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Sample records for atmospheric aerosols basic

  1. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  2. Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Kimberly A.; Hatch, Courtney D.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-07-01

    Aerosols represent an important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Because aerosols are composed of solid and liquid particles of varying chemical complexity, size, and phase, large challenges exist in understanding how they impact climate, health, and the chemistry of the atmosphere. Only through the integration of field, laboratory, and modeling analysis can we begin to unravel the roles atmospheric aerosols play in these global processes. In this article, we provide a brief review of the current state of the science in the analysis of atmospheric aerosols and some important challenges that need to be overcome before they can become fully integrated. It is clear that only when these areas are effectively bridged can we fully understand the impact that atmospheric aerosols have on our environment and the Earth's system at the level of scientific certainty necessary to design and implement sound environmental policies.

  3. Atmospheric Chemistry: Nature's plasticized aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of atmospheric aerosol particles affects their reactivity and growth rates. Measurements of aerosol properties over the Amazon rainforest indicate that organic particles above tropical rainforests are simple liquid drops.

  4. Inorganic Components of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Anthony Stein

    The inorganic components comprise 15% to 50% of the mass of atmospheric aerosols. For about the past 10 years the mass of these components was predicted assuming thermodynamic equilibrium between the volatile aerosol -phase inorganic species NH_4NO _3 and NH_4Cl and their gas-phase counterparts NH_3, HNO_3, and HCl. In this thesis I examine this assumption and prove that (1) the time scales for equilibration between the gas and aerosol phases are often too long for equilibrium to hold, and (2) even when equilibrium holds, transport considerations often govern the size distribution of these aerosol components. Water can comprise a significant portion of atmospheric aerosols under conditions of high relative humidity, whereas under conditions of sufficiently low relative humidity atmospheric aerosols tend to be dry. The deliquescence point is the relative humidity where the aerosol goes from a solid dry phase to an aqueous or mixed solid-aqueous phase. In this thesis I derive the temperature dependence of the deliquescence point and prove that in multicomponent solutions the deliquescence point is lower than for corresponding single component solutions. These theories of the transport, thermodynamic, and deliquescent properties of atmospheric aerosols are integrated into an aerosol inorganics model, AIM. The predictions of AIM compare well to fundamental thermodynamic measurements. Comparison of the prediction of AIM to those of other aerosol equilibrium models shows substantial disagreement in the predicted water content at lower relative humidities. The disagreement is due the improved treatment in AIM of the deliquescence properties of multicomponent solutions. In the summer and fall of 1987 the California Air Resources Board conducted the Southern California Air Quality Study, SCAQS, during which atmospheric aerosols were measured in Los Angeles. The size and composition of the aerosol and the concentrations of their gas phase counterparts were measured. When the

  5. Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer: Demonstration of feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Mroz, E.J.; Olivares, J.; Kok, G.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer (AACA) that will provide a continuous, real-time analysis of the elemental (major, minor and trace) composition of atmospheric aerosols. The AACA concept is based on sampling the atmospheric aerosol through a wet cyclone scrubber that produces an aqueous suspension of the particles. This suspension can then be analyzed for elemental composition by ICP/MS or collected for subsequent analysis by other methods. The key technical challenge was to develop a wet cyclone aerosol sampler suitable for respirable particles found in ambient aerosols. We adapted an ultrasonic nebulizer to a conventional, commercially available, cyclone aerosol sampler and completed collection efficiency tests for the unit, which was shown to efficiently collect particles as small as 0.2 microns. We have completed the necessary basic research and have demonstrated the feasibility of the AACA concept.

  6. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measured properties of atmospheric aerosol particles are presented. These include aerosol size frequency distribution and complex retractive index. The optical properties of aerosols are computed based on the presuppositions of thermodynamic equilibrium and of Mie-theory.

  7. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  8. Surface-active organics in atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    McNeill, V Faye; Sareen, Neha; Schwier, Allison N

    2014-01-01

    Surface-active organic material is a key component of atmospheric aerosols. The presence of surfactants can influence aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, cloud formation, and ice nucleation. We review the current state of the science on the sources, properties, and impacts of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols. PMID:23408277

  9. DOE research on atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.E.

    1995-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

  10. Aerosol properties in Titan's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavvas, Panayotis; Koskinen, Tommi; Royer, Emilie; Rannou, Pascal; West, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Multiple Cassini observations reveal that the abundant aerosol particles in Titan's atmosphere are formed at high altitudes, particularly in the thermosphere. They subsequently fall towards the lower atmosphere and in their path their size, shape, and population change in reflection to the variable atmospheric condition. Although multiple observations can help us retrieve information for the aerosol properties in the lower atmosphere, we have limited information for the aerosol properties between their formation region in the thermosphere and the upper region of the main haze layer or the detached aerosol layer. Observations at UV wavelengths are the only way to probe this part of the atmosphere and help us retrieve the aerosol properties. The presentation will provide an overview of the available observations, and discuss their implications for the production and evolution of Titan's aerosols.

  11. Extraterrestrial matter and atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D. M.; Cziczo, D. J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Thomson, D. S.; Thomson, D. S.

    2001-12-01

    In situ measurements of the composition of stratospheric aerosols detected Fe, Mg, Na, K, Ca, Ni, and other meteoritic material in a large number of particles. These particles include ablated meteoric material that has recondensed, descended from the upper atmosphere, and combined with the sulfate in the stratosphere. Along with laboratory calibrations and a knowledge of the stratospheric sulfur budget, these measurements allow estimates of the flux of extraterrestrial material reaching the present-day earth. The stratospheric particles are depleted in the more refractory elements, suggesting that some of the incoming material is not ablated. Consideration of the much larger flux of meteors in the earth's early history suggests that ablated meteoric material could have altered the properties of the early atmosphere in ways that might be relevant to the origin of life.

  12. Direct observations of atmospheric aerosol nucleation.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, Markku; Kontkanen, Jenni; Junninen, Heikki; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Manninen, Hanna E; Nieminen, Tuomo; Petäjä, Tuukka; Sipilä, Mikko; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Rantala, Pekka; Franchin, Alessandro; Jokinen, Tuija; Järvinen, Emma; Äijälä, Mikko; Kangasluoma, Juha; Hakala, Jani; Aalto, Pasi P; Paasonen, Pauli; Mikkilä, Jyri; Vanhanen, Joonas; Aalto, Juho; Hakola, Hannele; Makkonen, Ulla; Ruuskanen, Taina; Mauldin, Roy L; Duplissy, Jonathan; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Bäck, Jaana; Kortelainen, Aki; Riipinen, Ilona; Kurtén, Theo; Johnston, Murray V; Smith, James N; Ehn, Mikael; Mentel, Thomas F; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Laaksonen, Ari; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2013-02-22

    Atmospheric nucleation is the dominant source of aerosol particles in the global atmosphere and an important player in aerosol climatic effects. The key steps of this process occur in the sub-2-nanometer (nm) size range, in which direct size-segregated observations have not been possible until very recently. Here, we present detailed observations of atmospheric nanoparticles and clusters down to 1-nm mobility diameter. We identified three separate size regimes below 2-nm diameter that build up a physically, chemically, and dynamically consistent framework on atmospheric nucleation--more specifically, aerosol formation via neutral pathways. Our findings emphasize the important role of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosol formation, subsequent aerosol growth, radiative forcing and associated feedbacks between biogenic emissions, clouds, and climate.

  13. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paytan, A.; Mackey, K.R.M.; Chen, Y.; Lima, I.D.; Doney, S.C.; Mahowald, N.; Labiosa, R.; Post, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol deposition is an important source of nutrients and trace metals to the open ocean that can enhance ocean productivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Using aerosol samples from different back trajectories in incubation experiments with natural communities, we demonstrate that the response of phytoplankton growth to aerosol additions depends on specific components in aerosols and differs across phytoplankton species. Aerosol additions enhanced growth by releasing nitrogen and phosphorus, but not all aerosols stimulated growth. Toxic effects were observed with some aerosols, where the toxicity affected picoeukaryotes and Synechococcus but not Prochlorococcus.We suggest that the toxicity could be due to high copper concentrations in these aerosols and support this by laboratory copper toxicity tests preformed with Synechococcus cultures. However, it is possible that other elements present in the aerosols or unknown synergistic effects between these elements could have also contributed to the toxic effect. Anthropogenic emissions are increasing atmospheric copper deposition sharply, and based on coupled atmosphere-ocean calculations, we show that this deposition can potentially alter patterns of marine primary production and community structure in high aerosol, low chlorophyll areas, particularly in the Bay of Bengal and downwind of South and East Asia.

  14. The Regional Environmental Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the regional climate impacts of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's regional climate system at the MENA region. At regional scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta region, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, regional dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the impacts of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter

  15. Thermal Infrared Radiative Forcing By Atmospheric Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Narayan

    The work mainly focuses on the study of thermal infrared (IR) properties of atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the estimation of the aerosol-induced direct longwave (LW) radiative forcing in the spectral region 5-20 mum at the Earth's surface (BOA; bottom of the atmosphere) and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) in cloud-free atmospheric conditions. These objectives were accomplished by conducting case studies on clear sky, smoky, and dusty conditions that took place in the Great Basin of the USA in 2013. Both the solar and thermal IR measurements and a state-of-the-science radiative transfer model, the LBLDIS, a combination of the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model and the Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (DISORT) solver were employed for the study. The LW aerosol forcing is often not included in climate models because the aerosol effect on the LW is often assumed to be negligible. We lack knowledge of aerosol characteristics in the LW region, and aerosol properties exhibit high variability. We have found that the LW TOA radiative forcing due to fine mode aerosols, mainly associated with small biomass burning smoke particles, is + 0.4 W/m2 which seems to be small, but it is similar to the LW radiative forcing due to increase in CO2 concentration in the Earth's atmosphere since the preindustrial era of 1750 (+ 1.6 W/m 2). The LW radiative forcing due to coarse mode aerosols, associated with large airborne mineral dust particles, was found to be as much as + 5.02 W/m2 at the surface and + 1.71 W/m2 at the TOA. All of these significant positive values of the aerosol radiative forcing both at the BOA and TOA indicate that the aerosols have a heating effect in the LW range, which contributes to counterbalancing the cooling effect associated with the aerosol radiative forcing in the shortwave (SW) spectral region. In the meantime, we have found that LW radiative forcing by aerosols is highly sensitive to particle size and complex refractive indices of

  16. The global atmospheric loading of dust aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, J. F.; Ridley, D. A.; Haustein, K.; Miller, R. L.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most ubiquitous aerosols in the atmosphere, with important effects on human health and the climate system. But despite its importance, the global atmospheric loading of dust has remained uncertain, with model results spanning about a factor of five. Here we constrain the particle size-resolved atmospheric dust loading and global emission rate, using a novel theoretical framework that uses experimental constraints on the optical properties and size distribution of dust to eliminate climate model errors due to assumed dust properties. We find that most climate models underestimate the global atmospheric loading and emission rate of dust aerosols.

  17. Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, J. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Zhang, Q.; Kroll, J. H.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Ng, N. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Docherty, K. S.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Robinson, A. L.; Duplissy, J.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Lanz, V. A.; Hueglin, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Tian, J.; Laaksonen, A.; Raatikainen, T.; Rautiainen, J.; Vaattovaara, P.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Collins, D. R.; Cubison, M. J.; Dunlea, J.; Huffman, J. A.; Onasch, T. B.; Alfarra, M. R.; Williams, P. I.; Bower, K.; Kondo, Y.; Schneider, J.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Weimer, S.; Demerjian, K.; Salcedo, D.; Cottrell, L.; Griffin, R.; Takami, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Shimono, A.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Dzepina, K.; Kimmel, J. R.; Sueper, D.; Jayne, J. T.; Herndon, S. C.; Trimborn, A. M.; Williams, L. R.; Wood, E. C.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Baltensperger, U.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework describing the atmospheric evolution of OA that is constrained by high-time-resolution measurements of its composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), with concentrations comparable to those of sulfate aerosol throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Our model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in both the atmosphere and laboratory: It can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.

  18. Atmospheric aerosols as prebiotic chemical reactors

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Christopher M.; Ellison, G. Barney; Tuck, Adrian F.; Vaida, Veronica

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere have recently been found to contain a large number of chemical elements and a high content of organic material. The latter property is explicable by an inverted micelle model. The aerosol sizes with significant atmospheric lifetimes are the same as those of single-celled organisms, and they are predicted by the interplay of aerodynamic drag, surface tension, and gravity. We propose that large populations of such aerosols could have afforded an environment, by means of their ability to concentrate molecules in a wide variety of physical conditions, for key chemical transformations in the prebiotic world. We also suggest that aerosols could have been precursors to life, since it is generally agreed that the common ancestor of terrestrial life was a single-celled organism. The early steps in some of these initial transformations should be accessible to experimental investigation. PMID:11035775

  19. Atmospheric aerosols as prebiotic chemical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Christopher M.; Ellison, G. Barney; Tuck, Adrian F.; Vaida, Veronica

    2000-10-01

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere have recently been found to contain a large number of chemical elements and a high content of organic material. The latter property is explicable by an inverted micelle model. The aerosol sizes with significant atmospheric lifetimes are the same as those of single-celled organisms, and they are predicted by the interplay of aerodynamic drag, surface tension, and gravity. We propose that large populations of such aerosols could have afforded an environment, by means of their ability to concentrate molecules in a wide variety of physical conditions, for key chemical transformations in the prebiotic world. We also suggest that aerosols could have been precursors to life, since it is generally agreed that the common ancestor of terrestrial life was a single-celled organism. The early steps in some of these initial transformations should be accessible to experimental investigation.

  20. Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Kahn, Ralph A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Yu, Hongbin; Rind, David; Feingold, Graham; Quinn, Patricia K.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Streets, David G.; DeCola, Phillip; Halthore, Rangasayi

    2009-01-01

    This report critically reviews current knowledge about global distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosols, as they relate to aerosol impacts on climate. It assesses possible next steps aimed at substantially reducing uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Current measurement techniques and modeling approaches are summarized, providing context. As a part of the Synthesis and Assessment Product in the Climate Change Science Program, this assessment builds upon recent related assessments, including the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4, 2007) and other Climate Change Science Program reports. The objectives of this report are (1) to promote a consensus about the knowledge base for climate change decision support, and (2) to provide a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the climate-relevant impacts of anthropogenic aerosols for policy makers, policy analysts, and general public, both within and outside the U.S government and worldwide.

  1. Atmospheric Residence Times of Continental Aerosols.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkanski, Yves Jacques

    The global atmospheric distributions of ^{222}Rn and ^{210 }Pb are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA GISS^1>=neral circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas ^ {222}Rn (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead -210 is produced by decay of ^{222} Rn and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the ^{222} Rn distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of ^ {222}Rn and ^{210 }Pb atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for ^{222} Rn are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantartic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of ^{210}Pb focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale. The globally averaged residence time for ^{210 }Pb-containing aerosols in the troposphere is 7 days. The average increase in residence time

  2. Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, J. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Zhang, Qi; Kroll, Jesse H.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Ng, N. L.; Aiken, Allison; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Robinson, A. L.; Duplissy, J.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Lanz, V. A.; Hueglin, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Tian, J.; Laaksonen, A.; Raatikainen, T.; Rautiainen, J.; Vaattovaara, P.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Cubison, Michael J.; Dunlea, E. J.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Alfarra, M. R.; Williams, Paul I.; Bower, K.; Kondo, Yutaka; Schneider, J.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Weimer, S.; Demerjian, K.; Salcedo, D.; Cottrell, L.; Griffin, Robert; Takami, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Shimono, A.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Dzepina, K.; Kimmel, Joel; Sueper, D.; Jayne, J. T.; Herndon, Scott C.; Trimborn, Achim; Williams, L. R.; Wood, Ezra C.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2009-12-11

    Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework that describes the atmospheric evolution of OA and is constrained and motivated by new, high time resolution, experimental characterizations of their composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA-precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of large amounts of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) mass that has comparable concentrations to sulfate aerosol over the Northern Hemisphere. Our new model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in the atmosphere and the laboratory and can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.

  3. Atmospheric electricity and aerosol-cloud interactions in earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, Hanna E.; Tammet, Hannes; Mäkelä, Antti; Haapalainen, Jussi; Mirme, Sander; Nieminen, Tuomo; Franchin, Alessandro; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Hõrrak, Urmas

    2013-05-01

    Firstly, atmospheric ions play an important role in the fair weather electricity in Earth's atmosphere. Small ions, or charged molecular clusters, carry electric currents in the atmosphere. These small ions are continuously present, and their lifetime in lower atmosphere is about one minute. It's essential to find out a connection between the production rate of cluster ions, ion-ion recombination, and ion-aerosol attachment, and their ambient concentrations, in order to understand electrical properties of air. Secondly, atmospheric ions are important for Earth's climate, due to their potential role in secondary aerosol formation, which can lead to increased number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn can change the cloud properties. Our aim is to quantify the connections between these two important roles of air ions based on field observations.

  4. Aerosol Retrieval and Atmospheric Correction for MERIS Data over Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floricioiu, D.; Rott, H.

    2004-05-01

    One of the objectives of the ENVISAT project AO-164 on "Environmental Research in the Eastern Alps" is the development of algorithms for retrieval of water quality parameters of lakes from MERIS data. In order to test and validate atmospheric correction algorithms and to provide basic data for the development of algorithms for retrieval of limnological parameters and aerosol loadings, several field campaigns were carried out in summer 2003 on the lakes Garda (Italy) and Mondsee (Austria) parallel to MERIS overflights. Field measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) were used as input for atmospheric correction by means of the 6S model, and field spectra measured above the water surface were used to validate the at-surface reflectance derived from MERIS data. The agreement between field and MERIS reflectance spectra is in general good. Some differences are found at short wavelengths which can be attributed to insufficient knowledge of aerosol properties. The sensitivity of the radiative transfer model to changes in AOT and the aerosol model was investigated. For a day with strong variability in the aerosol loading the spatial gradient of AOT was estimated from MERIS data and compared with the temporal evolution of AOT at a field measurement site.

  5. A study on major inorganic ion composition of atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Salve, P R; Krupadam, R J; Wate, S R

    2007-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected from Akola and Buldana region covering around 40 sqkm area during October-November 2002 and were analyzed for ten major inorganic ions namely F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), PO4(2-), Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ using ion chromatographic technique. The average mass of aerosols was found to be 225.81 microg/m3 with standard deviation of 31.29 and average total water soluble load of total cations and anions was found to be 4.32 microg/m3. The concentration of ions in samples showed a general pattern as SO4(2-) > NO3- > Cl- > PO4(2-) > F- for anions and Na+ > Ca2+ > NH4+ > Mg2+ > K+ for cations. The overall composition of the aerosols was taken into account to identify the sources. The trend showed higher concentration of sodium followed by calcium, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate and ammoinum and found to be influenced by terrestrial sources. The presence of SO4(2-) and NO3- in aerosols may be due to re-suspension of soil particles. Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- are to be derived from soil materials. The presence of NH4+ may be attributed to the reaction of NH3 vapors with acidic gases may react or condense on an acidic particle surface of anthropogenic origin. The atmospheric aerosol is slightly acidic due to neutralization of basicity by SO2 and NO(x).

  6. Formaldehyde content of atmospheric aerosol.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Yunoki, Satoru; Yanaga, Akira; Takeuchi, Masaki; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-06-17

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a highly soluble polar molecule with a large sticking coefficient and thus likely exists in both gaseous and particulate forms. Few studies, however, address particulate HCHO (HCHO(p)). Some report that HCHO(p) concentrations (obtained only with long duration sampling) are very low. The lack of data partly reflects the difficulty of specifically measuring HCHO(p). Long duration filter sampling may not produce meaningful results for a variety of reasons. In this work, gaseous HCHO (HCHO(g)) and (HCHO(p)) were, respectively, collected with a parallel plate wet denuder (PPWD) followed by a mist chamber/hydrophilic filter particle collector (PC). The PPWD quantitatively removed HCHO(g) and the PC then collected the transmitted aerosol. The collected HCHO from either device was alternately analyzed by Hantzsch reaction-based continuous flow fluorometry. Each gas and particle phase measurement took 5 min each, with a 10 min cycle. The limits of detection were 0.048 and 0.0033 μg m(-3), respectively, for HCHO(g) and HCHO(p). The instrument was deployed in three separate campaigns in a forest station in western Japan in March, May, and July of 2013. Based on 1296 data pairs, HCHO(p), was on the average, 5% of the total HCHO. Strong diurnal patterns were observed, with the HCHO(p) fraction peaking in the morning. The relative humidity dependence of the partition strongly suggests that it is driven by the liquid water content of the aerosol phase. However, HCHO(p) was 100× greater than that expected from Henry's law. We propose that the low water activity in the highly saline droplets lead to HCHO oligomerization.

  7. Analyzing Atmospheric Aerosol with Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W.; Hawkins, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol-water interactions are poorly understood for complex organic particles and may be important for determining the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosol. One factor that may limit water uptake by organic aerosol is the viscosity of the particles. High viscosity particles may have very low diffusion coefficients for water vapor (and VOCs), which may inhibit deliquescence on the timescale of cloud and fog formation. This may be especially true for oligomeric material formed in aqueous reactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful technique that can measure morphology and material properties at high spatial resolution. We have used AFM to probe the material properties of atmospheric particles as well as simulated brown carbon particles to determine if either type of particle shows high viscosity behavior. AFM works by rastering across a small area (less than 100 microns) of the sample slides and recording the heights of the sample as well as the forces on the tip as it approaches the sample and retracts away. Using this information, we can determine the shape, volume, stiffness, adhesiveness, and viscosity of the particles. Using these methods, we were able to show that, in general, both synthetic brown carbon compounds-formed in aqueous reactions-and submicron size atmospheric aerosol particles are adhesive, stiff, and semi-solid, which indicates that the simulated brown carbon compounds are good proxies of aerosol particles in atmosphere. In addition, based on the force data from AFM, we found that molecules that compose these particles are rather large and that there are a good amount of interactions like attractions between them.

  8. Sources and transformations of atmospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Eben Spencer

    Aerosol particles are an important component of the Earth-Atmosphere system because of their influence on the radiation budget both directly (through absorption and scattering) and indirectly (through cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity). The magnitude of the raditaive forcing attributed to the direct and indirect aerosol effects is highly uncertain, leading to large uncertainties in projections of global climate change. Real-time measurements of aerosol properties are a critical step toward constraining the uncertainties in current global climate modeling and understanding the influence that anthropogenic activities have on the climate. The objective of the work presented in this thesis is to gain a more complete understanding of the atmospheric transformations of aerosol particles and how such transformations influence the direct and indirect radiative effects of the particles. The work focuses on real-time measurements of aerosol particles made with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) developed in collaboration with the Boston College research group. A key feature of the work described is the development of a light scattering module for the AMS. Here we present the first results obtained with the integrated light scattering - AMS system. The unique and powerful capabilities of this new instrument combination are demonstrated through laboratory experiments and field deployments. Results from two field studies are presented: (1) The Northeast Air Quality Study (NEAQS), in the summer of 2004, conducted at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia and (2) The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign conducted in and around Mexico City, Mexico in March of 2006. Both field studies were designed to study the transformations that occur within pollution plumes as they are transported throughout the atmosphere. During the NEAQS campaign, the pollution plume from the Northeastern United States was intercepted as it was

  9. THEMIS Observations of Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Christensen, Philip R.; Richardson, Mark I.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey spacecraft entered into Martian orbit in October 2001 and after successful aerobraking began mapping in February 2002 (approximately Ls=330 deg.). Images taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on-board the Odyssey spacecraft allow the quantitative retrieval of atmospheric dust and water-ice aerosol optical depth. Atmospheric quantities retrieved from THEMIS build upon existing datasets returned by Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). Data from THEMIS complements the concurrent MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data by offering a later local time (approx. 2:00 for TES vs. approx. 4:00 - 5:30 for THEMIS) and much higher spatial resolution.

  10. Development of a Scheimpflug Lidar System for Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a Scheimpflug lidar system which was employed for atmospheric aerosol monitoring in southern Sweden. Atmospheric aerosol fluctuation was observed around rush-hour. The extinction coefficient over 6 km was retrieved, i.e., 0.15 km-1, by employing the slop-method during the time when the atmosphere was relatively homogenous. The measurements successfully demonstrate the potential of using a Scheimpflug lidar technique for atmospheric aerosol monitoring applications.

  11. Metaproteomic analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fobang; Lai, Senchao; Reinmuth-Selzle, Kathrin; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Després, Viviane R; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kampf, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Metaproteomic analysis of air particulate matter provides information about the abundance and properties of bioaerosols in the atmosphere and their influence on climate and public health. We developed and applied efficient methods for the extraction and analysis of proteins from glass fiber filter samples of total, coarse, and fine particulate matter. Size exclusion chromatography was applied to remove matrix components, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied for protein fractionation according to molecular size, followed by in-gel digestion and LC-MS/MS analysis of peptides using a hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap MS. Maxquant software and the Swiss-Prot database were used for protein identification. In samples collected at a suburban location in central Europe, we found proteins that originated mainly from plants, fungi, and bacteria, which constitute a major fraction of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) in the atmosphere. Allergenic proteins were found in coarse and fine particle samples, and indications for atmospheric degradation of proteins were observed. Graphical abstract Workflow for the metaproteomic analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples. PMID:27411545

  12. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible.

  13. Jupiter: Aerosol Chemistry in the Polar Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wong; Lee; Yung; Ajello

    2000-05-10

    Aromatic compounds have been considered a likely candidate for enhanced aerosol formation in the polar region of Jupiter. We develop a new chemical model for aromatic compounds in the Jovian auroral thermosphere/ionosphere. The model is based on a previous model for hydrocarbon chemistry in the Jovian atmosphere and is constrained by observations from Voyager, Galileo, and the Infrared Space Observatory. Precipitation of energetic electrons provides the major energy source for the production of benzene and other heavier aromatic hydrocarbons. The maximum mixing ratio of benzene in the polar model is 2x10-9, a value that can be compared with the observed value of 2+2-1x10-9 in the north polar auroral region. Sufficient quantities of the higher ring species are produced so that their saturated vapor pressures are exceeded. Condensation of these molecules is expected to lead to aerosol formation. PMID:10813686

  14. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible. PMID:15703706

  15. Experimental evaluation of atmospheric aerosol turbidity in different Atlantic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Plakhina, I.N.; Pyrogov, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The statistical estimation of the experimental values of atmospheric turbidity are considered over the different Atlantic regions: from clean atmospheric conditions to very turbid conditions influenced by air masses from Africa containing continental Sahara aerosol. The factors influencing the variability of atmospheric turbidity are also analyzed. The contribution of aerosol to atmospheric attenuation of the direct solar radiation is estimated. It is shown that aerosol is the main factor determining the values of the optical thickness and its variability. The single scattering albedo is evaluated. The influence of the Sahara dust on the total solar radiation over the ocean surface is estimated. Based on the found relationship between aerosol optical thickness, total atmosphere, and aerosol turbidity in the surface layer, the height of the homogeneous atmosphere has been estimated. In addition, the aerosol generation by ocean surface in storm conditions has been considered.

  16. Photochemical aerosols in warm exoplanetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, Hiroshi; Smith, Mark A.; McKay, Christopher P.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-10-01

    Recent transit observations of exoplanets have demonstrated the possibility of a wide prevalence of haze/cloud layers at high altitudes. Hydrocarbon photochemical haze could be the candidate for such haze particles on warm sub-Neptunes, but the lack of evidence for methane poses a puzzle for such hydrocarbon photochemical haze. The CH4/CO ratios in planetary atmospheres vary substantially from their temperature and dynamics. We have conducted a series of laboratory simulations to investigate how atmospheric compositions, specifically CH4/CO ratios, affect the haze production rates and their optical properties. The mass production rates in the H2-CH4-CO gas mixtures are rather insensitive to the CH4/CO ratios larger than at 0.3. Significant formation of solid material is observed in a H2-CO gas mixture even without CH4. The complex refractive indices of the aerosol analogue from the H2-CO gas mixture show strong absorption at the visible/near-IR wavelengths. These experimental facts imply that substantial carbonaceous aerosols may be generated in warm H2-CO-CH4 exoplanetary atmospheres, and that it might be responsible for the observed dark albedos at the visible wavelengths.

  17. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  18. Spectroscopic Studies of Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamsley, R.; Leather, K.; Horn, A. B.; Percival, C.

    2008-12-01

    Particles are ubiquitous in the troposphere and are involved in chemical and physical processes affecting the composition of the atmosphere, climate, cloud albedo and human health (Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts, 2000). Organic species, such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, alkenes and alkanes, originate both from anthropogenic and natural sources and comprise a large component of atmospheric particles. Gas-phase species, such as ozone, can oxidize these organics, changing the particle's oxygen-to carbon ratio and potentially altering its hygroscopicity, viscosity, morphology and reactivity. One reaction in particular, that between ozone and oleic acid, has been the focus of several recent studies and extensively researched by Ziemann (2005). Oleic acid reacts readily with ozone and has a low vapor pressure making this reaction convenient to study in the laboratory and has become the benchmark for studying heterogeneous reactions representing the oxidative processing of atmospheric organic aerosols. A critical source of uncertainty in reactivity estimates is a lack of understanding of the mechanism through which some VOCs are oxidized. This knowledge gap is especially critical for aromatic compounds. Because the intermediate reaction steps and products of aromatics oxidation are unknown, chemical mechanisms incorporate parameters estimated from environmental chamber experiments to represent their overall contribution to ozone formation, e.g. Volkamer et al. ( 2006). Previous studies of uncertainties in incremental reactivity estimates for VOCs found that the representation of aromatics chemistry contributed significantly to the estimated 40 - 50% uncertainties in the incremental reactivities of common aromatic compounds Carter et al. (2002). This study shows development of an effective IR method that can monitor the reaction and hence obtain the kinetics of the ozonolysis of an aromatic compound in the aerosol phase. The development of such

  19. Atmospheric aerosol variability in Estonia calculated from solar radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russak, Viivi

    1996-10-01

    Direct solar radiation data obtained during 1955 1994 at the Tõravere Actinometric Station (Estonia) have been used to study the long-term variations of the atmospheric aerosol. In a linear approximation, the optical thickness of atmospheric aerosol averaged over months from April to August has increased by 73% at Tõravere during the last 40years. The aerosol loading of the atmosphere depends on wind direction, the southern and southeastern winds being the main carriers of aerosol. During the last decade, the increase in the optical thickness of aerosol in the case of W-, NW- and N-winds has slowed down. This is most likely caused by a reduction in the SO2 emission in Western and Central Europe as well as in Finland. In April, the advection of aerosol is greatest from the NE-direction. We suppose that this effect points to the possibility of aerosol transfer to Estonia through the Arctic regions.

  20. A naming convention for atmospheric organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-06-01

    While the field of atmospheric organic aerosol scientific research has experienced thorough and insightful progress over the last half century, this progress has been accompanied by the evolution of a communicative and detailed yet, at times, complex and inconsistent language. The menagerie of detailed classification that now exists to describe organic compounds in our atmosphere reflects the wealth of observational techniques now at our disposal as well as the rich information provided by state-of-the-science instrumentation. However, the nomenclature in place to communicate these scientific gains is growing disjointed to the point that effective communication within the scientific community and to the public may be sacrificed. We propose standardizing a naming convention for organic aerosol classification that is relevant to laboratory studies, ambient observations, atmospheric models, and various stakeholders for air-quality problems. Because a critical aspect of this effort is to directly translate the essence of complex physico-chemical phenomena to a much broader, policy-oriented audience, we recommend a framework that maximizes comprehension among scientists and non-scientists alike. For example, to classify volatility, it relies on straightforward alphabetic terms (e.g., semivolatile, SV; intermediate volatility, IV; etc.) rather than possibly ambiguous numeric indices. This framework classifies organic material as primary or secondary pollutants and distinguishes among fundamental features important for science and policy questions including emission source, chemical phase, and volatility. Also useful is the addition of an alphabetic suffix identifying the volatility of the organic material or its precursor for when emission occurred. With this framework, we hope to introduce into the community a consistent connection between common notation for the general public and detailed nomenclature for highly specialized discussion. In so doing, we try to maintain

  1. Chemistry and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2012-05-01

    For more than two decades a cadre of physical chemists has focused on understanding the formation processes, chemical composition, and chemical kinetics of atmospheric aerosol particles and droplets with diameters ranging from a few nanometers to ˜10,000 nm. They have adapted or invented a range of fundamental experimental and theoretical tools to investigate the thermochemistry, mass transport, and chemical kinetics of processes occurring at nanoscale gas-liquid and gas-solid interfaces for a wide range of nonideal, real-world substances. State-of-the-art laboratory methods devised to study molecular spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, and molecular dynamics also have been incorporated into field measurement instruments that are deployed routinely on research aircraft, ships, and mobile laboratories as well as at field sites from megacities to the most remote jungle, desert, and polar locations. These instruments can now provide real-time, size-resolved aerosol particle physical property and chemical composition data anywhere in Earth's troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  2. The atmospheric aerosol-forming potential of whole gasoline vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Odum, J.R.; Jungkamp, T.P.W.; Griffin, R.J.

    1997-04-04

    A series of sunlight-irradiated, smog-chamber experiments confirmed that the atmosphere organic aerosol formation potential of whole gasoline vapor can be accounted for solely in terms of the aromatic fraction of the fuel. The total amount of secondary organic aerosol produced from the atmospheric oxidation of whole gasoline vapor can be represented as the sum of the contributions of the individual aromatic molecular constituents of the fuel. The urban atmospheric, anthropogenic hydrocarbon profile is approximated well by evaporated whole gasoline, and thus these results suggest that it is possible to model atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol as determined from AERONET measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Kokhanovsky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal means and standard deviations of column-integrated aerosol optical properties (e.g. spectral aerosol optical thickness (AOT), single scattering albedo, phase function, Ångström exponent, volume particle size distribution, complex refractive index, absorbing aerosol optical thickness) from several Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites located in typical aerosol source and background regions are investigated (Holben et al., 1998). The AERONET program is an inclusive network of ground-based sun-photometers that measure atmospheric aerosol optical properties (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/). The results can be used for improving the accuracy of satellite-retrieved AOT, assessments of the global aerosol models, studies of atmospheric pollution and aerosol radiative forcing on climate. We have paid a special attention to several AERONET sites that are Mexico_City (Mexico), Alta_Floresta (Brazil), Avignon (France), Solar_Village (Saudi Arabia), and Midway_Island (Pacific) representative for industrial/urban, biomass burning, rural, desert dust and oceanic aerosols, respectively. We have found that the optical and microphysical aerosol properties are highly dependent on the local aerosol emission sources and seasonal meteorological conditions.

  4. Aerosol Forcing of Climate Change and Anomalous Atmospheric Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The forcings that drive long-term climate change are not known with an accuracy sufficient to define future climate change, Anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are well-measured, cause a strong positive (warming) forcing. But other, poorly measured, anthropogenic forcings, especially changes of atmospheric aerosols, clouds, and land-use patterns, cause a negative forcing that tends to offset greenhouse warming. We will focus on the role of aerosols as a climate forcing mechanism and the contribution that aerosols might make to the so-called "anomalous" atmospheric absorption that has been inferred from some atmospheric measurements.

  5. Aerosol Forcing of Climate Change and "Anomalous" Atmospheric Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The forcings that drive long-term climate change are not known with an accuracy sufficient to define future climate change. Anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are well-measured, cause a strong positive (warming) forcing. But other, poorly measured, anthropogenic forcings, especially changes of atmospheric aerosols, clouds, and land-use patterns, cause a negative forcing that tends to offset greenhouse warming. We will focus on the role of aerosols as a climate forcing mechanism and the contribution that aerosols might make to the so- called "anomalous" atmospheric absorption that has been inferred from some atmospheric measurements.

  6. The Role of Anthropogenic Aerosol in Atmospheric Circulation Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, L.; Polvani, L. M.; Highwood, E.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in atmospheric circulation patterns play a dominant role in determining the impacts of a changing climate at the continental scale. Using CMIP5 single forcing experiments from an ensemble of models that provided anthropogenic aerosol only simulations to the archive, we quantify the influence of anthropogenic aerosol on several aspects of the atmospheric circulation, including tropical width, jet position, and jet strength. We show that there is a robust circulation response to anthropogenic aerosol in the mid twentieth century, induced by the large increases in emissions at that time. Although most anthropogenic aerosol is found in the Northern Hemisphere, a response is found in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We investigate the extent to which diversity in the temperature and circulation responses to aerosol are related to diversity in aerosol loading and radiative forcing.

  7. Atmospheric responses to the redistribution of anthropogenic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Su, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The geographical shift of global anthropogenic aerosols from the developed countries to the Asian continent since the 1980s could potentially perturb the regional and global climate due to aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions. We use an atmospheric general circulation model with different aerosol scenarios to investigate the radiative and microphysical effects of anthropogenic aerosols from different regions on the radiation budget, precipitation, and large-scale circulations. An experiment contrasting anthropogenic aerosol scenarios in 1970 and 2010 shows that the altered cloud reflectivity and solar extinction by aerosols results in regional surface temperature cooling in East and South Asia, and warming in the US and Europe, respectively. These aerosol-induced temperature changes are consistent with the relative temperature trends from 1980 to 2010 over different regions in the reanalysis data. A reduced meridional streamfunction and zonal winds over the tropics as well as a poleward shift of the jet stream suggest weakened and expanded tropical circulations, which are induced by the redistributed aerosols through a relaxing of the meridional temperature gradient. Consequently, precipitation is suppressed in the deep tropics and enhanced in the subtropics. Our assessments of the aerosol effects over the different regions suggest that the increasing Asian pollution accounts for the weakening of the tropics circulation, while the decreasing pollution in Europe and US tends to shift the circulation systems southward. Moreover, the aerosol indirect forcing is predominant over the total aerosol forcing in magnitude, while aerosol radiative and microphysical effects jointly shape the meridional energy distributions and modulate the circulation systems.

  8. Carbonaceous content of atmospheric aerosols in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirante, Fátima; Oliveira, C.; Martins, N.; Pio, C.; Caseiro, A.; Cerqueira, M.; Alves, C.; Oliveira, C.; Oliveira, J.; Camões, F.; Matos, M.; Silva, H.

    2010-05-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. The town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants. It is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Atmospheric aerosols are known to have in their structure significant amounts of carbonaceous material. The knowledge of the aerosols carbon content, particularly on their several carbon forms (as TC, EC and OC, meaning respectively Total, Elemental and Organic carbon) is often required to provide information for source attribution. In order to assess the vehicles PM input, two sampling campaigns (summer and winter periods) were carried out in 2008 in Lisbon in two contrasting sites, a roadside and an urban background site. Particulate matter was collected in two fractions on quartz fibre filters using Hi-Vol samplers (coarse fraction, 2.5µmatmospheric aerosol sampling campaign was also performed inside an open and a closed tunnel on four size fractions (PM0.49, PM0.49-0.95, PM0.95-2.5 and PM2.5-10). Road dust was also collected in each sampling site. Samples were analysed for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations by a thermal-optical method. The urban site presented the highest aerosol PM concentrations for the two size ranges, with PM10 average values of about 48 µg.m-3 and 27 µg.m-3 respectively for the roadside and urban background sites in the summer period, and about 44 µg.m-3 and 27 µg.m-3 in the winter season. In general, the concentrations of TC were higher

  9. Aerosol and gamma background measurements at Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, Christo; Arsov, Todor; Penev, Ilia; Nikolova, Nina; Kalapov, Ivo; Georgiev, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Trans boundary and local pollution, global climate changes and cosmic rays are the main areas of research performed at the regional Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station Moussala BEO (2925 m a.s.l., 42°10'45'' N, 23°35'07'' E). Real time measurements and observations are performed in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics. Complex information about the aerosol is obtained by using a threewavelength integrating Nephelometer for measuring the scattering and backscattering coefficients, a continuous light absorption photometer and a scanning mobile particle sizer. The system for measuring radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols allows us to monitor a large scale radioactive aerosol transport. The measurements of the gamma background and the gamma-rays spectrum in the air near Moussala peak are carried out in real time. The HYSPLIT back trajectory model is used to determine the origin of the data registered. DREAM code calculations [2] are used to forecast the air mass trajectory. The information obtained combined with a full set of corresponding meteorological parameters is transmitted via a high frequency radio telecommunication system to the Internet.

  10. Aerosol speckle effects on atmospheric pulsed lidar backscattered signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Lidar systems using atmospheric aerosols as targets exhibit return signal amplitude and power fluctuations which indicate speckle effects. The effects of refractive turbulence along the path on the aerosol speckle field propagation and on the decorrelation time are studied for coherent pulsed lidar systems.

  11. Remote sensing of aerosol in the terrestrial atmosphere from space: "AEROSOL-UA" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Milinevsky, Gennadi; Degtyarev, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    The distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosols on a global scale are not well known in terms of determination of their effects on climate. This mostly is due to extreme variability of aerosol concentrations, properties, sources, and types. Aerosol climate impact is comparable to the effect of greenhouse gases, but its influence is more difficult to measure, especially with respect to aerosol microphysical properties and the evaluation of anthropogenic aerosol effect. There are many satellite missions studying aerosol distribution in the terrestrial atmosphere, such as MISR/Terra, OMI/Aura, AVHHR, MODIS/Terra and Aqua, CALIOP/CALIPSO. To improve the quality of data and climate models, and to reduce aerosol climate forcing uncertainties, several new missions are planned. The gap in orbital instruments for studying aerosol microphysics has arisen after the Glory mission failed during launch in 2011. In this review paper, we describe several planned aerosol space missions, including the Ukrainian project AEROSOL-UA that will obtain the data using a multi-channel scanning polarimeter and wide-angle polarimetric camera. The mission is designed for remote sensing of the aerosol microphysics and cloud properties on a global scale.

  12. Atmospheric aerosol monitoring by an elastic Scheimpflug lidar system.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2015-11-30

    This work demonstrates a new approach - Scheimpflug lidar - for atmospheric aerosol monitoring. The atmospheric backscattering echo of a high-power continuous-wave laser diode is received by a Newtonian telescope and recorded by a tilted imaging sensor satisfying the Scheimpflug condition. The principles as well as the lidar equation are discussed in details. A Scheimpflug lidar system operating at around 808 nm is developed and employed for continuous atmospheric aerosol monitoring at daytime. Localized emission, atmospheric variation, as well as the changes of cloud height are observed from the recorded lidar signals. The extinction coefficient is retrieved according to the slope method for a homogeneous atmosphere. This work opens up new possibilities of using a compact and robust Scheimpflug lidar system for atmospheric aerosol remote sensing.

  13. Atmospheric aerosol monitoring by an elastic Scheimpflug lidar system.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2015-11-30

    This work demonstrates a new approach - Scheimpflug lidar - for atmospheric aerosol monitoring. The atmospheric backscattering echo of a high-power continuous-wave laser diode is received by a Newtonian telescope and recorded by a tilted imaging sensor satisfying the Scheimpflug condition. The principles as well as the lidar equation are discussed in details. A Scheimpflug lidar system operating at around 808 nm is developed and employed for continuous atmospheric aerosol monitoring at daytime. Localized emission, atmospheric variation, as well as the changes of cloud height are observed from the recorded lidar signals. The extinction coefficient is retrieved according to the slope method for a homogeneous atmosphere. This work opens up new possibilities of using a compact and robust Scheimpflug lidar system for atmospheric aerosol remote sensing. PMID:26698808

  14. Subarctic atmospheric aerosol composition: 1. Ambient aerosol characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Beth; Herich, Hanna; Kammermann, Lukas; Gross, Deborah S.; Ameth, Almut; Holst, Thomas; Lohmann, U.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2009-07-10

    Sub-Arctic aerosol was sampled during July 2007 at the Abisko Research Station Stordalen field site operated by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Located in northern Sweden at 68º latitude and 385 meters above sea level (msl), this site is classified as a semi-continuous permafrost mire. Number density, size distribution, cloud condensation nucleus properties, and chemical composition of the ambient aerosol were determined. Backtrajectories showed that three distinct airmasses were present over Stordalen during the sampling period. Aerosol properties changed and correlated with airmass origin to the south, northeast, or west. We observe that Arctic aerosol is not compositionally unlike that found in the free troposphere at mid-latitudes. Internal mixtures of sulfates and organics, many on insoluble biomass burning and/or elemental carbon cores, dominate the number density of particles from ~200 to 2000 nm aerodynamic diameter. Mineral dust which had taken up gas phase species was observed in all airmasses. Sea salt, and the extent to which it had lost volatile components, was the aerosol type that most varied with airmass.

  15. Present role of PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy

    2015-11-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s nearly half of the elemental analyses of atmospheric aerosol samples were performed by PIXE. Since then, other techniques for elemental analysis became available and there has been a steady increase in studies on organic aerosol constituents and other aspects of aerosols, especially in the areas of nucleation (new particle formation), optical properties, and the role of aerosol particles in cloud formation and properties. First, a brief overview and discussion is given of the developments and trends in atmospheric aerosol analysis and research of the past three decades. Subsequently, it is indicated that there is still invaluable work to be done by PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research, especially if one teams up with other aerosol researchers and performs complementary measurements, e.g., on small aerosol samples that are taken with high-time resolution. Fine examples of such research are the work done by the Lund group in the CARIBIC aircraft studies and the analysis of circular streaker samples by the Florence PIXE group. These and other examples are presented and other possibilities of PIXE are indicated.

  16. Determining atmospheric aerosol content with an infra-red radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, M. K.; Vasileiadis, G.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The attenuation of atmospheric Cherenkov photons is dominated by two processes: Rayleigh scattering from the molecular component and Mie scattering from the aerosol component. Aerosols are expected to contribute up to 30 Wm-2 to the emission profile of the atmosphere, equivalent to a difference of ~ 20°C to the clear sky brightness temperature under normal conditions. Here we investigate the aerosol contribution of the measured sky brightness temperature at the H.E.S.S. site; compare it to effective changes in the telescope trigger rates; and discuss how it can be used to provide an assessment of sky clarity that is unambiguously free of telescope systematics.

  17. Waterspout - an Atmospheric Aerosol Dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.

    2005-10-31

    An aerosol -- capillary electrostatic model of a waterspout is submitted. The waterspout is treated as a long-living filament of aerosol plasma, which is formed at electric breakdown of interval between a charged cloud and a vertically floating cylinder, which is individual block of ocean's skeletal structures of revealed recently by author.

  18. Optical and Hygroscopic Studies of Aerosols In Simulated Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkopf, Christa A.

    2011-08-01

    Basic characteristics of the early Earth climate, the only known environment in the Universe in which life has been known to emerge and thrive, remain a mystery. In particular, little is understood about the Earth's atmosphere 2.8 billion years ago. From climate models and laboratory studies, it is postulated that an organic haze, much like that found on Saturn's largest moon Titan, covered the early Earth. This haze, generated from photolysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), may have had profound climatic consequences. Climate models of the early Earth that include this haze have had to rely upon optical properties of a Titan laboratory analog. Titan haze, though thought to be similar, is formed from a different combination of precursor gases and by different energy sources than early Earth haze. This thesis examines the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosol on early Earth climate by studying the optical and hygroscopic properties of a laboratory analog. A Titan analog is studied for comparison and to better understand spacecraft-retrieved haze chemical and optical properties from Titan. The properties of the laboratory analogs, generated in a flowing reactor cell with a continuum ultraviolet (UV) light source, were primarily measured using cavity ringdown aerosol extinction spectroscopy and UV-visible (UV-Vis) transmission spectroscopy. We find that the optical properties of our early Earth analog are significantly different than those of the Titan analog from Khare et al. (1984). In both the UV and visible, when modeled as fractals, particles with the optical properties of the early Earth analog have approximately 30% larger extinction efficiencies than particles with Khare et al. (1984) values. This result implies our early Earth haze analog would provide a more efficient UV shield and have a stronger antigreenhouse effect than the Khare et al. (1984) Titan analog. Our Titan analog has significantly smaller imaginary refractive index values

  19. Remote sensing for studying atmospheric aerosols in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, Kasturi D.; Kamarul Zaman, Nurul A. F.

    2015-10-01

    The aerosol system is Southeast Asia is complex and the high concentrations are due to population growth, rapid urbanization and development of SEA countries. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been carried out especially at large spatial extent and on a continuous basis to study atmospheric aerosols in Malaysia. In this review paper we report the use of remote sensing data to study atmospheric aerosols in Malaysia and document gaps and recommend further studies to bridge the gaps. Satellite data have been used to study the spatial and seasonal patterns of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in Malaysia. Satellite data combined with AERONET data were used to delineate different types and sizes of aerosols and to identify the sources of aerosols in Malaysia. Most of the aerosol studies performed in Malaysia was based on station-based PM10 data that have limited spatial coverage. Thus, satellite data have been used to extrapolate and retrieve PM10 data over large areas by correlating remotely sensed AOD with ground-based PM10. Realising the critical role of aerosols on radiative forcing numerous studies have been conducted worldwide to assess the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). Such studies are yet to be conducted in Malaysia. Although the only source of aerosol data covering large region in Malaysia is remote sensing, satellite observations are limited by cloud cover, orbital gaps of satellite track, etc. In addition, relatively less understanding is achieved on how the atmospheric aerosol interacts with the regional climate system. These gaps can be bridged by conducting more studies using integrated approach of remote sensing, AERONET and ground based measurements.

  20. Infrared refractive index of atmospheric aerosol substances.

    PubMed

    Volz, F E

    1972-04-01

    The optical constants in the ir from lambda2.5 microm to 40 microm (4000-250 cm(-1)) of dry natural aerosol substances and of sea salt are presented. The aerosol substances were obtained from rain and snow water: dust and soot by sedimentation, and water soluble salts by evaporation. The spectra of the absorption index n' were derived from our published transmittance measurements of potassium bromide disks. The real part n of the refractive index was calculated from the specular reflectance at near normal incidence of disks of pure aerosol substance. The observed spectral features are being related to chemical constituents, notably sulfates and alcohol soluble organics. Optical constants of composite and wet aerosol are discussed. A simple model confirms the measured transmission of a coarse dry powder of water solubles and shows that the extinction by natural aerosol should have a minimum near 8 microm and a strong maximum near 9 microm.

  1. Long-term memory of atmospheric aerosols over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term memory of atmospheric variables is a least understood facet in atmospheric science. The temporal and spatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols depends largely on the atmospheric parameters. Time series analysis using a stochastic model reveals that atmospheric aerosols over India exhibit a long-term memory. Our analysis confirms that by using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model we can parsimoniously model the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Indian region with a reasonably good accuracy. This major advantage of this method is that by using past observations we were able to generate forecasts for next 3 years. The forecasts thus generate shows a good fit with the observations. This persistence is due to the presence of temporal dependence between successive observations.

  2. Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua

    2006-12-10

    The current ocean color data processing system for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) uses the Rayleigh lookup tables that were generated using the vector radiative transfer theory with inclusion of the polarization effects. The polarization effects, however, are not accounted for in the aerosol lookup tables for the ocean color data processing. I describe a study of the aerosol polarization effects on the atmospheric correction and aerosol retrieval algorithms in the ocean color remote sensing. Using an efficient method for the multiple vector radiative transfer computations, aerosol lookup tables that include polarization effects are generated. Simulations have been carried out to evaluate the aerosol polarization effects on the derived ocean color and aerosol products for all possible solar-sensor geometries and the various aerosol optical properties. Furthermore, the new aerosol lookup tables have been implemented in the SeaWiFS data processing system and extensively tested and evaluated with SeaWiFS regional and global measurements. Results show that in open oceans (maritime environment), the aerosol polarization effects on the ocean color and aerosol products are usually negligible, while there are some noticeable effects on the derived products in the coastal regions with nonmaritime aerosols.

  3. African Dust Aerosols as Atmospheric Ice Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, Paul J.; Brooks, Sarah D.; Prenni, Anthony J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Sassen, Kenneth; Poellot, Michael; Rogers, David C.; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the ice nucleating ability of aerosol particles in air masses over Florida having sources from North Africa support the potential importance of dust aerosols for indirectly affecting cloud properties and climate. The concentrations of ice nuclei within dust layers at particle sizes below 1 pn exceeded 1/cu cm; the highest ever reported with our device at temperatures warmer than homogeneous freezing conditions. These measurements add to previous direct and indirect evidence of the ice nucleation efficiency of desert dust aerosols, but also confirm their contribution to ice nuclei populations at great distances from source regions.

  4. Carbonaceous aerosols influencing atmospheric radiation: Black and organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere may both scatter and absorb solar radiation. The fraction associated with the absorbing component is generally referred to as black carbon (BC) and is mainly produced from incomplete combustion processes. The fraction associated with condensed organic compounds is generally referred to as organic carbon (OC) or organic matter and is mainly scattering. Absorption of solar radiation by carbonaceous aerosols may heat the atmosphere, thereby altering the vertical temperature profile, while scattering of solar radiation may lead to a net cooling of the atmosphere/ocean system. Carbonaceous aerosols may also enhance the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the fine particle (D < 2.5 {mu}m) source rates of both OC and BC. The source rates for anthropogenic organic aerosols may be as large as the source rates for anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, suggesting a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The role of BC in decreasing the amount of reflected solar radiation by OC and sulfates is discussed. The total estimated forcing depends on the source estimates for organic and black carbon aerosols which are highly uncertain. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is also described.

  5. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter surveys the analytical techniques used to determine the concentrations of aerosol mass and its chemical components. The techniques surveyed include mass, major ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), organic carbon, elemental carbon, and trace elements. As reported in...

  6. An investigation of aerosol optical properties: Atmospheric implications and influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.

    An experimental, observational, and theoretical investigation of aerosol optical properties has been made in this work to study their implications and influences on the atmosphere. In the laboratory the scientific and instrumental methodology consisted of three parts, namely, aerosol generation, optical and mass concentration measurements, and computational calculations. In particular the optical properties of ammonium sulfate and caffeine aerosol were derived from measurements made with a transmissometer cell-reciprocal- integrating nephelometer (TCRIN), equipped with a laser beam at 632.8 nm, and by applying a Mie theory computer code The aerosol generators, optical equipment and calibration procedures were reviewed. The aerosol shape and size distribution were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and the Gumprecht- Sliepcevich/Lipofsky-Green extinction-sedimentation method. In particular the spherical and cylindrical shape were considered. During this investigation, an alternative method for obtaining the optical properties of monodisperse spherical non-absorbing aerosol using a cell-transmissometer, which is based on a linearisation of the Lambert-Beer law, was found. In addition, adapting the TCRIN to electrooptical aerosol studies, the optical properties of a circular-cylindrical aerosol of caffeine were undertaken under the condition of random orientation in relation with the laser beam, and perpendicular orientation to it. A theoretical study was conducted to assess the sensitivity of aerosol to a change of shape under different polarisation modes. The aerosol optical properties, obtained previously in the laboratory, were then used to simulate the direct radiative forcing. The calculations and results were obtained by applying a one- dimensional energy-balance box model. The influence of atmospheric aerosol on the sky brightness due to a total solar eclipse was studied using the photometric and meteorological observations made during the

  7. Surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater around lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Razak, Intan Suraya; Latif, Mohd Talib; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin; Khan, Md Firoz; Mushrifah, Idris

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater in the vicinity of Lake Chini, Malaysia. Samples of atmospheric aerosol and rainwater were collected between March and September 2011 using a high volume air sampler (HVAS) and glass bottles equipped with funnel. Colorimetric analysis was undertaken to determine the concentration of anionic surfactants as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as disulphine blue active substances (DBAS). The water-soluble ionic compositions were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for cations (Na, K, Mg and Ca) and ion chromatography equipped with a conductivity detector for anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-)) and the Nessler Method was used to obtain the NH4(+) concentrations. The source apportionment of MBAS and DBAS in atmospheric aerosols was identified using a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The results revealed that the concentrations of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater were dominated by anionic surfactants as MBAS. The concentration of surfactants as MBAS and DBAS was dominated in fine mode compared to coarse mode aerosols. Using PCA/MLR analysis, two major sources of atmospheric surfactants to Lake Chini were identified as soil dust (75 to 93%) and biomass burning (2 to 22%).

  8. Size segregated light absorption coefficient of the atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, H.

    The light absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols in the visible can be determined by depositing the particles on a filter and measuring its "transmission" in a special optical arrangement. With an impactor with rotating impaction plates producing a homogeneous deposit, it is possible to extend this technique to size segregated aerosol samples. A simultaneous determination of the mass size distribution is possible. Test measurements with black carbon aerosol have shown the feasibility of this method. Samples of the atmospheric aerosol have been taken in and near Vienna, in Naples and near Bologna. The light absorption of the aerosol is always highest for particle diameters between 0.1 and 0.2 μm. Only in the humid environment of the Po valley it had a slightly larger peak size, whereas the size of the nonabsorbing particles increased considerably. The light absorption of the atmospheric aerosol is always higher in an urban environment. 'The mass absorption coefficient of the aerosol at all four locations was very similar, and completely different from values which could be. expected using effective refractive indices which are frequently used in models. Using the data measured in this work two alternate models for the effective refractive index and black carbon content of the aerosol are suggested: (a) a size-dependent refractive index, where the imaginary part varies from -0.25 for particles smaller than 30 nm to - 0.003 for particles larger than 2 μm; this could especially be applied if an internal mixing of the aerosol is to be expected, or (2) a size-dependent fraction of elemental carbon in the case of external mixing with 43% of carbon particles for sizes below 30 nm decreasing to 10% for sizes up to 0.4 μm.

  9. Atmospheric DMS and Biogenic Sulfur aerosol measurements in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahremaninezhadgharelar, R.; Norman, A. L.; Wentworth, G.; Burkart, J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J.; Sharma, S.; Desiree, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) and its oxidation products were measured on the board of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) Amundsen and above melt ponds in the Arctic during July 2014 in the context of the NETCARE study which seeks to understand the effect of DMS and its oxidation products with respect to aerosol nucleation, as well as its effect on cloud and precipitation properties. The objective of this study is to quantify the role of DMS in aerosol growth and activation in the Arctic atmosphere. Atmospheric DMS samples were collected from different altitudes, from 200 to 9500 feet, aboard the POLAR6 aircraft expedition to determine variations in the DMS concentration and a comparison was made to shipboard DMS measurements and its effects on aerosol size fractions. The chemical and isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol size fractions was studied. Sulfur isotope ratios (34S/32S) offer a way to determine the oceanic DMS contribution to aerosol growth. The results are expected to address the contribution of anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions. In addition, aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured at the same time within precipitation and fogs to compare with the characteristics of aerosols in each size fraction with the characteristics of the sulfate in each medium. This measurement is expected to explain the contribution of DMS oxidation in aerosol activation in the Arctic summer. Preliminary results from the measurement campaign for DMS and its oxidation products in air, fog and precipitation will be presented.

  10. The colors of biomass burning aerosols in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Chung, Chul Eddy; Zhang, Feng; Yin, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Biomass burning aerosols mainly consist of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OAs), and some of OAs are brown carbon (BrC). This study simulates the colors of BrC, BC and their mixture with scattering OAs in the ambient atmosphere by using a combination of light scattering simulations, a two-stream radiative transfer model and a RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color model. We find that both BCs and tar balls (a class of BrC) appear brownish at small particle sizes and blackish at large sizes. This is because the aerosol absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) largely controls the color and larger particles give smaller AAE values. At realistic size distributions, BCs look more blackish than tar balls, but still exhibit some brown color. However, when the absorptance of aerosol layer at green wavelength becomes larger than approximately 0.8, all biomass burning aerosols look blackish. The colors for mixture of purely scattering and absorptive carbonaceous aerosol layers in the atmosphere are also investigated. We suggest that the brownishness of biomass burning aerosols indicates the amount of BC/BrC as well as the ratio of BC to BrC.

  11. The colors of biomass burning aerosols in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Chung, Chul Eddy; Zhang, Feng; Yin, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Biomass burning aerosols mainly consist of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OAs), and some of OAs are brown carbon (BrC). This study simulates the colors of BrC, BC and their mixture with scattering OAs in the ambient atmosphere by using a combination of light scattering simulations, a two-stream radiative transfer model and a RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color model. We find that both BCs and tar balls (a class of BrC) appear brownish at small particle sizes and blackish at large sizes. This is because the aerosol absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) largely controls the color and larger particles give smaller AAE values. At realistic size distributions, BCs look more blackish than tar balls, but still exhibit some brown color. However, when the absorptance of aerosol layer at green wavelength becomes larger than approximately 0.8, all biomass burning aerosols look blackish. The colors for mixture of purely scattering and absorptive carbonaceous aerosol layers in the atmosphere are also investigated. We suggest that the brownishness of biomass burning aerosols indicates the amount of BC/BrC as well as the ratio of BC to BrC. PMID:27306230

  12. The colors of biomass burning aerosols in the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Chung, Chul Eddy; Zhang, Feng; Yin, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Biomass burning aerosols mainly consist of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OAs), and some of OAs are brown carbon (BrC). This study simulates the colors of BrC, BC and their mixture with scattering OAs in the ambient atmosphere by using a combination of light scattering simulations, a two-stream radiative transfer model and a RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color model. We find that both BCs and tar balls (a class of BrC) appear brownish at small particle sizes and blackish at large sizes. This is because the aerosol absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) largely controls the color and larger particles give smaller AAE values. At realistic size distributions, BCs look more blackish than tar balls, but still exhibit some brown color. However, when the absorptance of aerosol layer at green wavelength becomes larger than approximately 0.8, all biomass burning aerosols look blackish. The colors for mixture of purely scattering and absorptive carbonaceous aerosol layers in the atmosphere are also investigated. We suggest that the brownishness of biomass burning aerosols indicates the amount of BC/BrC as well as the ratio of BC to BrC. PMID:27306230

  13. The colors of biomass burning aerosols in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Chung, Chul Eddy; Zhang, Feng; Yin, Yan

    2016-06-16

    Biomass burning aerosols mainly consist of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OAs), and some of OAs are brown carbon (BrC). This study simulates the colors of BrC, BC and their mixture with scattering OAs in the ambient atmosphere by using a combination of light scattering simulations, a two-stream radiative transfer model and a RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color model. We find that both BCs and tar balls (a class of BrC) appear brownish at small particle sizes and blackish at large sizes. This is because the aerosol absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) largely controls the color and larger particles give smaller AAE values. At realistic size distributions, BCs look more blackish than tar balls, but still exhibit some brown color. However, when the absorptance of aerosol layer at green wavelength becomes larger than approximately 0.8, all biomass burning aerosols look blackish. The colors for mixture of purely scattering and absorptive carbonaceous aerosol layers in the atmosphere are also investigated. We suggest that the brownishness of biomass burning aerosols indicates the amount of BC/BrC as well as the ratio of BC to BrC.

  14. Atmospheric Aerosols and Earth's Radiative Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    During recent years interest in the radiative properties of aerosols has revived as it has been recognized that their potential radiative forcing rivals that of greenhouse gases, and that the uncertainty in their radiative forcing is so large that meaningful simulations of the climate cannot be done without considering them. In this talk I will review some of the direct and indirect effects that aerosols might have on climate. I will identify areas where considerable progress has been made during the past decade, and I will also highlight areas in which significant uncertainties remain. Unfortunately there is a lot of laboratory, field and theoretical work which remains to be done before we can reduce significantly the uncertainties in determining the radiative forcing by aerosols.

  15. Contact ice nucleation by submicron atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshler, T.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the concentrations of submicron contact ice nuclei is described. Here, natural forces transfer nuclei to supercooled sample drops suspended in an aerosol stream. Experimental measurements of the scavenging rate of the sample drops for several humidities and aerosol sizes are found to be in agreement with theory to within a factor of two. This fact, together with the statistical tests showing a difference between the data and control samples, is seen as indicating that a reliable measurement of the concentrations of submicron contact ice nuclei has been effected. A figure is included showing the ice nucleus concentrations as a function of temperature and assumed aerosol radius. For a 0.01 micron radius, the average is 1/liter at -15 C and 3/liter at -18 C. It is noted that the measurements are in fair agreement with ice crystal concentrations in stable winter clouds measured over Elk Mountain, WY (Vali et al., 1982).

  16. LOAC: A light aerosol counter/sizer for atmospheric balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Berthet, Gwenael; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Coute, Benoit

    The estimation of the total amount of aerosols in the upper troposphere and in lower -middle stratosphere is necessary to constraint the model calculations of the species that are sensi-tive to heterogeneous chemical reactions, to improve calculations on the atmospheric radiative transfer, and to better establish the sources of aerosols that are vertically transported up to the middle stratosphere. It is now known that different natures of aerosols can be found in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. These aerosols are made of liquid particles, and/or solid particles like soot, sands, meteoritic debris... The identification of the main nature of aerosols is not easily feasible using conventional aerosol counters, which perform in situ scat-tering measurements from a light source at a single angle typically in the 70-110 degrees range. Also, such counters are not very sensitive to soot particles that absorb the light but can be the main population of aerosols in the lower and middle stratosphere. In this work we describe a new generation of aerosol counters under development in the framework of the project LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) supported by the French ANR/Ecotech programme. LOAC will be a light particle counter/sizer, less than metricconverterProductID1 kg1 kg, designed to be mounted on the various kinds of tropospheric and stratospheric balloons. The measurements will be conducted at 2 scattering angles: the first one, at 10 degrees, is used to determine the aerosols concentration of several size classes within diameter range 0.3 and 20 micrometeres. At such low scattering angle close to forward scattering, the signal is much more intense and the measurements are not strongly sensitive to the nature of the aerosols. The second angle is at 60 degrees, where the light scattered is strongly dependent on the particle refractive index and thus on the nature of the aerosols. The ratio of the measurements at the 2 angles is used to determine the main

  17. A sensitivity study of atmospheric reflectance to aerosol layer height based on multi-angular polarimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qie, Lili; Li, Donghui; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Weizhen; Chen, Xingfeng

    2015-10-01

    The reflected Solar radiance at top of atmosphere (TOA) are, to some degree, sensitive to the vertical distribution of absorbing aerosols, especially at short wavelengths (i.e. blue and UV bands). If properly exploited, it may enable the extraction of basic information on aerosol vertical distribution. In recent years, rapid development of the advanced spectral multi-angle polarimetric satellite observation technology and aerosol inversion algorithm makes the extraction of more aerosol information possible. In this study, we perform a sensitivity analysis of the reflection function at TOA to the aerosol layer height, to explore the potential for aerosol height retrievals by using multi-angle total and polarized reflectance passive observations at short wavelength. Employing a vector doubling-adding method radiative transfer code RT3, a series of numerical experiments were conducted considering different aerosol model, optical depth (AOD), single-scattering albedo (SSA), and scale height (H), also the wavelength, solar-viewing geometry, etc. The sensitivity of both intensity and polarization signals to the aerosol layer height as well as the interacted impactions with SSA and AOD are analyzed. It's found that the sensitivity of the atmospheric reflection function to aerosol scale height increase with aerosol loading (i.e. AOD) and aerosol absorption (i.e. SSA), and decrease with wavelength. The scalar reflectance is sensitive to aerosol absorption while the polarized reflectance is more influenced by the altitude. Then the aerosol H and SSA may be derived simultaneously assuming that the total and polarized radiances in UV bands deconvolve the relative influences of height and absorption. Aerosol layer height, Atmospheric reflection function, Sensitivity, Ultraviolet (UV) band.

  18. Mechanism for production of secondary organic aerosols and their representation in atmospheric models. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seinfeld, J.H.; Flagan, R.C.

    1999-06-07

    This document contains the following: organic aerosol formation from the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons; gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds to model inorganic, organic, and ambient smog aerosols; and representation of secondary organic aerosol formation in atmospheric models.

  19. INAA and PIXE of atmospheric and combustion aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kucera, J; Havránek, V; Smolík, J; Schwarz, J; Veselý, V; Kugler, J; Sýkorová, I; Santroch, J

    1999-01-01

    Using instrumental neutron activation analyses and photon-induced x-ray emission techniques for analysis of size-fractionated atmospheric and combustion aerosols and other emission samples arising from fluidized-bed combustion of North Bohemian lignites up to 42 elements were determined in all samples types. This allowed the evaluation of element enrichment, time trends, and inter-element correlations and the performance of factor analysis of various fractions of atmospheric aerosols. The data obtained on mass and element size distributions of aerosols and emission samples obtained upon lignite combustion in an experimental scale atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor without and with added hydrated lime and limestone were used to elucidate the mechanism of abatement of toxic trace and matrix elements from flue gas. PMID:10676497

  20. Heterogeneous Uptake of HO2 Radicals onto Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, I. J.; Matthews, P. S.; Brooks, B.; Goddard, A.; Whalley, L. K.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Heard, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals, together known as HOx, play a vital role in atmospheric chemistry by controlling the oxidative capacity of the troposphere. The atmospheric lifetime and concentrations of many trace reactive species, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are determined by HOx radical levels. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict atmospheric HOx concentrations from a detailed knowledge of their sources and sinks is a very useful diagnostic tool to assess our current understanding of atmospheric chemistry. Several recent field studies have observed significantly lower concentrations of HO2 radicals than predicted using box models, where HO2 loss onto aerosols was suggested as a possible missing sink [1, 2]. However, the mechanism on HO2 uptake onto aerosols and its impact on ambient HOx levels are currently not well understood. To improve our understanding of this process, we have conducted laboratory experiments to measure HO2 uptake coefficients onto submicron aerosol particles. The FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique, a highly sensitive laser induced fluorescence based detection method, was used to monitor HO2 uptake kinetics onto aerosol particles in an aerosol flow tube. The application of the FAGE technique allowed for kinetic experiments to be performed under low HO2 concentrations, i.e. [HO2] < 109 molecules cm-3. HO2 radicals were produced by the photolysis of water vapour in the presence of O2 and aerosol particles were produced either by atomizing dilute salt solutions or by homogeneous nucleation. HO2 uptake coefficients (γ) have been measured for single-component solid and aqueous inorganic salt and organic aerosol particles with a wide range of hygroscopicities. HO2 uptake coefficients on solid particles were below the detection limit (γ < 0.001), whereas on aqueous aerosols uptake coefficients were somewhat larger (γ = 0.001 - 0.008). HO2 uptake coefficients were highest on aerosols

  1. Optical extinction of highly porous aerosol following atmospheric freeze drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Gabriela; Haspel, Carynelisa; Moise, Tamar; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-06-01

    Porous glassy particles are a potentially significant but unexplored component of atmospheric aerosol that can form by aerosol processing through the ice phase of high convective clouds. The optical properties of porous glassy aerosols formed from a freeze-dry cycle simulating freezing and sublimation of ice particles were measured using a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS) at 532 nm and 355 nm wavelength. The measured extinction efficiency was significantly reduced for porous organic and mixed organic-ammonium sulfate particles as compared to the extinction efficiency of the homogeneous aerosol of the same composition prior to the freeze-drying process. A number of theoretical approaches for modeling the optical extinction of porous aerosols were explored. These include effective medium approximations, extended effective medium approximations, multilayer concentric sphere models, Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory, and the discrete dipole approximation. Though such approaches are commonly used to describe porous particles in astrophysical and atmospheric contexts, in the current study, these approaches predicted an even lower extinction than the measured one. Rather, the best representation of the measured extinction was obtained with an effective refractive index retrieved from a fit to Mie scattering theory assuming spherical particles with a fixed void content. The single-scattering albedo of the porous glassy aerosols was derived using this effective refractive index and was found to be lower than that of the corresponding homogeneous aerosol, indicating stronger relative absorption at the wavelengths measured. The reduced extinction and increased absorption may be of significance in assessing direct, indirect, and semidirect forcing in regions where porous aerosols are expected to be prevalent.

  2. Development towards a global operational aerosol consensus: basic climatological characteristics of the International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction Multi-Model Ensemble (ICAP-MME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, W. R.; Reid, J. S.; Benedetti, A.; Colarco, P. R.; da Silva, A.; Lu, S.; Sekiyama, T.; Tanaka, T. Y.; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Brooks, M. E.; Eck, T. F.; Iredell, M.; Hansen, J. A.; Jorba, O. C.; Juang, H.-M. H.; Lynch, P.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Moorthi, S.; Mulcahy, J.; Pradhan, Y.; Razinger, M.; Sampson, C. B.; Wang, J.; Westphal, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first steps in developing a global multi-model aerosol forecasting ensemble intended for eventual operational and basic research use. Drawing from members of the International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction (ICAP) latest generation of quasi-operational aerosol models, 5-day aerosol optical thickness (AOT) forecasts are analyzed for December 2011 through November 2012 from four institutions: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Naval Research Lab/Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (NRL/FNMOC). For dust, we also include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-National Geospatial Advisory Committee (NOAA NGAC) product in our analysis. The Barcelona Supercomputing Centre and UK Met Office dust products have also recently become members of ICAP, but have insufficient data to be included in this analysis period. A simple consensus ensemble of member and mean AOT fields for modal species (e.g., fine and coarse mode, and a separate dust ensemble) is used to create the ICAP Multi-Model Ensemble (ICAP-MME). The ICAP-MME is run daily at 00:00 UTC for 6-hourly forecasts out to 120 h. Basing metrics on comparisons to 21 regionally representative Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites, all models generally captured the basic aerosol features of the globe. However, there is an overall AOT low bias among models, particularly for high AOT events. Biomass burning regions have the most diversity in seasonal average AOT. The Southern Ocean, though low in AOT, nevertheless also has high diversity. With regard to root mean square error (RMSE), as expected the ICAP-MME placed first over all models worldwide, and was typically first or second in ranking against all models at individual sites. These results are encouraging; furthermore, as more global operational aerosol models come online, we expect their inclusion in a robust

  3. Dust in the Sky: Atmospheric Composition. Modeling of Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Kinne, Stefan; Torres, Omar; Holben, Brent; Duncan, Bryan; Martin, Randall; Logan, Jennifer; Higurashi, Akiko; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol is any small particle of matter that rests suspended in the atmosphere. Natural sources, such as deserts, create some aerosols; consumption of fossil fuels and industrial activity create other aerosols. All the microscopic aerosol particles add up to a large amount of material floating in the atmosphere. You can see the particles in the haze that floats over polluted cities. Beyond this visible effect, aerosols can actually lower temperatures. They do this by blocking, or scattering, a portion of the sun's energy from reaching the surface. Because of this influence, scientists study the physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Reliable numerical models for atmospheric aerosols play an important role in research.

  4. New Satellite Project Aerosol-UA: Remote Sensing of Aerosols in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Yatskiv, Ya.; Degtyaryov, O.; Syniavskyi, I.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Rosenbush, V.; Ivanov, Yu.; Makarov, A.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Danylevsky, V.; Sosonkin, M.; Moskalov, S.; Bovchaliuk, V; Lukenyuk, A.; Shymkiv, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the development of the Ukrainian space project Aerosol-UA which has the following three main objectives: (1) to monitor the spatial distribution of key characteristics of terrestrial tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols; (2) to provide a comprehensive observational database enabling accurate quantitative estimates of the aerosol contribution to the energy budget of the climate system; and (3) quantify the contribution of anthropogenic aerosols to climate and ecological processes. The remote sensing concept of the project is based on precise orbital measurements of the intensity and polarization of sunlight scattered by the atmosphere and the surface with a scanning polarimeter accompanied by a wide-angle multispectral imager-polarimeter. Preparations have already been made for the development of the instrument suite for the Aerosol-UA project, in particular, of the multi-channel scanning polarimeter (ScanPol) designed for remote sensing studies of the global distribution of aerosol and cloud properties (such as particle size, morphology, and composition) in the terrestrial atmosphere by polarimetric and spectrophotometric measurements of the scattered sunlight in a wide range of wavelengths and viewing directions from which a scene location is observed. ScanPol is accompanied by multispectral wide-angle imager-polarimeter (MSIP) that serves to collect information on cloud conditions and Earths surface image. Various components of the polarimeter ScanPol have been prototyped, including the opto-mechanical and electronic assemblies and the scanning mirror controller. Preliminary synthetic data simulations for the retrieval of aerosol parameters over land surfaces have been performed using the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) algorithm. Methods for the validation of satellite data using ground-based observations of aerosol properties are also discussed. We assume that designing, building, and launching into orbit a multi

  5. New satellite project Aerosol-UA: Remote sensing of aerosols in the terrestrial atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Yatskiv, Ya.; Degtyaryov, O.; Syniavskyi, I.; Mishchenko, M.; Rosenbush, V.; Ivanov, Yu.; Makarov, A.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Danylevsky, V.; Sosonkin, M.; Moskalov, S.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Lukenyuk, A.; Shymkiv, A.; Udodov, E.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the development of the Ukrainian space project Aerosol-UA which has the following three main objectives: (1) to monitor the spatial distribution of key characteristics of terrestrial tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols; (2) to provide a comprehensive observational database enabling accurate quantitative estimates of the aerosol contribution to the energy budget of the climate system; and (3) quantify the contribution of anthropogenic aerosols to climate and ecological processes. The remote sensing concept of the project is based on precise orbital measurements of the intensity and polarization of sunlight scattered by the atmosphere and the surface with a scanning polarimeter accompanied by a wide-angle multispectral imager-polarimeter. Preparations have already been made for the development of the instrument suite for the Aerosol-UA project, in particular, of the multi-channel scanning polarimeter (ScanPol) designed for remote sensing studies of the global distribution of aerosol and cloud properties (such as particle size, morphology, and composition) in the terrestrial atmosphere by polarimetric and spectrophotometric measurements of the scattered sunlight in a wide range of wavelengths and viewing directions from which a scene location is observed. ScanPol is accompanied by multispectral wide-angle imager-polarimeter (MSIP) that serves to collect information on cloud conditions and Earth's surface image. Various components of the polarimeter ScanPol have been prototyped, including the opto-mechanical and electronic assemblies and the scanning mirror controller. Preliminary synthetic data simulations for the retrieval of aerosol parameters over land surfaces have been performed using the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) algorithm. Methods for the validation of satellite data using ground-based observations of aerosol properties are also discussed. We assume that designing, building, and launching into orbit a multi

  6. Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Data Sets and Application of Radiative Transfer Models to Compute Aerosol Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Bergstrom, Robert W.; Redemann, Jens

    2002-01-01

    This report is the final report for "Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Data Sets and Application of Radiative Transfer Models to Compute Aerosol Effects". It is a bibliographic compilation of 29 peer-reviewed publications (published, in press or submitted) produced under this Cooperative Agreement and 30 first-authored conference presentations. The tasks outlined in the various proposals are listed below with a brief comment as to the research performed. Copies of title/abstract pages of peer-reviewed publications are attached.

  7. Scanning Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A.; Evans, K.D.; Melfi, S.H.; Whiteman, D.N.

    1995-04-01

    The principal objective of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is to develop a better understanding of the atmospheric radiative balance in order to improve the parameterization of radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs) which are used to study climate change. Meeting this objective requires detailed measurements of both water vapor and aerosols since these atmospheric constituents affect the radiation balance directly, through scattering and absorption of solar and infrared radiation, and indirectly, through their roles in cloud formation and dissipation. Over the past several years, we have been investigating how the scanning Raman lidar developed at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) can provide the water vapor and aerosol measurements necessary for such modeling. The lidar system has provided frequent, high resolution profiles of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols in nighttime operations during two recent field experiments. The first experiment was ATMIS-11 (Atmospheric Moisture Intercomparison Study) conducted in July-August 1992, and the second was the Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX) conducted during September-October 1993. We present a brief description of the lidar system and examples of the water vapor and aerosol measurements acquired during these experiments.

  8. Aerosol Variations in Boundary Atmospheres: Review and Prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Shi, Guangyu

    Atmospheric aerosols play important roles in climate and atmospheric chemistry: They scatter sunlight, provide condensation nuclei for cloud droplets, and participate in heterogeneous chemical reactions. To enable better understanding of the vertical physical, chemical and optical feathers of the aerosols in East Asia, using some atmospheric and aerosol measurement instruments on board a kind of tethered-balloon system, a series of measurements were operated in some typical areas of East Asia, including Dunhuang, which is located in the source origin district of Asian dust and Beijing, which is the representative of large inland city during the years of 2002-2011. Mineral compositions carried by the airborne particles were analyzed as well as the microbial components, meanwhile the Lidar data were compared to the direct measurements in order to get the correlation between the optical properties of the particles and their physical and chemical variations in the boundary atmosphere. Moreover, the simultaneous observations over the districts of China, Japan and Korea, and even Pakistan supported by an international cooperative project are highly expected, in order to know the changes of the chemical, physical and even optical and radiation properties of the atmospheric aerosols during their long-range transport.

  9. Quantum Chemical Calculations Resolved Identification of Methylnitrocatechols in Atmospheric Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Frka, Sanja; Šala, Martin; Kroflič, Ana; Huš, Matej; Čusak, Alen; Grgić, Irena

    2016-06-01

    Methylnitrocatechols (MNCs) are secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers and major contributors to atmospheric brown carbon; however, their formation and aging processes in atmospheric waters are unknown. To investigate the importance of aqueous-phase electrophilic substitution of 3-methylcatechol with nitronium ion (NO2(+)), we performed quantum calculations of their favorable pathways. The calculations predicted the formation of 3-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (3M5NC), 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol (3M4NC), and a negligible amount of 3-methyl-6-nitrocatechol (3M6NC). MNCs in atmospheric PM2 samples were further inspected by LC/(-)ESI-MS/MS using commercial as well as de novo synthesized authentic standards. We detected 3M5NC and, for the first time, 3M4NC. In contrast to previous reports, 3M6NC was not observed. Agreement between calculated and observed 3M5NC/3M4NC ratios cannot unambiguously confirm the electrophilic mechanism as the exclusive formation pathway of MNCs in aerosol water. However, the examined nitration by NO2(+) is supported by (1) the absence of 3M6NC in the ambient aerosols analyzed and (2) the constant 3M5NC/3M4NC ratio in field aerosol samples, which indicates their common formation pathway. The magnitude of error one could make by incorrectly identifying 3M4NC as 3M6NC in ambient aerosols was also assessed, suggesting the importance of evaluating the literature regarding MNCs with special care.

  10. Quantum Chemical Calculations Resolved Identification of Methylnitrocatechols in Atmospheric Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Frka, Sanja; Šala, Martin; Kroflič, Ana; Huš, Matej; Čusak, Alen; Grgić, Irena

    2016-06-01

    Methylnitrocatechols (MNCs) are secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers and major contributors to atmospheric brown carbon; however, their formation and aging processes in atmospheric waters are unknown. To investigate the importance of aqueous-phase electrophilic substitution of 3-methylcatechol with nitronium ion (NO2(+)), we performed quantum calculations of their favorable pathways. The calculations predicted the formation of 3-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (3M5NC), 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol (3M4NC), and a negligible amount of 3-methyl-6-nitrocatechol (3M6NC). MNCs in atmospheric PM2 samples were further inspected by LC/(-)ESI-MS/MS using commercial as well as de novo synthesized authentic standards. We detected 3M5NC and, for the first time, 3M4NC. In contrast to previous reports, 3M6NC was not observed. Agreement between calculated and observed 3M5NC/3M4NC ratios cannot unambiguously confirm the electrophilic mechanism as the exclusive formation pathway of MNCs in aerosol water. However, the examined nitration by NO2(+) is supported by (1) the absence of 3M6NC in the ambient aerosols analyzed and (2) the constant 3M5NC/3M4NC ratio in field aerosol samples, which indicates their common formation pathway. The magnitude of error one could make by incorrectly identifying 3M4NC as 3M6NC in ambient aerosols was also assessed, suggesting the importance of evaluating the literature regarding MNCs with special care. PMID:27136117

  11. Formation of nitrogenated organic aerosols in the Titan upper atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Imanaka, Hiroshi; Smith, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Many aspects of the nitrogen fixation process by photochemistry in the Titan atmosphere are not fully understood. The recent Cassini mission revealed organic aerosol formation in the upper atmosphere of Titan. It is not clear, however, how much and by what mechanism nitrogen is incorporated in Titan’s organic aerosols. Using tunable synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source, we demonstrate the first evidence of nitrogenated organic aerosol production by extreme ultraviolet–vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of a N2/CH4 gas mixture. The ultrahigh-mass-resolution study with laser desorption ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry of N2/CH4 photolytic solid products at 60 and 82.5 nm indicates the predominance of highly nitrogenated compounds. The distinct nitrogen incorporations at the elemental abundances of H2C2N and HCN, respectively, are suggestive of important roles of H2C2N/HCCN and HCN/CN in their formation. The efficient formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons is observed in the gas phase without abundant nitrogenated neutrals at 60 nm, and this is confirmed by separately using 13C and 15N isotopically labeled initial gas mixtures. These observations strongly suggest a heterogeneous incorporation mechanism via short lived nitrogenated reactive species, such as HCCN radical, for nitrogenated organic aerosol formation, and imply that substantial amounts of nitrogen is fixed as organic macromolecular aerosols in Titan’s atmosphere. PMID:20616074

  12. Lidar determination of the composition of atmosphere aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the feasibility of using DIfferential SCatter (DISC) lidar to measure the composition of atmospheric aerosols are described. This technique involves multiwavelength measurements of the backscatter cross section of aerosols in the middle infrared, where a number of materials display strong restrahlen features that significantly modulate the backscatter spectrum. The theoretical work indicates that a number of materials of interest, including sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, and silicates, can be discriminated among with a CO2 lidar. An initial evaluation of this procedure was performed in which cirrus clouds and lower altitude tropospheric aerosols were developed. The observed ratio spectrum of the two types of aerosol displays structure that is in crude accord with theoretical expectations.

  13. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  14. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks. PMID:27733773

  15. The contribution of biological aerosols to atmospheric ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, M.; Hoose, C.; Möhler, O.; Oehm, C.; Steinke, I.; Vogel, H.

    2013-05-01

    Based on laboratory studies it has been suggested that the most important atmospheric aerosol particles acting as ice nuclei for heterogeneous freezing of cloud droplets at temperatures above -15°C could be from biological sources. Here we present simulations with a regional atmospheric model to investigate their impact on mixed-phase clouds based on recent experimental studies with different biological ice nuclei.

  16. Atmospheric aerosols: increased concentrations during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J T; Bryson, R A

    1968-10-01

    Atmospheric turbidity values calculated each month from solar radiation observations at MaunaLoa Observatory, Hawaii, show an increase of aerosols from 1958 through the present. These data indicate that either the effects of the Mount Agung eruption are still being observed or a longer-term trend of increasing turbidity is in evidence. PMID:4877369

  17. PREDICTION OF MULTICOMPONENT INORGANIC ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL BEHAVIOR. (R824793)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many existing models calculate the composition of the atmospheric aerosol system by solving a set of algebraic equations based on reversible reactions derived from thermodynamic equilibrium. Some models rely on an a priori knowledge of the presence of components in certain relati...

  18. a Study of the Origin of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildemann, Lynn Mary

    1990-01-01

    The sources of ambient organic particulate matter in urban areas are investigated through a program of emission source measurements, atmospheric measurements, and mathematical modeling of source/receptor relationships. A dilution sampler intended to collect fine organic aerosol from combustion sources is designed to simulate atmospheric cooling and dilution processes, so that organic vapors which condense under ambient conditions will be collected as particulate matter. This system is used to measure the emissions from a boiler burning distillate oil, a home fireplace, catalyst and noncatalyst automobiles, heavy-duty diesel trucks, natural gas home appliances, and meat cooking operations. Alternate techniques are used to sample the particulate matter emitted from cigarette smoking, a roofing tar pot, paved road dust, brake lining wear, tire wear, and vegetative detritus. The bulk chemical characteristics of the fine aerosol fraction are presented for each source. Over half of the fine aerosol mass emitted from automobiles, wood burning, meat cooking, home appliances, cigarettes, and tar pots is shown to consist of organic compounds. The organic material collected from these sources is analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography. Using a simple analytical protocol, a quantitative, 50-parameter characterization of the elutable fine organic aerosol emitted from each source type is obtained, which proves to be a unique fingerprint that can be used to distinguish most sources from each other. A mathematical model is used to predict the characteristics of fine ambient organic aerosol in the Los Angeles area that would prevail if the primary organic emissions are transported without chemical reaction. The model is found to track the seasonal variations observed in the ambient aerosol at the three sites studied. Emissions from vehicles and fireplaces are identified as significant sources of solvent-extractable organic aerosol. Differences between the model

  19. Field and Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggon, Matthew Mitchell

    This thesis is the culmination of field and laboratory studies aimed at assessing processes that affect the composition and distribution of atmospheric organic aerosol. An emphasis is placed on measurements conducted using compact and high-resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS). The first three chapters summarize results from aircraft campaigns designed to evaluate anthropogenic and biogenic impacts on marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of California. Subsequent chapters describe laboratory studies intended to evaluate gas and particle-phase mechanisms of organic aerosol oxidation. The 2013 Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) was a campaign designed to study environments impacted by nucleated and/or freshly formed aerosol particles. Terrestrial biogenic aerosol with > 85% organic mass was observed to reside in the free troposphere above marine stratocumulus. This biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) originated from the Northwestern United States and was transported to the marine atmosphere during periodic cloud-clearing events. Spectra recorded by a cloud condensation nuclei counter demonstrated that BOA is CCN active. BOA enhancements at latitudes north of San Francisco, CA coincided with enhanced cloud water concentrations of organic species such as acetate and formate. Airborne measurements conducted during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) were aimed at evaluating the contribution of ship emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of central California. In one study, analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra during periods of enhanced shipping activity yielded unique tracers indicative of cloud-processed ship emissions (m/z 42 and 99). The variation of their organic fraction (f42 and f 99) was found to coincide with periods of heavy (f 42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04), moderate (0.05 < f42 < 0.15; 0.01 < f99 < 0.04), and negligible (f42 < 0.05; f99 < 0.01) ship influence. Application of

  20. Optical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol in Maritime Environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Dubovik, Oleg; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Pietras, Christophe; Halthore, Rangasayi N.

    2002-02-01

    Systematic characterization of aerosol over the oceans is needed to understand the aerosol effect on climate and on transport of pollutants between continents. Reported are the results of a comprehensive optical and physical characterization of ambient aerosol in five key island locations of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) of sun and sky radiometers, spanning over 2-5 yr. The results are compared with aerosol optical depths and size distributions reported in the literature over the last 30 yr. Aerosol found over the tropical Pacific Ocean (at three sites between 20°S and 20°N) still resembles mostly clean background conditions dominated by maritime aerosol. The optical thickness is remarkably stable with mean value of a(500 nm) = 0.07, mode value at am = 0.06, and standard deviation of 0.02-0.05. The average Ångström exponent range, from 0.3 to 0.7, characterizes the wavelength dependence of the optical thickness. Over the tropical to subtropical Atlantic (two stations at 7°S and 32°N) the optical thickness is significantly higher: a(500 nm) = 0.14 and am = 0.10 due to the frequent presence of dust, smoke, and urban-industrial aerosol. For both oceans the atmospheric column aerosol is characterized by a bimodal lognormal size distribution with a fine mode at effective radius Reff = 0.11 ± 0.01 m and coarse mode at Reff = 2.1 ± 0.3 m. A review of the published 150 historical ship measurements from the last three decades shows that am was around 0.07 to 0.12 in general agreement with the present finding. The information should be useful as a test bed for aerosol global models and aerosol representation in global climate models. With global human population expansion and industrialization, these measurements can serve in the twenty-first century as a basis to assess decadal changes in the aerosol concentration, properties, and radiative forcing of climate.

  1. Ice Phase Transitions by Atmospheric Aerosol Particles of Varied Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Archuleta, C. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Thomson, D. S.

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field study measurements of water uptake and ice nucleation by surrogate and real atmospheric aerosol particles. Laboratory measurements of water uptake are made using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and a cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) instrument operating at 20 to 30 \\deg C. Measurements of ice nucleation are made using a continuous flow ice-thermal diffusion chamber (CFDC) operated to -60 \\deg C for relevance toward understanding cirrus cloud formation. Extending earlier laboratory studies of single composition aerosols, we are investigating water uptake and ice nucleation rates and mechanisms by mixed aerosols of various types, including sulfate-nitrate, sulfate-organic, mineral oxide-sulfate and black carbon-sulfate types. Methodologies will be described and results will be summarized. Field measurements are planned to study heterogeneous and homogeneous ice nucleation by free tropospheric aerosols at a high altitude laboratory. The field study will include measurements of the compositions of aerosols that activate ice formation by homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. This aspect of the study will be facilitated by interfacing the CFDC to the PALMS (Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry) instrument. This combined instrument system was tested in the laboratory to quantify sampling efficiencies and validate specificity for sampling ice nucleus aerosol particles. Initial field data, if available at conference time, will be compared and contrasted with the results obtained for laboratory surrogate particles.

  2. Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in Asia Derived From Regional Models With Atmospheric and Aerosol Data Assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V.; Carmichael, Gregory; Kulkarni, S.; Tang, Youhua; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun

    2010-07-05

    A high-resolution estimate of monthly 3D aerosol solar heating rates and surface solar fluxes in Asia from 2001 to 2004 is described here. This product stems from an Asian aerosol assimilation project, in which a) the PNNL regional model bounded by the NCEP reanalyses was used to provide meteorology, b) MODIS and AERONET data were integrated for aerosol observations, c) the Iowa aerosol/chemistry model STEM-2K1 used the PNNL meteorology and assimilated aerosol observations, and d) 3D (X-Y-Z) aerosol simulations from the STEM-2K1 were used in the Scripps Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation (MACR) model to produce total and anthropogenic aerosol direct solar forcing for average cloudy skies. The MACR model and STEM both used the PNNL model resolution of 0.45º×0.4º in the horizontal and of 23 layers in the troposphere. The 2001–2004 averaged anthropogenic all-sky aerosol forcing is -1.3 Wm-2 (TOA), +7.3 Wm-2 (atmosphere) and -8.6 Wm-2 (surface) averaged in Asia (60-138°E & Eq. -45°N). In the absence of AERONET SSA assimilation, absorbing aerosol concentration (especially BC aerosol) is much smaller, giving -2.3 Wm-2 (TOA), +4.5 Wm-2 (atmosphere) and -6.8 Wm-2 (surface), averaged in Asia. In the vertical, monthly forcing is mainly concentrated below 600hPa with maxima around 800hPa. Seasonally, low-level forcing is far larger in dry season than in wet season in South Asia, whereas the wet season forcing exceeds the dry season forcing in East Asia. The anthropogenic forcing in the present study is similar to that in Chung et al.’s [2005] in overall magnitude but the former offers fine-scale features and simulated vertical profiles. The interannual variability of the computed anthropogenic forcing is significant and extremely large over major emission outflow areas. In view of this, the present study’s estimate is within the implicated range of the 1999 INDOEX result. However, NCAR/CCSM3

  3. Single particle atmospheric aerosol analysis using digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailescu, Mona; Cojocaru, Ruxandra Elena; Kusko, C.; Toanca, Flori; Dinescu, A.; Schiopu, P.

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this research is to calculate the refractive index of transparent atmospheric aerosols, which have biological origin, using a digital holographic microscopy technique (DHM). The samples are collected on filters, using miniature impactors for particles with dimensions smaller than 10μm (on even one axis), from a height of over 20 meters, in Magurele, a rural location near the urban and industrial agglomeration of the capital city, Bucharest. Due to their organic or inorganic origin, each atmospheric aerosol particle has different size, shape and optical properties which have a determinant role in LIDAR measurements. We record on a CCD camera hundreds of holograms which contain the diffraction pattern from every aerosol particle superposed with the reference wave. Digitally, we scan the entire volume of one particle with nanometric resolution (using an algorithm based on the Fresnel approximation). The calibration was done using an object with known dimensions fabricated by e-beam lithography and some complementary measurements were done in confocal microscopy. Our analysis separates four main classes of atmospheric aerosols particles (wires, columns, spherical fragments, and irregular). The predominant class in the investigated period is the first one, which has biological origin and the refractive index was calculated starting from the phase shift introduced by them in the optical path and models for their cylindrical shape. The influence of spatial filtering in the reconstructed object images was investigated.

  4. Impact of aerosols and atmospheric particles on plant leaf proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xing; Shi, Wen Z.; Zhao, Wen J.; Luo, Na N.

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols and atmospheric particles can diffuse and absorb solar radiation, and directly affect plant photosynthesis and related protein expression. In this study, for the first time, we performed an extensive investigation of the effects of aerosols and atmospheric particles on plant leaf proteins by combining Geographic Information System and proteomic approaches. Data on particles with diameters of 0.1-1.0 μm (PM1) from different locations across the city of Beijing and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the past 6 years (2007-2012) were collected. In order to make the study more reliable, we segregated the influence of soil pollution by measuring the heavy metal content. On the basis of AOD and PM1, two regions corresponding to strong and weak diffuse solar radiations were selected for analyzing the changes in the expression of plant proteins. Our results demonstrated that in areas with strong diffuse solar radiations, plant ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was expressed at higher levels, but oxygen evolved in enhancer protein and light-harvesting complex II protein were expressed at lower levels. The expression of ATP synthase subunit beta and chlorophyll a-b binding protein were similar in both regions. By analyzing the changes in the expression of these leaf proteins and their functions, we conclude that aerosols and atmospheric particles stimulate plant photosynthesis facilitated by diffuse solar radiations.

  5. Deriving aerosol properties from measurements of the Atmosphere-Surface Radiation Automatic Instrument (ASRAI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Donghui; Li, Zhengqiang; Zheng, Xiaobing; Li, Xin; Xie, Yisong; Liu, Enchao

    2015-10-01

    The Atmosphere-surface Radiation Automatic Instrument (ASRAI) is a newly developed hyper-spectral apparatus by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (AIOFM, CAS), measuring total spectral irradiance, diffuse spectral irradiance of atmosphere and reflected radiance of the land surface for the purpose of in-situ calibration. The instrument applies VIS-SWIR spectrum (0.4~1.0 μm) with an averaged spectral resolution of 0.004 μm. The goal of this paper is to describe a method of deriving both aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol modes from irradiance measurements under free cloudy conditions. The total columnar amounts of water vapor and oxygen are first inferred from solar transmitted irradiance at strong absorption wavelength. The AOD together with total columnar amounts of ozone and nitrogen dioxide are determined by a nonlinear least distance fitting method. Moreover, it is able to infer aerosol modes from the spectral dependency of AOD because different aerosol modes have their inherent spectral extinction characteristics. With assumption that the real aerosol is an idea of "external mixing" of four basic components, dust-like, water-soluble, oceanic and soot, the percentage of volume concentration of each component can be retrieved. A spectrum matching technology based on Euclidean-distance method is adopted to find the most approximate combination of components. The volume concentration ratios of four basic components are in accordance with our prior knowledge of regional aerosol climatology. Another advantage is that the retrievals would facilitate the TOA simulation when applying 6S model for satellite calibration.

  6. Clouds, aerosols, and photochemistry in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. A.; Strobel, D. F.; Tomasko, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment is made of the development status of concepts for cloud and aerosol compositions, vertical and horizontal distributions, and microphysical properties, in the Jovian upper troposphere and stratosphere. Attention is given to several key photochemical species' relationships to aerosol formation as well as their transport process implications, treating photochemistry in the context of comparative planetology and noting differences and similarities among the outer planet atmospheres; since this approach emphasizes observational data, a variegated assortment of ground-based and spacecraft observations is assembled. Current views on the tropospheric distribution of clouds are challenged, and a rationale is presented for alternative accounts.

  7. Heterogeneous Uptake of HO2 Radicals onto Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, I. J.; Brooks, B.; Goddard, A.; Whalley, L. K.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Heard, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals, known collectively as HOx radicals, are the key reactants that control the oxidative capacity of the troposphere and the atmospheric lifetimes and concentrations of most trace reactive species, i.e. NOx, O3 and volatile organic compounds. Therefore, in order to gain an overall understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to predict the fate of atmospheric pollutants, a detailed knowledge of the sources and sinks of HOx species and their steady-state atmospheric concentrations is crucial. To this end, field measurements of atmospheric HOx concentrations have been recently compared to model predictions to gauge our level of understanding of atmospheric chemistry of trace reactive species. Box models incorporating known gas-phase chemistry have significantly overpredicted steady-state HO2 levels in comparison to field observations, suggesting heterogeneous uptake onto aerosols as a possible missing atmospheric sink for HO2 radicals [1-2]. However, relatively few laboratory studies have been performed to determine the kinetic parameters for HO2 loss onto aerosols, and thus the ability to assess the impact of this mechanism on HOx levels is limited. The goal of this laboratory study is to improve our understanding of the tropospheric HOx budget by measuring HO2 uptake kinetics onto aerosol particles. In this work, HO2 radicals were produced by the photolysis of water vapour and the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique was used to monitor HO2 loss kinetics onto aerosol particles in an aerosol flow tube setup. FAGE is a highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence based detection method for HOx radicals that has allowed for kinetic measurements to be performed under low HO2 concentrations minimizing gas-phase HO2 self reaction, i.e. for [HO2] < 109 molecules cm-3. The mass accommodation coefficient was determined by measuring HO2 uptake onto Cu(II)-doped ammonium sulfate aerosols. Reactive uptake coefficients

  8. Enhancement of atmospheric radiation by an aerosol layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelangeli, Diane V.; Yung, Yuk L.; Shia, Run-Lie; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Allen, Mark; Crisp, David

    1992-01-01

    The presence of a stratospheric haze layer may produce increases in both the actinic flux and the irradiance below this layer. Such haze layers result from the injection of aerosol-forming material into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions. Simple heuristic arguments show that the increase in flux below the haze layer, relative to a clear sky case, is a consequence of 'photon trapping'. The magnitude of these flux perturbations, as a function of aerosol properties and illumination conditions, is explored with a new radiative transfer model that can accurately compute fluxes in an inhomogeneous atmosphere with nonconservative scatterers having arbitrary phase function. One calculated consequence of the El Chichon volcanic eruption is an increase in the midday surface actinic flux at 20 deg N latitude, summer, by as much as 45 percent at 2900 A. This increase in flux in the UV-B wavelength range was caused entirely by aerosol scattering, without any reduction in the overhead ozone column.

  9. Atmospheric aerosol profiling with a bistatic imaging lidar system.

    PubMed

    Barnes, John E; Sharma, N C Parikh; Kaplan, Trevor B

    2007-05-20

    Atmospheric aerosols have been profiled using a simple, imaging, bistatic lidar system. A vertical laser beam is imaged onto a charge-coupled-device camera from the ground to the zenith with a wide-angle lens (CLidar). The altitudes are derived geometrically from the position of the camera and laser with submeter resolution near the ground. The system requires no overlap correction needed in monostatic lidar systems and needs a much smaller dynamic range. Nighttime measurements of both molecular and aerosol scattering were made at Mauna Loa Observatory. The CLidar aerosol total scatter compares very well with a nephelometer measuring at 10 m above the ground. The results build on earlier work that compared purely molecular scattered light to theory, and detail instrument improvements. PMID:17514239

  10. Enhancement of atmospheric radiation by an aerosol layer.

    PubMed

    Michelangeli, D V; Allen, M; Yung, Y L; Shia, R L; Crisp, D; Eluszkiewicz, J

    1992-01-20

    The presence of a stratospheric haze layer may produce increases in both the actinic flux and the irradiance below this layer. Such haze layers result from the injection of aerosol-forming material into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions. Simple heuristic arguments show that the increase in flux below the haze layer, relative to a clear sky case, is a consequence of "photon trapping." We explore the magnitude of these flux perturbations, as a function of aerosol properties and illumination conditions, with a new radiative transfer model that can accurately compute fluxes in an inhomogenous atmosphere with nonconservative scatterers having arbitrary phase function. One calculated consequence of the El Chichon volcanic eruption is an increase in the midday surface actinic flux at 20 degrees N latitude, summer, by as much as 45% at 2900 angstroms. This increase in flux in the UV-B wavelength range was caused entirely by aerosol scattering, without any reduction in the overhead ozone column.

  11. The AERONET network: atmospheric aerosol research in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The AERONET network is one of the most developed ground-based networks for aerosol monitoring. Solar radiance extinction, aureole brightness and sky light polarization measurements are used by the AERONET inversion retrieval algorithm to derive a variety of aerosol particle properties and parameters that are important for estimations of aerosol influences on air quality and climate change. In 2008 the AERONET has been extended in Ukraine: in addition to Sevastopol site (operated since 2006) the sunphotometer CIMEL CE318-2 has been installed at Kyiv site. New generation of sunphotometer (CE318N) has been used widely since 2011 in various sites of Ukraine as mobile station together with portable sunphotometer Microtops II. This article presents a short description of the AERONET, its development in Ukraine and prospects for future atmospheric research.

  12. Lidar Monitoring of Clouds and Aerosols at the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    We report on findings from ongoing polarization lidar research at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS). This facility was established in 1987, and the current total of lidar and radiometric measurements is approx. 2,900-h. Research at FARS has been applied to the climatological investigation of cirrus cloud properties for basic research and satellite measurement validation (currently in its 13th year), and studies of contrails, mixed phase clouds, and volcanic and Asian dust aerosols. Among the techniques utilized for monitoring cloud and aerosol properties are triple-wave length linear depolarization measurements, and high (1.5-m by 10-Hz) resolution scanning observations. The usefulness of extended time lidar studies for atmospheric and climate research is illustrated.

  13. Dispersion of aerosol particles in the atmosphere: Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haszpra, Tímea; Lagzi, István; Tél, Tamás

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of dispersion and deposition of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is an essential issue, because they have an effect on the biosphere and atmosphere. Moreover, aerosol particles have different transport properties and chemical and physical transformations in the atmosphere compared to gas phase air pollutants. The motion of a particle is described by a set of ordinary differential equations. The large-scale dynamics in the horizontal direction can be described by the equations of passive scalar advection, but in the vertical direction a well-defined terminal velocity should be taken into account as a term added to the vertical wind component. In the planetary boundary layer turbulent diffusion has an important role in the particle dispersion, which is taken into account by adding stochastic terms to the deterministic equations above. Wet deposition is also an essential process in the lower levels of the atmosphere, however, its precise parameterization is a challenge. For the simulations the wind field and other necessary data were taken from the ECMWF ERA-Interim database. In the case of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (March-April 2011) radioactive aerosol particles were also released in the planetary boundary layer. Simulations (included the continuous and varying emission from the nuclear power plant) will be presented for the period of 14-23 March. Results show that wet deposition also has to be taken into consideration in the lower levels of the atmosphere. Furthermore, dynamical system characteristics are evaluated for the aerosol particle dynamics. The escape rate of particles was estimated both with and without turbulent diffusion, and in both cases when there was no wet deposition and also when wet deposition was taken into consideration.

  14. A study of the origin of atmospheric organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Hildemann, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The sources of ambient organic particulate matter in urban areas are investigated through a program of emission source measurements, atmospheric measurements, and mathematical modeling of source/receptor relationships. A dilution sampler intended to collect fine organic aerosol from combustion sources is designed to simulate atmospheric cooling and dilution processes, so that organic vapors which condense under ambient conditions will be collected as particulate matter. This system is used to measure the emissions from a boiler burning distillate oil, a home fireplace, catalyst and noncatalyst automobiles, heavy-duty diesel trucks, natural gas home appliances, and meat-cooking operations. Alternate techniques are used to sample the particulate matter emitted from cigarette smoking, a roofing tar pot, paved road dust, brake lining wear, tire wear, and vegetative detritus. The bulk chemical characteristics of the fine aerosol fraction are presented for each source. Over half of the fine aerosol mass emitted from automobiles, wood burning, meat cooking, home appliances, cigarettes, and tar pots is shown to consist of organic compounds. The organic material collected from these sources is analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography. Using a simple analytical protocol, a quantitative, 50-parameter characterization of the elutable fine organic aerosol emitted from each source type is obtained, which proves to be a unique fingerprint that can be used to distinguish most sources from each other. A mathematical model is used to predict the characteristics of fine ambient organic aerosol in the Los Angeles area that would prevail if the primary organic emissions are transported without chemical reaction. The model is found to track the seasonal variations observed in the ambient aerosol at the three sites studied.

  15. Deriving atmospheric visibility from satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffler, M.; Schneider, Ch.; Popp, Ch.; Wunderle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric visibility is a measure that reflects different physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere. In general, poor visibility conditions come along with risks for transportation (e.g. road traffic, aviation) and can negatively impact human health since visibility impairment often implies the presence of atmospheric pollution. Ambient pollutants, particulate matter, and few gaseous species decrease the perceptibility of distant objects. Common estimations of this parameter are usually based on human observations or devices that measure the transmittance of light from an artificial light source over a short distance. Such measurements are mainly performed at airports and some meteorological stations. A major disadvantage of these observations is the gap between the measurements, leaving large areas without any information. As aerosols are one of the most important factors influencing atmospheric visibility in the visible range, the knowledge of their spatial distribution can be used to infer visibility with the so called Koschmieder equation, which relates visibility and atmospheric extinction. In this study, we evaluate the applicability of satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to infer atmospheric visibility on large spatial scale. First results applying AOD values scaled with the planetary boundary layer height are promising. For the comparison we use a full automated and objective procedure for the estimation of atmospheric visibility with the help of a digital panorama camera serving as ground truth. To further investigate the relation between the vertical measure of AOD and the horizontal visibility data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) site Laegeren (Switzerland), where the digital camera is mounted, are included as well. Finally, the derived visibility maps are compared with synoptical observations in central

  16. Aerosol in the upper layer of earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozhenko, A. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Nevodovskii, P. V.

    2013-09-01

    Aerosol layers exist in the upper atmospheres of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and the Earth. The reason for their existence may be meteorites, rings, and removal of particles of planetary origin. Observations from 1979 to 1992 showed that the optical thickness of aerosol over the Earth's polar regions changed from tau =0.0002 up to tau =.1 for lambda = 1000 nm. The greatest values of tau were in 1984 and 1992 and they were preceded by a strong volcanic activity of El Chichon (1982) and Pinatubo (1991). We show that the above-mentioned increase in the optical thickness of the stratosphere aerosol can lead to the ozone layer decrease detected in 1970. The stratospheric aerosol nature (real part of refractive index), effective particle size r and changing tau with latitude remain un solved. Among distance methods for the determination of nr and r efficient is the analysis of the phase dependence of the polarization degree. The observational values of the intensity and pol arization degree invisible light are due to optical properties of the surface and optical thickness of the atmosphere, the values of which vary with latitude, longitude and time. Therefore, it is impossible to identify accurately the stratospheric aerosol contribution. When observing in UV at lambda < 300 nm, the ozone layer cuts off the influence of the surface and the Earth's atmosphere to an altitude from 20 to 25 km. In this spectral region some negative factors can take place, namely, the emission of various gases playing depolarizing role, horizontal inhomogeneity of the effective optical thickness of ozone layer, and oriented particles (the polarization plane variation points to their presence).

  17. The conservative characteristic FD methods for atmospheric aerosol transport problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Kai; Liang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, we develop the new conservative characteristic finite difference methods (C-CFD) for the atmospheric aerosol transport problems. We propose the time second-order and spatial high-order conservative characteristic finite difference methods for the aerosol vertical advection-diffusion process and the two-dimensional conservative characteristic finite difference methods for aerosol horizontal transport process in the second-order splitting algorithm. Based on the characteristic form of advection-diffusion equations tracking back along the characteristic curve, we treat the integrals over the tracking cells at the previous time level by the conservative interpolations and propose to treat the diffusion terms by the average along the characteristics, where the high-order discrete fluxes are obtained by approximating the cumulative mass function and are continuous at the tracking points. The important feature is that the proposed C-CFD schemes preserve mass and have second-order accuracy in time and high-order accuracy in space. Numerical tests are taken to show the accuracy in time and space and mass conservation of our C-CFD schemes, compared with the standard CFD method. A real case of air quality modelling during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and a severe haze in North China are further simulated and analyzed by using our C-CFD algorithm. Simulated results are in good agreement with observations. The developed C-CFD algorithm can be used for efficiently solving large scale atmospheric aerosol transport problems.

  18. Soot Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Contributions by Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Verma, S.; Howard, S. D.; Goodman, J.; Ferry, G. V.; Allen, D. A.; Gore, Warren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Interest in the distribution of black carbon (soot) aerosol (BCA) in the atmosphere is based on the following: (1) Because BCA has the highest absorption cross section of any compound know, it can absorb solar radiation to cause atmospheric warming; (2) Because BCA is a strong adsorber of gases, it can catalyze heterogeneous chemical reactions to modify the chemical composition of the atmosphere; (3) If aircraft emission is the major source of BCA, it can serve as an atmospheric tracer of aircraft exhaust. We collect BCA particles as small as 0.02 micrometers by wires mounted on both the DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft. After return to the laboratory, the wires are examined with a field emission scanning electron microscope to identify BCA particles by their characteristics morphology, Typically, BCA exists in the atmosphere as small particles of complex morphology. The particle sizes at the source are measured in tens of Angstrom units; after a short residence time in the atmosphere, individual particles coalesce to loosely packed agglomerates of typical dimensions 0.01 to 0.1 micrometer. We approximate the size of each BCA aggregate by that of a sphere of equivalent volume. This is done by computing the volume of a sphere whose diameter is the mean between averaged minimum and maximum dimensions of the BCA particle. While this procedure probably underestimates the actual surface area, it permits us to compare BCA size distributions among themselves and with other types of aerosols.

  19. Effect of tropospheric aerosols upon atmospheric infrared cooling rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshvardhan, MR.; Cess, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tropospheric aerosols on atmospheric infrared cooling rates is investigated by the use of recent models of infrared gaseous absorption. A radiative model of the atmosphere that incorporates dust as an absorber and scatterer of infrared radiation is constructed by employing the exponential kernel approximation to the radiative transfer equation. Scattering effects are represented in terms of a single scattering albedo and an asymmetry factor. The model is applied to estimate the effect of an aerosol layer made of spherical quartz particles on the infrared cooling rate. Calculations performed for a reference wavelength of 0.55 microns show an increased greenhouse effect, where the net upward flux at the surface is reduced by 10% owing to the strongly enhanced downward emission. There is a substantial increase in the cooling rate near the surface, but the mean cooling rate throughout the lower troposphere was only 10%.

  20. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  1. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Amato, P.; Ariya, P. A.; Delort, A.-M.; Pöschl, U.; Chaumerliac, N.; Bauer, H.; Flossmann, A. I.; Morris, C. E.

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA) on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  2. Direct evidence of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation in forest atmosphere through heteromolecular nucleation.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, Ilias G; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2002-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a central role in climate and atmospheric chemistry. Organic matter frequently composes aerosol major fraction over continental areas. Reactions of natural volatile organic compounds, with atmospheric oxidants, are a key formation pathway of fine particles. The gas and particle atmospheric concentration of organic compounds directly emitted from conifer leaf epicuticular wax and of those formed through the photooxidation of alpha- and beta-pinene were simultaneously collected and measured in a conifer forest by using elaborated sampling and GC/ MS techniques. The saturation concentrations of acidic and carbonyl photooxidation products were estimated, by taking into consideration primary gas- and particle-phase organic species. Primary organic aerosol components represented an important fraction of the atmospheric gas-phase organic content Consequently, saturation concentrations of photooxidation products have been lowered facilitating new particle formation between molecules of photooxidation products and semi-volatile organic compounds. From the measured concentrations of the above-mentioned compounds, saturation concentrations (Csat,i) of alpha- and beta-pinene photooxidation products were calculated for nonideal conditions using a previously developed absorptive model. The results of these calculations indicated that primarily emitted organic species and ambient temperature play a crucial role in secondary organic aerosol formation. PMID:12523424

  3. Natural sources of atmospheric aerosols influencing air quality across Europe.

    PubMed

    Viana, M; Pey, J; Querol, X; Alastuey, A; de Leeuw, F; Lükewille, Anke

    2014-02-15

    Atmospheric aerosols are emitted by natural and anthropogenic sources. Contributions from natural sources to ambient aerosols vary widely with time (inter-annual and seasonal variability) and as a function of the distance to source regions. This work aims to identify the main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols affecting air quality across Europe. The origin, frequency, magnitude, and spatial and temporal variability of natural events were assessed for the years 2008 and 2009. The main natural sources of atmospheric aerosols identified were African dust, sea spray and wildfires. Primary biological particles were not included in the present work. Volcanic eruptions did not affect air quality significantly in Europe during the study period. The impact of natural episodes on air quality was significant in Southern and Western Europe (Cyprus, Spain, France, UK, Greece, Malta, Italy and Portugal), where they contributed to surpass the PM10 daily and annual limit values. In Central and Northern Europe (Germany, Austria and Latvia) the impact of these events was lower, as it resulted in the exceedance of PM daily but not annual limit values. Contributions from natural sources to mean annual PM10 levels in 2008 and 2009 ranged between 1 and 2 μg/m(3) in Italy, France and Portugal, between 1 and 4 μg/m(3) in Spain (10 μg/m(3) when including the Canary Islands), 5 μg/m(3) in UK, between 3 and 8 μg/m(3) in Greece, and reached up to 13 μg/m(3) in Cyprus. The evaluation of the number of monitoring stations per country reporting natural exceedances of the daily limit value (DLV) is suggested as a potential tool for air quality monitoring networks to detect outliers in the assessment of natural contributions. It is strongly suggested that a reference methodology for the identification and quantification of African dust contributions should be adopted across Europe. PMID:24342088

  4. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Aerosols: Effects of Large Increases on Global Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models indicate increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide causes an increase in surface temperature at a decreasing rate, and the rate of temperature decrease caused by increasing aerosols increases with aerosol concentration. (AL)

  5. Chemistry in the clouds: the role of aerosols in atmospheric chemistry.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jonathan P; Sayer, Robert M

    2002-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the ozone hole over the Antarctic and the recognition of the damaging effects of acid rain, the role of atmospheric aerosol particles in determining the chemical balance of the atmosphere has received much attention. Aerosol particles produced in combustion can also have a deleterious effect on human health. In this article we review the chemistry that can occur on aerosol particles, particularly on aqueous based aerosols in the troposphere. The sources, transformation and loss mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol will be discussed. In particular, we will focus on the role of chemical transformation on aerosol particles in promoting reactions that would otherwise be too slow in the homogeneous atmospheric gas phase. Heterogeneous reaction mechanisms of some key chemical reactions will be described. Recent observations of a high organic content of tropospheric aerosol particles will be described and a model of organic coated aerosols will be reviewed.

  6. Atmospheric aerosol and gas sensing using Scheimpflug lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a new lidar technique for atmospheric remote sensing based on Scheimpflug principle, which describes the relationship between nonparallel image- and object-planes[1]. When a laser beam is transmitted into the atmosphere, the implication is that the backscattering echo of the entire illuminated probe volume can be in focus simultaneously without diminishing the aperture. The range-resolved backscattering echo can be retrieved by using a tilted line scan or two-dimensional CCD/CMOS camera. Rather than employing nanosecond-pulsed lasers, cascade detectors, and MHz signal sampling, all of high cost and complexity, we have developed a robust and inexpensive atmospheric lidar system based on compact laser diodes and array detectors. We present initial applications of the Scheimpflug lidar for atmospheric aerosol monitoring in bright sunlight, with a 3 W, 808 nm CW laser diode. Kilohertz sampling rates are also achieved with applications for wind speed and entomology [2]. Further, a proof-of-principle demonstration of differential absorption lidar (DIAL) based on the Scheimpflug lidar technique is presented [3]. By utilizing a 30 mW narrow band CW laser diode emitting at around 760 nm, the detailed shape of an oxygen absorption line can be resolved remotely with an integration time of 6 s and measurement cycle of 1 minute during night time. The promising results demonstrated in this work show potential for the Scheimpflug lidar technique for remote atmospheric aerosol and gas sensing, and renews hope for robust and realistic instrumentation for atmospheric lidar sensing. [1] F. Blais, "Review of 20 years of range sensor development," Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 13, pp. 231-243, Jan 2004. [2] M. Brydegaard, A. Gebru, and S. Svanberg, "Super resolution laser radar with blinking atmospheric particles - application to interacting flying insects " Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 147, pp. 141-151, 2014. [3] L. Mei and M. Brydegaard

  7. Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations

    PubMed Central

    Csavina, Janae; Landázuri, Andrea; Wonaschütz, Anna; Rine, Kyle; Rheinheimer, Paul; Barbaris, Brian; Conant, William; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Fine particles also penetrate more deeply into the human respiratory system, and may become more bioavailable due to their high specific surface area. In this work, we report the size-fractionated chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled over a period of a year near an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with a 10-stage (0.054 to 18 μm aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a total suspended particulate (TSP) collector. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 μm diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources. Observation of ultrafine particle number concentration (SMPS) show the highest readings when the wind comes from the general direction of the smelting operations site. PMID:23441050

  8. Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations.

    PubMed

    Csavina, Janae; Landázuri, Andrea; Wonaschütz, Anna; Rine, Kyle; Rheinheimer, Paul; Barbaris, Brian; Conant, William; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Fine particles also penetrate more deeply into the human respiratory system, and may become more bioavailable due to their high specific surface area. In this work, we report the size-fractionated chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled over a period of a year near an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with a 10-stage (0.054 to 18 μm aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a total suspended particulate (TSP) collector. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 μm diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources. Observation of ultrafine particle number concentration (SMPS) show the highest readings when the wind comes from the general direction of the smelting operations site.

  9. Transition from Gaseous Compounds to Aerosols in Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebonnois, Sebastien; Bakes, E. L. O.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the chemical transition of simple molecules like C2H2 and HCN into aerosol particles in the context of Titan's atmosphere. Experiments that synthesize analogs (tholins) for these aerosols can help understand and constrain these polymerization mechanisms. Using information available from these experiments, we suggest chemical pathways that can link simple molecules to macromolecules, that will be the precursors to aerosol particles: polymers of acetylene and cyanoacetylene, polycyclic aromatics (PAHs), polymers of HCN and other nitriles, and polynes. Although our goal here is not to build a detailed kinetic model for this transition, we propose parameterizations to estimate the production rates of these macromolecules, their C/N and C/H ratios, and the loss of parent molecules (C2H2, HCN, HC3N and other nitriles, C6H6) from the gas phase to the haze. We use a 1-dimensional photochemical model of Titan's atmosphere to estimate the formation rate of precursors macromolecules. We find a production zone slightly lower than 200 km altitude with a total production rate of 4 x 10(exp -14) g/ sq cm s and a C/N approx. = 4. These results are compared with experimental data, and to microphysical models requirements. The Cassini/Huygens mission will bring a detailed picture of the haze distribution and properties, that will be a great challenge for our understanding of those chemical processes.

  10. Sources and atmospheric transformations of semivolatile organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieshop, Andrew P.

    Fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with increased mortality, a fact which led the EPA to promulgate a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5 in 1997. Organic material contributes a substantial portion of the PM2.5 mass; organic aerosols (OA) are either directly emitted (primary OA or POA) or formed via the atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursor compounds as secondary OA (SOA). The relative contributions of POA and SOA to atmospheric OA are uncertain, as are the contributions from various source classes (e.g. motor vehicles, biomass burning). This dissertation first assesses the importance of organic PM within the context of current US air pollution regulations. Most control efforts to date have focused on the inorganic component of PM. Although growing evidence strongly implicates OA, especially which from motor vehicles, in the health effects of PM, uncertain and complex source-receptor relationships for OA discourage its direct control for NAAQS compliance. Analysis of both ambient data and chemical transport modeling results indicate that OA does not play a dominant role in NAAQS violations in most areas of the country under current and likely future regulations. Therefore, new regulatory approaches will likely be required to directly address potential health impacts associated with OA. To help develop the scientific understanding needed to better regulate OA, this dissertation examined the evolution of organic aerosol emitted by combustion systems. The current conceptual model of POA is that it is non-volatile and non-reactive. Both of these assumptions were experimental investigated in this dissertation. Novel dilution measurements were carried out to investigate the gas-particle partitioning of OA at atmospherically-relevant conditions. The results demonstrate that POA from combustion sources is semivolatile. Therefore its gas-particle partitioning depends on temperature and atmospheric concentrations; heating and

  11. Martian upper atmospheric aerosol properties from Phobos eclipse observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmon, Mark T.

    2015-11-01

    Solar occultation photometry is a useful method for probing upper atmospheric aerosols, using a long atmospheric path for direct extinction measurements. During April-June 2015, the Mars Science Laboratory’s Mastcam was used for solar occultation photometry by proxy: 3 eclipse ingresses by Phobos into Mars’ shadow were observed, as were 3 egresses from the shadow. The observations occurred in late Southern summer, at LS 331-352°. The observations of the moon’s brightness sample the Martian atmosphere along the lines of site from the Sun to Phobos. The ingresses and egresses sampled longitudes up to 1000s of km west or east of the rover’s position, respectively; sampled latitudes from 30° S to 7° S over time; and sampled local sunset or sunrise, respectively. Each eclipse was imaged with both Mastcam cameras, M-100 with an RGB filter (638, 551, and 493 nm) and M-34 with an 867-nm filter. Light-curves for the eclipses were derived from the images and interpreted via a geometric model of the event, accounting for the full range of lines of sight through the atmosphere. The altitude of 50% extinction was found to vary within the 40-60 km range. Extinction varied with wavelength: four events showed significantly higher extinction in the blue, with a monotonic decrease with wavelength, interpreted as a result of 0.3-0.4 μm dust aerosols. Two events (one of each type) showed no significant wavelength variation of extinction, interpreted as a result of large (>1 μm) aerosols. One of these, probing local sunrise conditions, may suggest a thin layer of CO2 ice cloud. Future work may allow retrieval of vertical gradients in aerosol size near the mid-point of the sensitive region (i.e., altitudes near that of 50% transmission and/or path optical depth unity) and/or identification of discrete layers vs. well-mixed aerosols (for instance, clouds vs. dust)

  12. Sulfuric acid aerosols in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin; Toon, Owen B.; Grinspoon, David H.

    2011-08-01

    Clouds and hazes composed of sulfuric acid are observed to exist or postulated to have once existed on each of the terrestrial planets with atmospheres in our solar system. Venus today maintains a global cover of clouds composed of a sulfuric acid/water solution that extends in altitude from roughly 50 km to roughly 80 km. Terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form on stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols, and both PSCs and stratospheric aerosols play a critical role in the formation of the ozone hole. Stratospheric aerosols can modify the climate when they are enhanced following volcanic eruptions, and are a current focus for geoengineering studies. Rain is made more acidic by sulfuric acid originating from sulfur dioxide generated by industry on Earth. Analysis of the sulfur content of Martian rocks has led to the hypothesis that an early Martian atmosphere, rich in SO 2 and H 2O, could support a sulfur-infused hydrological cycle. Here we consider the plausibility of frozen sulfuric acid in the upper clouds of Venus, which could lead to lightning generation, with implications for observations by the European Space Agency's Venus Express and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Venus Climate Orbiter (also known as Akatsuki). We also present simulations of a sulfur-rich early Martian atmosphere. We find that about 40 cm/yr of precipitation having a pH of about 2.0 could fall in an early Martian atmosphere, assuming a surface temperature of 273 K, and SO 2 generation rates consistent with the formation of Tharsis. This modeled acid rain is a powerful sink for SO 2, quickly removing it and preventing it from having a significant greenhouse effect.

  13. Infrared Absorption by Atmospheric Aerosols in Mexico City during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    found as colloidal materials in surface and groundwaters (4). Examples of the IR spectra obtained and variance as a function of time at the two sites will be presented. The spectra are taken in Kubelka - Munk format, which also allows the infrared absorption strengths to be evaluated as function of wavelength. The wavelength dependence of the aerosol complex refractive index (m = n + ik) in the infrared spectral region is determined by application of the Kramers Kronig function. The importance of the aerosol absorption in the infrared spectral region to radiative forcing will be discussed. 1. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and M.M. Cunningham,Environ. Sci. Technol. 27 2864-2869 (1993). 2. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and M.M. Cunningham, Spectroscopy 7 44-53 (1992). 3. J.S. Gaffney and N.A. Marley, Atmospheric Environment, New Directions contribution, 32, 2873-2874 (1998). 4. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and K.A. Orlandini, Chapter 7 in Humic/Fulvic Acids and Organic Colloidal Materials in the Environment, ACS Symposium Series 651, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 96-107, 1996. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX- Mex) under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64328.

  14. Quantifying the sources of atmospheric ice nuclei from carbonaceous combustion aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, G. P.; Jathar, S.; Galang, A.; Farmer, D.; Friedman, B.; Levin, E. J.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ice nucleation on particles is a fundamental atmospheric process, which governs precipitation, cloud lifetimes, and climate. Despite being a basic atmospheric process, our current understanding of ice nucleation in the atmosphere is low. One reason for this low understanding is that ice nuclei concentrations are low (only ~1 in 105 particles in the free troposphere nucleate ice), making it challenging to identify both the composition and sources of ambient ice nuclei. Carbonaceous combustion aerosol produced from biomass and fossil fuel combustion are one potential source of these ice nuclei, as they contribute to over one-third of all aerosol in the North American free troposphere. Unfortunately, previous results from field measurements in-cloud, aircraft measurements, and laboratory studies are in conflict, with estimates of the impact of combustion aerosol ranging from no effect to rivaling the well-known atmospheric ice nuclei mineral dust. It is, however, becoming clear that aerosols from combustion processes are more complex than model particles, and their ice activity depends greatly on both fuel type and combustion conditions. Given these dependencies, we propose that sampling from real-world biomass burning and fossil fuel sources would provide the most useful new information on the contribution of carbonaceous combustion aerosols to atmospheric ice nuclei particles. To determine the specific contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to ice nuclei concentrations, we have coupled the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to the Colorado State University Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC). The SP2 utilizes laser-induced incandescence to quantify rBC mass on a particle-by-particle basis; in doing so, it also selectively destroys rBC particles by heating them to their vaporization temperature. Thus, the SP2 can be used as a selective pre-filter for rBC into the CFDC. In this work, we will present recent results looking at contribution of diesel

  15. Field and Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggon, Matthew Mitchell

    This thesis is the culmination of field and laboratory studies aimed at assessing processes that affect the composition and distribution of atmospheric organic aerosol. An emphasis is placed on measurements conducted using compact and high-resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS). The first three chapters summarize results from aircraft campaigns designed to evaluate anthropogenic and biogenic impacts on marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of California. Subsequent chapters describe laboratory studies intended to evaluate gas and particle-phase mechanisms of organic aerosol oxidation. The 2013 Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) was a campaign designed to study environments impacted by nucleated and/or freshly formed aerosol particles. Terrestrial biogenic aerosol with > 85% organic mass was observed to reside in the free troposphere above marine stratocumulus. This biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) originated from the Northwestern United States and was transported to the marine atmosphere during periodic cloud-clearing events. Spectra recorded by a cloud condensation nuclei counter demonstrated that BOA is CCN active. BOA enhancements at latitudes north of San Francisco, CA coincided with enhanced cloud water concentrations of organic species such as acetate and formate. Airborne measurements conducted during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) were aimed at evaluating the contribution of ship emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of central California. In one study, analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra during periods of enhanced shipping activity yielded unique tracers indicative of cloud-processed ship emissions (m/z 42 and 99). The variation of their organic fraction (f42 and f 99) was found to coincide with periods of heavy (f 42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04), moderate (0.05 < f42 < 0.15; 0.01 < f99 < 0.04), and negligible (f42 < 0.05; f99 < 0.01) ship influence. Application of

  16. Evaluating global atmospheric transport of plutonium with dust aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, R.; Arimoto, R.; Gill, T. E.; Kang, C.; Goodell, P.

    2009-12-01

    The resuspension of soils contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear weapons tests is a mechanism by which plutonium can be re-distributed throughout the environment. To better understand the global atmospheric transport of plutonium, we measured the activity of Pu in aerosol samples from four widely separated sites that receive dust from distant sources in both Asia and Africa. High-volume aerosol samples were collected from Barbados (2005 - 2006); Gosan, South Korea (2005 - 2006); Izaña, Canary Islands (1989 - 1996); and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (2005 - 2006) to evaluate the relationship between Pu activity and mineral dust concentrations (using crustal elements such as aluminum as a dust proxy). The activity of 239,240Pu (239Pu + 240Pu) in the aerosol samples was determined by alpha spectrometry following a series of chemical separations. Concentrations of other elements were determined by a variety of techniques. Pu activity was below the detection limit in many samples. In those samples where it was detected, the Gosan site had the highest dust concentrations and highest total plutonium activity, while Mauna Loa Observatory had the lowest dust concentrations and lowest 239,240Pu activity. The Izaña samples had the second highest concentrations of dust and plutonium activity, while Barbados had the third highest levels of both crustal aerosols and plutonium activity. The dust concentrations are consistent with previous observations at these remote sites, and we propose that the plutonium (primarily from past atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, much of which took place in arid lands) was deposited on erodible soil surfaces and subsequently transported as part of the overall mineral dust load. The results of this study have implications for the global transport and fate of Pu through its association with dust, the biogeochemical and environmental impacts of other substances associated with dust, and the workings of the dust cycle itself.

  17. Upper-atmosphere Aerosols: Properties and Natural Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The middle atmosphere is rich in its variety of particulate matter, which ranges from meteorite debris, to sulfate aerosols, to polar stratospheric ice clouds. Volcanic eruptions strongly perturb the stratospheric sulfate (Junge) layer. High-altitude 'noctilucent' ice clouds condense at the summer mesopause. The properties of these particles, including their composition, sizes, and geographical distribution, are discussed, and their global effects, including chemical, radiative, and climatic roles, are reviewed. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are composed of water and nitric acid in the form of micron-sized ice crystals. These particles catalyze reactions of chlorine compounds that 'activate' otherwise inert chlorine reservoirs, leading to severe ozone depletions in the southern polar stratosphere during austral spring. PSCs also modify the composition of the polar stratosphere through complex physiocochemical processes, including dehydration and denitrification, and the conversion of reactive nitrogen oxides into nitric acid. If water vapor and nitric acid concentrations are enhanced by high-altitude aircraft activity, the frequency, geographical range, and duration of PSCs might increase accordingly, thus enhancing the destruction of the ozone layer (which would be naturally limited in geographical extent by the same factors that confine the ozone hole to high latitudes in winter). The stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer reflects solar radiation and increases the planetary albedo, thereby cooling the surface and possibly altering the climate. Major volcanic eruptions, which increase the sulfate aerosol burden by a factor of 100 or more, may cause significant global climate anomalies. Sulfate aerosols might also be capable of activating stratospheric chlorine reservoirs on a global scale (unlike PCSs, which represent a localized polar winter phenomenon), although existing evidence suggests relatively minor perturbations in chlorine chemistry. Nevertheless, if

  18. Laboratory studies of thin films representative of atmospheric sulfate aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Tara Jean

    Sulfate aerosols are present globally in both the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These aerosols are of great interest because they have a profound influence on Earth's radiation balance, heterogeneous chemistry, and cloud formation mechanisms throughout the atmosphere. The magnitude of these effects is ultimately determined by the size, phase, and chemical composition of the aerosols themselves. This thesis explores some of the questions that remain concerning the phase of these aerosols under atmospheric conditions and the effects of their chemical composition on heterogeneous chemistry and cloud formation mechanisms. In the upper troposphere, cirrus clouds are thought to form via the homogeneous nucleation of ice out of dilute sulfate aerosols such as ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). To investigate this, the low-temperature phase behavior of ammonium sulfate films has been studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Experiments performed as a function of increasing relative humidity demonstrate that a phase transition from crystalline (NH 4)2SO4 to a metastable aqueous solution can occur at temperatures below the eutectic at 254 K. However, on occasion, direct deposition of ice from the vapor phase was observed, possibly indicating selective heterogeneous nucleation. In addition to serving as nuclei for cirrus clouds, sulfate aerosols can participate in heterogeneous reactions. The interaction of HNO3 with ammonium sulfate has been investigated as a possible loss mechanism for gas-phase HNO3 using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled with transmission FTIR spectroscopy. The results show that HNO3 reacts with solid ammonium sulfate to produce ammonium nitrate and letovicite at 203 K. Furthermore, this reaction is enhanced as a function of relative humidity from 0 to 41%. In the lower stratosphere, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are important for springtime ozone depletion. The vapor deposition of ice on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) has

  19. Heterogeneous Uptake of HO2 Radicals onto Submicron Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, P. S.; George, I. J.; Brooks, B.; Whalley, L. K.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    OH and HO2 (HOx) radicals are closely coupled and OH is responsible for the majority of the oxidation in the troposphere and controls the concentrations of many trace species. Therefore, it is important to be able to accurately predict HOx concentrations. However, some field measurement studies have reported significantly lower HO2 radical concentrations than calculated by constrained box models using detailed chemical mechanisms. Although the inclusion of halogen chemistry into the mechanisms can explain much of the differences in the marine boundary layer (MBL) (1,2), HO2 uptake by aerosols has been suggested as a possible sink in the MBL (2), the Arctic troposphere (3) and the upper troposphere (4). There have been very few laboratory studies (5,6) on HO2 uptake by aerosols and the rates and mechanism is still uncertain. The HO2 uptake coefficients were measured for a variety of atmospherically relevant inorganic and organic aerosols. The measurements were performed using an aerosol flow tube combined with a Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) detector. The sensitive FAGE cell allowed low HO2 concentrations (108-109 molecule cm-3) to be injected into the flow tube using a moveable injector. By moving the injector along the flow tube, position dependent HO2 decays were able to be recorded which when plotted against the total aerosol surface area allowed an uptake coefficient to be obtained. The aerosols were generated using an atomiser or by homogeneous nucleation and the total aerosol surface area was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The HO2 uptake coefficient (γ) was measured at room temperature for dry inorganic salts and dry organics (γ< 0.004), wet inorganic salts and wet organics (γ= 0.002-0.005), wet copper doped ammonium sulfate aerosols (γ= 0.28± 0.05) and ammonium sulfate aerosols doped with different molar amounts of iron (γ= 0.003-0.06). The pH dependence of the HO2 uptake coefficient was investigated, however no

  20. Aerosol Absorption in the Atmosphere: Perspectives from Global Model, Ground-Based Measurements, and Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Holben, Brent; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia; Duncan, Bryan; Ginoux, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Aerosol absorption in the atmosphere poses a major uncertainty in assessing the aerosol climate effects. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, and our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt. We compare the model calculated total aerosol optical thickness, extinction, and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia. We will examine what are the most sensitive factors in determining the aerosol absorption, and the consequences of assessing the aerosol radiative forcing and atmospheric heating associated with those factors.

  1. Aerosol Absorption in the Atmosphere: Perspectives from Global Model, Ground-Based Measurements, and Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Torres, Omar; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol absorption in the atmosphere poses a major uncertainty in assessing the aerosol climate effects. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, and our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt. We compare the model calculated total aerosol optical thickness, extinction, and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET, satellite retrievals from the TOMS instrument, and field observations from ACE-Asia. We will examine the most sensitive factors in determining the aerosol absorption. and the consequences of assessing the aerosol radiative forcing and atmospheric heating associated with those factors.

  2. Aerosol Absorption in the Atmosphere: Perspectives from Global Model, Ground-Based Measurements, and Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Main; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia; Duncan, Bryan; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol absorption in the atmosphere poses a major uncertainty in assessing the aerosol climate effects. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, and our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt. We compare the model calculated total aerosol optical thickness, extinction, and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia. We will examine the most sensitive factors in determining the aerosol absorption, and the consequences of assessing the aerosol radiative forcing and atmospheric heating associated with those factors.

  3. Characterizations of atmospheric fungal aerosol in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Linlin; Engling, Guenter; He, Kebin; Du, Zhenyu

    2013-04-01

    Fungal aerosols constitute the most abundant fraction of biological aerosols in the atmosphere, influencing human health, the biosphere, atmospheric chemistry and climate. However, the total abundance of fungal spores in the atmosphere is still poorly understood and quantified. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected by high volume samplers simultaneously at a rural site (MY) and an urban site (THU) in Beijing, China. Various carbohydrates were quantified by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), including the sugar alcohols mannitol and arabitol, proposed as molecular tracers for fungal aerosol. The annual average concentrations of arabitol in PM2.5 and PM10 at the THU site were 7.4±9.4 ng/m3 and 10.3±9.5 ng/m3, and the respective mannitol concentrations were 21.0±20.4 ng/m3 and 31.9±26.9 ng/m3. Compared to PM10, the monthly average concentrations of arabitol and mannitol in PM2.5 did not vary significantly and were present at nearly consistent levels in the different seasons. Moreover, during summer and autumn higher arabitol and mannitol levels than during spring and winter were observed in coarse particles, probably due to different dominant sources of fungal spores in different seasons. In the dry period (i.e., winter and spring) in Beijing, probably only the suspension from exposed surfaces, (e.g., soil resuspension, transported dust, etc.) can be regarded as the main sources for fungal aerosols. On the other hand, in summer and autumn, fungal spores in the atmosphere can be derived from more complex sources, including plants, vegetation decomposition and agricultural activity, such as ploughing; these fungal spore sources may contribute more to coarse PM. Mannitol and arabitol correlated well with each other, both in PM10 (R2 = 0.71) and PM2.5 (R2 = 0.81). Although fungal spore levels at rural sites were consistently higher than those at urban sites in other studies, the findings in our study were

  4. Anomalous telephotometer results for the ambient atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. W.; Coombes, C. A.

    Simultaneous measurements of the ambient atmospheric aerosol scattering coefficient using a telephotometer δa( λ) and an integrating nephelometer δn( λ) have revealed a seasonal variation in the difference δn( λ) - δa( λ). This variation can be explained by the presence of terpene oil droplets in the boundary layer in the telephotometer line of sight but beyond the telephotometer target. The droplets are due to extensive fir and pine in that far region. A satisfactory modification of the original Koschmeider contrast theory to take account of this effect is outlined.

  5. Atmospheric aerosol brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, Elena; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, M. Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol can reach very high concentrations in the planetary boundary layer in South-East Asia ("brown clouds"), affecting atmospheric transparency and generating spatial gradients of temperature over land with a possible impact on atmospheric dynamics and monsoon circulation. Besides black carbon (BC), an important light-absorbing component of anthropogenic aerosols is the organic carbon component known as 'brown carbon' (BrC). In this research, we provided first measurements of atmospheric aerosol BrC in the high Himalayas during different seasons. Aerosol sampling was conducted at the GAW-WMO Global station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) located in the high Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. in the foothills of Mt. Everest. PM10 aerosol samples were collected from July 2013 to November 2014. The sampling strategy was set up in order to discriminate the daytime valley breeze bringing polluted air masses up to the observatory and free tropospheric air during nighttime. Water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble BrC (MeS-BrC) were extracted and analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer equipped with a 50 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell. In the polluted air masses, the highest levels of the BrC light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (babs365) were observed during the pre-monsoon season (1.83±1.46 Mm‑1 for WS-BrC and 2.86±2.49 Mm‑1 for MeS-BrC) and the lowest during the monsoon season (0.21±0.22 Mm‑1 for WS-BrC and 0.32±0.29 Mm‑1 for MeS-BrC). The pre-monsoon season is the most frequently influenced by a strong atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) transport to NCO-P due to increased convection and mixing layer height over South Asia combined with the highest up-valley wind speed and the increase of the emissions from open fires due to the agricultural practice along the Himalayas foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In contrast, the monsoon season is characterized by a weakened valley wind regime and an

  6. Atmospheric aerosol brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, Elena; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, M. Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol can reach very high concentrations in the planetary boundary layer in South-East Asia ("brown clouds"), affecting atmospheric transparency and generating spatial gradients of temperature over land with a possible impact on atmospheric dynamics and monsoon circulation. Besides black carbon (BC), an important light-absorbing component of anthropogenic aerosols is the organic carbon component known as 'brown carbon' (BrC). In this research, we provided first measurements of atmospheric aerosol BrC in the high Himalayas during different seasons. Aerosol sampling was conducted at the GAW-WMO Global station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) located in the high Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. in the foothills of Mt. Everest. PM10 aerosol samples were collected from July 2013 to November 2014. The sampling strategy was set up in order to discriminate the daytime valley breeze bringing polluted air masses up to the observatory and free tropospheric air during nighttime. Water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble BrC (MeS-BrC) were extracted and analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer equipped with a 50 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell. In the polluted air masses, the highest levels of the BrC light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (babs365) were observed during the pre-monsoon season (1.83±1.46 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 2.86±2.49 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC) and the lowest during the monsoon season (0.21±0.22 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 0.32±0.29 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC). The pre-monsoon season is the most frequently influenced by a strong atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) transport to NCO-P due to increased convection and mixing layer height over South Asia combined with the highest up-valley wind speed and the increase of the emissions from open fires due to the agricultural practice along the Himalayas foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In contrast, the monsoon season is characterized by a weakened valley wind regime and an

  7. Atmospheric Aerosol Investigation In Vilnius using Stable Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masalaite, Agne; Garbaras, Andrius; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2013-04-01

    The effects of aerosols on the atmosphere, climate, and public health are among the central topics in current environmental research. Spatially urban air pollution is a major public concern world-wide.In this study the results of experimental research are presented, the basis of which is the investigation of 13C/12C variations δ13C of stable carbon isotopes in total carbonaceous aerosols in Vilnius city, Lithuania. The main aim of the work is to identify the origin of carbonaceous aerosols. Two autumns and one spring sampling campaign were designed with the aim to determine the changes in the air caused by the beginning/end of the heating season. The experiment was performed during several sampling periods. The first period lasted from 26 November to 06 December 2010. The second was from 04 April to 16 May 2011. The third was from 12 to 29 October 2012. Atmospheric aerosols, according to their aerodynamic diameters, were collected with an eleven-stage impactor "MOUDI". The stages have 50% aerodynamic diameter cut-offs of 18.0, 10.0, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.18, 0.1 and 0.056 μm, for stages 1-11, respectively. The analysis proceeds essentially in two stages. In the first, MOUDI foils were analyzed with EA-IRMS (FlashEA 1112 coupled to ThermoFinnigan Delta Plus Advantage). Half of the foil was measured directly (TC δ13C values). The rest was heated in the oven (400 °C) to remove organic part and measured EC+CC δ13C values (carbonates were not removed with acid). During the second stage of the analysis, corrections are made and OC δ13C values were calculated using isotopic balance equation: . As the main aim of the study was to identify the origin of incoming carbonaceous aerosols, air mass back trajectories were calculated using the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Aerosol Intensive Operating Period: Comparison of Aerosol Scattering during Coordinated Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallar, A. G.; Strawa, A. W.; Schmid, B.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J.; Sheridan, P.; Ferrare, R.; Covert, D.; Elleman, R.; Jonsson, H.; Bokarius, K.; Luu, A.

    2006-01-01

    In May 2003, a Twin Otter airplane, equipped with instruments for making in situ measurements of aerosol optical properties, was deployed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program s Aerosol Intensive Operational Period in Oklahoma. Several of the Twin Otter flights were flown in formation with an instrumented light aircraft (Cessna 172XP) that makes routine in situ aerosol profile flights over the site. This paper presents comparisons of measured scattering coefficients at 467 nm, 530 nm, and 675 nm between identical commercial nephelometers aboard each aircraft. Overall, the agreement between the two nephelometers decreases with longer wavelength. During the majority of the flights, the Twin Otter flew with a diffuser inlet while the Cessna had a 1 mm impactor, allowing for an estimation of the fine mode fraction aloft. The fine mode fraction aloft was then compared to the results of a ground-based nephelometer. Comparisons are also provided in which both nephelometers operated with identical 1 mm impactors. These scattering coefficient comparisons are favorable at the longer wavelengths (i.e., 530 nm and 675 nm), yet differed by approximately 30% at 467 nm. Mie scattering calculations were performed using size distribution measurements, made during the level flight legs. Results are also presented from Cadenza, a new continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) instrument, which compared favorably (i.e., agreed within 2%) with data from other instruments aboard the Twin Otter. With this paper, we highlight the significant implications of coarse mode (larger than 1 mm) aerosol aloft with respect to aerosol optical properties.

  9. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of Primary Biological Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Amato, P.; Ariya, P. A.; Delort, A.-M.; Pöschl, U.; Chaumerliac, N.; Bauer, H.; Flossmann, A. I.; Morris, C. E.

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the influence of bioaerosols on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that biological matter represents a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affects the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of primary biological particles in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  10. Organic Aerosols in Rural and Remote Atmospheric Environments: Insights from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Jimenez, J.; Ulbrich, I.; Dunlea, E.; Decarlo, P.; Huffman, A.; Allan, J.; Coe, H.; Alfarra, R.; Canagaratna, M.; Onasch, T.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D.; Takami, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Shimono, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Weimer, S.; Demerjian, K.; Drewnick, F.; Schneider, J.; Middlebrook, A.; Bahreini, R.; Cotrell, L.; Griffin, R.; Leaitch, R.; Li, S.; Hayden, K.; Rautiainen, J.

    2006-12-01

    Organic matter usually accounts for a large fraction of the fine particle mass in rural and remote atmospheres. However, little is known about the sources and properties of this material. Here we report findings on the characteristics and the major types of organic aerosols (OA) in urban downwind, high elevation, forested, and marine atmospheres based on analyses of more than 20 highly time resolved AMS datasets sampled from various locations in the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere. Organic aerosol components are extracted from these datasets using a custom multiple component mass spectral analysis technique and the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) method. These components are evaluated according to their extracted mass spectra and correlations to aerosol species, such as sulfate, nitrate, and elemental carbon, and gas-phase tracer compounds, such as CO and NOx. We have identified a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) component similar in mass spectra to the hydrocarbon substances observed at urban locations. We have also identified several oxygenated OA (OOA) components that show different fragmentation patterns and oxygen to carbon ratios in their mass spectra. Two OOA components a highly oxygenated that has mass spectrum resembling that of fulvic acid (a model compound representative for highly processed/oxidized organics in the environment) and a less oxygenated OOA component, whose spectrum is dominated with ions that are mainly associated with carbonyls and alcohols, are very frequently observed at various rural/remote sites. The oxygenated OOA component is more prevalent at downwind sites influenced by urban transport and the less oxygenated shows correlation to biogenic chamber OA at some locations. Compared to the total OOA concentration, HOA is generally very small and accounts for < 10% of the total OA mass at rural/remote sites. The comparisons between the concentrations of HOA and primary OA (POA) that would be predicted according to inert

  11. Atmospheric Condensational Properties of Ultrafine Chain and Fractal Aerosol Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlow, William H.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose for the research sponsored by this grant was to lay the foundations for qualitative understanding and quantitative description of the equilibrium vapor pressure of water vapor over the irregularly shaped, carbonaceous particles that are present in the atmosphere. This work apparently was the first systematic treatment of the subject. Research was conducted in two complementary components: 1. Calculations were performed of the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over particles comprised of aggregates of spheres in the 50-200 nm radius range. The purposes of this work were two-fold. First, since no systematic treatment of this subject had previously been conducted, its availability would be directly useful for quantitative treatment for a limited range of atmospheric aerosols. Second, it would provide qualitative indications of the effects of highly irregular particle shape on equilibrium vapor pressure of aggregates comprised of smaller spheres.

  12. Thermodynamic modeling of atmospheric aerosols: 0-100% relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutcher, Cari S.; Ge, Xinlei; Asato, Caitlin; Wexler, Anthony S.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate models of water and solute activities in aqueous atmospheric aerosols are central to predicting aerosol size, optical properties and cloud formation. A powerful method has been recently developed (Dutcher et al. JPC 2011, 2012, 2013) for representing the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent aerosols at low and intermediate levels of RH (< 90%RH) by applying the principles of multilayer sorption to ion hydration in solutions. In that work, statistical mechanics was used to model sorption of a solvent (water), onto each solute or ion in solution as n energetically distinct layers. This corresponds to n hydration layers surrounding each solute molecule. Here, we extend the model to the 100% RH limit and reduce the number of adjustable model parameters, allowing for a unified thermodynamic treatment for a wider range of atmospheric systems. The long-range interactions due to electrostatic screening of ions in solution are included as a mole fraction based Pitzer-Debye-Hückel (PDH) term. Equations for the Gibbs free energy, solvent and solute activity, and solute concentration are derived, yielding remarkable agreement between measured and fitted solute concentration and osmotic coefficients for solutions over the entire 0 to 100% RH range. By relating the values of the energy of sorption in each hydration layer to known short-range Coulombic electrostatic relationships governed by the size and dipole moment of the solute and solvent molecules, it may be possible to reduce the number of parameters for each solute. Modified equations for mixtures that take into account the long range PDH term will also be presented; these equations include no additional parameters.

  13. Heterogeneous atmospheric reactions - Sulfuric acid aerosols as tropospheric sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, A. C.; Golden, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction probabilities of various atmospheric species incident on a bulk sulfuric acid surface are measured in order to determine the role of sulfuric acid aerosols as pollutant sinks. Reaction products and unreacted starting materials leaving a Knudsen cell flow reactor after collision at 300 K with a H2SO4 surface or a soot surface were detected by mass spectrometry. Significant collision reaction probabilities are observed on a H2SO4 surface for H2O2, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, N2O5, H2O and NH3, and on soot for NH3. Estimates of the contribution of heterogeneous reactions to pollutant removal under atmospheric conditions indicate that while aerosol removal in the stratosphere is insignificant (loss rate constants approximately 10 to the -10th/sec), heterogeneous reactions may be the dominant loss process for several tropospheric species (loss rate constant approximately 10 to the -5th/sec, comparable to photolysis rate constants).

  14. Formation of the Aerosol of Space Origin in Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozak, P. M.; Kruchynenko, V. G.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of formation of the aerosol of space origin in Earth s atmosphere is examined. Meteoroids of the mass range of 10-18-10-8 g are considered as a source of its origin. The lower bound of the mass range is chosen according to the data presented in literature, the upper bound is determined in accordance with the theory of Whipple s micrometeorites. Basing on the classical equations of deceleration and heating for small meteor bodies we have determined the maximal temperatures of the particles, and altitudes at which they reach critically low velocities, which can be called as velocities of stopping . As a condition for the transformation of a space particle into an aerosol one we have used the condition of non-reaching melting temperature of the meteoroid. The simplified equation of deceleration without earth gravity and barometric formula for the atmosphere density are used. In the equation of heat balance the energy loss for heating is neglected. The analytical solution of the simplified equations is used for the analysis.

  15. Measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars using model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimanov, V. F.; Poutanen, J.; Klochkov, D.; Werner, K.

    2016-02-01

    Model spectra of neutron star atmospheres are nowadays widely used to fit the observed thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars. This fitting is the key element in the method of the neutron star radius determination. Here, we present the basic assumptions used for the neutron star atmosphere modeling as well as the main qualitative features of the stellar atmospheres leading to the deviations of the emergent model spectrum from blackbody. We describe the properties of two of our model atmosphere grids: i) pure carbon atmospheres for relatively cool neutron stars (1-4MK) and ii) hot atmospheres with Compton scattering taken into account. The results obtained by applying these grids to model the X-ray spectra of the central compact object in supernova remnant HESS 1731-347, and two X-ray bursting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries, 4U 1724-307 and 4U 1608-52, are presented. Possible systematic uncertainties associated with the obtained neutron star radii are discussed.

  16. Basic optics, aerosol optics, and the role of scattering for sky radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Helmuth

    2014-05-01

    The radiance of the night sky is determined by the available light and the scattering properties of the atmosphere (particles and gases). The scattering phase function of the aerosol has a strong dependence on the scattering angle, and depending on the viewing direction different parts of the atmosphere and the ground reflectivity give the most important contribution. The atmospheric radiance cannot be altered by optical instruments. On the other hand the light flux of a distant star increases with the size of the telescope, thus fainter stars become visible. Light extinction, scattering function, atmospheric radiance, ground reflectivity, color effects and others are discussed in detail and a simple theoretical treatment is given.

  17. The evaluation of a shuttle borne lidar experiment to measure the global distribution of aerosols and their effect on the atmospheric heat budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipley, S. T.; Joseph, J. H.; Trauger, J. T.; Guetter, P. J.; Eloranta, E. W.; Lawler, J. E.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Odell, A. P.; Roesler, F. L.; Weinman, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A shuttle-borne lidar system is described, which will provide basic data about aerosol distributions for developing climatological models. Topics discussed include: (1) present knowledge of the physical characteristics of desert aerosols and the absorption characteristics of atmospheric gas, (2) radiative heating computations, and (3) general circulation models. The characteristics of a shuttle-borne radar are presented along with some laboratory studies which identify schemes that permit the implementation of a high spectral resolution lidar system.

  18. Impact of clouds and precipitation on atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronache, Constantin

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols have a significant impact on the dynamics and microphysics of continental mixed-phase convective clouds. High aerosol concentrations provide enhanced cloud condensation nuclei that can lead to the invigoration of convection and increase of surface rainfall. Such effects are dependent on environmental conditions and aerosol properties. Clouds are not only affected by aerosol, they also alter aerosol properties by various processes. Cloud processing of aerosol includes: convective redistribution, modification in the number and size of aerosol particles, chemical processing, new particle formation around clouds, and aerosol removal by rainfall to the surface. Among these processes, the wet removal during intense rain events, in polluted continental regions, can lead to spikes in acidic deposition into environment. In this study, we address the effects of clouds and precipitation on the aerosol distribution in cases of convective precipitation events in eastern US. We examine the effects of clouds and precipitation on various aerosol species, as well as their temporal and spatial variability.

  19. Dynamical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over IG region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish; Singh, Ramesh P.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic (IG) region are primarily dependent on the geographical settings and meteorological conditions. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out over three different cities i.e. Kanpur, Greater Noida and Amritsar during 2010-2013. Level-3 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) terra daily global grid product with spatial resolution of 1° × 1° shows the mean AOD at 500 nm wavelength value of 0.73, 0.70 and 0.67 with the standard deviation of 0.43, 0.39 and 0.36 respectively over Amritsar, Greater Noida and Kanpur. Our detailed analysis shows characteristic behavior of aerosols from west to east in the IG region depending upon the proximity of desert regions of Arabia. We have observed large influx of dusts from the Thar desert and Arabia peninsula during pre-monsoon season (April-June), highly affecting Amritsar which is close to the desert region.

  20. An 11-year global gridded aerosol optical thickness reanalysis (v1.0) for atmospheric and climate sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Peng; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Hogan, Timothy F.; Hyer, Edward J.; Curtis, Cynthia A.; Hegg, Dean A.; Shi, Yingxi; Campbell, James R.; Rubin, Juli I.; Sessions, Walter R.; Turk, F. Joseph; Walker, Annette L.

    2016-04-01

    While stand alone satellite and model aerosol products see wide utilization, there is a significant need in numerous atmospheric and climate applications for a fused product on a regular grid. Aerosol data assimilation is an operational reality at numerous centers, and like meteorological reanalyses, aerosol reanalyses will see significant use in the near future. Here we present a standardized 2003-2013 global 1 × 1° and 6-hourly modal aerosol optical thickness (AOT) reanalysis product. This data set can be applied to basic and applied Earth system science studies of significant aerosol events, aerosol impacts on numerical weather prediction, and electro-optical propagation and sensor performance, among other uses. This paper describes the science of how to develop and score an aerosol reanalysis product. This reanalysis utilizes a modified Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) at its core and assimilates quality controlled retrievals of AOT from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on Terra. The aerosol source functions, including dust and smoke, were regionally tuned to obtain the best match between the model fine- and coarse-mode AOTs and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOTs. Other model processes, including deposition, were tuned to minimize the AOT difference between the model and satellite AOT. Aerosol wet deposition in the tropics is driven with satellite-retrieved precipitation, rather than the model field. The final reanalyzed fine- and coarse-mode AOT at 550 nm is shown to have good agreement with AERONET observations, with global mean root mean square error around 0.1 for both fine- and coarse-mode AOTs. This paper includes a discussion of issues particular to aerosol reanalyses that make them distinct from standard meteorological reanalyses, considerations for extending such a reanalysis outside of the NASA A-Train era, and examples of how

  1. Assessment of climate sensitivity to the representation of aerosols in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Laura; Michou, Martine; Nabat, Pierre; Saint-Martin, David

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can significantly affect the Earth's radiative balance due to absorption, scattering, and indirect effects upon the climate system. Although our understanding of aerosol properties has improved over recent decades, aerosol radiative forcing remains as one of the largest uncertainties when projecting future climate change. A coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model was used to perform sensitivity tests in order to investigate how the representation of aerosols within the model can affect decadal climate variability. These tests included looking at the difference between using constant emissions versus using emissions that evolve over a period of thirty years; examining the impacts of including indirect effects from sea salt and organics; altering the aerosol optical properties; and using an interactive aerosol scheme versus using 2-D climatologies. The results of these sensitivity tests show how modifying certain aspects of the aerosol scheme can significantly modify radiative flux and global surface temperature.

  2. Easy Aerosol - Robust and non-robust circulation responses to aerosol radiative forcing in comprehensive atmosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Aiko; Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Boucher, Olivier; Medeiros, Brian; Pincus, Robert; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Kai; Lewinschal, Anna; Bellouin, Nicolas; Yang, Young-Min

    2015-04-01

    A number of recent studies illustrated the potential of aerosols to change the large-scale atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns. It remains unclear, however, to what extent the proposed aerosol-induced changes reflect robust model behavior or are affected by uncertainties in the models' treatment of parametrized physical processes, such as those related to clouds. "Easy Aerosol", a model-intercomparison project organized within the Grand Challenge on Clouds, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity of the World Climate Research Programme, addresses this question by subjecting a suite of comprehensive atmosphere general circulation models with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) to the same set of idealized "easy" aerosol perturbations. This contribution discusses the aerosol perturbations as well as their impact on the model's precipitation and surface winds. The aerosol perturbations are designed based on a global aerosol climatology and mimic the gravest mode of the anthropogenic aerosol. Specifically, the meridional and zonal distributions of total aerosol optical depth are approximated by a superposition of Gaussian plumes; the vertical distribution is taken as constant within the lowest 1250m of the atmosphere followed by an exponential decay with height above. The aerosol both scatters and absorbs shortwave radiation, but in order to focus on direct radiative effects aerosol-cloud interactions are omitted. Each model contributes seven simulations. A clean control case with no aerosol-radiative effects at all is compared to six perturbed simulations with differing aerosol loading, zonal aerosol distributions, and SSTs. To estimate the role of natural variability, one of the models, MPI-ESM, contributes a 5-member ensemble for each simulation. If the observed SSTs from years 1979-2005 are prescribed, the aerosol leads to a local depression of precipitation at the Northern Hemisphere center of the aerosol and a northward shift of the

  3. Visible and infrared extinction of atmospheric aerosol in the marine and coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Kaloshin, Gennady A

    2011-05-10

    The microphysical model Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles (MaexPro) for surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols, which is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles, is presented. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above the sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U), and relative humidity is investigated. The model is primarily to characterize aerosols for the near-surface layer (within 25 m). The model is also applicable to higher altitudes within the atmospheric boundary layer, where the change in the vertical profile of aerosol is not very large. In this case, it is only valid for "clean" marine environments, in the absence of air pollution or any other major sources of continental aerosols, such desert dust or smoke from biomass burning. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained by the well-known Navy Aerosol Model and Advanced Navy Aerosol Model codes. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable instrument for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. PMID:21556113

  4. Visible and infrared extinction of atmospheric aerosol in the marine and coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Kaloshin, Gennady A

    2011-05-10

    The microphysical model Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles (MaexPro) for surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols, which is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles, is presented. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above the sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U), and relative humidity is investigated. The model is primarily to characterize aerosols for the near-surface layer (within 25 m). The model is also applicable to higher altitudes within the atmospheric boundary layer, where the change in the vertical profile of aerosol is not very large. In this case, it is only valid for "clean" marine environments, in the absence of air pollution or any other major sources of continental aerosols, such desert dust or smoke from biomass burning. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained by the well-known Navy Aerosol Model and Advanced Navy Aerosol Model codes. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable instrument for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  5. Program Abstracts: Formation and Growth of Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Peter H. McMurry; Markku Kulmala

    2006-09-07

    DOE provided $11,000 to sponsor the Workshop on New Particle Formation in the Atmosphere, which was held at The Riverwood Inn and Conference Center near Minneapolis, MN from September 7 to 9, 2006. Recent work has shown that new particle formation is an important atmospheric process that must be better understood due to its impact on cloud cover and the Earth's radiation balance. The conference was an informal gathering of atmospheric and basic scientists with expertise pertinent to this topic. The workshop included discussions of: • atmospheric modeling; • computational chemistry pertinent to clustering; • ions and ion induced nucleation; • basic laboratory and theoretical studies of nucleation; • studies on neutral molecular clusters; • interactions of organic compounds and sulfuric acid; • composition of freshly nucleated particles. Fifty six scientists attended the conference. They included 27 senior scientists, 9 younger independent scientists (assistant professor or young associate professor level), 7 postdocs, 13 graduate students, 10 women, 35 North Americans (34 from the U.S.), 1 Asian, and 20 Europeans. This was an excellent informal workshop on an important topic. An effort was made to include individuals from communities that do not regularly interact. A number of participants have provided informal feedback indicating that the workshop led to research ideas and possible future collaborations.

  6. Small molecules as tracers in atmospheric secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ge

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), formed from in-air oxidation of volatile organic compounds, greatly affects human health and climate. Although substantial research has been devoted to SOA formation and evolution, the modeled and lab-generated SOA are still low in mass and degree of oxidation compared to ambient measurements. In order to compensate for these discrepancies, the aqueous processing pathway has been brought to attention. The atmospheric waters serve as aqueous reaction media for dissolved organics to undergo further oxidation, oligomerization, or other functionalization reactions, which decreases the vapor pressure while increasing the oxidation state of carbon atoms. Field evidence for aqueous processing requires the identification of tracer products such as organosulfates. We synthesized the standards for two organosulfates, glycolic acid sulfate and lactic acid sulfate, in order to measure their aerosol-state concentration from five distinct locations via filter samples. The water-extracted filter samples were analyzed by LC-MS. Lactic acid sulfate and glycolic acid sulfate were detected in urban locations in the United States, Mexico City, and Pakistan with varied concentrations, indicating their potential as tracers. We studied the aqueous processing reaction between glyoxal and nitrogen-containing species such as ammonium and amines exclusively by NMR spectrometry. The reaction products formic acid and several imidazoles along with the quantified kinetics were reported. The brown carbon generated from these reactions were quantified optically by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The organic-phase reaction between oxygen molecule and alkenes photosensitized by alpha-dicarbonyls were studied in the same manner. We observed the fast kinetics transferring alkenes to epoxides under simulated sunlight. Statistical estimations indicate a very effective conversion of aerosol-phase alkenes to epoxides, potentially forming organosulfates in a deliquescence event and

  7. Aerosol Sources, Absorption, and Intercontinental Transport: Synergies among Models, Remote Sensing, and Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Kaufman, Yoram; chu, Allen; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Aerosol climate forcing is one of the largest uncertainties in assessing the anthropogenic impact on the global climate system. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties, and the consequences of intercontinental transport of aerosols and their precursors. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt, from anthropogenic, biomass burning, and natural sources. We compare the model calculated aerosol extinction and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia, and model calculated total aerosol optical depth and fine mode fractions with the MODIS satellite retrieval. We will also estimate the intercontinental transport of pollution and dust aerosols from their source regions to other areas in different seasons.

  8. Aerosol Sources, Absorption, and Intercontinental Transport: Synergies Among Models, Remote Sensing, and Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Chu, Allen; Levy, Robert; Remer, Lorraine; Kaufman, Yoram; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Eck, Tom; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol climate forcing is one of the largest uncertainties in assessing the anthropogenic impact on the global climate system. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties, and the consequences of intercontinental transport of aerosols and their precursors. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt, from anthropogenic, .biomass burning, and natural sources. We compare the model calculated aerosol extinction and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERON" at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia, and model calculated total aerosol optical depth and fine mode fractions with the MODIS satellite retrieval. We will also estimate the intercontinental transport of pollution and dust aerosols from their source regions to other areas in different seasons.

  9. Organic aggregate formation in aerosols and its impact on the physicochemical properties of atmospheric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabazadeh, Azadeh

    Fatty acid salts and "humic" materials, found in abundance in atmospheric particles, are both anionic surfactants. Such materials are known to form organic aggregates or colloids in solution at very low aqueous concentrations. In a marine aerosol, micelle aggregates can form at a low fatty acid salt molality of ˜10 -3 m. In other types of atmospheric particles, such as biomass burning, biogenic, soil dust, and urban aerosols, "humic-like" materials exist in sufficient quantities to form micelle-like aggregates in solution. I show micelle formation limits the ability of surface-active organics in aerosols to reduce the surface tension of an atmospheric particle beyond about 10 dyne cm -1. A general phase diagram is presented for anionic surfactants to explain how surface-active organics can change the water uptake properties of atmospheric aerosols. Briefly such molecules can enhance and reduce water uptake by atmospheric aerosols at dry and humid conditions, respectively. This finding is consistent with a number of unexplained field and laboratory observations. Dry electron microscope images of atmospheric particles often indicate that organics may coat the surface of particles in the atmosphere. The surfactant phase diagram is used to trace the particle path back to ambient conditions in order to determine whether such coatings can exist on wet ambient aerosols. Finally, I qualitatively highlight how organic aggregate formation in aerosols may change the optical properties and chemical reactivity of atmospheric particles.

  10. [Basic features and monitoring methodologies of atmospheric nitrogen deposition].

    PubMed

    Song, Huan-Huan; Jiang, Chun-Ming; Yu, Wan-Tai

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, including dry and wet deposition, is an important inorganic and organic N source for ecosystems, and also a key link of the N biogeochemical cycle. Recently, considerable active nitrogen has been emitted into the atmosphere due to enhanced human activities. High N emission leads to high deposition which has caused a series of environment risks, and more attentions have been focused on this issue. This article gave an overview of the basic content about the present N deposition research, such as the component, process, spatial and temporal variation, as well as ecological effect. Then the sampling methods of wet and dry deposition in the field, analysis methods in laboratory and primary techniques of N source identification were summarized. The N deposition research trend in the future was emphasized.

  11. Complex measurements of aerosol and ion characteristics in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikas, Iu. E.; Kolomiets, S. M.; Kornienko, V. I.; Mirme, A. A.; Sal'm, Ia. I.; Sergeev, I. Ia.; Tammet, Kh. F.

    Results of a comprehensive study of the characteristics of atmospheric ions and aerosols in the boundary layer during the summer season are reported. A study is also made of the kinetics of aerosol formation under conditions of high artificial ionization of the air by alpha and UV radiation. A high degree of correlation is shown to exist between atmospheric concentrations of medium ions and fine (less than 0.01 micron) aerosol. The results obtained support the radiation-chemical mechanism of aerosol formation.

  12. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects (supplement)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A digest of technical papers is presented. Topics include aerosol size distribution from spectral attenuation with scattering measurements; comparison of extinction and backscattering coefficients for measured and analytic stratospheric aerosol size distributions; using hybrid methods to solve problems in radiative transfer and in multiple scattering; blue moon phenomena; absorption refractive index of aerosols in the Denver pollution cloud; a two dimensional stratospheric model of the dispersion of aerosols from the Fuego volcanic eruption; the variation of the aerosol volume to light scattering coefficient; spectrophone in situ measurements of the absorption of visible light by aerosols; a reassessment of the Krakatoa volcanic turbidity, and multiple scattering in the sky radiance.

  13. Competing Atmospheric and Surface-Driven Impacts of Absorbing Aerosols on the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persad, G.; Paynter, D.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2015-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols, by attenuating shortwave radiation within the atmosphere and reemitting it as longwave radiation, redistribute energy both vertically within the surface-atmosphere column and horizontally between polluted and unpolluted regions. East Asia has the largest concentrations of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols globally, and these, along with the region's scattering aerosols, have both reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface regionally ("solar dimming") and increased shortwave absorption within the atmosphere, particularly during the peak months of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). We here analyze how atmospheric absorption and surface solar dimming compete in driving the response of EASM circulation to anthropogenic absorbing aerosols, which dominates, and why—issues of particular importance for predicting how the EASM will respond to projected changes in absorbing and scattering aerosol emissions in the future. We probe these questions in a state-of-the-art general circulation model (GCM) using a combination of realistic and idealized aerosol perturbations that allow us to analyze the relative influence of absorbing aerosols' atmospheric and surface-driven impacts on EASM circulation. In combination, our results make clear that, although absorption-driven dimming has a less detrimental effect on EASM circulation than purely scattering-driven dimming, aerosol absorption is still a net impairment to EASM strength when both its atmospheric and surface effects are considered. Because atmospheric heating is not efficiently conveyed to the surface, the surface dimming and associated cooling from even a pure absorber is sufficient to counteract its atmospheric heating, resulting in a net reduction in EASM strength. These findings elevate the current understanding of the impacts of aerosol absorption on the EASM, improving our ability to diagnose EASM responses to current and future regional changes in aerosol emissions.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of light scattering in the atmosphere and effect of atmospheric aerosols on the point spread function.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Joshua; Louedec, Karim

    2013-11-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation for the scattering of light in the case of an isotropic light source. The scattering phase functions are studied particularly in detail to understand how they can affect the multiple light scattering in the atmosphere. We show that, although aerosols are usually in lower density than molecules in the atmosphere, they can have a non-negligible effect on the atmospheric point spread function. This effect is especially expected for ground-based detectors when large aerosols are present in the atmosphere.

  15. Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation and Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Perraud, Veronique M.; Bruns, Emily A.; Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Alexander, M. L.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, D.; Chang, W. L.; Dabdub, Donald; Pankow, James F.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2012-02-21

    Airborne particles play a critical role in air quality, human health effects, visibility and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) account for a significant portion of total airborne particles. They are formed in reactions of organic gases that produce low volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Current atmospheric models assume that SOA are liquids into which SVOCs undergo equilibrium partitioning and grow the particles. However a large discrepancy between model predictions and field measurements of SOA is commonly observed. We report here laboratory studies of the oxidation of a-pinene by ozone and nitrate radicals and show that particle composition is actually consistent with a kinetically determined growth mechanism, and not with equilibrium partitioning between the gas phase and liquid particles. If this is indeed a general phenomenon in air, the formulation of atmospheric SOA models will have to be revised to reflect this new paradigm. This will have significant impacts on quantifying the role of SOA in air quality, visibility, and climate.

  16. Infrared properties of atmospheric aerosol constituents. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.A. ); Khanna, R.K.; Ospina, M.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The infrared spectra (2-20 [mu]m) of six terpene samples and six polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples are presented and compared with similar spectra obtained from standard grade petroleum (fog oil) samples. The selected samples are representative of the various different molecular structures that may be present in atmospheric aerosol sources, particularly fire smokes. Results are presented in terms of the wavelength-dependent complex refractive indices as obtained from bulk phase (thin layer) transmittance measurements and the Kramers-Kronig relationships. All samples exhibit a characteristic complex absorption spectra with numerous line absorption features in the 8-14-[mu]m atmospheric window regions with peak imaginary indices nominally around 0.10-0.12 for the terpene samples and on the order of 1.0-1.2 for the PAH samples, although there are far fewer lines in the PAH samples than in the terpene samples. The terpene also exhibit absorption features in the 3-5 [mu]m window which are much like those found in the standard samples but are not observed in the PAH samples. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Infrared Aerosol Radiative Forcing at the Surface and the Top of the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2003-01-01

    We study the clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing at infrared wavelengths using data from the Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) cruise of the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown. Limited number of data points is analyzed mostly from ship and collocated satellite values. An optical model is derived from chemical measurements, lidar profiles, and visible extinction measurements which is used to and estimate the infrared aerosol optical thickness and the single scattering albedo. The IR model results are compared to detailed Fourier Transform Interferometer based infrared aerosol forcing estimates, pyrgeometer based infrared downward fluxes, and against the direct solar forcing observations. This combined approach attests for the self-consistency of the optical model and allows to derive quantities such as the infrared forcing at the top of the atmosphere or the infrared optical thickness. The mean infrared aerosol optical thickness at 10 microns is 0.08 and the single scattering albedo is 0.55. The modeled infrared aerosol forcing reaches 10 W/sq m during the cruise, which is a significant contribution to the total direct aerosol forcing. The surface infrared aerosol radiative forcing is between 10 to 25% of the shortwave aerosol forcing. The infrared aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere can go up to 19% of the solar aerosol forcing. We show good agreement between satellite (CERES instrument) retrievals and model results at the top of the atmosphere. Over the Sea of Japan, the average infrared radiative forcing is 4.6 W/sq m in the window region at the surface and it is 1.5 W/sq m at top of the atmosphere. The top of the atmosphere IR forcing efficiency is a strong function of aerosol temperature while the surface IR forcing efficiency varies between 37 and 55 W/sq m (per infrared optical depth unit). and changes between 10 to 18 W/sq m (per infrared optical depth unit).

  18. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-12-17

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges.

  19. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H.; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-01-01

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges. PMID:24297908

  20. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-12-17

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges. PMID:24297908

  1. Remote Sensing of Aerosol in the Terrestrial Atmosphere from Space: New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Yatskiv, Ya.; Degtyaryov, O.; Syniavskyi, I.; Ivanov, Yu.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Mishchenko, M.; Danylevsky, V.; Sosonkin, M.; Bovchaliuk, V.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosols on a global scale are not well known in terms of determination of their effects on climate. This mostly is due to extreme variability of aerosol concentrations, properties, sources, and types. Aerosol climate impact is comparable to the effect of greenhouse gases, but its influence is more difficult to measure, especially with respect to aerosol microphysical properties and the evaluation of anthropogenic aerosol effect. There are many satellite missions studying aerosol distribution in the terrestrial atmosphere, such as MISR/Terra, OMI/Aura, AVHHR, MODIS/Terra and Aqua, CALIOP/CALIPSO. To improve the quality of data and climate models, and to reduce aerosol climate forcing uncertainties, several new missions are planned. The gap in orbital instruments for studying aerosol microphysics has arisen after the Glory mission failed during launch in 2011. In this review paper, we describe several planned aerosol space missions, including the Ukrainian project Aerosol-UA that obtains data using a multi-channel scanning polarimeter and wide-angle polarimetric camera. The project is designed for remote sensing of the aerosol microphysics and cloud properties on a global scale.

  2. Atmospheric aerosol characterization combining multi-wavelength Raman lidar and MAX-DOAS measurements in Gwanjgu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Jihyo; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Kwang Chul; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Shin, Sungkyun; Noh, Young M.; Müller, Detlef; Kim, Young J.

    2011-11-01

    Integrated approach has been adopted at the ADvanced Environmental Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosol. Various active and passive optical remote sensing techniques such as multi-wavelength (3β+2α+1δ) Raman LIDAR, sun-photometry, MAX-DOAS, and satellite retrieval have been utilized. This integrated monitoring system approach combined with in-situ surface measurement is to allow better characterization of physical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol. Information on the vertical distribution and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol is important for understanding its transport characteristics as well as radiative effect. The GIST multi-wavelength (3β + 2α+1δ) Raman lidar system can measure vertical profiles of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols such as extinction coefficients at 355 and 532nm, particle backscatter coefficients at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and depolarization ratio at 532nm. The incomplete overlap between the telescope field-of-view and beam divergence of the transmitting laser significantly affects lidar measurement, resulting in higher uncertainty near the surface where atmospheric aerosols of interest are concentrated. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique is applied as a complementary tool for the detection of atmospheric aerosols near the surface. The passive Multi-Axis DOAS (MAX-DOAS) technique uses scattered sunlight as a light source from several viewing directions. Recently developed aerosol retrieval algorithm based on O4 slant column densities (SCDs) measured at UV and visible wavelengths has been utilized to derive aerosol information (e.g., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol extinction coefficients (AECs)) in the lower troposphere. The aerosol extinction coefficient at 356 nm was retrieved for the 0-1 and 1-2 km layers based on the MAX-DOAS measurements using the retrieval algorithm

  3. Vertical profiles of atmospheric fluorescent aerosols observed by a mutil-channel lidar spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Huang, J.; Zhou, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Bi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Zhongwei Huang1*, Jianping Huang1, Tian Zhou1, Nobuo Sugimoto2, Jianrong Bi1 and Jinsen Shi11Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China. 2Atmospheric Environment Division, National Institutes for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan Email: huangzhongwei@lzu.edu.cn Abstract Atmospheric aerosols have a significant impact on regional and globe climate. The challenge in quantifying aerosol direct radiative forcing and aerosol-cloud interactions arises from large spatial and temporal heterogeneity of aerosol concentrations, compositions, sizes, shape and optical properties (IPCC, 2007). Lidar offers some remarkable advantages for determining the vertical structure of atmospheric aerosols and their related optical properties. To investigate the characterization of atmospheric aerosols (especially bioaerosols) with high spatial and temporal resolution, we developed a Raman/fluorescence/polarization lidar system employed a multi-channel spectrometer, with capabilities of providing measurements of Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence excitation at 355 nm from atmospheric aerosols. Meanwhile, the lidar system operated polarization measurements both at 355nm and 532nm wavelengths, aiming to obtain more information of aerosols. It employs a high power pulsed laser and a received telescope with 350mm diameter. The receiver could simultaneously detect a wide fluorescent spectrum about 178 nm with spectral resolution 5.7 nm, mainly including an F/3.7 Crossed Czerny-Turner spectrograph, a grating (1200 gr/mm) and a PMT array with 32 photocathode elements. Vertical structure of fluorescent aerosols in the atmosphere was observed by the developed lidar system at four sites across northwest China, during 2014 spring field observation that conducted by Lanzhou University. It has been proved that the developed lidar could detect the fluorescent aerosols with high temporal and

  4. Interpretation of Mauna Loa atmospheric transmission relative to aerosols, using photometric precipitable water amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, E. G.; Deluisi, J. J.; Austring, A. P.

    1985-06-01

    A parameter depending mostly on total aerosol extinction is derived using precipitable water measurements coinciding with direct broadband solar irradiance measurements in conjunction with an atmospheric transmission model. The atmospheric transmission factor (ATF), independent of the instrument calibration and the extraterrestrial solar constant, is calculated from irradiance measurements. The measured ATF value is then adjusted using precipitable water measurements. Calibrated solar photometrically derived precipitable water amounts observed at MLO are used to analyze the Mauna Loa, Hawaii (MLO) ATF record from 1978 to 1983. It is found that the ATF aerosol residual is approximately equal to the 500 nm aerosol optical depth prior to the eruption of El Chichon and a nonlinear time-dependent relationship between the two values is observed. The spectrally integrated aerosol influence on transmission and the radiation balance perturbations due to aerosols are reflected by the ATF aerosol residuals.

  5. Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosol Vertical Distributions above Svalbard, Norway using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Stalin, S.; Telg, H.; Murphy, D. M.; Burkhart, J. F.; Quinn, P.; Storvold, R.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions were measured above Svalbard, Norway in April 2015 to investigate the processes controlling aerosol concentrations and radiative effects. The aerosol payload was flown in a NOAA/PMEL MANTA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) on 9 flights totaling 19 flight hours. Measurements were made of particle number concentration and aerosol light absorption at three wavelengths, similar to those conducted in April 2011 (Bates et al., Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2115-2120, 2013). A filter sample was collected on each flight for analyses of trace elements. Additional measurements in the aerosol payload in 2015 included aerosol size distributions obtained using a Printed Optical Particle Spectrometer (POPS) and aerosol optical depth obtained using a four wavelength miniature Scanning Aerosol Sun Photometer (miniSASP). The data show most of the column aerosol mass and resulting optical depth in the boundary layer but frequent aerosol layers aloft with high particle number concentration (2000 cm-3) and enhanced aerosol light absorption (1 Mm-1). Transport of these aerosol layers was assessed using FLEXPART particle dispersion models. The data contribute to an assessment of sources of BC to the Arctic and potential climate impacts.

  6. Some results of an experimental study of the atmospheric aerosol in Tomsk: A combined approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zuev, V.V.

    1996-04-01

    As widely accepted, aerosols strongly contribute to the formation of the earth`s radiation balance through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In addition, aerosols, being active condensation nuclei, also have a role in the cloud formation process. In this paper, results are presented of aerosol studies undertaken at the field measurement sites of the Institute of Atmospheric Optics in Tomsk and the Tomsk region.

  7. Atmospheric Teleconnection over Eurasia Induced by Aerosol Radiative Forcing During Boreal Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Maeng-Ki; Lau, K. M.; Chin, Mian; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, Greg K.

    2005-01-01

    The direct effects of aerosols on global and regional climate during boreal spring are investigated based on simulations using the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) finite-volume general circulation model (fvGCM) with Microphyics of clouds in Relaxed Arakawa Schubert Scheme (McRAS). The aerosol loading are prescribed from three-dimensional monthly distribution of tropospheric aerosols viz., sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, soil dust, and sea salt from output of the Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). The aerosol extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo, and asymmetric factor are computed as wavelength-dependent radiative forcing in the radiative transfer scheme of the fvGCM, and as a function of the aerosol loading and ambient relative humidity. We find that anomalous atmospheric heat sources induced by absorbing aerosols (dust and black carbon) excites a planetary scale teleconnection pattern in sea level pressure, temperature and geopotential height spanning North Africa through Eurasia to the North Pacific. Surface cooling due to direct effects of aerosols is found in the vicinity and downstream of the aerosol source regions, i.e., South Asia, East Asia, and northern and western Africa. Additionally, atmospheric heating is found in regions with large loading of dust (over Northern Africa, and Middle East), and black carbon (over South-East Asia). Paradoxically, the most pronounced feature in aerosol-induced surface temperature is an east-west dipole anomaly with strong cooling over the Caspian Sea, and warming over central and northeastern Asia, where aerosol concentration are low. Analyses of circulation anomalies show that the dipole anomaly is a part of an atmospheric teleconnection driven by atmospheric heating anomalies induced by absorbing aerosols in the source regions, but the influence was conveyed globally through barotropic energy dispersion and sustained by feedback processes

  8. Aerosol influence on energy balance of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; West, Robert A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Nixon, Conor A; Yung, Yuk L

    2015-12-22

    Aerosols are ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres in the Solar System. However, radiative forcing on Jupiter has traditionally been attributed to solar heating and infrared cooling of gaseous constituents only, while the significance of aerosol radiative effects has been a long-standing controversy. Here we show, based on observations from the NASA spacecraft Voyager and Cassini, that gases alone cannot maintain the global energy balance in the middle atmosphere of Jupiter. Instead, a thick aerosol layer consisting of fluffy, fractal aggregate particles produced by photochemistry and auroral chemistry dominates the stratospheric radiative heating at middle and high latitudes, exceeding the local gas heating rate by a factor of 5-10. On a global average, aerosol heating is comparable to the gas contribution and aerosol cooling is more important than previously thought. We argue that fractal aggregate particles may also have a significant role in controlling the atmospheric radiative energy balance on other planets, as on Jupiter.

  9. Aerosol influence on energy balance of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; West, Robert A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Nixon, Conor A; Yung, Yuk L

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols are ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres in the Solar System. However, radiative forcing on Jupiter has traditionally been attributed to solar heating and infrared cooling of gaseous constituents only, while the significance of aerosol radiative effects has been a long-standing controversy. Here we show, based on observations from the NASA spacecraft Voyager and Cassini, that gases alone cannot maintain the global energy balance in the middle atmosphere of Jupiter. Instead, a thick aerosol layer consisting of fluffy, fractal aggregate particles produced by photochemistry and auroral chemistry dominates the stratospheric radiative heating at middle and high latitudes, exceeding the local gas heating rate by a factor of 5-10. On a global average, aerosol heating is comparable to the gas contribution and aerosol cooling is more important than previously thought. We argue that fractal aggregate particles may also have a significant role in controlling the atmospheric radiative energy balance on other planets, as on Jupiter. PMID:26694318

  10. Aerosol influence on energy balance of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; West, Robert A.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Nixon, Conor A.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols are ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres in the Solar System. However, radiative forcing on Jupiter has traditionally been attributed to solar heating and infrared cooling of gaseous constituents only, while the significance of aerosol radiative effects has been a long-standing controversy. Here we show, based on observations from the NASA spacecraft Voyager and Cassini, that gases alone cannot maintain the global energy balance in the middle atmosphere of Jupiter. Instead, a thick aerosol layer consisting of fluffy, fractal aggregate particles produced by photochemistry and auroral chemistry dominates the stratospheric radiative heating at middle and high latitudes, exceeding the local gas heating rate by a factor of 5–10. On a global average, aerosol heating is comparable to the gas contribution and aerosol cooling is more important than previously thought. We argue that fractal aggregate particles may also have a significant role in controlling the atmospheric radiative energy balance on other planets, as on Jupiter. PMID:26694318

  11. How Well Will MODIS Measure Top of Atmosphere Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Levin, Zev; Ghan, Stephen; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The new generation of satellite sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) will be able to detect and characterize global aerosols with an unprecedented accuracy. The question remains whether this accuracy will be sufficient to narrow the uncertainties in our estimates of aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. Satellite remote sensing detects aerosol optical thickness with the least amount of relative error when aerosol loading is high. Satellites are less effective when aerosol loading is low. We use the monthly mean results of two global aerosol transport models to simulate the spatial distribution of smoke aerosol in the Southern Hemisphere during the tropical biomass burning season. This spatial distribution allows us to determine that 87-94% of the smoke aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere occurs in grid squares with sufficient signal to noise ratio to be detectable from space. The uncertainty of quantifying the smoke aerosol forcing in the Southern Hemisphere depends on the uncertainty introduced by errors in estimating the background aerosol, errors resulting from uncertainties in surface properties and errors resulting from uncertainties in assumptions of aerosol properties. These three errors combine to give overall uncertainties of 1.5 to 2.2 Wm-2 (21-56%) in determining the Southern Hemisphere smoke aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere. The range of values depend on which estimate of MODIS retrieval uncertainty is used, either the theoretical calculation (upper bound) or the empirical estimate (lower bound). Strategies that use the satellite data to derive flux directly or use the data in conjunction with ground-based remote sensing and aerosol transport models can reduce these uncertainties.

  12. Development of a 9.3 micrometer CW LIDAR for the study of atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteside, B. N.; Schotland, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the basic requirements to obtain coherent or heterodyne mixing of the optical radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosols with that from a fixed frequency source. The continuous wave (CW) mode of operation for a coherent lidar is reviewed along with the associated lidar transfer equation. A complete optical design of the three major subsystems of a CW, coherent lidar is given. Lens design software is implemented to model and optimize receiver performance. Techniques for the opto-mechanical assembly and some of the critical tolerances of the coherent lidar are provided along with preliminary tests of the subsystems. Included in these tests is a comparison of the experimental and the theoretical average power signal-to-noise ratio. The analog to digital software used to evaluate the power spectrum of the backscattered signal is presented in the Appendix of this report.

  13. Analysis of atmospheric aerosols by PIXE: the importance of real time and complementary measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Castanho, Andrea D.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.; Martins, José Vanderlei; Longo, Karla M.

    1999-04-01

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used for more than 30 yr in many urban and background air pollution studies. The technique has certainly contributed to the understanding of source-receptor relationship for aerosol particles as well as to aerosol physics and chemistry. In the last few years, where aerosol issues were strongly linked to global climate change through the relationship between aerosol and atmospheric radiation points to new challenges in atmospheric sciences, where PIXE could play an important role. Also the recognition for the inter-relationship between aerosol and liquid and gas phases in the atmosphere makes important to integrate PIXE aerosol analysis with other complementary measurements. The use of Nephelometers and Aethalometers to measure scattering and absorption of radiation by aerosol particles can be done in parallel with particle filter collection for PIXE analysis. Parallel measurements of trace gases using traditional monitors as well as with new techniques such as Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) that can provide concentration of O 3, SO 2, NO 3, NO 2, HCHO, HNO 3, Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene, is also important for both urban and remote aerosol studies. They provide information that allows a much richer interpretation of PIXE data. Recently developed instruments that provide real time aerosol data such as the Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) PM 10 monitor and automatic real time organic and elemental carbon analyzers provide extremely useful data to complement PIXE aerosol analysis. The concentrations of trace elements measured by PIXE comprise only 10-30% of the aerosol mass, leaving the organic aerosol characterization and measurement with an important role. The aerosol source apportionment provided by PIXE analysis can be extended with other aerosol measurements such as scattering and absorption, estimating for example, the radiative impact of each discriminated aerosol source. The

  14. Atmospheric Sampling of Aerosols to Stratospheric Altitudes using High Altitude Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerde, E. A.; Thomas, E.

    2010-12-01

    Although carbon dioxide represents a long-lived atmospheric component relevant to global climate change, it is also understood that many additional contributors influence the overall climate of Earth. Among these, short-lived components are more difficult to incorporate into models due to uncertainties in the abundances of these both spatially and temporally. Possibly the most significant of these short-lived components falls under the heading of “black carbon” (BC). There are numerous overlapping definitions of BC, but it is basically carbonaceous in nature and light absorbing. Due to its potential as a climate forcer, an understanding of the BC population in the atmosphere is critical for modeling of radiative forcing. Prior measurements of atmospheric BC generally consist of airplane- and ground-based sampling, typically below 5000 m and restricted in time and space. Given that BC has a residence time on the order of days, short-term variability is easily missed. Further, since the radiative forcing is a result of BC distributed through the entire atmospheric column, aircraft sampling is by definition incomplete. We are in the process of planning a more comprehensive sampling of the atmosphere for BC using high-altitude balloons. Balloon-borne sampling is a highly reliable means to sample air through the entire troposphere and into the lower stratosphere. Our system will incorporate a balloon and a flight train of two modules. One module will house an atmospheric sampler. This sampler will be single-stage (samples all particle sizes together), and will place particles directly on an SEM sample stub for analysis. The nozzle depositing the sample will be offset from the center of the stub, placing the aerosol particles toward the edge. At various altitudes, the stub will be rotated 45 degrees, providing 6-8 sample “cuts” of particle populations through the atmospheric column. The flights will reach approximately 27 km altitude, above which the balloons

  15. Hydrocarbon nucleation and aerosol formation in Neptune's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Moses, J I; Allen, M; Yung, Y L

    1992-10-01

    Photodissociation of methane at high altitude levels in Neptune's atmosphere leads to the production of complex hydrocarbon species such as acetylene (C2H2), ethane (C2H6), methylacetylene (CH3C2H), propane (C3H8), diacetylene (C4H2), and butane (C4H8). These gases diffuse to the lower stratosphere where temperatures are low enough to initiate condensation. Particle formation may not occur readily, however, as the vapor species become supersaturated. We present a theoretical analysis of particle formation mechanisms at conditions relevant to Neptune's troposphere and stratosphere and show that hydrocarbon nucleation is very inefficient under Neptunian conditions: saturation ratios much greater than unity are required for aerosol formation by either homogeneous, heterogeneous, or ion-induced nucleation. Homogeneous nucleation will not be important for any of the hydrocarbon species considered; however, both heterogeneous and ion-induced nucleation should be possible on Neptune for most of the above species. The relative effectiveness of heterogeneous and ion-induced nucleation depends on the physical and thermodynamic properties of the particular species, the abundance of the condensable species, the temperature at which the vapor becomes supersaturated, and the number and type of condensation nuclei or ions available. Typical saturation ratios required for observable particle formation rates on Neptune range from approximately 3 for heterogeneous nucleation of methane in the upper troposphere to greater than 1000 for heterogeneous nucleation of methylacetylene, diacetylene, and butane in the lower stratosphere. Thus, methane clouds may form slightly above, and stratospheric hazes far below, their saturation levels. When used in conjunction with the results of detailed models of atmospheric photochemistry, our nucleation models place realistic constraints on the altitude levels at which we expect hydrocarbon hazes or clouds to form on Neptune. PMID:11538166

  16. Hydrocarbon nucleation and aerosol formation in Neptune's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Moses, J I; Allen, M; Yung, Y L

    1992-10-01

    Photodissociation of methane at high altitude levels in Neptune's atmosphere leads to the production of complex hydrocarbon species such as acetylene (C2H2), ethane (C2H6), methylacetylene (CH3C2H), propane (C3H8), diacetylene (C4H2), and butane (C4H8). These gases diffuse to the lower stratosphere where temperatures are low enough to initiate condensation. Particle formation may not occur readily, however, as the vapor species become supersaturated. We present a theoretical analysis of particle formation mechanisms at conditions relevant to Neptune's troposphere and stratosphere and show that hydrocarbon nucleation is very inefficient under Neptunian conditions: saturation ratios much greater than unity are required for aerosol formation by either homogeneous, heterogeneous, or ion-induced nucleation. Homogeneous nucleation will not be important for any of the hydrocarbon species considered; however, both heterogeneous and ion-induced nucleation should be possible on Neptune for most of the above species. The relative effectiveness of heterogeneous and ion-induced nucleation depends on the physical and thermodynamic properties of the particular species, the abundance of the condensable species, the temperature at which the vapor becomes supersaturated, and the number and type of condensation nuclei or ions available. Typical saturation ratios required for observable particle formation rates on Neptune range from approximately 3 for heterogeneous nucleation of methane in the upper troposphere to greater than 1000 for heterogeneous nucleation of methylacetylene, diacetylene, and butane in the lower stratosphere. Thus, methane clouds may form slightly above, and stratospheric hazes far below, their saturation levels. When used in conjunction with the results of detailed models of atmospheric photochemistry, our nucleation models place realistic constraints on the altitude levels at which we expect hydrocarbon hazes or clouds to form on Neptune.

  17. Iron-containing atmospheric aerosols in the Chernobyl fallout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanov, V.; Gushterov, V.; Winkler, H.; Trautwein, A. X.

    2005-11-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to determine the composition and the iron concentration in the atmospheric aerosols contaminated in Sofia, Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident. The results confirm the major conclusion of the Kopcewiczs for Poland, i.e. that in the initial filters, collected during the contaminating fallout (30.04 05.05.1986), the iron concentration was highest, 3.69 μg/m3 and that magnetite Fe3O4 was present. For the following days a change in the chemical composition including the presence of α-Fe2O3, α-FeOOH and γ-FeOOH as well as the absence of magnetite, was detected. Input of industrial iron contamination was negligible since the nearby steel plant had worked at minimum power due to official holidays. Unfortunately, Mössbauer spectroscopy studies only, do not allow a definite conclusion about an increase of the isotope abundance of 57Fe in the Chernobyl fallout.

  18. Aromatic organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols: Synthesis, characterization, and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, Sean; Kundu, Shuvashish; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Cui, Tianqu; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Kristensen, Kasper; Glasius, Marianne; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney J.; Surratt, Jason D.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2014-09-01

    Aromatic organosulfates are identified and quantified in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from Lahore, Pakistan, Godavari, Nepal, and Pasadena, California. To support detection and quantification, authentic standards of phenyl sulfate, benzyl sulfate, 3- and 4-methylphenyl sulfate and 2-, 3-, and 4-methylbenzyl sulfate were synthesized. Authentic standards and aerosol samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) quadrupole time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry. Benzyl sulfate was present in all three locations at concentrations ranging from 4 to 90 pg m-3. Phenyl sulfate, methylphenyl sulfates and methylbenzyl sulfates were observed intermittently with abundances of 4 pg m-3, 2-31 pg m-3, 109 pg m-3, respectively. Characteristic fragment ions of aromatic organosulfates include the sulfite radical (rad SO3-, m/z 80) and the sulfate radical (rad SO4-, m/z 96). Instrumental response factors of phenyl and benzyl sulfates varied by a factor of 4.3, indicating that structurally-similar organosulfates have significantly different instrumental responses and highlighting the need to develop authentic standards for absolute quantitation organosulfates. In an effort to better understand the sources of aromatic organosulfates to the atmosphere, chamber experiments with the precursor toluene were conducted under conditions that form biogenic organosulfates. Aromatic organosulfates were not detected in the chamber samples, suggesting that they form through different pathways, have different precursors (e.g. naphthalene or methylnaphthalene), or are emitted from primary sources.

  19. A Computational Study of Acid Catalyzed Aerosol Reactions of Atmospherically Relevant Epoxides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epoxides are important intermediates of atmospheric isoprene oxidation. Their subsequent reactions in the particle phase lead to the production of organic compounds detected in ambient aerosols. We apply density functional theory to determine the important kinetic factors that ...

  20. The impact of atmospheric aerosols on trace metal chemistry in open ocean surface seawater. 2. Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Maring, H.B.; Duce, R.A. )

    1989-01-15

    Atmospheric deposition contributes copper to the surface ocean. The biogeochemical importance and fate of this copper is poorly understood for open ocean regions. Atmospheric aerosols collected at Enewetak Atoll, in the tropical North Pacific, were exposed to seawater and artificial rainwater in laboratory experiments. Aerosol copper during the high-dust season at Enewetak Atoll is made up of aluminosilicate, oceanic, and possibly soil organic matter components. During the low-dust season, marine aerosols collected at Enewetak is soluble in seawater. Dissolved organic matter and possibly cations in seawater increase the dissolution of aerosol copper. The net atmospheric flux of soluble copper to the tropical North Pacific surface waters as does upwelling to eastern North Pacific surface waters. Atmospheric copper deposition, which appears to be primarily of natural origin, may be the most important input of copper to the surface waters of the central gyre of the North Pacific.

  1. The spectroscopic search for the trace aerosols in the planetary atmospheres - the results of numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecka, Maria I.

    2010-05-01

    The passive remote spectrometric methods are important in examinations the atmospheres of planets. The radiance spectra inform us about values of thermodynamical parameters and composition of the atmospheres and surfaces. The spectral technology can be useful in detection of the trace aerosols like biological substances (if present) in the environments of the planets. We discuss here some of the aspects related to the spectroscopic search for the aerosols and dust in planetary atmospheres. Possibility of detection and identifications of biological aerosols with a passive InfraRed spectrometer in an open-air environment is discussed. We present numerically simulated, based on radiative transfer theory, spectroscopic observations of the Earth atmosphere. Laboratory measurements of transmittance of various kinds of aerosols, pollens and bacterias were used in modeling.

  2. Evaluating Direct Radiative Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Atmospheric Dynamics with Aquaplanet and Regional Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Ö.; Tegen, I.; Quaas, J.

    2015-12-01

    Effects of absorbing aerosol on atmospheric dynamics are usually investigated with help of general circulation models or also regional models that represent the atmospheric system as realistic as possible. Reducing the complexity of models used to study the effects of absorbing aerosol on atmospheric dynamics helps to understand underlying mechanisms. In this study, by using ECHAM6 General Circulation Model (GCM) in an Aquaplanet setting and using simplified aerosol climatology, an initial idealization step has been taken. The analysis only considers direct radiative effects, furthering the reduction of complex model results. The simulations include cases including aerosol radiative forcing, no aerosol forcing, coarse mode aerosol forcing only (as approximation for mineral dust forcing) and forcing with increased aerosol absorption. The results showed that increased absorption affects cloud cover mainly in subtropics. Hadley circulation is found to be weakened in the increased absorption case. To compare the results of the idealized model with a more realistic model setting, the results of the regional model COSMO-MUSCAT that includes interactive mineral dust aerosol and considers the effects of dust radiative forcing are also analyzed. The regional model computes the atmospheric circulation for the year 2007 twice, including the feedback of dust and excluding the dust aerosol forcing. It is investigated to which extent the atmospheric response to the dust forcing agrees with the simplified Aquaplanet results. As expected, in the regional model mineral dust causes an increase in the temperature right above the dust layer while reducing the temperature close to the surface. In both models the presence of aerosol forcing leads to increased specific humidity, close to ITCZ. Notwithstanding the difference magnitudes, comparisons of the global aquaplanet and the regional model showed similar patterns. Further detailed comparisons will be presented.

  3. From Cradle to Grave: Research on Atmospheric Aerosols (Vilhelm Bjerknes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere. Generally, the sizes of aerosol particles are in the range 0.001 - 100 μm. Atmospheric aerosols are of interest mainly because of their effects on health and climate. Concerning health, many epidemiological studies have shown a link between increased mortality/morbidity and increased PM10 or PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 and 2.5 μm, respectively). Concerning climate, aerosol particles scatter and absorb light (known as the direct effect on climate), and modify cloud properties (with a variety of effects known as indirect effects). These effects are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of the aerosol particles, which makes these properties important to be measured. Atmospheric aerosol particles are produced by a large variety of sources, and are either emitted as primary particles (i.e., they are directly emitted as particles into the atmosphere) or formed by secondary processes (i.e., by transformation of emitted precursor gases). While the formation pathways of secondary inorganic aerosols such as nitrate and sulfate in general are reasonably well understood, the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is still an area of active research. A wide variety of gaseous precursors contribute to SOA, and their aerosol yields depend on a wide variety of conditions. In addition, it is still largely unknown to which extent and under which conditions oxidized organic molecules can contribute to nucleation, i.e., the formation of new particles. Elimination of aerosol particles from the atmosphere mostly occurs by wet deposition, where the ice phase plays an important role. Even though cloud glaciation augments precipitation formation and affects cloud radiative properties little is still known about mixed-phase cloud formation via heterogeneous nucleation. To elucidate some of the involved mechanisms in situ research in such

  4. Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols between Moscow and Vladivostok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuokka, S.; Teinilä, K.; Saarnio, K.; Aurela, M.; Sillanpää, M.; Hillamo, R.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Vartiainen, E.; Kulmala, M.; Skorokhod, A. I.; Elansky, N. F.; Belikov, I. B.

    2007-05-01

    The TROICA-9 expedition (Trans-Siberian Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) was carried out at the Trans-Siberian railway between Moscow and Vladivostok in October 2005. Measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were made from an observatory carriage connected to a passenger train. Black carbon (BC) concentrations in fine particles (PM2.5, aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) were measured with an aethalometer using a five-minute time resolution. Concentrations of inorganic ions and some organic compounds (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, oxalate and methane sulphonate) were measured continuously by using an on-line system with a 15-min time resolution. In addition, particle volume size distributions were determined for particles in the diameter range 3-850 nm using a 10-min. time resolution. The continuous measurements were completed with 24-h. PM2.5 filter samples which were stored in a refrigerator and later analyzed in chemical laboratory. The analyses included mass concentrations of PM2.5, ions, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn). The mass concentrations of PM2.5 varied in the range of 4.3-34.8 μg m-3 with an average of 21.6 μg m-3. Fine particle mass consisted mainly of BC (average 27.6%), SO42- (13.0%), NH4+ (4.1%), and NO3- (1.4%). One of the major constituents was obviously also organic carbon which was not determined. The contribution of BC was high compared with other studies made in Europe and Asia. High concentrations of ions, BC and particle volume were observed between Moscow and roughly 4000 km east of it, as well as close to Vladivostok, primarily due to local anthropogenic sources. In the natural background area between 4000 and 7200 km distance from Moscow, observed concentrations were low, even though there were local particle sources, such as forest fires, that increased occasionally concentrations. The

  5. Organic Mass to Organic Carbon ratio in Atmospheric Aerosols: Observations and Global Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Kanakidou, M.; Daskalakis, N.

    2012-12-01

    Organic compounds play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and affect Earth's climate through their impact on oxidants and aerosol formation (e.g. O3 and organic aerosols (OA)). Due to the complexity of the mixture of organics in the atmosphere, the organic-mass-to-organic-carbon ratio (OM/OC) is often used to characterize the organic component in atmospheric aerosols. This ratio varies dependant on the aerosol origin and the chemical processing in the atmosphere. Atmospheric observations have shown that as OA and its precursor gases age in the atmosphere, it leads to the formation of more oxidized (O:C atomic ratio 0.6 to 0.8), less volatile and less hydrophobic compounds (particle growth factor at 95% relative humidity of 0.16 to 0.20) that have more similar properties than fresh aerosols. While reported OM:OC ratios observed over USA range between 1.29 and 1.95, indicating significant contribution of local pollution sources to the OC in that region, high O/C ratio associated with a high OM/OC ratio of 2.2 has been also observed for the summertime East Mediterranean aged aerosol. In global models, the OM/OC ratio is either calculated for specific compounds or estimated for compound groups. In the present study, we review OM/OC observations and compare them with simulations from a variety of models that contributed to the AEROCOM exercise. We evaluate the chemical processing level of atmospheric aerosols simulated by the models. A total of 32 global chemistry transport models are considered in this study with variable complexity of the representation of OM/OC ratio in the OA. The analysis provides an integrated view of the OM/OC ratio in the global atmosphere and of the accuracy of its representation in the global models. Implications for atmospheric chemistry and climate simulations are discussed.

  6. Aerosol impacts on visible light extinction in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Eidels-Dubovoi, Silvia

    2002-03-27

    Eleven diurnal aerosol visible light absorption and scattering patterns were obtained from measurements done with an aethalometer and an integrating nephelometer during 28 February-10 March 1997 at two different sites in the Mexico City basin. Both measurement sites, the Merced site affected by regional and urban-scale aerosol and the Pedregal site dominated by regional-scale aerosol, showed a variety of diurnal light absorption and scattering patterns. For the majority of the 11 studied days, the highest absorption peaks appeared in the early morning, 07.00-09.30 h while those of scattering appeared later, 09.30-11.00 h. The earlier absorption peaks could be attributed to the elevated elemental carbon vehicular emissions during the heavy traffic hours whereas the later scattering peaks could be attributed to secondary aerosols formed photochemically in the atmosphere. During the period examined, the Pedregal site exhibited on the average a lower aerosol scattering and a higher aerosol absorption contribution to the total aerosol visible light extinction and a better visibility than that of the Merced site. Hence, the impact of aerosol absorption on the visibility degradation due to aerosols was greater at the less hazy Pedregal site. The overall 11-day aerosol visibility average of 20.9 km found at La Merced site, was only 9.4 km lower than that of 30.3 km found at the Pedregal site. This small aerosol visibility difference, of the order of the standard deviation, led to the conclusion that besides the regional-scale aerosol impact, the urban-scale aerosol impact on aerosol visible light extinction is very similar at La Merced and Pedregal sites.

  7. Global atmospheric sulfur budget under volcanically quiescent conditions: Aerosol-chemistry-climate model predictions and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jian-Xiong; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Luo, Bei-Ping; Rozanov, Eugene; Stenke, Andrea; Anet, Julien; Bingemer, Heinz; Peter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The global atmospheric sulfur budget and its emission dependence have been investigated using the coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate model SOCOL-AER. The aerosol module comprises gaseous and aqueous sulfur chemistry and comprehensive microphysics. The particle distribution is resolved by 40 size bins spanning radii from 0.39 nm to 3.2 μm, including size-dependent particle composition. Aerosol radiative properties required by the climate model are calculated online from the aerosol module. The model successfully reproduces main features of stratospheric aerosols under nonvolcanic conditions, including aerosol extinctions compared to Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) and Halogen Occultation Experiment, and size distributions compared to in situ measurements. The calculated stratospheric aerosol burden is 109 Gg of sulfur, matching the SAGE II-based estimate (112 Gg). In terms of fluxes through the tropopause, the stratospheric aerosol layer is due to about 43% primary tropospheric aerosol, 28% SO2, 23% carbonyl sulfide (OCS), 4% H2S, and 2% dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Turning off emissions of the short-lived species SO2, H2S, and DMS shows that OCS alone still establishes about 56% of the original stratospheric aerosol burden. Further sensitivity simulations reveal that anticipated increases in anthropogenic SO2 emissions in China and India have a larger influence on stratospheric aerosols than the same increase in Western Europe or the U.S., due to deep convection in the western Pacific region. However, even a doubling of Chinese and Indian emissions is predicted to increase the stratospheric background aerosol burden only by 9%. In contrast, small to moderate volcanic eruptions, such as that of Nabro in 2011, may easily double the stratospheric aerosol loading.

  8. Simulating contemporary and preindustrial atmospheric chemistry and aerosol radiative forcing in the Southeast Pacific (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spak, S.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    Accurately quantifying the aerosol burden and resultant radiative impacts over the Southeast Pacific presents a critical challenge in constraining the region's upper ocean heat budget and sea surface temperatures. Recent observations and preliminary modeling studies have found consistent aerosol transport above the region's extensive stratoculumus, indicating the need to consider aerosol composition and direct radiative effects in addition to indirect effects on clouds. We simulate regional chemical transport of aerosols and trace gases during VOCALS REx, identifying contributions from coastal anthropogenic emissions, biogenic emissions, biomass burning, and long-range transport to aerosol mass and composition. We evaluate a new emissions inventory through comparison with in-situ observations. Spatial and temporal variability in transport from these varied emissions sources provide insights into land-ocean-atmosphere coupling. We will compare aerosol radiative forcing under present day and preindustrial emissions rates.

  9. Effects of Aerosol on Atmospheric Dynamics and Hydrologic Processes During Boreal Spring and Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, M. K.; Kim, K. M.; Chin, Mian

    2005-01-01

    Global and regional climate impacts of present-day aerosol loading during boreal spring are investigated using the NASA finite volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM). Three-dimensional distributions of loadings of five species of tropospheric aerosols, i.e., sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, soil dust, and sea salt are prescribed from outputs of the Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). The aerosol loadings are used to calculate the extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo, and asymmetric factor at eleven spectral wavelengths in the radiative transfer code. We find that aerosol-radiative forcing during boreal spring excites a wavetrain-like pattern in tropospheric temperature and geopotential height that emanates from Northern Africa, through Eurasia, to northeastern Pacific. Associated with the teleconnection is strong surface cooling over regions with large aerosol loading, i.e., China, India, and Africa. Low-to-mid tropospheric heating due to shortwave absorption is found in regions with large loading of dust (Northern Africa, and central East Asia), and black carbon (South and East Asia). In addition pronounced surface cooling is found over the Caspian Sea and warming over Eurasian and northeastern Asia, where aerosol loadings are relatively low. These warming and cooling are components of teleconnection pattern produced primarily by atmospheric heating from absorbing aerosols, i.e., dust from North Africa and black carbon from South and East Asia. Effects of aerosols on atmospheric hydrologic cycle in the Asian monsoon region are also investigated. Results show that absorbing aerosols, i.e., black carbon and dust, induce large-scale upper-level heating anomaly over the Tibetan Plateau in April and May, ushering in an early onset of the Indian summer monsoon. Absorbing aerosols also enhance lower-level heating and anomalous ascent over northern India, intensifying the Indian monsoon. Overall, the aerosol

  10. Effects of Aerosol on Atmospheric Dynamics and Hydrologic Processes during Boreal Spring and Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, M. K.; Chin, Mian; Kim, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    Global and regional climate impacts of present-day aerosol loading during boreal spring are investigated using the NASA finite volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM). Three-dimensional distributions of loadings of five species of tropospheric aerosols, i.e., sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, soil dust, and sea salt are prescribed from outputs of the Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). The aerosol loadings are used to calculate the extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo, and asymmetric factor at eleven spectral wavelengths in the radiative transfer code. We find that aerosol-radiative forcing during boreal spring excites a wavetrain-like pattern in tropospheric temperature and geopotential height that emanates from Northern Africa, through Eurasia, to northeastern Pacific. Associated with the teleconnection is strong surface cooling over regions with large aerosol loading, i.e., China, India, and Africa. Low-to-mid tropospheric heating due to shortwave absorption is found in regions with large loading of dust (Northern Africa, and central East Asia), and black carbon (South and East Asia). In addition pronounced surface cooling is found over the Caspian Sea and warming over Eurasian and northeastern Asia, where aerosol loadings are relatively low. These warming and cooling are components of teleconnection pattern produced primarily by atmospheric heating from absorbing aerosols, i.e., dust from North Africa and.black carbon from South and East Asia. Effects of aerosols on atmospheric hydrologic cycle in the Asian monsoon region are also investigated. Results show that absorbing aerosols, i.e., black carbon and dust, induce large-scale upper-level heating anomaly over the Tibetan Plateau in April and May, ushering in an early onset of the Indian summer monsoon. Absorbing aerosols also enhance lower-level heating and anomalous ascent over northern India, intensifying the Indian monsoon. Overall, the aerosol

  11. The Effect of Aerosol Formation on Stable Isotopes Ratio in Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Thomas; Trainer, Melissa G.; Sebree, Joshua; Wold, Allison; Stern, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    The formation of large amounts of aerosol in Titan atmosphere induces a significant sink for carbon and nitrogen in the atmosphere. Due to the high complexity of the chemistry leading to aerosol formation, there may be isotopic fractionation along the formation pathways of the aerosol. So far several stable isotopes have been measured in Titan atmosphere including the 13C/12C, 15N/14N and D/H ratios for different gaseous species. However, the fractionation effect of the aerosol formation and its impact on atmospheric stable isotope ratios has yet to be fully understood. Two experimental studies were recently published on the stable carbon [1] and nitrogen [1,2] isotope fractionation during aerosol formation in N2-CH4 reactant mixture. To better constrain the fractionation effect of aerosol formation on the Titan atmosphere we have measured the isotopic fractionation induced in laboratory aerosol analogues produced exploring the space of parameters that are expected to have an effect on fractionation processes. Parameters studied include pressure and temperature of aerosol formation and the reactant gas phase composition, including the standard "Titan" mixture of CH4/N2 as well as other trace species such as benzene (C6H6).[1] Sebree, J.A., Stern, J.C., Mandt, K.E., Domagal-Goldman, S.D., and Trainer, M.G.: C and N Fractionation of CH /N Mixtures during Photochemical Aerosol Formation: Relevance to Titan, (2016) Icarus 270:421-428[2] Kuga, M., Carrasco, N., Marty, B., Marrochi, Y., Bernard, S., Rigaudier, T., Fleury, B., Tissandier, L.: Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during abiotic synthesis of organic solid particles, (2014) EPSL 393:2-13

  12. Health effects of acid aerosols formed by atmospheric mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, M.T.; Phalen, R.F.; Mautz, W.J.; Mannix, R.C.; McClure, T.R.; Crocker, T.T. )

    1989-02-01

    Under ambient conditions, sulfur and nitrogen oxides can react with photochemical products and airborne particles to form acidic vapors and aerosols. Inhalation toxicological studies were conducted, exposing laboratory animals, at rest and during exercise, to multicomponent atmospheric mixtures under conditions favorable to the formation of acidic reaction products. Effects of acid and ozone mixtures on early and late clearance of insoluble radioactive particles in the lungs of rats appeared to be dominated by the oxidant component (i.e., the mixture did cause effects that were significantly different from those of ozone alone). Histopathological evaluations showed that sulfuric acid particles alone did not cause inflammatory responses in centriacinar units of rat lung parenchyma (expressed in terms of percent lesion area) but did cause significant damage (cell killing followed by a wave of cell replication) in nasal respiratory epithelium, as measured by uptake of tritiated thymidine in the DNA of replicating cells. Mixtures of ozone and nitrogen dioxide, which form nitric acid, caused significant inflammatory responses in lung parenchyma (in excess of effects seen in rats exposed to ozone alone), but did not damage nasal epithelium. Mixtures containing acidic sulfate particles, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide damaged both lung parenchyma and nasal epithelia. In rats exposed at rest, the response of the lung appeared to be dominated by the oxidant gas-phase components, while responses in the nose were dominated by the acidic particles. In rats exposed at exercise, however, mixtures of ozone and sulfuric acid particles significantly (2.5-fold) elevated the degree of lung lesion formation over that seen in rats exposed to ozone alone under an identical exercise protocol.

  13. Aromatic organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols: synthesis, characterization, and abundance

    PubMed Central

    Staudt, Sean; Kundu, Shuvashish; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Cui, Tianqu; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Kristensen, Kasper; Glasius, Marianne; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney J.; Surratt, Jason D.; Stone1, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic organosulfates are identified and quantified in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from Lahore, Pakistan, Godavari, Nepal, and Pasadena, California. To support detection and quantification, authentic standards of phenyl sulfate, benzyl sulfate, 3-and 4-methylphenyl sulfate and 2-, 3-, and 4-methylbenzyl sulfate were synthesized. Authentic standards and aerosol samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) quadrupole time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry. Benzyl sulfate was present in all three locations at concentrations ranging from 4 – 90 pg m−3. Phenyl sulfate, methylphenyl sulfates and methylbenzyl sulfates were observed intermittently with abundances of 4 pg m−3, 2-31 pg m−3, 109 pg m−3, respectively. Characteristic fragment ions of aromatic organosulfates include the sulfite radical (•SO3−, m/z 80) and the sulfate radical (•SO4−,m/z 96). Instrumental response factors of phenyl and benzyl sulfates varied by a factor of 4.3, indicating that structurally-similar organosulfates may have significantly different instrumental responses and highlighting the need to develop authentic standards for absolute quantitation organosulfates. In an effort to better understand the sources of aromatic organosulfates to the atmosphere, chamber experiments with the precursor toluene were conducted under conditions that form biogenic organosulfates. Aromatic organosulfates were not detected in the chamber samples, suggesting that they form through different pathways, have different precursors (e.g. naphthalene or methylnaphthalene), or are emitted from primary sources. PMID:24976783

  14. Health effects of acid aerosols formed by atmospheric mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, M T; Phalen, R F; Mautz, W J; Mannix, R C; McClure, T R; Crocker, T T

    1989-02-01

    Under ambient conditions, sulfur and nitrogen oxides can react with photochemical products and airborne particles to form acidic vapors and aerosols. Inhalation toxicological studies were conducted, exposing laboratory animals, at rest and during exercise, to multicomponent atmospheric mixtures under conditions favorable to the formation of acidic reaction products. Effects of acid and ozone mixtures on early and late clearance of insoluble radioactive particles in the lungs of rats appeared to be dominated by the oxidant component (i.e., the mixture did cause effects that were significantly different from those of ozone alone). Histopathological evaluations showed that sulfuric acid particles alone did not cause inflammatory responses in centriacinar units of rat lung parenchyma (expressed in terms of percent lesion area) but did cause significant damage (cell killing followed by a wave of cell replication) in nasal respiratory epithelium, as measured by uptake of tritiated thymidine in the DNA of replicating cells. Mixtures of ozone and nitrogen dioxide, which form nitric acid, caused significant inflammatory responses in lung parenchyma (in excess of effects seen in rats exposed to ozone alone), but did not damage nasal epithelium. Mixtures containing acidic sulfate particles, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide damaged both lung parenchyma and nasal epithelia. In rats exposed at rest, the response of the lung appeared to be dominated by the oxidant gas-phase components, while responses in the nose were dominated by the acidic particles. In rats exposed at exercise, however, mixtures of ozone and sulfuric acid particles significantly (2.5-fold) elevated the degree of lung lesion formation over that seen in rats exposed to ozone alone under an identical exercise protocol.

  15. Research highlights: laboratory studies of the formation and transformation of atmospheric organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Borduas, Nadine; Lin, Vivian S

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric particles are emitted from a variety of anthropogenic and natural precursors and have direct impacts on climate, by scattering solar irradiation and nucleating clouds, and on health, by causing oxidative stress in the lungs when inhaled. They may also form from gaseous precursors, creating complex mixtures of organic and inorganic material. The chemical composition and the physical properties of aerosols will evolve during their one-week lifetime which will consequently change their impact on climate and health. The heterogeneity of aerosols is difficult to model and thus atmospheric aerosol research strives to characterize the mechanisms involved in nucleating and transforming particles in the atmosphere. Recent advances in four laboratory studies of aerosol formation and aging are highlighted here.

  16. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2011-01-20

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) combines x-ray microscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). This combination provides spatially resolved bonding and oxidation state information. While there are reviews relevant to STXM/NEXAFS applications in other environmental fields (and magnetic materials) this chapter focuses on atmospheric aerosols. It provides an introduction to this technique in a manner approachable to non-experts. It begins with relevant background information on synchrotron radiation sources and a description of NEXAFS spectroscopy. The bulk of the chapter provides a survey of STXM/NEXAFS aerosol studies and is organized according to the type of aerosol investigated. The purpose is to illustrate the current range and recent growth of scientific investigations employing STXM-NEXAFS to probe atmospheric aerosol morphology, surface coatings, mixing states, and atmospheric processing.

  17. Atmospheric aerosol optical parameters, deep convective clouds and hail occurence - a correlation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talianu, Camelia; Andrei, Simona; Toanca, Florica; Stefan, Sabina

    2016-04-01

    Among the severe weather phenomena, whose frequency has increased during the past two decades, hail represents a major threat not only for agriculture but also for other economical fields. Generally, hail are produced in deep convective clouds, developed in an unstable environment. Recent studies have emphasized that besides the state of the atmosphere, the atmospheric composition is also very important. The presence of fine aerosols in atmosphere could have a high impact on nucleation processes, initiating the occurrence of cloud droplets, ice crystals and possibly the occurrence of graupel and/or hail. The presence of aerosols in the atmosphere, correlated with specific atmospheric conditions, could be predictors of the occurrence of hail events. The atmospheric investigation using multiwavelength Lidar systems can offer relevant information regarding the presence of aerosols, identified using their optical properties, and can distinguish between spherical and non-spherical shape, and liquid and solid phase of these aerosols. The aim of this study is to analyse the correlations between the presence and the properties of aerosols in atmosphere, and the production of hail events in a convective environment, using extensive and intensive optical parameters computed from lidar and ceilometer aerosols measurements. From these correlations, we try to evaluate if these aerosols can be taken into consideration as predictors for hail formation. The study has been carried out in Magurele - Romania (44.35N, 26.03E, 93m ASL) using two collocated remote sensing systems: a Raman Lidar (RALI) placed at the Romanian Atmospheric 3D Observatory and a ceilometer CL31 placed at the nearby Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest. To evaluate the atmospheric conditions, radio sounding and satellite images were used. The period analysed was May 1st - July 15th, 2015, as the May - July period is climatologically favorable for deep convection events. Two hail events have been

  18. The analysis of chiral methyltetrols in atmospheric aerosols: A new look at Secondary Organic Aerosols from isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Cantu, N. J.; Noziere, B.; Borg-Karlsson, A.; Pei, Y.; Petersson, J.; Krejci, R.; Artaxo, P.; Baltensperger, U.; Dommen, J.; Prevot, A. S.; Anthonsen, T.

    2010-12-01

    The quantities of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) produced in the atmosphere by the transformations of organic gases are difficult to estimate, isoprene having possibly and important contribution, but also containing the most uncertainties. One of the main challenges in this topic is the limited information on real atmospheric SOA, as there was, until recently, no method to distinguish unambiguously between secondary and primary organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols. We have developed a new analytical method to make this distinction, based on separating the enantiomers of organic compounds (isomers mirror images of each other) in aerosols. In this work, this method is applied to the 2-methyltetrols, 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol, present in PM2.5 aerosols collected at Aspvreten, Sweden from May to November 2008. These compounds are currently considered as the main evidence supporting the presence of SOA from isoprene in the atmosphere. The results of our analyses show that these compounds are, at least in part, from biological (or “primary”) origin. In particular, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol was 15 % in excess of the total mass of 2-methyltetrols in May-July, clearly indicating its biological origin, and consistent with its well-documented production by plants. Furthermore, the concentrations of the remaining racemic diastereoisomers (total 2-methylerythritol and total 2-methylthreitol) did not correlate with each other, implying that at least one of them, or both, were also from biological origin. This was supported by their lack of correlation with ozone at the site. While atmospheric (abiotic) reactions might have contributed, it can not be excluded that these compounds were mostly from biological origin, thus challenging the main evidence for the existence of SOA from isoprene in the atmosphere.

  19. Unraveling the Complexity of Atmospheric Aerosol: Insights from Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Zhao, Yunzhu; Samburova, Vera; Gannet Hallar, A.; Lowenthal, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol organic matter (AOM) is a complex mixture of thousands of organic compounds, which may have significant influence on the climate-relevant properties of atmospheric aerosols. An improved understanding of the molecular composition of AOM is needed to evaluate the effect of aerosol composition upon aerosol physical properties. Products of gas, aqueous and particle phase reactions contribute to the aerosol organic mass. Thus, ambient aerosols carry a complex array of AOM components with variable chemical signatures depending upon its origin and aerosol life-cycle processes. In this work, ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize ambient aerosol AOM collected at the Storm Peak Laboratory (3210 m a.s.l.) near Steamboat Springs, CO. Thousands of molecular formulas were assigned in the mass range of m/z 100-800 after negative-ion electrospray ionization. Using multivariate statistical analysis, correlations between the site meteorological conditions and specific molecular compositions were identified. For example, days with strong UV radiation and high temperature were found to contain large numbers of biogenic SOA molecular formulas. Similarly, days with high relative humidity and high sulfate concentrations were found to contain many sulfur-containing compounds, suggesting their aqueous phase formation.

  20. a Novel Index for Atmospheric Aerosol Types Categorization with Spectral Optical Depths from Satellite Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Liu, Gin-Rong; Liu, Chian-Yi

    2016-06-01

    In general, the type of atmospheric aerosols can be efficiently identified with the characteristics of optical properties, such as Ångström exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA). However, the retrieval of SSA is not frequently available to global area which may cause the difficulty in the identification of aerosol type. Since aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be easily requested, a novel index in terms of AOD, Normalized Gradient Aerosol Index (NGAI), is proposed to get over the constraint on SSA providing. With the NGAI derived from MODIS AOD products, the type of atmospheric aerosols can be clearly categorized between mineral dusts, biomass burning and anthropogenic pollutants. The results of aerosol type categorization show the well agreement with the ground-based observations (AERONET) in AE and SSA properties, implying that the proposed index equips highly practical for the application of aerosols type categorization by means of remote sensing. In addition, the fraction of AOD compositions can be potentially determined according to the value of index after compared with the products of CALIPSO Aerosol Subtype.

  1. Aerosol Type Constraints Required for Ocean Color Atmospheric Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, R.; Ahmad, Z.; Franz, B.; Massie, S.; Sayer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Organizers of the Aerosol Cloud Ecosystem (ACE) Science Working Group held a workshop at Goddard Space Flight Center June 16-18, 2014; speaker presentations will be made available on the ACE public website.

  2. A Decade of Field Changing Atmospheric Aerosol Research: Outcomes of EPA’s STAR Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conference: Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry, July 28 – August 2, 2013, VermontPresentation Type: PosterTitle: An Analysis of EPA’s STAR Program and a Decade of Field Changing Research in Atmospheric AerosolsAuthors: Kristina M. Wagstrom1,2, Sherri ...

  3. Size matters in the water uptake and hygroscopic growth of atmospherically relevant multicomponent aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Laskina, Olga; Morris, Holly S; Grandquist, Joshua R; Qin, Zhen; Stone, Elizabeth A; Tivanski, Alexei V; Grassian, Vicki H

    2015-05-14

    Understanding the interactions of water with atmospheric aerosols is crucial for determining the size, physical state, reactivity, and climate impacts of this important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Here we show that water uptake and hygroscopic growth of multicomponent, atmospherically relevant particles can be size dependent when comparing 100 nm versus ca. 6 μm sized particles. It was determined that particles composed of ammonium sulfate with succinic acid and of a mixture of chlorides typical of the marine environment show size-dependent hygroscopic behavior. Microscopic analysis of the distribution of components within the aerosol particles show that the size dependence is due to differences in the mixing state, that is, whether particles are homogeneously mixed or phase separated, for different sized particles. This morphology-dependent hygroscopicity has consequences for heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry as well as aerosol interactions with electromagnetic radiation and clouds.

  4. The effect of large anthropogenic particulate emissions on atmospheric aerosols, deposition and bioindicators in the eastern Gulf of Finland region.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, L; Mäkinen, A; Häsänen, E; Juhanoja, J

    2000-10-30

    The effect of the emissions from large oil shale fuelled power plants and a cement factory in Estonia on the elemental concentration of atmospheric aerosols, deposition, elemental composition of mosses and ecological effects on mosses, lichens and pine trees in the eastern Gulf of Finland region has been studied. In addition to chemical analysis, fly ash, moss and aerosol samples were analysed by a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The massive particulate calcium emissions, approximately 60 kton/year (1992), is clearly observed in the aerosols, deposition and mosses. The calcium deposition is largest next to the Russian border downwind from the power plants and in south-eastern part of Finland. This deposition has decreased due to the application of dust removal systems at the particulate emission sources. At the Virolahti EMEP station approximately 140 km north from the emission sources, elevated elemental atmospheric aerosol concentrations are observed for Al, Ca, Fe, K and Si and during episodes many trace elements, such as As, Br, Mo, Ni, Pb and V. The acidification of the soil is negligible because of the high content of basic cations in the deposition. Visible symptoms on pine trees are negligible. However, in moss samples close to the power plants, up to 25% of the leaf surface was covered by particles. Many epiphytic lichen species do not tolerate basic stemflow and on the other hand most species are also very sensitive for the SO2 content in air. Consequently a large lichen desert is found in an area of 2500 km2 in the vicinity of the power plants with only one out of the investigated 12 species growing.

  5. Exploration of the link between Emiliania huxleyi bloom dynamics and aerosol fluxes to the lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainic, M.

    2013-12-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are responsible for about 50% of the global photosynthesis, thus are a key component of the major nutrient cycles in the ocean. These blooms can be a significant source for flux of volatiles and aerosols, affecting physical chemical processes in the atmosphere. One of the most widely distributed and abundant phytoplankton species in the oceans is the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. In this research, we explore the influence of the different stages of E. huxleyi bloom on the emission of primary aerosols. For this purpose, we conducted a series of controlled lab experiments to measure aerosol emissions during the growth of E. huxleyi. The cultures were grown in a specially designed growth chamber, and the aerosols were generated in a bubbling system. We collected the emitted aerosol particles on filters, and conducted a series of analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the aerosols emitted from E.huxleyi 1216 cultures demonstrate emission of CaCO3 platelets from their exoskeleton into the air, while coccolithophores cells were absent. The results suggest that while healthy coccolithophore cells are too heavy to aerosolize, during cell lysis the coccoliths shed from the coccolithophore cells are emitted into the atmosphere. Therefore, aerosol production during bloom demise may be greater than from healthy E.huxleyi populations. We also investigated the size distribution of the aerosols at various stages of E. huxleyi growth. The presence of calcified cells greatly effects the size distribution of the emitted aerosol population. This work motivated us to explore aerosols emitted during E. huxleyi spring bloom, in a laboratory we constructed onboard the R/V Knorr research vessel, as part of the North Atlantic Virus Infection of Coccolithophore Expedition (June-July 2012). These results have far-reaching implications on the effect of E. huxleyi bloom dynamics on aerosol properties. We not only show that the E. huxleyi calcite

  6. Complex organic matter in Titan's atmospheric aerosols from in situ pyrolysis and analysis.

    PubMed

    Israël, G; Szopa, C; Raulin, F; Cabane, M; Niemann, H B; Atreya, S K; Bauer, S J; Brun, J-F; Chassefière, E; Coll, P; Condé, E; Coscia, D; Hauchecorne, A; Millian, P; Nguyen, M-J; Owen, T; Riedler, W; Samuelson, R E; Siguier, J-M; Steller, M; Sternberg, R; Vidal-Madjar, C

    2005-12-01

    Aerosols in Titan's atmosphere play an important role in determining its thermal structure. They also serve as sinks for organic vapours and can act as condensation nuclei for the formation of clouds, where the condensation efficiency will depend on the chemical composition of the aerosols. So far, however, no direct information has been available on the chemical composition of these particles. Here we report an in situ chemical analysis of Titan's aerosols by pyrolysis at 600 degrees C. Ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have been identified as the main pyrolysis products. This clearly shows that the aerosol particles include a solid organic refractory core. NH3 and HCN are gaseous chemical fingerprints of the complex organics that constitute this core, and their presence demonstrates that carbon and nitrogen are in the aerosols.

  7. Complex organic matter in Titan's atmospheric aerosols from in situ pyrolysis and analysis.

    PubMed

    Israël, G; Szopa, C; Raulin, F; Cabane, M; Niemann, H B; Atreya, S K; Bauer, S J; Brun, J-F; Chassefière, E; Coll, P; Condé, E; Coscia, D; Hauchecorne, A; Millian, P; Nguyen, M-J; Owen, T; Riedler, W; Samuelson, R E; Siguier, J-M; Steller, M; Sternberg, R; Vidal-Madjar, C

    2005-12-01

    Aerosols in Titan's atmosphere play an important role in determining its thermal structure. They also serve as sinks for organic vapours and can act as condensation nuclei for the formation of clouds, where the condensation efficiency will depend on the chemical composition of the aerosols. So far, however, no direct information has been available on the chemical composition of these particles. Here we report an in situ chemical analysis of Titan's aerosols by pyrolysis at 600 degrees C. Ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have been identified as the main pyrolysis products. This clearly shows that the aerosol particles include a solid organic refractory core. NH3 and HCN are gaseous chemical fingerprints of the complex organics that constitute this core, and their presence demonstrates that carbon and nitrogen are in the aerosols. PMID:16319825

  8. Multi-Decadal Variations of Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Effects on Surface Radiation Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Wild, Martin; Qian, Yun; Yu, Hongbin; Streets, David; Bian, Huisheng; Wang, Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    We present an investigation on multi-decadal changes of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on surface radiation using a global chemistry transport model along with the near-term to long-term data records. We focus on a 28-year time period of satellite era from 1980 to 2007, during which a suite of aerosol data from satellite observations, ground-based measurements, and intensive field experiments have become available. We analyze the long-term global and regional aerosol trends and their relationship to the changes of aerosol and precursor emissions and assess the role aerosols play in the multi-decadal change of solar radiation reaching the surface (known as "dimming" or "brightening") at different regions of the world.

  9. Atmospheric aerosol and molecular backscatter imaging effects on direct detection LADAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youmans, Douglas G.

    2015-05-01

    Backscatter from atmospheric aerosols and molecular nitrogen and oxygen causes "clutter" noise in direct detection ladar applications operating within the atmosphere. The backscatter clutter is more pronounced in multiple pulse, high PRF ladars where pulse-averaging is used to increase operating range. As more and more pulses are added to the wavetrain the backscatter increases. We analyze the imaging of a transmitted Gaussian laser-mode multi-pulse wave-train scatteried off of aerosols and molecules at the focal plane including angular-slew rate resulting from optical tracking, angular lead-angle, and bistatic-optics spatial separation. The defocused backscatter images, from those pulses closest to the receiver, are analyzed using a simple geometrical optics approximation. Methods for estimating the aerosol number density versus altitude and the volume backscatter coefficient of the aerosols are also discussed.

  10. Atmospheric aerosols versus greenhouse gases in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Andreae, Meinrat O

    2007-07-15

    Looked at in a simplistic way, aerosols have counteracted the warming effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) over the past century. This has not only provided some 'climate protection', but also prevented the true magnitude of the problem from becoming evident. In particular, it may have resulted in an underestimation of the sensitivity of the climate system to the effect of GHG. Over the present century, the role of aerosols in opposing global warming will wane, as there are powerful policy reasons to reduce their emissions and their atmospheric lifetimes are short in contrast to those of the GHG. On the other hand, aerosols will continue to play a role in regional climate change, especially with regard to the water cycle. The end of significant climate protection by atmospheric aerosols, combined with the potentially very high sensitivity of the climate system, makes sharp and prompt reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2, very urgent.

  11. Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

    2011-08-01

    Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

  12. Air ion measurements as a source of information about atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hõrrak, Urmas; Mirme, Aadu; Salm, Jaan; Tamm, Eduard; Tammet, Hannes

    The mobility spectra of air ions recorded in the course of routine atmospheric electric measurements contain information about atmospheric aerosols. The mobility spectrum of air ions is correlated with the size spectrum of aerosol particles. Two procedures of conversion (and conversion errors) are considered in this paper assuming the steady state of charge distribution. The first procedure uses the fraction model of the aerosol particle size distribution and algebraic solution of the conversion problem. The second procedure uses the parametric KL model of the particle size distribution and the least square fitting of the mobility measurements. The procedures were tested using simultaneous side-by-side measurements of air ion mobilities and aerosol particle size distributions at a rural site during a monthly period. The comparison of results shows a promising agreement between the measured and calculated size spectra in the common size range. A supplementary information about nanometer particles was obtained from air ion measurements.

  13. Predictions of the electrical conductivity and charging of the aerosols in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Levin, Z.; Whitten, R. C.; Keesee, R. G.; Summers, A. L.; Toon, O. B.; Dubach, J.

    1987-01-01

    Computational results are given for Titan atmosphere aerosol electrical conductivity and charge at altitudes up to 400 km, together with a consideration of ionization from such sources as galactic cosmic rays and electron precipitation from the Saturnian magnetosphere. Predicted conductivity shows the existence of substantial electron concentrations up to the Titan surface. At altitudes of more than 100 km, and aerosol concentrations greater than 10/cu cm, electron/positive ion-recombination is found to be controlled by the recombination of the aerosols' surfaces rather than by the gas-kinetic recombination rate.

  14. Probing and monitoring aerosol and atmospheric clouds with an electro-optic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Arnon, S; Kopeika, N S

    1996-09-20

    Monitoring, probing, and sensing characteristics of aerosol clouds is difficult and complicated. Probing the characteristics of aerosols is most useful in the chemical and microelectronic industry for processing control of aerosols and emulsion, decreasing bit error rate in adaptive optical communication systems, and in acquiring data for atmospheric science and environment quality. We present a new mathematical and optical engineering model for monitoring characteristics of aerosol clouds. The model includes the temporal transfer function of aerosol clouds as a variable parameter in an electro-optic oscillator. The frequency of the oscillator changes according to changes in the characteristics of the clouds (density, size distribution, physical thickness, the medium and the particulate refractive indices, and spatial distribution). It is possible to measure only one free characteristic at a given time. An example of a practical system for monitoring the density of aerosol clouds is given. The frequency of the oscillator changes from 1.25 to 0.43 MHz for changes in aerosol density from 2000 to 3000 particulates cm(-3). The advantages of this new method compared with the transmissometer methods are (a) no necessity for line-of-sight measurement geometry, (b) accurate measurement of high optical thickness media is possible, (c) under certain conditions measurements can include characteristics of aerosol clouds related to light scatter that cannot be or are difficult to measure with a transmissometer, and (d) the cloud bandwidth for free space optical communication is directly measurable.

  15. The spatial-temporal variations in optical properties of atmosphere aerosols over China and its application in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Cheng, T.

    2013-12-01

    The atmospheric and climate response to the aerosol forcing are assessed by climate models regionally and globally under the past, present and future conditions. However, large uncertainties exist because of incomplete knowledge concerning the distribution and the physical and chemical properties of aerosols as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. Reduction in these uncertainties requires long-term monitoring of detailed properties of different aerosol types. China is one of the heavily polluted areas with high concentration of aerosols in the world. The complex source, composition of China aerosol led to the worse accuracy of aerosol radiative forcing assessment in the world, which urgently calls for improvements on the understanding of China regional aerosol properties. The spatial-temporal properties of aerosol types over China are studied using the radiance measurements and inversions data at 4 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations. Five aerosol classes were identified including a coarse-size dominated aerosol type (presumably dust) and four fine-sized dominated aerosol types ranging from non-absorbing to highly absorbing fine aerosols. The mean optical properties of different aerosol types in China and their seasonal variations were also investigated. Based on the cluster analysis, the improved ground-based aerosol model is applied to the MODIS dark target inversion algorithm. Validation with MODIS official product and CE318 is also included.

  16. [Development of a photoacoustic spectroscopy system for the measurement of absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Niu, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Shi; Cao, Zhen-Song; Liu, Kun; Chen, Wei-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2013-07-01

    In the present paper, the authors focus on the effect of the resonance frequency shift due to the changes in temperature and humidity on the PA signal, present several methods to control the noise derived form gas flow and vibration from the sampling pump. Based on the efforts mentioned above, a detection limit of 1.4 x 10(-8) W x cm(-1) x Hz(-1/2) was achieved for the measurement of atmospheric aerosols absorption coefficient. During the experiments, the PA cell was calibrated with the absorption of standard NO2 gas at 532 nm and the atmospheric aerosols were measured continuously. The measurement results show that the PAS is suitable for the real-time measurement of the absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols in their natural suspended state. PMID:24059163

  17. Developing a broad spectrum atmospheric aerosol characterization for remote sensing platforms over desert regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Shadrian B.; Brown, Andrea M.

    2014-05-01

    Remotely sensed imagery of targets embedded in Earth's atmosphere requires characterization of aerosols between the space-borne sensor and ground to accurately analyze observed target signatures. The impact of aerosol microphysical properties on retrieved atmospheric radiances has been shown to negatively affect the accuracy of remotely sensed data collects. Temporally and regionally specific meteorological conditions require exact site atmospheric characterization, involving extensive and timely observations. We present a novel methodology which fuses White Sands New Mexico regional aerosol micro pulse lidar (MPL) observations with sun photometer direct and diffuse products for broad-wavelength (visible - longwave infrared) input into the radiative transfer model MODTRAN5. Resulting radiances are compared with those retreived from the NASA Aqua MODIS instrument.

  18. Radical-initiated formation of organosulfates and surfactants in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozière, Barbara; Ekström, Sanna; Alsberg, Tomas; Holmström, Sara

    2010-03-01

    Many atmospheric aerosols contain both organic compounds and inorganic material, such as sulfate salts. In this work, we show that these sulfates could trigger some chemical transformations of the organic compounds by producing sulfate radicals, SO4-, when exposed to UV light (280-320 nm). In particular, we show by mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MSMS) that isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and α-pinene in irradiated sulfate solutions (ammonium and sodium sulfate) produce the same organosulfates as previously identified in aerosols, and even some that had remained unidentified until now. With a typical time constant of 9 h instead of 4600 days for esterifications, these radical reactions would be a plausible origin for the atmospheric organosulfates. These reactions also produced efficient surfactants, possibly resembling the long-chain organosulfates found in the experiments. Thus, photochemistry in mixed sulfate/organic aerosols could increase cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) numbers, which would be supported by previous atmospheric observations.

  19. Preliminary results of the Vega 1 and Vega 2 optical investigation of aerosol in the atmosphere of Venus at 30-60 KM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshkin, B. Y.; Moroz, V. I.; Gnedykh, V. I.; Grigoryev, A. V.

    1986-01-01

    Aerosol concentration profiles were measured by an aerosol spectrometer above the landing sites of the Vega 1 and Vega 2 landers. Approximately the same altitude zones were found as in previous experiments: a three-layered basic cloud cover, an intermediate zone and subcloud haze. There were significant quantitative differences in the concentrations of particles, however, and especially in the spectra of their dimensions. Nightglow was found in the troposphere of Venus at a wavelength of about 1 micron. The backscatter coefficient and the extinction coefficient change very little between 32 and 63 km. Large numbers of submicron particles apparently exist in the atmosphere above the landing sites.

  20. Characteristics of aerosol at a lower atmospheric layer in DRAGON field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUJI, M.; Azuma, Y.; Kitakoga, S.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution arises severely over East Asia with the rapid economic development nowadays. Monitoring the atmospheric environment, as one of the purposes, an intensive field campaign, Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON), was carried out in the spring of year 2012, led by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At that time, atmospheric phenomena such as Yellow sand and haze events were observed at Nara in the western part of Japan, as one of the DRAGON observation sites. The atmospheric events were characterized with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. As a result of the data analysis, it was found that more light-absorbing and smaller particles dominated at the lower than upper atmospheric layer for the Kosa event in particular. A backward trajectory analysis suggested that the Yellow sand event traveled over the East Asian industrial cities, which could lead to a mixture of sand and air pollutants with moderate particle size and light-absorptivity. In addition, visibility observation was evaluated quantitatively with AERONET data in the DRAGON campaign since eye observation was inherently semi-quantitative. The extinction coefficient estimated from visibility was compared to that from AERONET. As a result, it was found that the extinction coefficients were generally consistent to each other. But there were some discrepancies, which could be caused with the atmospheric phenomena or aerosol types. It is confirmed that visibility is strongly influenced with aerosols in the case of severe atmospheric phenomena in particular.

  1. Incremental Reactivity Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Urban Atmospheres with and without Biogenic Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacarab, Mary; Li, Lijie; Carter, William P. L.; Cocker, David R., III

    2016-04-01

    Two different surrogate mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were developed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at atmospheric reactivities similar to urban regions with varying biogenic influence levels. Environmental chamber simulations were designed to enable the study of the incremental aerosol formation from select anthropogenic (m‑Xylene, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, and 1-Methylnaphthalene) and biogenic (α-pinene) precursors under the chemical reactivity set by the two different surrogate mixtures. The surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixtures were based on that used to develop the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) factors for evaluation of O3 forming potential. Multiple incremental aerosol formation experiments were performed in the University of California Riverside (UCR) College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) dual 90m3 environmental chambers. Incremental aerosol yields were determined for each of the VOCs studied and compared to yields found from single precursor studies. Aerosol physical properties of density, volatility, and hygroscopicity were monitored throughout experiments. Bulk elemental chemical composition from high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data will also be presented. Incremental yields and SOA chemical and physical characteristics will be compared with data from previous single VOC studies conducted for these aerosol precursors following traditional VOC/NOx chamber experiments. Evaluation of the incremental effects of VOCs on SOA formation and properties are paramount in evaluating how to best extrapolate environmental chamber observations to the ambient atmosphere and provides useful insights into current SOA formation models. Further, the comparison of incremental SOA from VOCs in varying surrogate urban atmospheres (with and without strong biogenic influence) allows for a unique perspective on the impacts

  2. Incremental Reactivity Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Urban Atmospheres with and without Biogenic Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacarab, Mary; Li, Lijie; Carter, William P. L.; Cocker, David R., III

    2016-04-01

    Two different surrogate mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were developed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at atmospheric reactivities similar to urban regions with varying biogenic influence levels. Environmental chamber simulations were designed to enable the study of the incremental aerosol formation from select anthropogenic (m-Xylene, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, and 1-Methylnaphthalene) and biogenic (α-pinene) precursors under the chemical reactivity set by the two different surrogate mixtures. The surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixtures were based on that used to develop the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) factors for evaluation of O3 forming potential. Multiple incremental aerosol formation experiments were performed in the University of California Riverside (UCR) College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) dual 90m3 environmental chambers. Incremental aerosol yields were determined for each of the VOCs studied and compared to yields found from single precursor studies. Aerosol physical properties of density, volatility, and hygroscopicity were monitored throughout experiments. Bulk elemental chemical composition from high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data will also be presented. Incremental yields and SOA chemical and physical characteristics will be compared with data from previous single VOC studies conducted for these aerosol precursors following traditional VOC/NOx chamber experiments. Evaluation of the incremental effects of VOCs on SOA formation and properties are paramount in evaluating how to best extrapolate environmental chamber observations to the ambient atmosphere and provides useful insights into current SOA formation models. Further, the comparison of incremental SOA from VOCs in varying surrogate urban atmospheres (with and without strong biogenic influence) allows for a unique perspective on the impacts

  3. Characterization of Organic Nitrogen in the Atmosphere Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, X.; Sun, Y.; Chen, M.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive efforts on characterizing organic nitrogen (ON) compounds in atmospheric aerosols and aqueous droplets, knowledge of ON chemistry is still limited, mainly due to its chemical complexity and lack of highly time-resolved measurements. This work is aimed at optimizing the method of using Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) to characterize ON compounds in atmospheric aerosols. Seventy-five pure nitrogen-containing organic compounds covering a variety of functional groups were analyzed with the HR-AMS. Our results show that ON compounds commonly produce NHx+, NOx+, which are usually attributed to inorganic N species such as ammonium and nitrate, and CH2N+ at m/z = 28, which is rarely quantified in ambient aerosol due to large interference from N2+ in the air signal. As a result, using the nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C) calibration factor proposed by Aiken et al. (2008) on average leads to ~ 20% underestimation of N/C in ambient organic aerosol. A new calibration factor of 0.79 is proposed for determining the average N/C in organics. The relative ionization efficiencies (RIEs) of different ON species, on average, are found to be consistent with the default RIE value (1.4) for the total organics. The AMS mass spectral features of various types of ON species (amines, amides, amino acids, etc.) are examined and used for characterizing ON composition in ambient aerosols. Our results indicate that submicron organic aerosol measured during wintertime in Fresno, CA contains significant amounts of amino-compounds whereas more diversified ON species, including N-containing aromatic heterocycle (e.g., imidazoles), are observed in fog waters collected simultaneously. Our findings have important implications for understanding atmospheric ON behaviors via the widespread HR-AMS measurements of ambient aerosols and droplets.

  4. A photophonic instrument concept to measure atmospheric aerosol absorption. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engle, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory model of an instrument to measure the absorption of atmospheric aerosols was designed, built, and tested. The design was based on the photophonic phenomenon discovered by Bell and an acoustic resonator developed by Helmholtz. Experiments were done to show ways the signal amplitude could be improved and the noise reduced and to confirm the instrument was sensitive enough to be practical. The research was undertaken to develop concepts which show promise of being improvements on the instruments that are presently used to measure the absorption of the Sun's radiation by the Earth's atmospheric aerosols.

  5. Optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of aerosol properties in Kishinev, Moldova are being carried out within the framework of the international AERONET program managed by NASA/GSFC since 1999. Direct solar and sky diffuse radiances are measured by using of sunphotometer Cimel-318. Aerosol optical properties are retrieved from measured radiances by using of smart computational procedures developed by the AERONET's team. The instrument is situated at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station giving the opportunity to make simultaneous spectral (win sunphotometer) and broadband (with the set of sensors from radiometric complex) solar radiation. Detailed description of the station and investigations in progress can be found at the http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E; 205 m a.s.l). Summary of aerosol optical and microphysical properties retrieved from direct solar and diffuse sky radiance observations at Moldova site from September 1999 to June 2009 are presented below. Number of measurements (total): 1695 Number of measurements (for ?o, n, k): 223 Range of aerosol optical depth (AOD) @440 nm: 0.03 < ?(440) < 2.30, < ?(440)>=0.25 Range of Ångström parameter < α440_870 >: 0.14 < α < 2.28 Asymmetry factor (440/670/870/1020): 0.70/0.63/0.59/0.58 ±0.04 Refraction (n) and absorption (k) indices@440 nm: 1.41 ± 0.06; 0.009 ± 0.005 Single scattering albedo < ?o >(440/670/870/1020): 0.93/0.92/0.90/0.89 ±0.04 Parameters of volume particle size distribution function: (fine mode) volume median radius r v,f , μm: 0.17 ± 0.06 particle volume concentration Cv,f, μm3/μm2: 0.04 ± 0.03 (coarse mode) volume median radius rv,c , μm: 3.08 ± 0.64 particle volume concentration Cv,c, μm3/μm2: 0.03 ± 0.03 Climatic norms of AOD@500 nm and Ångström parameter < α440_870 > at the site of observation are equal to 0.21 ± 0.06 and 1.45 ± 0.14, respectively. The aerosol type in Moldova may be considered as 'urban

  6. Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: use of the junge power-law aerosol size distribution with variable refractive index to handle aerosol absorption.

    PubMed

    Chomko, R M; Gordon, H R

    1998-08-20

    When strongly absorbing aerosols are present in the atmosphere, the usual two-step procedure of processing ocean color data-(1) atmospheric correction to provide the water-leaving reflectance (rho(w)), followed by (2) relating rho(w) to the water constituents-fails and simultaneous estimation of the ocean and aerosol optical properties is necessary. We explore the efficacy of using a simple model of the aerosol-a Junge power-law size distribution consisting of homogeneous spheres with arbitrary refractive index-in a nonlinear optimization procedure for estimating the relevant oceanic and atmospheric parameters for case 1 waters. Using simulated test data generated from more realistic aerosol size distributions (sums of log-normally distributed components with different compositions), we show that the ocean's pigment concentration (C) can be retrieved with good accuracy in the presence of weakly or strongly absorbing aerosols. However, because of significant differences in the scattering phase functions for the test and power-law distributions, large error is possible in the estimate of the aerosol optical thickness. The positive result for C suggests that the detailed shape of the aerosol-scattering phase function is not relevant to the atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. The relevant parameters are the aerosol single-scattering albedo and the spectral variation of the aerosol optical depth. We argue that the assumption of aerosol sphericity should not restrict the validity of the algorithm and suggest an avenue for including colored aerosols, e.g., wind-blown dust, in the procedure. A significant advantage of the new approach is that realistic multicomponent aerosol models are not required for the retrieval of C.

  7. Large differences in tropical aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere and Earth's surface

    PubMed

    Satheesh; Ramanathan

    2000-05-01

    The effect of radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate predictions. Direct observations of the forcing are therefore needed, particularly for the poorly understood tropical aerosols. Here we present an observational method for quantifying aerosol forcing to within +/-5 per cent. We use calibrated satellite radiation measurements and five independent surface radiometers to quantify the aerosol forcing simultaneously at the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere over the tropical northern Indian Ocean. In winter, this region is covered by anthropogenic aerosols of sulphate, nitrate, organics, soot and fly ash from the south Asian continent. Accordingly, mean clear-sky solar radiative heating for the winters of 1998 and 1999 decreased at the ocean surface by 12 to 30 Wm(-2), but only by 4 to 10 Wm(-2) at the top of the atmosphere. This threefold difference (due largely to solar absorption by soot) and the large magnitude of the observed surface forcing both imply that tropical aerosols might slow down the hydrological cycle.

  8. Does atmospheric aging of biogenic SOA increase aerosol absorption and brown carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Yinon

    2014-05-01

    The optical properties of organic aerosols are important in determining their radiative forcing and, subsequently, their impact on climate. Primary or secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from natural and anthropogenic emissions age via photochemical reactions of OH, NO3, and O3. Atmospheric aging of aerosols changes their chemical, physical, and optical properties. Of special interest is the possible formation of absorbing organic species or "brown carbon", which can lead to absorption and heating in the atmosphere, with important consequences to climate and air quality. In this talk we will discuss possible formation pathways of brown carbon by aging of SOA, and its potential effect on radiative forcing. We employed a new broadband aerosol spectrometer that retrieves aerosol optical properties between 360 and 420 nm to probe the aging of biogenic and anthropogenic SOA in a flowtube and photochemical smog chamber. We will discuss the effect of photochemical aging on the optical properties of SOA that form from the ozonolysis of biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs, and subsequent reactions with ammonia with special emphasis on the change in their absorption. Nitration reactions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons that lead to increased absorption will also be presented. Using the wavelength-dependent modified forcing equation we will provide estimates of the radiative impact of the aged biogenic SOA. Our calculation shows that the integrated radiative forcing suggest that the observed changes in refractive index due to photochemical ageing by NH3 reactions can lead to enhanced cooling by the aged aerosol.

  9. Corona-like atmospheric escape from KBOs. II. The behavior of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Amit; Podolak, Morris

    2009-10-01

    In Levi and Podolak (Levi, A., Podolak, M. [in press] Icarus) we applied the theory of coronal expansion to gas escape from a small, cold, object such as those found in the Kuiper belt. Here we extend the theory to include aerosols that are lifted off the surface by the escaping gas. Aerosols carried by the gas but still gravitationally bound, tend to be lifted to a height above the surface that is dependent on the aerosol radius, so that in steady state the variation of aerosol radius with height is well-defined. We develop an extension of Parker's coronal flow theory to include the effect of aerosols carried along by the gas and use this to estimate the optical depth of such an atmosphere. For KBOs with CO evaporation from the surface and with radii in the range 245-334 km, line-of-site optical depths through the atmosphere can exceed one at heights of a few hundred kilometers above the surface. Such aerosol layers should be observable, and might be used to infer the flow proprieties of the escaping gas.

  10. Reactions of Atmospheric Particulate Stabilized Criegee Intermediates Lead to High-Molecular-Weight Aerosol Components.

    PubMed

    Wang, MingYi; Yao, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Wang, XinKe; Chen, JianMin; Yang, Xin; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Wang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Aging of organic aerosol particles is one of the most poorly understood topics in atmospheric aerosol research. Here, we used an aerosol flow tube together with an iodide-adduct high-resolution time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO-HRToF-CIMS) to investigate heterogeneous ozonolysis of oleic acid (OL), developing a comprehensive oxidation mechanism with observed products. In addition to the well-known first-generation C9 products including nonanal, nonanoic acid, azelaic acid, and 9-oxononanoic acid, the iodide-adduct chemical ionization permitted unambiguous determination of a large number of high-molecular-weight particulate products up to 670 Da with minimum amounts of fragmentation. These high-molecular-weight products are characterized by a fairly uniform carbon oxidation state but stepwise addition of a carbon backbone moiety, and hence continuous decrease in the volatility. Our results demonstrate that heterogeneous oxidation of organic aerosols has a significant effect on the physiochemical properties of organic aerosols and that reactions of particulate SCIs from ozonolysis of an unsaturated particulate species represent a previously underappreciated mechanism that lead to formation of high-molecular-weight particulate products that are stable under typical atmospheric conditions.

  11. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  12. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  13. Basic Modeling of the Solar Atmosphere and Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, Eugene H.; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the last three years we have continued the development of extensive computer programs for constructing realistic models of the solar atmosphere and for calculating detailed spectra to use in the interpretation of solar observations. This research involves two major interrelated efforts: work by Avrett and Loeser on the Pandora computer program for optically thick non-LTE modeling of the solar atmosphere including a wide range of physical processes, and work by Kurucz on the detailed high-resolution synthesis of the solar spectrum using data for over 58 million atomic and molecular lines. Our objective is to construct atmospheric models from which the calculated spectra agree as well as possible with high-and low-resolution observations over a wide wavelength range. Such modeling leads to an improved understanding of the physical processes responsible for the structure and behavior of the atmosphere.

  14. Variability of aerosol optical thickness and atmospheric turbidity in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masmoudi, M.; Chaabane, M.; Medhioub, K.; Elleuch, F.

    The aerosol optical thickness (AOT) τa computed from the spectral sun photometer in Thala (Tunisia) exhibited variability ranging from approximately 0.03 to greater than 2.0 at 870 nm for March-October 2001. These measurements are compared to the aerosol optical thickness computed in Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso), Banizoumbou (Niger), IMC Oristano (Sardinia) and Rome Tor Vergata (Italy). Analysis of τa data from this observation network suggests that there is a high temporal and spatial variability of τa in the different sites. The Angström wavelength exponent α was found to vary with the magnitude of the aerosol optical thickness, with values as high as 1.5 for very low τa, and values of -0.1 for high τa situations. The relationship between the two parameters τa and α is investigated. Values of the turbidity coefficient β have been determined in Thala (Tunisia) for 8 months in 2001 based on a direct fitting method of the Angström power law expression using sun photometer data. The monthly averaged values of the turbidity coefficient β vary between 0.15 and 0.33. The months of July and October experienced the highest turbidity, while April experienced the lowest aerosol loading on average. The turbidity shows a maximum and minimum values for the Southwest and the Northwest wind directions, respectively. The single scattering albedo ωo for the 870 nm wavelength obtained from solar aureole data in Thala is analysed according to the particles' origin.

  15. Mass Spectrometry of Atmospheric Aerosol: 1 nanometer to 1 micron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsnop, D. R.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    The role of aerosol particles remains the largest uncertainty in quantitatively assessing past, current and future climate change. The principal reason for that uncertainty arises from the need to characterize and model composition and size dependent aerosol processes, ranging from nanometer to micron scales. Aerosol mass spectrometry results have shown that about half the sub-micron aerosol composition is composed of highly oxygenated organics that are not well understood in terms of photochemical reaction mechanisms (Jimenez et al, 2009). This work has included application of high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) in order to determine elemental and functional group composition of complex organic components. Recently, we have applied similar ToFMS to determine the composition of ambient ions, molecules and clusters, potentially involved in formation and growth of nano-particles (Junninen et al, 2010). Observed organic anions (molecular weight range 200-500 Th) have similar chemical composition as the least volatile secondary organics observed in fine particles; while organic cations are dominated by amines and pyridines. During nucleation events, anions are dominated by sulphuric acid cluster ions (Ehn et al, 2010). In both nanometer and micrometer size ranges, the goal to elucidate the roles of inorganic and organic species, particularly how particle evolution and physical properties depend on mixed compositions. Recent results will be discussed, including ambient and experimental chamber observations. Ehn et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 14897-14946, 2010 Jimenez et al, Science, 326, 1525-1529, 2009 Junninen et al, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 1039-1053, 2010

  16. Radical loss in the atmosphere from Cu-Fe redox coupling in aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Fan, S.; Jacob, D. J.; Travis, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    The hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) is a major precursor of OH and tropospheric ozone. OH is the main atmospheric oxidant, while tropospheric ozone is an important surface pollutant and greenhouse gas. Standard gas-phase models for atmospheric chemistry tend to overestimate observed HO2 concentrations, and this has been tentatively attributed to heterogeneous uptake by aerosol particles. It is generally assumed that HO2 uptake by aerosol involves conversion to H2O2, but this is of limited efficacy as an HO2 sink because H2O2 can photolyze to regenerate OH and from there HO2. Joint atmospheric observations of HO2 and H2O2 suggest that HO2 uptake by aerosols may in fact not produce H2O2. Here we propose a catalytic mechanism involving coupling of the transition metal ions Cu(I)/Cu(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) to rapidly convert HO2 to H2O in aqueous aerosols. The implied HO2 uptake and conversion to H2O significantly affects global model predictions of tropospheric OH, ozone, carbon monoxide (CO) and other species, improving comparisons to observations in the GEOS-Chem model. It represents a previously unrecognized positive radiative forcing of aerosols through the effects on the chemical budgets of major greenhouse gases including methane and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  17. Atmospheric chemistry in stereo: A new look at secondary organic aerosols from isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozière, Barbara; González, Nélida J. D.; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Pei, Yuxin; Redeby, Johan Pettersson; Krejci, Radovan; Dommen, Josef; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Anthonsen, Thorleif

    2011-06-01

    Isoprene, a compound emitted by vegetation, could be a major contributor to secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. The main evidence for this contribution were the 2-methylbutane-1,2,3,4-tetraols, or 2-methyltetrols (2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol) present in ambient aerosols. In this work, the four stereoisomers of these tetraols were analyzed in aerosols from Aspvreten, Sweden. 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol was found in excess over its enantiomer in the Spring/Summer, by up to 29% in July. This clearly indicated some biological origins for this enantiomer, consistent with its well-documented production by plants and other living organisms. In addition, a minimum of 20 to 60% of the mass of racemic tetraols appeared from biological origin. Thus, the SOA mass produced by isoprene in the atmosphere is less than what indicated by the 2-methyltetrols in aerosols. Our results also demonstrate that stereochemical speciation can distinguish primary and secondary organic material in atmospheric aerosols.

  18. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  19. The aerosol distribution in Uranus' atmosphere - Interpretation of the hydrogen spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L.

    1976-01-01

    New observations of Uranus' combined H2 spectrum have been obtained. An analysis, emphasizing the leverage provided by the S3(0) quadrupole line, leads to strong constraints on Uranus' bulk aerosol distribution with depth. Using an inhomogeneous model atmosphere program which includes Rayleigh scattering for gases and a 1 plus cos theta phase function for cloud layers, it is shown that Uranus' H2 spectrum implies a cloud layer (or dense aerosol) at a depth from 500 to 700 km-amagat H2. It also implies negligible aerosol scattering in the 280 to 450 km-amagat H2 region and a thin haze at 100 to 200 km-amagat H2 depths. The low albedo in very strong CH4 bands indicates that there is negligible aerosol scattering in Uranus' radiative zone. Hydrogen appears to be more abundant than the sum of all other atmospheric gases. The C/H ratio deep in Uranus' atmosphere is strongly enhanced over the solar value. Accurate limb-darkening measurements in and near strong CH4 bands would be effective in specifying Uranus' aerosol distribution in greater detail.

  20. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Yinon; Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven; Haspel, Carynelisa

    2014-05-01

    In cold high altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and mid-latitudes, ice partciles that are exposed to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. In this talk we will describe experiements that simulate the atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols. We find that aerosols with high organic content can form highly porous particles (HPA) with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogenous aerosol following ice subliation. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure follwoing ice sublimation. We find that the highly porous aerosol scatter solar light less efficiently than non-porous aerosol particles. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges.

  1. Low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids in marine atmospheric aerosol: evidence of a marine microbial origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Sawano, M.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA), which are low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids, were identified in the particle and gas phases within the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the western subarctic North Pacific. Major portion of LA (81%) and GA (57%) were present in the particulate phase, which is consistent with the presence of a hydroxyl group in these molecules leading to the low volatility of the compounds. The average concentration of LA in more biologically influenced marine aerosols (average 33 ± 58 ng m-3) was substantially higher than that in less biologically influenced aerosols (average 11 ± 12 ng m-3). Over the oceacnic region of phytoplankton blooms, the concentration of aerosol LA was comparable to that of oxalic acid, which was the most abundant diacid during the study period. A positive correlation was found between the LA concentrations in more biologically influenced aerosols and chlorophyll a in seawater (r2 = 0.56), suggesting an important production of aerosol LA possibly associated with microbial (e.g., lactobacillus) activity in seawater and/or aerosols. Our finding provides a new insight into the poorly quantified microbial sources of marine organic aerosols (OA) because such low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids are key intermediates for OA formation.

  2. Low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids in marine atmospheric aerosol: evidence of a marine microbial origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Sawano, M.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-08-01

    Lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA), which are low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids, were identified in the particle and gas phases within the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the western subarctic North Pacific. A major portion of LA (81%) and GA (57%) was present in the particulate phase, which is consistent with the presence of a hydroxyl group in these molecules leading to the low volatility of the compounds. The average concentration (±SD) of LA in more biologically influenced marine aerosols (33 ± 58 ng m-3) was substantially higher than that in less biologically influenced aerosols (11 ± 12 ng m-3). Over the oceanic region of phytoplankton blooms, the concentration of aerosol LA was comparable to that of oxalic acid, which was the most abundant diacid during the study period. A positive correlation was found between the LA concentrations in more biologically influenced aerosols and chlorophyll a in seawater (r2 = 0.56), suggesting an important production of aerosol LA possibly associated with microbial (e.g., lactobacillus) activity in seawater and/or aerosols. Our finding provides a new insight into the poorly quantified microbial sources of marine organic aerosols (OAs) because such low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids are key intermediates for OA formation.

  3. Aerosol Acidity in the New England Coastal Atmosphere During Summer 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszenny, A. A.; Keene, W. C.; Maben, J. R.; Stevenson, E.; Wall, A.

    2003-12-01

    Aerosol pH controls important multiphase chemical pathways in the atmosphere but absolute values are poorly constrained. As part of the New England Air Quality Study, aerosol pH was quantified based on multiple independent approaches and results were intercompared for consistency. Soluble, reactive trace gases with pH-dependent solubilities (HNO3, NH3, HCl, HCOOH, and CH3COOH) were sampled with mist chambers. Size-segregated aerosols were sampled in parallel with cascade impactors and analyzed for major ionic constituents. H+ was measured directly in minimally diluted, 5-μ L spots on surfaces of impaction substrates with a flat-surface, field-effect transistor. Aerosol liquid water contents (LWCs) were calculated with hygrospocity models. Aerosol pHs required to sustain the measured phase partitioning of each analyte were inferred based on corresponding thermodynamic properties and direct pH measurements were extrapolated to ambient LWCs. The ensemble of approaches yielded coherent results. Sea-salt pHs ranged from about 2 to the mid 4s and sub-μ m aerosol pHs ranged from <1 to the mid 3s. The H+ + SO42-<-> HSO4- equilibrium strongly buffered aerosol pH in all size fractions.

  4. Inverse atmospheric radiative transfer problems - A nonlinear minimization search method of solution. [aerosol pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper studies the inversion of the radiative transfer equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmospheric aerosols. The interaction can be considered as the propagation in the aerosol medium of two light beams: the direct beam in the line-of-sight attenuated by absorption and scattering, and the diffuse beam arising from scattering into the viewing direction, which propagates more or less in random fashion. The latter beam has single scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In the former case and for single scattering, the problem is reducible to first-kind Fredholm equations, while for multiple scattering it is necessary to invert partial integrodifferential equations. A nonlinear minimization search method, applicable to the solution of both types of problems has been developed, and is applied here to the problem of monitoring aerosol pollution, namely the complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles.

  5. Atmospheric aerosol characterization during Saharan dust outbreaks at Naples EARLINET station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisani, Gianluca; Armenante, Mario; Boselli, Antonella; Frontoso, Maria Grazia; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan

    2007-10-01

    The optical properties and the spatial distribution of the tropospheric aerosols over Naples under Saharan dust outbreaks conditions have been studied by means of lidar measurements performed between May 2000 and August 2003 in the frame of the EARLINET project. Climatological analysis of sand plume has been done by comparing normal and dust affected conditions. Results in terms of backscattering and extinction coefficient as well as their integrated quantities show that the aerosol load from the ground level up to 2 Km during Saharan dust transport events is almost the same of normal conditions. This is probably due to the relevant widespread of local aerosol sources, such as vehicular traffic, industrial activities, etc. Nevertheless, when sand outbreaks occur, the extinction to backscattering ratio, i.e. the lidar ratio, clearly shows that the aerosol type in the lowest atmospheric layer changes. Moreover, Saharan dust transport events strong increase both integrated backscatter and optical dept above 2 km.

  6. Sources and source processes of organic nitrogen aerosols in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erupe, Mark E.

    The research in this dissertation explored the sources and chemistry of organic nitrogen aerosols in the atmosphere. Two approaches were employed: field measurements and laboratory experiments. In order to characterize atmospheric aerosol, two ambient studies were conducted in Cache Valley in Northern Utah during strong winter inversions of 2004 and 2005. The economy of this region is heavily dependent on agriculture. There is also a fast growing urban population. Urban and agricultural emissions, aided by the valley geography and meteorology, led to high concentrations of fine particles that often exceeded the national ambient air quality standards. Aerosol composition was dominated by ammonium nitrate and organic species. Mass spectra from an aerosol mass spectrometer revealed that the organic ion peaks were consistent with reduced organic nitrogen compounds, typically associated with animal husbandry practices. Although no direct source characterization studies have been undertaken in Cache Valley with an aerosol mass spectrometer, spectra from a study at a swine facility in Ames, Iowa, did not show any evidence of reduced organic nitrogen species. This, combined with temporal and diurnal characteristics of organic aerosol peaks, was a pointer that the organic nitrogen species in Cache Valley likely formed from secondary chemistry. Application of multivariate statistical analyses to the organic aerosol spectra further supported this hypothesis. To quantify organic nitrogen signals observed in ambient studies as well as understand formation chemistry, three categories of laboratory experiments were performed. These were calibration experiments, smog chamber studies, and an analytical method development. Laboratory calibration experiments using standard calibrants indicated that quantifying the signals from organic nitrogen species was dependent on whether they formed through acid-base chemistry or via secondary organic aerosol pathway. Results from smog chamber

  7. The Impact of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Aerosol on Climate in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, A. I.; Zakey, A.; Steiner, A. L.; Shokr, M. E.; El-Raey, M.; Ahmed, Y.; Al-Hadidi, A.; Zakey, A.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols are indicators of air quality as they reduce visibility and adversely affect public health. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a measure of the radiation extinction due to interaction of radiation with aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Using this optical measure of atmospheric aerosols we explore the seasonal and annual patterns of aerosols from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources over Egypt. Here, we use an integrated environment-climate-aerosol model in conjunction with inversion technique to identify the aerosol particle size distribution over different locations in Egypt. The online-integrated Environment-Climate-Aerosol model (EnvClimA), which is based on the International Center for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model (ICTP-RegCM), is used to study the emission of different aerosols and their impact on climate parameters for a long-term base line simulation run over Egypt and North Africa. The global emission inventory is downscaled and remapping them over Egypt using local factors such as population, traffic and industrial activities to identify the sources of anthropogenic and biogenic emission from local emission over Egypt. The results indicated that the dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are dust emissions that frequently occur during the transitional seasons (Spring and Autumn). From the local observation we identify the number of dust and sand storm occurrences over Egypt. The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is used to identify the optical characterizations of different types of aerosols over Egypt. Modeled aerosol optical depth and MISR observed (at 555 nm) are compared from March 2000 through November 2013. The results identify that the MISR AOD captures the maximum peaks of AOD in March/April that coincide with the Khamasin dust storms. However, peaks in May are either due to photochemical reactions or anthropogenic activities. Note: This presentation is for a Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER

  8. Evidence for the role of organics in aerosol particle formation under atmospheric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Axel; Verheggen, Bart; Dommen, Josef; Duplissy, Jonathan; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Weingartner, Ernest; Riipinen, Ilona; Kulmala, Markku; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2010-01-01

    New particle formation in the atmosphere is an important parameter in governing the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols. However, detailed nucleation mechanisms remain ambiguous, as laboratory data have so far not been successful in explaining atmospheric nucleation. We investigated the formation of new particles in a smog chamber simulating the photochemical formation of H2SO4 and organic condensable species. Nucleation occurs at H2SO4 concentrations similar to those found in the ambient atmosphere during nucleation events. The measured particle formation rates are proportional to the product of the concentrations of H2SO4 and an organic molecule. This suggests that only one H2SO4 molecule and one organic molecule are involved in the rate-limiting step of the observed nucleation process. Parameterizing this process in a global aerosol model results in substantially better agreement with ambient observations compared to control runs. PMID:20133603

  9. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 2: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, Mattia; Hendricks, Johannes; Sausen, Robert

    2016-04-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to simulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a previous study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation results in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in aviation traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon) and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), the aviation effect on particle mass concentration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m-3), about 1 order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the relatively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm-3), mostly affecting the northern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7-12 km). This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which also results in significant climate effects due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth's radiation budget is simulated in the future: the aviation-induced radiative forcing in 2030 is more than doubled with respect to the year 2000 value of -15 mW m-2 in all scenarios, with a maximum value of -63 mW m-2 simulated for RCP2.6.

  10. Quantification and radiocarbon source apportionment of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols using the CTO-375 method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zencak, Zdenek; Elmquist, Marie; Gustafsson, Örjan

    To make progress towards linking the atmosphere and biogeosphere parts of the black carbon (BC) cycle, a chemothermal oxidation method (CTO-375), commonly applied for isolating BC from complex geomatrices such as soils, sediments and aquatic particles, was applied to investigate the BC also in atmospheric particles. Concentrations and 14C-based source apportionment of CTO-375 based BC was established for a reference aerosol (NIST RM-8785) and for wintertime aerosols collected in Stockholm and in a Swedish background area. The results were compared with thermal-optical (OC/EC) measurements. For NIST RM-8785, a good agreement was found between the BC CTO-375 concentration and the reported elemental carbon (EC) concentration measured by the "Speciation Trends Network—National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health" method (EC NIOSH) with BC CTO-375 of 0.054±0.002 g g -1 and EC NIOSH of 0.067±0.008 g g -1. In contrast, there was an average factor of ca. 20 difference between BC CTO-375 and EC NIOSH for the ambient Scandinavian wintertime aerosols, presumably reflecting a combination of BC CTO-375 isolating only the recalcitrant soot-BC portion of the BC continuum and the EC NIOSH metric inadvertently including some intrinsically non-pyrogenic organic matter. Isolation of BC CTO-375 with subsequent off-line radiocarbon analysis yielded fraction modern values (fM) for total organic carbon (TOC) of 0.93 (aerosols from a Swedish background area), and 0.58 (aerosols collected in Stockholm); whereas the fM for BC CTO-375 isolates were 1.08 (aerosols from a Swedish background area), and 0.87 (aerosols collected in Stockholm). This radiocarbon-based source apportionment suggests that contribution from biomass combustion to cold-season atmospheric BC CTO-375 in Stockholm was 70% and in the background area 88%.

  11. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to atmospheric aerosol particles in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Xuexi; Wu, Dui; Brasseur, Guy

    In recent years, China and other emerging countries have been experiencing severe air pollution problems with high concentrations of atmospheric aerosol particles. Satellite measurements indicate that the aerosol loading of the atmosphere in highly populated regions of China is about 10 times higher than, for example, in Europe and in the Eastern United States. The exposure to extremely high aerosol concentrations might lead to important human health effects, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as well as lung cancers. Here, we analyze 52-year historical surface measurements of haze data in the Chinese city of Guangzhou, and show that the dramatic increase in the occurrence of air pollution events between 1954 and 2006 has been followed by a large enhancement in the incidence of lung cancer.

  12. Organic Aerosol Volatility Parameterizations and Their Impact on Atmospheric Composition and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their importance and ubiquity in the atmosphere, organic aerosols are still very poorly parameterized in global models. This can be explained by two reasons: first, a very large number of unconstrained parameters are involved in accurate parameterizations, and second, a detailed description of semi-volatile organics is computationally very expensive. Even organic aerosol properties that are known to play a major role in the atmosphere, namely volatility and aging, are poorly resolved in global models, if at all. Studies with different models and different parameterizations have not been conclusive on whether the additional complexity improves model simulations, but the added diversity of the different host models used adds an unnecessary degree of variability in the evaluation of results that obscures solid conclusions. Aerosol microphysics do not significantly alter the mean OA vertical profile or comparison with surface measurements. This might not be the case for semi-volatile OA with microphysics.

  13. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Jesse H; Donahue, Neil M; Jimenez, Jose L; Kessler, Sean H; Canagaratna, Manjula R; Wilson, Kevin R; Altieri, Katye E; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Wozniak, Andrew S; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R; Smith, Jared D; Kolb, Charles E; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2011-02-01

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that they play in human health, biogeochemical cycles and the Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state, a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of the average carbon oxidation state, using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number.

  14. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  15. Atmospheric aerosol composition and source apportionments to aerosol in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Chen, Chien-Lung

    In this study, the chemical characteristics of winter aerosol at four sites in southern Taiwan were determined and the Gaussian Trajectory transfer coefficient model (GTx) was then used to identify the major air pollutant sources affecting the study sites. Aerosols were found to be acidic at all four sites. The most important constituents of the particulate matter (PM) by mass were SO 42-, organic carbon (OC), NO 3-, elemental carbon (EC) and NH 4+, with SO 42-, NO 3-, and NH 4+ together constituting 86.0-87.9% of the total PM 2.5 soluble inorganic salts and 68.9-78.3% of the total PM 2.5-10 soluble inorganic salts, showing that secondary photochemical solution components such as these were the major contributors to the aerosol water-soluble ions. The coastal site, Linyuan (LY), had the highest PM mass percentage of sea salts, higher in the coarse fraction, and higher sea salts during daytime than during nighttime, indicating that the prevailing daytime sea breeze brought with it more sea-salt aerosol. Other than sea salts, crustal matter, and EC in PM 2.5 at Jenwu (JW) and in PM 2.5-10 at LY, all aerosol components were higher during nighttime, due to relatively low nighttime mixing heights limiting vertical and horizontal dispersion. At JW, a site with heavy traffic loadings, the OC/EC ratio in the nighttime fine and coarse fractions of approximately 2.2 was higher than during daytime, indicating that in addition to primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA) also contributed to the nighttime PM 2.5. This was also true of the nighttime coarse fraction at LY. The GTx produced correlation coefficients ( r) for simulated and observed daily concentrations of PM 10 at the four sites (receptors) in the range 0.45-0.59 and biases from -6% to -20%. Source apportionment indicated that point sources were the largest PM 10 source at JW, LY and Daliao (DL), while at Meinung (MN), a suburban site with less local PM 10, SO x and NO x emissions, upwind

  16. Characteristics and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Phimai, Central Thailand During BASE-ASIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2012-01-01

    Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15

  17. N2O5 oxidizes chloride to Cl2 in acidic atmospheric aerosol.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James M; Osthoff, Hans D; Brown, Steven S; Ravishankara, A R

    2008-08-22

    Molecular chlorine (Cl2) is an important yet poorly understood trace constituent of the lower atmosphere. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed for the conversion of particle-bound chloride (Cl-) to gas-phase Cl2, the detailed processes involved remain uncertain. Here, we show that reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) with aerosol-phase chloride yields Cl2 at low pH (<2) and should constitute an important halogen activation pathway in the atmosphere.

  18. Impact of Nonabsorbing Anthropogenic Aerosols on Clear-Sky Atmospheric Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, Philip; Seinfeld, John H.; Kinne, Stefan; Feichter,Johann; Boucher, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosol has become recognized as important in regional and global climate. Nonabsorbing, hydrophilic aerosols, such as sulfate, potentially affect atmospheric absorption in opposing ways: first, decreasing absorption through aging initially hydrophobic black carbon (BC) to a hydrophilic state, enhancing its removal by wet scavenging, and consequently decreasing BC lifetime and abundance, and second, increasing absorption through enhancement of the BC absorption efficiency by internal mixing as well as through increasing the amount of diffuse solar radiation in the atmosphere. On the basis of General Circulation Model studies with an embedded microphysical aerosol module we systematically demonstrate the significance of these mechanisms both on the global and regional scales. In remote transport regions, the first mechanism prevails, reducing atmospheric absorption, whereas in the vicinity of source regions, despite enhanced wet scavenging, absorption is enhanced owing to the prevalence of the second mechanisms. Our findings imply that the sulfur to BC emission ratio plays a key role in aerosol absorption.

  19. Radical loss in the atmosphere from Cu-Fe redox coupling in aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Fan, S.; Jacob, D. J.; Travis, K.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2012-12-01

    The hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) is a major precursor of OH and tropospheric ozone. OH is the main atmospheric oxidant, while tropospheric ozone is an important surface pollutant and greenhouse gas. Standard gas-phase models for atmospheric chemistry tend to overestimate observed HO2 concentrations, and this has been tentatively attributed to heterogeneous uptake by aerosol particles. It is generally assumed that HO2 uptake by aerosol involves conversion to H2O2, but this is of limited efficacy as an HO2 sink because H2O2 can photolyze to regenerate OH and from there HO2. Joint atmospheric observations of HO2 and H2O2 suggest that HO2 uptake by aerosols may in fact not produce H2O2. Here we propose a catalytic mechanism involving coupling of the transition metal ions (TMI) Cu(I)/Cu(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) to rapidly convert HO2 to H2O in aerosols. The implied HO2 uptake significantly affects global model predictions of tropospheric OH, ozone, and other species, improving comparisons to observations, and may have a major and previously unrecognized impact on atmospheric oxidant chemistry.

  20. Radical loss in the atmosphere from Cu-Fe redox coupling in aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Fan, S.; Jacob, D. J.; Travis, K. R.

    2012-10-01

    The hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) is a major precursor of OH and tropospheric ozone. OH is the main atmospheric oxidant, while tropospheric ozone is an important surface pollutant and greenhouse gas. Standard gas-phase models for atmospheric chemistry tend to overestimate observed HO2 concentrations, and this has been tentatively attributed to heterogeneous uptake by aerosol particles. It is generally assumed that HO2 uptake by aerosol involve conversion to H2O2, but this is of limited efficacy as an HO2 sink because H2O2 can photolyze to regenerate OH and from there HO2. Joint atmospheric observations of HO2 and H2O2 suggest that HO2 uptake by aerosols may in fact not produce H2O2. Here we propose a catalytic mechanism involving coupling of the transition metal ions (TMI) Cu(I)/Cu(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) to rapidly convert HO2 to H2O in aerosols. The implied HO2 uptake significantly affects global model predictions of tropospheric OH, ozone, and other species, improving comparisons to observations, and may have a major and previously unrecognized impact on atmospheric oxidant chemistry.

  1. SEMI-VOLATILE SECONDARY AEROSOLS IN URBAN ATMOSPHERES: MEETING A MEASURED CHALLENGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation compares the results from various particle measurement methods as they relate to semi-volatile secondary aerosols in urban atmospheres. The methods include the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method; Particle Concentrator - BYU Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS); the Re...

  2. Experimental study of the interaction of THz radiation FEL with the atmosphere and water droplet aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, G. G.; Lisenko, A. A.; Babchenko, S. V.; Kargin, B. A.; Kablukova, E. G.; Kubarev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of radiation of the Novosibirsk Free Electron Laser (FEL) at a wavelength of 130 μm in the atmospheric transmission window with a model aerosol cloud having the known droplet size distribution function has been studied experimentally. The experimental findings are compared with theoretical calculations obtained from solution of the lidar equation for the conditions of the experiment.

  3. Atmospheric aerosols: A literature summary of their physical characteristics and chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains a summary of 199 recent references on the characterization of atmospheric aerosols with respect to their composition, sources, size distribution, and time changes, and with particular reference to the chemical elements measured by modern techniques, especially activation analysis.

  4. Organic Aerosol Composition Measurements at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parworth, C. L.; Zhang, Q.; Fast, J. D.; Shippert, T.; Sivaraman, C.; Mei, F.; Tilp, A.

    2012-12-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) makes up a large portion of aerosols in the atmosphere. A better understanding of the chemical composition of OA is needed to quantify the effects that aerosols have on radiation and clouds. OA is composed of thousands of species making its chemical and physical properties difficult to characterize. The complex composition of OA can be decomposed into several factors representative of distinct sources and evolution processes through the application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) on ambient OA data acquired with aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS). Previous studies have shown that the OA factors thus determined can be particularly useful for closure studies on aerosol optical and cloud condensation properties. Three units of Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were recently added to two long-term measurement sites (Tropical Western Pacific and Southern Great Plains) and a mobile facility supported by the DOE ARM program. An ACSM is a smaller version of an AMS that provides long term, continuous measurements of aerosols and requires low maintenance. In this presentation, we will report the development of methods that take measurements of total organic matter and mass spectral information from the ACSM and derive OA factors. We will describe how the OA factors are derived, the quality assurance (QA) procedures, and comparisons of side-by-side measurements from AMS and ACSM instruments. The code generated in this analysis will be run within the Data Management Facility of ARM and the new data product called the Organic Aerosol Composition (Oacomp) value-added product will be added to the ARM archive. We will also present data from over a year-long period from the SGP site, along with an analysis that explains the seasonal and multi-day variations in inorganic and organic aerosol components.

  5. Reformulating atmospheric aerosol thermodynamics and hygroscopic growth into fog, haze and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-06-01

    Modeling atmospheric aerosol and cloud microphysics is rather complex, even if chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium is assumed. We show, however, that the thermodynamics can be considerably simplified by reformulating equilibrium to consistently include water, and transform laboratory-based concepts to atmospheric conditions. We generalize the thermodynamic principles that explain hydration and osmosis - merely based on solute solubilities - to explicitly account for the water mass consumed by hydration. As a result, in chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium the relative humidity (RH) suffices to determine the saturation molality, including solute and solvent activities (and activity coefficients), since the water content is fixed by RH for a given aerosol concentration and type. As a consequence, gas/liquid/solid aerosol equilibrium partitioning can be solved analytically and non-iteratively. Our new concept enables an efficient and accurate calculation of the aerosol water mass and directly links the aerosol hygroscopic growth to fog, haze and cloud formation. We apply our new concept in the 3rd Equilibrium Simplified Aerosol Model (EQSAM3) for use in regional and global chemistry-transport and climate models. Its input is limited to the species' solubilities from which a newly introduced stoichiometric coefficient for water is derived. Analogously, we introduce effective stoichiometric coefficients for the solutes to account for complete or incomplete dissociation. We show that these coefficients can be assumed constant over the entire activity range and calculated for various inorganic, organic and non-electrolyte compounds, including alcohols, sugars and dissolved gases. EQSAM3 calculates the aerosol composition and gas/liquid/solid partitioning of mixed inorganic/organic multicomponent solutions and the associated water uptake for almost 100 major compounds. It explicitly accounts for particle hygroscopic growth by computing aerosol properties such as

  6. Statistical Estimation of the Atmospheric Aerosol Absorption Coefficient Based on the Data of Optical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhegov, V.N.; Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Pkhalagov, Yu.A.; Pol'kin, V.V.; Terpugova, S.A.; Shmargunov, V.P.; Yausheva, E.P.

    2005-03-18

    The problem of the choice of the aerosol optical constants and, in particular, imaginary part of the refractive index of particles in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges is very important for calculation of the global albedo of the atmosphere in climatic models. The available models of the aerosol optical constants obtained for the prescribed chemical composition of particles (see, for example, Ivlev et al. 1973; Ivlev 1982; Volz 1972), often are far from real aerosol. It is shown in (Krekov et al. 1982) that model estimates of the optical characteristics of the atmosphere depending on the correctness of real and imaginary parts of the aerosol complex refractive index can differ by some hundreds percent. It is known that the aerosol extinction coefficient {alpha}({lambda}) obtained from measurements on a long horizontal path can be represented as {alpha}({lambda})={sigma}({lambda})+{beta}({lambda}), where {sigma} is the directed light scattering coefficient, and {beta} is the aerosol absorption coefficient. The coefficient {sigma}({lambda}) is measured by means of a nephelometer. Seemingly, if measure the values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}), it is easy to determine the value {beta}({lambda}). However, in practice it is almost impossible for a number of reasons. Firstly, the real values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}) are very close to each other, and the estimate of the parameter {beta}({lambda}) is concealed by the errors of measurements. Secondly, the aerosol optical characteristics on the long path and in the local volume of nephelometer can be different, that also leads to the errors in estimating {beta}({lambda}). Besides, there are serious difficulties in performing spectral measurements of {sigma}({lambda}) in infrared wavelength range. Taking into account these circumstances, in this paper we consider the statistical technique, which makes it possible to estimate the absorption coefficient of real aerosol on the basis of analysis

  7. Formation and Processing of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Catechol as a Model for Atmospheric HULIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofner, Johannes; Krüger, Heinz-Ulrich; Grothe, Hinrich; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2010-05-01

    A particular fraction of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) termed HUmic Like Substances (HULIS) attracted attention only recently in atmospheric aerosol, initiating a discourse about their aromaticity and other properties, such as reactivity and hygroscopicity. A major portion of HULIS originates from volatile organic compounds, which are formed by abiotic oxidation reactions involving mainly OH radicals, ozone, nitrogen oxides and possibly halogens. Subsequently, the particles provide surface for heterogeneous reactions with atmospheric trace gases. Thus, aerosol smog-chamber studies with appropriate precursors are needed to generate SOA with HULIS qualities in situ inside the smog chamber and study their possible interactions. Catechol and guaiacol were chosen as aromatic precursors for synthetic HULIS production. The SOA was produced in a 700 L aerosol smog chamber, equipped with a solar simulator. SOA formation from each precursor was investigated at simulated environmental conditions (humidity, light, and presence of oxidizers) and characterized with respect to HULIS properties by particle classifiers, Fourier Transform IR spectroscopy (by long-path absorption and attenuated total reflection), UV/VIS spectroscopy, high-resolution mass-spectroscopy and temperature-programmed-desorption mass-spectrometry. High-resolution imaging was obtained using Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEGSEM). After HULIS formation the aerosol particles were exposed to atmospheric halogen species to study their processing with those trace gases, released by sea salt-activation. Those investigations show that aromatic precursors like catechol and guaiacol are suitable to form synthetic HULIS for laboratory-scale measurements with physical and chemical properties described in literature. However, sunlight and relative humidity play a major role in particle production and composition of functional groups, which are the anchor points for heterogeneous atmospheric

  8. Influence of atmospheric relative humidity on ultraviolet flux and aerosol direct radiative forcing: Observation and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Chen, Ling; Chen, Huizhong; Luo, Xuyu; Deng, Tao

    2016-08-01

    The atmospheric aerosols can absorb moisture from the environment due to their hydrophilicity and thus affect atmospheric radiation fluxes. In this article, the ultraviolet radiation and relative humidity (RH) data from ground observations and a radiative transfer model were used to examine the influence of RH on ultraviolet radiation flux and aerosol direct radiative forcing under the clear-sky conditions. The results show that RH has a significant influence on ultraviolet radiation because of aerosol hygroscopicity. The relationship between attenuation rate and RH can be fitted logarithmically and all of the R2 of the 4 sets of samples are high, i.e. 0.87, 0.96, 0.9, and 0.9, respectively. When the RH is 60%, 70%, 80% and 90%, the mean aerosol direct radiative forcing in ultraviolet is -4.22W m-2, -4.5W m-2, -4.82W m-2 and -5.4W m-2, respectively. For the selected polluted air samples the growth factor for computing aerosol direct radiative forcing in the ultraviolet for the RH of 80% varies from 1.19 to 1.53, with an average of 1.31.

  9. [Effects of Relative Humidity and Aerosol Physicochemical Properties on Atmospheric Visibility in Northern Suburb of Nanjing].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing-na; Ma, Jia; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Hong-lei; Yan, Shu-qi; Xia, Hang

    2015-06-01

    To understand the effects of relative humidity (RH) and aerosol physicochemical properties on the atmospheric visibility in autumn and winter in northern suburb of Nanjing, the relationships between meteorological elements, particulate matter and visibility were analyzed with the data of meteorological elements, aerosol particle spectra, particulate matter concentration and chemical composition. The average visibility was 4.76 km in autumn and winter in northern suburb of Nanjing. There was a certain negative correlation between the particulate matter concentration and the visibility, especially the influence of fine particles on the visibility was more remarkable. The occurrence frequencies of low visibilities showed an increasing trend with the increasing concentration of fine particles and RH. When the visibility decreased from 5-10 km to <5 km, the mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 increased by 7.56% and 37.64%, respectively. Meanwhile, the mass concentrations of SO4(2-) and NO3-increased significantly. Effects of aerosol particle number concentration on the visibility were related with RH. Aerosol number concentration with diameters ranging from 0.5 microm to 2 microm increased slowly with the increase of RH, while those ranging from 2 microm to 10 microm decreased. The correlation analysis between the aerosol surface area concentration and the visibility showed that RH and fine particles between 0.5 microm and 2 microm were the main factors which caused the decrease of atmospheric visibility in autumn and winter in northern suburb of Nanjing.

  10. Atmospheric aerosol impacts on sea surface temperatures and medium range forecast.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyola, M. I.; Joseph, E.; Lu, C. H.; Nalli, N. R.

    2014-12-01

    This work proposes a series of experiments to analyze the impact of dust aerosols on numerical weather prediction (NWP) and the global data assimilation system. We strive to accomplish this by the application of the NOAA Environmental Modeling System/Global Forecasting System (NEMS/GFS) aerosol component (NGAC), which corresponds to the first global interactive atmosphere-aerosol forecast system ever implemented at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and which has been operational since September 2012. Specifically, our approach will include the implementation of an improved satellite sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval methodology, that allows for better representation of the atmospheric state under dust-laden conditions. Specifically, the new algorithm will be included within the NGAC aerosol product to improve the accuracy of the SST analysis and examine the impact on NWP, particularly in tropical cyclone genesis regions in the eastern Atlantic. The results of these corrections are validated against observed measurements from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, which is dominated by Saharan dust throughout most of the year and that is also a genesis region for Atlantic tropical cyclones. These observations are obtained from the NOAA Aerosols and Ocean Science Expeditions (AEROSE) and PIRATA Northeast Extension (PNE) buoys network. We believe that the improved physical SST methodology has the potential to allow for improved representation of the geophysical state under dust-laden conditions

  11. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5

    DOE PAGES

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P. M.

    2015-03-27

    Single-column model (SCM) capability is an important tool for general circulation model development. In this study, the SCM mode of version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is shown to handle aerosol initialization and advection improperly, resulting in aerosol, cloud-droplet, and ice crystal concentrations which are typically much lower than observed or simulated by CAM5 in global mode. This deficiency has a major impact on stratiform cloud simulations but has little impact on convective case studies because aerosol is currently not used by CAM5 convective schemes and convective cases are typically longer in duration (so initialization is less important).more » By imposing fixed aerosol or cloud-droplet and crystal number concentrations, the aerosol issues described above can be avoided. Sensitivity studies using these idealizations suggest that the Meyers et al. (1992) ice nucleation scheme prevents mixed-phase cloud from existing by producing too many ice crystals. Microphysics is shown to strongly deplete cloud water in stratiform cases, indicating problems with sequential splitting in CAM5 and the need for careful interpretation of output from sequentially split climate models. Droplet concentration in the general circulation model (GCM) version of CAM5 is also shown to be far too low (~ 25 cm−3) at the southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site.« less

  12. Chemical Analysis of Fractionated Halogens in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Somada, Y.; Azechi, S.; Handa, D.; Oshiro, Y.; Murayama, H.; Arakaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Halogens (Cl, Br and I) play important roles in the atmosphere, e.g. ozone depletion by Br during spring in Polar Regions. Sources of halogens in atmospheric aerosols are mainly from ocean. But, for example, when we analyzed Br- with ion chromatography, its concentrations were almost always below the detection limit, which is also much lower than the estimated concentrations from sodium ion concentrations. We hypothesized that portions of halogens are escaped to the atmosphere, similar to chlorine loss, changed their chemical forms to such as BrO3- and IO3-, and/or even formed precipitates. There was few reported data so far about fractionated halogen concentrations in atmospheric aerosols. Thus, purpose of this study was to determine halogen concentrations in different fractions; free ion, water-soluble chemically transformed ions and precipitates using the authentic aerosols. Moreover, we analyzed seasonal variation for each fraction. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) of Okinawa, Japan during January 2010 and August 2013. A high volume air sampler was used for collecting total particulate matters on quartz filters on a weekly basis. Ultrapure water was used to extract water-soluble factions of halogens. The extracted solutions were filtered with the membrane filter and used for chemical analysis with ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Moreover, the total halogens in aerosols were obtained after digesting aerosols with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using the microwave and analysis with ICP-MS. For Cl, water-soluble Cl- accounted for about 70% of the estimates with Na content. No other forms of water-soluble Cl were found. About 30% of Cl was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For Br, water-soluble Br accounted for about 43% of the estimates with Na content, and within the 43%, about 10% of Br was not in the form of Br-. About 46% of Br was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For I

  13. Atmospheric Aerosol and Thermal Structure in the Boundary Layer Over the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Warren B.

    1973-01-01

    A field study using a mobile lidar was recently conducted in the L. A. Basin, California, to (1) examine the relationship between the vertical aerosol and the thermal structure, and (2) map the vertical aerosol structure in the atmospheric boundary layer over the basin. These data are needed for use in the development of a mixing-depth submodel required for photochemical air Quality simulation models. Toward these ends, a series of lidar aerosol measurements in conjunction with balloon and aircraft temperature soundings were taken at a site in El Monte, and in a mobile mode along a 90-mile freeway loop between El Monte, Santa Monica, and Long Beach. The lidar data are presented in the form of time-height and distance-height cross sections. The results indicate that, although aerosol concentrations are frequently present above the base of the marine inversion, these are generally in stratified layers in contrast to the more uniform nature of the lower convective layer, permitting the mixing depth to be distinguished on this basis. The lidar-derived mixing depths are well correlated (within 100 m) with daytime temperature inversions. Other significant features shown by the lidar data include large Basin-wide mixing-depth variations, waves with amplitudes of 200-300 m and wavelengths of 1000-1500 m on the lower aerosol layer, and apparent aerosol "chimneys" with overrunning in the vicinity of convergence zones.

  14. MULTI-TECHNIQUE APPROACH TO MEASURE SIZE AND TIME RESOLVED ATMOSPHERIC AND RADIONUCLIDE AEROSOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Shutthanandan, V; Xie, YuLong; Disselkamp, Robert S; Laulainen, Nels S; Smith, Edward A; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2008-12-01

    Accurate quantifications of aerosol components are crucial to predict global atmospheric transport models. Recently developed International Monitoring System (IMS) network represents an opportunity to enhance comprehensive systematic aerosol observations on a global scale because it provides a global infrastructure. As such, a local pilot study utilizing several state-of-the-art instruments has been conducted at the peak of Rattlesnake Mountain, Washington, USA, during three month periods (June-August) in 2003 to explore this opportunity. In this study, routine aerosol samples were collected using a 3-stage Cascade Impactor Beam Analyzer (0.07 to 2.5 µm) with time resolution about 6 hours on long Teflon strips while radionuclide aerosols were collected using Radionuclide aerosol sampler/analyzer (RASA) developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The elemental composition and hydrogen concentration were measured using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA), respectively. In addition, short and long-lived radionuclides that exist in nature were measured with same time resolution (6 hours) using RASA. In this method, high-resolution gamma-ray spectra were analyzed for radionuclide concentration. Combination of trace radioactive and non-radioactive element analysis in aerosols makes this investigation unique.

  15. Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning conditions.

    PubMed

    Artaxo, Paulo; Rizzo, Luciana V; Brito, Joel F; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Arana, Andrea; Sena, Elisa T; Cirino, Glauber G; Bastos, Wanderlei; Martin, Scot T; Andreae, Meinrat O

    2013-01-01

    In the wet season, a large portion of the Amazon region constitutes one of the most pristine continental areas, with very low concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosol particles. However, land use change modifies the biosphere-atmosphere interactions in such a way that key processes that maintain the functioning of Amazonia are substantially altered. This study presents a comparison between aerosol properties observed at a preserved forest site in Central Amazonia (TT34 North of Manaus) and at a heavily biomass burning impacted site in south-western Amazonia (PVH, close to Porto Velho). Amazonian aerosols were characterized in detail, including aerosol size distributions, aerosol light absorption and scattering, optical depth and aerosol inorganic and organic composition, among other properties. The central Amazonia site (TT34) showed low aerosol concentrations (PM2.5 of 1.3 +/- 0.7 microg m(-3) and 3.4 +/- 2.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively), with a median particle number concentration of 220 cm(-3) in the wet season and 2200 cm(-3) in the dry season. At the impacted site (PVH), aerosol loadings were one order of magnitude higher (PM2.5 of 10.2 +/- 9.0 microg m(-3) and 33.0 +/- 36.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). The aerosol number concentration at the impacted site ranged from 680 cm(-3) in the wet season up to 20 000 cm(-3) in the dry season. An aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was deployed in 2013 at both sites, and it shows that organic aerosol account to 81% to the non-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while biomass burning aerosols at PVH shows a 93% content of organic particles. Three years of filter-based elemental composition measurements shows that sulphate at the impacted site decreases, on average, from 12% of PM2.5 mass during the wet season to 5% in the dry season. This result corroborates the ACSM finding that the biomass burning contributed overwhelmingly to the organic

  16. Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols in a Costa Rican Premontane Cloud Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, A. R.; Guffin, E. C.; Brooks, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    The composition and size of atmospheric aerosols are key to understanding both the direct effects of aerosols on climate and their role as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). In this study, aerosols in a Costa Rican tropical premontane cloud forest were collected and analyzed by size, chemical composition, and source to determine their role in specific weather events and cloud formation. Particle concentration and size distributions were measured using a TSI AeroTrak spectrometer. A PIXE Cascade Impactor with two sampling stages was used to collect particles in the submicron and supermicron size ranges. To survey the biogenic component of aerosols, pollen particles were collected with a Rotorod Model 20. Aerosol and pollen samples were analyzed on "typical" and "event" days. Collected aerosol samples were analyzed for molecular functional groups present via Raman Microspectroscopy. AeroTrak collection showed particles in all size bins, with the majority of particles in the 0.3 μm bin. Typical days were consistently dominated by submicron particles. Event days were marked by strong and/or unusual wind speeds and directions, or heavy precipitation events. Concentrations of coarse particles were significantly increased during events. Raman analysis showed peaks at 2900, 1550, 1350, 1068, 450, and 141 wavenumbers, which indicate a mixture of organics, humic-like substances, nitrates, sulfates, and inorganic salts. Light microscopy analysis of pollen samples showed a large variability in daily pollen count with the greatest pollen count occurring on wind event days. Prevalent taxa of pollen identified were genus Pourouma in the Moraceae family, and Asteraceae family. Detailed characterization of the biogenic aerosol population present in the remote cloud forest will be presented and atmospheric implications discussed.

  17. Seasonal, intraseasonal, and interannual variability of global land fires and their effects on atmospheric aerosol distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yimin; Stocker, Erich

    2002-12-01

    In order to understand the variability of global land fires and their effects on the distribution of atmospheric aerosols, statistical methods were applied to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) fire products as well as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index products for a period of 4 years from January 1998 to December 2001. The fire data in this period manifested a strong annual cycle of land fires in Southeast Asia with a peak in March and in Africa and North and South America with a peak in August. The data also indicated interannual variations in Indonesia and Central America associated with the 1998-1999 El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle. The variability of global atmospheric aerosol is consistent with the fire variations over these regions. However, in southwestern Australia, intense fires were recorded in TRMM fire data, but no smoke was observed in the TOMS aerosol product. Excluding the Australian region, the correlation between fire count and TOMS aerosol index is about 0.55 for fire pixels. Empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF) and singular spectrum analysis methods were used to analyze the TRMM Science Data and Information System pentad fire composite data and TOMS pentad aerosol index data for this 4 year period. The EOF analyses showed contrast between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and also intercontinental transitions in Africa and America. These analyses also identified 25-60 day intraseasonal oscillations that were superimposed on the annual cycles of both fire and aerosol data. The intraseasonal variability of fires showed a similarity of Madden-Julian oscillation mode.

  18. Photochemical aerosol formation in planetary atmospheres: A comparison between Pluto and Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavvas, Panayotis; Strobel, Darrell F.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Gurwell, Mark A.; Cheng, Andrew F.; Summers, Michael; Gladstone, Randy

    2016-10-01

    The New Horizons mission observations have revealed us that Pluto's atmosphere is rich in photochemical hazes that extend to high altitudes above its surface [1], apparently similar to those observed in Titan's atmosphere [2].We use detailed models combining photochemistry and microphysics in order to simulate the aerosol formation and growth in Pluto's atmosphere, as performed for Titan's atmosphere [3]. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms leading to the formation of haze particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and we evaluate the contribution of different growth processes (e.g. coagulation vs. condensation) to the resulting particle properties.Moreover we investigate the role of these particles in the radiative balance of Pluto's atmosphere and we compare the resulting particle properties, with those retrieved for Titan's upper atmosphere based on Cassini observations [4]. We discuss the similarities and difference between Pluto's and Titan's aerosols.[1] Gladstone et al., 2016, Science, 351, 6271[2] West et al., 2015, Titan's Haze, in Titan, Interior, Surface, Atmosphere and Space environment, Cambridge University Press[3] Lavvas et al., 2013, PNAS, pnas.1217059110[4] Lavvas et al., 2015, DPS47, id.205.08

  19. Activity size distribution and residence time of 7Be aerosols in the Arctic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Paatero, Jussi

    2014-05-01

    The activity size distributions of the natural radionuclide tracer 7Be in different size range fractions (<0.39 μm, 0.39-0.69 μm, 0.69-1.3 μm, 1.3-2.1 μm, 2.1-4.2 μm, 4.2-10.2 μm and >10.2 μm) were determined in the boreal atmosphere in the Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) at Sodankylä, Finland (67°22‧ N, 26°38‧ E, 180 m asl). The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) ranged from 0.54 μm to 1.05 μm (average 0.83 μm). A residence time of about 8 days applies to aerosols of 0.83 μm diameter, representing the residence of aerosol particles in arctic environment. The observed positive correlation between AMAD values and RH% can be explained by the fact that condensation during high relative humidity conditions becomes more intense, resulting in increased particle sizes of atmospheric aerosols. However, greater aerosol particle sizes means higher wet scavenging rate of aerosols and as a result lower activity concentration of 7Be in the atmosphere, explaining the anti-correlation between the AMAD values and activity concentrations of 7Be. But this associated with possibly higher scavenging rates of aerosols does not necessarily alone explain the anti-correlation between the AMAD and the 7Be activities. The air mass origin associated with synoptic scale weather phenomena may contribute to that too. The Flextra model was used to assess the transport pattern and to explain the deviation in radionuclide activity concentrations and AMAD values observed in the site of investigation.

  20. iSPEX: everybody can measure atmospheric aerosols with a smartphone spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snik, F.; Heikamp, S.; de Boer, J.; Keller, C. U.; van Harten, G.; Smit, J. M.; Rietjens, J. H. H.; Hasekamp, O.; Stam, D. M.; Volten, H.; iSPEX Team

    2012-04-01

    An increasing amount people carry a mobile phone with internet connection, camera and large computing power. iSPEX, a spectropolarimetric add-on with complementary app, instantly turns a smartphone into a scientific instrument to measure dust and other aerosols in our atmosphere. A measurement involves scanning the blue sky, which yields the angular behavior of the degree of linear polarization as a function of wavelength, which can unambiguously be interpreted in terms of size, shape and chemical composition of the aerosols in the sky directly above. The measurements are tagged with location and pointing information, and submitted to a central database where they will be interpreted and compiled into an aerosol map. Through crowdsourcing, many people will thus be able to contribute to a better assessment of health risks of particulate matter and of whether or not volcanic ash clouds are dangerous for air traffic. It can also contribute to the understanding of the relationship between atmospheric aerosols and climate change. We will give a live presentation of the first iSPEX prototype. Furthermore, we will present the design and the plans for producing the iSPEX add-on, app and website. We aim to distribute thousands of iSPEX units, such that a unique network of aerosol measurement equipment is created. Many people will thus contribute to the solution of several urgent social and scientific problems, and learn about the nature of light, remote sensing and the issues regarding atmospheric aerosols in the process. In particular we focus on school classes where smartphones are usually considered a nuisance, whereas now they can be a crucial part of various educational programs in science class.

  1. Surface ozone-aerosol behaviour and atmospheric boundary layer structure in Saharan dusty scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, Jose; Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Sorrribas, Mar; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel; Toledo, Daniel; Yela, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    A research campaign was performed for the AMISOC (Atmospheric Minor Species relevant to the Ozone Chemistry) project at El Arenosillo observatory (southwest Spain) in May-June 2012. The campaign focused on the impact of Saharan dust intrusions at the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and ozone-aerosol interactions. In-situ and remote-sensing techniques for gases and aerosols were used moreover to modelling analyses. Meteorology features, ABL structures and evolution, aerosol profiling distributions and aerosol-ozone interactions on the surface were analysed. Two four-day periods were selected according to non-dusty (clean conditions) and dusty (Saharan dust) situations. In both scenarios, sea-land breezes developed in the lower atmosphere, but differences were found in the upper levels. Results show that surface temperatures were greater than 3°C and humidity values were lower during dusty conditions than non-dusty conditions. Thermal structures on the surface layer (estimated using an instrument on a 100 m tower) show differences, mainly during nocturnal periods with less intense inversions under dusty conditions. The mixing layer during dusty days was 400-800 m thick, less than observed on non-dusty days. Dust also disturbed the typical daily ABL evolution. Stable conditions were observed during the early evening during intrusions. Aerosol extinction on dusty days was 2-3 times higher, and the dust was confined between 1500 and 5500 m. Back trajectory analyses confirmed that the dust had an African origin. On the surface, the particle concentration was approximately 3.5 times higher during dusty events, but the local ozone did not exhibit any change. The arrival of Saharan dust in the upper levels impacted the meteorological surface, inhibited the daily evolution of the ABL and caused an increase in aerosol loading on the surface and at higher altitudes; however, no dust influence was observed on surface ozone.

  2. Modeling sea-salt aerosols in the atmosphere: 1. Model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, S. L.; Barrie, L. A.; Blanchet, J.-P.

    1997-02-01

    A simulation of the processes of sea-salt aerosol generation, diffusive transport, transformation, and removal as a function of particle size is incorporated into a one-dimensional version of the Canadian general climate model (GCMII). This model was then run in the North Atlantic between Iceland and Ireland during the period of January-March. Model predictions are compared to observations of sea-salt aerosols selected from a review of available studies that were subjected to strict screening criteria to ensure their representativeness. The number and mass size distribution and the wind dependency of total sea-salt aerosol mass concentrations predicted by the model compare well with observations. The modeled dependence of sea-salt aerosol concentration in the surface layer (χ, μg m-3) on 10-m wind speed (U10, m s-1) is given by?. Simulations show that both a and b change with location. The value a and b range from 0.20 and 3.1 for Mace Head, Ireland to 0.26, and 1.4 for Heimaey, Iceland. The dependence of χ on surface wind speed is weaker for smaller particles and for particles at higher altitudes. The residence time of sea-salt aerosols in the first atmospheric layer (0-166 m) ranges from 30 min for large particles (r=4-8 μm) to ˜60 hours for small particles (r=0.13-0.25 μm). Although some refinements are required for the model, it forms the basis for comparing the simulations with long-term atmospheric sea-salt measurements made at marine baseline observatories around the world and for a more comprehensive three-dimensional modeling of atmospheric sea-salt aerosols.

  3. Photochemical Formation of Aerosol in Planetary Atmospheres: Photon and Water Mediated Chemistry of SO_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Jay A.; Donaldson, D. J.; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur compounds have been observed in a number of planetary atmospheres throughout our solar system. Our current understanding of sulfur chemistry explains much of what we observe in Earth's atmosphere. However, several discrepancies between modeling and observations of the Venusian atmosphere show there are still problems in our fundamental understanding of sulfur chemistry. This is of particular concern due to the important role sulfur compounds play in the formation of aerosols, which have a direct impact on planetary climates, including Earth's. We investigate the role of water complexes in the hydration of sulfur oxides and dehydration of sulfur acids and will present spectroscopic studies to document such effects. I will present recent work investigating mixtures of SO_2 and water that generate large quantities of aerosol when irradiated with solar UV light, even in the absence of traditional OH chemistry. I will discuss a proposed mechanism for the formation of sulfurous acid (H_2SO_3) and present recent experimental work that supports this proposed mechanism. Additionally, the implications that photon-induced hydration of SO_2 has for aerosol formation in the atmosphere of earth as well as other planetary atmospheres will be discussed.

  4. Adsorption of HO(x) on aerosol surfaces - Implications for the atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Leu, M.-T.; Nair, H. A.; Yung, Y. L.

    1993-01-01

    The potential impact of heterogeneous chemistry on the abundance and distribution of HO(x) in the Martian atmosphere is investigated using observational data on dust and ice aerosol distributions combined with an updated photochemical model. Critical parameters include the altitude distributions of aerosols and the surface loss coefficients of HO2 on dust and ice in the lower atmosphere and of H on ice above 40 km. Results of calculations indicate that adsorption of HO2 on dust, or ice near 30 km, can deplete OH abundances in the lower atmosphere by 10 percent or more and that the adsorption of H on ice at 50 km can result in even larger OH depletions (this effect is localized to altitudes greater than 40 km, where CO oxidation is relatively unimportant).

  5. Aerosol model development for environmental monitoring in the coastal atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, Gennady A.; Matvienko, Gennady G.

    2007-06-01

    Extinction of radiation in the marine boundary layer is dominated by scattering and absorption due to atmospheric aerosol. It is known, that the extinction of optical radiation visible and near IR spectra in the marine surface layer is determined mainly by scattering and absorption atmospheric aerosol. It influences on a dependence of spectral transmission and extinction both natural, and artificial light that is of interest for a wide range of problems, in particular for radiating problems at studying laws of climate formation, and for lines of the applications connected to the forecast of a signal power in coastal conditions at an estimation of EO systems characteristics. This is important to optical retrievals from satellite, remote sensing at environmental monitoring, backscatter of light to space (including climate forcing), cloud properties etc. In unpolluted regions the greatest effects on near shore scattering extinction will be a result of sea-salt from breaking waves and variations in relative humidity. The role of breaking waves appears to be modulated by wind, tide, swell, wave spectra and coastal conditions. These influences will be superimposed upon aerosol generated by open ocean sea-salt aerosol that varies with wind speed. The focus of our study is the extinction and optical effects due to aerosol in a specific coastal region. This involves linking coastal physical properties to oceanic and meteorological parameters in order to develop predictive algorithms that describe 3-D aerosol structure and variability. The aerosol microphysical model of the marine and coastal atmosphere surface layer is considered. The model distinctive feature is parameterization of amplitude and width of the modes as functions of fetch and wind speed. In the paper the dN/dr behavior depending at change meteorological parameters, heights above sea level, fetch, wind speed and RH is show. On the basis of the developed model with usage of Mie theory for spheres the

  6. Effect of tropospheric aerosols upon atmospheric infrared cooling rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshvardhan, MR.; Cess, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the impact of wind-blown dust particles upon local climate of arid regions. The case of Northwest India is specifically considered, where a dense layer of dust persists for several months during the summer. In order to examine the effect of this dust layer on the infrared radiative flux and cooling rates, a method is presented for calculating the IR flux within a dusty atmosphere which allows the use of gaseous band models and is applicable in the limit of small single scattering albedo and pronounced forward scattering. The participating components of the atmosphere are assumed to be water vapor and spherical quartz particles only. The atmospheric window is partially filled by including the water vapor continuum bands for which empirically obtained transmission functions have been used. It is shown that radically different conclusions may be drawn on dust effects if the continuum absorption is not considered. The radiative transfer model, when applied to a dusty atmosphere, indicates that there is a moderate enhancement in the atmospheric greenhouse and a 10% increase in the mean IR radiative cooling rate, relative to the dust free case, within the lower troposphere. These results have been compared with previous work by other authors in the context of the possibility of dust layers inhibiting local precipitation.

  7. Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renyi; Khalizov, Alexei F; Pagels, Joakim; Zhang, Dan; Xue, Huaxin; McMurry, Peter H

    2008-07-29

    The atmospheric effects of soot aerosols include interference with radiative transfer, visibility impairment, and alteration of cloud formation and are highly sensitive to the manner by which soot is internally mixed with other aerosol constituents. We present experimental studies to show that soot particles acquire a large mass fraction of sulfuric acid during atmospheric aging, considerably altering their properties. Soot particles exposed to subsaturated sulfuric acid vapor exhibit a marked change in morphology, characterized by a decreased mobility-based diameter but an increased fractal dimension and effective density. These particles experience large hygroscopic size and mass growth at subsaturated conditions (<90% relative humidity) and act efficiently as cloud-condensation nuclei. Coating with sulfuric acid and subsequent hygroscopic growth enhance the optical properties of soot aerosols, increasing scattering by approximately 10-fold and absorption by nearly 2-fold at 80% relative humidity relative to fresh particles. In addition, condensation of sulfuric acid is shown to occur at a similar rate on ambient aerosols of various types of a given mobility size, regardless of their chemical compositions and microphysical structures. Representing an important mechanism of atmospheric aging, internal mixing of soot with sulfuric acid has profound implications on visibility, human health, and direct and indirect climate forcing.

  8. A modeling study of seasonal variation of atmospheric aerosols over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiawei; Han, Zhiwei

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a regional air quality model system (RAQMS) was applied to investigate the spatial distributions and seasonal variations of atmospheric aerosols in 2006 over East Asia. Model validations demonstrated that RAQMS was able to reproduce the evolution processes of aerosol components reasonably well. Ground-level PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm) concentrations were highest in spring and lowest in summer and were characterized by three maximum centers: the Taklimakan Desert (˜1000 µg m-3), the Gobi Desert (˜ 400 µg m-3), and the Huabei Plain (˜ 300 µg m-3) of China. Vertically, high PM10 concentrations ranging from 100 µg m-3 to 250 µg m-3 occurred from the surface to an altitude of 6000 m at 30°-45°N in spring. In winter, the vertical gradient was so large that most aerosols were restricted in the boundary layer. Both sulfate and ammonium reached their highest concentrations in autumn, while nitrate reached its maximum level in winter. Black carbon and organic carbon aerosol concentrations reached maximums in winter. Soil dust were strongest in spring, whereas sea salt exerted the strongest influence on the coastal regions of eastern China in summer. The estimated burden of anthropogenic aerosols was largest in winter (1621 Gg) and smallest in summer (1040 Gg). The sulfate burden accounted for ˜42% of the total anthropogenic aerosol burden. The dust burden was about twice the anthropogenic aerosol burden, implying the potentially important impacts of the natural aerosols on air quality and climate over East Asia.

  9. Aerosol variability and atmospheric transport in the Himalayan region from CALIOP 2007-2010 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, S.; Cagnazzo, C.; Cairo, F.; Di Liberto, L.; Fierli, F.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the spatial distribution of different aerosol types, their seasonal variability and sources.The analysis of four years of CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization) vertically resolved aerosol data allows the identification of spatial patterns of desert dust and carbonaceous particles in different atmospheric layers. Clusters of Lagrangian back trajectories highlight the transport pathways from source regions during the dusty spring season. The analysis shows a prevalence of dust; at low heights it occurs frequently (up to 70% of available observations) and is distributed north of the Tibetan Plateau with a main contribution from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts, and west of the Tibetan Plateau, originating from the deserts of southwest Asia and advected by the Westerlies. Above the Himalayas the dust amount is minor but still not negligible (occurrence around 20%) and mainly affected by the transport from more distant deserts sources (Sahara and Arabian Peninsula). Carbonaceous aerosol, produced mainly in northern India and eastern China, is subject to shorter-range transport and is indeed observed closer to the sources, while there is a limited amount reaching the top of the plateau. Data analysis reveals a clear seasonal variability in the frequencies of occurrence for the main aerosol types; dust is regulated principally by the monsoon dynamics, with maximal occurrence in spring. We also highlight relevant interannual differences, showing a larger presence of aerosol in the region during 2007 and 2008. The characterization of the aerosol spatial and temporal distribution in terms of observational frequency is a key piece of information that can be directly used for the evaluation of global aerosol models.

  10. Aerosol and Cloud-Nucleating Particle Observations during an Atmospheric River Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, P. J.; McCluskey, C. S.; Petters, M.; Suski, K. J.; Levin, E. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Schill, G. P.; Rocci, K.; Boose, Y.; Martin, A.; Cornwell, G.; Al-Mashat, H.; Moore, K.; Prather, K. A.; Rothfuss, N.; Taylor, H.; Leung, L. R.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Mei, F.; Hubbe, J. M.; Rosenfeld, D.; Spackman, J. R.; Fairall, C. W.; Creamean, J.; White, A. B.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The multi-agency CalWater 2015 project occurred over North Central CA and the Eastern Pacific during January to March 2015 (Spackman et al., this session). The goals of the campaign were to document the structure of atmospheric rivers (ARs) that deliver much of the water vapor associated with major winter storms along the U.S. West Coast and to investigate the modulating effect of aerosols on precipitation. Aerosol sources that may influence orographic cloud properties for air lifted over the mountains in California in winter include pollution, biomass burning, soil dusts and marine aerosols, but their roles will also be influenced by transport, vertical stratification, and scavenging processes. We present results from a comprehensive study of aerosol distributions, compositions, and cloud nucleating properties during an intense winter storm during February 2015, including data from an NSF-supported measurement site at Bodega Bay, from the DOE-ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment that included sampling on the NOAA RV Ron Brown offshore and the G-1 aircraft over ocean and land, and with context provided by other NOAA aircraft and remote sensing facilities. With a special focus on the coastal site, we discuss changes in aerosol distributions, aerosol hygroscopicity, and number concentrations of fluorescent particles, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and ice nucleating particles (INPs) during the AR event. We compare with periods preceding and following the event. For example, total aerosol number and surface area concentrations at below 0.5 μm diameter decreased from typical values of a few thousand cm-3 and 100 μm2 cm-3, respectively, to a few hundred cm-3 and 10 μm2cm-3 at Bodega Bay during the AR event. CCN concentrations were similarly lower, but hygroscopicity parameter (kappa) increased from typical values of 0.2 to values > 0.5 during the AR.INP and fluorescent particle number concentrations were generally lower during the AR event than at any other

  11. Potentialities and Limits of ICESAT-2 Observation for Atmospheric Aerosol Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, L.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.

    2016-06-01

    ICESat-2(Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2), slated for launch in 2017, will continue the important observations of ice-sheet elevation change, sea-ice freeboard, and vegetation canopy height begun by ICESat in 2003. Among the other potential applications, ICESat-2 could provide some information about atmospheric aerosol over Polar Regions thanks to the lidar instrument. In this context, it is essential to demonstrate the ICESat-2 capability of providing vertical profiles of the aerosol backscatter coefficient and to define its potentialities and limits. First results of this investigation are reported and will be presented at the conference.

  12. Atmospheric lidar research applying to H2O, O2 and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcilrath, T. J.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental research on a near infrared tunable dye laser was reported, and theoretical simulations were presented for various lidar configurations. The visible and nearinfrared wavelengths considered were suitable for observations of aerosols, water vapor, molecular oxygen pressure and temperature in the troposphere and above. The first phase of development work was described on a ruby pumped, tunable dye laser for the wavelength region 715 to 740 nanometers. Lidar simulations were summarized for measurements of H2O and for two color lidar observations of aerosols in the atmosphere.

  13. Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. I - Size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosols suspended in the atmosphere. II - Radiation flux measurements and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluisi, J. J.; Furukawa, F. M.; Gillette, D. A.; Schuster, B. G.; Charlson, R. J.; Porch, W. M.; Fegley, R. W.; Herman, B. M.; Rabinoff, R. A.; Twitty, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for a field test that was aimed at acquiring a sufficient set of measurements of aerosol properties required as input for radiative-transfer calculations relevant to the earth's radiation balance. These measurements include aerosol extinction and size distributions, vertical profiles of aerosols, and radiation fluxes. Physically consistent, vertically inhomogeneous models of the aerosol characteristics of a turbid atmosphere over a desert and an agricultural region are constructed by using direct and indirect sampling techniques. These results are applied for a theoretical interpretation of airborne radiation-flux measurements. The absorption term of the complex refractive index of aerosols is estimated, a regional variation in the refractive index is noted, and the magnitude of solar-radiation absorption by aerosols and atmospheric molecules is determined.

  14. Evaluation of Present-day Aerosols over China Simulated from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, H.; Chang, W.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of aerosols over China lead to strong radiative forcing that is important for both regional and global climate. To understand the representation of aerosols in China in current global climate models, we evaluate extensively the simulated present-day aerosol concentrations and aerosol optical depth (AOD) over China from the 12 models that participated in Atmospheric Chemistry & Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), by using ground-based measurements and satellite remote sensing. Ground-based measurements of aerosol concentrations used in this work include those from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Atmosphere Watch Network (CAWNET) and the observed fine-mode aerosol concentrations collected from the literature. The ground-based measurements of AOD in China are taken from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET), the sites with CIMEL sun photometer operated by Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and from Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET). We find that the ACCMIP models generally underestimate concentrations of all major aerosol species in China. On an annual mean basis, the multi-model mean concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon are underestimated by 63%, 73%, 54%, 53%, and 59%, respectively. The multi-model mean AOD values show low biases of 20-40% at studied sites in China. The ACCMIP models can reproduce seasonal variation of nitrate but cannot capture well the seasonal variations of other aerosol species. Our analyses indicate that current global models generally underestimate the role of aerosols in China in climate simulations.

  15. Significant contributions of fungal spores to the organic carbon and to the aerosol mass balance of the urban atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Heidi; Schueller, Elisabeth; Weinke, Gert; Berger, Anna; Hitzenberger, Regina; Marr, Iain L.; Puxbaum, Hans

    Fungal spores are ubiquitous components of atmospheric aerosols and are therefore also contributors to the organic carbon (OC) component and to the mass of PM 10 (PM—particulate matter) aerosols. In this study we use spore counts and an experimentally derived factor of 13 pg C and of 33 pg fresh weight per spore for assessing quantitatively the contribution to OC and PM 10. The concentrations of airborne fungal spores were determined at a suburban (Schafberg) and a traffic-dominated urban site (Rinnböckstrasse) in Vienna, Austria, during spring and summer. Fungal spores OC ranged from 22 to 677 ng m -3 with a summer mean value of around 350 ng m -3 at the suburban site and 300 ng m -3 at the urban traffic site. At the suburban site fungal spores contributed on average 6% in spring and 14% in summer to aerosol OC mass concentration. At the traffic-dominated site fungal spores accounted for 2% of OC in spring and for 8% in summer. The fungal contribution to PM 10 was also notable and amounted to 3% and 7% at the suburban and to 1% and 4% at the urban site in spring and summer, respectively. Impactor measurements of OC at the suburban site showed that in summer fungal spores were predominant contributors to the coarse aerosol OC, and accounted on average for 60% of the OC in the PM 2-10 fraction. Fungal spores thus can be regarded as main components to PM 10, total OC and, most importantly, coarse OC even in urban areas.

  16. The detection of clouds, aerosols and marine atmospheric boundary layer characteristics from simulated GLAS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Spinhirne, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Scheduled for launch in 2001 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) will provide continuous laser sounding of the earth's atmosphere from space for the first time. From its polar orbit about 600 km above the surface, GLAS will employ a 40 Hz solid state laser operating at 1064 nm to measure topography to an accuracy of 10 cm. Simultaneously, the atmospheric channels (1064 and 532 nm) of GLAS will provide profiles of atmospheric backscatter from 40 km to the ground with 75 meter vertical resolution (Spinhirne and Palm, 1996). These measurements will give scientists an unprecedented global data set on the vertical structure of clouds and aerosols which will greatly aid research efforts aimed at understanding their effects on climate and their role in climate change (Hartman, 1994). To better understand and predict the performance of the GLAS atmospheric channels, a computer model was developed to simulate the type of signal that the instrument would likely produce. The model uses aircraft lidar data and provides realistic simulated GLAS data sets over large areas spanning a wide range of atmospheric conditions. These simulated GLAS datasets are invaluable for designing and testing algorithms for the retrieval of parameters such as cloud and aerosol layer height, optical depth and extinction cross section. This work is currently proceeding and in this paper we will present results of the cloud and aerosol detection algorithm with emphasis on the detection of Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) aerosol. In addition, we use a recently developed technique to ascertain the feasability of estimating MABL moisture and temperature structure from spaceborne systems such as GLAS.

  17. Molecular composition of atmospheric aerosols from Halley Bay, Antarctica, using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Brough, Neil; Rincon, Angela; Jones, Anna; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is one of the few pristine places to study natural processes of atmospheric aerosols and anthropogenic impacts on the clean remote atmosphere. Although stratospheric aerosol in Antarctica has now been explored in some detail because of the ozone depletion phenomenon, tropospheric aerosol particles in Antarctica remain very little studied. The main goal of this work is to identify in detail the organic chemical composition of aerosol from Halley Bay station, which is located on the Brunt Ice Shelf floating on the Weddell Sea in Antarctica. In this study we characterise the molecular composition of aerosols from three seasons (summer, autumn and winter in 2012) using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS). The technique provides high accuracy and high mass resolving power that allows determining unambiguous number of organic compounds present in complex organic mixtures (Noziere et al., 2015). The molecular composition interpretation was facilitated using visualisation methods (e.g. double bond equivalent, Van Krevelen diagrams, Kendrick mass analysis, and carbon oxidation state), which allowed to identify patterns, such as differences between sampling times and atmospheric processes. The majority of the identified compounds were attributed to nitrogen and sulphur containing species which exhibited very strong seasonal trends. Relatively large fraction (up to 30% of the total number of molecules) of these species contained very low hydrogen to carbon ratios (below 1) indicating that the site is impacted by anthropogenic emissions. Influences of the meteorological parameters and air mass trajectories on the molecular composition are discussed. Nozière et al., The Molecular Identification of Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere: State of the Art and Challenges, Chem. Rev., 115, 3920-3983, 2015.

  18. Relationship Between Aerosol Number Size Distribution and Atmospheric Electric Potential Gradient in an Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Matthew; Matthews, James; Bacak, Asan; Silva, Hugo; Priestley, Michael; Percival, Carl; Shallcross, Dudley

    2016-04-01

    Small ions are created in the atmosphere by ground based radioactive decay and solar and cosmic radiation ionising the air. The ionosphere is maintained at a high potential relative to the Earth due to global thunderstorm activity, a current from the ionosphere transfers charge back to the ground through the weakly ionised atmosphere. A potential gradient (PG) exists between the ionosphere and the ground that can be measured in fair weather using devices such as an electric field mill. PG is inversely-proportional to the conductivity of the air and therefore to the number of ions of a given electrical mobility; a reduction of air ions will cause an increase of PG. Aerosols in the atmosphere act as a sink of air ions with an attachment rate dependent on aerosol size distribution and ion mobility. These relationships have been used to infer high particulate, and hence pollution, levels in historic datasets of atmospheric PG. A measurement campaign was undertaken in Manchester, UK for three weeks in July and August where atmospheric PG was measured with an electric field mill (JCI131, JCI Chilworth) on a second floor balcony, aerosol size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI3936), aerosol concentration measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC, Grimm 5.403) and local meteorological measurements taken on a rooftop measurement site ~200 m away. Field mill and CPC data were taken at 1 s intervals and SMPS data in 2.5 minute cycles. Data were excluded for one hour either side of rainfall as rainclouds and droplets can carry significant charge which would affect PG. A quantity relating to the attachment of ions to aerosol (Ion Sink) was derived from the effective attachment coefficient of the aerosols. Further measurements with the field mill and CPC were taken at the same location in November 2015 when bonfire events would be expected to increase aerosol concentrations. During the summer measurements, particle number count (PNC

  19. Basic Modeling of the Solar Atmosphere and Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, Eugene; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This grant supported the research and publication of a major 26-page paper in The Astrophysical Journal, by Fontenla, Avrett, & Loeser (2002): 'Energy Balance in the Solar Transition Region. IV. Hydrogen and Helium Mass Flows with Diffusion.' This paper extended our previous modeling of the chromosphere-corona transition region to include cases with particle and mass flows. Inflows and outflows were shown to produce striking changes in the profiles of hydrogen and helium lines. An important conclusion is that line shifts are much less significant than the changes in line intensity and central reversal due to the influence of flows on the excitation and ionization of atoms in the solar atmosphere. This modeling effort at SAO is the only current one being undertaken anywhere to simulate in detail the full range of non-LTE absorption, emission, and scattering processes in the solar atmosphere to account for the entire solar spectrum from radio waves to X-rays. This effort is being continued with internal SAO funding at a relatively slow pace. Further NASA support in the future would yield results of great value for the interpretation of solar observations from NASA spacecraft.

  20. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was

  1. Thermal Emission Spectrometer Results: Mars Atmospheric Thermal Structure and Aerosol Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Pearl, John C.; Conrath, Barney J.; Christensen, Philip R.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Infrared spectra returned by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) are well suited for retrieval of the thermal structure and the distribution of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere. Combined nadir- and limb-viewing spectra allow global monitoring of the atmosphere up to 0.01 mbar (65 km). We report here on the atmospheric thermal structure and the distribution of aerosols as observed thus far during the mapping phase of the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Zonal and temporal mean cross sections are used to examine the seasonal evolution of atmospheric temperatures and zonal winds during a period extending from northern hemisphere mid-summer through vernal equinox (L(sub s) = 104-360 deg). Temperature maps at selected pressure levels provide a characterization of planetary-scale waves. Retrieved atmospheric infrared dust opacity maps show the formation and evolution of regional dust storms during southern hemisphere summer. Response of the atmospheric thermal structure to the changing dust loading is observed. Maps of water-ice clouds as viewed in the thermal infrared are presented along with seasonal trends of infrared water-ice opacity. Uses of these observations for diagnostic studies of the dynamics of the atmosphere are discussed.

  2. Nuclear Emergency and the Atmospheric Dispersion of Nuclear Aerosols: Discussion of the Shared Nuclear Future - 13163

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Mukhtar A.; Ali, Nawab; Akhter, Parveen; Khan, E.U.; Mathieson, John

    2013-07-01

    This paper has a twofold objective. One is to analyze the current status of high-level nuclear waste disposal along with presentation of practical perspectives about the environmental issues involved. Present disposal designs and concepts are analyzed on a scientific basis and modifications to existing designs are proposed from the perspective of environmental safety. Other is to understand the aerosol formation in the atmosphere for the case of the leakage from the nuclear waste containers or a nuclear accident. Radio-nuclides released from the waste will attach themselves to the existing aerosols in the atmosphere along with formation of new aerosols. Anticipating the nuclear accident when a variety of radioactive aerosols will form and exist in the atmosphere, as a simple example, measurement of naturally existing radioactive aerosols are made in the atmosphere of Islamabad and Murree. A comparison with similar measurements in 3 cities of France is provided. Measurement of radionuclides in the atmosphere, their attachment to aerosols and follow up transport mechanisms are key issues in the nuclear safety. It is studied here how {sup 7}Be concentration in the atmospheric air varies in the capital city of Islamabad and a Himalaya foothill city of Murree (Pakistan). Present results are compared with recent related published results to produce a {sup 7}Be concentration versus altitude plot up to an altitude of 4000 m (a.s.l.). Origin and variance of {sup 7}Be concentration at different altitudes is discussed in detail. The relevance of results presented here with the evaluation of implications of Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters has been discussed in a conclusive manner. It is the first international report of a joint collaboration/project. The project is being generalized to investigate and formulate a smooth waste storage and disposal policy. The project will address the fission and fusion waste reduction, its storage, its recycling, air, water and soil

  3. Attenuation and impulse response for multiple scattering of light in atmospheric clouds and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Selden, Adrian C

    2006-05-01

    Model phase functions for atmospheric clouds and aerosols typically comprise a narrow forward lobe (corona), a broad diffuse background, and a narrow backscattering peak (glory), which can reach relatively high values, especially for polyhedral scattering particles, such as hexagonal ice columns and plates. The influence of these three major components on the asymptotic and transient attenuation of the scattered light is compared for several analytic phase functions to assess the dependence of radiative transfer in clouds and aerosols on the choice of phase function. The impulse response (temporal evolution of the angular intensity distribution) is sensitive to the higher moments of the phase function and could prove to be a useful technique for inferring the optical scattering parameters of clouds and aerosols.

  4. XUV complex refractive indices of aerosols in the atmospheres of Titan and the primitive Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Neumann, Maciej; Bulkin, Pavel; Popescu, Horia; Steffan, Martin; Esser, Norbert; Carrasco, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    The complex refractive indices of tholins, simulating aerosols in the atmosphere of Titan and the primitive earth, have been measured over a wide spectral range, including the soft X-ray, vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV), and UV-Visible. The soft X-ray and VUV spectral ranges are in particular relevant to radiative transfer models of solar irradiation of primitive atmospheres (Lammer et al. 2008) and may elucidate the (anti-)greenhouse potential of photochemical aerosols.Thin films were grown using the PAMPRE capacitively coupled plasma setup (Szopa et al. 2006; Carrasco et al. 2009). Gas mixtures consisting of CH4/N2 with 5:95 ratios were used to simulate Titan's atmospheric composition. For the primitive Earth, gas mixtures of N2/CO2/H2 and N2/CO2/CH4 were used as described in Fleury et al. (2014).State-of-the-art laboratory techniques were used to determine the refractive indices of such tholin films. These include VUV ellipsometry (performed in collaboration with the Metrology Light Source in Berlin) and synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy (performed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron). While VUV spectroscopy reveals new electronic transitions due to plasmon resonances in tholins, X-ray spectra reveal the C and O absorption edges of these solids. The refractive indices are compared to results from Khare et al. (1984). Implications on the optical properties of these aerosol analogs on the radiative modeling of primitive atmospheres will be discussed.

  5. Detailed Chemical Characterization of Unresolved Complex Mixtures (UCM) inAtmospheric Organics: Insights into Emission Sources, Atmospheric Processing andSecondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies suggest that semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are important precursors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in urban atmospheres. However, knowledge of the chemical composition of SVOCs is limited by current analytical techniques, which are typically unable to...

  6. Validation of atmospheric aerosols parallel sampling in a multifold device.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C M; Camões, M F; Bigus, P; Fachado, A A; Silva, R B

    2015-06-01

    In this work, particulate matter was collected using an active sampling system consisting of a PM10 (<10 μm) inlet coupled to a multifold device containing six channels, connected to a vacuum pump. Each channel was equipped with a filter holder fitted with adequately chosen filters. The system was fixed on a metallic structure, which was placed on the roof of the laboratory building, at the Faculty of Sciences, in Lisbon. Sampling took place under flow-controlled conditions. Aerosols were extracted from the filters with water, in defined conditions, and the water-soluble fraction was quantified by ion chromatography (IC) for the determination of inorganic anions (Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-)). Equivalent sampling through the various channels was validated. Validation was based on the metrological compatibility of the content results for the various filters. Ion masses are metrologically equivalent when their absolute difference is smaller than the respective expanded uncertainty. When this condition is verified, the studied multifold device produces equivalent samples. PMID:26013655

  7. Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols Above a Pristine South East Asian Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.; Hamilton, J.; Chen, Q.; Martin, S.; Trembath, J.

    2009-04-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth's atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are currently not well understood or quantified. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects around pristine rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Other tools such as positive matrix factorisation (PMF) have been used to help assess the relative source contributions to the organic aerosol. A suite of supporting aerosol and gas phase measurements were made, including size resolved number concentration measurements with Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS), as well as absorption measurements made with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). The ground site data are compared with Aerodyne Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) measurements made on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Airborne measurements were made above pristine rainforest surrounding the Danum Valley site, as well as nearby oil palm agricultural sites and palm oil rendering plants. Airborne hygroscopicity was measured using a Droplet Measurement Technology Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (DMT CCN counter) in

  8. Direct radiative forcing properties of atmospheric aerosols over semi-arid region, Anantapur in India.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Raja Obul Reddy; Gugamsetty, Balakrishnaiah; Kotalo, Rama Gopal; Nagireddy, Siva Kumar Reddy; Tandule, Chakradhar Rao; Thotli, Lokeswara Reddy; Rajuru Ramakrishna, Reddy; Surendranair, Suresh Babu

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the aerosols optical, physical characteristics and the aerosol radiative forcing pertaining to semi-arid region, Anantapur for the period January 2013-December 2014. Collocated measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Black Carbon mass concentration (BC) are carried out by using MICROTOPS II and Aethalometer and estimated the aerosol radiative forcing over this location. The mean values of AOD at 500nm are found to be 0.47±0.09, 0.34±0.08, 0.29±0.06 and 0.30±0.07 during summer, winter, monsoon and post-monsoon respectively. The Angstrom exponent (α380-1020) value is observed maximum in March (1.25±0.19) and which indicates the predominance of fine - mode aerosols and lowest in the month of July (0.33±0.14) and may be due to the dominance of coarse-mode aerosols. The diurnal variation of BC is exhibited two height peaks during morning 07:00-08:00 (IST) and evening 19:00-21:00 (IST) hours and one minima noticed during afternoon (13:00-16:00). The highest monthly mean BC concentration is observed in the month of January (3.4±1.2μgm(-3)) and the lowest in July (1.1±0.2μgm(-3)). The estimated Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing (ADRF) in the atmosphere is found to be +36.8±1.7Wm(-2), +26.9±0.2Wm(-2), +18.0±0.6Wm(-2) and +18.5±3.1Wm(-2) during summer, winter, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Large difference between TOA and BOA forcing is observed during summer which indicate the large absorption of radiant energy (36.80Wm(-2)) which contributes more increase in atmospheric heating by ~1K/day. The BC contribution on an average is found to be 64% and is responsible for aerosol atmospheric heating.

  9. Direct radiative forcing properties of atmospheric aerosols over semi-arid region, Anantapur in India.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Raja Obul Reddy; Gugamsetty, Balakrishnaiah; Kotalo, Rama Gopal; Nagireddy, Siva Kumar Reddy; Tandule, Chakradhar Rao; Thotli, Lokeswara Reddy; Rajuru Ramakrishna, Reddy; Surendranair, Suresh Babu

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the aerosols optical, physical characteristics and the aerosol radiative forcing pertaining to semi-arid region, Anantapur for the period January 2013-December 2014. Collocated measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Black Carbon mass concentration (BC) are carried out by using MICROTOPS II and Aethalometer and estimated the aerosol radiative forcing over this location. The mean values of AOD at 500nm are found to be 0.47±0.09, 0.34±0.08, 0.29±0.06 and 0.30±0.07 during summer, winter, monsoon and post-monsoon respectively. The Angstrom exponent (α380-1020) value is observed maximum in March (1.25±0.19) and which indicates the predominance of fine - mode aerosols and lowest in the month of July (0.33±0.14) and may be due to the dominance of coarse-mode aerosols. The diurnal variation of BC is exhibited two height peaks during morning 07:00-08:00 (IST) and evening 19:00-21:00 (IST) hours and one minima noticed during afternoon (13:00-16:00). The highest monthly mean BC concentration is observed in the month of January (3.4±1.2μgm(-3)) and the lowest in July (1.1±0.2μgm(-3)). The estimated Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing (ADRF) in the atmosphere is found to be +36.8±1.7Wm(-2), +26.9±0.2Wm(-2), +18.0±0.6Wm(-2) and +18.5±3.1Wm(-2) during summer, winter, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Large difference between TOA and BOA forcing is observed during summer which indicate the large absorption of radiant energy (36.80Wm(-2)) which contributes more increase in atmospheric heating by ~1K/day. The BC contribution on an average is found to be 64% and is responsible for aerosol atmospheric heating. PMID:27344510

  10. Physicochemical and Toxicological Characteristics of Semi-volatile Components of Atmospheric Aerosols in an Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, V.; Pakbin, P.; Cheung, K. L.; Cho, A. K.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Kleinman, M. T.; Sioutas, C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent toxicological studies have confirmed the oxidative properties of atmospheric aerosols and their capability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems (Chen and Lippmann, 2009). While the links between aerosol toxicity and refractory transition metals present in ambient particulate matter (PM) have been documented, there are limited studies investigating the oxidative characteristics of semi-volatile species. The goal of present study is to examine the contribution of semi-volatile compounds in the oxidative potential of atmospheric aerosols. Concentrated ambient and thermodenuded quasi-ultrafine particles (<180 nm) were collected using the versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) at an urban site near downtown Los Angeles. A thermodenuder (TD) was used to selectively remove the semi-volatile components of these aerosols over the temperature range of 50-200 oC. The oxidative potential of PM was measured by means of the DTT (dithiothreitol) assay. Detailed chemical analyses of PM samples, including organic and elemental carbon, water soluble elements, inorganic ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were conducted to quantify the volatility profiles of different PM species, and also to investigate their effect on the measured oxidative potential. Refractory constituents, such as metals and elemental carbon, were marginally affected by heating, while labile species such as organic carbon and PAHs showed progressive loss in concentration with increase in TD temperature. The DTT-measured oxidative potential of PM was significantly decreased as the aerosols were heated and their semi-volatile components were progressively removed (42 %, 47 % and 66 % decrease in DTT activity at 50, 100 and 200 oC, respectively). Regression analysis performed between chemical constituents and DTT activity showed that the oxidative potential was strongly correlated with organic carbon and PAHs (R≥0.80; p≤0.05). Thus, semi

  11. A High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Determination of Levoglucosan Concentrations in Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, R. W.; Baltzell, G.

    2002-12-01

    Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) recently has been measured in atmospheric aerosols where it is a major organic compound originating from biomass combustion. Past analysis methods have used gas chromatography with and without derivitization. We have developed a method for analyzing levoglucosan in atmospheric aerosols using high peformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a new detection method called aerosol charge detection. In aerosol charge detection, the column effluent is converted to an aerosol that is charged by passage near a corona discharge region and detected by charge collection. A column specific for carbohydrate compounds, which separates compounds by ligand-exchange and by partitioning based on polarity, was used for the separation using a 100% water eluent at 60°C. Under these conditions, aerosol filter samples extracted in methanol and water gave peaks with the same retention time as a levoglucosan standard. The detection limit was estimated to be about 0.1 μg mL-1 for extracts or 5 to 10 ng m-3 for air sample volumes employed. Samples collected at locations in central New Mexico and central California were found to contain concentrations of levoglucosan from the detection limit to 270 ng m-3, with higher concentrations observed under colder conditions when more fireplaces would tend to be in use. Mannosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-mannopyranose), another monosaccharide anhydride, also was observed in one sample. The presence of other organic compounds, which have not yet been identified, was inferred by other observed peaks and by an increased baseline in sample chromatograms.

  12. Final Technical Report. Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar measurement of atmospheric aerosols for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard A.

    2002-08-19

    Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are required for determination of the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux. Since recent studies have demonstrated the inability to compute these profiles on surface aerosol measurements alone, vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties must be acquired to compute aerosol radiative effects throughout the entire atmospheric column. Following the recommendation of the ARM Aerosol Working Group, the investigator developed, evaluated, and implemented algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering. By virtue of its ability to measure vertical profiles of both aerosol extinction and water vapor simultaneously in the same scattering volume, we used the resulting profiles from the CART Raman Lidar to investigate the impact of water vapor and relative humidity on aerosol extinction throughout the column on a continuous and routine basis. The investigator used these the CART Raman Lidar aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles to evaluate the vertical variability of aerosol extinction and the extinction/backscatter ratio over the ARM SGP site.

  13. A Comparison of Large-Scale Atmospheric Sulphate Aerosol Models (COSAM): Overview and Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, Leonard A.; Yi, Y.; Leaitch, W. R.; Lohmann, U.; Kasibhatla, P.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Wilson, J.; Mcgovern, F.; Benkovitz, C.; Melieres, M. A.; Law, K.; Prospero, J.; Kritz, M.; Bergmann, D.; Bridgeman, C.; Chin, M.; Christiansen, J.; Easter, Richard C.; Feichter, J.; Land, C.; Jeuken, A.; Kjellstrom, E.; Koch, D.; Rasch, P.

    2001-11-01

    The comparison of large-scale sulphate aerosol models study (COSAM) compared the performance of atmospheric models with each other and observations. It involved: (i) design of a standard model experiment for the world wide web, (ii) 10 model simulations of the cycles of sulphur and 222Rn/210Pb conforming to the experimental design, (iii) assemblage of the best available observations of atmospheric SO4=, SO2 and MSA and (iv) a workshop in Halifax, Canada to analyze model performance and future model development needs. The analysis presented in this paper and two companion papers by Roelofs, and Lohmann and co-workers examines the variance between models and observations, discusses the sources of that variance and suggests ways to improve models. Variations between models in the export of SOx from Europe or North America are not sufficient to explain an order of magnitude variation in spatial distributions of SOx downwind in the northern hemisphere. On average, models predicted surface level seasonal mean SO4= aerosol mixing ratios better (most within 20%) than SO2 mixing ratios (over-prediction by factors of 2 or more). Results suggest that vertical mixing from the planetary boundary layer into the free troposphere in source regions is a major source of uncertainty in predicting the global distribution of SO4= aerosols in climate models today. For improvement, it is essential that globally coordinated research efforts continue to address emissions of all atmospheric species that affect the distribution and optical properties of ambient aerosols in models and that a global network of observations be established that will ultimately produce a world aerosol chemistry climatology.

  14. Road traffic impact on urban atmospheric aerosol loading at Oporto, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, César; Pio, Casimiro; Caseiro, Alexandre; Santos, Patrícia; Nunes, Teresa; Mao, Hongjun; Luahana, Lakhumal; Sokhi, Ranjeet

    2010-08-01

    At urban areas in south Europe atmospheric aerosol levels are frequently above legislation limits as a result of road traffic and favourable climatic conditions for photochemical formation and dust suspension. Strategies for urban particulate pollution control have to take into account specific regional characteristics and need correct information concerning the sources of the aerosol. With these objectives, the ionic and elemental composition of the fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) aerosol was measured at two contrasting sites in the centre of the city of Oporto, roadside (R) and urban background (UB), during two campaigns, in winter and summer. Application of Spatial Variability Factors, in association with Principal Component/Multilinear Regression/Inter-site Mass Balance Analysis, to aerosol data permitted to identify and quantify 5 main groups of sources, namely direct car emissions, industry, photochemical production, dust suspension and sea salt transport. Traffic strongly influenced PM mass and composition. Direct car emissions and road dust resuspension contributed with 44-66% to the fine aerosol and with 12 to 55% to the coarse particles mass at both sites, showing typically highest loads at roadside. In fine particles secondary origin was also quite important in aerosol loading, principally during summer, with 28-48% mass contribution, at R and UB sites respectively. Sea spray has an important contribution of 18-28% to coarse aerosol mass in the studied area, with a highest relative contribution at UB site. Application of Spatial Variability/Mass Balance Analysis permitted the estimation of traffic contribution to soil dust in both size ranges, across sites and seasons, demonstrating that as much as 80% of present dust can result from road traffic resuspension.

  15. Atmospheric Dispersion of Sodium Aerosol due to a Sodium Leak in a Fast Breeder Reactor Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model does not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions.

  16. Uncertainty Analysis And Synergy Of Aerosol Products From Multiple Satellite Sensors For Advanced Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Petrenko, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air, and can be made up of wind-blown dust, smoke from fires, and particulate emissions from automobiles, industries, and other natural and man-made sources. Aerosols can have significant impacts on the air quality, and can interact with clouds and solar radiation in such a way as to affect the water cycle and climate. However, the extent and scale of these impacts are still poorly understood, and this represents one of the greatest uncertainties in climate research to date. To fill this gap in our knowledge, the global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols are being extensively observed and measured, especially during the last decade, using both satellite and ground-based instruments, including such spaceborne sensors as MODIS on the Terra and Aqua satellites, MISR on Terra, OMI on Aura, POLDER on PARASOL, CALIOP on CALIPSO, SeaWiFS on SeaStar, and the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) of sunphotometers. The aerosol measurements collected by these instruments over the last decade contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. Still, to be able to utilize these measurements synergistically, they have to be carefully and uniformly analyzed and inter-compared, in order to understand the uncertainties and limitations of the products - a process that is greatly complicated by the diversity of differences that exist among them. In this presentation, we will show results of a coherent comparative uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from the above-named satellite sensors relative to AERONET. We use these results to demonstrate how these sensors perform in different parts of the world over different landcover types as well as their performance relative to one another, thereby facilitating product selection and integration for specific research and applications needs.

  17. Multi-Decadal Change of Atmospheric Aerosols and their Effects on Surface Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian

    2011-01-01

    We present an investigation on multi-decadal changes of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on surface radiation using a global chemistry transport model along with the near-term to long-term data records. We focus on a 28-year time period of satellite era from 1980 to 2007) during which a suite of aerosol data from satellite observations) ground-based measurements) and intensive field experiments have become available. We analyze the long-term global and regional aerosol trends and their relationship to the changes of aerosol and precursor emissions and assess the role aerosols play in the multi-decadal change of solar radiation reaching the surface (known as "dimming" or "brightening") at different regions of the world) including the major anthropogenic source regions (North America) Europe) Asia) that have been experiencing considerable changes of emissions) dust and biomass burning regions that have large interannual variabilities) downwind regions that are directly affected by the changes in the source area) and remote regions that are considered to representing "backgroundH conditions.

  18. Effect of Aerosol Variation on Radiance in the Earth's Atmosphere-Ocean System.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1972-07-01

    The reflected and transmitted radiance is calculated for a realistic model of the atmosphere-ocean system. Multiple scattering to all orders as well as anisotropic scattering from aerosols are taken into account by a Monte Carlo technique. The probability for reflection or refraction at the ocean surface is calculated for each photon. Scattering and absorption by water molecules (Rayleigh) and by hydrosols (Mie) are taken into account within the ocean. The radiance is calculated for a normal aerosol distribution as well as for a three and ten times normal distribution. Calculations are also made for an aerosol layer near the earth as well as for one in the stratosphere. The upward radiance at the top of the atmosphere depends strongly on the total number of aerosols but not on their spatial distribution. Variations in the ozone amount also have little effect on the upward radiance. The calculations are made at the following wavelengths: 0.7 micro, 0.9 micro, 1.67 micro. The radiance above and below the ocean surface as well as the flux at various levels are also discussed.

  19. Real-Time Characterization of Aerosol Particle Composition above the Urban Canopy in Beijing: Insights into the Interactions between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Aerosol Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yele; Du, Wei; Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yong; Chen, Zhenyi; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Gao, Zhiqiu; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2015-10-01

    Despite extensive efforts into the characterization of air pollution during the past decade, real-time characterization of aerosol particle composition above the urban canopy in the megacity Beijing has never been performed to date. Here we conducted the first simultaneous real-time measurements of aerosol composition at two different heights at the same location in urban Beijing from December 19, 2013 to January 2, 2014. The nonrefractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species were measured in situ by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer at near-ground level and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor at 260 m on a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing. Secondary aerosol showed similar temporal variations between ground level and 260 m, whereas much weaker correlations were found for the primary aerosol. The diurnal evolution of the ratios and correlations of aerosol species between 260 m and the ground level further illustrated a complex interaction between vertical mixing processes and local source emissions on aerosol chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer. As a result, the aerosol compositions at the two heights were substantially different. Organic aerosol (OA), mainly composed of primary OA (62%), at the ground level showed a higher contribution to NR-PM1 (65%) than at 260 m (54%), whereas a higher concentration and contribution (15%) of nitrate was observed at 260 m, probably due to the favorable gas-particle partitioning under lower temperature conditions. In addition, two different boundary layer structures were observed, each interacting differently with the evolution processes of aerosol chemistry.

  20. Real-Time Characterization of Aerosol Particle Composition above the Urban Canopy in Beijing: Insights into the Interactions between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Aerosol Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yele; Du, Wei; Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yong; Chen, Zhenyi; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zifa; Gao, Zhiqiu; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2015-10-01

    Despite extensive efforts into the characterization of air pollution during the past decade, real-time characterization of aerosol particle composition above the urban canopy in the megacity Beijing has never been performed to date. Here we conducted the first simultaneous real-time measurements of aerosol composition at two different heights at the same location in urban Beijing from December 19, 2013 to January 2, 2014. The nonrefractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species were measured in situ by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer at near-ground level and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor at 260 m on a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing. Secondary aerosol showed similar temporal variations between ground level and 260 m, whereas much weaker correlations were found for the primary aerosol. The diurnal evolution of the ratios and correlations of aerosol species between 260 m and the ground level further illustrated a complex interaction between vertical mixing processes and local source emissions on aerosol chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer. As a result, the aerosol compositions at the two heights were substantially different. Organic aerosol (OA), mainly composed of primary OA (62%), at the ground level showed a higher contribution to NR-PM1 (65%) than at 260 m (54%), whereas a higher concentration and contribution (15%) of nitrate was observed at 260 m, probably due to the favorable gas-particle partitioning under lower temperature conditions. In addition, two different boundary layer structures were observed, each interacting differently with the evolution processes of aerosol chemistry. PMID:26348650

  1. The Influence of Atmospheric Aerosols on Air Quality Status of the Egyptian Nile Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Zakey, A.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the combination of natural and anthropogenic sources of emission over the Nile Delta region, the air quality status is very poor and has a significant health hazards impacts on the population. Here we focused on the optical and chemical characterizations of atmospheric aerosols in the Nile Delta using the online integrated Environmental-Climate Aerosols model (EnvClimA) during a 10 year period 2000-2010. Observations from MODIS and SeaWiFS measurements supplemented by CALIPSO and some ground-based data from AERONET, are used to validate the EnvClimA model and to illustrate the aerosol characteristics and their sources. CALIPSO measurements were used to characterize the vertical structure of aerosols and their shapes (spherical and non-spherical) for major dust storms and biomass burning events. In this study we discussed the synoptic patterns and features, which are associated with either the dust storm or high pollution events. We used MODIS derived aerosol parameters to study seasonal changes in aerosol parameters due to the influence of dust storms, anthropogenic pollution and biomass (crop residue) burning. MODIS derived deep blue AOD provided better representation of aerosol loading over north Africa (Sahara region) along with dark-target AOD and related parameters. AERONET data provided aerosol optical depth, angstrom, fine mode fraction, size fraction, volume, effective radius, refractive index, single scattering albedo, and radiative forcing during different seasons dominated by dust storms, anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning (black cloud phenomena). The results indicated that the observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events. Ground-based AERONET data support the "Dark Product" MODIS retrievals, as they typically show a fall peak in the 500 nm region. The number of dust distribution frequencies over Egypt has more frequency in the southeast and northwest of Egypt (5-7.5 days

  2. Characteristics and composition of atmospheric aerosols in Phimai, central Thailand during BASE-ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2013-10-01

    Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.183°N, 102.565°E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 ± 64 Mm-1; absorption: 15 ± 8 Mm-1; PM10 concentration: 33 ± 17 μg m-3), and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 ± 3.6 μg m-3; EC: 2.0 ± 2.3 μg m-3) and secondary species (SO42-: 6.4 ± 3.7 μg m-3, NH4+: 2.2 ± 1.3 μg m-3). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 ± 0.33 μg m-3). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 ± 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 ± 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

  3. Spacecraft Observations of Atmospheric Temperature and Aerosol Optical Depth Near the Time of the MER Landings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. D.

    2005-05-01

    Continued atmospheric monitoring by the Mars Global Surveyor TES and Mars Odyssey THEMIS instruments provided daily maps of the regional to global scale variation of atmospheric temperature and aerosol optical depth before, during, and after the time of the two Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landings in January 2005. After landing, the MER Mini-TES instrument provided additional complementary information about the late-summer atmospheric state at the Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum landing sites. Orbital observations taken before the MER landings documented the initiation, growth, and decay of a large regional dust storm in mid-December 2004, just weeks before the MER Spirit landing. This dust storm caused an increase in atmospheric temperature above nominal seasonal values, and left relatively dusty conditions for the rovers after landing. Atmospheric entry parameters such as the height at which to open the parachute were adjusted considering the daily TES updates in the days before both MER landings. Here we present observations of atmospheric temperatures and aerosol optical depth by TES and THEMIS in the time period near the MER landings. We compare the TES and THEMIS observations against the values predicted from climatology and the observations taken after landing by the MER Mini-TES.

  4. Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Data Sets and Application of Radiative Transfer Models to Compute Aerosol Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat

    2005-01-01

    The Bay Area Environmental Research Institute (BAER) scientists have worked with the NASA Ames Research Center sunphotometer group led by Dr. Philip Russell for many years researching the climatic effects of aerosol particles in the stratosphere and troposphere. We have continued to work with the NASA Ames sunphotometer group in research activities representing funded, peer-reviewed proposals to NASA, NOAA and DOE. The activities are described in those proposals and also in the documents provided to the Grants Office earlier. This is the final report from January 1,2002 - June 30, 2005. The report consists of a compilation of 41 peer-reviewed publications (published, in press or submitted) produced under this Cooperative Agreement and 43 first-authored conference presentations. To save paper, reprints are not included but will, of course, be provided upon request.

  5. Radiosonde aerosol counter for vertical profiling of atmospheric dust layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Rogers, G.

    2010-05-01

    A low-cost, miniature aerosol particle counter has been developed, intended for use with balloon-borne meteorological radiosondes. It is particularly suitable for airborne mineral dust measurements. Ambient air is drawn into the counter using a diaphragm pump at a rate of 0.5 litre per minute. The counter detects particles in the airstream using a diode laser and a photodiode. Output from the photodiode is digitised into 5 size bins, with minimum particle diameters equivalent to 0.6, 1.4, 2.6, 5.4 and 10.6 micrometers. The counter is interfaced to a Vaisala RS92 radiosonde, which transmits data from the counter together with meteorological parameters and GPS-derived position to a ground based receiver at 1 Hz rate. Statistically significant particle size distributions can be obtained once a second for number concentrations down to about 100,000 particle per litre (within the measured size range), or correspondingly less at lower temporal resolutions. At the same time, the counter is capable of measuring dust number concentrations exceeding a million per litre without incurring significant errors. Soundings during the DREAME campaign in Kuwait (Ulanowski et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7) and on Cape Verde Islands (Nicoll et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7) provided dust concentration profiles with a typical vertical resolution of 4 m. Comparisons with integrated dust column size distribution measurements from AERONET sun photometers showed good agreement in two out of three cases where near-simultaneous retrievals were available. Optical thickness calculations based on the size distributions measured in Kuwait, with the assumption that the dust particles were prolate spheroids, agreed with the AERONET optical thickness at 675 nm to within 15%.

  6. Aerosol interactions between the surface and the atmosphere: Urban fluxes, forest canopy vertical exchange, and wintertime urban patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivicke, Rasa

    Atmospheric aerosols play a major role in regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality, while on a global scale, aerosol processes continue to represent the largest source of uncertainty related to climate change. An important aspect of understanding the role of aerosols in these areas is to document the vertical exchange of aerosols with the surface in both urban and rural landscapes since the vertical exchange represents important sources and sinks of aerosols on regional and global scales. In this dissertation, investigation of aerosol dynamics is described for three separate field studies. First, urban eddy covariance flux measurements were made from a building rooftop in Mexico City using a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) to determine the fluxes of aerosol species to/from the urban landscape. Second, conditional sampling of fine particles in updrafts and downdrafts was performed above a pine forest in Colorado using a thermal desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometer (TD-CIMS) to investigate the relative strengths of sources and sinks for speciated aerosol in a forest environment. Third, the aerosol and gas phase pollutant patterns, measured in Boise, ID during wintertime inversion conditions, were analyzed with respect to the daily evolution of the planetary boundary layer depth and surface meteorological conditions. This dissertation describes the methods used for each of the three studies and summarizes the analysis of the results.

  7. The System of the Calibration for Visibility Measurement Instrument Under the Atmospheric Aerosol Simulation Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Zhifeng; Yang, ShaoChen; Xu, Wenjing

    2016-06-01

    Visibility is one of the most important parameters for meteorological observation and numerical weather prediction (NWP).It is also an important factor in everyday life, mainly for surface and air traffic especially in the Aeronautical Meteorology. The visibility decides the taking off and landing of aircraft. If the airport visibility is lower than requirement for aircraft taking off stipulated by International Civil Aviation Administration, then the aircraft must be parked at the airport. So the accurate measurement of visibility is very important. Nowadays, many devices can be measured the visibility or meteorological optical range (MOR) such as Scatterometers, Transmissometers and visibility lidar. But there is not effective way to verify the accuracy of these devices expect the artificial visual method. We have developed a visibility testing system that can be calibration and verification these devices. The system consists of laser transmitter, optical chopper, phase-locking amplifier, the moving optic receiving system, signal detection and data acquisition system, atmospheric aerosol simulation chamber. All of them were placed in the atmosphere aerosol simulation chamber with uniform aerosol concentration. The Continuous wave laser, wavelength 550nm, has been transmitted into the collimation system then the laser beam expanded into 40mm diameter for compressing the laser divergence angle before modulated by optical chopper. The expanding beam transmitting in the atmosphere aerosol cabin received by the optic receiving system moving in the 50m length precision guide with 100mm optical aperture. The data of laser signal has been acquired by phase-locking amplifier every 5 meter range. So the 10 data points can be detected in the 50 meters guide once. The slope of the fitting curve can be obtained by linear fitting these data using the least square method. The laser extinction coefficient was calculated from the slope using the Koschmieder formula, then it been

  8. An advanced LC-MS (Q-TOF) technique for the detection of amino acids in atmospheric aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodology for detection of native (underivitized) amino acids in atmospheric aerosols has been developed. This article describes the use of LC-MS (Q-TOF) and microwave-assisted gas phase hydrolysis for detection of free and combined amino acids in aerosols collected in a Southe...

  9. An Analysis of EPA’s STAR Program and a Decade of Field Changing Research in Atmospheric Aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of studies in the past decade have transformed the way we think about atmospheric aerosols. The advances include, but are not limited to, source apportionment of organics using aerosol mass spectrometer data, the volatility basis set approach, quantifying isoprene oxida...

  10. Mixing state and spectral absorption of atmospheric aerosols observed at a marine background site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayetano, M. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, Y. J.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral dust and sea salt particles are portions of atmospheric aerosols in Korea due to the periodic transport of loess dust particles from Gobi and Taklimakan deserts in west China, as well as the sea salt enrichment of atmospheric particles from the seas surrounding the Korean peninsula [Kim et al., 2009; Sahu et al., 2009]. Carbonaceous particles and secondary inorganic aerosols (sulphates and nitrates) are ubiquitous due to the proliferating biomass burning [Ryu et al., 2004], as well as the increasing use of fossil fuels locally and by regional transport from neighbouring countries. Collectively, when these aerosols are transported, their compositions are further modified due to the aging process, impacting their physico-chemical properties including spectral absorption. In order to investigate the spectral response of the absorption under different ambient aerosol conditions, measurements have been conducted at a marine background site in Korea (Deokjeok Island. 37° 13' 33" N, 126° 8' 51" E) during the spring (13 days) and fall (8 days) seasons of 2009 using an aethalometer (Magee AE31), a nephelometer (Optec NGN2a) and other supporting instruments (PILS-IC, PM2.5 cyclone samplers for off-line OC/EC measurements). It has been found that spring aerosols were dominated by sulphate-rich and carbonaceous-rich fractions (21.4%±8.0% and 28.8%±7.9%, respectively), with an Angström exponent of absorption, αabs = 1.3±0.1 at 370-950 nm. The fall season aerosols were grouped based on their chemical composition as acidic aerosols, dust-enriched, and seasalt-enriched aerosols. Angström exponent of absorption, αabs for acidic aerosols was obtained to be 1.3±0.2 at 370-950 nm. However, dust enriched aerosols showed increased absorption in the short UV-Vis range (370-590 nm), which can be attributed to their mixing with light absorbing aerosols. Different types of aerosols exhibit different spectral absorption characteristics depending on their composition and

  11. Compact Ozone Lidar for Atmospheric Ozone and Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcia, Joel; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2007-01-01

    A small compact ozone differential absorption lidar capable of being deployed on a small aircraft or unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) has been tested. The Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser is pumped by a quadrupled Nd:YLF laser. Test results on the laser transmitter demonstrated 1.4 W in the IR and 240 mW in the green at 1000 Hz. The receiver consists of three photon-counting channels, which are a far field PMT, a near field UV PMT, and a green PMT. Each channel was tested for their saturation characteristics.

  12. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected over Hungary and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, T.; Amemiya, S.; Tsurita, Y.; Masuda, T.; Koltay, E.; Borbély-Kiss, I.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE analysis of atmospheric samples collected over Hungary and Japan has been made to investigate characteristic features of the samples of Hungary and Japan, and to compare them. Samples were collected at Budapest, Debrecen, Szerencs, Pálháza in Hungary, and at Tokyo, Noma coast Aichi, Obara-mura Aichi (rural district), Mt. Rokko, in Japan. The PIXE analysis of the samples was made using a 2 MeV proton beam from a Van de Graaff accelerator at Nagoya University. Differences, specially in the concentration of lead, between samples collected in Hungary and Japan were observed.

  13. An advanced technique for speciation of organic nitrogen in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samy, S.; Robinson, J.; Hays, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    The chemical composition of organic nitrogen (ON) in the environment is a research topic of broad significance. The topic intersects the branches of atmospheric, aquatic, and ecological science; thus, a variety of instrumentation, analytical methods, and data interpretation tools have evolved for determination of ON. Recent studies that focus on atmospheric particulate nitrogen (N) suggest a significant fraction (20-80%) of total N is bound in organic compounds. The sources, bioavailability and transport mechanisms of these N-containing compounds can differ, producing a variety of environmental consequences. Amino acids (AA) are a key class of atmospheric ON compounds that can contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and potentially influence water cycles, air pollutant scavenging, and the radiation balance. AA are water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) that can significantly alter the acid-base chemistry of aerosols, and may explain the buffering capacity that impacts heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry. The chemical transformations that N-containing organic compounds (including AA) undergo can increase the light-absorbing capacity of atmospheric carbon via formation of 'brown carbon'. Suggested sources of atmospheric AA include: marine surface layer transport from bursting sea bubbles, the suspension of bacteria, fungi, algae, pollen, spores, or biomass burning. Methodology for detection of native (underivatized) amino acids (AA) in atmospheric aerosols has been developed and validated (Samy et al., 2011). This presentation describes the use of LC-MS (Q-TOF) and microwave-assisted gas phase hydrolysis for detection of free and combined amino acids in aerosols collected in a Southeastern U.S. forest environment. Accurate mass detection and the addition of isotopically labeled surrogates prior to sample preparation allows for sensitive quantitation of target AA in a complex aerosol matrix. A total of 16 native AA were detected above the reporting

  14. Organic Aerosol Volatility Parameterizations and Their Impact on Atmospheric Composition and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsigaridis, Konsta; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their importance and ubiquity in the atmosphere, organic aerosols are still very poorly parameterized in global models. This can be explained by two reasons: first, a very large number of unconstrained parameters are involved in accurate parameterizations, and second, a detailed description of semi-volatile organics is computationally very expensive. Even organic aerosol properties that are known to play a major role in the atmosphere, namely volatility and aging, are poorly resolved in global models, if at all. Studies with different models and different parameterizations have not been conclusive on whether the additional complexity improves model simulations, but the added diversity of the different host models used adds an unnecessary degree of variability in the evaluation of results that obscures solid conclusions.

  15. Monitoring of atmospheric aerosol emissions using a remotely piloted air vehicle (RPV)-Borne Sensor Suite

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a small sensor system, the micro-atmospheric measurement system ({mu}-AMS), to monitor and track aerosol emissions. The system was developed to fly aboard a remotely piloted air vehicle, or other mobile platform, to provide real-time particle measurements in effluent plumes and to collect particles for chemical analysis. The {mu}-AMS instrument measures atmospheric parameters including particle mass concentration and size distribution, temperature, humidity, and airspeed, altitude and position (by GPS receiver) each second. The sensor data are stored onboard and are also down linked to a ground station in real time. The {mu}-AMS is battery powered, small (8 in. dia x 36 in.), and lightweight (15 pounds). Aerosol concentrations and size distributions from above ground explosive tests, airbone urban pollution, and traffic-produced particulates are presented.

  16. Methodological aspects of assessing atmospheric contamination with metal aerosols in the vicinity of thermal power complexes.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, S M

    1986-01-01

    A study of metal aerosols content in waste steam-containing gases from a thermal power station operating on oil fuel revealed that the concentrations of V2O5, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO2 and Cr2O3 are not influenced by the operational mode, type of boiler, the mean ratios being 1 : 0, 3 : 0, 27 : 0, 2 : 0, 03 : 0 and 0.25 respectively. Comparing the metal content in oil fuel and waste gases showed that no more than 10% of the studied compounds are sorbed on the boiler walls, the remaining 90% being released into the atmosphere. It is suggested that V2O5 be determined as an integral indicator with the aim of rapid hygienic assessment of the extent of atmospheric contamination with metal aerosols. The presented results may be used in preventive and regular sanitary surveillance during thermal power plant designing, construction and reconstruction.

  17. Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation

    PubMed Central

    Mongin, Denis; Slowik, Jay G.; Schubert, Elise; Brisset, Jean-Gabriel; Berti, Nicolas; Moret, Michel; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We measured the chemical composition and the size distribution of aerosols generated by femtosecond-Terawatt laser pulses in the atmosphere using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). We show that nitric acid condenses in the form of ammonium nitrate, and that oxidized volatile organics also contribute to particle growth. These two components account for two thirds and one third, respectively, of the dry laser-condensed mass. They appear in two different modes centred at 380 nm and 150 nm. The number concentration of particles between 25 and 300 nm increases by a factor of 15. Pre-existing water droplets strongly increase the oxidative properties of the laser-activated atmosphere, substantially enhancing the condensation of organics under laser illumination. PMID:26450172

  18. Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    Investigation of atmospheric transport of arid aerosol from Central Asia was held within the ISTC project 3715. Particular attention was paid to the removal of aerosol from the Aral Sea region and its further transport, because aerosol and pollutants emission from Central Asia affect the airspace of the entire Asian continent. At the same time measurements of aerosols in the atmosphere of Central Asia are holding in a small number of stations, and currently available data are insufficient to define the initial conditions and/or verification of models of long-range transport. To identify sources of pollution transported from Central Asia, in Kyrgyzstan measurement and sampling of air were organized: at the station on the northern slope of the Kirgiz Range, 30 km south of Bishkek, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level (Bishkek Site, 42,683N; 74,694E ), and on permanent alpine Teploklyuchenka lidar station in the Central Tien Shan at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level (Lidar Site, 42,467N; 78,533E). The chemical analysis of collected aerosol and soils samples was carried out. Measurements of aerosol at these stations have been merged with the simulation of the trajectories of air masses in the study region and with the satellite (the Terra and Aqua satellites) observations of aerosol optical thickness in this region. Satellite data for the region 43-47 N, and 58-62 E (Aral Sea) from April 2008 to September 2009 were analyzed. The moments were selected, when the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was greatest (more than 0.5), and the transport from the Aral Sea region to the observation sites took place. For each of these days, the forward trajectories, which started at 6 points within the region, were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. The days, on which the trajectories reached the BISHKEK and LIDAR sites, were determined from the data obtained. Calculations on the basis of the RAMS model were performed for these days. These calculations were performed

  19. Arsenic speciation in atmospheric aerosols at The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.A.; Altshuler, S.L.; Keller, M.L. )

    1993-05-01

    California's air toxic law (AB 1807), which became effective in January 1984, defines California's air toxic program. Under this legislation, a statutory mandate was created for the identification and control of toxic air contaminants found in California. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) lists inorganic arsenic under Category I: substances that have been identified as toxic air contaminants by the ARB, pursuant to the provisions of AB1807. The enactment of new regulations regarding air toxics and ARB's report entitled [open quotes]Public Exposure to Airborne Inorganic Arsenic in California[close quotes] suggest that geothermal energy producers in California must remain aware of the current atmospheric levels of arsenic at The Geyser. These producers must also be able to provide evidence of the species-specific nature of the airborne arsenic if the regulatory climate changes to include the inorganic species of arsenic in health risk assessment calculations. Preliminary results reported by this paper are useful as a baseline to provide an indication of As(III) and As(V) concentration levels at The Geysers. If species-specific instead of total data on arsenic in the atmosphere are required by regulators, these results could be useful in evaluating future monitoring and assessment needs for arsenic at The Geysers. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Mossbauer study of iron-containing atmospheric aerosol in relation to the air pollution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopcewicz, B.; Kopcewicz, M.

    2003-04-01

    Observation and monitoring of the aerosol background in the troposphere is very important for atmospheric physics. It is the first step in studying antropogenic components and their impact on the climate. Iron (both Fe(II) and Fe(III)) plays an important role in the multiphase atmospheric chemistry of S(IV) as a catalyst as well as an oxidant, and a photolytic source of OH radical. In order to assess the extent in which the iron content in the troposphere may change and to which extent that change may be attributed to human activity, it is necessary to have a complete picture of the distribution of iron concentration and its variation. For these purposes the Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to analyze the iron compounds present in atmospheric aerosol. In this presentation we show results of measurements performed on the atmospheric aerosol collected in Poznan and Lodz (industrial cites in central Poland), Mikolajki (lake district, North-East Poland) and Kasprowy Wierch (mountain observatory, 1985 m a.s.l.). Depending to the sampling period and sampling site the significant changes in the iron concentration and chemical properties of the collected aerosol were observed. As a significant part of air pollution, especially in winter months, iron appeared in the form of iron sulfides, which were products of coal combustion. Also, iron oxyhydroxides and iron oxides, mostly hematite (bulk) and in the form of ultra fine particles in superparamagnetic state were observed. Results obtained from Mössbauer measurements were discussed in relation to the concentration of general air pollution.

  1. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of

  2. MODELING THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE EMISSIONS ON ATMOSPHERIC OZONE AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL CONCENTRATIONS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the modeled effects of natural and anthropogenic chlorine emissions on the atmospheric concentrations of ozone and secondary organic aerosol across the United States. The model calculations include anthropogenic molecular chlorine emissions, anthropogenic hypo...

  3. The Effect of Particle Size on Iron Solubility in Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, A. R.; Majestic, B. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Herckes, P.

    2012-12-01

    The long range transport of mineral dust aerosols, which contain approximately 3% iron by mass, results in an estimated 14-16 Tg of iron deposited into the oceans annually; however, only a small percentage of the deposited iron is soluble. In high-nutrient, low chlorophyll ocean regions iron solubility may limit phytoplankton primary productivity. Although the atmospheric transport processes of mineral dust aerosols have been well studied, the role of particle size has been given little attention. In this work, the effect of particle size on iron solubility in atmospheric aerosols is examined. Iron-containing minerals (illite, kaolinite, magnetite, goethite, red hematite, black hematite, and quartz) were separated into five size fractions (10-2.5, 2.5-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and <0.25μm) and extracted into buffer solutions simulating environments in the transport of aerosol particles for 150 minutes. Particle size was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Soluble iron content of the extracted mineral solutions was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Extracted mineral solutions were also analyzed for Fe(II) and Fe(III) content using a ferrozine/UV-VIS method. Preliminary results show that differences in solution composition are more important than differences in size. When extracted into acetate and cloudwater buffers (pH 4.25-4.3), < 0.3% of the Fe in iron oxides (hematite, magnetite, and goethite) is transferred to solution as compared to ~0.1-35% for clays (kaolinite and illite). When extracted into a marine aerosol solution (pH 1.7), the percentage of Fe of the iron oxides and clays transferred to solution increases to approximately 0.5-3% and 5-70%, respectively. However, there is a trend of increased %Fe in the minerals transferred to solution in the largest and smallest size fractions (~0.01-0.3% and ~0.5-35% for iron oxides and clays, respectively), and decreased %Fe in the minerals transferred to solution in the mid

  4. Sensitivity of Boreal-Summer Circulation and Precipitation to Atmospheric Aerosols in Selected Regions. Part 2; The Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E. M.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol perturbations over selected land regions are imposed in Version-4 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-4) general circulation model (GCM) to assess the influence of increasing aerosol concentrations on regional circulation patterns and precipitation in four selected regions: India, Africa, and North and South America. Part 1 of this paper addresses the responses to aerosol perturbations in India and Africa. This paper presents the same for aerosol perturbations over the Americas. GEOS-4 is forced with prescribed aerosols based on climatological data, which interact with clouds using a prognostic scheme for cloud microphysics including aerosol nucleation of water and ice cloud hydrometeors. In clear-sky conditions the aerosols interact with radiation. Thus the model includes comprehensive physics describing the aerosol direct and indirect effects on climate (hereafter ADE and AIE respectively). Each simulation is started from analyzed initial conditions for 1 May and was integrated through June-July-August of each of the six years: 1982 1987 to provide a 6-ensemble set. Results are presented for the difference between simulations with double the climatological aerosol concentration and one-half the climatological aerosol concentration for three experiments: two where the ADE and AIE are applied separately and one in which both the ADE and AIE are applied. The ADE and AIE both yield reductions in net radiation at the top of the atmosphere and surface while the direct absorption of shortwave radiation contributes a net radiative heating in the atmosphere. A large net heating of the atmosphere is also apparent over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean that is attributable to the large aerosol perturbation imposed over Africa. This atmospheric warming and the depression of the surface pressure over North America contribute to a northward shift of the inter-Tropical Convergence Zone over northern America, an increase in precipitation over Central America

  5. The use of temperature programmable flow tubes for the study of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalizov, A.; Sloan, J. J.

    2003-04-01

    In order to understand the response of atmospheric aerosols to changes they encounter in the natural atmosphere, it is usually necessary to observe models of these aerosol systems under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. This is particularly difficult for the condensed phase, for which agglomeration, gas-particle exchange and gravitational settling affect the composition and limit the observation time. Traditionally, studies of this kind have been carried out in large static chambers and flow tubes. While large chambers provide relatively long observations times, they afford the experimenter less direct control over the environment of the particles. Flow tubes, on the other hand provide very precise control of the experimental conditions, but a much shorter contact time. We have used temperature programmable flow tubes for the past decade to study the composition, size and phase changes that occur when aerosols are exposed to variations in the temperature and composition of the surrounding atmosphere. In many cases, our measurements also yield accurate rate constants for the nucleation of solids in liquid droplets. In this presentation, we will illustrate the capabilities of this method using results obtained from a new temperature programmable flow tube recently built in our laboratory.

  6. The Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site Measured versus Modeled

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.; Turner, D.D.; Clayton, M.; Guibert, S.; Schulz, M.; Chin, M.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol extinction profiles measured by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Raman lidar are used to evaluate aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) simulated by aerosol models as part of the Aerosol module inter- Comparison in global models (AEROCOM) project. This project seeks to diagnose aerosol modules of global models and subsequently identify and eliminate weak components in aerosol modules used for global modeling; AEROCOM activities also include assembling data sets to be used in the evaluations. The AEROCOM average aerosol extinction profiles typically show good agreement with the Raman lidar profiles for altitudes above about 2 km; below 2 km the average model profiles are significantly (30-50%) lower than the Raman lidar profiles. The vertical variability in the average aerosol extinction profiles simulated by these models is less than the variability in the corresponding Raman lidar pro files. The measurements also show a much larger diurnal variability than the Interaction with Chemistry and Aerosols (INCA) model, particularly near the surface where there is a high correlation between aerosol extinction and relative humidity.

  7. Spatial and temporal correlation length as a measure for the stationarity of atmospheric dust aerosol distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepanski, Kerstin; Klüser, Lars; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina

    2015-12-01

    Fields of dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) from numerical models and satellite observations are widely used data sets for evaluating the actual distribution of atmospheric dust aerosol. In this study we investigate the use of estimates of spatial and temporal correlation lengths (CLs) calculated from simulations using the regional model system COSMO-MUSCAT (COSMO: Consortium for Small-scale Modelling; MUSCAT: MUltiScale Chemistry Aerosol Transport Model) to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric aerosol distribution, here mineral dust, and to provide an estimate on the temporal model output interval required in order to represent the local evolution of atmospheric dustiness. The CLs indicate the scales of variability for dust and thus provide an estimate for the stationarity of dust conditions in space and time. Additionally, CLs can be an estimate for the required resolution in time and space of observational systems to observe changes in atmospheric dust conditions that would be relevant for dust forecasts. Here, two years of dust simulations using COSMO-MUSCAT are analyzed. CLs for the individual years 2007 and 2008 are compared to the entire two-year period illustrating the impact of the length of time series on statistical analysis. The two years are chosen as they are contrasting with regard to mineral dust loads and thus provide additional information on the representativeness of the statistical analysis. Results from the COSMO-MUSCAT CL analysis are compared against CL estimates from satellite observations, here dust AOD inferred from IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), which provides bi-daily information of atmospheric dust loading over desert land and ocean. Although CLs estimated from the satellite observations are at a generally lower level of values, the results demonstrate the applicability of daily observations for assessing the atmospheric dust distribution. Main outcomes of this study illustrate the

  8. Tom O'Connor: His legacy of atmospheric aerosol research in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, S. Gerard

    2013-05-01

    Dr. Thomas C. (Tom) O'Connor received his foundation in atmospheric aerosols through his M. Sc. work at University College Dublin (with P.J. Nolan) and then as research scholar with Leo W. Pollak at the Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies. On moving to Galway in 1956, a significant legacy was his choosing of a field station site at Mace Head and his pioneering measurements there. He played a pivotal role in the development and progression of the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station (www.macehead.org) for some 50 years. He passed away peacefully in November 2012.

  9. Oxidation of biogenic compounds in the atmosphere: novel pathways and their impact on oxidants and aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennberg, P. O.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the oxidative chemistry of biogenically-produced compounds has been substantially altered in the last five years. New pathways including odd intramolecular rearrangements produce an abundance of oxidized compounds -- many of which were previously unknown to exist in the atmosphere. These include epoxides and numerous other highly-oxidized compounds that increase the amount of aerosol. Many of these new pathways recycle HOx radicals thereby altering the large-scale photochemistry of the atmosphere. I will describe both field and laboratory experiments that have revealed this novel chemistry point to the large number of remaining questions.

  10. Atmospheric Modelling of Aerosols Long-Range Transport over the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surapipith, V.; Adhikary, B.; Bhave, P.; Panday, A. K.; Mukherji, A.

    2014-12-01

    An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) Headquarters in Kathmandu, Nepal, for the assessment of air quality in the Hindukush Himalaya region. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model version 3.6 is being implemented over a regional domain stretching across 4995 x 4455 km centred at Kathmandu, where an intensive field campaign, Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) took place from December 2012 to February 2013. Seven stations around the valley collected data on meteorology and chemical parameters. WRF-Chem simulation are carried out for the winter time period at high horizontal resolution (1 km × 1 km), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, inside three coarser domains. Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, focusing on aerosols. The challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed. The effort aims for a better understanding of atmospheric processes and aerosol impacts, as well as the impact of long-range transport, particularly of black carbon aerosol upon the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The rapid melting of Himalayan glaciers and snowfields, and the shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Based on physically adjusted schemes, the WRF meteorological model performs well with Pearson correlation coefficients higher than 0.8 for temperature and solar radiation, although it has a tendency to overestimate wind speed. The WRF with chemistry is then used with local and regional emission databases, in combination and after comparison with the global inventory, as input for describing the long-range transport of aerosols. Improved aerosol prediction will allow us to provide crucial information needed for mitigation and adaptation strategies that save people's lives across the Himalaya. The regional

  11. An automated baseline correction protocol for infrared spectra of atmospheric aerosols collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmiakova, Adele; Dillner, Ann M.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of research on statistical applications for characterization of atmospheric aerosol Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) samples collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters (e.g., Russell et al., 2011; Ruthenburg et al., 2014) and a rising interest in analyzing FT-IR samples collected by air quality monitoring networks call for an automated PTFE baseline correction solution. The existing polynomial technique (Takahama et al., 2013) is not scalable to a project with a large number of aerosol samples because it contains many parameters and requires expert intervention. Therefore, the question of how to develop an automated method for baseline correcting hundreds to thousands of ambient aerosol spectra given the variability in both environmental mixture composition and PTFE baselines remains. This study approaches the question by detailing the statistical protocol, which allows for the precise definition of analyte and background subregions, applies nonparametric smoothing splines to reproduce sample-specific PTFE variations, and integrates performance metrics from atmospheric aerosol and blank samples alike in the smoothing parameter selection. Referencing 794 atmospheric aerosol samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011, we start by identifying key FT-IR signal characteristics, such as non-negative absorbance or analyte segment transformation, to capture sample-specific transitions between background and analyte. While referring to qualitative properties of PTFE background, the goal of smoothing splines interpolation is to learn the baseline structure in the background region to predict the baseline structure in the analyte region. We then validate the model by comparing smoothing splines baseline-corrected spectra with uncorrected and polynomial baseline (PB)-corrected equivalents via three statistical applications: (1) clustering analysis, (2) functional group quantification

  12. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  13. The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, E. W.; Rap, A.; Schmidt, A.; Reddington, C.; Scott, C.; Pringle, K.; Woodhouse, M.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Combustion of fuels in the residential sector for cooking and heating, results in the emission of aerosol and aerosol precursors that effect air quality, human health and climate. Residential emissions are dominated by the combustion of solid fuels which are the primary energy source for nearly half the world's population. Despite this importance, residential emissions are poorly quantified, as are their impacts on air quality and climate. We used a global aerosol microphysics model to simulate the impact of residential emissions on atmospheric aerosol in the year 2000, and evaluated simulated concentrations against surface observations of aerosol mass and number. Residential emissions make the largest contributions to surface particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in East Asia, South Asia and Eastern Europe, matching regions of greatest emissions. We used concentration response functions to estimate a global annual excess adult (> 30 years of age) premature mortality due to residential emissions of between 113, 300 and 827, 000 when uncertainties in both residential emissions and health effects of PM2.5 were accounted for. Premature mortality was greatest in Asia, with China and India accounting for 50% of simulated global excess mortality. Using an offline radiative transfer model, we show that residential emissions exerted a global annual mean direct radiative effect of between -66 mW m-2 and +21 mW m-2, accounting for uncertainties in emissions flux and assumed ratio of carbonaceous and sulphur emissions. Residential emissions exerted a negative global annual mean first aerosol indirect effect of between -52 mW m-2 and -16 mW m-2, which was found to be sensitive to the assumed size distribution of carbonaceous emissions. Our results demonstrate that reducing residential combustion emissions would have substantial benefits for human health through reductions in ambient PM2.5 concentrations.

  14. Aerosol variability and atmospheric transport in the Himalayan region from CALIOP 2007-2010 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, S.; Cagnazzo, C.; Cairo, F.; Di Liberto, L.; Fierli, F.

    2013-06-01

    Himalayan Plateau is surrounded by regions with high natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions that have a strong impact on regional climate. This is particularly critical for the Himalayan glaciers whose equilibrium is also largely influenced by radiative direct and indirect effects induced by aerosol burden. This work focuses on the spatial and vertical distribution of different aerosol types, their seasonal variability and sources. The analysis of the 2007-2010 yr of CALIPSO vertically resolved satellite data allows the identification of spatial patterns of desert dust and carbonaceous particles in different atmospheric layers. Clusters of Lagrangian back-trajectories highlight the transport pathways from source regions during the dusty spring season. The analysis shows a prevalence of dust; at low heights they are distributed mainly north (with a main contribution from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts) and west of the Tibetan Plateau (originating from the deserts of South-West Asia and advected by the westerlies). Above the Himalayas the dust amount is minor but still not negligible (detectable in around 20% of the measurements), and transport from more distant deserts (Sahara and Arabian Peninsula) is important. Smoke aerosol, produced mainly in North India and East China, is subject to shorter range transport and is indeed observed closer to the sources while there is a limited amount reaching the top of the plateau. Data analysis reveals a clear seasonal variability in the frequencies of occurrence for the main aerosol types; dust is regulated principally by the monsoon dynamics, with maxima of occurrence in spring. The study also highlights relevant interannual differences, showing a larger presence of aerosol in the region during 2007 and 2008 yr.

  15. Impact of wet scavenging of natural and anthropogenic aerosol components on the columnar aerosol optical depth over a tropical rural atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Jayaraman, Achuthan

    A typical feature of Indian monsoon is that, several dry days are observed even between the rain events. Atmospheric aerosol shows significant variations in their concentration between "before" and "after" the rain because of their efficient scavenging during the rain. The below cloud scavenging of several aerosol components during the rain has a direct impact on the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) between "before" and "after" the rain. In order to investigate the impact of the scavenging of several natural and anthropogenic aerosol components on spectral properties of aerosol, simultaneous studies on the characterization of aerosol, rainwater and AOD were done during July-December 2009 over a tropical rural atmosphere at Gadanki (13.5 0N, 79.2 0E) in southern peninsular India. Aerosols were collected and analyzed before, during and after the rain along with the collection and analysis of rainwater in several rain events during the entire study period. AOD data (at wavelengths of 400, 500, 675, 870, 1020 nm) was retrieved by processing the data obtained from an automatic sunphotomer (PREDE, PM 01) using the standard SKYRAD pack. Aerosols and rainwater samples were analyzed for water soluble ionic species using an Ion Chromatograph (Metrohm, 861). We observed that aerosols were highly loaded in the atmosphere just before the rain, efficiently scavenged during the rain and built-up slowly after the rain. Interestingly, the loading of sulphate aerosol after the rain was remarkably high whereas that of calcium and magnesium were remarkably low. The poor resuspension of soil dust from the wet soils after the rain could not allow calcium and magnesium to be loaded in the atmosphere whereas the high relative humidity favored the gas-to-particle conversion of SO2 to SO42-which allowed the high loading of sulphate aerosol in the atmosphere. Significant reductions in AOD both at lower (400 nm) and higher wavelength (1020 nm) were observed after the rain events. Two

  16. Spectroscopic studies of homogeneous precursors to atmospheric acids and aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Leopold, K.R.; Canagaratna, M.; Phillips, J.A.; Goodfriend, H.

    1996-10-01

    A detailed understanding of the nucleation and growth of atmospheric particulates is benefitted by precise knowledge of the structure and energetics of small molecular aggregates. We present the results of microwave spectroscopic characterization of three binary clusters which are potential precursors in such processes: H{sub 2}O-SO{sub 3}, H{sub 3}N-SO{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O-HNO{sub 3}. In addition to providing detailed structural information, we describe the nature of the bonding in these systems. For the SO{sub 3} complexes, the intermolecular interaction is weaker than a chemical bond, but stronger than a van der Waals bond. We discuss how this feature of these systems renders their structure and energetics unusually sensitive to the presence of additional binding partners, and infer that an accurate molecular-level description of cluster growth will need to account for this effect. The results are compared with published high level ab initio calculations for all three systems.

  17. Laboratory measurements of light scattering by simulated atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Quiney, R G; Carswell, A I

    1972-07-01

    Using the Stokes vector formulation measurements are reported of the four principal components of the scattering matrix under controlled laboratory conditions. Two ranges of scattering conditions are considered: atmospheric air as a function of relative humidity (HAZE) and water droplet clouds (FOGS). A 50-mW (63284-A) He-Ne laser is used as the light source. A sensitive automated polar nephelometer, which has been developed for these measurements, records the scattered light as a function of scattering angle from 6 degrees to 174 degrees . A digital computer is used to calculate the matrix elements from the raw experimental data. The results may be compared with the theoretical computations of Deirmendjian and the field work of Rozenberg. The results of the experiments show pronounced dependence upon the relative humidity and the properties of the fogs that are explicable qualitatively. However, quantitative inversion of light scattering data to obtain such information as the size distribution requires comprehensive experiments of high precision and large amounts of computer time.

  18. Ergosterol as a biomarker for the quantification of the fungal biomass in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Arthur P. S.; Lee, Alex K. Y.; Chan, Chak K.; Fang, Ming

    The prevailing warm and humid climate in subtropical cities favors fungal growth in the ambient environment. Fungal growth has implications for public health because fungal cells, spores and their metabolites are allergenic and potential health hazards. In this regard, better and quicker alternatives than the available sampling and species identification methods are needed for quantifying fungal communities in atmospheric aerosols. In this study, the fungal membrane ergosterol was used as a biomarker for assessing the abundance and mass loading of fungi in atmospheric aerosols. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized for quantification of this biomarker in fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particulates collected by high volume samplers simultaneously at a rural site and an urban site in Hong Kong. The geometric means of the total ergosterol concentrations at the rural and urban sites were 120.2 and 93.9 pg m -3 in the PM 10 (calculated as the sum of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10) particulates. The significantly higher ergosterol loading at the rural site was related to the vegetation coverage around the sampling site. Ergosterol loading was higher in the autumn at both sites, which correlated with seasonal drops in the relative humidity below 70%. Approximately 65-66% of the ergosterol in PM 10 is associated with fine particulates, indicating that atmospheric fungi likely lead to chronic respiratory symptoms. The mass loading of the fungal spores on the dry mass was on the order of 10-10 2 ng m -3. The geometric mean concentration of the fungal spores was estimated as 46 and 36 spores m -3, which was one-sixth of the measured viable samplings of 292 and 247 CFU m -3 at the rural and urban sites, respectively. This underestimation leads to the need for establishing proper conversion factors from conditions identical to or simulating the study system of interest when markers are quantified and estimated for microbial mass loading in ambient aerosols. This

  19. A sub-decadal trend in diacids in atmospheric aerosols in eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Fu, P. Q.; Jung, J.

    2016-01-01

    Change in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we examine the sub-decadal (2001-2008) trend in major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids) of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site on Cheju Island, South Korea. The Gosan site is influenced by pollution outflows from eastern Asia. The molecular distributions of diacids were characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids in each year. The seasonal variations in diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distributions and seasonal variations along with significantly similar air mass transport patterns are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in eastern Asia on a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases in major diacids at the rate of 3.9-47.4 % per year, particularly in April. The temporal variations in atmospheric tracer compounds (carbon monoxide, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal) suggest that the increases in diacids are due to enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by the compounds' chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends in diacids contrast with the reported decreases in sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in recent years in eastern Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in eastern Asia were not able to decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. The increases in water-soluble organic acid fraction could modify the aerosol organic composition and its sensitivity to climate relevant physical properties.

  20. Ion balances of size-resolved tropospheric aerosol samples: implications for the acidity and atmospheric processing of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Hillamo, Risto; Teinilä, Kimmo; Pakkanen, Tuomo; Allegrini, Ivo; Sparapani, Roberto

    A large set of size-resolved aerosol samples was inspected with regard to their ion balance to shed light on how the aerosol acidity changes with particle size in the lower troposphere and what implications this might have for the atmospheric processing of aerosols. Quite different behaviour between the remote and more polluted environments could be observed. At the remote sites, practically the whole accumulation mode had cation-to-anion ratios clearly below unity, indicating that these particles were quite acidic. The supermicron size range was considerably less acidic and may in some cases have been close to neutral or even alkaline. An interesting feature common to the remote sites was a clear jump in the cation-to-anion ratio when going from the accumulation to the Aitken mode. The most likely reason for this was cloud processing which, via in-cloud sulphate production, makes the smallest accumulation-mode particles more acidic than the non-activated Aitken-mode particles. A direct consequence of the less acidic nature of the Aitken mode is that it can take up semi-volatile, water-soluble gases much easier than the accumulation mode. This feature may have significant implications for atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei production in remote environments. In rural and urban locations, the cation-to-anion ratio was close to unity over most of the accumulation mode, but increased significantly when going to either larger or smaller particle sizes. The high cation-to-anion ratios in the supermicron size range were ascribed to carbonate associated with mineral dust. The ubiquitous presence of carbonate in these particles indicates that they were neutral or alkaline, making them good sites for heterogeneous reactions involving acidic trace gases. The high cation-to-anion ratios in the Aitken mode suggest that these particles contained some water-soluble anions not detected by our chemical analysis. This is worth keeping in mind when investigating the hygroscopic

  1. The Influence of High Aerosol Concentration on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Khaykin, M.N.; Kadygrove, E.N.; Golitsyn, G.S.

    2005-03-18

    Investigations of the changing in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) radiation balance as cased by natural and anthropogenic reasons is an important topic of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The influence of aerosol on temperature stratification of ABL while its concentration was extremely high within a long period of time was studied experimentally. The case was observed in Moscow region (Russia) with the transport of combustion products from peat-bog and forest fires in July-September, 2002. At this time the visibility was some times at about 100-300 m. Aerosol concentration measured by Moscow University Observatory and A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics field station in Zvenigorod (55.7 N; 36.6 E) for several days was in 50-100 times more than background one (Gorchakov at al 2003). The high aerosol concentration can change the radiation balance at ABL, and so to change thermal stratification in ABL above the mega lopolis. For the analysis the data were used of synchronous measurements by MTP-5 (Microwave Temperature Profiler operating at wavelength 5 mm) in two locations, namely: downtown Moscow and country-side which is 50 km apart to the West (Zvenigorod station). (Kadygrov and Pick 1998; Westwater at al 1999; Kadygrov at al 2002). Zvenigorod station is located in strongly continental climate zone which is in between of the climates of ARM sites (NSANorth Slope of Alaska and SGP-Southern Great Plains). The town of Zvenigorod has little industry, small traffic volume and topography conductive to a good air ventilation of the town. For these reasons Zvenigorod can be considered as an undisturbed rural site. For the analysis some days were chosen with close meteorological parameters (average temperature, humidity, wind, pressure and cloud form) but strongly differing in aerosol concentration level.

  2. Characteristics of atmospheric aerosol optical depth variation in China during 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Qiu, J.; Xia, X.; Sun, L.; Min, M.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a critical physical parameter for indicating atmospheric turbidity and aerosol content, and is also a key factor in determining the aerosol radiative forcing effects. This study gives the long-term variation characteristics of atmospheric aerosol optical depth at 14 first-class solar radiation stations in China during 1993-2012. Based on the broadband extinction method (BEM), we retrieve the AOD from the hourly accumulated direct solar radiation. Using a AOD selection method, we derive and analyze the monthly, seasonal and annual averaged AOD. The results show that (1) the mean AOD ranges from 0.135 (Lhasa) to 0.678 (Zhengzhou). Shenyang has the maximum standard deviation of 0.109, while Ejin Banner has the minimum value of 0.021. The mean value for all years and stations is 0.423. (2) At most stations, the largest AOD appears in spring and the smallest in autumn. The seasonal averaged AOD of all years and stations is 0.487 (spring), 0.456 (summer), 0.364 (autumn) and 0.381 (winter). (3) As to the variation trend, an increasing trend appeared at five stations (Kashi, Kunming, Zhengzhou, Wuhan and Shanghai), while a decreasing trend is found at two stations (Guangzhou and Beijing). After analyzing the correlations between AOD and the meteorological factors (i.e. temperature, pressure, humidity and visibility), we find that AOD has a positive correlation with temperature, and a negative correlation with pressure and visibility at most of the stations.

  3. Mass balance of organic carbon fractions in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, CéLia; Carvalho, Abel; Pio, Casimiro

    2002-11-01

    Total suspended particulate matter was collected in two Portuguese urban areas (Lisbon and Aveiro) and in a Finnish forested site. Samples were sequentially extracted with dichloromethane and water. The solvent extract was separated by flash chromatography into aliphatics, aromatics, carbonyls, alcohols, and an acidic fraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An organic/black carbon analyzer was used to evaluate the carbonaceous matter in filters, the water-soluble fraction, solvent extractable material, and the content of different organic classes. Results showed that the common simple extraction with dichloromethane is able to dissolve less than 50% of the particulate organic material. The successive extraction with water removes an important quantity of the leftover organic polar compounds. The sum of both extractions recovers between 70% and 90% of the organic carbon present. The amount of oxygenated compounds is frequently more than 70% of the extracted material, with a large predominance of organic acids and alcohols, especially for particles with diameters less than 0.49 μm. The organic compounds identified in the extractable atmospheric particulate matter are represented by primary compounds with both anthropogenic and biogenic origin, which mainly derive from vegetation waxes and from petrogenic sources. Secondary products resulting from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds were also detected. The water-soluble fraction contains essentially oxocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, and cellulosic constituents. In accordance with the anthropogenic characteristics of the sampling sites, nonpolar fractions constitute up to 24% of the extracted organic carbon in Lisbon and present high levels of petroleum markers, while in the forested station these compounds represent 8%. The oxygenated organic compounds account for 76-92% of the extracted carbon in samples from Aveiro and Finland. Owing to favorable photochemical conditions during

  4. Regional Biases in Droplet Activation Parameterizations: Strong Influence on Aerosol Second Indirect Effect in the Community Atmosphere Model v5.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, R.; Nenes, A.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions constitute one of the most uncertain aspects of anthropogenic climate change estimates. The magnitude of these interactions as represented in climate models strongly depends on the process of aerosol activation. This process is the most direct physical link between aerosols and cloud microphysical properties. Calculation of droplet number in GCMs requires the computation of new droplet formation (i.e., droplet activation), through physically based activation parameterizations. Considerable effort has been placed in ensuring that droplet activation parameterizations have a physically consistent response to changes in aerosol number concentration. However, recent analyses using an adjoint sensitivity approach showed that parameterizations can exhibit considerable biases in their response to other aerosol properties, such as aerosol modal diameter or to the aerosol chemical composition. This is a potentially important factor in estimating aerosol indirect effects since changes in aerosol properties from pre-industrial times to present day exhibit a very strong regional signature. In this work we use the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to show that the regional imprint of the changes in aerosol properties during the last century interacts with the droplet activation parameterization in a way that these biases are amplified over climatically relevant regions. Two commonly used activation routines, the CAM5 default, Abdul-Razzak and Ghan parameterization, as well as the Fountoukis and Nenes parameterization are used in this study. We further explored the impacts of Nd parameterization biases in the first and second aerosol indirect effects separately, by performing simulations were droplet number was not allowed to intervene in the precipitation initiation process. The simulations performed show that an unphysical response to changes in the diameter of accumulation mode aerosol translates into extremely high Nd concentrations over South

  5. Radiative effects of tropospheric aerosols on the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer and its feedback on the haze formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chao; Su, Hang; Cheng, Yafang

    2016-04-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) plays a key role in air pollution dispersion and influences day-to-day air quality. Some studies suggest that high aerosol loadings during severe haze events may modify PBL dynamics by radiative effects and hence enhance the development of haze. This study mainly investigates the radiative effects of tropospheric aerosols on the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer by conducting simulations with Weather Research and Forecasting single-column model (WRF-SCM). We find that high aerosol loading in PBL depressed boundary layer height (PBLH). But the magnitude of the changes of PBLH after adding aerosol loadings in our simulations are small and can't explain extreme high aerosol concentrations observed. We also investigate the impacts of the initial temperature and moisture profiles on the evolution of PBL. Our studies show that the impact of the vertical profile of moisture is comparable with aerosol effects.

  6. Carbonaceous aerosols and mineral dust in atmospheric outflow from the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarin, M.; Srinivas, B.; Rengarajan, R.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols and mineral dust over south and south-east Asia has been a subject of major debate over the past two decades because of their potential impact on the regional air quality and climate forcing. A comprehensive study through ground-based measurements and data-base for aerosol chemical composition (involving both organic and inorganic constituents) is, thus, essential to constrain the large uncertainties associated with the climate impact. Our systematic study from a downwind site (Kharagpur: 22.02N, 87.11E) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) suggests large temporal variability in the atmospheric mass concentrations of mineral dust, organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and inorganic species (WSIS). This is attributed to seasonally varying anthropogenic emissions, their source strength, boundary layer dynamics, secondary aerosol formation and long-range transport of mineral dust from desert regions. Based on diagnostic ratios [OC/EC ≈ 7.0 ± 2.2, WSOC/OC ≈ 0.6 and K+/EC ≈ 0.48 ± 0.17], we document biomass burning emissions (wood-fuel and post-harvest agricultural-waste burning) as a major source of carbonaceous aerosols. The characteristic ratios: nss-SO42-/EC (3.9 ± 2.1), nss-SO42-/OC (0.61 ± 0.46), high abundance of SO42- (6.9 - 25.3 μg m-3) and SO42-/ΣWSIS = 45 - 77 % in the outflow provide better assessment of aerosol optical properties. The subsequent downwind transport of pollutants from the IGP significantly influences the chemical composition of aerosols over the Bay of Bengal. The dominance of aerosol SO42- in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) is evident from the wide-spread depletion of chloride with respect to sea-salt composition. The Ca/Al and Fe/Al ratios in the IGP-outflow, used as a proxy for the long-range transport of mineral dust, are consistent with those in the MABL. The mass closure for PM2.5 composition suggests that contribution of mineral dust (20

  7. The high field strength element budget of atmospheric aerosols (puy de Dôme, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlastelic, Ivan; Suchorski, Krzysztof; Sellegri, Karine; Colomb, Aurélie; Nauret, François; Bouvier, Laetitia; Piro, Jean-Luc

    2015-10-01

    High field strength elements (HFSE), including Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and Ti have low solubility in aqueous fluids and partition into dense and resistant minerals. HFSE proved useful in studying terrestrial weathering and sediment transport, but little is known about their behavior during atmospheric processes, which play an important role in global sedimentary cycles. The atmospheric budget of HFSE is evaluated from the sequential dissolution of aerosol samples collected between 2011 and 2014 at puy de Dôme (1465 m elevation, French Massif Central). Aerosols were sampled during nighttime, while the site is generally located above the planetary boundary layer. Systematic, partial recovery of HFSE during gentle dissolution of aerosols indicates that resistant minerals are ubiquitous in air samples. Total dissolution of aerosols in pressure vessels reveals that Zr and Hf occur on average in sub-crustal abundance, which is consistent with the sampling site being dominantly influenced by oceanic air masses depleted in zircons. Conversely, zircon excess occasionally occurs in continental air masses, in particular those originating from northern Africa. Overall, the Hf/Nd ratio, a proxy for zircon fractionation, varies from 0.26 to 3.94 times the Upper Continental Crust (UCC) value, encompassing the range of worldwide loess. This wide compositional range is consistent with (1) the occurrence of coarse zircons (10-30 μm) in dust source, with possible local enrichments relative to bulk UCC in residual wind-winnowed soils, and (2) gravitational settling of coarse zircons during long-distance (>ca. 1000 km) transport. Niobium and Ta are systematically more abundant (by a mean factor of ∼3) in puy de Dôme aerosols than expected from average crustal or soil concentrations. The volume-weighted average Nb/Ta ratio of 15.5 ± 2.6 (1σ) is also higher than in bulk UCC (11.4-13.3). The positive Nb-Ta anomaly of free troposphere aerosols unlikely reflects a net Nb-Ta enrichment but

  8. Fine mode aerosol chemistry over a rural atmosphere near the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Anandamay; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted on the chemical characterization of fine mode aerosol or PM2.5 over a rural atmosphere near the coast of Bay of Bengal in eastern India. Samples were collected and analyzed during March 2013 - February 2014. The concentration of PM2.5 was found span over a wide range from as low as 3 µg m-3 to as high as 180 µg m-3. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 62 µg m-3. Maximum accumulation of fine mode aerosol was observed during winter whereas minimum was observed during monsoon. Water soluble ionic species of fine mode aerosol were characterized over this rural atmosphere. In spite of being situated near the coast of Bay of Bengal, we observed significantly higher concentrations for anthropogenic species like ammonium and sulphate. The concentrations of these two species were much higher than the sea-salt aerosols. Ammonium and sulphate contributed around 30 % to the total fine mode aerosols. Even dust aerosol species like calcium also showed higher concentrations. Chloride to sodium ratio was found to be much less than that in standard sea-water indicating strong interaction between sea-salt and anthropogenic aerosols. Use of fertilizers in various crop fields and human and animal wastes significantly increased ammonium in fine mode aerosols. Dust aerosol species were accumulated in the atmosphere which could be due to transport of finer dust species from nearby metropolis or locally generated. Non-sea-sulphate and nitrate showed significant contributions in fine mode aerosols having both local and transported sources. Source apportionment shows prominent emission sources of anthropogenic aerosols from local anthropogenic activities and transported from nearby Kolkata metropolis as well.

  9. Origin of nitrocatechols and alkylated-nitrocatechols in atmospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Nicolas; Sylvestre, Alexandre; Ravier, Sylvain; Detournay, Anais; Bruns, Emily; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Prevot, Andre

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning constitutes one of the major sources of aerosol particles in most of the environments during winter. If a lot of information is available in the literature on the primary fraction of biomass burning aerosol particles, almost nothing is known regarding the formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) from the chemical mixture emitted by this source. Recently methylated nitrocatechol have been identified in atmospheric particles collected in winter. These compounds are strongly associated with biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan and are suspected to be of secondary origin since they can be formed through the oxidation of cresol significantly emitted by biomass burning. However, nitrocatechols are particularly difficult to analyze using classical techniques like HPLC-MS or GC-MS. In the present study, we adopt a new analytical approach. Direct analysis in real time (DART), introduced by Cody et al. (2005), allows direct analysis of gases, liquids, solids and materials on surfaces. Thus, for particles collected onto filters, the sample preparation step is simplified as much as possible, avoiding losses and reducing to the minimum the analytical procedure time. Two analytic modes can be used. In positive mode, [MH]+ ions are formed by proton transfer reaction ; whereas in negative ionization mode, [MH]-, M- and [MO2]- ions are formed. DART source enables soft ionization and produces simple mass spectra suitable for analysis of complex matrices, like organic aerosol, in only a few seconds. For this study, the DART source was coupled to a Q-ToF mass spectrometer (Synapt G2 HDMS, Waters), with a mass resolution up to 40 000. The analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples, collected in Marseille during winter 2011 (APICE project), with the DART/Q-ToF approach highlighted the abundance of nitrocatechols and alkylated nitrocatechols. Their temporal trends were also very similar to those of levoglucosan or dihydroabietic acid well known tracers of biomass

  10. Size-Resolved Chemical Analysis of Individual Atmospheric Aerosols near Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunsch, M.; Barrett, T. E.; Sheesley, R. J.; Pratt, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is having noticeable impacts on the Arctic with increasing temperatures and decreasing sea ice coverage. Loss of sea ice is leading to development of oil and gas extraction activities and increased shipping in the Arctic. Arctic aerosol emissions are expected to increase with increasing anthropogenic activities and production of sea spray aerosol. These particles have significant climate effects, including interacting with radiation, forming cloud droplets and ice crystals, and depositing onto surfaces. Given the complexity and evolving nature of atmospheric particles, as well as the challenges associated with Arctic measurements, significant uncertainties remain in our understanding of particle sources, evolution, and impacts in the Arctic. To investigate the size and chemistry of individual particles in real-time, an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to Barrow, Alaska during August-September 2015. Parallel size-resolved number concentration measurements allow the quantification of number and mass concentrations of particles from various sources, including sea spray aerosol, biomass burning, and diesel combustion, for example.

  11. Fine Iron Aerosols Are Internally Mixed with Nitrate in the Urban European Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, D C S; Harrison, Roy M; Onat, Burcu

    2016-04-19

    Atmospheric iron aerosol is a bioavailable essential nutrient playing a role in oceanic productivity. Using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), the particle size (0.3-1.5 μm), chemical composition and mixing state of Fe-containing particles collected at two European urban sites (London and Barcelona) were characterized. Out of the six particle types accounting for the entire Fe-aerosol population, that arising from long-range transport (LRT) of fine Fe-containing particles (Fe-LRT, 54-82% across the two sites) was predominant. This particle type was found to be internally mixed with nitrate and not with sulfate, and likely mostly associated with urban traffic activities. This is in profound contrast with previous studies carried out in Asia, where the majority of iron-containing particles are mixed with sulfate and are of coal combustion origin. Other minor fine iron aerosol sources included mineral dust (8-11%), traffic brake wear material (1-17%), shipping/oil (1-6%), biomass combustion (4-13%) and vegetative debris (1-3%). Overall, relative to anthropogenic Asian Fe-sulfate dust, anthropogenic European dust internally mixed with additional key nutrients such as nitrate is likely to play a different role in ocean global biogeochemical cycles. PMID:27002272

  12. The importance of plume rise on the concentrations and atmospheric impacts of biomass burning aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Carolin; Freitas, Saulo R.; Kottmeier, Christoph; Kraut, Isabel; Rieger, Daniel; Vogel, Heike; Vogel, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    We quantified the effects of the plume rise of biomass burning aerosol and gases for the forest fires that occurred in Saskatchewan, Canada, in July 2010. For this purpose, simulations with different assumptions regarding the plume rise and the vertical distribution of the emissions were conducted. Based on comparisons with observations, applying a one-dimensional plume rise model to predict the injection layer in combination with a parametrization of the vertical distribution of the emissions outperforms approaches in which the plume heights are initially predefined. Approximately 30 % of the fires exceed the height of 2 km with a maximum height of 8.6 km. Using this plume rise model, comparisons with satellite images in the visible spectral range show a very good agreement between the simulated and observed spatial distributions of the biomass burning plume. The simulated aerosol optical depth (AOD) with data of an AERONET station is in good agreement with respect to the absolute values and the timing of the maximum. Comparison of the vertical distribution of the biomass burning aerosol with CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) retrievals also showed the best agreement when the plume rise model was applied. We found that downwelling surface short-wave radiation below the forest fire plume is reduced by up to 50 % and that the 2 m temperature is decreased by up to 6 K. In addition, we simulated a strong change in atmospheric stability within the biomass burning plume.

  13. Examining the relationship among atmospheric aerosols and light scattering and extinction in the Grand Canyon area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William C.; Molenar, John V.; Eldred, Robert A.; Sisler, James F.

    1996-08-01

    During the winter and summer months of 1990 a special study called Project MOHAVE (measurement of haze and visual effects) was carried out with the principle objective of attributing aerosol species to extinction and scattering and the aerosol species to sources and/or source regions. The study area included much of southern California and Nevada, Arizona, and Utah; however, the intensive monitoring sites and primary focus of the study was on the Colorado Plateau of northern Arizona, southern Nevada, and Utah. This paper reports on the apportionment of various aerosol species to measured fine and coarse mass concentrations and these species to scattering and extinction. The study is unique in that a number of "ambient" integrating nephelometers were operated to measure the ambient scattering coefficient, while transmissometers were used to measure atmospheric extinction. Comparison of measured scattering, extinction, and aerosol species concentration, both statistically and theoretically, allows for an estimate of scattering and absorption efficiencies. Analysis suggests that using elemental carbon, derived from thermal optical techniques, to estimate absorption may significantly underestimate absorption. Using elemental carbon, absorption is estimated to be 5% of extinction, while direct measurements of absorption suggest that it is about 30% of measured extinction. Furthermore, because light absorption by soil is usually not accounted for, soil extinction is underestimated by about 30%.

  14. Investigating the Chemical Pathways to PAH- and PANH-Based Aerosols in Titan's Atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella Marion; Contreras, Cesar; Ricketts, Claire Louise; Salama, Farid

    2011-01-01

    A complex organic chemistry between Titan's two main constituents, N2 and CH4, leads to the production of more complex molecules and subsequently to solid organic aerosols. These aerosols are at the origin of the haze layers giving Titan its characteristic orange color. In situ measurements by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard Cassini have revealed the presence of large amounts of neutral, positively and negatively charged heavy molecules in the ionosphere of Titan. In particular, benzene (C6H6) and toluene (C6H5CH3), which are critical precursors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, have been detected, suggesting that PAHs might play a role in the production of Titan s aerosols. Moreover, results from numerical models as well as laboratory simulations of Titan s atmospheric chemistry are also suggesting chemical pathways that link the simple precursor molecules resulting from the first steps of the N2-CH4 chemistry (C2H2, C2H4, HCN ...) to benzene, and to PAHs and nitrogen-containing PAHs (or PANHs) as precursors to the production of solid aerosols.

  15. Multi-Decadal Change of Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Effect on Surface Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Tan, Qian; Wild, Martin; Qian, Yun; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Wang, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    We present an investigation on multi-decadal changes of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on surface radiation using a global chemistry transport model along with the near-term to long-term data records. We focus on a 28-year time period of satellite era from 1980 to 2007, during which a suite of aerosol data from satellite observations and ground-based remote sensing and in-situ measurements have become available. We analyze the long-term global and regional aerosol optical depth and concentration trends and their relationship to the changes of emissions" and assess the role aerosols play in the multi-decadal change of solar radiation reaching the surface (known as "dimming" or "brightening") at different regions of the world, including the major anthropogenic source regions (North America, Europe, Asia) that have been experiencing considerable changes of emissions, dust and biomass burning regions that have large interannual variabilities, downwind regions that are directly affected by the changes in the source area, and remote regions that are considered to representing "background" conditions.

  16. Fluorescent water-soluble organic aerosols in the High Arctic atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Qin, Mingyue; Ren, Lujie; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Barrie, Leonard A.; Tachibana, Eri; Ding, Aijun; Yamashita, Youhei

    2015-01-01

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the earth’s atmosphere. They have been extensively studied in urban, rural and marine environments. However, little is known about the fluorescence properties of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or their transport to and distribution in the polar regions. Here, we present evidence that fluorescent WSOC is a substantial component of High Arctic aerosols. The ratios of fluorescence intensity of protein-like peak to humic-like peak generally increased from dark winter to early summer, indicating an enhanced contribution of protein-like organics from the ocean to Arctic aerosols after the polar sunrise. Such a seasonal pattern is in agreement with an increase of stable carbon isotope ratios of total carbon (δ13CTC) from −26.8‰ to −22.5‰. Our results suggest that Arctic aerosols are derived from a combination of the long-range transport of terrestrial organics and local sea-to-air emission of marine organics, with an estimated contribution from the latter of 8.7–77% (mean 45%). PMID:25920042

  17. Physical and chemical characterization of marine atmospheric aerosols over the North and South Pacific Oceans using single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, H.; Jung, J.; Miura, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of marine atmospheric aerosols were characterized and compared over the North and South Pacific Ocean during two trans-Pacific cruises (from Japan to Chile and Australia to Japan) during the period of January-June 2009, which cover broad region of Pacific Ocean from 40°N to 55°S and 140°E to 70°W. The measured parameters of aerosol properties were single particle size-resolved chemical composition (D = 100 ~ 1500 nm), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and condensation nuclei (CN) concentrations, size distribution from 10 nm to 5 μm, total aerosol nitrate and sulfate concentrations, and filter-based chemical composition. Trace gas concentrations of O3 and CO were also measured to aid air parcel categorization during the cruises. Reflecting larger anthropogenic emission in the Northern Hemisphere, pronounced concentration gradient between the North and South Pacific Ocean was observed for aerosol nitrate, CO, and O3. Aerosol sulfate also showed a similar concentration drop in the equatorial region, relatively higher sulfate concentration was observed in 30°S-40°S and 55°S regions, which was associated with increased aerosol methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration but little increase in local marine chlorophyll concentration, suggesting contribution of long-range transported marine biogenic sulfur from the high primary production area over the South Pacific high latitude region. Aerosol chemical classification by single particle chemical analysis revealed that certain aerosol types, such as biomass burning, elemental carbon, and elemental/organic carbon mixed type, were mainly observed in the North Pacific region, while several specific organic aerosol types with abundant aged organic and disulfur composition were identified in the South Pacific region. Further comparison of aerosol properties, aerosol sources, and atmospheric aerosol processing in the North and South Pacific Oceans will be discussed.

  18. Organic films on atmospheric aerosol particles, fog droplets, cloud droplets, raindrops, and snowflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, P. S.; Graedel, T. E.; Weschler, C. J.

    1983-05-01

    If surface-active organic molecules are present as surface films, the transfer of gases into the atmospheric water system could be impeded, evaporation could be slowed, and the aqueous chemical reactions could be influenced. The results of new measurements of the surface tension of aqueous solutions of common atmospheric organic compounds (beta-pinene, n-hexanol, eugenol, and anethole) are reported, and it is shown that the compounds produce films with properties similar to those of the better known surfactants. It is concluded that organic films are probably common on atmospheric aerosol particles and that they may occur under certain circumstances on fog droplets, cloud droplets, and snowflakes. If they are present, they will increase the lifetimes of aerosol particles, fog droplets, and cloud droplets, both by inhibiting water vapor evaporation and by reducing the efficiency with which these atmospheric components are scavenged. It is thought likely that the transport of gaseous molecules into and out of the aqueous solution will be impeded by factors of several hundred or more when organic films are present.

  19. Maillard Chemistry in Clouds and Aqueous Aerosol As a Source of Atmospheric Humic-Like Substances.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Lelia N; Lemire, Amanda N; Galloway, Melissa M; Corrigan, Ashley L; Turley, Jacob J; Espelien, Brenna M; De Haan, David O

    2016-07-19

    The reported optical, physical, and chemical properties of aqueous Maillard reaction mixtures of small aldehydes (glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and glycolaldehyde) with ammonium sulfate and amines are compared with those of aqueous extracts of ambient aerosol (water-soluble organic carbon, WSOC) and the humic-like substances (HULIS) fraction of WSOC. Using a combination of new and previously published measurements, we examine fluorescence, X-ray absorbance, UV/vis, and IR spectra, complex refractive indices, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, thermograms, aerosol and electrospray ionization mass spectra, surface activity, and hygroscopicity. Atmospheric WSOC and HULIS encompass a range of properties, but in almost every case aqueous aldehyde-amine reaction mixtures are squarely within this range. Notable exceptions are the higher UV/visible absorbance wavelength dependence (Angström coefficients) observed for methylglyoxal reaction mixtures, the lack of surface activity of glyoxal reaction mixtures, and the higher N/C ratios of aldehyde-amine reaction products relative to atmospheric WSOC and HULIS extracts. The overall optical, physical, and chemical similarities are consistent with, but not demonstrative of, Maillard chemistry being a significant secondary source of atmospheric HULIS. However, the higher N/C ratios of aldehyde-amine reaction products limits the source strength to ≤50% of atmospheric HULIS, assuming that other sources of HULIS incorporate only negligible quantities of nitrogen.

  20. Maillard Chemistry in Clouds and Aqueous Aerosol As a Source of Atmospheric Humic-Like Substances.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Lelia N; Lemire, Amanda N; Galloway, Melissa M; Corrigan, Ashley L; Turley, Jacob J; Espelien, Brenna M; De Haan, David O

    2016-07-19

    The reported optical, physical, and chemical properties of aqueous Maillard reaction mixtures of small aldehydes (glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and glycolaldehyde) with ammonium sulfate and amines are compared with those of aqueous extracts of ambient aerosol (water-soluble organic carbon, WSOC) and the humic-like substances (HULIS) fraction of WSOC. Using a combination of new and previously published measurements, we examine fluorescence, X-ray absorbance, UV/vis, and IR spectra, complex refractive indices, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, thermograms, aerosol and electrospray ionization mass spectra, surface activity, and hygroscopicity. Atmospheric WSOC and HULIS encompass a range of properties, but in almost every case aqueous aldehyde-amine reaction mixtures are squarely within this range. Notable exceptions are the higher UV/visible absorbance wavelength dependence (Angström coefficients) observed for methylglyoxal reaction mixtures, the lack of surface activity of glyoxal reaction mixtures, and the higher N/C ratios of aldehyde-amine reaction products relative to atmospheric WSOC and HULIS extracts. The overall optical, physical, and chemical similarities are consistent with, but not demonstrative of, Maillard chemistry being a significant secondary source of atmospheric HULIS. However, the higher N/C ratios of aldehyde-amine reaction products limits the source strength to ≤50% of atmospheric HULIS, assuming that other sources of HULIS incorporate only negligible quantities of nitrogen. PMID:27227348

  1. Gas chromatographic instrumentation for the analysis of aerosols and gases in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, T. W.; Valentin, J. R.; Ohara, B. J.; Kojiro, D. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1987-01-01

    Instrumentation presently being developed by NASA for the collection and analysis of organic gases and aerosols in Titan's atmosphere is described together with the results of the preliminary experiments. For the aerosols, stepwise pyrolysis was shown to be a suitable method for preparing complex organic material for gas chromatography (GC), and a pyrolysis-gas chromatograph was developed and successfully used to analyze a simulated Titan aerosol. Atmospheric gases will be collected by a low-pressure gas sampling system using large-volume sample loops and analyzed by GC. The results of preliminary studies using a 20 cu cm sampling system and a very sensitive metastable ionization detector showed that hydrocarbon components at the 10 ppb level can be detected. Studies are in progress on shortening the overall analysis time by improving the pyrolysis system, the gas sampling system, and the associated gas chromatograph. Further development of the gas sampling system is planned to ensure rapid collection of samples adequate for analysis by GC over the entire range of pressures to be encountered during the probe's descent.

  2. Long term measurements of atmospheric aerosol optical properties in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivitis, N.; Bougiatioti, A.; Kouvarakis, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-11-01

    Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles have been recorded at a remote location of the Eastern Mediterranean on a continuous basis since 2000. Measurements of aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) and absorption coefficient (bap) have been conducted, providing the longest data series of such ground based measurements in the Eastern Mediterranean basin. bsp shows an annual cycle with maximum values observed during summer and minimum during winter. In addition, in periods when mineral dust is transported into the area, high values are observed. It has been shown that both the level and the annual variation of bsp can be well represented if ammonium sulfate (AS) and particulate organic matter (POM) are assumed as the only scattering species in the aerosol phase. bap was measured at three wavelengths using two different instruments and a single wavelength data series was extracted. Maximum values of bap were observed during summer and during periods with extended dust transport to the area. If mineral dust particles are present in the atmosphere they can contribute up to 80% of bap levels at the visible wavelengths.

  3. Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: description and evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Zaveri, R.; Rasch, P.; Shi, X.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Gettelman, A.; Morrison, H.; Vitt, F.; Conley, A.; Park, S.; Neale, R.; Hannay, C.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Hess, P.; Mahowald, N.; Collins, W.; Iacono, M. J.; Bretherton, C. S.; Flanner, M. G.; Mitchell, D.

    2012-05-01

    A modal aerosol module (MAM) has been developed for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1). MAM is capable of simulating the aerosol size distribution and both internal and external mixing between aerosol components, treating numerous complicated aerosol processes and aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties in a physically-based manner. Two MAM versions were developed: a more complete version with seven lognormal modes (MAM7), and a version with three lognormal modes (MAM3) for the purpose of long-term (decades to centuries) simulations. In this paper a description and evaluation of the aerosol module and its two representations are provided. Sensitivity of the aerosol lifecycle to simplifications in the representation of aerosol is discussed. Simulated sulfate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass concentrations are remarkably similar between MAM3 and MAM7. Differences in primary organic matter (POM) and black carbon (BC) concentrations between MAM3 and MAM7 are also small (mostly within 10%). The mineral dust global burden differs by 10% and sea salt burden by 30-40% between MAM3 and MAM7, mainly due to the different size ranges for dust and sea salt modes and different standard deviations of the log-normal size distribution for sea salt modes between MAM3 and MAM7. The model is able to qualitatively capture the observed geographical and temporal variations of aerosol mass and number concentrations, size distributions, and aerosol optical properties. However, there are noticeable biases; e.g., simulated BC concentrations are significantly lower than measurements in the Arctic. There is a low bias in modeled aerosol optical depth on the global scale, especially in the developing countries. These biases in aerosol simulations clearly indicate the need for improvements of aerosol processes (e.g., emission fluxes of anthropogenic aerosols and precursor gases in

  4. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, William C.; Long, Michael S.

    2013-05-20

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry's MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of

  5. A tunable coherent CO2 lidar for measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscatter and attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    A coherent laser radar system using a grating-tunable, injection-locked TEA-CO2 transmitter is being used to measure the altitude dependence of atmospheric aerosol backscatter and attenuation at a variety of CO2 laser wavelengths in the 9-11 micron region. Injection control of the TEA-CO2 laser allows one to obtain Single-Longitudinal-Mode (SLM) pulses which will follow the frequency of the injected radiation if the TEA laser cavity length is adjusted so that a cavity resonance is in proximity with the injected signal frequency, and if various additional conditions are satisfied. Requirements for generation of SLM pulses in this manner from a TEA CO2 laser with an unstable resonator cavity will be discussed. Procedures used for quantitative range-gated measurements of aerosol backscatter and attenuation will also be discussed.

  6. Theoretical and global scale model studies of the atmospheric sulfur/aerosol system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasibhatla, Prasad

    1996-01-01

    The primary focus during the third-phase of our on-going multi-year research effort has been on 3 activities. These are: (1) a global-scale model study of the anthropogenic component of the tropospheric sulfur cycle; (2) process-scale model studies of the factors influencing the distribution of aerosols in the remote marine atmosphere; and (3) an investigation of the mechanism of the OH-initiated oxidation of DMS in the remote marine boundary layer. In this paper, we describe in more detail our research activities in each of these areas. A major portion of our activities during the fourth and final phase of this project will involve the preparation and submission of manuscripts describing the results from our model studies of marine boundary-layer aerosols and DMS-oxidation mechanisms.

  7. Aqueous organic chemistry in the atmosphere: sources and chemical processing of organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    McNeill, V Faye

    2015-02-01

    Over the past decade, it has become clear that aqueous chemical processes occurring in cloud droplets and wet atmospheric particles are an important source of organic atmospheric particulate matter. Reactions of water-soluble volatile (or semivolatile) organic gases (VOCs or SVOCs) in these aqueous media lead to the formation of highly oxidized organic particulate matter (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) and key tracer species, such as organosulfates. These processes are often driven by a combination of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and therefore their accurate representation in models is important for effective air quality management. Despite considerable progress, mechanistic understanding of some key aqueous processes is still lacking, and these pathways are incompletely represented in 3D atmospheric chemistry and air quality models. In this article, the concepts, historical context, and current state of the science of aqueous pathways of SOA formation are discussed.

  8. Single-particle light-scattering measurement: photochemical aerosols and atmospheric particulates.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D T; Wyatt, P J

    1972-09-01

    The use of single-particle light-scattering measurements to determine the origin of atmospheric hazes has been explored by measurement of laboratory aerosols, field samples, and computer analysis of the light-scattering data. The refractive index of measured spherical particles 800 nm to 1000 nm in diameter was determined within 2%. For particles of diameter less than 500 nm the measurement of absolute scattering intensity is required for complete analysis. Distinctive nonspherical and absorbing particles were observed both in automotive exhaust and atmospheric samples. Electrostatic suspension of atmospheric particulates is demonstrated to provide a practical approach to optical measurement of single particles. The technique may be used to calibrate optical particle counters or identify particles with unique shape or refractive index.

  9. Atmospheric oxidation of isoprene and 1,3-Butadiene: influence of aerosol acidity and Relative humidity on secondary organic aerosol

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of acidic seed aerosols on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA)have been examined in a number of previous studies, several of which have observed strong linear correlations between the aerosol acidity (measured as nmol H+ per m3 air s...

  10. The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, E. W.; Rap, A.; Schmidt, A.; Scott, C. E.; Pringle, K. J.; Reddington, C. L.; Richards, N. A. D.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Yang, H.; Vakkari, V.; Stone, E. A.; Rupakheti, M.; Praveen, P. S.; van Zyl, P. G.; Beukes, J. P.; Josipovic, M.; Mitchell, E. J. S.; Sallu, S. M.; Forster, P. M.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-07-01

    Combustion of fuels in the residential sector for cooking and heating, results in the emission of aerosol and aerosol precursors impacting air quality, human health and climate. Residential emissions are dominated by the combustion of solid fuels. We use a global aerosol microphysics model to simulate the uncertainties in the impact of residential fuel combustion on atmospheric aerosol. The model underestimates black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations observed over Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa, with better prediction when carbonaceous emissions from the residential sector are doubled. Observed seasonal variability of BC and OC concentrations are better simulated when residential emissions include a seasonal cycle. The largest contributions of residential emissions to annual surface mean particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations are simulated for East Asia, South Asia and Eastern Europe. We use a concentration response function to estimate the health impact due to long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 from residential emissions. We estimate global annual excess adult (> 30 years of age) premature mortality of 308 000 (113 300-497 000, 5th to 95th percentile uncertainty range) for monthly varying residential emissions and 517 000 (192 000-827 000) when residential carbonaceous emissions are doubled. Mortality due to residential emissions is greatest in Asia, with China and India accounting for 50 % of simulated global excess mortality. Using an offline radiative transfer model we estimate that residential emissions exert a global annual mean direct radiative effect of between -66 and +21 mW m-2, with sensitivity to the residential emission flux and the assumed ratio of BC, OC and SO2 emissions. Residential emissions exert a global annual mean first aerosol indirect effect of between -52 and -16 mW m-2, which is sensitive to the assumed size distribution of carbonaceous emissions. Overall, our results demonstrate that reducing residential

  11. Models of Aerosols at Continuum Wavelengths from Measurements Made inside the Atmosphere of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasko, Martin G.; Doose, L. R.; West, R. A.; Dafoe, L. E.; Karkoschka, E.

    2006-09-01

    The Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) instrument on the Huygens Probe made spectral measurements of the upward and downward streaming sunlight in Titan's atmosphere from 140 km to the surface. These observations were supplemented by measurements of the solar aureole at 491 and 938 nm through horizontal and vertical linear polarizers at a variety of azimuths relative to the sun. The measurements constrain the vertical distribution, phase function, and single scattering albedos of Titan's aerosols. We find that the aerosol opacity above 80 km altitude decreases with a scale height of 65 km. Between 80 and 30 km the cumulative aerosol opacity varies linearly with altitude. Below 30 km, the aerosol opacity again varies linearly with altitude, but with a different slope. Above 80 km, the single scattering albedo is similar to values reported for some types of Tholin particles produced in the laboratory. At lower altitudes, the absorption in the aerosols particles is approximately half as great, possibly due to incorporation of ethane into the particles. Below 30 km the wavelength dependence of the opacity is much smaller that at higher altitudes, implying a significant increase in the size of the particles, possibly due to incorporation of methane into the particles. The degree of linear polarization near 90 degrees scattering angle is large in both wavelength channels of the Solar Aureole instrument, implying that the small dimension of the particles is less than 0.1 micron. The particles at all altitudes are strongly forward scattering. If approximated by Henyey-Greenstein phase functions, the forward scattering g is about 0.80. A small backscattering peak is also observed. Comparisons of the single scattering cross sections, phase functions, and degree of linear polarizations with fractal aggregate particles are in progress. Recent results will be reported.

  12. Response of an aerosol mass spectrometer to organonitrates and organosulfates and implications for atmospheric chemistry.

    PubMed

    Farmer, D K; Matsunaga, A; Docherty, K S; Surratt, J D; Seinfeld, J H; Ziemann, P J; Jimenez, J L

    2010-04-13

    Organonitrates (ON) are important products of gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the troposphere; some models predict, and laboratory studies show, the formation of large, multifunctional ON with vapor pressures low enough to partition to the particle phase. Organosulfates (OS) have also been recently detected in secondary organic aerosol. Despite their potential importance, ON and OS remain a nearly unexplored aspect of atmospheric chemistry because few studies have quantified particulate ON or OS in ambient air. We report the response of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to aerosol ON and OS standards and mixtures. We quantify the potentially substantial underestimation of organic aerosol O/C, commonly used as a metric for aging, and N/C. Most of the ON-nitrogen appears as NO(x)+ ions in the AMS, which are typically dominated by inorganic nitrate. Minor organonitrogen ions are observed although their identity and intensity vary between standards. We evaluate the potential for using NO(x)+ fragment ratios, organonitrogen ions, HNO(3)+ ions, the ammonium balance of the nominally inorganic ions, and comparison to ion-chromatography instruments to constrain the concentrations of ON for ambient datasets, and apply these techniques to a field study in Riverside, CA. OS manifests as separate organic and sulfate components in the AMS with minimal organosulfur fragments and little difference in fragmentation from inorganic sulfate. The low thermal stability of ON and OS likely causes similar detection difficulties for other aerosol mass spectrometers using vaporization and/or ionization techniques with similar or larger energy, which has likely led to an underappreciation of these species.

  13. A New Method for Multicomponent Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes in Aqueous Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2005-01-21

    Three-dimensional models of atmospheric inorganic aerosols need an accurate yet computationally efficient parameterization of activity coefficients of various electrolytes in multicomponent aqueous solutions. This paper describes the development and application of a new mixing rule for calculating activity coefficients of electrolytes typically found in atmospheric aerosol systems containing H+, NH4+, Na+, Ca2+ SO42-, HSO4-, NO3-, and Cl- ions. The new mixing rule, called MTEM (Multicomponent Taylor Expansion Model), estimates the mean activity coefficient of an electrolyte in a multicomponent solution based on its values in binary solutions of all the electrolytes present in the mixture at the solution water activity aw, assuming aw is equal to the ambient relative humidity. The aerosol water content is calculated using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson method. For self-consistency, most of the MTEM and Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson parameters are derived using the comprehensive Pitzer-Simonson-Clegg model at 298.15 K. MTEM is evaluated for several multicomponent systems representing various continental and marine aerosols, and is contrasted against the mixing rule of Kusik and Meissner and the newer approach of Metzger et al. [2002]. Predictions of MTEM are found to be generally within a factor of 0.8 to 1.25 of the comprehensive Pitzer-Simonson-Clegg model, and are shown to be significantly more accurate than predictions of the other two methods. MTEM also yields a non-iterative solution of the bisulfate ion dissociation in sulfate-rich systems – a major computational advantage over other iterative methods. CPU time requirements of MTEM relative to other methods for sulfate-poor and sulfate-rich systems are also discussed.

  14. Five primary sources of organic aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Belgrade (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Vecchiato, Marco; Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Đorđević, Dragana; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-11-15

    Biomass burning and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) represent important primary sources of organic compounds in the atmosphere. These particles and compounds are able to affect climate and human health. In the present work, using HPLC-orbitrapMS, we determined the atmospheric concentrations of molecular markers such as anhydrosugars and phenolic compounds that are specific for biomass burning, as well as the concentrations of sugars, alcohol sugars and d- and l-amino acids (D-AAs and L-AAs) for studying PBAPs in Belgrade (Serbia) aerosols collected in September-December 2008. In these samples, high levels of all these biomarkers were observed in October. Relative percentages of vanillic (V), syringic compounds (S) and p-coumaric acid (PA), as well as levoglucosan/mannosan (L/M) ratios, helped us discriminate between open fire events and wood combustion for domestic heating during the winter. L-AAs and D-AAs (1% of the total) were observed in Belgrade aerosols mainly in September-October. During open fire events, mean D-AA/L-AA (D/L) ratio values of aspartic acid, threonine, phenylalanine, alanine were significantly higher than mean D/L values of samples unaffected by open fire. High levels of AAs were observed for open biomass burning events. Thanks to four different statistical approaches, we demonstrated that Belgrade aerosols are affected by five sources: a natural source, a source related to fungi spores and degraded material and three other sources linked to biomass burning: biomass combustion in open fields, the combustion of grass and agricultural waste and the combustion of biomass in stoves and industrial plants. The approach employed in this work, involving the determination of specific organic tracers and statistical analysis, proved useful to discriminate among different types of biomass burning events. PMID:27450960

  15. On the correlation of atmospheric aerosol components of mass size distributions in the larger region of a central European city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A.; Galambos, Z.; Ctyroky, P.; Frühauf, P.; Hitzenberger, R.; Gomišček, B.; Hauck, H.; Preining, O.; Puxbaum, H.

    Mass size distributions of atmospheric aerosols have been sampled in the region of Vienna, a typical city in central Europe, at an urban and a rural site. The aerosol was collected simultaneously by cascade impactors. Two experiments which had a duration of 4 weeks each, were performed in August 1999 and in January/February 2000. Daily sampling periods were from 8:00 to 20:00, and from 20:00 to 8:00. An evaluation of the mass size distributions is represented in this paper. Emphasis is on the relationships of different aerosol components in a local and a regional context. The main results are as follows. The main components of the atmospheric aerosol are a fine aerosol, the accumulation aerosol, and a coarse aerosol. Specific coarse modes with modal diameters of 4.7 μm average and geometric standard deviations of about 3 occur at the urban and at the rural site, some times surprisingly strong. The fine and the coarse modes are very likely related to motor-car traffic. Usually the PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols are regionally strongly correlated. Occasionally, this correlation is effectively disturbed by local and/or regional emissions. Time series of correlation coefficients reveal an episodic character of the atmospheric aerosol. Periods of strong inter-site correlations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 indicate the dominance and the co-variation of the accumulation aerosols or the dominance and the co-variation of the coarse modes.

  16. A sub-decadal trend of diacids in atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Fu, P. Q.; Jung, J.

    2015-08-01

    The change of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we study a sub-decadal (2001-2008) trend of major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids) of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. Gosan site is influenced by the pollution-outflows from East Asia. The molecular distribution of diacids was characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids in each year. The seasonal variations of diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distribution and seasonal variations are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in East Asia over a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases of major diacids at the rate of 3.9-47.4 % year-1 particularly in April. The temporal variations of atmospheric tracer compounds (CO, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal) suggest that the increases of diacids are due to an enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by their chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends of diacids are opposite to the reported decreases of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in the recent years in East Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in East Asia could not decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. If the current rates of increases continue, the organic acid- and water-soluble fractions of SOA could increase significantly in the future atmosphere in East Asia.

  17. Enabling the identification, quantification, and characterization of organics in complex mixtures to understand atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacman, Gabriel Avram

    Particles in the atmosphere are known to have negative health effects and important but highly uncertain impacts on global and regional climate. A majority of this particulate matter is formed through atmospheric oxidation of naturally and anthropogenically emitted gases to yield highly oxygenated secondary organic aerosol (SOA), an amalgamation of thousands of individual chemical compounds. However, comprehensive analysis of SOA composition has been stymied by its complexity and lack of available measurement techniques. In this work, novel instrumentation, analysis methods, and conceptual frameworks are introduced for chemically characterizing atmospherically relevant mixtures and ambient aerosols, providing a fundamentally new level of detailed knowledge on their structures, chemical properties, and identification of their components. This chemical information is used to gain insights into the formation, transformation and oxidation of organic aerosols. Biogenic and anthropogenic mixtures are observed in this work to yield incredible complexity upon oxidation, producing over 100 separable compounds from a single precursor. As a first step toward unraveling this complexity, a method was developed for measuring the polarity and volatility of individual compounds in a complex mixture using two-dimensional gas chromatography, which is demonstrated in Chapter 2 for describing the oxidation of SOA formed from a biogenic compound (longifolene: C15H24). Several major products and tens of substantial minor products were produced, but none could be identified by traditional methods or have ever been isolated and studied in the laboratory. A major realization of this work was that soft ionization mass spectrometry could be used to identify the molecular mass and formula of these unidentified compounds, a major step toward a comprehensive description of complex mixtures. This was achieved by coupling gas chromatography to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry with

  18. Factors controlling the solubility of trace metals in atmospheric aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaou, Panagiota; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric input of aerosols is recognized, as an important source of nutrients, for the oceans. The chemical interactions between aerosols and varying composition of air masses lead to different coating of their surfaces with sulfate, nitrate and organic compounds, increasing their solubility and their role as a carrier of nutrients and pollutants in ecosystems. Recent works have highlighted that atmospheric inputs of nutrients and trace metals can considerably influence the marine ecosystem functioning at semi-enclosed or enclosed water bodies such as the eastern Mediterranean. The current work aims to determine the sources and the factors controlling the variability of nutrients in the eastern Mediterranean. Special focus has been given on trace elements solubility, considered either as key nutrients for phytoplankton growth such as iron (Fe), phosphorus (P) or inhibitors such as copper (Cu). This has been accomplished by analyzing size segregated aerosol samples collected at the background site of Finokalia in Crete for an entire year. Phosphorus concentrations indicate important increases in air masses influenced both by anthropogenic activities in the northeast European countries and by dust outbreaks. The last is confirmed by the correlation observed between total P and dust concentrations and by the air mass backward trajectories computed by running the NOAA Hysplit Model (Hybrid Single - Particle Langrangian Integrated Trajectory (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html). Overall 73% of total P has been found to be associated with anthropogenic sources. The solubility of P and Fe has been found to be closely related to the acidity (pH) and dust amount in aerosols. The aerosol pH was predicted using thermodynamic modeling (ISORROPIA-II), meteorological observations (RH, T), and gas/particle observations. More specifically P and Fe solubility appears to be inversely related to the crustal elements levels, while it increases in acidic environment. The

  19. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Development for the Study of Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, Paul

    2011-12-10

    Soot particles are generated by incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels. Through direct effects clear air aerosols containing black carbon (BC) such as soot aerosols, absorb incoming light heating the atmosphere, while most other aerosols scatter light and produce cooling. Even though BC represents only 1-2% of the total annual emissions of particulate mass to the atmosphere, it has been estimated that the direct radiative effect of BC is the second-most important contributor to global warming after absorption by CO2. Ongoing studies continue to underscore the climate forcing importance of black carbon. However, estimates of the radiative effects of black carbon on climate remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of particles containing black carbon. Quantitative measurement of BC is challenging because BC often occurs in highly non-spherical soot particles of complex morphology. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically fractal hydrophobic aggregates. The aggregates consist of black carbon spherules with diameters typically in the range of about 15-40 nm, and they are usually coated by adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced during combustion. Diesel-generated soot particles are often emitted with an organic coating composed primarily of lubricating oil and unburned fuel, as well as well as PAH compounds. Sulfuric acid has also been detected in diesel and aircraft-emitted soot particles. In the course of aging, these particle coatings may be substantially altered by chemical reactions and/or the deposition of other materials. Such processes transform the optical and CCN properties of the soot aerosols in ways that are not yet well understood. Our work over the past seven years consisted of laboratory research, instrument development and characterization, and field studies with the central focus of improving our understanding of the black carbon aerosol climate impacts. During the sixth year as well as during this seventh year (no

  20. The long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols from South Asia to Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. To resolve such scientific questions, aerosol samples were collected weekly from August 2009 to July 2010 at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research(QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.). In the laboratory, major ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, levoglucosan, water-soluble organic carbon, and organic acids were analyzed. The concentration levels of OC and EC at QOMS are comparable to those at high-elevation sites on the southern slopes of the Himalayas (Langtang and NCO-P), but 3 to 6 times lower than those at Manora Peak, India, and Godavari, Nepal. Sulfate was the most abundant anion species followed by nitrate. The dust loading, represented by Ca2+ concentration, was relatively constant throughout the year. OC, EC and other ionic species (NH+4 , K+, NO- and SO2-) exhibited a pronounced peak in the pre-monsoon period and a minimum in the monsoon season, being similar to the seasonal trends of aerosol compo-sition reported previously from the southern slope of the Himalayas. The strong correlation of OC and EC in QOMS aerosols with K+ and levoglucosan indicates that they mainly originated from biomass burning. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/ succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. The fire spots observed by MODIS and backward air-mass trajectories further demonstrate that in pre-monsoon season, agricultural and forest fires in northern India and Nepal were most likely sources of carbonaceous aerosol at QOMS. In addition to large-scale atmospheric circulation, the unique mountain/valley breeze system can also have an important effect on air-pollutant transport.With the consideration of the darkening force of

  1. The long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols from South Asia to Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. To resolve such scientific questions, aerosol samples were collected weekly from August 2009 to July 2010 at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research(QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.). In the laboratory, major ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, levoglucosan, water-soluble organic carbon, and organic acids were analyzed. The concentration levels of OC and EC at QOMS are comparable to those at high-elevation sites on the southern slopes of the Himalayas (Langtang and NCO-P), but 3 to 6 times lower than those at Manora Peak, India, and Godavari, Nepal. Sulfate was the most abundant anion species followed by nitrate. The dust loading, represented by Ca2+ concentration, was relatively constant throughout the year. OC, EC and other ionic species (NH+4 , K+, NO‑ and SO2‑) exhibited a pronounced peak in the pre-monsoon period and a minimum in the monsoon season, being similar to the seasonal trends of aerosol compo-sition reported previously from the southern slope of the Himalayas. The strong correlation of OC and EC in QOMS aerosols with K+ and levoglucosan indicates that they mainly originated from biomass burning. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/ succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. The fire spots observed by MODIS and backward air-mass trajectories further demonstrate that in pre-monsoon season, agricultural and forest fires in northern India and Nepal were most likely sources of carbonaceous aerosol at QOMS. In addition to large-scale atmospheric circulation, the unique mountain/valley breeze system can also have an important effect on air-pollutant transport.With the consideration of the darkening force of

  2. Impacts of aerosols on the chemistry of atmospheric trace gases: a case study of peroxides and HO2 radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, H.; Chen, Z. M.; Huang, D.; Zhao, Y.; Li, Z. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Field measurements of atmospheric peroxides were obtained during the summer on two consecutive years over urban Beijing, and focused on the impacts of aerosols on the chemistry of peroxide compounds and hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2). The major peroxides were determined to be hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl hydroperoxide (MHP), and peroxyacetic acid (PAA). A negative correlation was found between H2O2 and PAA in rainwater, providing evidence for a conversion between H2O2 and PAA in the aqueous phase. A standard gas phase chemistry model based on the NCAR Master Mechanism provided a good reproduction of the observed H2O2 profile on non-haze days but greatly overpredicted the H2O2 level on haze days. We attribute this overprediction to the reactive uptake of HO2 by the aerosols, since there was greatly enhanced aerosol loading and aerosol liquid water content on haze days. The discrepancy between the observed and modeled H2O2 can be diminished by adding to the model a newly proposed transition metal ion catalytic mechanism of HO2 in aqueous aerosols. This confirms the importance of the aerosol uptake of HO2 and the subsequent aqueous phase reactions in the reduction of H2O2. The closure of HO2 and H2O2 between the gas and aerosol phases suggests that the aerosols do not have a net reactive uptake of H2O2, because the conversion of HO2 to H2O2 on aerosols compensates for the H2O2 loss. Laboratory studies for the aerosol uptake of H2O2 in the presence of HO2 are urgently required to better understand the aerosol uptake of H2O2 in the real atmosphere.

  3. Impacts of aerosols on the chemistry of atmospheric trace gases: a case study of peroxides and HO2 radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, H.; Chen, Z. M.; Huang, D.; Zhao, Y.; Li, Z. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Field measurements of atmospheric peroxides were obtained during the summer on two consecutive years over urban Beijing, which highlighted the impacts of aerosols on the chemistry of peroxide compounds and hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2). The major peroxides were determined to be hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl hydroperoxide (MHP), and peroxyacetic acid (PAA). A negative correlation was found between H2O2 and PAA in rainwater, providing evidence for a conversion between H2O2 and PAA in the aqueous phase. A standard gas phase chemistry model based on the NCAR Master Mechanism provided a good reproduction of the observed H2O2 profile on non-haze days but greatly overpredicted the H2O2 level on haze days. We attribute this overprediction to the reactive uptake of HO2 by the aerosols, since there was greatly enhanced aerosol loading and aerosol liquid water content on haze days. The discrepancy between the observed and modeled H2O2 can be diminished by adding to the model a newly proposed transition metal ion catalytic mechanism of HO2 in aqueous aerosols. This confirms the importance of the aerosol uptake of HO2 and the subsequent aqueous phase reactions in the reduction of H2O2. The closure of HO2 and H2O2 between the gas and aerosol phases suggests that the aerosols do not have a net reactive uptake of H2O2, because the conversion of HO2 to H2O2 on aerosols compensates for the H2O2 loss. Laboratory studies for the aerosol uptake of H2O2 in the presence of HO2 are urgently required to better understand the aerosol uptake of H2O2 in the real atmosphere.

  4. Ultraviolet Polarimeter for Studying the Aerosol Component in the Earth Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Morozhenko, A. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Geraimchuk, M.; Zbrutskyi, A.; Kureniov, Yu.; Sergunin, V.; Hirniak, Yu.; Ivakhiv, O.

    2013-06-01

    The changes of the weather and climate on the Earth depend on the temperature balance of the planet, i.e., on the flow of radiation coming from the Sun and emitted by the Earth into cosmic space. The changes of transparency coefficients (i.e., optical thickness of the atmosphere) and reflection coefficients (i.e., Earth surface) turn out to be decisive factors disrupting this balance. Variations of the gaseous and aerosol components of the atmosphere make an essential contribution into the changeability of the existing balance. The stratosphere and the ozone layer which protects the Earth from a severe ultraviolet radiation are of special importance in the atmosphere. Stratospheric aerosol plays an important role in the formation of a heat regime and in providing a powerful ozone layer (at the altitude of over 30 km). Spectrophotometer investigations made it possible to obtain certain data on the thickness of aerosols on these altitudes. However, its nature (i.e., a real part of the refraction index) and size distribution functions have not be studied so far. Polarization measurements enable one to most correctly determine these characteristics. The leading astronomical observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in collaboration with the National Technical University of Ukraine "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" have been carrying out research since 2005 till nowadays on the development of on-board polarimeters for the purpose of studying the stratospheric aerosol from the orbit of Earth satellites [1, 2]. Based on this research, an experimental small sized polarimeter for investigation of a stratospheric aerosol from the orbit of the satellite was created. It is a dot one-channel ultraviolet polarimeter with a rotated polarization element. Glen prism is used as a polarization element which is initiated into motion by a miniature piezoelectric motor. "Sun-blind" low-sized photomultiplier R 1893 made by "Hamamatsu" Co. serves as a radiation receiver that

  5. Long-Range Transport of Perchlorate Observed in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Oomori, T.; Miyagi, T.; Kadena, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Nakama, F.

    2007-12-01

    The study of perchlorate has become quite active in the U.S. in the last several years. Perchlorate has been recognized as a new environmental pollutant and it attracted much attention quickly in the world. The health concern about perchlorate stems from the fact that it displaces iodide in the thyroid gland, while iodine-containing thyroid hormones are essential for proper neural development from the fetal stage through the first years of life. In this study, we determined the concentrations of perchlorate ion present in the atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa Island, Japan. We then examined the relationships between the perchlorate concentrations and the environmental parameters and the climatic conditions peculiar to Okinawa. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS). Each sampling duration was one week. The quartz filters with aerosols were stirred with Milli-Q pure water for three hours before perchlorate ion was extracted. The extracted perchlorate ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography (ICS-2000, DIONEX). The mean perchlorate concentration for the samples collected at CHAAMS was 1.83 ng/m3, and the minimum was 0.18 ng/m3. The samples collected during November 21-27, 2005, January 23-30, 2006 and April 24-01, 2006 had highest perchlorate concentrations. For these three samples, we performed back trajectory analysis, and found that the air mass for the three samples arrived from the Asian continent. A relatively strong correlation (r2 = 0.55) was found between perchlorate and nss-sulfate concentrations for the CHAAMS samples. Furthermore, we analyzed perchlorate in the soils and the fertilizers used for sugar cane farming around the CHAAMS area. The Milli-Q extract of the soil and the fertilizers did not contain any detectable levels of perchlorate ions. Therefore, it was suggested that perchlorate found in the atmospheric

  6. Atmospheric aerosol compositions and sources at two national background sites in northern and southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiao; He, Ling-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Cao, Li-Ming; Gong, Zhao-Heng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuang, Xin; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    Although China's severe air pollution has become a focus in the field of atmospheric chemistry and the mechanisms of urban air pollution there have been researched extensively, few field sampling campaigns have been conducted at remote background sites in China, where air pollution characteristics on a larger scale are highlighted. In this study, an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), together with an Aethalometer, was deployed at two of China's national background sites in northern (Lake Hongze site; 33.23° N, 118.33° E; altitude 21 m) and southern (Mount Wuzhi site; 18.84° N, 109.49° E; altitude 958 m) China in the spring seasons in 2011 and 2015, respectively, in order to characterize submicron aerosol composition and sources. The campaign-average PM1 concentration was 36.8 ± 19.8 µg m-3 at the northern China background (NCB) site, which was far higher than that at the southern China background (SCB) site (10.9 ± 7.8 µg m-3). Organic aerosol (OA) (27.2 %), nitrate (26.7 %), and sulfate (22.0 %) contributed the most to the PM1 mass at NCB, while OA (43.5 %) and sulfate (30.5 %) were the most abundant components of the PM1 mass at SCB, where nitrate only constituted a small fraction (4.7 %) and might have contained a significant amount of organic nitrates (5-11 %). The aerosol size distributions and organic aerosol elemental compositions all indicated very aged aerosol particles at both sites. The OA at SCB was more oxidized with a higher average oxygen to carbon (O / C) ratio (0.98) than that at NCB (0.67). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was used to classify OA into three components, including a hydrocarbon-like component (HOA, attributed to fossil fuel combustion) and two oxygenated components (OOA1 and OOA2, attributed to secondary organic aerosols from different source areas) at NCB. PMF analysis at SCB identified a semi-volatile oxygenated component (SV-OOA) and a low-volatility oxygenated

  7. Comparison Between Lidar and Nephelometer Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlow, M.; Feingold, G.; Jefferson, A.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Wang, J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity has a significant effect on radiative properties of aerosols. Here a lidar method, applicable to cloud-capped, well-mixed atmospheric boundary layers, is employed to determine the hygroscopic growth factor f(RH) under unperturbed, ambient atmospheric conditions. The data used for the analysis were collected under a wide range of atmospheric aerosol levels during both routine measurement periods and during the intensive operations period (IOP) in May 2003 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma, USA, as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. There is a good correlation (approx. 0.7) between a lidar-derived growth factor (measured over the range 85% RH to 96% RH) with a nephelometer-derived growth factor measured over the RH range 40% to 85%. For these RH ranges, the slope of the lidar-derived growth factor is much steeper than that of the nephelometer-derived growth factor, reflecting the rapid increase in particle size with increasing RH. The results are corroborated by aerosol model calculations of lidar and nephelometer equivalent f(RH) based on in situ aerosol size and composition measurements during the IOP. It is suggested that the lidar method can provide useful measurements of the dependence of aerosol optical properties on relative humidity, and under conditions closer to saturation than can currently be achieved with humidified nephelometers.

  8. Examining the relationship between atmospheric aerosols and light extinction at Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, W. C.; Gebhart, K. A.; Molenar, J.; Cahill, T.; Eldred, R.; Huffman, D.

    During the summer of 1990, the National Park Service carried out a study in the state of Washington called the Pacific Northwest Regional Visibility Experiment using Natural Tracers (PREVENT). The goal of the study was to apportion atmospheric aerosols to scattering and extinction and to source types at Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks. The study was designed to collect all necessary emissions, meteorology, ambient concentrations, and atmospheric optical data necessary to support a variety of source attribution techniques. This paper will report on the apportionment of various aerosol species to measured fine mass concentrations and ambient scattering coefficients. One highlight of this study was the near-ambient measurement of atmospheric scattering with a modified integrating nephelometer. It is therefore possible to explore the relationship between hygroscopic aerosols and scattering in the ambient atmosphere.

  9. Limits on the size of aerosols from measurements of linear polarization in Titan’s atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasko, M. G.; Doose, L. R.; Dafoe, L. E.; See, C.

    2009-11-01

    The Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) instrument on the Huygens probe into the atmosphere of Titan yielded information on the size, shape, optical properties, and vertical distribution of haze aerosols in the atmosphere of Titan [Tomasko, M.G., Doose, L., Engel, S., Dafoe, L.E., West, R., Lemmon, M., Karkoschka, E., 2008. Planet. Space Sci. 56, 669-707] from photometric and spectroscopic measurements of sunlight in Titan's atmosphere. This instrument also made measurements of the degree of linear polarization of sunlight in two spectral bands centered at 491 and 934 nm. Here we present the calibration and reduction of the polarization measurements and compare the polarization observations to models using fractal aggregate particles which have different sizes for the small dimension (monomer size) of which the aggregates are composed. We find that the Titan aerosols produce very large polarizations perpendicular to the scattering plane for scattering near 90° scattering angle. The size of the monomers is tightly constrained by the measurements to a radius of 0.04 ± 0.01 μm at altitudes from 150 km to the surface. The decrease in polarization with decreasing altitude observed in red and blue light is as expected by increasing dilution due to multiple scattering at decreasing altitudes. There is no indication of particles that produce small amounts of linear polarization at low altitudes.

  10. The ABC-Pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory in Himalaya for aerosol, ozone and halocarbon measurements.

    PubMed

    Bonasoni, P; Laj, P; Angelini, F; Arduini, J; Bonafè, U; Calzolari, F; Cristofanelli, P; Decesari, S; Facchini, M C; Fuzzi, S; Gobbi, G P; Maione, M; Marinoni, A; Petzold, A; Roccato, F; Roger, J C; Sellegri, K; Sprenger, M; Venzac, H; Verza, G P; Villani, P; Vuillermoz, E

    2008-03-01

    In this work we present the new ABC-Pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory (Nepal, 27.95 N, 86.82 E) located in the Himalayas, specifically in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. This measurement station has been set-up with the aim of investigating natural and human-induced environmental changes at different scales (local, regional and global). After an accurate instrumental set-up at ISAC-CNR in Bologna (Italy) in autumn 2005, the ABC-Pyramid Observatory for aerosol (physical, chemical and optical properties) and trace gas measurements (ozone and climate altering halocarbons) was installed in the high Khumbu valley in February 2006. Since March 2006, continuous measurements of aerosol particles (optical and physical properties), ozone (O3) and meteorological parameters as well as weekly samplings of particulate matter (for chemical analyses) and grab air samples for the determination of 27 halocarbons, have been carried out. These measurements provide data on the typical atmospheric composition of the Himalayan area between India and China and make investigations of the principal differences and similarities between the monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons possible. The study is carried out within the framework of the Ev-K2-CNR "SHARE-Asia" (Stations at High Altitude for Research on the Environment in Asia) and UNEP-"ABC" (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) projects. With the name of "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" the station is now part of the Observatory program of the ABC project.

  11. Accuracy of fuzzy burned area mapping as a function of the aerosol parameterization of atmospheric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Ramin; Stroppiana, Daniela; Bresciani, Mariano; Giardino, Claudia; Boschetti, Mirco; Brivio, Pietro A.

    2013-10-01

    Mediterranean forests are every year affected by wildfires which have a significant effect on the ecosystem. Mapping burned areas is an important field of application for optical remote sensing techniques and several methodologies have been developed in order to improve mapping accuracy. We developed an automated procedure based on spectral indices and fuzzy theory for mapping burned areas from atmospherically corrected Landsat TM images. The algorithm proved to provide consistent accuracy over Mediterranean areas. We further tested algorithm's performance to assess the influence of the atmospheric correction on the accuracy of burned areas. In particular, we ran the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) code with different Atmospheric Optical Thickness (AOT) levels and two aerosol models (continental and maritime) on one TM image acquired over Portugal (12/08/2003). Burned area maps derived from atmospherically corrected images and from the non corrected image (Top Of Atmosphere, TOA) have been analyzed. In the output burned areas maps the omission error varies in the range 4.6-6.5% and the commission error fluctuates between 11.9 and 22.2%; the highest omission (commission) errors occur with the continental (maritime) model. The accuracy of burned area maps derived from non corrected image is very low, with omission error greater than 90%. These results show that, although atmospheric correction is needed for the application of the algorithm, the AOT value does not significantly affect the performance.

  12. Optical phase curves as diagnostics for aerosol composition in exoplanetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshenko, Maria; Heng, Kevin; Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Optical phase curves have become one of the common probes of exoplanetary atmospheres, but the information they encode has not been fully elucidated. Building on a diverse body of work, we upgrade the Flexible Modelling System to include scattering in the two-stream, dual-band approximation and generate plausible, three-dimensional structures of irradiated atmospheres to study the radiative effects of aerosols or condensates. In the optical, we treat the scattering of starlight using a generalization of Beer's law that allows for a finite Bond albedo to be prescribed. In the infrared, we implement the two-stream solutions and include scattering via an infrared scattering parameter. We present a suite of four-parameter general circulation models for Kepler-7b and demonstrate that its climatology is expected to be robust to variations in optical and infrared scattering. The westward and eastward shifts of the optical and infrared phase curves, respectively, are shown to be robust outcomes of the simulations. Assuming micron-sized particles and a simplified treatment of local brightness, we further show that the peak offset of the optical phase curve is sensitive to the composition of the aerosols or condensates. However, to within the measurement uncertainties, we cannot distinguish between aerosols made of silicates (enstatite or forsterite), iron, corundum or titanium oxide, based on a comparison to the measured peak offset (41° ± 12°) of the optical phase curve of Kepler-7b. Measuring high-precision optical phase curves will provide important constraints on the atmospheres of cloudy exoplanets and reduce degeneracies in interpreting their infrared spectra.

  13. Polar organic marker compounds in atmospheric aerosols: Determination, time series, size distributions and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, Ivan

    Terrestrial vegetation releases substantial amounts of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs; e.g., isoprene, monoterpenes) into the atmosphere. The VOCs can be rapidly photooxidized under conditions of high solar radiation, yielding products that can participate in new particle formation and growth processes above forests. This thesis focuses on the characterization, identification and quantification of oxidation products of biogenic VOC (BVOCs) as well as other species (tracer compounds) that provide information on aerosol sources and source processes. Atmospheric aerosols from various forested sites (i.e., Hyytiala, southern Finland; Rondonia, Brazil; K-Puszta, Hungary and Julich, Germany) were analyzed with Gas Chromotography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) using analytical procedure that targets polar organic compounds. The study demonstrated that isoprene (i.e., 2-methyerythritol, 2-methylthreitol, 2-methylglyceric acid and C5-alkene triols (2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-l-butene (cis and trans) and 3 methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene)) and monoterpene (pinic acid, norpinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid) oxidation products were present in substantial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols suggesting that oxidation of BVOC from the vegetation is an important process in all studied sites. On the other hand, presence of levoglucosan, biomass burning marker, especially in Amazonian rain forest site at Rondonia, Brazil, pointed that all sites were affected by anthropogenic activities, namely biomass burning. Other identified compounds included plyols, arabitol, mannitol and erythritol, which are marker compounds for fungal spores and monosacharides, glucose and fructose, markers for plant polens. Temporal variations as well as mass size distributions of the detected species confirmed the possible formation mechanisms of marker compounds.

  14. Enabling the identification, quantification, and characterization of organics in complex mixtures to understand atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacman, Gabriel Avram

    Particles in the atmosphere are known to have negative health effects and important but highly uncertain impacts on global and regional climate. A majority of this particulate matter is formed through atmospheric oxidation of naturally and anthropogenically emitted gases to yield highly oxygenated secondary organic aerosol (SOA), an amalgamation of thousands of individual chemical compounds. However, comprehensive analysis of SOA composition has been stymied by its complexity and lack of available measurement techniques. In this work, novel instrumentation, analysis methods, and conceptual frameworks are introduced for chemically characterizing atmospherically relevant mixtures and ambient aerosols, providing a fundamentally new level of detailed knowledge on their structures, chemical properties, and identification of their components. This chemical information is used to gain insights into the formation, transformation and oxidation of organic aerosols. Biogenic and anthropogenic mixtures are observed in this work to yield incredible complexity upon oxidation, producing over 100 separable compounds from a single precursor. As a first step toward unraveling this complexity, a method was developed for measuring the polarity and volatility of individual compounds in a complex mixture using two-dimensional gas chromatography, which is demonstrated in Chapter 2 for describing the oxidation of SOA formed from a biogenic compound (longifolene: C15H24). Several major products and tens of substantial minor products were produced, but none could be identified by traditional methods or have ever been isolated and studied in the laboratory. A major realization of this work was that soft ionization mass spectrometry could be used to identify the molecular mass and formula of these unidentified compounds, a major step toward a comprehensive description of complex mixtures. This was achieved by coupling gas chromatography to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry with

  15. A survey of light-scattering techniques used in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deirmendjian, D.

    1980-01-01

    A critical survey of the literature on the use of light-scattering mechanisms in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols, their geographical and spatial distribution, and temporal variations was undertaken to aid in the choice of future operational systems, both ground based and air or space borne. An evaluation, mainly qualitative and subjective, of various techniques and systems is carried out. No single system is found to be adequate for operational purposes. A combination of earth surface and space-borne systems based mainly on passive techniques involving solar radiation with active (lidar) systems to provide auxiliary or backup information is tentatively recommended.

  16. Marine sediment tolerances for remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols over water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.

    1982-01-01

    In surveying the literature, it is pointed out that there is a need to quantify the turbidity below which reflectance from the water column is negligible in comparison with atmospheric effects to allow the monitoring of aerosol optical depth over water bodies. Data that partially satisfy this need are presented. Laboratory measurements of reflectance upwelled from the water column are given for mixtures with various types of sediment at wavelengths between 400 and 1600 nm. The results of the study described here are a quantitative endorsement of the recommendations of Morell and Gordon (1980).

  17. Improvement and Application of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Models for Prediction of the Climatic Effects of Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Clough, Shepard A.; Toon, Owen B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a radiative transfer model that has been developed to accurately predict the atmospheric radiant flux in both the infrared and the solar spectrum with a minimum of computational effort. The model is designed to be included in numerical climate models. To assess the accuracy of the model, the results are compared to other more detailed models for several standard cases in the solar and thermal spectrum. As the thermal spectrum has been treated in other publications, we focus here on the solar part of the spectrum. We perform several example calculations focussing on the question of absorption of solar radiation by gases and aerosols.

  18. Improvement and Application of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Models for Prediction of the Climatic Effects of Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a radiative transfer model that has been developed to accurately predict the atmospheric radiant flux in both the infrared and the solar spectrum with a minimum of computational effort. The model is designed to be included in numerical climate models. To assess the accuracy of the model, the results are compared to other more detailed models for several standard cases in the solar and thermal spectrum. As the thermal spectrum has been treated in other publications we focus here on the solar part of the spectrum. We perform several example calculations focussing on the question of absorption of solar radiation by gases and aerosols.

  19. The Landes experiment: Biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of ozone and aerosol particles above a pine forest

    SciTech Connect

    Lamaud, E.; Labatut, A.; Lopez, A.; Fontan, J.; Druilhet, A.; Brunet, Y.

    1994-08-20

    An experiment to measure the transfer of trace gases in the lower atmosphere was performed in the forested area of {open_quotes} Les Landes {close_quotes} in southwestern France. This region is one of the largest remaining forests in western Europe, and consists predominantly of resinous trees (maritime pines). This experiment involved emission measurements of chemically reactive species, measurement methodologies, mechanisms for flux and the influence of these emissions on boundary layer chemistry. This paper presents preliminary results on the dry deposition of ozone and aerosol particles in the boundary layer. 28 refs., 15 figs.

  20. The Development of Electrostatic Precipitation-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (EP-ESI-MS) for Atmospheric Aerosol Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.; Hogan, C. J., Jr.; Naqwi, A.; Gross, D. S.; Li, L.; Duan, H.; Jiang, L.; Flowers, J.; Grubb, E.; Au, L.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical composition analysis of atmospheric aerosols is of considerable interest and has been facilitated by mass spectrometry. Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a suitable mode of ion generation of many organic species comprising aerosol particles, as it leads to minimal analyte fragmentation. However, particles exist in the atmosphere at mass concentrations of the order 10 μg/m3 or less in many environments and are highly heterogeneous; low concentrations and chemical complexity have limited ESI application in aerosol analysis. In this presentation, the development of an approach to apply ESI to molecules within submicrometer and nanometer scale aerosol particles is discussed. The technique, which we term electrostatic precipitation-ESI-MS (EP-ESI-MS), utilizes unipolar ionization to charge particles, electrostatic precipitation to collect particles on the tip of a tungsten rod, and subsequently, by flowing liquid over the rod, ESI and mass analysis of dissolved species originating from the collected particles. EP-ESI-MS is shown to enable analysis of nanogram quantities of collected inorganic and organic components. Furthermore, it is coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry and challenged with oxidation products of α-pinene to investigate its capability of enabling structure analysis of complex organic compounds in aerosol particles. With EP-ESI-MS, the identification of chemical components in aerosol particles is realized and the integrated mass spectrometric signals are found to be a monotonic function of the analyte mass concentration in the aerosol phase. Additionally, it is shown to have a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in mass, making it suitable for molecular analysis of aerosol particles in laboratory settings, as well as analysis of atmospheric aerosols in ambient air.

  1. Urban light pollution: the effect of atmospheric aerosols on astronomical observations at night.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J H; Kaufman, Y J; Mekler, Y

    1991-07-20

    The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth <0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made not as a function of the absolute aerosol amount but in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an rban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy.

  2. Urban light pollution: the effect of atmospheric aerosols on astronomical observations at night.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J H; Kaufman, Y J; Mekler, Y

    1991-07-20

    The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth <0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made not as a function of the absolute aerosol amount but in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an rban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy. PMID:20706354

  3. Multi-Decadal Change of Atmospheric Aerosols and their Effect on Surface Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Streets, David; Wild, Martin; Qian, Yun; Yu, Hongbin; Tan, Qian; Bian, Huisheng; Wang, Weiguo

    2011-01-01

    We present an investigation on multi-decadal changes of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on surface radiation using a global chemistry transport model, GOCART, along with the near-term to long-term data records. We focus on a 28-year time period of satellite era from 1980 to 2007 during which a suite of aerosol data from satellite observations, ground-based measurements, and intensive field experiments have become available. Particularly: (1) We compare the model calculated clear sky downward radiation at the surface with surface network data from BSRN and CMA (2) We compare the model and surface data with satellite derived downward radiation products from ISCCP and SRS (3) We analyze the long-term global and regional aerosol trends in major anthropogenic source regions (North America, Europe, Asia) that have been experiencing considerable changes of emissions during the three decades, dust and biomass burning regions that have large interannual variability, downwind regions that are directly affected by the changes in the source area, and remote regions that are considered to representing "background" conditions. The comparisons and methods from this study can be applied to multiple model analysis in the AeroCom framework.

  4. Multi-decadal Change of Atmospheric Aerosols and their Effect on Surface Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diel, Thomas; Streets, David; Wild, Martin; Qian, Yun; Yu, Hongbin; Tan, Qian; Bian, Huisheng; Wang. Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    We present an investigation on multi-decadal changes of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on surface radiation using a global chemistry transport model GOCART along with the near-term to long-term data records. We focus on a 28-year time period of satellite era from 1980 to 2007 during which a suite of aerosol data from satellite observations, ground-based measurements, and intensive field experiments have become available. Particularly: (1) We compare the model calculated clear sky downward radiation at the surface with surface network data from Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) and CMA (2) We compare the model and surface data with satellite derived downward radiation products from ISCCP and SRB (3) We analyze the long-term global and regional aerosol trends in major anthropogenic source regions (North America, Europe, Asia) that have been experiencing considerable changes of emissions during the three decades, dust and biomass burning regions that have large interannual variability, downwind regions that are directly affected by the changes in the source area, and remote regions that are considered to representing "background" conditions.

  5. Effects of atmospheric aerosols on scattering reflected visible light from earth resource features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, K. E.; Tschantz, B. A.; Davis, W. T.

    1972-01-01

    The vertical variations in atmospheric light attenuation under ambient conditions were identified, and a method through which aerial photographs of earth features might be corrected to yield quantitative information about the actual features was provided. A theoretical equation was developed based on the Bouguer-Lambert extinction law and basic photographic theory.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Point Reyes National Seashore, on the California coast north of San Francisco, was the location of the first deployment of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The ARM Program collaborated with the U.S. Office of Naval Research and DOE's Aerosol Science Program in the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) project. Their objectives were to collect data from cloud/aerosol interactions and to improve understanding of cloud organization that is often associated with patches of drizzle. Between March and September 2005, the AMF and at least two research aircraft were used to collect data.

  7. Organosulfates as Tracers for Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Formation from 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol (MBO) in the Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is an important biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emitted by pine trees and a potential precursor of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in forested regions. In the present study, hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of MBO was examined in smog chambers under varied initial nitric oxide (NO) and aerosol acidity levels. Results indicate measurable SOA from MBO under low-NO conditions. Moreover, increasing aerosol acidity was found to enhance MBO SOA. Chemical characterization of laboratory-generated MBO SOA reveals that an organosulfate species (C5H12O6S, MW 200) formed and was substantially enhanced with elevated aerosol acidity. Ambient fine aerosol (PM2.5) samples collected from the BEARPEX campaign during 2007 and 2009, as well as from the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign during 2011, were also analyzed. The MBO-derived organosulfate characterized from laboratory-generated aerosol was observed in PM2.5 collected from these campaigns, demonstrating that it is a molecular tracer for MBO-initiated SOA in the atmosphere. Furthermore, mass concentrations of the MBO-derived organosulfate are well correlated with MBO mixing ratio, temperature, and acidity in the field campaigns. Importantly, this compound accounted for an average of 0.25% and as high as 1% of the total organic aerosol mass during BEARPEX 2009. An epoxide intermediate generated under low-NO conditions is tentatively proposed to produce MBO SOA. PMID:22849588

  8. An Overview of Current Issues in the Uptake of Atmospheric Trace Gasses by Aerosols and Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, C. E.; Cox, R. A.; Abbatt, JPD; Ammann, M.; Davis, E. J.; Donaldson, D. J.; Garrett, Bruce C.; George, C.; Griffiths, T.; Hanson, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; McFiggans, Gordon; Poschl, U.; Riipinen, I.; Rossi, M.; Rudich, Yinon; Wagner, P. E.; Winkler, Paul J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-11-10

    A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change a European Network) Joint Research Programme on Aerosols and the Programme on Access to Laboratory Data. The aim of the workshop was to hold ‘Gordon Conference’ type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review. In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  9. An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.; Cox, R. A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Ammann, M.; Davis, E. J.; Donaldson, D. J.; Garrett, B. C.; George, C.; Griffiths, P. T.; Hanson, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; McFiggans, G.; Pöschl, U.; Riipinen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Rudich, Y.; Wagner, P. E.; Winkler, P. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-11-01

    A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change - a European Network) Joint Research Programme on "Aerosols" and the Programme on "Access to Laboratory Data". The aim of the workshop was to hold "Gordon Conference" type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of w