused in mental health services research. This article proposes an agenda for mental health services research that uses a variety of PBRN structures and that focuses on what really happens in practice, the effectiveness of practice innovations in real world care, the challenges of implementing evidence supported interventions, modification of clinician behavior, and assessment of the effect of mental health policy changes on practice. The challenges of conducting research within PBRNs are substantial, including difficulties in maintaining positive member relations, securing ongoing funding, sustaining productivity, overcoming IRB entanglements and achieving both scientific excellence in recruitment and measurement validity and utility for practitioner members. However, the awareness of these challenges allows researchers and practitioners to build networks that creatively overcome them and that infuse mental health services research with heavy doses of the realities of everyday clinical practice.

  5. Consumer involvement in cancer research: example from a Cancer Network.

    PubMed

    Arain, Mubashir; Pyne, Sarah; Thornton, Nigel; Palmer, Susan; Sharma, Ricky A

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of consumers and the general public in improving cancer services is an important component of health services. However, consumer involvement in cancer research is relatively unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore different ways of involving consumers in cancer research in one regional network. Thames Valley Cancer Network Consumer Research Partnership (CRP) group was formed in 2009. The group consists of consumers and professionals to help in promoting consumer involvement in Cancer Research in the Thames Valley. This study evaluated the project of consumer involvement in cancer research in the Thames Valley from March 2010 to March 2011. We used different indices to judge the level of consumer involvement: number of projects involving consumers through the group, types of projects, level of involvement (ranged from consultation on research documents to collaborating in preparing grant applications) and the methods of involving consumers in cancer research. Fifteen projects were submitted to the CRP group during the 12-month period studied. Of these, eight projects were clinical trials, three were qualitative research projects, two were patients' surveys and two were non-randomized interventional studies. Seven projects requested consumer involvement on patient information sheets for clinical trials. Of these seven applications, three also requested consumers' help in designing research questionnaires and another three requested that consumers should be involved in their project management group. In addition, four projects involved consumers in the proposal development phase and another four projects asked for advice on how to increase trial recruitment, conduct patient interviews or help with grant applications. The creation of the CRP and this audit of its activity have documented consumer involvement in cancer research in the Thames Valley. We have clearly shown that consumers can be involved in designing and managing cancer

  6. The National Research and Education Network (NREN): Research and Policy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.; And Others

    This book provides an overview and status report on the progress made in developing the National Research and Education Network (NREN) as of early 1991. It reports on a number of investigations that provide a research and policy perspective on the NREN and computer-mediated communication (CMC), and brings together key source documents that have…

  7. The Collaborative Action Research Network: 30 Years of Agency in Developing Educational Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the Collaborative Action Research Network's (CARN) origins and development since its foundation in 1976. The author brings the unique perspective of active involvement in CARN almost from its inception, and editorship for many years of its journal "Educational Action Research". Cultural-historical…

  8. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  9. Pathological neoangiogenesis depends on oxidative stress regulation by ATM.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yuji; Nakamura-Ishizu, Ayako; Otsu, Kinya; Suda, Toshio; Kubota, Yoshiaki

    2012-08-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a master regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), acts as a barrier to cellular senescence and tumorigenesis. Aside from DDR signaling, ATM also functions in oxidative defense. Here we show that Atm in mice is activated specifically in immature vessels in response to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Global or endothelial-specific Atm deficiency in mice blocked pathological neoangiogenesis in the retina. This block resulted from increased amounts of ROS and excessive activation of the mitogen activated kinase p38α rather than from defects in the canonical DDR pathway. Atm deficiency also lowered tumor angiogenesis and enhanced the antiangiogenic action of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) blockade. These data suggest that pathological neoangiogenesis requires ATM-mediated oxidative defense and that agents that promote excessive ROS generation may have beneficial effects in the treatment of neovascular disease.

  10. Susceptibility of ATM-deficient pancreatic cancer cells to radiation.

    PubMed

    Ayars, Michael; Eshleman, James; Goggins, Michael

    2017-05-19

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is inactivated in a significant minority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and may be predictor of treatment response. We determined if ATM deficiency renders pancreatic cancer cells more sensitive to fractionated radiation or commonly used chemotherapeutics. ATM expression was knocked down in three pancreatic cancer cell lines using ATM-targeting shRNA. Isogenic cell lines were tested for sensitivity to several chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. DNA repair kinetics were analyzed in irradiated cells using the comet assay. We find that while rendering pancreatic cancer cells ATM-deficient did not significantly change their sensitivity to several chemotherapeutics, it did render them exquisitely sensitized to radiation. Pancreatic cancer ATM status may help predict response to radiotherapy.

  11. Multispecies networks: visualizing the psychological research of the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Michael; Serykh, Darya; Green, Christopher D

    2015-03-01

    In our current moment, there is considerable interest in networks, in how people and things are connected. This essay outlines one approach that brings together insights from actor-network theory, social network analysis, and digital history to interpret past scientific activity. Multispecies network analysis (MNA) is a means of understanding the historical interactions among scientists, institutions, and preferred experimental animals. A reexamination of studies of sexual behavior funded by the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex between the 1920s and the 1940s demonstrates the applicability of MNA to clarifying the relations that sustained this area of psychology. The measures of weighted degree and betweenness can highlight which nodes (whether organisms or institutions) were particularly "central" to this network. Rats featured as the animals most widely studied during this period, but the analysis also reveals distinct institutional and disciplinary cultures where different species were favored as either surrogates for humans or representatives of more general biological groups.

  12. Use of fecal immunochemical tests in the Iowa Research Network.

    PubMed

    Daly, Jeanette M; Bay, Camden; Levy, Barcey T

    2013-09-01

    Although the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) has recently emerged as an effective and affordable colorectal cancer screening option, many family physician offices continue to use guaiac-based tests. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of FITs in the Iowa Research Network and to assess physicians' knowledge about FITs. A cover letter and questionnaire were faxed twice to the 291 physician members followed up by a mailing. One hundred and seven (37%) questionnaires were returned. Participants' mean age was 55 years with 78 male responders. Fifty-two (49%) of the physician's offices were in a nonmetro area. Fifty-one (49%) reported using guaiac-based tests and 39 (39%) reported using FITs. Many physicians were unsure of the answers for the FIT knowledge questions. FIT use is not widespread in Iowa Research Network physician offices, and not all physicians are aware of the type of fecal occult blood test being conducted in their office.

  13. ATMS Snowfall Rate Product and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, H.; Kongoli, C.; Dong, J.; Wang, N. Y.; Ferraro, R. R.; Zavodsky, B.; Banghua Yan, B.

    2015-12-01

    A snowfall rate (SFR) algorithm has been developed for the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) aboard S-NPP and future JPSS satellites. The product is based on the NOAA/NESDIS operational Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) SFR but with several key advancements. The algorithm has benefited from continuous development to improve accuracy and snowfall detection efficiency. The enhancements also expand the applicable temperature range for the algorithm and allow significantly more snowfall to be detected than the operational SFR. Another major improvement is the drastically reduced product latency by using Direct Broadcast (DB) data. The new developments have also been implemented in the MHS SFR to ensure product consistency across satellites. Currently, there are five satellites that carry either ATMS or MHS: S-NPP, NOAA-18/-19 and Metop-A/-B. The combined satellites deliver up to ten SFR estimates a day at any location over land in mid-latitudes. The product provides much needed winter precipitation estimates for applications such as weather forecasting and hydrology. Both ATMS and MHS SFR serve as input to a global precipitation analysis product, the NOAA/NCEP CMORPH-Snow. SFR is the sole satellite-based snowfall estimates in the blended product. In addition, ATMS and MHS SFR was assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and NESDIS/Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) for its operational values in winter 2015. This is a joint effort among NASA/SPoRT, NOAA/NESDIS, University of Maryland/CICS, and the WFOs. The feedback from the assessment indicated that SFR provides useful information for snowfall forecast. It is especially valuable for areas with poor radar coverage and ground observations. The feedback also identified some limitations of the product such as inadequate detection of shallow snowfall. The algorithm developers will continue to improve product quality as well as developing SFR for new microwave sensors and over ocean in a project

  14. Impact of the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network: Accelerating the Translation of Research Into Practice.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Fernandez, Maria E; Friedman, Daniela B; Hannon, Peggy A; Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Olson, Lindsay; Ory, Marcia; Risendal, Betsy; Sheble, Laura; Taylor, Vicky M; Williams, Rebecca S; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-03-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) is a thematic network dedicated to accelerating the adoption of evidence-based cancer prevention and control practices in communities by advancing dissemination and implementation science. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, CPCRN has operated at two levels: Each participating network center conducts research projects with primarily local partners as well as multicenter collaborative research projects with state and national partners. Through multicenter collaboration, thematic networks leverage the expertise, resources, and partnerships of participating centers to conduct research projects collectively that might not be feasible individually. Although multicenter collaboration is often advocated, it is challenging to promote and assess. Using bibliometric network analysis and other graphical methods, this paper describes CPCRN's multicenter publication progression from 2004 to 2014. Searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in 2014 identified 249 peer-reviewed CPCRN publications involving two or more centers out of 6,534 total. The research and public health impact of these multicenter collaborative projects initiated by CPCRN during that 10-year period were then examined. CPCRN established numerous workgroups around topics such as: 2-1-1, training and technical assistance, colorectal cancer control, federally qualified health centers, cancer survivorship, and human papillomavirus. This paper discusses the challenges that arise in promoting multicenter collaboration and the strategies that CPCRN uses to address those challenges. The lessons learned should broadly interest those seeking to promote multisite collaboration to address public health problems, such as cancer prevention and control.

  15. Protecting participants in family medicine research: a consensus statement on improving research integrity and participants' safety in educational research, community-based participatory research, and practice network research.

    PubMed

    Hueston, William J; Mainous, Arch G; Weiss, Barry D; Macaulay, Ann C; Hickner, John; Sherwood, Roger A

    2006-02-01

    Recent events that include the deaths of research subjects and the falsification of data have drawn greater scrutiny on assuring research data integrity and protecting participants. Several organizations have created guidelines to help guide researchers working in the area of clinical trials and ensure that their research is safe and valid. However, family medicine researchers often engage in research that differs from a typical clinical trial. Investigators working in the areas of educational research, community-based participatory research, and practice-based network research would benefit from similar recommendations to guide their own research. With funding from the US Office of Research Integrity and the Association of American Medical Colleges, we convened a panel to review issues of data integrity and participant protection in educational research, community-based participatory research, and research conducted by practice-based networks. The panel generated 11 recommendations for researchers working in these areas. Three key recommendations include the need for (1) all educational research to undergo review and approval by an institutional review board (IRB), (2) community-based participatory research to be approved not just by an IRB but also by appropriate community representatives, and (3) practice-based researchers to undertake only valid and meaningful studies that can be reviewed by a central IRB, rather than separate IRBs for each participating practice.

  16. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  17. ATM protein is deficient in over 40% of lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Villaruz, Liza C.; Jones, Helen; Dacic, Sanja; Abberbock, Shira; Kurland, Brenda F.; Stabile, Laura P.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Conrads, Thomas P.; Smith, Neil R.; O'Connor, Mark J.; Pierce, Andrew J.; Bakkenist, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and worldwide, and of the estimated 1.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed every year, over 30% are lung adenocarcinomas. The backbone of 1st-line systemic therapy in the metastatic setting, in the absence of an actionable oncogenic driver, is platinum-based chemotherapy. ATM and ATR are DNA damage signaling kinases activated at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stalled and collapsed replication forks, respectively. ATM protein is lost in a number of cancer cell lines and ATR kinase inhibitors synergize with cisplatin to resolve xenograft models of ATM-deficient lung cancer. We therefore sought to determine the frequency of ATM loss in a tissue microarray (TMA) of lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report the validation of a commercial antibody (ab32420) for the identification of ATM by immunohistochemistry and estimate that 61 of 147 (41%, 95% CI 34%-50%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma are negative for ATM protein expression. As a positive control for ATM staining, nuclear ATM protein was identified in stroma and immune infiltrate in all evaluable cases. ATM loss in lung adenocarcinoma was not associated with overall survival. However, our preclinical findings in ATM-deficient cell lines suggest that ATM could be a predictive biomarker for synergy of an ATR kinase inhibitor with standard-of-care cisplatin. This could improve clinical outcome in 100,000's of patients with ATM-deficient lung adenocarcinoma every year. PMID:27259260

  18. The Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Harris, Paul; Pulley, Jill; Basford, Melissa; Grant, Jason; DuBuisson, Allison; Rothman, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    The Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network (CDRN) encompasses three large health systems: (1) Vanderbilt Health System (VU) with electronic medical records for over 2 million patients, (2) the Vanderbilt Healthcare Affiliated Network (VHAN) which currently includes over 40 hospitals, hundreds of ambulatory practices, and over 3 million patients in the Mid-South, and (3) Greenway Medical Technologies, with access to 24 million patients nationally. Initial goals of the Mid-South CDRN include: (1) expansion of our VU data network to include the VHAN and Greenway systems, (2) developing data integration/interoperability across the three systems, (3) improving our current tools for extracting clinical data, (4) optimization of tools for collection of patient-reported data, and (5) expansion of clinical decision support. By 18 months, we anticipate our CDRN will robustly support projects in comparative effectiveness research, pragmatic clinical trials, and other key research areas and have the capacity to share data and health information technology tools nationally. PMID:24821742

  19. Structure and Evolution of Scientific Collaboration Networks in a Modern Research Collaboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepe, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of scientific collaboration at the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), a modern, multi-disciplinary, distributed laboratory involved in sensor network research. By use of survey research and network analysis, this dissertation examines the collaborative ecology of CENS in terms of three networks of…

  20. Structure and Evolution of Scientific Collaboration Networks in a Modern Research Collaboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepe, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of scientific collaboration at the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), a modern, multi-disciplinary, distributed laboratory involved in sensor network research. By use of survey research and network analysis, this dissertation examines the collaborative ecology of CENS in terms of three networks of…

  1. Strain background determines lymphoma incidence in Atm knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Genik, Paula C; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Liu, Xianan; Story, Michael D; Ding, Lianghao; Bush, Jamie M; Fallgren, Christina M; Weil, Michael M

    2014-02-01

    About 10% to 30% of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) develop leukemias or lymphomas. There is considerable interpatient variation in the age of onset and leukemia/lymphoma type. The incomplete penetrance and variable age of onset may be attributable to several factors. These include competing mortality from other A-T-associated pathologies, particularly neurodegeneration and interstitial lung disease, allele-specific effects of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene mutations. There is also limited evidence from clinical observations and studies using Atm knockout mice that modifier genes may account for some variation in leukemia/lymphoma susceptibility. We have introgressed the Atm(tm1Awb) knockout allele (Atm(-)) onto several inbred murine strains and observed differences in thymic lymphoma incidence and latency between Atm(-/-) mice on the different strain backgrounds and between their F1 hybrids. The lymphomas that arose in these mice had a pattern of sequence gains and losses that were similar to those previously described by others. These results provide further evidence for the existence of modifier genes controlling lymphomagenesis in individuals carrying defective copies of Atm, at least in mice, the characterized Atm(-) congenic strain set provides a resource with which to identify these genes. In addition, we found that fewer than expected Atm(-/-) pups were weaned on two strain backgrounds and that there was no correlation between body weight of young Atm-/- mice and lymphoma incidence or latency. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ATM kinase activity modulates ITCH E3-ubiquitin ligase activity

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Simonetta; Stagni, Venturina; Giambruno, Roberto; Fianco, Giulia; Di Benedetto, Anna; Mottolese, Marcella; Pellegrini, Manuela; Barilà, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase, a central regulator of the DNA damage response regulates the activity of several E3-ubiquitin ligases and the ubiquitination-proteasome system is a consistent target of ATM. ITCH is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that modulates the ubiquitination of several targets, therefore participating to the regulation of several cellular responses, among which the DNA damage response, TNFα, Notch and Hedgehog signalling and T cell development. Here we uncover ATM as a novel positive modulator of ITCH E3-ubiquitin ligase activity. A single residue on ITCH protein, S161, which is part of an ATM SQ consensus motif, is required for ATM-dependent activation of ITCH. ATM activity enhances ITCH enzymatic activity, which in turn drives the ubiquitination and degradation of c-FLIP-L and c-Jun, previously identified as ITCH substrates. Importantly, Atm deficient mice show resistance to hepatocyte cell death, similarly to Itch deficient animals, providing in vivo genetic evidence for this circuit. Our data identify ITCH as a novel component of the ATM-dependent signaling pathway and suggest that the impairment of the correct functionality of ITCH caused by Atm deficiency may contribute to the complex clinical features linked to Ataxia Telangiectasia. PMID:23435430

  3. Hyperoxia activates ATM independent from mitochondrial ROS and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Resseguie, Emily A; Staversky, Rhonda J; Brookes, Paul S; O'Reilly, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    High levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) are often used to treat individuals with respiratory distress, yet prolonged hyperoxia causes mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage molecules such as DNA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is activated by nuclear DNA double strand breaks and delays hyperoxia-induced cell death through downstream targets p53 and p21. Evidence for its role in regulating mitochondrial function is emerging, yet it has not been determined if mitochondrial dysfunction or ROS activates ATM. Because ATM maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, we hypothesized that hyperoxia induces both mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS that activate ATM. In A549 lung epithelial cells, hyperoxia decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity at 12h and basal respiration by 48 h. ROS were significantly increased at 24h, yet mitochondrial DNA double strand breaks were not detected. ATM was not required for activating p53 when mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by chronic exposure to antimycin A. Also, ATM was not further activated by mitochondrial ROS, which were enhanced by depleting manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2). In contrast, ATM dampened the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS during exposure to hyperoxia. Our findings suggest that hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS do not activate ATM. ATM more likely carries out its canonical response to nuclear DNA damage and may function to attenuate mitochondrial ROS that contribute to oxygen toxicity.

  4. Hyperoxia activates ATM independent from mitochondrial ROS and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Resseguie, Emily A.; Staversky, Rhonda J.; Brookes, Paul S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) are often used to treat individuals with respiratory distress, yet prolonged hyperoxia causes mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage molecules such as DNA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is activated by nuclear DNA double strand breaks and delays hyperoxia-induced cell death through downstream targets p53 and p21. Evidence for its role in regulating mitochondrial function is emerging, yet it has not been determined if mitochondrial dysfunction or ROS activates ATM. Because ATM maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, we hypothesized that hyperoxia induces both mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS that activate ATM. In A549 lung epithelial cells, hyperoxia decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity at 12 h and basal respiration by 48 h. ROS were significantly increased at 24 h, yet mitochondrial DNA double strand breaks were not detected. ATM was not required for activating p53 when mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by chronic exposure to antimycin A. Also, ATM was not further activated by mitochondrial ROS, which were enhanced by depleting manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2). In contrast, ATM dampened the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS during exposure to hyperoxia. Our findings suggest that hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS do not activate ATM. ATM more likely carries out its canonical response to nuclear DNA damage and may function to attenuate mitochondrial ROS that contribute to oxygen toxicity. PMID:25967673

  5. ATM and KAT5 safeguard replicating chromatin against formaldehyde damage

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Wong, Victor C.; DeLoughery, Zachary; Luczak, Michal W.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Many carcinogens damage both DNA and protein constituents of chromatin, and it is unclear how cells respond to this compound injury. We examined activation of the main DNA damage-responsive kinase ATM and formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by formaldehyde (FA) that forms histone adducts and replication-blocking DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC). We found that low FA doses caused a strong and rapid activation of ATM signaling in human cells, which was ATR-independent and restricted to S-phase. High FA doses inactivated ATM via its covalent dimerization and formation of larger crosslinks. FA-induced ATM signaling showed higher CHK2 phosphorylation but much lower phospho-KAP1 relative to DSB inducers. Replication blockage by DPC did not produce damaged forks or detectable amounts of DSB during the main wave of ATM activation, which did not require MRE11. Chromatin-monitoring KAT5 (Tip60) acetyltransferase was responsible for acetylation and activation of ATM by FA. KAT5 and ATM were equally important for triggering of intra-S-phase checkpoint and ATM signaling promoted recovery of normal human cells after low-dose FA. Our results revealed a major role of the KAT5-ATM axis in protection of replicating chromatin against damage by the endogenous carcinogen FA. PMID:26420831

  6. China's landscape in oncology drug research: perspectives from research collaboration networks.

    PubMed

    You, Han; Ni, Jingyun; Barber, Michael; Scherngell, Thomas; Hu, Yuanjia

    2015-04-01

    Better understanding of China's landscape in oncology drug research is of great significance for discovering anti-cancer drugs in future. This article differs from previous studies by focusing on Chinese oncology drug research communities in co-publication networks at the institutional level. Moreover, this research aims to explore structures and behaviors of relevant research units by thematic community analysis and to address policy recommendations. This research used social network analysis to define an institutions network and to identify a community network which is characterized by thematic content. A total of 675 sample articles from 2008 through 2012 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database of Web of Science, and top institutions and institutional pairs are highlighted for further discussion. Meanwhile, this study revealed that institutions based in the Chinese mainland are located in a relatively central position, Taiwan's institutions are closely assembled on the side, and Hong Kong's units located in the middle of the Chinese mainland's and Taiwan's. Spatial division and institutional hierarchy are still critical barriers to research collaboration in the field of anti-cancer drugs in China. In addition, the communities focusing on hot research areas show the higher nodal degree, whereas communities giving more attention to rare research subjects are relatively marginalized to the periphery of network. This paper offers policy recommendations to accelerate cross-regional cooperation, such as through developing information technology and increasing investment. The brokers should focus more on outreach to other institutions. Finally, participation in topics of common interest is conducive to improved efficiency in research and development (R&D) resource allocation.

  7. China’s landscape in oncology drug research: perspectives from research collaboration networks

    PubMed Central

    You, Han; Ni, Jingyun; Barber, Michael; Scherngell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Better understanding of China’s landscape in oncology drug research is of great significance for discovering anti-cancer drugs in future. This article differs from previous studies by focusing on Chinese oncology drug research communities in co-publication networks at the institutional level. Moreover, this research aims to explore structures and behaviors of relevant research units by thematic community analysis and to address policy recommendations. Methods This research used social network analysis to define an institutions network and to identify a community network which is characterized by thematic content. Results A total of 675 sample articles from 2008 through 2012 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database of Web of Science, and top institutions and institutional pairs are highlighted for further discussion. Meanwhile, this study revealed that institutions based in the Chinese mainland are located in a relatively central position, Taiwan’s institutions are closely assembled on the side, and Hong Kong’s units located in the middle of the Chinese mainland’s and Taiwan’s. Spatial division and institutional hierarchy are still critical barriers to research collaboration in the field of anti-cancer drugs in China. In addition, the communities focusing on hot research areas show the higher nodal degree, whereas communities giving more attention to rare research subjects are relatively marginalized to the periphery of network. Conclusions This paper offers policy recommendations to accelerate cross-regional cooperation, such as through developing information technology and increasing investment. The brokers should focus more on outreach to other institutions. Finally, participation in topics of common interest is conducive to improved efficiency in research and development (R&D) resource allocation. PMID:25937775

  8. Structural characterization of AtmS13, a putative sugar aminotransferase involved in indolocarbazole AT2433 aminopentose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanteri; Kim, Youngchang; Wang, Fengbin; Bigelow, Lance; Endres, Michael; Kharel, Madan K; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Bingman, Craig A; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Thorson, Jon S; Phillips, George N

    2015-08-01

    AT2433 from Actinomadura melliaura is an indolocarbazole antitumor antibiotic structurally distinguished by its unique aminodideoxypentose-containing disaccharide moiety. The corresponding sugar nucleotide-based biosynthetic pathway for this unusual sugar derives from comparative genomics where AtmS13 has been suggested as the contributing sugar aminotransferase (SAT). Determination of the AtmS13 X-ray structure at 1.50-Å resolution reveals it as a member of the aspartate aminotransferase fold type I (AAT-I). Structural comparisons of AtmS13 with homologous SATs that act upon similar substrates implicate potential active site residues that contribute to distinctions in sugar C5 (hexose vs. pentose) and/or sugar C2 (deoxy vs. hydroxyl) substrate specificity.

  9. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: Leveraging Regional and National Resources to Improve Clinical Research Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Parke, Courtney; Cook, Julia; Carton, Thomas; Rao, Sohail

    2014-01-01

    Background Mapping of the human genome and technological advancements allowing storage and rapid retrieval of healthcare data have heralded a new phase in clinical medicine and have served as a catalyst for the advent of personalized medicine. The use of health information databases provides a unique opportunity to investigate questions of great complexity and real-world application in a way that is most useful in providing high quality, safe, and cost-effective clinical care to patients. Methods The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) aims to streamline the workflow of multiinstitutional clinical studies and to dramatically expand the clinical research resources available to local investigators. The LACDRN contains health information for more than 1 million patients in Southeast Louisiana and is a rich resource for researchers to conduct retrospective or observational trials and to recruit patients for prospective studies. Results The LACDRN is part of a large-scale initiative by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to create a national electronic health record network that enables the timely initiation and completion of comparative effectiveness research in a coordinated effort. For the first time, network research will be guided in part by input from patients and caregivers, increasing their engagement in the research process. Conclusion The establishment of the LACDRN is a unique opportunity for clinicians to take part in an innovative national initiative designed to offer new clinical research options for patients and to carry out cutting-edge translational, clinical, and health services research. PMID:25598739

  10. Enhancing research capacity of African institutions through social networking.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Ana; Ramirez-Robles, Maximo; Shousha, Amany; Bagayoko, Cheick Oumar; Perrin, Caroline; Zolfo, Maria; Cuzin, Asa; Roland, Alima; Aryeetey, Richmond; Maojo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, participation of African researchers in top Biomedical Informatics (BMI) scientific journals and conferences has been scarce. Looking beyond these numbers, an educational goal should be to improve overall research and, therefore, to increase the number of scientists/authors able to produce and publish high quality research. In such scenario, we are carrying out various efforts to expand the capacities of various institutions located at four African countries - Egypt, Ghana, Cameroon and Mali - in the framework of a European Commission-funded project, AFRICA BUILD. This project is currently carrying out activities such as e-learning, collaborative development of informatics tools, mobility of researchers, various pilot projects, and others. Our main objective is to create a self-sustained South-South network of BMI developers.

  11. Knowledge brokers in a knowledge network: the case of Seniors Health Research Transfer Network knowledge brokers.

    PubMed

    Conklin, James; Lusk, Elizabeth; Harris, Megan; Stolee, Paul

    2013-01-09

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and reflect on the role of knowledge brokers (KBs) in the Seniors Health Research Transfer Network (SHRTN). The paper reviews the relevant literature on knowledge brokering, and then describes the evolving role of knowledge brokering in this knowledge network. The description of knowledge brokering provided here is based on a developmental evaluation program and on the experiences of the authors. Data were gathered through qualitative and quantitative methods, analyzed by the evaluators, and interpreted by network members who participated in sensemaking forums. The results were fed back to the network each year in the form of formal written reports that were widely distributed to network members, as well as through presentations to the network's members. The SHRTN evaluation and our experiences as evaluators and KBs suggest that a SHRTN KB facilitates processes of learning whereby people are connected with tacit or explicit knowledge sources that will help them to resolve work-related challenges. To make this happen, KBs engage in a set of relational, technical, and analytical activities that help communities of practice (CoPs) to develop and operate, facilitate exchanges among people with similar concerns and interests, and help groups and individuals to create, explore, and apply knowledge in their practice. We also suggest that the role is difficult to define, emergent, abstract, episodic, and not fully understood. The KB role within this knowledge network has developed and matured over time. The KB adapts to the social and technical affordances of each situation, and fashions a unique and relevant process to create relationships and promote learning and change. The ability to work with teams and to develop relevant models and feasible approaches are critical KB skills. The KB is a leader who wields influence rather than power, and who is prepared to adopt whatever roles and approaches are needed to bring about a valuable

  12. The Association between ATM IVS 22-77 T>C and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guixiang; Zou, Peng; Zhao, Peng; Lu, Ailin

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives It has become increasingly clear that ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated) safeguards genome stability, which is a cornerstone of cellular homeostasis, and ATM IVS 22-77 T>C affects the normal activity of ATM proteins. However, the association between the ATM IVS 22-77 T>C genetic variant and cancer risk is controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to estimate the overall cancer risk associated with the polymorphism and to quantify any potential between-study heterogeneity. Methods A total of nine studies including 4,470 cases and 4,862 controls were analyzed for ATM IVS 22-77 T>C association with cancer risk in this meta-analysis. Heterogeneity among articles and their publication bias were also tested. Results Our results showed that no association reached the level of statistical significance in the overall risk. Interestingly, in the stratified analyses, we observed an inverse relationship in lung and breast cancer. Conclusion Further functional research on the ATM mechanism should be performed to explain the inconsistent results in different cancer types. PMID:22276117

  13. Impacts of assimilation of ATMS data in HWRF on track and intensity forecasts of 2012 four landfall hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, X.; Weng, F.; Zhang, B.; Lin, L.; Qin, Z.; Tallapragada, V.

    2013-10-01

    study demonstrates the added benefits of assimilating the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) radiances in the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) system to forecasts of four Atlantic hurricane cases that made landfall in 2012. In the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimilation system, the HWRF model top is raised to 0.5 hPa and the cold start embedded in the HWRF system is changed to a warm start. The ATMS data quality control (QC) procedure is examined and illustrated for its effectiveness in removing cloudy radiances of all the 22 ATMS channels using primarily the information from ATMS channels 1 and 2. For each hurricane case, two pairs of data assimilation and forecasting experiments are carried out and compared with and without including ATMS data. The only difference between the two pairs of experiments is that the second pair also includes data from several other polar-orbiting satellite instruments. It is shown that ATMS data assimilation in HWRF results in a consistent positive impact on the track and intensity forecasts of the four landfall hurricanes.

  14. Network of nanomedicine researches: impact of Iranian scientists

    PubMed Central

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Riazi, Shukuh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We may define the nanomedicine as the use of nanotechnology in the health care, disease diagnoses and treatment in order to maintain and increase the health status of a population through improve pharmacotherapy. The main objective of the current study is to analyze and visualize the co-authorship network of all papers in the field of nanomedicine published throughout 2002-2014 in journals and indexed in the Web of Science database. Methods: The Web of Science database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of nanomedicine through 2002-2014. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers. Results: Total number of papers extracted from the Web of Science in the field of nanomedicine was 3092 through 2002-2014. Analysis of data showed that the research activities in the field of nanomedicine increased steadily through the period of study. USA, China, and India were the most prolific countries in the field. The dominant language of publications was English. The co-authorship connection revealed a network with a density of 0.0006. Conclusion: Nanomedicine researches have markedly been increased in Iran. Ninety-five percent of Iranian papers were cooperated with multi-authors. The collaboration coefficient degree was 0.731. PMID:26929924

  15. Key observations from the NHLBI Asthma Clinical Research Network.

    PubMed

    Szefler, Stanley J; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Israel, Elliot; Denlinger, Loren Clark; Lemanske, Robert F; Calhoun, William; Peters, Stephen P

    2012-05-01

    The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Asthma Clinical Research Network (ACRN) recently completed its work after 20 years of collaboration as a multicentre clinical trial network. When formed, its stated mission was to perform multiple controlled clinical trials for treating patients with asthma by dispassionately examining new and existing therapies, and to rapidly communicate its findings to the medical community. The ACRN conducted 15 major clinical trials. In addition, clinical data, manual of operations, protocols and template informed consents from all ACRN trials are available via NHLBI BioLINCC (https://biolincc.nhlbi.nih.gov/studies/). This network contributed major insights into the use of inhaled corticosteroids, short-acting and long-acting ß-adrenergic agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and novel agents (tiotropium, colchicine and macrolide antibiotics). They also pioneered studies of the variability in drug response, predictors of treatment response and pharmacogenetics. This review highlights the major research observations from the ACRN that have impacted the current management of asthma.

  16. Network of nanomedicine researches: impact of Iranian scientists.

    PubMed

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Riazi, Shukuh

    2015-01-01

    We may define the nanomedicine as the use of nanotechnology in the health care, disease diagnoses and treatment in order to maintain and increase the health status of a population through improve pharmacotherapy. The main objective of the current study is to analyze and visualize the co-authorship network of all papers in the field of nanomedicine published throughout 2002-2014 in journals and indexed in the Web of Science database. The Web of Science database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of nanomedicine through 2002-2014. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers. Total number of papers extracted from the Web of Science in the field of nanomedicine was 3092 through 2002-2014. Analysis of data showed that the research activities in the field of nanomedicine increased steadily through the period of study. USA, China, and India were the most prolific countries in the field. The dominant language of publications was English. The co-authorship connection revealed a network with a density of 0.0006. Nanomedicine researches have markedly been increased in Iran. Ninety-five percent of Iranian papers were cooperated with multi-authors. The collaboration coefficient degree was 0.731.

  17. Dynamics of Research Team Formation in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Caihong; Wan, Yuzi; Chen, Yu

    Most organizations encourage the formation of teams to accomplish complicated tasks, and vice verse, effective teams could bring lots benefits and profits for organizations. Network structure plays an important role in forming teams. In this paper, we specifically study the dynamics of team formation in large research communities in which knowledge of individuals plays an important role on team performance and individual utility. An agent-based model is proposed, in which heterogeneous agents from research communities are described and empirically tested. Each agent has a knowledge endowment and a preference for both income and leisure. Agents provide a variable input (‘effort’) and their knowledge endowments to production. They could learn from others in their team and those who are not in their team but have private connections in community to adjust their own knowledge endowment. They are allowed to join other teams or work alone when it is welfare maximizing to do so. Various simulation experiments are conducted to examine the impacts of network topology, knowledge diffusion among community network, and team output sharing mechanisms on the dynamics of team formation.

  18. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  19. The Southeast Asian Influenza Clinical Research Network: development and challenges for a new multilateral research endeavor.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Elizabeth S; Hayden, Frederick G; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Whitworth, Jimmy; Farrar, Jeremy

    2008-04-01

    The Southeast Asia Influenza Clinical Research Network (SEA ICRN) (www.seaclinicalresearch.org) is a recently developed multilateral, collaborative partnership that aims to advance scientific knowledge and management of human influenza through integrated clinical investigation. The partnership of hospitals and institutions in Indonesia, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Viet Nam was established in late 2005 after agreement on the general principles and mission of the initiative and after securing initial financial support. The establishment of the SEA ICRN was both a response to the re-emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in Southeast Asia in late 2003 and an acknowledgment that clinical trials on emerging infectious diseases require prepared and coordinated research capacity. The objectives of the Network also include building sustainable research capacity in the region, compliance with international standards, and prompt dissemination of information and sharing of samples. The scope of research includes diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of human influenza due to seasonal or novel viruses. The Network has overcome numerous logistical and scientific challenges but has now successfully initiated several clinical trials. The establishment of a clinical research network is a vital part of preparedness and an important element during an initial response phase to a pandemic.

  20. The Canadian Higher Education Research Network. A Proposal to the Secretary of State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education.

    A network to facilitate research on postsecondary education in Canada is advocated by the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education. The network will link centers of specialization and individual researchers, and will use information technology to produce and disseminate research findings and to enhance communications. The network will…

  1. National High Frequency Radar Network (hfrnet) and Pacific Research Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazard, L.; Terrill, E. J.; Cook, T.; de Paolo, T.; Otero, M. P.; Rogowski, P.; Schramek, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. High Frequency Radar Network (HFRNet) has been in operation for over ten years with representation from 31 organizations spanning academic institutions, state and local government agencies, and private organizations. HFRNet currently holds a collection from over 130 radar installations totaling over 10 million records of surface ocean velocity measurements. HFRNet is a primary example of inter-agency and inter-institutional partnerships for improving oceanographic research and operations. HF radar derived surface currents have been used in several societal applications including coastal search and rescue, oil spill response, water quality monitoring and marine navigation. Central to the operational success of the large scale network is an efficient data management, storage, access, and delivery system. The networking of surface current mapping systems is characterized by a tiered structure that extends from the individual field installations to local regional operations maintaining multiple sites and on to centralized locations aggregating data from all regions. The data system development effort focuses on building robust data communications from remote field locations (sites) for ingestion into the data system via data on-ramps (Portals or Site Aggregators) to centralized data repositories (Nodes). Centralized surface current data enables the aggregation of national surface current grids and allows for ingestion into displays, management tools, and models. The Coastal Observing Research and Development Center has been involved in international relationships and research in the Philippines, Palau, and Vietnam. CORDC extends this IT architecture of surface current mapping data systems leveraging existing developments and furthering standardization of data services for seamless integration of higher level applications. Collaborations include the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), The Coral Reef Research

  2. The Role of Research in Integrated Health Care Systems: The HMO Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Thomas M; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Tolsma, Dennis D; Greene, Sarah M

    2004-01-01

    Integrated care systems have unique advantages for conducting research. The HMO Research Network (HMORN) includes research centers associated with 13 large integrated care systems whose research focuses on improving health and health care delivery using the extraordinary platform provided by these health systems. We conducted literature reviews and surveys and interviews with directors of HMORN research centers, research investigators, and selected support staff in order to identify the characteristics of the research in HMORN centers and to present examples of how this research has affected health and health policy. The 13 HMORN member health systems deliver health care to 13 million people. HMORN research centers have access to large, defined populations, comprehensive medical information, extensive computerized data systems and to medical care delivery systems that offer extraordinary research opportunities. HMORN centers publish about 1200 scientific articles each year and received about $180 million in external research funding in 2002, most of it from NIH, CDC, and other federal sources. More than 2000 research studies are currently underway at these centers, which employ approximately 1500 persons in the research activities. HMORN research centers have had a profound impact on health policy and care. New technologies are steadily expanding the research capacities of these research groups. Increased collaboration between academic and HMO researchers would enhance the work of both. PMID:26705313

  3. Networked event-triggered control: an introduction and research trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Sabih, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    A physical system can be studied as either continuous time or discrete-time system depending upon the control objectives. Discrete-time control systems can be further classified into two categories based on the sampling: (1) time-triggered control systems and (2) event-triggered control systems. Time-triggered systems sample states and calculate controls at every sampling instant in a periodic fashion, even in cases when states and calculated control do not change much. This indicates unnecessary and useless data transmission and computation efforts of a time-triggered system, thus inefficiency. For networked systems, the transmission of measurement and control signals, thus, cause unnecessary network traffic. Event-triggered systems, on the other hand, have potential to reduce the communication burden in addition to reducing the computation of control signals. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on the event-triggered methods for control systems and highlights the potential research directions.

  4. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network.

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-05-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10{sup 12}). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not!) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data.

  5. The Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research: a network of community and hospital pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2014-08-01

    Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.

  6. Finding collaborators: toward interactive discovery tools for research network systems.

    PubMed

    Borromeo, Charles D; Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-11-04

    Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the implications of collaborator search tools for researcher

  7. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the

  8. Knowledge brokers in a knowledge network: the case of Seniors Health Research Transfer Network knowledge brokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and reflect on the role of knowledge brokers (KBs) in the Seniors Health Research Transfer Network (SHRTN). The paper reviews the relevant literature on knowledge brokering, and then describes the evolving role of knowledge brokering in this knowledge network. Methods The description of knowledge brokering provided here is based on a developmental evaluation program and on the experiences of the authors. Data were gathered through qualitative and quantitative methods, analyzed by the evaluators, and interpreted by network members who participated in sensemaking forums. The results were fed back to the network each year in the form of formal written reports that were widely distributed to network members, as well as through presentations to the network’s members. Results The SHRTN evaluation and our experiences as evaluators and KBs suggest that a SHRTN KB facilitates processes of learning whereby people are connected with tacit or explicit knowledge sources that will help them to resolve work-related challenges. To make this happen, KBs engage in a set of relational, technical, and analytical activities that help communities of practice (CoPs) to develop and operate, facilitate exchanges among people with similar concerns and interests, and help groups and individuals to create, explore, and apply knowledge in their practice. We also suggest that the role is difficult to define, emergent, abstract, episodic, and not fully understood. Conclusions The KB role within this knowledge network has developed and matured over time. The KB adapts to the social and technical affordances of each situation, and fashions a unique and relevant process to create relationships and promote learning and change. The ability to work with teams and to develop relevant models and feasible approaches are critical KB skills. The KB is a leader who wields influence rather than power, and who is prepared to adopt whatever roles and

  9. The MAPP research network: design, patient characterization and operations.

    PubMed

    Landis, J Richard; Williams, David A; Lucia, M Scott; Clauw, Daniel J; Naliboff, Bruce D; Robinson, Nancy A; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Rodriguez, Larissa V; Mayer, Emeran A; Lai, H Henry; Krieger, John N; Kreder, Karl J; Afari, Niloofar; Andriole, Gerald L; Bradley, Catherine S; Griffith, James W; Klumpp, David J; Hong, Barry A; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Buchwald, Dedra; Yang, Claire C; Mackey, Sean; Pontari, Michel A; Hanno, Philip; Kusek, John W; Mullins, Chris; Clemens, J Quentin

    2014-08-01

    The "Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain" (MAPP) Research Network was established by the NIDDK to better understand the pathophysiology of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS), to inform future clinical trials and improve clinical care. The evolution, organization, and scientific scope of the MAPP Research Network, and the unique approach of the network's central study and common data elements are described. The primary scientific protocol for the Trans-MAPP Epidemiology/Phenotyping (EP) Study comprises a multi-site, longitudinal observational study, including bi-weekly internet-based symptom assessments, following a comprehensive in-clinic deep-phenotyping array of urological symptoms, non-urological symptoms and psychosocial factors to evaluate men and women with UCPPS. Healthy controls, matched on sex and age, as well as "positive" controls meeting the non-urologic associated syndromes (NUAS) criteria for one or more of the target conditions of Fibromyalgia (FM), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) or Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), were also evaluated. Additional, complementary studies addressing diverse hypotheses are integrated into the Trans-MAPP EP Study to provide a systemic characterization of study participants, including biomarker discovery studies of infectious agents, quantitative sensory testing, and structural and resting state neuroimaging and functional neurobiology studies. A highly novel effort to develop and assess clinically relevant animal models of UCPPS was also undertaken to allow improved translation between clinical and mechanistic studies. Recruitment into the central study occurred at six Discovery Sites in the United States, resulting in a total of 1,039 enrolled participants, exceeding the original targets. The biospecimen collection rate at baseline visits reached nearly 100%, and 279 participants underwent common neuroimaging through a standardized protocol. An extended follow-up study for 161 of the

  10. A network approach for researching partnerships in health

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jenny M

    2005-01-01

    Background The last decade has witnessed a significant move towards new modes of governing that are based on coordination and collaboration. In particular, local level partnerships have been widely introduced around the world. There are few comprehensive approaches for researching the effects of these partnerships. The aim of this paper is to outline a network approach that combines structure and agency based explanations to research partnerships in health. Network research based on two Primary Care Partnerships (PCPs) in Victoria is used to demonstrate the utility of this approach. The paper examines multiple types of ties between people (structure), and the use and value of relationships to partners (agency), using interviews with the people involved in two PCPs – one in metropolitan Melbourne and one in a rural area. Results Network maps of ties based on work, strategic information and policy advice, show that there are many strong connections in both PCPs. Not surprisingly, PCP staff are central and highly connected. Of more interest are the ties that are dependent on these dedicated partnership staff, as they reveal which actors become weakly linked or disconnected without them. Network measures indicate that work ties are the most dispersed and strategic information ties are the most concentrated around fewer people. Divisions of general practice are weakly linked, while local government officials and Department of Human Services (DHS) regional staff appear to play important bridging roles. Finally, the relationships between partners have changed and improved, and most of those interviewed value their new or improved links with partners. Conclusion Improving service coordination and health promotion planning requires engaging people and building strong relationships. Mapping ties is a useful means for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of partnerships, and network analysis indicates concentration and dispersion, the importance of particular individuals

  11. ATM, radiation, and the risk of second primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonine L; Concannon, Patrick

    2017-07-27

    It was first suggested more than 40 years ago that heterozygous carriers for the human autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) might also be at increased risk for cancer. Subsequent studies have identified the responsible gene, Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), characterized genetic variation at this locus in A-T and a variety of different cancers, and described the functions of the ATM protein with regard to cellular DNA damage responses. However, an overall model of how ATM contributes to cancer risk, and in particular, the role of DNA damage in this process, remains lacking. This review considers these questions in the context of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Heterozygous carriers of loss of function mutations in ATM that are A-T causing, are at increased risk of breast cancer. However, examination of a range of genetic variants, both rare and common, across multiple cancers, suggests that ATM may have additional effects on cancer risk that are allele-dependent. In the case of CBC, selected common alleles at ATM are associated with a reduced incidence of CBC, while other rare and predicted deleterious variants may act jointly with radiation exposure to increase risk. Further studies that characterize germline and somatic ATM mutations in breast cancer and relate the detected genetic changes to functional outcomes, particularly with regard to radiation responses, are needed to gain a complete picture of the complex relationship between ATM, radiation and breast cancer.

  12. Atm deletion with dual recombinase technology preferentially radiosensitizes tumor endothelium.

    PubMed

    Moding, Everett J; Lee, Chang-Lung; Castle, Katherine D; Oh, Patrick; Mao, Lan; Zha, Shan; Min, Hooney D; Ma, Yan; Das, Shiva; Kirsch, David G

    2014-08-01

    Cells isolated from patients with ataxia telangiectasia are exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Kinase inhibitors of ATM, the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia, can sensitize tumor cells to radiation therapy, but concern that inhibiting ATM in normal tissues will also increase normal tissue toxicity from radiation has limited their clinical application. Endothelial cell damage can contribute to the development of long-term side effects after radiation therapy, but the role of endothelial cell death in tumor response to radiation therapy remains controversial. Here, we developed dual recombinase technology using both FlpO and Cre recombinases to generate primary sarcomas in mice with endothelial cell-specific deletion of Atm to determine whether loss of Atm in endothelial cells sensitizes tumors and normal tissues to radiation. Although deletion of Atm in proliferating tumor endothelial cells enhanced the response of sarcomas to radiation, Atm deletion in quiescent endothelial cells of the heart did not sensitize mice to radiation-induced myocardial necrosis. Blocking cell cycle progression reversed the effect of Atm loss on tumor endothelial cell radiosensitivity. These results indicate that endothelial cells must progress through the cell cycle in order to be radiosensitized by Atm deletion.

  13. Strain Background Determines Lymphoma Incidence in Atm Knockout Mice12

    PubMed Central

    Genik, Paula C; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Liu, Xianan; Story, Michael D; Ding, Lianghao; Bush, Jamie M; Fallgren, Christina M; Weil, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    About 10% to 30% of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) develop leukemias or lymphomas. There is considerable interpatient variation in the age of onset and leukemia/lymphoma type. The incomplete penetrance and variable age of onset may be attributable to several factors. These include competing mortality from other A-T-associated pathologies, particularly neurodegeneration and interstitial lung disease, and allele-specific effects of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene mutations. There is also limited evidence from clinical observations and studies using Atm knockout mice that modifier genes may account for some variation in leukemia/lymphoma susceptibility. We have introgressed the Atmtm1Awb knockout allele (Atm-) onto several inbred murine strains and observed differences in thymic lymphoma incidence and latency between Atm-/- mice on the different strain backgrounds and between their F1 hybrids. The lymphomas that arose in these mice had a pattern of sequence gains and losses that were similar to those previously described by others. These results provide further evidence for the existence of modifier genes controlling lymphomagenesis in individuals carrying defective copies of Atm, at least in mice, and the characterized Atm- congenic strain set provides a resource with which to identify these genes. In addition, we found that fewer than expected Atm-/- pups were weaned on two strain backgrounds and that there was no correlation between body weight of young Atm-/- mice and lymphoma incidence or latency. PMID:24709420

  14. Detecting ATM-dependent chromatin modification in DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, Durga; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Mishra, Lopa; Hunt, Clayton; Pandita, Tej K

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function or mutation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene product (ATM) results in inherited genetic disorders characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, and cancer. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product belongs to the PI3K-like protein kinase (PIKKs) family and is functionally implicated in mitogenic signal transduction, chromosome condensation, meiotic recombination, cell-cycle control, and telomere maintenance. The ATM protein kinase is primarily activated in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), the most deleterious form of DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation (IR) or radiomimetic drugs. It is detected at DNA damage sites, where ATM autophosphorylation causes dissociation of the inactive homodimeric form to the activated monomeric form. Interestingly, heat shock can activate ATM independent of the presence of DNA strand breaks. ATM is an integral part of the sensory machinery that detects DSBs during meiosis, mitosis, or DNA breaks mediated by free radicals. These DNA lesions can trigger higher order chromatin reorganization fuelled by posttranslational modifications of histones and histone binding proteins. Our group, and others, have shown that ATM activation is tightly regulated by chromatin modifications. This review summarizes the multiple approaches used to discern the role of ATM and other associated proteins in chromatin modification in response to DNA damage.

  15. Detecting ATM-Dependent Chromatin Modification in DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumar, Durga; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Mishra, Lope; Hunt, Clayton; Pandita, Tej K.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function or mutation of the ataxia–telangiectasia mutated gene product (ATM) results in inherited genetic disorders characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, and cancer. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product belongs to the PI3K-like protein kinase (PIKKs) family and is functionally implicated in mitogenic signal transduction, chromosome condensation, meiotic recombination, cell-cycle control, and telomere maintenance. The ATM protein kinase is primarily activated in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), the most deleterious form of DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation (IR) or radiomimetic drugs. It is detected at DNA damage sites, where ATM autophosphorylation causes dissociation of the inactive homodimeric form to the activated monomeric form. Interestingly, heat shock can activate ATM independent of the presence of DNA strand breaks. ATM is an integral part of the sensory machinery that detects DSBs during meiosis, mitosis, or DNA breaks mediated by free radicals. These DNA lesions can trigger higher order chromatin reorganization fuelled by posttranslational modifications of histones and histone binding proteins. Our group, and others, have shown that ATM activation is tightly regulated by chromatin modifications. This review summarizes the multiple approaches used to discern the role of ATM and other associated proteins in chromatin modification in response to DNA damage. PMID:25827888

  16. Multimedia Applications in Heterogeneous Internet/ATM Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lars C.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of multimedia systems focuses on interaction approaches for the quality of service (QoS) architectures developed for the Internet and for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Highlights include interactions, videoconferencing, video on demand, a comparison of the ATM and IntServ QoS architectures, interaction models, and subordination…

  17. Involvement of novel autophosphorylation sites in ATM activation.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Graham, Mark E; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Philip; Robinson, Phillip J; Lavin, Martin F

    2006-08-09

    ATM kinase plays a central role in signaling DNA double-strand breaks to cell cycle checkpoints and to the DNA repair machinery. Although the exact mechanism of ATM activation remains unknown, efficient activation requires the Mre11 complex, autophosphorylation on S1981 and the involvement of protein phosphatases and acetylases. We report here the identification of several additional phosphorylation sites on ATM in response to DNA damage, including autophosphorylation on pS367 and pS1893. ATM autophosphorylates all these sites in vitro in response to DNA damage. Antibodies against phosphoserine 1893 revealed rapid and persistent phosphorylation at this site after in vivo activation of ATM kinase by ionizing radiation, paralleling that observed for S1981 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation was dependent on functional ATM and on the Mre11 complex. All three autophosphorylation sites are physiologically important parts of the DNA damage response, as phosphorylation site mutants (S367A, S1893A and S1981A) were each defective in ATM signaling in vivo and each failed to correct radiosensitivity, genome instability and cell cycle checkpoint defects in ataxia-telangiectasia cells. We conclude that there are at least three functionally important radiation-induced autophosphorylation events in ATM.

  18. Experiences with TCP/IP over an ATM OC12 WAN

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzan, Rebecca L.; Tierney, Brian L.

    1999-12-23

    This paper discusses the performance testing experiences of a 622.08 Mbps OC12 link. The link will be used for large bulk data transfer, and as such, of interest are both the ATM level throughput rates and end-to-end TCP/IP throughput rates. Tests were done to evaluate the ATM switches, the IP routers, the end hosts, as well as the underlying ATM service provided by the carrier. A low level of cell loss, (resulting in <.01 % packet loss), decreased the TCP throughput rate considerably when one TCP flow was trying to use the entire OC12 bandwidth. Identifying and correcting cell loss in the network proved to be extremely difficult. TCP Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) improved performance dramatically, and the maximum throughput rate increased from 300 Mbps to 400 Mbps. The effects of TCP slow start on performance at OC12 rates are also examined, and found to be insignificant for very large file transfers (e.g., for a 10 GB file). Finally, a history of TCP performance over high-speed networks is presented.

  19. Earth Stewardship Science: International Research Networks based in Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    The role of networking in student and early career years is critical in the development of international interdisciplinary earth system science. These networks - both peer and mentor-based - can build community, foster enthusiasm and further research applications in addition to the traditional goal of identifying and obtaining work. UNESCO has nearly 40 years of experience in building international research teams through the International Geoscience Program (IGCP) and has recently focused their attention on the status of the earth sciences in Africa. UNESCO’s Earth Science Education Initiative in Africa ran a series of regional scoping workshops around the continent in order to develop an integrated status report on the earth sciences in Africa. The results, which are globally relevant, indicate that the field is limited by the level of basic science education of incoming students and restricted laboratory facilities, but also by a lack of connectedness. This isolation relates both to the interaction between researchers within countries and around the world but also the divide between Universities and Industry and the failure of the field to communicate its relevance to the public. In a context where livelihood opportunities are the driver of study and the earth sciences provide a major source of income, practical academic ties to industry are an essential element of the attractiveness of the field to students. Actions and ideas for addressing this situation will be presented to reinforce the role of the earth sciences in improving human and environmental well-being.

  20. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA) based on gene coexpression network (GCN) increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies. PMID:27597964

  1. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Li, Junyi; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA) based on gene coexpression network (GCN) increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies.

  2. Etoposide Induces ATM-Dependent Mitochondrial Biogenesis through AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yi Lisa; Liu, Leroy F.; Qi, Haiyan

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA damage such as double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) has been reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The major player in response to DSBs is ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated). Upon sensing DSBs, ATM is activated through autophosphorylation and phosphorylates a number of substrates for DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. ATM has been reported to phosphorylate the α subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which senses AMP/ATP ratio in cells, and can be activated by upstream kinases. Here we provide evidence for a novel role of ATM in mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK activation in response to etoposide-induced DNA damage. Methodology/Principal Findings Three pairs of human ATM+ and ATM- cells were employed. Cells treated with etoposide exhibited an ATM-dependent increase in mitochondrial mass as measured by 10-N-Nonyl-Acridine Orange and MitoTracker Green FM staining, as well as an increase in mitochondrial DNA content. In addition, the expression of several known mitochondrial biogenesis regulators such as the major mitochondrial transcription factor NRF-1, PGC-1α and TFAM was also elevated in response to etoposide treatment as monitored by RT-PCR. Three pieces of evidence suggest that etoposide-induced mitochondrial biogenesis is due to ATM-dependent activation of AMPK. First, etoposide induced ATM-dependent phosphorylation of AMPK α subunit at Thr172, indicative of AMPK activation. Second, inhibition of AMPK blocked etoposide-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Third, activation of AMPK by AICAR (an AMP analogue) stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in an ATM-dependent manner, suggesting that ATM may be an upstream kinase of AMPK in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that activation of ATM by etoposide can lead to mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK activation. We propose that ATM-dependent mitochondrial

  3. The research of packet transmission network (PTN) based on T-MPLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong; Feng, Xiancheng

    2008-11-01

    With the successful application of DSL technology, the gradual popularization of FTTH technology, and the evolution from traditional network to NGN, the trend of IP business bearing has been formed. In the future, the optical transmission network of the entire business operations will be primarily responsible for the IP / Ethernet traffic transmission, the optimization of the characteristics of data flow in groups, and will develop in a direction of smart, integrated, broadband, efficient and reliable packet transmission technology (PTN). The PTN based on T-MPLS technology, supporting all types of business (Ethernet, IP / MPLS, FR, ATM, TDM,...), simultaneously supporting general users (wired / wireless) and commercial users in various types of business development, would become a new generation of converged networks of PTN platform. This article analyzes the crucial technologies of PTN in respects of the T-MPLS system of the framework agreement, the hierarchical structure, the network model, operational capacity, protection switching mechanism, etc, and puts forward a PTN-building program facing the entire business operations.

  4. Evidence toward an expanded international civil aviation organization (ICAO) concept of a single unified global communication navigation surveillance air traffic management (CNS/ATM) system: A quantitative analysis of ADS-B technology within a CNS/ATM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Gregory S.

    This research dissertation summarizes research done on the topic of global air traffic control, to include technology, controlling world organizations and economic considerations. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) proposed communication, navigation, surveillance, air traffic management system (CNS/ATM) plan is the basis for the development of a single global CNS/ATM system concept as it is discussed within this study. Research will be evaluated on the efficacy of a single technology, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) within the scope of a single global CNS/ATM system concept. ADS-B has been used within the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Capstone program for evaluation since the year 2000. The efficacy of ADS-B was measured solely by using National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) data relating to accident and incident rates within the Alaskan airspace (AK) and that of the national airspace system (NAS).

  5. European Network of Bipolar Research Expert Centre (ENBREC): a network to foster research and promote innovative care.

    PubMed

    Henry, Chantal; Andreassen, Ole A; Barbato, Angelo; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Goodwin, Guy; Leboyer, Marion; Vieta, Eduard; Nolen, Willem A; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Scott, Jan; Bauer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorders rank as one of the most disabling illnesses in working age adults worldwide. Despite this, the quality of care offered to patients with this disorder is suboptimal, largely due to limitations in our understanding of the pathology. Improving this scenario requires the development of a critical mass of expertise and multicentre collaborative projects. Within the framework of the European FP7 programme, we developed a European Network of Bipolar Research Expert Centres (ENBREC) designed specifically to facilitate EU-wide studies. ENBREC provides an integrated support structure facilitating research on disease mechanisms and clinical outcomes across six European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain and the UK). The centres are adopting a standardised clinical assessment that explores multiple aspects of bipolar disorder through a structured evaluation designed to inform clinical decision-making as well as being applicable to research. Reliable, established measures have been prioritised, and instruments have been translated and validated when necessary. An electronic healthcare record and monitoring system (e-ENBREC©) has been developed to collate the data. Protocols to conduct multicentre clinical observational studies and joint studies on cognitive function, biomarkers, genetics, and neuroimaging are in progress; a pilot study has been completed on strategies for routine implementation of psycho-education. The network demonstrates 'proof of principle' that expert centres across Europe can collaborate on a wide range of basic science and clinical programmes using shared protocols. This paper is to describe the network and how it aims to improve the quality and effectiveness of research in a neglected priority area.

  6. Extremely high data-rate, reliable network systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Mukkamala, R.; Murray, Nicholas D.; Overstreet, C. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Significant progress was made over the year in the four focus areas of this research group: gigabit protocols, extensions of metropolitan protocols, parallel protocols, and distributed simulations. Two activities, a network management tool and the Carrier Sensed Multiple Access Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol, have developed to the point that a patent is being applied for in the next year; a tool set for distributed simulation using the language SIMSCRIPT also has commercial potential and is to be further refined. The year's results for each of these areas are summarized and next year's activities are described.

  7. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a

  8. The role of social networking sites in medical genetics research.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Allison Cook; Bianchi, Diana W

    2013-05-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) have potential value in the field of medical genetics as a means of research subject recruitment and source of data. This article examines the current role of SNS in medical genetics research and potential applications for these sites in future studies. Facebook is the primary SNS considered, given the prevalence of its use in the United States and role in a small but growing number of studies. To date, utilization of SNS in medical genetics research has been primarily limited to three studies that recruited subjects from populations of Facebook users [McGuire et al. (2009); Am J Bioeth 9: 3-10; Janvier et al. (2012); Pediatrics 130: 293-298; Leighton et al. (2012); Public Health Genomics 15: 11-21]. These studies and a number of other medical and public health studies that have used Facebook as a context for recruiting research subjects are discussed. Approaches for Facebook-based subject recruitment are identified, including paid Facebook advertising, snowball sampling, targeted searching and posting. The use of these methods in medical genetics research has the potential to facilitate cost-effective research on both large, heterogeneous populations and small, hard-to-access sub-populations.

  9. Transforming networking within the ESIP Federation using ResearchBit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists increasingly need interdisciplinary teams to solve their research problems. Currently, geoscientists use Research Networking (RN) systems to connect with each other and find people of similar and dissimilar interests. As we shift to digitally mediated scholarship, we need innovative methods for scholarly communication. Formal methods for scholarly communication are undergoing vast transformation owing to the open-access movement and reproducible research. However, informal scholarly communication that takes place at professional society meetings and conferences, like AGU, has received limited research attention relying primarily on serendipitous interaction. The ResearchBit project aims to fundamentally improve informal methods of scholarly communication by leveraging the serendipitous interactions of researchers and making them more aware of co-located potential collaborators with mutual interests. This presentation will describe our preliminary hardware testing done at the Federation for Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Summer meeting this past July and the initial recommendation system design. The presentation will also cover the cultural shifts and hurdles to introducing new technology, the privacy concerns of tracking technology and how we are addressing those new issues.

  10. Improving the performance of interorganizational networks for preventing chronic disease: identifying and acting on research needs.

    PubMed

    Willis, Cameron D; Riley, Barbara L; Taylor, Martin; Best, Allan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the role of interorganizational networks in chronic disease prevention and an action research agenda for promoting understanding and improvement. Through a model of engaged scholarship, leaders with expertise and experience in chronic disease prevention networks helped shape research directions focused on network value, governance, and evolution. The guiding principles for facilitating this research include applying existing knowledge, developing network-appropriate methods and measures, creating structural change, promoting an impact orientation, and fostering cultural change.

  11. Bone marrow transplantation improves the outcome of Atm-deficient mice through the migration of ATM-competent cells.

    PubMed

    Pietzner, J; Baer, P C; Duecker, R P; Merscher, M B; Satzger-Prodinger, C; Bechmann, I; Wietelmann, A; Del Turco, D; Doering, C; Kuci, S; Bader, P; Schirmer, S; Zielen, S; Schubert, R

    2013-02-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a highly pleiotropic disorder. Patients suffer from progressive neurodegeneration, severe bronchial complications, immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity to radiotherapy and elevated risk of malignancies. Leukemia and lymphoma, along with lung failure, are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in A-T patients. At present, no effective therapy for A-T exists. One promising therapeutic approach is bone marrow transplantation (BMT) that is already used as a curative therapy for other genomic instability syndromes. We used an established clinically relevant non-myeloablative host-conditioning regimen and transplanted green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-competent bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) into Atm-deficient mice. GFP expression allowed tracking of the potential migration of the cells into the tissues of recipient animals. Donor BMDCs migrated into the bone marrow, blood, thymus, spleen and lung tissue of Atm-deficient mice showing an ATM-competent phenotype. BMT inhibited thymic lymphomas, normalized T-lymphocyte populations, improved weight gain and rearing activity of Atm-deficient mice. In contrast, no GFP(+) cells were found in the cerebellum or cerebrum, and we detected decreased size index in MRI imaging of the cerebellum in 8-month-old transplanted Atm-deficient mice in comparison to wild-type mice. The repopulation with ATM-competent BMDCs is associated with a prolonged lifespan and significantly improved the phenotype of Atm-deficient mice.

  12. Pediatric collaborative networks for quality improvement and research.

    PubMed

    Lannon, Carole M; Peterson, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    -scale health system laboratories, providing the social, scientific, and technical infrastructure and data for multiple types of research. Statewide, regional, and national pediatric collaborative networks have demonstrated improvements in primary care practice as well as care for chronic pediatric diseases (eg, asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, congenital heart disease), perinatal care, and patient safety (eg, central line-associated blood stream infections, adverse medication events, surgical site infections); many have documented improved outcomes. Challenges to spreading the improvement network model exist, including the need for the identification of stable funding sources. However, these barriers can be overcome, allowing the benefits of improved care and outcomes to spread to additional clinical and safety topics and care processes for the nation's children.

  13. Conducting medication safety research projects in a primary care physician practice-based research network.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Grace M; Steinbauer, Jeffrey R; Spann, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    To describe a roadmap for developing a practice-based research network (PBRN) through the experience of conducting medication safety research projects in a primary care physician PBRN. Southern Primary-care Urban Research Network (SPUR-Net) in Houston, Tex., from 2000 to 2007. SPUR-Net is a partnership of six health care organizations in Houston and includes 32 clinics with 313 primary care clinicians (50% family physicians, 25% general internists, and 25% pediatricians) who provide care for approximately 1 million patient encounters annually. The pharmacist principal investigator collaborates with physicians and researchers in primary care clinics to investigate medication safety practice in SPUR-Net. (1) A roadmap for PBRN research and (2) initiation of a research program focusing on medication safety through the PBRN. A roadmap with 10 steps for conducting practice-based research is recommended: (1) form collaborative partnership, (2) develop research infrastructure, (3) formulate research questions, (4) design study methods, (5) obtain funding support, (6) develop study instruments, (7) implement the study, (8) manage and analyze data, (9) disseminate results, and (10) translate research into practice. Four research projects focusing on medication safety were conducted in SPUR-Net from 2002 to 2007. Medication outcomes include improved medication use, increased awareness for medication counseling, decreased medication errors, and identification of best practices for medication reconciliation. Practice-based research conducted in primary care settings identifies, studies, and evaluates common problems encountered in busy clinic practice. With feedback from stakeholders, best practices and improved practice can be identified and "translated" back to practice. Grant funding for research projects helps sustain PBRNs. The implementation of medication safety research projects has helped primary care clinics, clinicians, and patients increase appropriate medication

  14. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lenters, Lindsey M; Cole, Donald C; Godoy-Ruiz, Paula

    2014-01-25

    Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers' careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world.

  15. Different ATM Signaling in Response to Chromium(VI) Metabolism via Ascorbate and Nonascorbate Reduction: Implications for in Vitro Models and Toxicogenomics.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Michal W; Green, Samantha E; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Carcinogenic hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] requires cellular reduction to generate DNA damage. Metabolism of Cr(VI) by its principal reducer ascorbate (Asc) lacks a Cr(V) intermediate, which is abundant in reactions with a minor reducing agent, glutathione. Cultured cells are widely used in mechanistic studies of Cr(VI) toxicity; however, they typically contain < 1% of normal Asc levels. Asc deficiency is also expected to diminish protection against reactive oxygen species. We assessed how the presence of Asc in cells affects their stress signaling and survival responses to chromate. We investigated the effects of Asc restoration in human lung H460 cells and normal human lung fibroblasts on the activation and functional role of ATM kinase, which controls DNA damage responses involving several hundreds of proteins. Treatment of standard cultures with Cr(VI) strongly activated ATM, as indicated by its automodification at Ser1981 and by phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) and chromatin/transcription regulator KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP1). Confirming the importance of activated ATM, its inhibition impaired replication recovery and clonogenic survival. In contrast, fully Asc-restored cells lacked ATM activation by Cr(VI), and ATM silencing produced no significant effects on p53 stabilization, apoptosis, replication recovery, or clonogenic survival. Dose dependence studies found a close correlation between ATM activation and the extent of Cr(VI) reduction by glutathione. Asc restoration in cultured cells dramatically altered their stress responses to Cr(VI) by preventing activation of the oxidant-sensitive ATM network. We suggest that toxicogenomic and other cell response-based approaches likely underestimate Cr(VI) genotoxicity when standard ATM-activating carcinogens are used as references. Luczak MW, Green SE, Zhitkovich A. 2016. Different ATM signaling in response to chromium(VI) metabolism via ascorbate and nonascorbate reduction: implications for in

  16. Alterations of ATM and CADM1 in chromosomal 11q22.3-23.2 region are associated with the development of invasive cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mazumder Indra, Dipanjana; Mitra, Sraboni; Roy, Anup; Mondal, Ranajit Kumar; Basu, Partha Sarathi; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Chakravarty, Runu; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2011-12-01

    To understand the importance of chr11q22.3-23.2 region in the development of cervical cancer, we have studied the genetic and epigenetic alterations of the candidate genes ATM, PPP2R1B, SDHD and CADM1 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples. Our study revealed low expression and high alterations (methylation/deletion) (55-59%) of ATM and CADM1 genes along with poor patient outcome. The alterations of ATM and CADM1 are associated with the progression of tumor from CIN to Stage I/II, thus implying their role in early invasiveness. The two genes, PPP2R1B and SDHD, lying in between ATM and CADM1, have low frequency of alterations, and majority of the alterations are in CACX samples, indicating that their alterations might be associated with disease progression. Expressions (mRNA/protein) of the genes showed concordance with their molecular alterations. Significant co-alteration of ATM and CADM1 points to their synergic action for the development of CACX. Mutation is, however, a rare phenomenon for inactivation of ATM. Association between the alteration of ATM and CHEK1 and poor survival of the patients having co-alterations of ATM and CHEK1 points to the DNA damage response pathway disruption in development of CACX. Thus, our data suggest that inactivation of ATM-CHEK1-associated DNA damage response pathway and CADM1-associated signaling network might have an important role in the development of CACX.

  17. Research and collaboration overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: a bibliometric approach toward research funding decisions

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN), which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods: Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results: A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion: IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions. PMID:24596896

  18. Guidance for researchers developing and conducting clinical trials in practice-based research networks (PBRNs).

    PubMed

    Dolor, Rowena J; Schmit, Kristine M; Graham, Deborah G; Fox, Chester H; Baldwin, Laura Mae

    2014-01-01

    There is increased interest nationally in multicenter clinical trials to answer questions about clinical effectiveness, comparative effectiveness, and safety in real-world community settings. Primary care practice-based research networks (PBRNs), comprising community- and/or academically affiliated practices committed to improving medical care for a range of health problems, offer ideal settings for these trials, especially pragmatic clinical trials. However, many researchers are not familiar with working with PBRNs. Experts in practice-based research identified solutions to challenges that researchers and PBRN personnel experience when collaborating on clinical trials in PBRNs. These were organized as frequently asked questions in a draft document presented at a 2013 Agency for Health care Research and Quality PBRN conference workshop, revised based on participant feedback, then shared with additional experts from the DARTNet Institute, Clinical Translational Science Award PBRN, and North American Primary Care Research Group PBRN workgroups for further input and modification. The "Toolkit for Developing and Conducting Multi-site Clinical Trials in Practice-Based Research Networks" offers guidance in the areas of recruiting and engaging practices, budgeting, project management, and communication, as well as templates and examples of tools important in developing and conducting clinical trials. Ensuring the successful development and conduct of clinical trials in PBRNs requires a highly collaborative approach between academic research and PBRN teams. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  19. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers’ careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. Methods A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Results Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Conclusions Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world. PMID:24460819

  20. The research of computer network security and protection strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jian

    2017-05-01

    With the widespread popularity of computer network applications, its security is also received a high degree of attention. Factors affecting the safety of network is complex, for to do a good job of network security is a systematic work, has the high challenge. For safety and reliability problems of computer network system, this paper combined with practical work experience, from the threat of network security, security technology, network some Suggestions and measures for the system design principle, in order to make the masses of users in computer networks to enhance safety awareness and master certain network security technology.

  1. 75 FR 55360 - Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program: Draft NITRD 2010 Strategic Plan AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information Technology Research.... EDT on October 11, 2010. SUMMARY: With this notice, the National Coordination Office for Networking...

  2. The Global Research Collaboration of Network Meta-Analysis: A Social Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lun; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; Tian, Jinhui; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Pieper, Dawid; Ge, Long; Yao, Liang; Wang, Quan; Yang, Kehu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Research collaborations in biomedical research have evolved over time. No studies have addressed research collaboration in network meta-analysis (NMA). In this study, we used social network analysis methods to characterize global collaboration patterns of published NMAs over the past decades. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched (at 9th July, 2015) to include systematic reviews incorporating NMA. Two reviewers independently selected studies and cross-checked the standardized data. Data was analyzed using Ucinet 6.0 and SPSS 17.0. NetDraw software was used to draw social networks. Results 771 NMAs published in 336 journals from 3459 authors and 1258 institutions in 49 countries through the period 1997–2015 were included. More than three-quarters (n = 625; 81.06%) of the NMAs were published in the last 5-years. The BMJ (4.93%), Current Medical Research and Opinion (4.67%) and PLOS One (4.02%) were the journals that published the greatest number of NMAs. The UK and the USA (followed by Canada, China, the Netherlands, Italy and Germany) headed the absolute global productivity ranking in number of NMAs. The top 20 authors and institutions with the highest publication rates were identified. Overall, 43 clusters of authors (four major groups: one with 37 members, one with 12 members, one with 11 members and one with 10 members) and 21 clusters of institutions (two major groups: one with 62 members and one with 20 members) were identified. The most prolific authors were affiliated with academic institutions and private consulting firms. 181 consulting firms and pharmaceutical industries (14.39% of institutions) were involved in 199 NMAs (25.81% of total publications). Although there were increases in international and inter-institution collaborations, the research collaboration by authors, institutions and countries were still weak and most collaboration groups were small sizes. Conclusion Scientific

  3. Orthopaedic trauma research priority-setting exercise and development of a research network.

    PubMed

    Willett, K M; Gray, B; Moran, C G; Giannoudis, P V; Pallister, I

    2010-07-01

    Clinical practice should be informed by high quality evidence, of which randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard. Surgical trials are inherently difficult with potential problems around clinical equipoise and participant acceptability. This is often most true with trial designs comparing operative and non-operative treatments. It is hoped that research activity can be maximised by collaborating in (a) the identification of research questions and (b) involvement in clinical trials. Development of the national research networks can be utilised to provide support for research endeavours within the orthopaedic trauma community. To identify and prioritise the research questions felt to be of most importance by the orthopaedic trauma community. Research studies will be considered for questions given the highest priority. A Delphi approach was used to determine consensus between the faculty members of the AOUK. A two round process was used to elicit the research questions and then to rank them in order of priority. 217 members of the AOUK Long Bone Faculty were asked to submit research questions, predominantly consultant orthopaedic surgeons. A 22% response rate generated 147 questions. These were collated and the most frequent 24 sent back out for ranking by mean scores. A 55% response to this second round identified 10 top questions. Literature searches for these 10 looked at current knowledge of the subject, completed and ongoing research projects. We also looked at the advantages and disadvantages of undertaking a study and the most appropriate methodology. The response rates demonstrated a clear interest in developing a collaborative research strategy. This can be enhanced by utilising the support of the National Institute of Health Research Clinical Research Networks (NIHR CRN). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary Care Practice-Based Research Networks: Working at the Interface Between Research and Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mold, James W.; Peterson, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE We wanted to describe the emerging role of primary care practice-based in research, quality improvement (QI), and translation of research into practice (TRIP). METHODS We gathered information from the published literature, discussions with PBRN leaders, case examples, and our own personal experience to describe a role for PBRNs that comfortably bridges the gap between research and QI, discovery and application, academicians and practitioners—a role that may lead to the establishment of true learning communities. We provide specific recommendations for network directors, network clinicians, and other potential stakeholders. RESULTS PBRNs function at the interface between research and QI, an interface called TRIP by some members of the research community. In doing so, PBRNs are helping to clarify the difficulty of applying study findings to everyday care as an inappropriate disconnect between discovery and implementation, research and practice. Participatory models are emerging in which stakeholders agree on their goals; apply their collective knowledge, skills, and resources to accomplish these goals; and use research and QI methods when appropriate. CONCLUSIONS PBRNs appear to be evolving from clinical laboratories into learning communities, proving grounds for generalizable solutions to clinical problems, and engines for improvement of primary care delivery systems. PMID:15928213

  5. Practice‐based Research Network Research Good Practices (PRGPs): Summary of Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Campbell‐Voytal, Kimberly; Daly, Jeanette; Nagykaldi, Zsolt J.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pamela; Fagnan, Lyle J.; Levy, Barcey; Michaels, LeAnn; Louks, Hannah A.; Smith, Paul; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Patterson, V. Beth; Kano, Miria; Sussman, Andrew L.; Williams, Robert; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Practice‐based research networks (PBRNs) conduct research in community settings, which poses quality control challenges to the integrity of research, such as study implementation and data collection. A foundation for improving research processes within PBRNs is needed to ensure research integrity. Methods Network directors and coordinators from seven U.S.‐based PBRNs worked with a professional team facilitator during semiannual in‐person meetings and monthly conference calls to produce content for a compendium of recommended research practices specific to the context of PBRNs. Participants were assigned to contribute content congruent with their expertise. Feedback on the draft document was obtained from attendees at the preconference workshop at the annual PBRN meeting in 2013. A revised document was circulated to additional PBRN peers prior to finalization. Results The PBRN Research Good Practices (PRGPs) document is organized into four chapters: (1) Building PBRN Infrastructure; (2) Study Development and Implementation; (3) Data Management, and (4) Dissemination Policies. Each chapter contains an introduction, detailed procedures for each section, and example resources with information links. Conclusion The PRGPs is a PBRN‐specific resource to facilitate PBRN management and staff training, to promote adherence to study protocols, and to increase validity and generalizability of study findings. PMID:26296309

  6. Practice-based Research Network Research Good Practices (PRGPs): Summary of Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dolor, Rowena J; Campbell-Voytal, Kimberly; Daly, Jeanette; Nagykaldi, Zsolt J; O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pamela; Fagnan, Lyle J; Levy, Barcey; Michaels, LeAnn; Louks, Hannah A; Smith, Paul; Aspy, Cheryl B; Patterson, V Beth; Kano, Miria; Sussman, Andrew L; Williams, Robert; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) conduct research in community settings, which poses quality control challenges to the integrity of research, such as study implementation and data collection. A foundation for improving research processes within PBRNs is needed to ensure research integrity. Network directors and coordinators from seven U.S.-based PBRNs worked with a professional team facilitator during semiannual in-person meetings and monthly conference calls to produce content for a compendium of recommended research practices specific to the context of PBRNs. Participants were assigned to contribute content congruent with their expertise. Feedback on the draft document was obtained from attendees at the preconference workshop at the annual PBRN meeting in 2013. A revised document was circulated to additional PBRN peers prior to finalization. The PBRN Research Good Practices (PRGPs) document is organized into four chapters: (1) Building PBRN Infrastructure; (2) Study Development and Implementation; (3) Data Management, and (4) Dissemination Policies. Each chapter contains an introduction, detailed procedures for each section, and example resources with information links. The PRGPs is a PBRN-specific resource to facilitate PBRN management and staff training, to promote adherence to study protocols, and to increase validity and generalizability of study findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Histone deacetylase regulation of ATM-mediated DNA damage signaling.

    PubMed

    Thurn, K Ted; Thomas, Scott; Raha, Paromita; Qureshi, Ian; Munster, Pamela N

    2013-10-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a major regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM promotes the activation of BRCA1, CHK2, and p53 leading to the induction of response genes such as CDKN1A (p21), GADD45A, and RRM2B that promote cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair. The upregulation of these response genes may contribute to resistance of cancer cells to genotoxic therapies. Here, we show that histone deacetylases (HDAC) play a major role in mitigating the response of the ATM pathway to DNA damage. HDAC inhibition decreased ATM activation and expression, and attenuated the activation of p53 in vitro and in vivo. Select depletion of HDAC1 and HDAC2 was sufficient to modulate ATM activation, reduce GADD45A and RRM2B induction, and increase sensitivity to DNA strand breaks. The regulation of ATM by HDAC enzymes therefore suggests a vital role for HDAC1 and HDAC2 in the DNA damage response, and the potential use of the ATM pathway as a pharmacodynamic marker for combination therapies involving HDAC inhibitors. ©2013 AACR.

  8. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-27

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  9. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  10. Twelve novel Atm mutations identified in Chinese ataxia telangiectasia patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Yang, Lu; Wang, Jianchun; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Ying; Xia, Rongjun; Yuan, Xianhou; Yan, Mingshan

    2013-09-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized mainly by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, and immunodeficiency. This disease is caused by mutations of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) gene. More than 500 Atm mutations that are responsible for A-T have been identified so far. However, there have been very few A-T cases reported in China, and only two Chinese A-T patients have undergone Atm gene analysis. In order to systemically investigate A-T in China and map their Atm mutation spectrum, we recruited eight Chinese A-T patients from six unrelated families nationwide. Using direct sequencing of genomic DNA and the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, we identified twelve pathogenic Atm mutations, including one missense, four nonsense, five frameshift, one splicing, and one large genomic deletion. All the Atm mutations we identified were novel, and no homozygous mutation and founder-effect mutation were found. These results suggest that Atm mutations in Chinese populations are diverse and distinct largely from those in other ethnic areas.

  11. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents. PMID:27229179

  12. Friending Adolescents on Social Networking Websites: A Feasible Research Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researcher’s profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226

  13. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-12-09

    It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A multiple case study of intersectoral public health networks: experiences and benefits of using research.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Anita; McPherson, Charmaine; Gore, Dana; Cohen, Benita; MacDonald, Marjorie; Sibbald, Shannon L

    2016-02-11

    Network partnerships between public health and third sector organisations are being used to address the complexities of population level social determinants of health and health equity. An understanding of how these networks use research and knowledge is crucial to effective network design and outcome evaluation. There is, however, a gap in the literature regarding how public health networks use research and knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to report on the qualitative findings from a larger study that explored (1) the experiences of public health networks with using research and knowledge, and (2) the perceived benefits of using research and knowledge. A multiple case study approach framed this study. Focus group data were collected from participants through a purposive sample of four public health networks. Data were analyzed using Framework Analysis and Nvivo software supported data management. Each network had the opportunity to participate in data interpretation. All networks used published research studies and other types of knowledge to accomplish their work, although in each network research and knowledge played different but complementary roles. Neither research nor other types of knowledge were privileged, and an approach that blended varied knowledge types was typically used. Network experiences with research and knowledge produced individual and collective benefits. A novel finding was that research and knowledge were both important in shaping network function. This study shifts the focus in the current literature from public health departments to the community setting where public health collaborates with a broader spectrum of actors to ameliorate health inequities. Both formal research and informal knowledge were found to be important for collaborative public health networks. Examining the benefits of research and knowledge use within public health networks may help us to better understand the relationships among process (the collaborative use

  15. Linking Behavior in the Physics Education Research Coauthorship Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Katharine A.; Crespi, Matthew; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable long-term interest in understanding the dynamics of collaboration networks, and how these networks form and evolve over time. Most of the work done on the dynamics of social networks focuses on well-established communities. Work examining emerging social networks is rarer, simply because data are difficult to obtain in real…

  16. Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    network emulations experiments for NSRL. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Experiment Control, Simulation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...falsification of theoretical models, and characterization of protocols and algorithms for mobile wireless networks. It is used for a range of experiments ...network science experimentation by providing fine control over timing of modeled events external to the experiment . Emulated networks developed by NSRL

  17. Motion picture experts group (MPEG) over ATM issues: a scenario overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabei, F.; Moscatelli, M.; Russo, Giuseppe; Talone, Paolo

    1995-02-01

    Specific mechanisms are required to carry MPEG coded information over an ATM network. After a brief description of the MPEG-2 video coding algorithm, this paper discusses the `isochronism' related requirements for the transmission of the coded data and the problems associated with the use of an anisochronous transmission mechanism. The main problems, concerning the choice of the ATM adaptation layer (AAL) for each level of interaction, are discussed. Even if the MPEG stream is inherently bursty, the technical literature considers both the constant bit rate (CBR) and variable bit rate (VBR) solutions. The paper reports on a study concerning the AAL choice, in relation with the degree of interactivity required by the application and with the delay constraints. A further issue is an overview of different scenarios for the provision of video services, by `MPEG or ATM.' Different possible network and service architectures are analyzed, and various solutions for storing video information are proposed. Three different service architectures are discussed: the fully centralized, the quasi- centralized, and the fully distributed. The last issue dealt with in the paper concerns a very attractive class of interactive video services, video-on-demand (VoD). In particular, the impact of the digital storage media-control command (DSM-CC) in the provision of a particular VoD service, the `video rental' service, is described. The network requirements to support DSM- CC commands allowing the user to perform the typical video cassette recorder (VCR) functions (freeze frame, fast forward, fast reverse) are stressed. Alternative approaches for the implementation of each command are discussed together with their impact on the traffic network.

  18. Towards migration research networking in Eastern-Southern African subregions.

    PubMed

    Oucho, J O

    1993-01-01

    This article reports efforts made by a small group of Eastern-Southern African (ESA) subregion scholars to adopt a systematic approach to establishing a regional network Migration Network in Eastern and Southern Africa (MINESA). The approach involved: 1) holding a conference at which symptomatic types of internal and international migration would be discussed; 2) publication of the conference proceedings; and 3) establishment of MINESA as a network of policy-oriented research in the two subregions. The first stage has been accomplished, the second is nearly complete, and the third has yet to be undertaken. During the African Population Conference organized by the International Union for Scientific Study of Population in Dakar, Senegal, on 5-9 November 1988, a small group agreed on a timetable to establish MINESA. At the ESA conference, papers were presented on ESA issues; internal migration processes and mechanism; refugee movements and their implications for countries; the effects on the economies of Southern African states, of emigration to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). In a keynote address, Adepoju surveyed migration and development in Western-Central (Middle) Africa and Eastern-Southern Africa, which included colonial and post-colonial historical epochs, internal and international migration, and labor and refugee movements. A paper on Kenya by Oucho discussed the implications for rural-urban balance of internal migration based on 1969 and 1979 censuses. Rural-urban migration from the traditional economy to Nairobi and Mombasa in particular has created an unacceptable rural-urban imbalance, adversely affecting rural development. Eastern and Southern Africa has seen massive and wide spatial dispersal of refugees (victims of wars, drought, and famine). Two papers were presented on Tanzania and one on Uganda. The final set of papers addressed the effects of labor migration to the RSA on Swaziland and Lesotho.

  19. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  20. The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network Data Repository

    PubMed Central

    Keator, David B.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Glover, Gary H.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Liu, Thomas T.; Voyvodic, James T.; Rasmussen, Jerod; Calhoun, Vince D.; Lee, Hyo Jong; Toga, Arthur W.; McEwen, Sarah; Ford, Judith M.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Diaz, Michele; O’Leary, Daniel S.; Bockholt, H. Jeremy; Gadde, Syam; Preda, Adrian; Wible, Cynthia G.; Stern, Hal S.; Belger, Aysenil; McCarthy, Gregory; Ozyurt, Burak; Potkin, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN) developed methods and tools for conducting multi-scanner functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Method and tool development were based on two major goals: 1) to assess the major sources of variation in fMRI studies conducted across scanners, including instrumentation, acquisition protocols, challenge tasks, and analysis methods, and 2) to provide a distributed network infrastructure and an associated federated database to host and query large, multi-site, fMRI and clinical datasets. In the process of achieving these goals the FBIRN test bed generated several multi-scanner brain imaging data sets to be shared with the wider scientific community via the BIRN Data Repository (BDR). The FBIRN Phase 1 dataset consists of a traveling subject study of 5 healthy subjects, each scanned on 10 different 1.5 to 4 Tesla scanners. The FBIRN Phase 2 and Phase 3 datasets consist of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder along with healthy comparison subjects scanned at multiple sites. In this paper, we provide concise descriptions of FBIRN’s multi-scanner brain imaging data sets and details about the BIRN Data Repository instance of the Human Imaging Database (HID) used to publicly share the data. PMID:26364863

  1. Research on optic antenna of space laser communication networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Li-Xin; Li, Long; Zhang, Li-zhong; Zhao, Shan-shan; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2013-08-01

    With the highlights of the high transmission rate, large capacity, strong anti-interference and anti-capture ability, good security and small light, space laser communication becomes an important hotspot. At present, the focus of research of the laser communication system is point to point communication structure. However, from the application point of view, both the realization of space laser communication among multiple points and the establishment of the information transmission network can really have the practical value. Aiming at the problem of space laser communication network, this article puts forward the general idea about optical antenna to achieve multiple tracking goals at the same time. Through the analysis of the optical antenna, and the comparing of the current commonly used mirror driving mechanism, a new mirror driving mechanism is designed. The azimuth motion, containing circular grating feedback, is driven by torque motor,voice coil motor of fan produces pitch motion that has fan-shaped grating feedback, so that compression of the structure size to improve the efficiency of the reflector assembly. Through the establishment of the driving mechanism and the kinematic model of 3D entity, the relationship between the single drive azimuth and pitch angle following the angle of incident light is explained. The biggest ideal view area affecting the optical antenna is obtained by the simulation analysis of the kinematics model using MATLAB. The several factors of field overlap area and blind area offers a theoretical basis for structure optimization and control system for the subsequent optical antenna design.

  2. The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network Data Repository.

    PubMed

    Keator, David B; van Erp, Theo G M; Turner, Jessica A; Glover, Gary H; Mueller, Bryon A; Liu, Thomas T; Voyvodic, James T; Rasmussen, Jerod; Calhoun, Vince D; Lee, Hyo Jong; Toga, Arthur W; McEwen, Sarah; Ford, Judith M; Mathalon, Daniel H; Diaz, Michele; O'Leary, Daniel S; Jeremy Bockholt, H; Gadde, Syam; Preda, Adrian; Wible, Cynthia G; Stern, Hal S; Belger, Aysenil; McCarthy, Gregory; Ozyurt, Burak; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN) developed methods and tools for conducting multi-scanner functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Method and tool development were based on two major goals: 1) to assess the major sources of variation in fMRI studies conducted across scanners, including instrumentation, acquisition protocols, challenge tasks, and analysis methods, and 2) to provide a distributed network infrastructure and an associated federated database to host and query large, multi-site, fMRI and clinical data sets. In the process of achieving these goals the FBIRN test bed generated several multi-scanner brain imaging data sets to be shared with the wider scientific community via the BIRN Data Repository (BDR). The FBIRN Phase 1 data set consists of a traveling subject study of 5 healthy subjects, each scanned on 10 different 1.5 to 4 T scanners. The FBIRN Phase 2 and Phase 3 data sets consist of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder along with healthy comparison subjects scanned at multiple sites. In this paper, we provide concise descriptions of FBIRN's multi-scanner brain imaging data sets and details about the BIRN Data Repository instance of the Human Imaging Database (HID) used to publicly share the data.

  3. A Space Operations Network Alternative: Using the Globally Connected Research and Education Networks for Space-based Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    Earth based networking in support of various space agency projects has been based on leased service/circuits which has a high associated cost. This cost is almost always taken from the science side resulting in less science. This is a proposal to use Research and Education Networks (RENs) worldwide to support space flight operations in general and space-based science operations in particular. The RENs were developed to support scientific and educational endeavors. They do not provide support for general Internet traffic. The connectivity and performance of the research and education networks is superb. The connectivity at Layer 3 (IP) virtually encompasses the globe. Most third world countries and all developed countries have their own research and education networks, which are connected globally. Performance of the RENs especially in the developed countries is exceptional. Bandwidth capacity currently exists and future expansion promises that this capacity will continue. REN performance statistics has always exceeded minimum requirements for spaceflight support. Research and Education networks are more loosely managed than a corporate network but are highly managed when compared to the commodity Internet. Management of RENs on an international level is accomplished by the International Network Operations Center at Indiana University at Indianapolis. With few exceptions, each regional and national REN has its own network ops center. The acceptable use policies (AUP), although differing by country, allows any scientific program or project the use of their networks. Once in compliance with the first RENs AUP, all others will accept that specific traffic including regional and transoceanic networks. RENs can support spaceflight related scientific programs and projects. Getting the science to the researcher is obviously key to any scientific project. RENs provide a pathway to virtually any college or university in the world, as well as many governmental institutes and

  4. The core spliceosome as target and effector of non-canonical ATM signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tresini, Maria; Warmerdam, Daniël O.; Kolovos, Petros; Snijder, Loes; Vrouwe, Mischa G.; Demmers, Jeroen A.A.; van IJcken, Wilfred F.J.; Grosveld, Frank G.; Medema, René H.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Mullenders, Leon H.F.; Vermeulen, Wim; Marteijn, Jurgen A.

    2015-01-01

    In response to DNA damage tissue homoeostasis is ensured by protein networks promoting DNA repair, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. DNA damage response signaling pathways coordinate these processes, partly by propagating gene expression-modulating signals. DNA damage influences not only abundance of mRNAs, but also their coding information through alternative splicing. Here we show that transcription-blocking DNA lesions promote chromatin displacement of late-stage spliceosomes and initiate a positive feedback loop centered on the signaling kinase ATM. We propose that initial spliceosome displacement and subsequent R-loop formation is triggered by pausing of RNA polymerase at DNA lesions. In turn, R-loops activate ATM which signals to further impede spliceosome organization and augment UV-triggered alternative splicing at genome-wide level. Our findings define the R-loop-dependent ATM activation by transcription-blocking lesions as an important event in the DNA damage response of non-replicating cells and highlight a key role for spliceosome displacement in this process. PMID:26106861

  5. Recent Greenland Thinning from Operation IceBridge ATM and LVIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutterley, T. C.; Velicogna, I.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate regional thinning rates in Greenland using two Operation IceBridge lidar instruments, the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS). IceBridge and Pre-IceBridge ATM data are available from 1993 to present and IceBridge and Pre-Icebridge LVIS data are available from 2007 to present. We compare different techniques for combining the two datasets: overlapping footprints, triangulated irregular network meshing and radial basis functions. We validate the combination for periods with near term overlap of the two instruments. By combining the two lidar datasets, we are able to investigate intra-annual, annual, interannual surface elevation change. We investigate both the high melt season of 2012 and the low melt season of 2013. In addition, the major 2015 IceBridge Arctic campaign provides new crucial data for determining seasonal ice sheet thinning rates. We compare our LVIS/ATM results with surface mass balance outputs from two regional climate models: the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO) and the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR). We also investigate the thinning rates of major outlet glaciers.

  6. N-acetylcysteine potentiates doxorubicin-induced ATM and p53 activation in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Brum, Gabriella; Carbone, Thomas; Still, Eric; Correia, Vendita; Szulak, Kevin; Calianese, David; Best, Charles; Cammarata, Garret; Higgins, Katelyn; Ji, Fang; Di, Wen; Wan, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin has been used clinically to treat various types of cancer, and yet the molecular mode of actions of doxorubicin remains to be fully unraveled. In this study, we investigated the effect of doxorubicin on cultured ovarian cancer cells (CaOV3). MTT assay data showed that doxorubicin inhibits cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Phagokinetic cell motility assay data indicated that doxorubicin inhibits both basal level and EGF-induced cell migration in CaOV3 cells. Confocal microscopic data revealed that doxorubicin induces reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins including actin, tubulin and vimentin. Doxorubicin induces phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and 20, acetylation of p53 and ATM activation. Doxorubicin also induces phosphorylation of histone H2AX at Ser139. Interestingly, doxorubicin also inhibits mTOR activity, measured by phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein. Pretreatment of CaOV3 cells with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), but not pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) potentiates doxorubicin-induced phosphorylation of p53 and ATM. Collectively, we conclude that doxorubicin induces ATM/p53 activation leading to reorganization of cytoskeletal networks, inhibition of mTOR activity, and inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. Our data also suggest that removal of oxidants by antioxidants such as NAC may enhance the efficacy of doxorubicin in vivo.

  7. The Ontario Drug Policy Research Network: bridging the gap between Research and Drug Policy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sobia; Moore, Julia E; Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Tran, Judy; McAuley, Glenn; Juurlink, David N; Paterson, Michael; Laupacis, Andreas; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2014-09-01

    Policymakers have cited several barriers to using evidence in policy decisions, including lack of research relevance and timeliness. In recent years, several reports have focused on the successes and challenges of researcher-policymaker collaborations, a form of policy engagement intended to help overcome barriers to the use of research evidence in policymaking. Although these reports often demonstrate an increase in research relevance, rarely do they provide concrete methods of enhancing research timeliness, which is surprising given policymakers' expressed need to receive "rapid-response" research. Additionally, the impact of researcher-policymaker collaborations is not well-discussed. In this paper, we aim to describe the collaboration between the Ontario Drug Policy Research Network (ODPRN) and its policymaker partner, the Ontario Public Drug Program (OPDP), with a particular focus on the ODPRN's research methodology and unique rapid-response approach for policy engagement. This approach is illustrated through a specific case example regarding drug funding policies for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Moreover, we discuss the impact of the ODPRN's research on pharmaceutical policy and lessons learned throughout the ODPRN and OPDP's five-year partnership. The described experiences will be valuable to those seeking to enhance evidence uptake in policymaking for immediate policy needs.

  8. Community pharmacist participation in a practice-based research network: a report from the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet).

    PubMed

    Patel, Puja; Hemmeger, Heather; Kozak, Mary Ann; Gernant, Stephanie A; Snyder, Margie E

    2015-01-01

    To describe the experiences and opinions of pharmacists serving as site coordinators for the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet). Retail chain, independent, and hospital/health system outpatient community pharmacies throughout Indiana, with a total of 127 pharmacy members represented by 26 site coordinators. Rx-SafeNet, a statewide practice-based research network (PBRN) formed in 2010 and administered by the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. Barriers and facilitators to participation in available research studies, confidence participating in research, and satisfaction with overall network communication. 22 of 26 site coordinators participated, resulting in an 85% response rate. Most (72.2%) of the respondents had received a doctor of pharmacy degree, and 13.6% had postgraduate year (PGY)1 residency training. The highest reported benefits of PBRN membership were an enhanced relationship with the Purdue University College of Pharmacy (81% agreed or strongly agreed) and enhanced professional development (80% agreed or strongly agreed). Time constraints were identified as the greatest potential barrier to network participation, reported by 62% of respondents. In addition, the majority (59%) of survey respondents identified no prior research experience. Last, respondents' confidence in performing research appeared to increase substantially after becoming network members, with 43% reporting a lack of confidence in engaging in research before joining the network compared with 90% reporting confidence after joining the network. In general, Rx-SafeNet site coordinators appeared to experience increased confidence in research engagement after joining the network. While respondents identified a number of benefits associated with network participation, concerns about potential time constraints remained a key barrier to participation. These findings will assist network leadership in identifying opportunities to positively increase member participation

  9. The Geropathology Research Network: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Integrating Pathology Into Research on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ikeno, Yuji; Niedernhofer, Laura; McIndoe, Richard A.; Ciol, Marcia A.; Ritchey, Jerry; Liggitt, Denny

    2016-01-01

    Geropathology is the study of aging and age-related lesions and diseases in the form of whole necropsies/autopsies, surgical biopsies, histology, and molecular biomarkers. It encompasses multiple subspecialties of geriatrics, anatomic pathology, molecular pathology, clinical pathology, and gerontology. In order to increase the consistency and scope of communication in the histologic and molecular pathology assessment of tissues from preclinical and clinical aging studies, a Geropathology Research Network has been established consisting of pathologists and scientists with expertise in the comparative pathology of aging, the design of aging research studies, biostatistical methods for analysis of aging data, and bioinformatics for compiling and annotating large sets of data generated from aging studies. The network provides an environment to promote learning and exchange of scientific information and ideas for the aging research community through a series of symposia, the development of uniform ways of integrating pathology into aging studies, and the statistical analysis of pathology data. The efforts of the network are ultimately expected to lead to a refined set of sentinel biomarkers of molecular and anatomic pathology that could be incorporated into preclinical and clinical aging intervention studies to increase the relevance and productivity of these types of investigations. PMID:26243216

  10. The Geropathology Research Network: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Integrating Pathology Into Research on Aging.

    PubMed

    Ladiges, Warren; Ikeno, Yuji; Niedernhofer, Laura; McIndoe, Richard A; Ciol, Marcia A; Ritchey, Jerry; Liggitt, Denny

    2016-04-01

    Geropathology is the study of aging and age-related lesions and diseases in the form of whole necropsies/autopsies, surgical biopsies, histology, and molecular biomarkers. It encompasses multiple subspecialties of geriatrics, anatomic pathology, molecular pathology, clinical pathology, and gerontology. In order to increase the consistency and scope of communication in the histologic and molecular pathology assessment of tissues from preclinical and clinical aging studies, a Geropathology Research Network has been established consisting of pathologists and scientists with expertise in the comparative pathology of aging, the design of aging research studies, biostatistical methods for analysis of aging data, and bioinformatics for compiling and annotating large sets of data generated from aging studies. The network provides an environment to promote learning and exchange of scientific information and ideas for the aging research community through a series of symposia, the development of uniform ways of integrating pathology into aging studies, and the statistical analysis of pathology data. The efforts of the network are ultimately expected to lead to a refined set of sentinel biomarkers of molecular and anatomic pathology that could be incorporated into preclinical and clinical aging intervention studies to increase the relevance and productivity of these types of investigations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  12. A synthetic lethal screen reveals enhanced sensitivity to ATR inhibitor treatment in mantle cell lymphoma with ATM loss-of-function.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Daniel L; Holt, Jenny; Tang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Barsanti, Paul; Pan, Yue; Ghoddusi, Majid; Zhang, Wei; Thomas, George; Holash, Jocelyn; Lees, Emma; Taricani, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms to maintain genomic integrity are essential for cells to remain viable. Not surprisingly, disruption of key DNA damage response pathway factors, such as ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)/ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related (ATR) results in loss of genomic integrity. Here, a synthetic lethal siRNA-screening approach not only confirmed ATM but identified additional replication checkpoint proteins, when ablated, enhanced ATR inhibitor (ATRi) response in a high-content γ-H2AX assay. Cancers with inactivating ATM mutations exhibit impaired DNA double-stranded break (DSB)