Science.gov

Sample records for atmospheric gamma-ray imaging

  1. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  2. Medical gamma ray imaging

    DOEpatents

    Osborne, Louis S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the distribution of a position-emitting radioisotope into an object, the apparatus consisting of a wire mesh radiation converter, an ionizable gas for propagating ionization events caused by electrodes released by the converter, a drift field, a spatial position detector and signal processing circuitry for correlating near-simultaneous ionization events and determining their time differences, whereby the position sources of back-to-back collinear radiation can be located and a distribution image constructed.

  3. Telescope Would Image X And Gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed telescope forms images of sources of gamma rays, hard x rays, and soft x rays. Contains reflecting, grazing-incidence reflectors. Multiple coaxial nested pairs used to form images simultaneously at multiple gamma-ray or hard x-ray energies or enhance collection area at single photon energy. Conceived for use in astrophysical studies in outer space. With modifications, used in terrestrial laboratory vaccum systems to image x or gamma rays from pulsed plasmas.

  4. High energy gamma ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Michael Richard

    This thesis presents a design study into gamma ray collimation techniques for use in high energy radiation imaging devices for the nuclear industry. Such technology is required to provide information on the nature and location of isotopes within nuclear facilities that have reached the end of their useful life. The work has concentrated on the use of two different techniques, namely mechanical collimation using the Anger camera and electronic collimation using a Compton camera. The work has used computational models to evaluate the performance of such systems and thereby suggest optimal design parameters for use in prototype devices. Ray tracing models have been constructed to simulate both parallel hole and tapered bore diverging collimators. Investigations have been carried out to measure the effects on the spatial resolution of changing various design parameters of the collimators. The effects of varying the hole size, septal thickness and collimator length over a range of source to collimator distances likely to be encountered in an industrial scenario have been examined. Some new insight into the nature of the point spread function of mechanical collimators has been gained and the limitations of the conventional analytical approach to collimator evaluation have been highlighted. Modifications to the standard equations used in collimator design have subsequently been suggested. An analytical description of tapered bore collimators has been derived. Monte Carlo models have been developed to model a single scatter Compton camera. Germanium, silicon and sodium iodide have been investigated as candidates for the scattering detector in such a device. A model of a complete ring array Compton camera system has been used to evaluate performance. The data from the Monte Carlo model has been reconstructed to form images. The quality of the images generated have then been compared with images obtained from parallel hole and focusing mechanical collimators.

  5. Gamma-Ray Imaging for Explosives Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deNolfo, G. A.; Hunter, S. D.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a gamma-ray imaging camera (GIC) for active interrogation of explosives being developed by NASA/GSFC and NSWCICarderock. The GIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approx.0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of gamma rays, E, > 6 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the electron-positron pair resulting from interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The optimization of the 3-DTI technology for this specific application and the performance of the GIC from laboratory tests is presented.

  6. Gamma Ray Imaging for Environmental Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W. Neil; Luke, Paul N.; Kurfess, J.D.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Kroeger, R.A.; Phillips, G.W.

    1999-06-01

    The goal of this project is the development of field portable gamma-ray detectors that can both image gamma rays from radioactive emission and determine the isotopic composition by the emitted spectrum. Most instruments to date have had either very good imaging with no spectroscopy, or very good spectroscopy with no imaging. The only instruments with both imaging and spectroscopy have had rather poor quality imaging and spectroscopy (e.g. NaI Anger Cameras). The technology would have widespread applications, from laboratory nuclear physics, to breast cancer imaging, to astronomical research. For this project, we focus on the applications in the field of fissile materials, spent nuclear fuels and decontamination and decommissioning.

  7. Future Gamma-Ray Imaging of Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Solar eruptive events, the combination of large solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), accelerate ions to tens of Gev and electrons to hundreds of MeV. The energy in accelerated particles can be a significant fraction (up to tens of percent) of the released energy and is roughly equipartitioned between ions and electrons. Observations of the gamma-ray signatures produced by these particles interacting with the ambient solar atmosphere probes the distribution and composition of the accelerated population, as well as the atmospheric parameters and abundances of the atmosphere, ultimately revealing information about the underlying physics. Gamma-ray imaging provided by RHESSI showed that the interacting approx.20 MeV/nucleon ions are confined to flare magnetic loops rather than precipitating from a large CME-associated shock. Furthermore, RHESSI images show a surprising, significant spatial separation between the locations where accelerated ions and electrons are interacting, thus indicating a difference in acceleration or transport processes for the two types of particles. Future gamma-ray imaging observations, with higher sensitivity and greater angular resolution, can investigate more deeply the nature of ion acceleration. The technologies being proven on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS), a NASA balloon instrument, are possible approaches for future instrumentation. We discuss the GRIPS instrument and the future of studying this aspect of solar eruptive events.

  8. Fermi gamma-ray imaging of a radio galaxy.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Finke, J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Georganopoulos, M; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sambruna, R; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stawarz, Ł; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M; Hardcastle, M J; Kazanas, D

    2010-05-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The gamma-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide gamma-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields.

  9. Fermi gamma-ray imaging of a radio galaxy.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Finke, J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Georganopoulos, M; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sambruna, R; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stawarz, Ł; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M; Hardcastle, M J; Kazanas, D

    2010-05-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The gamma-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide gamma-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields. PMID:20360067

  10. First Gamma-Ray Images of a Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, G. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.; Vilmer, N.

    2003-10-01

    Imaging of gamma-ray lines, produced by nuclear collisions of energetic ions with the solar atmosphere, provides the only direct indication of the spatial properties of accelerated ions near the Sun. We present the first gamma-ray images of a solar flare, obtained with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) for the X4.8 flare of 2002 July 23. Two rotating modulation collimators (with 35" and 183" resolution) were used to obtain images for the same time interval in four energy bands: the narrow deuterium line at 2.223 MeV formed by the thermalization and capture of neutrons produced in the collisions; the 3.25-6.5 MeV band that includes the prompt de-excitation lines of C and O; and the 0.3-0.5 and 0.7-1.4 MeV bands that are dominated by electron bremsstrahlung. The centroid of the 2.223 MeV image was found to be displaced by 20''+/-6'' from that of the 0.3-0.5 MeV image, implying a difference in acceleration and/or propagation between the accelerated electron and ion populations near the Sun.

  11. Imaging germanium telescope array for gamma-rays (IGETAGRAY)

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P. ); Harrison, F.A. Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA ); Fleischmann, J. )

    1990-08-10

    The Germanium Drift Chamber (GDC) is a gamma-ray detector with excellent energy and one-dimensional spatial resolution. Due to recent developments in coded aperture optics, it is feasible to couple one-dimensional coded apertures and GDCs in a special array geometry producing a telescope with true two-dimensional imaging. This Imaging Germanium Telescope Array for Gamma-rays (IGETAGRAY) has made a comparable field of view and sensitivity to true two-dimensional systems, but simplified engineering requirements. IGETAGRAY will make possible high sensitivity spectroscopy of the gamma-ray sky.

  12. Imaging Germanium Telescope Array for Gamma-Rays (IGETAGRAY)

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P. ); Harrison, F.A. . Dept. of Physics California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Space Sciences Lab.); Fleischmann, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The Germanium Drift Chamber (GDC) is a gamma-ray detector with excellent energy and one-dimensional spatial resolution. Due to recent developments in coded aperture optics, it is feasible to couple one-dimensional coded apertures and GDCs in a special array geometry producing a telescope with true two-dimensional imaging. This Imaging Germanium Telescope Array for Gamma-Rays (IGETAGRAY) has made a comparable field of view and sensitivity to true two-dimensional systems, but simplified engineering requirements. IGETAGRAY will make possible high sensitivity spectroscopy of the gamma-ray sky. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  13. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Simulation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.; Vassiliev, V.V.; /UCLA

    2011-06-14

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory being planned in the U.S. The anticipated sensitivity of AGIS is about one order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of current observatories, allowing it to measure gamma-ray emission from a large number of Galactic and extra-galactic sources. We present here results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance - collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity - are discussed.

  14. Particle Swarm Imaging (PSIM) - Innovative Gamma-Ray Assay - 13497

    SciTech Connect

    Parvin, Daniel; Clarke, Sean; Humes, Sarah J.

    2013-07-01

    Particle Swarm Imaging is an innovative technique used to perform quantitative gamma-ray assay. The innovation overcomes some of the difficulties associated with the accurate measurement and declaration of measurement uncertainties of radionuclide inventories within waste items when the distribution of activity is unknown. Implementation requires minimal equipment, with field measurements and results obtained using only a single electrically cooled HRGS gamma-ray detector. Examples of its application in the field are given in this paper. (authors)

  15. The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS): Science Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.; Coppi, P.; Digel, S.; Funk, S.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Pohl, M.; Romani, R.; Vassiliev, V.; /UCLA

    2011-11-21

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS), a future gamma-ray telescope consisting of an array of {approx}50 atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes distributed over an area of {approx}1 km{sup 2}, will provide a powerful new tool for exploring the high-energy universe. The order-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity and improved angular resolution could provide the first detailed images of {gamma}-ray emission from other nearby galaxies or galaxy clusters. The large effective area will provide unprecedented sensitivity to short transients (such as flares from AGNs and GRBs) probing both intrinsic spectral variability (revealing the details of the acceleration mechanism and geometry) as well as constraining the high-energy dispersion in the velocity of light (probing the structure of spacetime and Lorentz invariance). A wide field of view ({approx}4 times that of current instruments) and excellent angular resolution (several times better than current instruments) will allow for an unprecedented survey of the Galactic plane, providing a deep unobscured survey of SNRs, X-ray binaries, pulsar-wind nebulae, molecular cloud complexes and other sources. The differential flux sensitivity of {approx}10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} will rival the most sensitive X-ray instruments for these extended Galactic sources. The excellent capabilities of AGIS at energies below 100 GeV will provide sensitivity to AGN and GRBs out to cosmological redshifts, increasing the number of AGNs detected at high energies from about 20 to more than 100, permitting population studies that will provide valuable insights into both a unified model for AGN and a detailed measurement of the effects of intergalactic absorption from the diffuse extragalactic background light. A new instrument with fast-slewing wide-field telescopes could provide detections of a number of long-duration GRBs providing important physical constraints from this new spectral component. The new array will also have excellent

  16. A large-area gamma-ray imaging telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The concept definition of using the External Tank (ET) of the Space Shuttle as the basis for constructing a large area gamma ray imaging telescope in space is detailed. The telescope will be used to locate and study cosmic sources of gamma rays of energy greater than 100 MeV. Both the telescope properties and the means whereby an ET is used for this purpose are described. A parallel is drawn between those systems that would be common to both a Space Station and this ET application. In addition, those systems necessary for support of the telescope can form the basis for using the ET as part of the Space Station. The major conclusions of this concept definition are that the ET is ideal for making into a gamma ray telescope, and that this telescope will provide a substantial increase in collecting area.

  17. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) - Simulation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a US-led concept for a next-generation instrument in ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The most important design requirement for AGIS is a sensitivity of about 10 times greater than current observatories like Veritas, H.E.S.S or MAGIC. We present results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance, collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity are discussed.

  18. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS): A new balloon-borne experiment for gamma-ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Porreca, G.; Tueller, J.; Leventhal, M.; Huters, A. F.; Maccallum, C. J.; Stang, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is a relatively new field that holds great promise for further understanding of high energy astrophysical processes. When the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer (GRSE) was removed from the GRO payload, a balloon program was initiated to permit continued development and improvement of instrumentation in this field, as well as continued scientific observations. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) is one of the experiments selected as part of this program. The instrument contains a number of new and innovative features that are expected to produce a significant improvement in source location accuracy and sensitivity over previous balloon and satellite experiments.

  19. Prompt gamma-ray imaging for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Libai

    Small animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for small animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current small animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US). A new imaging modality called prompt gamma-ray imaging (PGI) has been identified and investigated primarily by Monte Carlo simulation. Currently it is suggested for use on small animals. This new technique could greatly enhance and extend the present capabilities of PET and SPECT imaging from ingested radioisotopes to the imaging of selected non-radioactive elements, such as Gd, Cd, Hg, and B, and has the great potential to be used in Neutron Cancer Therapy to monitor neutron distribution and neutron-capture agent distribution. This approach consists of irradiating small animals in the thermal neutron beam of a nuclear reactor to produce prompt gamma rays from the elements in the sample by the radiative capture (n, gamma) reaction. These prompt gamma rays are emitted in energies that are characteristic of each element and they are also produced in characteristic coincident chains. After measuring these prompt gamma rays by surrounding spectrometry array, the distribution of each element of interest in the sample is reconstructed from the mapping of each detected signature gamma ray by either electronic collimations or mechanical collimations. In addition, the transmitted neutrons from the beam can be simultaneously used for very sensitive anatomical imaging, which provides the registration for the elemental distributions obtained from PGI. The primary approach is to use Monte Carlo simulation methods either with the specific purpose code CEARCPG, developed at NC State University or with the general purpose

  20. A three-dimensional study of 30- to 300-MeV atmospheric gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    A three-dimensional study of atmospheric gamma rays with energy greater than 30 MeV has been carried out. A knowledge of these atmospheric secondaries has significant applications to the study of cosmic gamma rays. For detectors carried on balloons, atmospherically produced gamma rays are the major source of background. For satellite detectors, atmospheric secondaries provide a calibration source. Experimental results were obtained from four balloon flights from Palestine, Texas, with a 15 cm by 15 cm digitized wire grid spark chamber. The energy spectrum for downward-moving gamma rays steepens with increasing atmospheric depth. Near the top of the atmosphere, the spectrum steepens with increasing zenith angle. A new model of atmospheric secondary production has calculated the depth, the energy, and the zenith angle dependence of gamma rays above 30 MeV, using a comprehensive three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of the nucleon-meson-electromagnetic cascade.

  1. Gamma Ray Imaging for Environmental Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    B.F. Philips; R.A. Kroeger: J.D. Kurfess: W.N. Johnson; E.A. Wulf; E. I. Novikova

    2004-11-12

    This program is the development of germanium strip detectors for environmental remediation. It is a collaboration between the Naval Research Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. The goal is to develop detectors that are simultaneously capable of excellent spectroscopy and imaging of gamma radiation.

  2. Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hailey, Charles J.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    1992-01-01

    X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation.

  3. Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.

    1992-06-02

    X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation. 6 figs.

  4. Photodetectors for the Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert G.; Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System AGIS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory. Design goals include an order of magnitude better sensitivity, better angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a camera that detects and records the Cherenkov-light flashes from air showers. The camera is comprised of a pixelated focal plane of blue sensitive and fast (nanosecond) photon detectors that detect the photon signal and convert it into an electrical one. Given the scale of AGIS, the camera must be reliable and cost effective. The Schwarzschild-Couder optical design yields a smaller plate scale than present-day Cherenkov telescopes, enabling the use of more compact, multi-pixel devices, including multianode photomultipliers or Geiger avalanche photodiodes. We present the conceptual design of the focal plane for the camera and results from testing candidate! focal plane sensors.

  5. Present status of very high energy gamma ray astronomy and plans for an imaging gamma ray telescope in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, C. L.

    1993-09-01

    The unequivocal detection of the Crab Nebula as the first-ever standard candle in the very high energy (VHE) bracket, made possible by the recently-developed Cerenkov Imaging Technique, marks a water-shed in the 20 year-old history of the TeV gamma-ray astronomy. It gives hope that, as with the Crab today, future detections in the field, too, will be on a firm statistical footing and the attendant investigations, more comprehensive in their content and range. The present mood in the field is one of cautious optimism. This paper gives an overview of the contemporary observational scene in the ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. It closes with an introduction to TACTIC, the first Indian Imaging gamma-ray telescope, presently under-development.

  6. Gamma ray imager on the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, D. C.; Cooper, C. M.; Taussig, D.; Eidietis, N. W.; Hollmann, E. M.; Riso, V.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Watkins, M.

    2016-04-01

    A gamma ray camera is built for the DIII-D tokamak [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] that provides spatial localization and energy resolution of gamma flux by combining a lead pinhole camera with custom-built detectors and optimized viewing geometry. This diagnostic system is installed on the outer midplane of the tokamak such that its 123 collimated sightlines extend across the tokamak radius while also covering most of the vertical extent of the plasma volume. A set of 30 bismuth germanate detectors can be secured in any of the available sightlines, allowing for customizable coverage in experiments with runaway electrons in the energy range of 1-60 MeV. Commissioning of the gamma ray imager includes the quantification of electromagnetic noise sources in the tokamak machine hall and a measurement of the energy spectrum of background gamma radiation. First measurements of gamma rays coming from the plasma provide a suitable testbed for implementing pulse height analysis that provides the energy of detected gamma photons.

  7. Gamma ray imager on the DIII-D tokamak.

    PubMed

    Pace, D C; Cooper, C M; Taussig, D; Eidietis, N W; Hollmann, E M; Riso, V; Van Zeeland, M A; Watkins, M

    2016-04-01

    A gamma ray camera is built for the DIII-D tokamak [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] that provides spatial localization and energy resolution of gamma flux by combining a lead pinhole camera with custom-built detectors and optimized viewing geometry. This diagnostic system is installed on the outer midplane of the tokamak such that its 123 collimated sightlines extend across the tokamak radius while also covering most of the vertical extent of the plasma volume. A set of 30 bismuth germanate detectors can be secured in any of the available sightlines, allowing for customizable coverage in experiments with runaway electrons in the energy range of 1-60 MeV. Commissioning of the gamma ray imager includes the quantification of electromagnetic noise sources in the tokamak machine hall and a measurement of the energy spectrum of background gamma radiation. First measurements of gamma rays coming from the plasma provide a suitable testbed for implementing pulse height analysis that provides the energy of detected gamma photons. PMID:27131674

  8. Gamma ray imager on the DIII-D tokamak.

    PubMed

    Pace, D C; Cooper, C M; Taussig, D; Eidietis, N W; Hollmann, E M; Riso, V; Van Zeeland, M A; Watkins, M

    2016-04-01

    A gamma ray camera is built for the DIII-D tokamak [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] that provides spatial localization and energy resolution of gamma flux by combining a lead pinhole camera with custom-built detectors and optimized viewing geometry. This diagnostic system is installed on the outer midplane of the tokamak such that its 123 collimated sightlines extend across the tokamak radius while also covering most of the vertical extent of the plasma volume. A set of 30 bismuth germanate detectors can be secured in any of the available sightlines, allowing for customizable coverage in experiments with runaway electrons in the energy range of 1-60 MeV. Commissioning of the gamma ray imager includes the quantification of electromagnetic noise sources in the tokamak machine hall and a measurement of the energy spectrum of background gamma radiation. First measurements of gamma rays coming from the plasma provide a suitable testbed for implementing pulse height analysis that provides the energy of detected gamma photons.

  9. WINKLER - An imaging high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, G. H.; Sandie, W. G.; Kilner, J. R.; Pang, F.; Imai, B. B.

    1991-04-01

    The WINKLER high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer was originally developed to fly on a high-altitude aircraft. Following the discovery of Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud, arrangements were made to perform balloon-borne observations of this event. The instrument was quickly adapted to fit on a gondola furnished by NASA/MSFC in a collaborative effort and was flown in a series of three successful flights from Alice Springs, Australia. The second flight on October 29-31, 1987 resulted in the first high-resolution detection of the 847-keV line emission from the decay of 56Co and provided definitive confirmation of the explosive nucleosynthesis process. WINKLER comprises an array of nine coaxial n-type germanium detectors which are housed in a common vaccuum cryostat and surrounded by an NaI(Tl) scintillator shield that suppresses Compton interactions and gamma-ray background. Gamma-ray images are obtained with a rotational modulation collimator system attached to the spectrometer. Collimator holes in the upper section of the shield define the angular field of view of the instrument to 22 deg FWHM. The energy range of the spectrometer is 20 eV to 8 MeV, and the composite energy resolution from all detectors is 1.5 keV at 100 keV and about 2.5 keV at 1.33 MeV. The total frontal area of the sensor array is 214 cm2 with a volume of 1177 cm3, providing sufficient detection sensitivity for gamma-ray astronomy as well as for land-based applications such as treaty verification monitoring.

  10. Quantitative criteria for assessment of gamma-ray imager performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, Steve; Keller, Kristi; Malik, Hans

    2015-08-01

    In recent years gamma ray imagers such as the GammaCamTM and Polaris have demonstrated good imaging performance in the field. Imager performance is often summarized as "resolution", either angular, or spatial at some distance from the imager, however the definition of resolution is not always related to the ability to image an object. It is difficult to quantitatively compare imagers without a common definition of image quality. This paper examines three categories of definition: point source; line source; and area source. It discusses the details of those definitions and which ones are more relevant for different situations. Metrics such as Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM), variations on the Rayleigh criterion, and some analogous to National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) are discussed. The performance against these metrics is evaluated for a high resolution coded aperture imager modeled using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP), and for a medium resolution imager measured in the lab.

  11. An imaging telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, G.; Jenkins, T. L.; Owen, A.; Ramsden, D.; Carter, J. N.; Hall, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Recent tests of a gamma-ray imaging telescope, which incorporated a coded aperture mask and multiwire proportional counter system produced good images of a tritium target source which was used to generate the 20 MeV protons at a proton Van de Graaff accelerator. This paper indicates what performance might be expected if a large area drift chamber were used in conjunction with a coded aperture mask. The prospects for achieving significant scientific results if such a system were flown on a variety of space vehicles are discussed.

  12. OBSERVATION OF DIFFUSE COSMIC AND ATMOSPHERIC GAMMA RAYS AT BALLOON ALTITUDES WITH AN ELECTRON-TRACKING COMPTON CAMERA

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Atsushi; Nonaka, Naoki; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Hironobu; Ueno, Kazuki; Hattori, Kaori; Kabuki, Shigeto; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Miuchi, Kentaro; Nagayoshi, Tsutomu; Okada, Yoko; Orito, Reiko; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru; Mizuta, Eiichi

    2011-05-20

    We observed diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays at balloon altitudes with the Sub-MeV gamma-ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment I (SMILE-I) as the first step toward a future all-sky survey with a high sensitivity. SMILE-I employed an electron-tracking Compton camera comprised of a gaseous electron tracker as a Compton-scattering target and a scintillation camera as an absorber. The balloon carrying the SMILE-I detector was launched from the Sanriku Balloon Center of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency on 2006 September 1, and the flight lasted for 6.8 hr, including level flight for 4.1 hr at an altitude of 32-35 km. During the level flight, we successfully detected 420 downward gamma rays between 100 keV and 1 MeV at zenith angles below 60 deg. To obtain the flux of diffuse cosmic gamma rays, we first simulated their scattering in the atmosphere using Geant4, and for gamma rays detected at an atmospheric depth of 7.0 g cm{sup -2} we found that 50% and 21% of the gamma rays at energies of 150 keV and 1 MeV, respectively, were scattered in the atmosphere prior to reaching the detector. Moreover, by using Geant4 simulations and the QinetiQ atmospheric radiation model, we estimated that the detected events consisted of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays (79%), secondary photons produced in the instrument through the interaction between cosmic rays and materials surrounding the detector (19%), and other particles (2%). The obtained growth curve was comparable to Ling's model, and the fluxes of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays were consistent with the results of previous experiments. The expected detection sensitivity of a future SMILE experiment measuring gamma rays between 150 keV and 20 MeV was estimated from our SMILE-I results and was found to be 10 times better than that of other experiments at around 1 MeV.

  13. Observation of Diffuse Cosmic and Atmospheric Gamma Rays at Balloon Altitudes with an Electron-tracking Compton Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Atsushi; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Hironobu; Ueno, Kazuki; Hattori, Kaori; Kabuki, Shigeto; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Miuchi, Kentaro; Mizuta, Eiichi; Nagayoshi, Tsutomu; Nonaka, Naoki; Okada, Yoko; Orito, Reiko; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru

    2011-05-01

    We observed diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays at balloon altitudes with the Sub-MeV gamma-ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment I (SMILE-I) as the first step toward a future all-sky survey with a high sensitivity. SMILE-I employed an electron-tracking Compton camera comprised of a gaseous electron tracker as a Compton-scattering target and a scintillation camera as an absorber. The balloon carrying the SMILE-I detector was launched from the Sanriku Balloon Center of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency on 2006 September 1, and the flight lasted for 6.8 hr, including level flight for 4.1 hr at an altitude of 32-35 km. During the level flight, we successfully detected 420 downward gamma rays between 100 keV and 1 MeV at zenith angles below 60°. To obtain the flux of diffuse cosmic gamma rays, we first simulated their scattering in the atmosphere using Geant4, and for gamma rays detected at an atmospheric depth of 7.0 g cm-2 we found that 50% and 21% of the gamma rays at energies of 150 keV and 1 MeV, respectively, were scattered in the atmosphere prior to reaching the detector. Moreover, by using Geant4 simulations and the QinetiQ atmospheric radiation model, we estimated that the detected events consisted of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays (79%), secondary photons produced in the instrument through the interaction between cosmic rays and materials surrounding the detector (19%), and other particles (2%). The obtained growth curve was comparable to Ling's model, and the fluxes of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays were consistent with the results of previous experiments. The expected detection sensitivity of a future SMILE experiment measuring gamma rays between 150 keV and 20 MeV was estimated from our SMILE-I results and was found to be 10 times better than that of other experiments at around 1 MeV.

  14. Coded-aperture Compton camera for gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farber, Aaron M.

    This dissertation describes the development of a novel gamma-ray imaging system concept and presents results from Monte Carlo simulations of the new design. Current designs for large field-of-view gamma cameras suitable for homeland security applications implement either a coded aperture or a Compton scattering geometry to image a gamma-ray source. Both of these systems require large, expensive position-sensitive detectors in order to work effectively. By combining characteristics of both of these systems, a new design can be implemented that does not require such expensive detectors and that can be scaled down to a portable size. This new system has significant promise in homeland security, astronomy, botany and other fields, while future iterations may prove useful in medical imaging, other biological sciences and other areas, such as non-destructive testing. A proof-of-principle study of the new gamma-ray imaging system has been performed by Monte Carlo simulation. Various reconstruction methods have been explored and compared. General-Purpose Graphics-Processor-Unit (GPGPU) computation has also been incorporated. The resulting code is a primary design tool for exploring variables such as detector spacing, material selection and thickness and pixel geometry. The advancement of the system from a simple 1-dimensional simulation to a full 3-dimensional model is described. Methods of image reconstruction are discussed and results of simulations consisting of both a 4 x 4 and a 16 x 16 object space mesh have been presented. A discussion of the limitations and potential areas of further study is also presented.

  15. Gamma rays from grazing incidence cosmic rays in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Interactions of grazing incidence, ultra high-energy cosmic rays with the earth's atmosphere may provide a new method of studying energetic cosmic rays with gamma-ray satellites. It is found that these cosmic ray interactions may produce gamma-rays on millisecond timescales which may be detectable by satellites. An extremely low gamma-ray background for transient gamma-ray events and a large area of interaction, the earth's surface, make the scheme plausible. The effective cross section of detection of interactions for cosmic rays above 10(exp 20) eV is found to be more than two orders of magnitude higher than Earth-based detection techniques. This method may eventually offer an efficient way of probing this region of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum where events are scarce. In this paper, a conceptual model is presented for the production of short bursts of gamma-rays based on these grazing incidence encounters with the Earth's atmosphere.

  16. Detection of the Crab Nebula By UV Imaging of TeV Gamma Ray Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantell, M.

    1994-12-01

    With successful detection of TeV gamma ray fluxes from the Crab Nebula and the AGN, MRK421, the Whipple Observatory Gamma Ray Collaboration has demonstrated the sensitivity of the Cherenkov imaging technique in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. This technique uses an array of 109 blue-sensitive photomultipliers to image the Cherenkov radiation produced when TeV gamma and cosmic rays enter the earth's atmosphere. One major limitation of this technique is the requirement of absolutely dark skies during observations. The presence of the moon rules out the possibility of making observations because of the high sensitivity of the photomultipliers used in the camera. To address this limitation we have developed a camera which utilizes solar-blind photomultpliers with primary sensitivity from 220nm to 280nm allowing observations even in the presence of the full moon. After two years of UV observations of the Crab Nebula we have demonstrated the ability to discriminate gamma rays from the hadronic background with an energy threshold of approximately 1 TeV. The development of this camera makes it possible to increase the duty cycle of the 10 meter telescope allowing observations in bright time. Additionally the insensitivity to background star light allows this camera to observe sources in bright regions of the galactic plane, where high background light levels have limited the usefulness of the visible camera.

  17. High-revolution gamma-ray imaging from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, William A.

    1990-01-01

    An observatory is suggested for exploiting unique lunar features to perform sensitive, subarcsecond cosmic X-ray and gamma-ray imaging. The observatory would be built in an evolutionary manner and would eventually include several different position-sensitive detector systems which together would cover a broad energy range and address a wide variety of astrophysical problems. High angular resolution would be obtained by using a mobile crane on the flat lunar mare regions to move a coded aperture mask for source tracking with detector/mask separations of up to 5 kilometers.

  18. Gamma-Ray Focusing Optics for Small Animal Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivovaroff, M. J.; Barber, W. C.; Craig, W. W.; Hasegawa, B. H.; Ramsey, B. D.; Taylor, C.

    2004-01-01

    There is a well-established need for high-resolution radionuclide imaging techniques that provide non-invasive measurement of physiological function in small animals. We, therefore, have begun developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system using grazing incidence mirrors to focus low-energy gamma-rays emitted by I-125, and other radionuclides. Our initial prototype optic, fabricated from thermally-formed glass, demonstrated a resolution of 1500 microns, consistent with the performance predicted by detailed simulations. More recently, we have begun constructing mirrors using a replication technique that reduces low spatial frequency errors in the mirror surface, greatly improving the resolution. Each technique offers particular advantages: e.g., multilayer coatings are easily deposited on glass, while superior resolution is possible with replicated optics. Scaling the results from our prototype optics, which only have a few nested shells, to system where the lens has a full complement of several tens of nested shells, a sensitivity of approx. 1 cps/micro Ci is possible, with the exact number dependent on system magnification and radionuclide species. (Higher levels of efficiency can be obtained with multi-optic imaging systems.) The gamma-ray lens will achieve a resolution as good as 100 microns, independent of the final sensitivity. The combination of high spatial resolution and modest sensitivity will enable in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animals.

  19. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray scattering and production in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Daniel J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from Monte Carlo numerical simulations of atmospheric gamma-ray scattering and production. The basic physical principles involved in the construction of the models are reviewed, and results are presented in extensive graphs for low-energy gamma rays with the spectra of gamma-ray bursts, solar flares, the Crab pulsar, and 511-keV line radiation. It is shown that the model accurately reproduces the characteristics of atmospheric albedo radiation, including details of the angular distribution. The potential applicability of the Monte Carlo technique to studies of the near-earth radiation environment is indicated.

  20. SMILE-II: Balloon-Borne Telescope for Background-Suppressed Soft Gamma-Ray Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawano, T.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Parker, J. D.; Mizumoto, T.; Sonoda, S.; Mizumura, Y.; Tomono, D.; Nakamura, K.; Matsuoka, Y.; Komura, S.; Sato, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Miuchi, K.; Kabuki, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Iwaki, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ikeno, M.; Uchida, T.

    We have developed an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) for an all-sky survey at the MeV gamma-ray band. The ETCC consists of a gaseous tracker and a position sensitive scintillation camera to measure the momentum of the Compton-recoil electron and the scattering gamma ray so that we can reconstruct the energy and momentum of the incident gamma ray photon by photon. Also the ETCC has strong background rejection methods using tracking information such as the dE/dx particle identification and theCompton kinematics test. To confirm feasibility of observing celestial objects in space, we performed a balloon experiment to successfully observe the diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays, which confirmed the effectiveness of the background rejection capability. Based on the first balloon experiment result, we are developing a large ETCC and plan to launch it for the test of the imaging property. The performance of the SMILE-II ETCC is simulated and then it will obtain an effective area of 1.1 cm2 for 200 keV by improving the electron track reconstruction efficiency by a factor of about 10, which results in the detection of Crab nebula at >5σ level for several-hour observation in the middle latitude with an altitude of 40 km.

  1. Gamma-Ray Localization of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    SciTech Connect

    Marisaldi, M.; Labanti, C.; Fuschino, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Gianotti, F.; Argan, A.; De Paris, G.; Trois, A.; Del Monte, E.; Costa, E.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Rubini, A.; Sabatini, S.

    2010-09-17

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are very short bursts of high-energy photons and electrons originating in Earth's atmosphere. We present here a localization study of TGFs carried out at gamma-ray energies above 20 MeV based on an innovative event selection method. We use the AGILE satellite Silicon Tracker data that for the first time have been correlated with TGFs detected by the AGILE Mini-Calorimeter. We detect 8 TGFs with gamma-ray photons of energies above 20 MeV localized by the AGILE gamma-ray imager with an accuracy of {approx}5-10 deg. at 50 MeV. Remarkably, all TGF-associated gamma rays are compatible with a terrestrial production site closer to the subsatellite point than 400 km. Considering that our gamma rays reach the AGILE satellite at 540 km altitude with limited scattering or attenuation, our measurements provide the first precise direct localization of TGFs from space.

  2. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Telescope Optical System Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliev, Vladimir; Buckley, Jim; Falcone, Abe; Fegan, Steven; Finley, John; Gaurino, Victor; Hanna, David; Kaaret, Philip; Konopelko, Alex; Krawczynski, Henric; Romani, Roger; Weekes, Trevor

    2008-04-01

    AGIS is a conceptual design for a future ground-based gamma-ray observatory based on an array of ˜100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) with a sensitivity to gamma-rays in the energy range 40 GeV-100 TeV. The anticipated improvement of AGIS sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of the IACTs. In this submission we focus on the optical system (OS) of the AGIS telescopes and consider options which include traditional Davies-Cotton and the other prime- focus telescope designs, as well as a novel two-mirror aplanatic OS originally proposed by Schwarzschild. Emerging new mirror production technologies based on replication processes such as cold and hot glass slumping, cured CFRP, and electroforming provide new opportunities for cost effective solutions for the design of the OS. We evaluate the capabilities of these mirror fabrication methods for the AGIS project.

  3. Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging With Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R; Decker, T; Epstein, M; Ziock, K; Pivovaroff, M J; Craig, W W; Jernigan, J G; Barber, W B; Christensen, F E; Funk, T; Hailey, C J; Hasegawa, B H; Taylor, C

    2004-02-27

    Significant effort currently is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. While physiological function in small animals can be localized and imaged using conventional radionuclide imaging techniques such as single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), these techniques inherently are limited to spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system (SARIS) using grazing incidence optics to focus gamma-rays emitted by {sup 125}I and other radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a prototype optic with sufficient accuracy and precision to focus the 27.5 keV photons from {sup 125}I onto a high-resolution imaging detector. Experimental measurements from the prototype have demonstrated that the optic can focus X-rays from a microfocus X-ray tube to a spot having physical dimensions (approximately 1500 microns half-power diameter) consistent with those predicted by theory. Our theoretical and numerical analysis also indicate that an optic can be designed and build that ultimately can achieve 100 {micro}m spatial resolution with sufficient efficiency to perform in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animal.

  4. Gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy of planetary surfaces and atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The neutrons and gamma rays escaping from a planet can be used to map the concentrations of various elements in its surface. In a planet, the high-energy particles in the galactic cosmic rays induce a cascade of particles that includes many neutrons. The ..gamma.. rays are made by the decay of the naturally-occurring radioelements and by nuclear excitations induced by cosmic-ray particles and their secondaries (especially neutron capture or inelastic scattering reactions). After a short history of planetary ..gamma..-ray and neutron spectroscopy, the ..gamma..-ray spectrometer and active neutron detection system planned for the Mars Observer Mission are presented. The results of laboratory experiments that simulate the cosmic-ray bombardments of planetary surfaces and the status of the theoretical calculations for the processes that make and transport neutrons and ..gamma.. rays will be reviewed. Studies of Mars, including its atmosphere, are emphasized, as are new ideas, concepts, and problems that have arisen over the last decade, such as Doppler broadening and peaks from neutron scattering with germanium nuclei in a ..gamma..-ray spectrometer. 23 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Scene data fusion: Real-time standoff volumetric gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnowski, Ross; Haefner, Andrew; Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai

    2015-11-01

    An approach to gamma-ray imaging has been developed that enables near real-time volumetric (3D) imaging of unknown environments thus improving the utility of gamma-ray imaging for source-search and radiation mapping applications. The approach, herein dubbed scene data fusion (SDF), is based on integrating mobile radiation imagers with real-time tracking and scene reconstruction algorithms to enable a mobile mode of operation and 3D localization of gamma-ray sources. A 3D model of the scene, provided in real-time by a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm, is incorporated into the image reconstruction reducing the reconstruction time and improving imaging performance. The SDF concept is demonstrated in this work with a Microsoft Kinect RGB-D sensor, a real-time SLAM solver, and a cart-based Compton imaging platform comprised of two 3D position-sensitive high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. An iterative algorithm based on Compton kinematics is used to reconstruct the gamma-ray source distribution in all three spatial dimensions. SDF advances the real-world applicability of gamma-ray imaging for many search, mapping, and verification scenarios by improving the tractiblity of the gamma-ray image reconstruction and providing context for the 3D localization of gamma-ray sources within the environment in real-time.

  6. Image Artifacts Resulting from Gamma-Ray Tracking Algorithms Used with Compton Imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Carolyn E.; He, Zhong

    2005-10-01

    For Compton imaging it is necessary to determine the sequence of gamma-ray interactions in a single detector or array of detectors. This can be done by time-of-flight measurements if the interactions are sufficiently far apart. However, in small detectors the time between interactions can be too small to measure, and other means of gamma-ray sequencing must be used. In this work, several popular sequencing algorithms are reviewed for sequences with two observed events and three or more observed events in the detector. These algorithms can result in poor imaging resolution and introduce artifacts in the backprojection images. The effects of gamma-ray tracking algorithms on Compton imaging are explored in the context of the 4π Compton imager built by the University of Michigan.

  7. ANALOGIES BETWEEN NEUTRON AND GAMMA-RAY IMAGING.

    SciTech Connect

    VANIER, P.E.

    2006-08-13

    Although the physics describing the interactions of neutrons with matter is quite different from that appropriate for hard x-rays and gamma rays, there are a number of similarities that allow analogous instruments to be developed for both types of ionizing radiation. A pinhole camera, for example, requires that the radiation obeys some form of geometrical optics, that a material can be found to absorb some of the radiation, and that a suitable position-sensitive detector can be built to record the spatial distribution of the incident radiation. Such conditions are met for photons and neutrons, even though the materials used are quite different. Neutron analogues of the coded-aperture gamma camera and the Compton camera have been demonstrated. Even though the Compton effect applies only to photons, neutrons undergo proton-recoil scattering that can provide similar directional information. There is also an analogy in the existence of an energy spectrum for the radiation used to produce the images, and which may allow different types of sources to be distinguished from each other and from background.

  8. On the potential of atmospheric Cherenkov telescope arrays for resolving TeV gamma-ray sources in the Galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrogi, L.; De Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Aharonian, F.

    2016-07-01

    The potential of an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes to detect gamma-ray sources in complex regions has been investigated. The basic characteristics of the gamma-ray instrument have been parameterized using simple analytic representations. In addition to the ideal (Gaussian form) point spread function (PSF), the impact of more realistic non-Gaussian PSFs with tails has been considered. Simulations of isolated point-like and extended sources have been used as a benchmark to test and understand the response of the instrument. The capability of the instrument to resolve multiple sources has been analyzed and the corresponding instrument sensitivities calculated. The results are of particular interest for weak gamma-ray emitters located in crowded regions of the Galactic plane, where the chance of clustering of two or more gamma-ray sources within 1 deg is high.

  9. A Topological Array Trigger for AGIS, the Advanced Gamma ray Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Krennrich, F.; Anderson, J.; Byrum, K.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W.; Kreps, A.; Smith, A.; Buckley, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Imran, A.; Schroedter, M.

    2008-12-24

    Next generation ground based {gamma}-ray observatories such as AGIS{sup 1} and CTA{sup 2} are expected to cover a 1 km{sup 2} area with 50-100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The stereoscopic view ol air showers using multiple view points raises the possibility to use a topological array trigger that adds substantial flexibility, new background suppression capabilities and a reduced energy threshold. In this paper we report on the concept and technical implementation of a fast topological trigger system, that makes use of real time image processing of individual camera patterns and their combination in a stereoscopic array analysis. A prototype system is currently under construction and we discuss the design and hardware of this topological array trigger system.

  10. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  11. Single-Grid-Pair Fourier Telescope for Imaging in Hard-X Rays and gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This instrument, a proposed Fourier telescope for imaging in hard-x rays and gamma rays, would contain only one pair of grids made of an appropriate radiation-absorpting/ scattering material, in contradistinction to multiple pairs of such as grids in prior Fourier x- and gamma-ray telescopes. This instrument would also include a relatively coarse gridlike image detector appropriate to the radiant flux to be imaged. Notwithstanding the smaller number of grids and the relative coarseness of the imaging detector, the images produced by the proposed instrument would be of higher quality.

  12. Gamma-ray imaging with a rotating hexagonal uniformly redundant array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. R.; Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.; Stone, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed to demonstrate the capabilities of a gamma-ray imaging system employing a NaI Anger camera and a rotating coded aperture mask. The mask incorporates in its design a new type of hexagonal uniformly redundant array (HURA) which is essentially antisymmetric under 60 deg rotation. The image formation techniques are described and results are presented that demonstrate the imaging capability of the system for individual and multiple point sources of gamma-ray emission. The results are compared to analytical predictions for the imaging and point source localization capabilities of coded aperture systems using continuous detectors.

  13. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) Telescope Optical System Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, V.; Buckley, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Diegel, S.; Romani, R.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, S.; Vassiliev, V.; Finley, J.; Guarino, V.; Hanna, D.; Kaaret, P.; Konopelko, A.; Ramsey, B.; Weekes, T.

    2008-12-24

    AGIS is a conceptual design for a future ground-based gamma-ray observatory operating in the energy range 25 GeV-100 TeV, which is based on an array of {approx}20-100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). The desired improvement in sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation of AGIS imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of the IACTs. We are considering several options for the optical system (OS) of the AGIS telescopes, which include the traditional Davies-Cotton design as well as novel two-mirror design. Emerging mirror production technologies based on replication processes such as cold and hot glass slumping, cured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), and electroforming provide new opportunities for cost-effective solutions for the design of the OS.

  14. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Telescope Optical System Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, David S.; Buckley, J. H.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, S.; Finley, J.; Guarino, V.; Kaaret, P.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Konopelko, A.; Romani, R.; Vassilliev, V.; Optical System Working Group; AGIS Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    The concept of a future ground-based gamma-ray observatory, AGIS, in the energy range 20 GeV-200 TeV is based on an array of 50-200 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). The anticipated improvement of AGIS sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of IACTs. In this submission we will focus on the optical system (OS) of AGIS telescopes and consider options which include traditional Davies-Cotton and the other prime-focus telescope designs, as well as the novel two-mirror aplanatic OS originally proposed by Schwarzschild. The emerging new mirror production technologies based on replication processes, such as cold and hot glass slumping, cured CFRP, and electroforming, provide new opportunities for cost effective solutions for the design of the OS. We initially evaluate capabilities of these mirror fabrication methods for the AGIS project.

  15. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) Telescope Optical System Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaev, V.; Buckley, J.; Diegel, S.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, S.; Finley, J.; Guarino, V.; Hanna, D.; Kaaret, P.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Ramsey, B.; Romani, R.; Vassiliev, V.; Weekes, T.

    2008-12-01

    AGIS is a conceptual design for a future ground-based gamma-ray observatory operating in the energy range 25 GeV-100 TeV, which is based on an array of ~20-100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). The desired improvement in sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation of AGIS imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of the IACTs. We are considering several options for the optical system (OS) of the AGIS telescopes, which include the traditional Davies-Cotton design as well as novel two-mirror design. Emerging mirror production technologies based on replication processes such as cold and hot glass slumping, cured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), and electroforming provide new opportunities for cost-effective solutions for the design of the OS.

  16. The Use of Gamma-Ray Imaging to Improve Portal Monitor Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Collins, Jeff; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy Felix; Goddard, James K; Habte Ghebretatios, Frezghi; Karnowski, Thomas Paul

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a prototype, rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. Our Roadside Tracker uses automated target acquisition and tracking (TAT) software to identify and track vehicles in visible light images. The field of view of the visible camera overlaps with and is calibrated to that of a one-dimensional gamma-ray imager. The TAT code passes information on when vehicles enter and exit the system field of view and when they cross gamma-ray pixel boundaries. Based on this in-formation, the gamma-ray imager "harvests" the gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. In this fashion we are able to generate vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoid source confusion problems that plague nonimaging approaches to the same problem.

  17. A coded aperture imaging system optimized for hard X-ray and gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Huters, A. F.; Leventhal, M.; Maccallum, C. J.; Reber, J. D.; Stang, P. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Tueller, J.

    1985-01-01

    A coded aperture imaging system was designed for the Gamma-Ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS). The system is optimized for imaging 511 keV positron-annihilation photons. For a galactic center 511-keV source strength of 0.001 sq/s, the source location accuracy is expected to be + or - 0.2 deg.

  18. Performance of the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) for Gamma-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Seunghee; Barbier, L, M.; Bloser, P. F.; Floyd, S. R,; Hunter, S. D.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Link, J. T.; McConnell, M. L.; DeNolfo, Georgia; Ryan, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    We have been developing a gas time projection chamber for the imaging of gamma-rays between 0.3 - 50 MeV, the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3DTI). The detector is being designed for use on satellite experiments for the imaging of astrophysical gamma-ray sources. Electrons produced by pair production or Compton scattering ionize the gas and these ionization electrons are detected by the cross-strip micro-well detector at the bottom of the chamber. Discrete component of front end electronics and time digitization electronics have been developed. We will present results of prototype microwell detector and laboratory set-up in various gas mixtures.

  19. Study on detecting spatial distribution of neutrons and gamma rays using a multi-imaging plate system.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun

    2014-06-01

    In order to measure the spatial distributions of neutrons and gamma rays separately using the imaging plate, the requirement for the converter to enhance specific component was investigated with the PHITS code. Consequently, enhancing fast neutrons using recoil protons from epoxy resin was not effective due to high sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma rays. However, the converter of epoxy resin doped with (10)B was found to have potential for thermal and epithermal neutrons, and graphite for gamma rays.

  20. Compact Gamma-Ray Imager for In-Vivo Gene Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, A. C.

    2000-06-01

    A compact, low-cost, gamma-ray imaging system is needed to study gene expression in small animals. State-of-the-art electronic imaging systems have insufficient resolution and animals must be sacrificed for detailed imaging that precludes time evolution studies. With improved electronics radioactive tracers attached to gene markers can be used to track the absorption and mobility of gene therapy medications in live animals. Other instrumentation being developed for medical applications does not have the response to match the radiation source for this work. The objective of this research was to develop thick film (Cd,Zn)Te detectors matched to the gamma ray energy of {sup 129}I. The detector would be a direct readout device using p-i-n diodes formed from the high Z material absorbing the radiation, with separate readout. Higher quality semiconducting material was expected from epitaxial growth on GaAs, a near lattice matched substrate. In practice, it was difficult to obtain material with high resistance and low leakage current. Spire Corporation achieved the goal of fabricating working detectors in (Cd,Zn)Te deposited on GaAs. The spectra of an alpha emitter ({sup 225}Am) was adequately resolved in thin film devices. Thick p-i-n diodes were fabricated but other processing problems prevented full demonstration of a gamma ray detector.

  1. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS)--Science Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Coppi, P.; Digel, S.; Funk, S.; Krennrich, F.; Pohl, M.; Romani, R.; Vassiliev, V.

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS), a future gamma-ray telescope consisting of an array of {approx}50 atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes distributed over an area of {approx}1 km{sup 2}, will provide a powerful new tool for exploring the high-energy universe. The order-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity and improved angular resolution could provide the first detailed images of {gamma}-ray emission from other nearby galaxies or galaxy clusters. The large effective area will provide unprecedented sensitivity to short transients (such as flares from AGNs and GRBs) probing both intrinsic spectral variability (revealing the details of the acceleration mechanism and geometry) as well as constraining the high-energy dispersion in the velocity of light (probing the structure of spacetime and Lorentz invariance). A wide field of view ({approx}4 times that of current instruments) and excellent angular resolution (several times better than current instruments) will allow for an unprecedented survey of the Galactic plane, providing a deep unobscured survey of SNRs, X-ray binaries, pulsar-wind nebulae, molecular cloud complexes and other sources. The differential flux sensitivity of {approx}10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} will rival the most sensitive X-ray instruments for these extended Galactic sources. The excellent capabilities of AGIS at energies below 100 GeV will provide sensitivity to AGN and GRBs out to cosmological redshifts, increasing the number of AGNs detected at high energies from about 20 to more than 100, permitting population studies that will provide valuable insights into both a unified model for AGN and a detailed measurement of the effects of intergalactic absorption from the diffuse extragalactic background light. A new instrument with fast-slewing wide-field telescopes could provide detections of a number of long-duration GRBs providing important physical constraints from this new spectral component. The new array will also have excellent

  2. The gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

  3. Construction of prototype two-mirror Schwartzchild-Couder Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) for VHE gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieda, David; CTA-US Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Next generation ground-based VHE gamma-ray observatories such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will employ an array of different sized IACTs distributed across square kilometer areas. During 2015-2016, the CTA-US collaboration is constructing a prototype 9.6 m primary diameter Schwartzchild-Couder IACT (SCT) at the FL Whipple Observatory, Amado, AZ USA. The two-mirror SCT design provides 8 degree field of view with 0.067 degree pixel size. The SCT uses a high resolution (11,328 pixel) Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) camera to record atmospheric Cherenkov light images generated by gamma-ray and cosmic ray primaries. Incorporation of SCT telescopes into a CTA-type observatory can provide superior angular resolution (30 % improvement) and point source sensitivity (30-50 %). In this talk, I will describe the capabilities of the SCT telescope, and the construction and commissioning of the prototype SCT telescope during 2016.

  4. Gamma-ray localization of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes.

    PubMed

    Marisaldi, M; Argan, A; Trois, A; Giuliani, A; Tavani, M; Labanti, C; Fuschino, F; Bulgarelli, A; Longo, F; Barbiellini, G; Del Monte, E; Moretti, E; Trifoglio, M; Costa, E; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A; D'Ammando, F; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Froysland, T; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Mereghetti, S; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Piano, G; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Pucella, G; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Vittorini, V; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Antonelli, L A; Colafrancesco, S; Cutini, S; Giommi, P; Lucarelli, F; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Verrecchia, F; Salotti, L

    2010-09-17

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are very short bursts of high-energy photons and electrons originating in Earth's atmosphere. We present here a localization study of TGFs carried out at gamma-ray energies above 20 MeV based on an innovative event selection method. We use the AGILE satellite Silicon Tracker data that for the first time have been correlated with TGFs detected by the AGILE Mini-Calorimeter. We detect 8 TGFs with gamma-ray photons of energies above 20 MeV localized by the AGILE gamma-ray imager with an accuracy of ∼5-10° at 50 MeV. Remarkably, all TGF-associated gamma rays are compatible with a terrestrial production site closer to the subsatellite point than 400 km. Considering that our gamma rays reach the AGILE satellite at 540 km altitude with limited scattering or attenuation, our measurements provide the first precise direct localization of TGFs from space. PMID:20867680

  5. Development of a high resolution liquid xenon imaging chamber for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to develop the technology of liquid xenon (LXe) detectors for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays from astrophysical sources emitting in the low to medium energy regime. In particular, the technical challenges and the physical processes relevant to the realization of the LXe detector operated as a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) were addressed and studied. Experimental results were obtained on the following topics: (1) long distance drift of free electrons in LXe (purity); (2) scintillation light yield for electrons and alphas in LXe (triggering); and (3) ionization yield for electrons and gamma rays in LXe (energy resolution). The major results from the investigations are summarized.

  6. Gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

  7. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  8. A multiple-plate, multiple-pinhole camera for X-ray gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    Plates with identical patterns of precisely aligned pinholes constitute lens system which, when rotated about optical axis, produces continuous high resolution image of small energy X-ray or gamma ray source. Camera has applications in radiation treatment and nuclear medicine.

  9. Simulation and Comparison of Various Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector Configurations for IPRL Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Manini, H A

    2006-12-27

    Simulations are performed for seven different geometrical configurations of CdZnTe (CZT) detector arrays for Intelligent Personal Radiation Locator (IPRL) devices. IPRL devices are portable radiation detectors that have gamma-ray imaging capability. The detector performance is analyzed for each type of IPRL configuration, and the intrinsic photopeak efficiency, intrinsic photopeak count rate, detector image resolution, imaging efficiency, and imaging count rate are determined.

  10. On the Angular Resolution of the AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, S.; Donnarumma, I.; Tavani, M.; Trois, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A.; Del Monte, E.; Fioretti, V.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Morselli, A.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Caraveo, P.

    2015-08-01

    We present a study of the angular resolution of the AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID) that has been operational in space since 2007 April. The AGILE instrument is made of an array of 12 planes that are each equipped with a tungsten converter and silicon microstrip detectors, and is sensitive in the energy range 50 MeV-10 GeV. Among the space instruments devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics, AGILE uniquely exploit an analog readout system with dedicated electronics coupled with silicon detectors. We show the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out to reproduce the gamma-ray detection by the GRID and we compare them to in-flight data. We use the Crab (pulsar + Nebula) system for discussion of real data performance, since its {E}-2 energy spectrum is representative of the majority of gamma-ray sources. For Crab-like spectrum sources, the GRID angular resolution (FWHM of ˜ 4^\\circ at 100 MeV; ˜ 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 8 at 1 GeV; ˜ 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 9 integrating the full energy band from 100 MeV to tens of GeV) is stable across a large field of view, characterized by a flat response up to 30^\\circ off-axis. A comparison of the angular resolution obtained by the two operational gamma-ray instruments, AGILE/GRID and Fermi/LAT (Large Area Telescope), is interesting in view of future gamma-ray missions, which are currently under study. The two instruments exploit different detector configurations that affect the angular resolution: the former is optimized in the readout and track reconstruction, especially in the low-energy band, the latter is optimized in terms of converter thickness and power consumption. We show that despite these differences, the angular resolution of both instruments is very similar, between 100 MeV and a few GeV.

  11. Effect of cumulated dose on hydrogen emission from polyethylene irradiated under oxidative atmosphere using gamma rays and ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, M.; Pellizzi, E.; Boughattas, I.; Fromentin, E.; Dauvois, V.; de Combarieu, G.; Coignet, P.; Cochin, F.; Ngono-Ravache, Y.; Balanzat, E.; Esnouf, S.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports the effect of very high doses, up to 10 MGy, on the H2 emission from high density polyethylene (HDPE) irradiated with gamma rays and ion beams, in the presence of oxygen. This was obtained through a two-step procedure. First, HDPE films were pre-aged, at different doses, using either gamma rays or ion beams. In the second step, the pre-aged samples were irradiated in closed glass ampoules for gas quantification, using the same beam type as for pre-ageing. The hydrogen emission rate decreases when dose increases for both gamma rays and ion beams. However, the decreasing rate appears higher under gamma rays than under ion beam irradiations and this is assigned to a lesser oxidation level under the latter. Herein, we show the effectiveness of the radiation-induced defects scavenging effect under oxidative atmosphere, under low and high excitation densities.

  12. Enhanced Analysis Techniques for an Imaging Neutron and Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Amanda C.

    The presence of gamma rays and neutrons is a strong indicator of the presence of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). The imaging Neutron and gamma ray SPECTrometer (NSPECT) developed by the University of New Hampshire and Michigan Aerospace corporation detects the fast neutrons and prompt gamma rays from fissile material, and the gamma rays from radioactive material. The instrument operates as a double scatter device, requiring a neutron or a gamma ray to interact twice in the instrument. While this detection requirement decreases the efficiency of the instrument, it offers superior background rejection and the ability to measure the energy and momentum of the incident particle. These measurements create energy spectra and images of the emitting source for source identification and localization. The dual species instrument provides superior detection than a single species alone. In realistic detection scenarios, few particles are detected from a potential threat due to source shielding, detection at a distance, high background, and weak sources. This contributes to a small signal to noise ratio, and threat detection becomes difficult. To address these difficulties, several enhanced data analysis tools were developed. A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) helps set instrumental alarm thresholds as well as to identify the presence of a source. Analysis of a dual-species ROC curve provides superior detection capabilities. Bayesian analysis helps to detect and identify the presence of a source through model comparisons, and helps create a background corrected count spectra for enhanced spectroscopy. Development of an instrument response using simulations and numerical analyses will help perform spectra and image deconvolution. This thesis will outline the principles of operation of the NSPECT instrument using the double scatter technology, traditional analysis techniques, and enhanced analysis techniques as applied to data from the NSPECT instrument, and an

  13. Systems for increasing the sensitivity of gamma-ray imagers

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.; Chivers, Daniel H.

    2012-12-11

    Systems that increase the position resolution and granularity of double sided segmented semiconductor detectors are provided. These systems increase the imaging resolution capability of such detectors, either used as Compton cameras, or as position sensitive radiation detectors in imagers such as SPECT, PET, coded apertures, multi-pinhole imagers, or other spatial or temporal modulated imagers.

  14. Methods for increasing the sensitivity of gamma-ray imagers

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.; Chivers, Daniel H.

    2012-02-07

    Methods are presented that increase the position resolution and granularity of double sided segmented semiconductor detectors. These methods increase the imaging resolution capability of such detectors, either used as Compton cameras, or as position sensitive radiation detectors in imagers such as SPECT, PET, coded apertures, multi-pinhole imagers, or other spatial or temporal modulated imagers.

  15. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae; Jo Hong, Key; Sil Lee, Keum

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusions: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray image reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations.

  16. A Fieldable-Prototype Large-Area Gamma-ray Imager for Orphan Source Search

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Fabris, Lorenzo; Carr, Dennis; Collins, Jeff; Cunningham, Mark F; Habte Ghebretatios, Frezghi; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Marchant, William

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a unique instrument for use in the search for orphan sources. The system uses gamma-ray imaging to "see through" the natural background variations that effectively limit the search range of normal devices to ~10 m. The imager is mounted in a 4.9- m-long trailer and can be towed by a large personal vehicle. Source locations are determined both in range and along the direction of travel as the vehicle moves. A fully inertial platform coupled to a Global Positioning System receiver is used to map the gamma-ray images onto overhead geospatial imagery. The resulting images provide precise source locations, allowing rapid follow-up work. The instrument simultaneously searches both sides of the street to a distance of 50 m (100-m swath) for milliCurieclass sources with near-perfect performance.

  17. Imaging the Crab nebula when it is flaring in gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    One of the most intriguing results of the gamma-ray instruments currently in orbit has been the detection of powerful flares from the Crab Nebula in September 2010. In April 2011 a similar flare, lasting several days, made the nebula the brightest source in the gamma-ray sky. A critical reassessment of long term behavior of the Crab flux clearly showed that both Agile and Fermi had already detected similar events in October 2007 and February 2009, pointing to a recurrence time of once per year. A HST observing strategy must be set up to react promptly to any possible new brightening of the Crab in gamma rays. In September 2010 we requested a DD observation which was promptly accepted and carried out. However, the lack of a suitable reference image hampered our efforts to pinpoint the sites of possible variability inside the nebula. Thus, while now we ask for a triggered TOO observation of the Crab Nebula with ACS/WFC in case a gamma-ray flare is announced by the Agile and/or Fermi missions, we are also organizing a regular {monthly} monitoring of the source both in X-ray and optical through a joint Chandra-HST proposal.

  18. Performance of the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) for Gamma-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, S.; Barbier, L.M.; Bloser, P.F.; de Nolfo, G.A.; Floyd, S.R.; Hunter, S.D.; Krizmanic, J.F.; Link, J.T.; McConnell, M.L.; Ryan, J.M.

    We have been developing a gas time projection chamber for the imaging of gamma-rays between 0.3 - 50 MeV, the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3DTI). The detector is being designed for use on satellite experiments for the imaging of astrophysical gamma-ray sources. Electrons produced by pair production or Compton scattering ionize the gas and these ionization electrons are detected by the cross-strip micro-well detector at the bottom of the chamber. Discrete component of front end electronics and time digitization electronics have been developed. We will present results of prototype micro- well detector and laboratory set-up in various gas mixtures.

  19. Hard X-ray imaging survey of the Galactic plane with the Caltech gamma-ray imaging payload GRIP-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbel, S.; Cook, W. R.; Harrison, F. A.; Prince, T. A.; Schindler, S. M.; Wang, S.

    1997-01-01

    In a two-day balloon flight during October 1995, the Caltech coded aperture gamma ray imaging payload (GRIP-2) imaged various fields in the Galactic plane and center in the 25 to 600 keV energy band. The large phoswich detector, the 15 deg field of view, the 30 arcmin angular resolution and 6 arcmin point source localization capability of GRIP-2 provides the possibility of surveying the accreting binary population of the Galaxy at high energy. The instrument is described and preliminary imaging results are reported on. The capabilities of this instrument for hard X-ray/gamma ray imaging are demonstrated.

  20. Motion estimation accuracy for visible-light/gamma-ray imaging fusion for portable portal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnowski, Thomas P.; Cunningham, Mark F.; Goddard, James S.; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Hornback, Donald E.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Gee, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Portable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest. We have constructed a prototype, rapid-deployment portal gamma-ray imaging portal monitor that uses machine vision and gamma-ray imaging to monitor multiple lanes of traffic. Vehicles are detected and tracked by using point detection and optical flow methods as implemented in the OpenCV software library. Points are clustered together but imperfections in the detected points and tracks cause errors in the accuracy of the vehicle position estimates. The resulting errors cause a "blurring" effect in the gamma image of the vehicle. To minimize these errors, we have compared a variety of motion estimation techniques including an estimate using the median of the clustered points, a "best-track" filtering algorithm, and a constant velocity motion estimation model. The accuracy of these methods are contrasted and compared to a manually verified ground-truth measurement by quantifying the rootmean- square differences in the times the vehicles cross the gamma-ray image pixel boundaries compared with a groundtruth manual measurement.

  1. Mercuric iodide room-temperature array detectors for gamma-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Patt, B.

    1994-11-15

    Significant progress has been made recently in the development of mercuric iodide detector arrays for gamma-ray imaging, making real the possibility of constructing high-performance small, light-weight, portable gamma-ray imaging systems. New techniques have been applied in detector fabrication and then low noise electronics which have produced pixel arrays with high-energy resolution, high spatial resolution, high gamma stopping efficiency. Measurements of the energy resolution capability have been made on a 19-element protypical array. Pixel energy resolutions of 2.98% fwhm and 3.88% fwhm were obtained at 59 keV (241-Am) and 140-keV (99m-Tc), respectively. The pixel spectra for a 14-element section of the data is shown together with the composition of the overlapped individual pixel spectra. These techniques are now being applied to fabricate much larger arrays with thousands of pixels. Extension of these principles to imaging scenarios involving gamma-ray energies up to several hundred keV is also possible. This would enable imaging of the 208 keV and 375-414 keV 239-Pu and 240-Pu structures, as well as the 186 keV line of 235-U.

  2. A liquid xenon imaging telescope for 1-30 MeV gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena; Mukherjee, Reshmi; Suzuki, Masayo

    1989-01-01

    A study of the primary scintillation light in liquid xenon excited by 241 Am alpha particles and 207 Bi internal conversion electrons are discussed. The time dependence and the intensity of the light at different field strengths have been measured with a specifically designed chamber, equipped with a CaF sub 2 light transmitting window coupled to a UV sensitive PMT. The time correlation between the fast light signal and the charge signal shows that the scintillation signals produced in liquid xenon by ionizing particles provides an ideal trigger in a Time Projection type LXe detector aiming at full imaging of complex gamma-ray events. Researchers also started Monte Carlo calculations to establish the performance of a LXe imaging telescope for high energy gamma-rays.

  3. Gamma ray imaging using coded aperture masks: a computer simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, J; Olmos, P; Pablos, J L; Perez, J M

    1991-02-10

    The gamma-ray imaging using coded aperture masks as focusing elements is an extended technique for static position sensitive detectors. Several transfer functions have been proposed to implement mathematically the set of holes in the mask, the uniformly redundant array collimator being the most popular design. A considerable amount of work has been done to improve the digital methods to deconvolve the gamma-ray image, formed at the detector plane, with this transfer function. Here we present a study of the behavior of these techniques when applied to the geometric shadows produced by a set of point emitters. Comparison of the shape of the object reconstructed from these shadows with that resulting from the analytical reconstruction is performed, defining the validity ranges of the usual algorithmic approximations reported in the literature. Finally, several improvements are discussed. PMID:20582025

  4. Measurements with Pinhole and Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Solodov, Alexander A; Abdul-Jabbar, Najeb M; Hayward, Jason P; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    From a safeguards perspective, gamma-ray imaging has the potential to reduce manpower and cost for effectively locating and monitoring special nuclear material. The purpose of this project was to investigate the performance of pinhole and coded aperture gamma-ray imaging systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). With the aid of the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), radiometric data will be combined with scans from a three-dimensional design information verification (3D-DIV) system. Measurements were performed at the ORNL Safeguards Laboratory using sources that model holdup in radiological facilities. They showed that for situations with moderate amounts of solid or dense U sources, the coded aperture was able to predict source location and geometry within ~7% of actual values while the pinhole gave a broad representation of source distributions

  5. Machine Learning Search for Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows in Optical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topinka, M.

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to the advances in robotic telescopes, time domain astronomy leads to a large number of transient events detected in images every night. Data mining and machine learning tools used for object classification are presented. The goal is to automatically classify transient events for both further follow-up by a larger telescope and for statistical studies of transient events. Special attention is given to the identification of gamma-ray burst afterglows. Machine learning techniques are used to identify GROND gamma-ray burst afterglow among the astrophysical objects present in the SDSS archival images based on the g'-r', r'-i' and i'-z' color indices. The performance of the support vector machine, random forest and neural network algorithms is compared. A joint meta-classifier, built on top of the individual classifiers, can identify GRB afterglows with the overall accuracy of ≳ 90%.

  6. The Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares (GRIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, Robert P.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Duncan, Nicole A.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Bain, Hazel M.; Boggs, Steven E.; Zoglauer, Andreas C.; Smith, David M.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Amman, Mark S.; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-01-01

    The balloon-borne Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument will provide a near-optimal combination of high-resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry of solar-flare gamma-ray/hard X-ray emissions from approximately 20 keV to greater than approximately 10 MeV. GRIPS will address questions raised by recent solar flare observations regarding particle acceleration and energy release, such as: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electrons producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the relativistic electrons, and why can they dominate in the corona? How do the compositions of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why? The spectrometer/polarimeter consists of sixteen 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs), where each energy deposition is individually recorded with an energy resolution of a few keV FWHM and a spatial resolution of less than 0.1 cubic millimeter. Imaging is accomplished by a single multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM), a 2.5-centimeter thick tungsten alloy slit/slat grid with pitches that range quasi-continuously from 1 to 13 millimeters. The MPRM is situated 8 meters from the spectrometer to provide excellent image quality and unparalleled angular resolution at gamma-ray energies (12.5 arcsec FWHM), sufficient to separate 2.2 MeV footpoint sources for almost all flares. Polarimetry is accomplished by analyzing the anisotropy of reconstructed Compton scattering in the 3D-GeDs (i.e., as an active scatterer), with an estimated minimum detectable polarization of a few percent at 150-650 keV in an X-class flare. GRIPS is scheduled for a continental-US engineering test flight in fall 2013, followed by long or ultra-long duration balloon flights in Antarctica.

  7. The High Altitude Water Cherenlov (HAWC) Gamma ray Detector Response to Atmospheric Electric Field Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, A.

    2015-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is located at 4100 m a.s.l. in Mexico. HAWC's primary purpose is the study of both: galactic and extra-galactic sources of high energy gamma rays. HAWC consists of 300 large water Cherenkov detectors (WCD), each instrumented with 4 photo-multipliers (PMTs). The HAWC scaler system records the rates of individual PMTs giving the opportunity of study relatively low energy transients as solar energetic particles, the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays and possible variations of the cosmic ray rate due to atmospheric electric field changes. In this work, we present the observations of scaler rate enhancements associated with thunderstorm activity observed at the HAWC site.In particular, we present preliminary results of the analysis of the time coincidence of the electric field changes and the scaler enhancements.

  8. Recent Developments: The Gamma Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares (GRIPS) Imaging and Detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Nicole; Shih, A. Y.; Hurford, G. J.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Bain, H.; Zoglauer, A.; Lin, R. P.; Boggs, S. E.

    2013-07-01

    In two of the best-observed flares of the last cycle, the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) satellite found the centroids of ion and relativistic electron emission to have a significant displacement. This result is surprising; co-spatially accelerated ions and electrons are thought to be transported along the same field lines, implying they would enter the chromosphere together and have similar emission locations. The Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares (GRIPS) balloon instrument will investigate particle transport in solar flares by providing enhanced imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry of gamma/HXR flare emission (20keV - 10MeV). GRIPS’ key technological improvements over the solar state of the art in HXR/gamma ray energies (RHESSI) include three-dimensional position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs) and a single-grid modulating collimator, the multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM). The 3D-GeDs allow GRIPS to Compton track energy deposition within the crystal. This capability (1) enables the MPRM design by acting as a second modulation grid, (2) provides significant background rejection and (3) makes solar polarization measurements possible. The MPRM imager provides quasi-continuous resolution from 12.5 - 162 arcsecs with 2x the throughput of a dual grid collimator system like RHESSI. This spatial resolution can resolve the separate footpoints of many flare sizes. In comparison, RHESSI images with a minimum of 35 arcsecs for gamma-rays, making these footpoints resolvable in only the largest flares. Here, we present the intial calibration of GRIPS’ 3D-GED detectors using laboratory radioactive sources. We evaluate charge sharing between adjacent strips, the detection of coincidences and preliminary depth measurements. The detectors have been shown to have a linear response and resolve line emission. The MPRM modulation grid is constructed and we present initial results from calibration. GRIPS is scheduled for a

  9. A Gamma Ray Imaging Device for Small-Animal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Robert; Bradley, Eric; Majewski, Stan; Saha, Margaret S.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Welsh, Robert E.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, modular nuclear imaging device for in vivo imaging of small animals is described. A segmented scintillator is coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier. This combination is used to view the living system under study with a variety of collimators employed to limit the angular acceptance. A personal computer is coupled to a CAMAC electronic system for event-by-event data acquisition and subsequent selective data analysis. The system has been designed to exploit the availability of a wide range of ligands tagged with the isotope 125I. It has most recently been employed for a study of the transport of the cocaine analog, RTI-55, to the brain of a mouse. Results of studies to date and options for future expansion of the system will be described.

  10. Investigation of the possibility of gamma-ray diagnostic imaging of target compression at NIF

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Daniel A.; Baudet, Camille; Grim, Gary P.; Barber, H. Bradford; Miller, Brian W.; Fasje, David; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world’s leading facility to study the physics of igniting plasmas. Plasmas of hot deuterium and tritium, undergo d(t,n)α reactions that produce a 14.1 MeV neutron and 3.5 MeV a particle, in the center of mass. As these neutrons pass through the materials surrounding the hot core, they may undergo subsequent (n,x) reactions. For example, 12C(n,n’γ)12C reactions occur in remnant debris from the polymer ablator resulting in a significant fluence of 4.44 MeV gamma-rays. Imaging of these gammas will enable the determination of the volumetric size and symmetry of the ablation; large size and high asymmetry is expected to correlate with poor compression and lower fusion yield. Results from a gamma-ray imaging system are expected to be complimentary to a neutron imaging diagnostic system already in place at the NIF. This paper describes initial efforts to design a gamma-ray imaging system for the NIF using the existing neutron imaging system as a baseline for study. Due to the cross-section and expected range of ablator areal densities, the gamma flux should be approximately 10−3 of the neutron flux. For this reason, care must be taken to maximize the efficiency of the gamma-ray imaging system because it will be gamma starved. As with the neutron imager, use of pinholes and/or coded apertures are anticipated. Along with aperture and detector design, the selection of an appropriate scintillator is discussed. The volume of energy deposition of the interacting 4.44 MeV gamma-rays is a critical parameter limiting the imaging system spatial resolution. The volume of energy deposition is simulated with GEANT4, and plans to measure the volume of energy deposition experimentally are described. Results of tests on a pixellated LYSO scintillator are also presented. PMID:23420688

  11. Investigation of the possibility of gamma-ray diagnostic imaging of target compression at NIF.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Daniel A; Baudet, Camille; Grim, Gary P; Barber, H Bradford; Miller, Brian W; Fasje, David; Furenlid, Lars R

    2011-09-23

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's leading facility to study the physics of igniting plasmas. Plasmas of hot deuterium and tritium, undergo d(t,n)α reactions that produce a 14.1 MeV neutron and 3.5 MeV a particle, in the center of mass. As these neutrons pass through the materials surrounding the hot core, they may undergo subsequent (n,x) reactions. For example, (12)C(n,n'γ)(12)C reactions occur in remnant debris from the polymer ablator resulting in a significant fluence of 4.44 MeV gamma-rays. Imaging of these gammas will enable the determination of the volumetric size and symmetry of the ablation; large size and high asymmetry is expected to correlate with poor compression and lower fusion yield. Results from a gamma-ray imaging system are expected to be complimentary to a neutron imaging diagnostic system already in place at the NIF. This paper describes initial efforts to design a gamma-ray imaging system for the NIF using the existing neutron imaging system as a baseline for study. Due to the cross-section and expected range of ablator areal densities, the gamma flux should be approximately 10(-3) of the neutron flux. For this reason, care must be taken to maximize the efficiency of the gamma-ray imaging system because it will be gamma starved. As with the neutron imager, use of pinholes and/or coded apertures are anticipated. Along with aperture and detector design, the selection of an appropriate scintillator is discussed. The volume of energy deposition of the interacting 4.44 MeV gamma-rays is a critical parameter limiting the imaging system spatial resolution. The volume of energy deposition is simulated with GEANT4, and plans to measure the volume of energy deposition experimentally are described. Results of tests on a pixellated LYSO scintillator are also presented.

  12. Hybrid collimation for industrial gamma-ray imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Knoll, G. F.; Smith, L. E.; Wehe, D. K.

    1999-06-22

    Portable photon imaging devices with a broad energy range of sensitivity, adequate angular resolution and high efficiency are useful in applications such as environmental remediation and industrial surveys. The vast majority of past systems built for these applications have relied on mechanical collimation although a few have used electronic collimation. To our knowledge, no devices have been built that exploit the benefits of both mechanical and electronic collimation in the same system. The combination of a mechanically-collimated camera with an electronically-collimated camera offers both the high efficiency and good angular resolution typical in a mechanically-collimated camera for lower energies and the uncoupling of spatial resolution and efficiency provided by an electronically-collimated camera at higher energies.

  13. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  14. Camera Concepts for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomuk Otte, Adam

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a camera that detects and records the Cherenkov-light flashes from air showers. The camera is comprised of a pixelated focal plane of blue sensitive and fast (nanosecond) photon detectors that detect the photon signal and convert it into an electrical one. The incorporation of trigger electronics and signal digitization into the camera are under study. Given the size of AGIS, the camera must be reliable, robust, and cost effective. We are investigating several directions that include innovative technologies such as Geiger-mode avalanche-photodiodes as a possible detector and switched capacitor arrays for the digitization.

  15. Imaging of heterogeneous materials by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, P.; Prettyman, T.; Lestone, J.

    1998-12-01

    The authors have used a tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) to produce tomographic prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis imaging (PGNAA) of heterogeneous matrices. The TGS was modified by the addition of graphite reflectors that contain isotopic neutron sources for sample interrogation. The authors are in the process of developing the analysis methodology necessary for a quantitative assay of large containers of heterogeneous material. This nondestructive analysis (NDA) technique can be used for material characterization and the determination of neutron assay correction factors. The most difficult question to be answered is the determination of the source-to-sample coupling term. To assist in the determination of the coupling term, the authors have obtained images for a range of sample that are very well characterized, such as, homogenous pseudo one-dimensional samples to three-dimensional heterogeneous samples. They then compare the measurements to MCNP calculations. For an accurate quantitative measurement, it is also necessary to determine the sample gamma-ray self attenuation at higher gamma-ray energies, namely pair production should be incorporated into the analysis codes.

  16. Imaging Gas Counters for X- and Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    Gas-filled detectors, such as proportional counters, have long been used in x-ray astronomy. They are robust, relatively easy to fabricate, and can provide large collecting areas with reasonable spatial and energy resolution. Despite coming of age in the 50's and 60's, their versatility is such that they are still planned for future missions. A vigorous development program, led mostly by the high energy physics community, has ensured continued improvements in proportional counter technology. These include multistep counters, microstrip technologies and optical avalanche chambers. High fill-gas pressures and the use of suitable converters permit operation up to 100s of GeV. The current status of imaging gas-filled detectors will be reviewed, concentrating on the lower energy region (less than 100 keV) but also briefly covering higher energy applications up to the GeV region. This review is not intended to be exhaustive and draws heavily on work currently in progress at MSFC.

  17. Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced {gamma}-ray emission of the Earth's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S. W.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Focke, W. B.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.

    2009-12-15

    We report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced {gamma}-ray emission of Earth's atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The Large Area Telescope has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded {approx}6.4x10{sup 6} photons with energies >100 MeV and {approx}250 hours total live time for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. The spectrum of the emission--often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission--has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index {gamma}=2.79{+-}0.06.

  18. Neutron propagation and 2.2 MeV gamma-ray line production in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. T.; Ramaty, R.

    1974-01-01

    The 2.2 MeV gamma ray line intensity from the sun was calculated using a Monte Carlo method for neutron propagation in the solar atmosphere. Detailed results are provided on the total gamma ray yield per neutron and on the time profile of the 2.2 MeV line from an instantaneous and monoenergetic neutron source. The parameters which have the most significant effects on the line intensity are the energies of the neutrons, the position of the neutron source on the sun, and the abundance of He-3 in the photosphere. For an isotropic neutron source which is not too close to the limb of the sun, the gamma ray yield is between about 0.02 to 0.2 photons per neutron, provided that the neutron energies are in the range 1 to 100 MeV and the ratio He-3/H is less than about .00005.

  19. A new gamma ray imaging diagnostic for runaway electron studies at DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. M.; Pace, D. C.; Eidietis, N. W.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Hollmann, E. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Risov, V.

    2015-11-01

    A new Gamma Ray Imager (GRI) is developed to probe the electron distribution function with 2D spatial resolution during runaway electron (RE) experiments at DIII-D. The diagnostic is sensitive to 0.5 - 50 MeV gamma rays, allowing characterization of the RE distribution function evolution during RE dissipation from pellet injection. The GRI consists of a lead ``pinhole camera'' mounted on the midplane with 11x11 counter-current tangential chords 20 cm wide that span the vessel. Up to 30 bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors capture RE Bremsstrahlung radiation. Detectors operate in current saturation mode at 10 MHz, or the flux is attenuated for Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) capable of discriminating up to ~10k pulses per second. Digital signal processing routines combining shaping filters are performed during PHA to reject noise and record gamma ray energy. The GRI setup and PHA algorithms will be described and initial data from experiments will be presented. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-FG02-07ER54917 & DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  20. Gamma ray camera

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, C.D.; Wang, S.

    1980-09-09

    An anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the anger camera, the image intensifier tube having a negatively charged flat scintillator screen and a flat photocathode layer and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen all of the same dimension (Unity image magnification) and all within a grounded metallic tube envelope and having a metallic, inwardly concaved input window between the scintillator screen and the collimator.

  1. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    2008-12-23

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  2. Tomographic image of prompt gamma ray from boron neutron capture therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae; Jo Hong, Key

    2014-02-24

    Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography image from boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo simulation. Prompt gamma ray (478 keV) was used to reconstruct image with ordered subsets expectation maximization method. From analysis of receiver operating characteristic curve, area under curve values of three boron regions were 0.738, 0.623, and 0.817. The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm, and 1.4 cm.

  3. Imaging, Detection, and Identification Algorithms for Position-Sensitive Gamma-Ray Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Christopher G.

    Three-dimensional-position-sensitive semiconductors record both the locations and energies of gamma-ray interactions with high resolution, enabling spectroscopy and imaging of gamma-ray-emitting materials. Imaging enables the detection of point sources of gamma rays in an otherwise extended-source background, even when the background spectrum is unknown and may share the point source's spectrum. The generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) and source-intensity test (SIT) are applied to this situation to detect one-or-more unshielded point sources from a library of isotopes in a spectrally unknown or known background when the background intensity varies spatially by a factor of two or less. In addition to estimating the number of sources present, their activities, isotopes, and directions from the detector are estimated. Experimental and some simulated results are presented for a single detector and an 18-detector array of 2 cm by 2 cm by 1.5 cm CdZnTe crystals and compared with the performance of spectral-only detection when the background and source are assumed to be spectrally different. Furthermore, the expected detection performance of the 18-detector array system is investigated statistically using experimental data in the case where the background is distinct spectrally from the point source and the possible source location and isotopic identity are known. Including imaging gave at least 7% higher SNR compared to ignoring the image dimension. Also, imaging methods based on the maximum-likelihood, expectation-maximization method are introduced to determine the spatial distribution of isotopes and to find the activity distributions within targets moving with known motion through a radioactive background. Software has also been developed to support the analysis of the data from 3D-position-sensitive spectroscopic systems, for a range of detector designs and applications. The software design and unique features that allow fast multidimensional data analysis are

  4. Atmospheric gamma ray angle and energy distributions from sea level to 3.5 g/sq cm and 2 to 25 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. M.; Jennings, M. C.; Radwin, M. D.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Differential fluxes of gamma rays were calculated for energies of 2-25 MeV, zenith angles of 0-50 deg and 180-130 deg, and atmospheric depths from nominal sea level, 1000 g/sq cm, to float altitude, 3.5 g/sq cm residual atmosphere. Above 100 g/sq cm growth curves were constructed to estimate the contribution of the extraterrestrial gamma ray flux to the total downward-moving flux, while the upward-moving gamma rays were taken to be strictly of atmospheric origin. Below 100 g/sq cm, all gamma rays originate in the atmosphere. The downward atmospheric flux increases by almost two orders of magnitude between float altitude and the Pfotzer maximum, while the extraterrestrial flux is attenuated exponentially. Gamma rays produced by neutron interactions with the carbon in the scintillator liquid are eliminated by constructing growth curves for downward-moving gamma rays at high altitudes and are negligible compared with downward-moving gamma rays at lower altitudes and upward-moving gamma rays at all altitudes.

  5. Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Cosmic gamma rays, the physical processes responsible for their production and the astrophysical sites from which they were seen are reported. The bulk of the observed gamma ray emission is in the photon energy range from about 0.1 MeV to 1 GeV, where observations are carried out above the atmosphere. There are also, however, gamma ray observations at higher energies obtained by detecting the Cerenkov light produced by the high energy photons in the atmosphere. Gamma ray emission was observed from sources as close as the Sun and the Moon and as distant as the quasar 3C273, as well as from various other galactic and extragalactic sites. The radiation processes also range from the well understood, e.g. energetic particle interactions with matter, to the still incompletely researched, such as radiation transfer in optically thick electron positron plasmas in intense neutron star magnetic fields.

  6. Topics in gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

  7. Latest Progress on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares (GRIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, Robert P.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Duncan, Nicole A.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Smith, David Miles; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Amman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present the latest progress on building the balloon-borne Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument, including testing and calibration of the detectors and development of the imaging and aspect systems. A continental-US test flight is slated for fall 2012. GRIPS will provide a near-optimal combination of high-resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry of solar-flare gamma-ray/hard X-ray emissions from approx.20. keV to > approx.10 MeV. The spectrometer/polarimeter consists of sixteen 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs), where each energy deposition is individually recorded with an energy resolution of a few keV FWHM and a spatial resolution to within <0.1 cu mm. Imaging is accomplished by a single multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM), a 2.5-cm thick tungsten-alloy grid with pitches that range quasi-continuously from 1 to 13 mm. With the MPRM situated 8 meters from the spectrometer, this instrument will provide excellent image quality and unparalleled angular resolution at gamma-ray energies (12.5 arcsec FWHM), sufficient to separate the 2.2 MeV footpoint sources for almost all flares. Polarimetry is accomplished by analyzing the anisotropy of reconstructed Compton scattering in the 3D-GeDs (i.e. as an active scatterer), with an estimated minimum detectable polarization of a few percent at 150-650 keV in an X-class flare. GRIPS will address questions relevant to particle acceleration and energy release that ha-.e been raised by recent solar flare observations, such as: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electron producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the accelerated electrons, and why do relativistic electron dominate in the corona? How does the composition of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why?

  8. NMIS with Imaging and Gamma Ray Spectrometry for Pu, HEU, HE and Other Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, John T; Mullens, James Allen

    2012-03-01

    The Nuclear Material Identification System (NMIS) has been under development at ORNL and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Y-12 National Security Complex since 1984. In the mid-1990s, what is now the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Verification (ONV) realized that it was a useful technology for future arms control treaty applications and supported further development of the system. In 2004, fast-neutron imaging was incorporated into the system. In 2007, the ONV decided to develop a fieldable version of the system, designated as FNMIS, for potential use in future treaties. The FNMIS is being developed to be compatible with the eventual incorporation of gamma-ray spectrometry and an information barrier. This report addresses how and what attributes could be determined by the FNMIS system with gamma-ray spectrometry. The NMIS is a time-dependent coincidence system that incorporates tomographic imaging (including mapping of the fission sites) and gamma-ray spectrometry. It utilizes a small, lightweight (30 lb), portable deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron (14.1 MeV) generator (4 x 10{sup 7} neutrons/second) for active interrogation and can also perform passive interrogation. A high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector with multichannel analysis can be utilized in conjunction with the source for active interrogation or passively. The system uses proton recoil scintillators: 32 small 2.5 x 2.5 x 10.2-cm-thick plastic scintillators for imaging and at least two 2 x 2 arrays of 27 x 27 x 10-cm-thick plastic scintillators that detect induced fission radiation. The DT generator contains an alpha detector that time and directionally tags a fan beam of some of the neutrons emitted and subdivides it into pixels. A fast (1 GHz) time correlation processor measures the time-dependent coincidence among all detectors in the system. A computer-controlled scanner moves the small detectors and the source appropriately for scanning a target object for

  9. First flight of the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Shih, Albert Y.; Duncan, Nicole; Bain, Hazel; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kelley, Nicole; Godbole, Niharika; Kaufmann, Pierre; Caspi, Amir; Sample, John; Hoberman, Jane; Mochizuki, Brent; Olson, Jerry; Boggs, Steven E.; Zoglauer, Andreas; Hurford, Gordon J.; Smith, David M.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Amman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) high altitude balloon payload was successfully flown in January 2016 from Antarctica (Jan 19 to Jan 30).GRIPS provides a near-optimal combination of high-resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry of solar-flare gamma ray/hard X-ray emissions from ~20 keV to >~10 MeV. GRIPS’s goal is to address questions raised by recent solar flare observations regarding particle acceleration and energy release, such as: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electrons producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the relativistic electrons, and why can they dominate in the corona? How do the compositions of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why? The spectrometer/polarimeter consists of six 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs), where each energy deposition is individually recorded with an energy resolution of a few keV FWHM and a spatial resolution <0.1 mm3. Imaging is accomplished by a single multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM), a 2.5-cm thick tungsten alloy slit/slat grid with pitches that range quasi-continuously from 1 to 13 mm. The MPRM is situated 8 meters from the spectrometer to provide excellent image quality and unparalleled angular resolution at gamma-ray energies (12.5 arcsec FWHM), sufficient to separate 2.2 MeV footpoint sources for almost all flares. Polarimetry is accomplished by analyzing the anisotropy of reconstructed Compton scattering in the 3D-GeDs, with an estimated minimum detectable polarization of a few percent at 150-650 keV in an X-class flare. GRIPS was also equipped with active BGO shields, and three piggy-back instruments: a solar terahertz radiometer (Solar-T), a hard X-ray spectrometer (SMASH), and a sonic anemometer (TILDAE).We will present an overview of GRIPS's first flight, the performance of its instruments and subsystems, including the solar pointing and aspect systems, and

  10. Monte Carlo modeling of neutron and gamma-ray imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.

    1996-04-01

    Detailed numerical prototypes are essential to design of efficient and cost-effective neutron and gamma-ray imaging systems. We have exploited the unique capabilities of an LLNL-developed radiation transport code (COG) to develop code modules capable of simulating the performance of neutron and gamma-ray imaging systems over a wide range of source energies. COG allows us to simulate complex, energy-, angle-, and time-dependent radiation sources, model 3-dimensional system geometries with ``real world`` complexity, specify detailed elemental and isotopic distributions and predict the responses of various types of imaging detectors with full Monte Carlo accuray. COG references detailed, evaluated nuclear interaction databases allowingusers to account for multiple scattering, energy straggling, and secondary particle production phenomena which may significantly effect the performance of an imaging system by may be difficult or even impossible to estimate using simple analytical models. This work presents examples illustrating the use of these routines in the analysis of industrial radiographic systems for thick target inspection, nonintrusive luggage and cargoscanning systems, and international treaty verification.

  11. Very high-energy gamma ray astronomy. [using the atmospheric cerenkov technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Recent results in ground-based very high-energy (less than 10 to the eleventh power eV) gamma-ray astronomy are reviewed. The various modes of the atmospheric Cerenkov technique are described, and the importance of cosmic ray rejection methods is stressed. The positive detections (at approximately less than 10 to the 12th power eV) of the Crab pulsar that suggest a very flat spectrum and time-variable pulse phase are discussed. Observations of other pulsars (particularly Vela) suggest that these features may be general. The steady flux upper limits for the Crab Nebula are thus reconsidered, and a new value of the implied (Compton-synchrotron) magnetic field in the Nebula is reported. Evidence that a 4.8-hour modulated effect was detected at E sub gamma is less than 10 to the 12th power eV from Cyg X-3 is strengthened in that the exact period originally proposed agrees well with a recent determination of the X-ray period. The southern sky observations are reviewed, and the significance of the detection of an active galaxy (NGC 5128) is considered for source models and future observations.

  12. Spectroscopic CZT detectors development for x- and gamma-ray imaging instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadrini, Egidio M.; Uslenghi, Michela; Alderighi, Monica; Casini, Fabio; D'Angelo, Sergio; Fiorini, Mauro; La Palombara, Nicola; Mancini, Marcello; Monti, Serena; Bazzano, Angela; Di Cosimo, Sergio; Frutti, Massimo; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro; Guadalupi, Giuseppe M.; Sassi, Matteo; Negri, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    In the context of R&D studies financed by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), a feasibility study to evaluate the Italian Industry interest in medium-large scale production of enhanced CZT detectors has been performed by an Italian Consortium. The R&D investment aims at providing in-house source of high quality solid state spectrometers for Space Astrophysics applications. As a possible spin-off industrial applications to Gamma-ray devices for non-destructive inspections in medical, commercial and security fields have been considered by ASI. The short term programme mainly consists of developing proprietary procedures for 2-3" CZT crystals growth, including bonding and contact philosophy, and a newly designed low-power electronics readout chain. The prototype design and breadboarding is based on a fast signal AD conversion with the target in order to perform a new run for an already existing low-power (<0.7 mW/pixel) ASIC. The prototype also provides digital photon energy reconstruction with particular care for multiple events and polarimetry evaluations. Scientific requirement evaluations for Space Astrophysics Satellite applications have been carried out in parallel, targeted to contribute to the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Announcement of Opportunity. Detailed accommodation studies are undergoing, as part of this programme, to size a "Large area arcsecond angular resolution Imager" for the Gamma Ray Imager satellite (Knödlseder et al., this conference).and a new Gamma-ray Wide Field Camera for the "EDGE" proposal (Piro et al., this conference). Finally, an extended market study for cost analysis evaluation in view of the foreseen massive detector production has been performed.

  13. Characterization and Applications of a CdZnTe-Based Gamma-Ray Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Michelle Lee

    Detection of electromagnetic radiation in the form of gamma rays provides a means to discover the presence of nuclear sources and the occurrence of highly-energetic events that occur in our terrestrial and astrophysical environment. The highly penetrative nature of gamma rays allows for probing into objects and regions that are obscured at other wavelengths. The detection and imaging of gamma rays relies upon an understanding of the ways in which these high-energy photons interact with matter. The applications of gamma-ray detection and imaging are numerous. Astrophysical observation of gamma rays expands our understanding of the Universe in which we live. Terrestrial detection and imaging of gamma rays enable environmental monitoring of radioactivity. This allows for identification and localization of nuclear materials to prevent illicit trafficking and to ultimately protect against harmful acts. This dissertation focusses on the development and characterization of a gamma-ray detection and imaging instrument and explores its capabilities for the aforementioned applications. The High Efficiency Multimode Imager, HEMI, is a prototype instrument that is based on Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductor detectors. The detectors are arranged in a two-planar configuration to allow for both Compton and coded-aperture imaging. HEMI was initially developed as a prototype instrument to demonstrate its capabilities for nuclear threat detection, spectroscopy, and imaging. The 96-detector instrument was developed and fully characterized within the laboratory environment, yielding a system energy resolution of 2.4% FWHM at 662 keV, an angular resolution of 9.5 deg. FWHM at 662 keV in Compton mode, and a 10.6 deg. angular resolution in coded aperture mode. After event cuts, the effective area for Compton imaging of the 662 keV photopeak is 0.1 cm 22. Imaging of point sources in both Compton and coded aperture modes have been demonstrated. The minimum detectable activity of

  14. High-resolution imaging gamma-ray spectroscopy with externally segmented germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, J. L.; Mahoney, W. A.; Varnell, L. S.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    Externally segmented germanium detectors promise a breakthrough in gamma-ray imaging capabilities while retaining the superb energy resolution of germanium spectrometers. An angular resolution of 0.2 deg becomes practical by combining position-sensitive germanium detectors having a segment thickness of a few millimeters with a one-dimensional coded aperture located about a meter from the detectors. Correspondingly higher angular resolutions are possible with larger separations between the detectors and the coded aperture. Two-dimensional images can be obtained by rotating the instrument. Although the basic concept is similar to optical or X-ray coded-aperture imaging techniques, several complicating effects arise because of the penetrating nature of gamma rays. The complications include partial transmission through the coded aperture elements, Compton scattering in the germanium detectors, and high background count rates. Extensive electron-photon Monte Carlo modeling of a realistic detector/coded-aperture/collimator system has been performed. Results show that these complicating effects can be characterized and accounted for with no significant loss in instrument sensitivity.

  15. Optimization and Testing of the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Stanley

    The medium-energy gamma-ray emission from a few hundred keV to several hundred MeV explores diverse astrophysical phenomenon including pulsars, supernova remnants (SNR), diffuse emission, blazars and other Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The current Fermi and AGILE missions have made extensive advances in the high-energy gamma-ray range, above ~200 MeV. The medium energy gamma-ray range on the other hand is relatively unexplored, limited by imaging technologies. Gamma rays in this energy range interact via photo-electric, Compton, or pair production. Future medium-energy gamma- ray space telescopes, optimized for these detection mechanisms, will provide a new view of the gamma-ray Universe. The key for a future mission will be to provide adequate sensitivity and the best angular resolution to go beyond simply detecting sources to making detailed spatial observations with high spectral, polarization and temporal resolution measurements. A natural successor to the exciting Fermi Mission would be a mission with high resolution observations below 200 MeV that has so far been explored with limited sensitivity only by CGRO/COMPTEL (1-30 MeV), CGRO/EGRET (30 MeV-30 GeV) and by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) (~100 MeV-300 GeV, except for bursts).

  16. A Compton scatter camera for spectral imaging of 0.5 to 3.0 MeV gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.B.

    1994-12-31

    A prototype Compton scatter camera for imaging gamma rays has been built and tested. This camera addresses unique aspects of gamma-ray imaging at nuclear industrial sites, including gamma-ray energies in the 0.5 to 3.0 MeV range and polychromatic fields. Analytic models of camera efficiency, resolution and contaminating events are developed. The response of the camera bears strong similarity to emission computed tomography devices used in nuclear medicine. A direct Fourier based algorithm is developed to reconstruct two-dimensional images of measured gamma-ray fields. Iterative ART and MLE algorithms are also investigated. The point response of the camera to gamma rays of energies from 0.5 to 2.8 MeV is measured and compared to the analytic models. The direct reconstruction algorithm is at least ten times more efficient than the iterative algorithms are also investigated. The point response of the camera to gamma rays energies from 0.5 to 2.8 MeV is measured and compared to the analytic models. The direct reconstruction algorithm is at least ten times more efficient than the iterative algorithms and produces images that are, in general, of the same quality. Measured images of several phantoms are shown. Important results include angular resolutions as low as 4.4{degrees}, reproduction of phantom size and position within 7%, and contrast recovery of 84% or better. Spectral imaging is demonstrated with independent images from a multi-energy phantom consisting of two sources imaged simultaneously.

  17. Hard X-ray and gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy for the next solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Spicer, D. S.; Davis, J. M.; Hurford, G. J.; Lin, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives and principles are described of a single spectroscopic imaging package that can provide effective imaging in the hard X- and gamma-ray ranges. Called the High-Energy Solar Physics (HESP) mission instrument for solar investigation, the device is based on rotating modulation collimators with germanium semiconductor spectrometers. The instrument is planned to incorporate thick modulation plates, and the range of coverage is discussed. The optics permit the coverage of high-contrast hard X-ray images from small- and medium-sized flares with large signal-to-noise ratios. The detectors allow angular resolution of less than 1 arcsec, time resolution of less than 1 arcsec, and spectral resolution of about 1 keV. The HESP package is considered an effective and important instrument for investigating the high-energy solar events of the near-term future efficiently.

  18. Source-Search Sensitivity of a Large-Area, Coded-Aperture, Gamma-Ray Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Collins, J W; Craig, W W; Fabris, L; Lanza, R C; Gallagher, S; Horn, B P; Madden, N W; Smith, E; Woodring, M L

    2004-10-27

    We have recently completed a large-area, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager for use in searching for radiation sources. The instrument was constructed to verify that weak point sources can be detected at considerable distances if one uses imaging to overcome fluctuations in the natural background. The instrument uses a rank-19, one-dimensional coded aperture to cast shadow patterns onto a 0.57 m{sup 2} NaI(Tl) detector composed of 57 individual cubes each 10 cm on a side. These are arranged in a 19 x 3 array. The mask is composed of four-centimeter thick, one-meter high, 10-cm wide lead blocks. The instrument is mounted in the back of a small truck from which images are obtained as one drives through a region. Results of first measurements obtained with the system are presented.

  19. Progress of Focusing X-ray and Gamma-ray Optics for Small Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovaroff, M J; Funk, T; Barber, W C; Ramsey, B D; Hasegawa, B H

    2005-08-05

    Significant effort is currently being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. Ideally, one would like to discern these functional and metabolic relationships with in vivo radionuclide imaging at spatial resolutions approaching those that can be obtained using the anatomical imaging techniques (i.e., <100 {micro}m), which would help to answer outstanding questions in many areas of biomedicine. In this paper, we report progress on our effort to develop high-resolution focusing X-ray and gamma-ray optics for small-animal radionuclide imaging. The use of reflective optics, in contrast to methods that rely on absorptive collimation like single- or multiple-pinhole cameras, decouples spatial resolution from sensitivity (efficiency). Our feasibility studies have refined and applied ray-tracing routines to design focusing optics for small animal studies. We also have adopted a replication technique to manufacture the X-ray mirrors, and which in experimental studies have demonstrated a spatial resolution of {approx}190 {micro}m. We conclude that focusing optics can be designed and fabricated for gamma-ray energies, and with spatial resolutions, and field of view suitable for in vivo biological studies. While the efficiency of a single optic is limited, fabrication methods now are being developed that may make it possible to develop imaging systems with multiple optics that could collect image data over study times that would be practical for performing radionuclide studies of small animals.

  20. Predicted TeV Gamma-ray Spectra and Images of Shell Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, S. P.

    1999-04-01

    One supernova remnant, SN 1006, is now known to produce synchrotron X-rays (Koyama et al., 1995, Nature, 378, 255), requiring 100 TeV electrons. SN 1006 has also been seen in TeV gamma rays (Tanimori et al., 1998, ApJ, 497, L25), almost certainly due to cosmic-microwave-background photons being upscattered by those same electrons. Other young supernova remnants should also produce high-energy electrons, even if their X-ray synchrotron emission is swamped by conventional thermal X-ray emission. Upper limits to the maximum energy of shock-accelerated electrons can be found for those remnants by requiring that their synchrotron spectrum steepen enough to fall below observed thermal X-rays (Reynolds and Keohane 1999, ApJ, submitted). For those upper-limit spectra, I present predicted TeV inverse-Compton spectra and images for assumed values of the mean remnant magnetic field. Ground-based TeV gamma-ray observations of remnants may be able to put even more severe limits on the presence of highly energetic electrons in remnants, raising problems for conventional theories of galactic cosmic-ray production in supernova remnants. Detections will immediately confirm that SN 1006 is not alone, and will give mean remnant magnetic field strengths.

  1. Focal Plane Detectors for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Otte, A. N.; Williams, D. A.; Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Horan, D.; Smith, A.; Wagner, R. G.; Falcone, A.; Funk, S.; Tajima, H.; Mukherjee, R.

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Simulations show that a substantial improvement in angular resolution may be achieved if the pixel diameter is reduced to the order of 0.05 deg, i.e. two to three times smaller than the pixel diameter of current Cherenkov telescope cameras. At these dimensions, photon detectors with smaller physical dimensions can be attractive alternatives to the classical photomultiplier tube (PMT). Furthermore, the operation of an experiment with the size of AGIS requires photon detectors that are among other things more reliable, more durable, and possibly higher efficiency photon detectors. Alternative photon detectors we are considering for AGIS include both silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). Here we present results from laboratory testing of MAPMTs and SiPMs along with results from the first incorporation of these devices into cameras on test bed Cherenkov telescopes.

  2. High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Imaging Measurements Using Externally Segmented Germanium Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, J.; Mahoney, W.; Skelton, R.; Varnell, L.; Wheaton, W.

    1994-01-01

    Fully two-dimensional gamma-ray imaging with simultaneous high-resolution spectroscopy has been demonstrated using an externally segmented germanium sensor. The system employs a single high-purity coaxial detector with its outer electrode segmented into 5 distinct charge collection regions and a lead coded aperture with a uniformly redundant array (URA) pattern. A series of one-dimensional responses was collected around 511 keV while the system was rotated in steps through 180 degrees. A non-negative, linear least-squares algorithm was then employed to reconstruct a 2-dimensional image. Corrections for multiple scattering in the detector, and the finite distance of source and detector are made in the reconstruction process.

  3. Gamma Ray Imaging System (GRIS) GammaCam{trademark}. Final report, January 3, 1994--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the activities undertaken during the development of the Gamma Ray Imaging System (GRIS) program now referred to as the GammaCam{trademark}. The purpose of this program is to develop a 2-dimensional imaging system for gamma-ray energy scenes that may be present in nuclear power plants. The report summarizes the overall accomplishments of the program and the most recent GammaCam measurements made at LANL and Estonia. The GammaCam is currently available for sale from AIL Systems as an off-the-shelf instrument.

  4. High resolution phoswich gamma-ray imager utilizing monolithic MPPC arrays with submillimeter pixelized crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Sato, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Kawabata, N.; Ikeda, H.; Kamada, K.

    2013-05-01

    We report the development of a high spatial resolution tweezers-type coincidence gamma-ray camera for medical imaging. This application consists of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4 × 4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. For typical operational gain of 7.5 × 105 at + 20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ± 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to <= 400 kcps per channel. We selected Ce-doped (Lu,Y)2(SiO4)O (Ce:LYSO) and a brand-new scintillator, Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) due to their high light yield and density. To improve the spatial resolution, these scintillators were fabricated into 15 × 15 matrices of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 pixels. The Ce:LYSO and Ce:GAGG scintillator matrices were assembled into phosphor sandwich (phoswich) detectors, and then coupled to the MPPC array along with an acrylic light guide measuring 1 mm thick, and with summing operational amplifiers that compile the signals into four position-encoded analog outputs being used for signal readout. Spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a 22Na point source. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers offer excellent potential for applications in high spatial medical imaging.

  5. SU-C-201-03: Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging Using Pixelated Semiconductor Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, S; Kaye, W; Jaworski, J; He, Z

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Improved localization of gamma-ray emissions from radiotracers is essential to the progress of nuclear medicine. Polaris is a portable, room-temperature operated gamma-ray imaging spectrometer composed of two 3×3 arrays of thick CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, which detect gammas between 30keV and 3MeV with energy resolution of <1% FWHM at 662keV. Compton imaging is used to map out source distributions in 4-pi space; however, is only effective above 300keV where Compton scatter is dominant. This work extends imaging to photoelectric energies (<300keV) using coded aperture imaging (CAI), which is essential for localization of Tc-99m (140keV). Methods: CAI, similar to the pinhole camera, relies on an attenuating mask, with open/closed elements, placed between the source and position-sensitive detectors. Partial attenuation of the source results in a “shadow” or count distribution that closely matches a portion of the mask pattern. Ideally, each source direction corresponds to a unique count distribution. Using backprojection reconstruction, the source direction is determined within the field of view. The knowledge of 3D position of interaction results in improved image quality. Results: Using a single array of detectors, a coded aperture mask, and multiple Co-57 (122keV) point sources, image reconstruction is performed in real-time, on an event-by-event basis, resulting in images with an angular resolution of ∼6 degrees. Although material nonuniformities contribute to image degradation, the superposition of images from individual detectors results in improved SNR. CAI was integrated with Compton imaging for a seamless transition between energy regimes. Conclusion: For the first time, CAI has been applied to thick, 3D position sensitive CZT detectors. Real-time, combined CAI and Compton imaging is performed using two 3×3 detector arrays, resulting in a source distribution in space. This system has been commercialized by H3D, Inc. and is being acquired for

  6. A study of the sensitivity of an imaging telescope (GRITS) for high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yearian, Mason R.

    1990-01-01

    When a gamma-ray telescope is placed in Earth orbit, it is bombarded by a flux of cosmic protons much greater than the flux of interesting gammas. These protons can interact in the telescope's thermal shielding to produce detectable gamma rays, most of which are vetoed. Since the proton flux is so high, the unvetoed gamma rays constitute a significant background relative to some weak sources. This background increases the observing time required to pinpoint some sources and entirely obscures other sources. Although recent telescopes have been designed to minimize this background, its strength and spectral characteristics were not previously calculated in detail. Monte Carlo calculations are presented which characterize the strength, spectrum and other features of the cosmic proton background using FLUKA, a hadronic cascade program. Several gamma-ray telescopes, including SAS-2, EGRET and the Gamma Ray Imaging Telescope System (GRITS), are analyzed, and their proton-induced backgrounds are characterized. In all cases, the backgrounds are either shown to be low relative to interesting signals or suggestions are made which would reduce the background sufficiently to leave the telescope unimpaired. In addition, several limiting cases are examined for comparison to previous estimates and calibration measurements.

  7. Micro-Slit Collimators for X-Ray/Gamma-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Michael; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid photochemical-machining process is coupled with precision stack lamination to allow for the fabrication of multiple ultra-high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. In addition, special fixturing and etching techniques have been developed that allow higher-resolution multi-grid collimators to be fabricated. Building on past work of developing a manufacturing technique for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution coating modulation collimators for arcsecond and subarcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging, the current work reduces the grid pitch by almost a factor of two, down to 22 microns. Additionally, a process was developed for reducing thin, high-Z (tungsten or molybdenum) from the thinnest commercially available foil (25 microns thick) down to approximately equal to 10 microns thick using precisely controlled chemical etching

  8. Development of a High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for Medium Energy Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1992-01-01

    In the third year of the research project, we have (1) tested a 3.5 liter prototype of the Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber, (2) used a prototype having a 4.4 cm drift gap to study the charge and energy resolution response of the 3.5 liter chamber, (3) obtained an energy resolution as good as that previously measured by us using chambers with drift gaps of the order of millimeters, (4) observed the induction signals produced by MeV gamma rays, (4) used the 20 hybrid charge sensitive preamplifiers for a nondestructive readout of the electron image on the induction wires, (5) performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations to obtain results on efficiency, background rejection capability, and source flux sensitivity, and (6) developed a reconstruction algorithm for events with multiple interaction points.

  9. Compact, high-resolution, gamma ray imaging for scintimammography and other medical diagostic applications

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph F.; Steinbach, Daniela

    1999-01-01

    A high resolution gamma ray imaging device includes an aluminum housing, a lead screen collimator at an opened end of the housing, a crystal scintillator array mounted behind the lead screen collimator, a foam layer between the lead screen collimator and the crystal scintillator array, a photomultiplier window coupled to the crystal with optical coupling grease, a photomultiplier having a dynode chain body and a base voltage divider with anodes, anode wire amplifiers each connected to four anodes and a multi pin connector having pin connections to each anode wire amplifier. In one embodiment the crystal scintillator array includes a yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) crystal array. In an alternate embodiment, the crystal scintillator array includes a gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) crystal array.

  10. Burst ArcSecond Imaging & Spectroscopy (BASIS): A Gamma-Ray Burst Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Teegarden, B.; Barbier, L.; Cline, T.; Parsons, A.; Tueller, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Palmer, D.; Krizmanic, J.; Fenimore, E.; Fishman, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hurley, K.; Paciesas, W.; van Paradijs, J.; Woosley, S.; Leventhal, M.; McCammon, D.; Sanders, W.; Schaefer, B.

    1996-12-01

    We are studying a gamma-ray burst mission concept called Burst ArcSecond Imaging and Spectroscopy (BASIS) as part of NASA's New Mission Concepts for Astrophysics program. The scientific objectives are to accurately locate bursts, determine their distance scale, and measure the physical characteristics of the emission region. Arcsecond burst positions (angular resolution ~ 30 arcsec, source positions ~ 3 arcsec for >10(-6) erg/cm(2) bursts) would be obtained for ~ 100 bursts per year using the 10-100 keV emission. This would allow the first deep, unconfused counterpart searches at other wavelengths. The key technological breakthrough that makes such measurements possible is the development of CdZnTe room-temperature semiconductor detectors with fine ( ~ 100 micron) spatial resolution. A secondary scientific objective is to perform a sensitive hard x-ray all-sky survey. A description of the mission concept and its scientific objectives will be presented.

  11. BASIS mission concept for gamma-ray burst imaging and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Neil A.; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Barbier, Louis M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Bartlett, Lyle M.; Cline, Thomas L.; Fenimore, Edward E.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Hurley, Kevin; Krizmanic, John F.; Kouveliotou, C.; Leventhal, M.; McCammon, Dan; Norris, Jay P.; Palmer, David; Parsons, Ann M.; Paciesas, William S.; Sanders, Wilton T.; Schaefer, B.; Stahle, Carl M.; Tueller, Jack; van Paradijs, J.; Woosley, Stanford E.

    1996-10-01

    We are studying a gamma-ray burst mission concept called burst arcsecond imaging and spectroscopy (BASIS) as part of NASA's new mission concepts for astrophysics program. The scientific objectives are to accurately locate bursts, determine their distance scale, and measure the physical characteristics of the emission region. Arcsecond burst positions (angular resolution approximately 30 arcsec, source positions approximately 3 arcsec) will be obtained for approximately 100 bursts per year using the 10 - 100 keV emission. This will allow the first deep, unconfused counterpart searches at other wavelengths. The key technological breakthrough that makes such measurements possible is the development of CdZnTe room-temperature semiconductor detectors with fine (approximately 100 micron) spatial resolution. Fine spectroscopy will be obtained between 0.2 and 150 keV. The 0.2 keV threshold will allow the first measurements of absorption in our galaxy and possible host galaxies, constraining the distance scale and host environment.

  12. CdZnTe detectors for gamma-ray Burst ArcSecond Imaging and Spectroscopy (BASIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, C. M.; Palmer, D.; Bartlett, L. M.; Parsons, A.; Shi, Zhiqing; Lisse, C. M.; Sappington, C.; Cao, N.; Shu, P.; Gehrels, N.; Teegarden, B.; Birsa, F.; Singh, S.; Odom, J.; Hanchak, C.; Tueller, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Krizmanic, J.; Barbier, L.

    A CdZnTe detector array is being developed for the proposed gamma-ray Burst ArcSecond Imaging and Spectroscopy (BASIS) spaceflight mission to accurately locate gamma-ray bursts, determine their distance scale, and measure the physical characteristics of the emission region. Two-dimensional strip detectors with 100 μm pitch have been fabricated and wire bonded to readout electronics to demonstrate the ability to localize 60 and 122 keV gamma-rays to less than 100 μm. Radiation damage studies on a CdZnTe detector exposed to MeV neutrons showed a small amount of activation but no detector performance degradation for fluences up to 1010 neutrons/cm2. A 1 × 1 in. CdZnTe detector has also been flown on a balloon payload at 115 000 ft in order to measure the CdZnTe background rates.

  13. Measurement of spatial distribution of neutrons and gamma rays for BNCT using multi-imaging plate system.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Takata, Takushi; Takada, Jun; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    Quality assurance of the spatial distributions of neutrons and gamma rays was tried using imaging plates (IPs) and converters to enhance the beam components in the epithermal neutron mode of the Kyoto University Reactor. The converters used were 4mm thick epoxy resin with B4C at 6.85 weight-percent (wt%) (10)B for epithermal neutrons, and 3mm thick carbon for gamma rays. Results suggested that the IP signal does not need a sensitivity correction regardless of the incident radiation that produces it.

  14. The fate of accreted CNO elements in neutron star atmospheres - X-ray bursts and gamma-ray lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bildstein, Lars; Salpeter, Edwin E.; Wasserman, Ira

    1992-01-01

    The fate of incident C-12, N-14, and O-16 in accreting neutron star atmospheres is described. When the accreting material is stopped by Coulomb collisions with atmospheric electrons, all incoming elements heavier than helium thermalize at higher altitudes in the atmosphere than the accreting protons. The incoming protons and helium then destroy the elements via nuclear spallation reactions. A small fraction of the nuclear reactions cause nuclear excitation and subsequent gamma-ray emission. The probability for a nucleus to survive this bombardment depends on how long it spends in the hazardous region of the atmosphere. The fractions of incident C-12, N-14, and O-16 that survive proton bombardment are calculated as a function of the accretion rate, and the mass and radius of the neutron star. The subsequent paucity of CNO nuclei decreases hydrogen-burning rates in the deep regions of the atmosphere, thereby reducing the amount of helium available for the unstable nuclear flashes that cause type I X-ray bursts. The gamma-ray line emission from this collisional deceleration scenario is determined.

  15. The Study of Equilibrium factor between Radon-222 and its Daughters in Bangkok Atmosphere by Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujiwarodom, Rachanee

    2010-05-01

    To study the Equilibrium between radon-222 and its daughters in Bangkok atmosphere by Gamma-ray spectrometry, air sample were collected on 48 activated charcoal canister and 360 glass fiber filters by using a high volume jet-air sampler during December 2007 to November 2008.The Spectra of gamma-ray were measured by using a HPGe (Hyper Pure Germanium Detector). In the condition of secular equilibrium obtaining between Radon-222 and its decay products, radon-222 on activated charcoal canister and its daughters on glass fiber filters collected in the same time interval were calculated. The equilibrium factor (F) in the open air had a value of 0.38 at the minimum ,and 0.75 at the maximum. The average value of equilibrium factor (F) was 0.56±0.12. Based on the results, F had variations with a maximum value in the night to the early morning and decreased in the afternoon. In addition, F was higher in the winter than in the summer. This finding corresponds with the properties of the Earth atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (F) also depended on the concentration of dust in the atmosphere. People living in Bangkok were exposed to average value of 30 Bq/m3 of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (0.56±0.12) and the average value of Radon-222 showed that people were exposed to alpha energy from radon-222 and its daughters decay at 0.005 WL(Working Level) which is lower than the safety standard at 0.02 WL. Keywords: Radon, Radon daughters , equilibrium factor, Gamma -ray spectrum analysis ,Bangkok ,Thailand

  16. The Simulation of AN Imaging Gamma-Ray Compton Backscattering Device Using GEANT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flechas, D.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Cristancho, F.; Fajardo, E.

    2014-02-01

    A gamma-backscattering imaging device dubbed Compton Camera, developed at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) and modified and studied at the Nuclear Physics Group of the National University of Colombia in Bogotá, uses the back-to-back emission of two gamma rays in the positron annihilation to construct a bidimensional image that represents the distribution of matter in the field-of-view of the camera. This imaging capability can be used in a host of different situations, for example, to identify and study deposition and structural defects, and to help locating concealed objects, to name just two cases. In order to increase the understanding of the response of the Compton Camera and, in particular, its image formation process, and to assist in the data analysis, a simulation of the camera was developed using the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. In this work, the images resulting from different experimental conditions are shown. The simulated images and their comparison with the experimental ones already suggest methods to improve the present experimental device

  17. Application of CdZnTe Gamma-Ray Detector for Imaging Corrosion under Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, J.; Yahya, R.

    2007-05-01

    Corrosion under insulation (CUI) on the external wall of steel pipes is a common problem in many types of industrial plants. This is mainly due to the presence of moisture or water in the insulation materials. This type of corrosion can cause failures in areas that are not normally of a primary concern to an inspection program. The failures are often the result of localised corrosion and not general wasting over a large area. These failures can tee catastrophic in nature or at least have an adverse economic effect in terms of downtime and repairs. There are a number of techniques used today for CUI investigations. The main ones are profile radiography, pulse eddy current, ultrasonic spot readings and insulation removal. A new system now available is portable Pipe-CUI-Profiler. The nucleonic system is based on dual-beam gamma-ray absorption technique using Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductor detectors. The Pipe-CUI-Profiler is designed to inspect pipes of internal diameter 50, 65, 80, 90, 100, 125 and 150 mm. Pipeline of these sizes with aluminium or thin steel sheathing, containing fibreglass or calcium silicate insulation to thickness of 25, 40 and 50 mm can be inspected. The system has proven to be a safe, fast and effective method of inspecting pipe in industrial plant operations. This paper describes the application of gamma-ray techniques and CdZnTe semiconductor detectors in the development of Pipe-CUI-Profiler for non-destructive imaging of corrosion under insulation of steel pipes. Some results of actual pipe testing in large-scale industrial plant will be presented.

  18. Application of CdZnTe Gamma-Ray Detector for Imaging Corrosion under Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, J.; Yahya, R.

    2007-05-09

    Corrosion under insulation (CUI) on the external wall of steel pipes is a common problem in many types of industrial plants. This is mainly due to the presence of moisture or water in the insulation materials. This type of corrosion can cause failures in areas that are not normally of a primary concern to an inspection program. The failures are often the result of localised corrosion and not general wasting over a large area. These failures can tee catastrophic in nature or at least have an adverse economic effect in terms of downtime and repairs. There are a number of techniques used today for CUI investigations. The main ones are profile radiography, pulse eddy current, ultrasonic spot readings and insulation removal. A new system now available is portable Pipe-CUI-Profiler. The nucleonic system is based on dual-beam gamma-ray absorption technique using Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductor detectors. The Pipe-CUI-Profiler is designed to inspect pipes of internal diameter 50, 65, 80, 90, 100, 125 and 150 mm. Pipeline of these sizes with aluminium or thin steel sheathing, containing fibreglass or calcium silicate insulation to thickness of 25, 40 and 50 mm can be inspected. The system has proven to be a safe, fast and effective method of inspecting pipe in industrial plant operations. This paper describes the application of gamma-ray techniques and CdZnTe semiconductor detectors in the development of Pipe-CUI-Profiler for non-destructive imaging of corrosion under insulation of steel pipes. Some results of actual pipe testing in large-scale industrial plant will be presented.

  19. X-ray and gamma-ray imaging with multiple-pinhole cameras using a posteriori image synthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groh, G.; Hayat, G. S.; Stroke, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    In 1968, Dicke had suggested that multiple-pinhole camera systems would have significant advantages concerning the SNR in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy if the multiple images could be somehow synthesized into a single image. The practical development of an image-synthesis method based on these suggestions is discussed. A formulation of the SNR gain theory which is particularly suited for dealing with the proposal by Dicke is considered. It is found that the SNR gain is by no means uniform in all X-ray astronomy applications.

  20. Measurements of neutron distribution in neutrons-gamma-rays mixed field using imaging plate for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    The imaging plate (IP) technique is tried to be used as a handy method to measure the spatial neutron distribution via the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction for neutron capture therapy (NCT). For this purpose, IP is set in a water phantom and irradiated in a mixed field of neutrons and gamma-rays. The Hiroshima University Radiobiological Research Accelerator is utilized for this experiment. The neutrons are moderated with 20-cm-thick D(2)O to obtain suitable neutron field for NCT. The signal for IP doped with Gd as a neutron-response enhancer is subtracted with its contribution by gamma-rays, which was estimated using IP without Gd. The gamma-ray response of Gd-doped IP to non-Gd IP is set at 1.34, the value measured for (60)Co gamma-rays, in estimating the gamma-ray contribution to Gd-doped IP signal. Then measured distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate agrees within 10% with the calculated value based on the method that has already been validated for its reproducibility of Au activation. However, the evaluated distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate is so sensitive to gamma-ray energy, e.g. the discrepancy of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate between measurement and calculation becomes 30% for the photon energy change from 33keV to 1.253MeV.

  1. Gamma-ray spectral imaging using a single-shutter radiation camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVol, T. A.; Wehe, D. K.; Knoll, G. F.

    1990-12-01

    As part of a program to develop mobile robots for reactor environments, we are developing a radiation-imaging camera capable of operating in medium-intensity (<2 R/h), medium-energy (<8 MeV) gamma-ray fields. A systematic study of available detectors indicated the advisability of a high- Z scintillator. The raster-scanning camera uses a lead-shielded bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator (1.25 cm×1.25 cm right-circular cylinder) coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) operated in pulse mode. Measurements yielded an angular resolution of 2.5° and energy resolution of 12.9% at 662 keV. The camera motion is totally automated and controlled by stepping motors connected to a remote computer. Several 2D images of radioactive sources have been acquired in fields of up to 400 mR/h and energies up to 2.75 MeV. Some of the images demonstrate the ability of the camera to image a polychromatic field.

  2. Large-area PSPMT based gamma-ray imager with edge reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K-P; Nakae, L

    2000-09-21

    We describe a coded aperture, gamma-ray imager which uses a CsI(Na) scintillator coupled to an Hamamatsu R3292 position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) as the position-sensitive detector. We have modified the normal resistor divider readout of the PSPMT to allow use of nearly the full 10 cm diameter active area of the PSPMT with a single scintillator crystal one centimeter thick. This is a significant performance improvement over that obtained with the standard readout technique where the linearity and position resolution start to degrade at radii as small as 3.5 cm with a crystal 0.75 crn thick. This represents a recovery of over 60% of the PSPMT active area. The performance increase allows the construction of an imager with a field of view 20 resolution elements in diameter with useful quantum efficiency from 60-700 keV. In this paper we describe the readout technique, its implementation in a coded aperture imager and the performance of that imager.

  3. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1997-01-21

    A gamma ray camera is disclosed for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array. 6 figs.

  4. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1997-01-01

    A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

  5. Reflight of the Gamma-Ray Arcminute Telescope Imaging System (GRATIS) Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, Charles J.

    2000-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Arcminute Telescope Imaging System (GRATIS) balloon payload was prepared for reflight. This involved repair of damage caused in the previous flight to structural members of the payload (the gondola support structure) as well as damage to some of the pointing system elements and electronics modules. This work was successfully completed. An extensive pre-calibration of the CsI(Na) imaging detectors was then done. The plan was to take several months to calibrate the 36 detectors and to compare the results with the post-calibration from the previous flight in Alice Springs Australia. During the course of the pre-calibrations it was noted that the light output of the crystals was severely degraded in more than half the detectors compared to the values recorded 1.5 years earlier. Subsequent investigation revealed that the light yield degradation was not unreasonable. The CsI crystals had in fact performed well past their rated life from hygroscopic contamination. The crystals had spent the majority of their life either in the desert or in the extremely low humidity conditions of Livermore California. where the GRATIS payload had been based prior to transfer to Columbia. The extreme summer humidity of New York simply exacerbated a degradation process that had been artificially delayed by dry conditions. Because such a large part of the detector array had been degraded we did not feel it was appropriate to refly the payload because the scientific performance would have been compromised.

  6. The University of Durham Mark 6 VHE gamma ray telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, P. M.; Dickinson, M. R.; Dipper, N. A.; Holder, J.; Kendall, T. R.; McComb, T. J. L.; Orford, K. J.; Rayner, S. M.; Roberts, I. D.; Shaw, S. E.; Turver, K. E.

    1997-05-10

    The operation of the University of Durham Mark 6 atmospheric Cerenkov telescope is discussed. The telescope has been used to detect gamma rays at energies {>=}150 GeV and to achieve good discrimination between gamma ray and hadron initiated showers, using both conventional imaging and novel fluctuation measures. The telescope was commissioned in 1995 and a description of its operation is presented. Verification of the performance during observations of PSR B1706-44 is described.

  7. Cosmic-ray Electrons and Atmospheric Gamma-rays in 1-30 GeV observed with Balloon-borne CALET prototype detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niita, Tae; Fuke, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Kenji; Katayose, Yusaku; Torii, Shoji; Akaike, Yosui; Katsuaki Kasahara, ., , prof.; Tamura, Tadahisa; Ueyama, Yoshitaka; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Shimizu, Yuki; Kyutan, Marie; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ito, Daijiro; Karube, Mikihiko; Kondo, Keinosuke

    2012-07-01

    We carried out the balloon experiments using CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) proto-type detectors in May 2006 (bCALET-1) and in August 2009 (bCALET-2) for verification of the detector performance and of the capability of measuring cosmic rays at high altitude. The bCALET-2 instrument for observing electrons and gamma-rays is composed of an imaging calorimeter, consisting of 4096 scintillating fibers and 7 tungsten plates of 3.6 radiation lengths depth in total, and a total absorption calorimeter, consisting of 60 BGO logs of 13.4 radiation lengths depth. The bCALET-2 was launched at the Taiki Aerospace Research Field, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, in Hokkaido, and flew successfully for 2.5 hours at a level altitude of 35 km. We will present energy spectra of the 1ry and 2ry electrons and the atmospheric gamma-rays in the energy range of 1-30 GeV observed by bCALET-2. The results will be compared with our previous observations, bCALET-1 and BETS.

  8. Thin film deployable reflector model for ET gamma ray imaging telescope system (ET-GRITS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huegele, Vinson B.

    1989-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a thin film reflector for a Gamma Ray Imaging Telescope System (GRITS) using the Shuttle External Tank (ET). The concept is to install an inflatable reflector in the ET that could be transferred from the orbiter in orbit. This is a study of a scale model reflector for the ET GRITS application. The approach is to form 1/2 mil film into a spherical mirror mounted on a seven-foot diameter metal ring. The ring mount is sealed and slightly evacuated to pressurize the film into shape. Several different fabrication techniques were investigated using seamed gore designs to form the reflector. Also studied was casting a film into a seamless circular sheet. The goal for this model was to achieve a one milliradian (rms) surface curvature error over 90 percent of the reflector area. This curvature was measured by a laser scanning instrument. The results show how different reflector designs and fabrication techniques contribute to surface curvature and focusing errors.

  9. BASIS: a new gamma-ray burst imaging and spectroscopy mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Fenimore, E. E.; Barbier, L.; Cline, Thomas L.; Parsons, Ann M.; Tueller, J.; Krizmanic, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Palmer, D.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hurley, Kevin; Paciesas, William S.; van Paradijs, J.; Leventhal, M.; Woosley, Stanford E.; McCammon, Dan; Sanders, Wilton T.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Bartlett, L.; Lisse, Casey M.; Stahle, Carl M.

    1995-09-01

    We have proposed a gamma-ray burst mission concept called burst arcsecond imaging and spectroscopy (BASIS) in response to NASA's announcement for new mission concept studies. The scientific objectives are to accurately locate bursts, determine their distance scale, and measure the physical characteristics of the emission region. Arcsecond burst positions (angular resolution approximately 30 arcsec, source positions approximately 3 arcsec for greater than 10-6 erg cm-2 bursts) are obtained for about 100 bursts per year using the 10 - 200 keV emission. This allows the first deep, unconfused counterpart searches at other wavelengths. The key technological breakthrough that makes such measurements possible is the development of CdZnTe room-temperature semiconductor detectors with fine (approximately 100 micron) spatial resolution. Fine spectroscopy is obtained between 0.2 keV and 200 keV. The 0.2 keV threshold allows the first measurements of absorption in our galaxy and possible host galaxies, constraining the distance scale and host environment. The mission concept and its scientific objectives are described.

  10. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J. )

    1990-03-20

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes.

  11. Thermal, tensile and rheological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) processed and irradiated by gamma-ray in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreto, H. F. R. E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, A. C. F. E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Parra, D. F. E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Lugão, A. B. E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Gaia, R.

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate structural changes of high density polyethylene (HDPE) modified by ionizing radiation (gamma rays) in different atmospheres. The gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals which can induce chain scission or recombination, providing its annihilation, branching or crosslinking. This polymer was irradiated with gamma source of {sup 60}Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/h. The changes in molecular structure of HDPE, after gamma irradiations were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile machine and oscillatory rheology. The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the dose at each atmosphere.

  12. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) Telescope Mechanical and Optical System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, V.; Vassiliev, V.; Buckley, J.; Byrum, K.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, S.; Finley, J.; Hanna, D.; Kaaret, P.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Romani, R.; Wagner, R.; Woods, M.

    2009-05-01

    The concept of a future ground-based gamma-ray observatory, AGIS, in the energy range 20 GeV to 200 TeV is based on an array of 50-100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). The anticipated improvement of AGIS sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of IACTs. In this submission, we focus on the optical and mechanical systems for a novel Schwarzschild-Couder two-mirror aplanatic optical system originally proposed by Schwarzschild. Emerging new mirror production technologies based on replication processes, such as cold and hot glass slumping, cured CFRP, and electroforming, provide new opportunities for cost effective solutions for the design of the optical system. We explore capabilities of these mirror fabrication methods for the AGIS project and alignment methods for optical systems. We also study a mechanical structure which will provide support points for mirrors and camera design driven by the requirement of minimizing the deflections of the mirror support structures.

  13. A Search for Early Optical Emission at Gamma-Ray Burst Locations by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Buffington, Andrew; Jackson, Bernard V.; Hick, P. Paul; Smith, Aaron C.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) views nearly every point on the sky once every 102 minutes and can detect point sources as faint as R approx. 10th magnitude. Therefore, SMEI can detect or provide upper limits for the optical afterglow from gamma-ray bursts in the tens of minutes after the burst when different shocked regions may emit optically. Here we provide upper limits for 58 bursts between 2003 February and 2005 April.

  14. Design of Dual-Road Transportable Portal Monitoring System for Visible Light and Gamma-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Cunningham, Mark F; Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Hornback, Donald Eric; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Bradley, Eric Craig; Chesser, Joel B; Marchant, William

    2010-01-01

    The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Transportable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest, especially if they can be rapidly deployed to different locations. To serve this application, we have constructed a rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. The system operation uses machine vision methods on the visible-light images to detect vehicles as they enter and exit the field of view and to measure their position in each frame. The visible-light and gamma-ray cameras are synchronized which allows the gamma-ray imager to harvest gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. Thus our system creates vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoids source confusion problems that plague non-imaging approaches to the same problem. Our current prototype instrument was designed for measurement of upto five lanes of freeway traffic with a pair of instruments, one on either side of the roadway. Stereoscopic cameras are used with a third alignment camera for motion compensation and are mounted on a 50 deployable mast. In this paper we discuss the design considerations for the machine-vision system, the algorithms used for vehicle detection and position estimates, and the overall architecture of the system. We also discuss system calibration for rapid deployment. We conclude with notes on preliminary performance and deployment.

  15. Semiconductor arrays with multiplexer readout for gamma-ray imaging: results for a 48 × 48 Ge array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, H. B.; Augustine, F. L.; Barrett, H. H.; Dereniak, E. L.; Matherson, K. L.; Meyers, T. J.; Perry, D. L.; Venzon, J. E.; Woolfenden, J. M.; Young, E. T.

    1994-12-01

    We are developing a new kind of gamma-ray imaging device that has sub-millimeter spatial resolution and excellent energy resolution. The device is composed of a slab of semiconductor detector partitioned into an array of detector cells by photolithography and connected to a monolithic circuit chip called a multiplexer (MUX) for readout. Our application is for an ultra-high-resolution SPECT system for functional brain imaging using an injected radiotracer. We report here on results obtained with a Hughes 48 × 48 Ge PIN-photodiode array with MUX readout, originally developed as an infrared focal-plane-array imaging sensor. The device functions as an array of individual gamma-ray detectors with minimal interpixel crosstalk. Linearity of energy response is excellent up to at least 140 keV. The array exhibits excellent energy resolution, ˜ 2 keV at ≤ 140 keV or 1.5% FWHM at 140 keV. The energy resolution is dominated by MUX readout noise and so should improve with MUX optimization for gamma-ray detection. The spatial resolution of the 48 × 48 Ge array is essentially the same as the pixel spacing, 125 μm. The quantum efficiency is limited by the thin Ge detector (0.25 mm), but this approach is readily applicable to thicker Ge detectors and room-temperature semiconductor detectors such as CdTe, HgI 2 and CdZnTe.

  16. X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

  17. Design and imaging performance of achromatic diffractive-refractive x-ray and gamma-ray Fresnel lenses.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2004-09-01

    Achromatic combinations of a diffractive phase Fresnel lens and a refractive correcting element have been proposed for x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy and for microlithography, but considerations of absorption often dictate that the refractive component be given a stepped profile, resulting in a double Fresnel lens. The imaging performance of corrected Fresnel lenses, with and without stepping, is investigated, and the trade-off between resolution and useful bandwidth in different circumstances is discussed. Provided that the focal ratio is large, correction lenses made from low atomic number materials can be used with x rays in the range of approximately 10-100 keV without stepping. The use of stepping extends the possibility of correction to higher-aperture systems, to energies as low as a few kilo electron volts, and to gamma rays of mega electron volt energy.

  18. Imaging the Crab nebula when it is flaring in gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    One of the most intriguing results of the gamma-ray instruments currently in orbit has been the detection of powerful flares from the Crab Nebula. Such events, with a recurrence time of about once per year, can be so dramatic to make the system the brightest source in the gamma-ray sky, as it occurred in April 2011. Such a discovery challenges our understanding of how pulsar wind nebulae work and defies current astrophysical models for particle acceleration. With the aim of locating the site(s) of the flares, an ad hoc HST strategy have been put in place to be prepared and react promptly in case of a new brightening in gamma rays. We ask here for a triggered TOO observation of the Crab Nebula with ACS/WFC in case a gamma-ray flare is announced by the Agile and/or the Fermi missions. This TOO is crucial part of a multiwavelength program that we have organized, based on lessons learnt from our follow-up observations of previous flares, including a regular (quarterly) monitoring of the source both in X-rays and optical through a joint Chandra-HST proposal.

  19. Imaging the Crab nebula when it is flaring in gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    One of the most intriguing results of the gamma-ray instruments currently in orbit has been the detection of powerful flares from the Crab Nebula. Such events, detected roughly once per year, can be very spectacular. Indeed, in April 2011, for a few days the Crab was by far the brightest source in the gamma-ray sky. Such a dramatic variability challenges our understanding of how pulsar wind nebulae work and defies current astrophysical models for particle acceleration. With the aim of locating the site{s} of the flares, an ad hoc HST strategy must be put in place to be prepared and react promptly in case of a new brightening in gamma rays. We ask here for a triggered TOO observation of the Crab Nebula with ACS/WFC in case a gamma-ray flare is announced by the Agile and/or Fermi missions. This is a crucial part of a multiwavelength program that we are organizing, based on lessons learnt from our follow-up observations of previous flares, including a regular {monthly} monitoring of the source both in X-ray and optical through a joint Chandra-HST proposal.

  20. External tank gamma ray imaging telescope study. Final review, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Potential scientific uses of the external tanks were examined. An onorbit conversion of the external tank to a gamma ray telescope/spacecraft is feasible. The development time and cost are acceptable. The specific engineering research and development requirements are listed. Concepts for onorbit utilization of external tanks were developed. The tasks for phase three were summarized.

  1. CZT detectors with 3D readout for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, James L.; Pelling, Michael R.; Skelton, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing 10 mm thick CZT detectors with 3-D readout for ~100 keV to ~1.5 MeV gamma-rays. Multiple-site gamma-ray interactions are fully measured, i.e., the energy and 3-D position of each site are determined. Spatial resolution is 1 mm FWHM. Anode pixel readout with 1 mm pitch is used for x- and y-positions and charge drift times for z-positions. Drift time measurements are triggered by the cathode signal and end when each interaction site's charge cloud reaches an anode pixel. Post-event processing corrects for signal loss due to charge trapping and accurately determines gamma-ray energies, with a goal of 1% energy resolution at 662 keV. Compton kinematic analysis can identify the initial interaction site in most cases as well as constrain the incident gamma-ray direction. Tests were made with a prototype detector, measuring 10 x 10 x 10 mm3 and operated at 1000 V bias. The measured drift time resolution of 25 nsec FWHM at 662 keV and 60 nsec at 122 keV corresponds to z-position resolution of 0.25 and 0.60 mm FWHM, respectively. The technique is described and results of modeling and tests are presented.

  2. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observation of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGFs) by Gamma-Ray Telescopes. These were: (1) BATSE /Compton Observatory, (2) Solar Spectroscopic Imager, (3) AGILE Gamma-ray Telescope, and (4) Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It contains charts which display the counts over time, a map or the TGFs observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). and a map showing the latitude and longitude of 85 of the TGFs observed by the Fermi GBM.

  3. Survey of candidate gamma-ray sources at TeV energies using a high-resolution Cerenkov imaging system - 1988-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, P. T.; Akerlof, C. W.; Cawley, M. F.; Chantell, M.; Fegan, D. J.; Hillas, A. M.; Lamb, R. C.; Lang, M. J.; Lawrence, M. A.; Lewis, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The steady TeV gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula has been used to optimize the sensitivity of the Whipple Observatory atmospheric Cerenkov imaging telescope. Using this method, which is of order 20 times more sensitive than the standard method using a simple non-imaging detector, it is possible to detect the Crab Nebula at a significance level in excess of 6 standard deviations (6 sigma) in under 1 hr on source (with a corresponding time observing a background comparison region); a source one-tenth the strength of the Crab Nebula can be detected at the 4 sigma level after 40 hr on the source (and 40 hr on a background region). A variety of sources have been monitored using this technique over the period 1988-1991, but none were detected apart from the Crab Nebula. Upper limits are presented which in many instances are a factor of 10 below the flux of the Crab Nebula. These upper limits assume steady emission from the source and cannot rule out sporadic gamma-ray emission with short duty cycles.

  4. SONGS - A high resolution imaging gamma-ray spectrometer for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakano, G. H.; Chase, L. F.; Kilner, J. R.; Sandie, W. G.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The overall design and the instrumental features of the Space-Station Observer for Nuclear Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (SONGS) instrument are described. SONGS comprises an array of 19 two-segment n-type Ge detectors, which have the capability of determining the interaction site in either the upper or the lower segment or in both segments. The detectors provide high energy resolution of 1 keV at 100 keV and of 2 keV at 1 MeV. The close-packed Ge sensor array provides a natural sensitivity for the measurement of gamma ray polarization in the 100 keV to 1 MeV energy range, making it possible to obtain information on the structure of the magnetosphere of neutron stars and of the accretion disk of black holes.

  5. Active Detection and Imaging of Nuclear Materials with High-Brightness Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J; Gibson, D J; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Anderson, G G; Betts, S M; Berry, R D; Fisher, S E; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P

    2009-02-26

    A Compton scattering {gamma}-ray source, capable of producing photons with energies ranging from 0.1 MeV to 0.9 MeV has been commissioned and characterized, and then used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments. The performances of the two laser systems (one for electron production, one for scattering), the electron photoinjector, and the linear accelerator are also detailed, and {gamma}-ray results are presented. The key source parameters are the size (0.01 mm{sup 2}), horizontal and vertical divergence (6 x 10 mrad{sup 2}), duration (10 ps), spectrum and intensity (10{sup 5} photons/shot). These parameters are summarized by the peak brightness, 1.5 x 10{sup 15} photons/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/s/0.1% bandwidth, measured at 478 keV. Additional measurements of the flux as a function of the timing difference between the drive laser pulse and the relativistic photo-electron bunch, {gamma}-ray beam profile, and background evaluations are presented. These results are systematically compared to theoretical models and computer simulations. NRF measurements performed on {sup 7}Li in LiH demonstrate the potential of Compton scattering photon sources to accurately detect isotopes in situ.

  6. Gamma ray generator

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  7. Development of the imaging system of the balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope Máscara Codificada (MASCO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Joa~O.; D'Amico, Flavio; Villela, Thyrso; Mejía, Jorge; Fonseca, Raphael A.; Rinke, Elisete

    2002-10-01

    We report laboratory imaging results of a balloon-borne gamma-ray imaging telescope, Máscara Codificada (Portuguese for ``coded mask,'') designed to obtain high angular resolution (~14 arcmin) images of the sky in the 50 keV-1.8 MeV energy range. The instrument incorporates a coded mask with an aperture pattern based on a 19×19-element modified uniformly redundant array (MURA). This pattern belongs to a subclass of MURAs that are almost completely antisymmetrical for 90° rotations with respect to the lower-right corner of the central element, which allows the implementation of an antimask by a single rotation of the whole mask by 90°. The symmetry properties of the MURAs are discussed. The algorithm for determining the position of the gamma-ray interactions on the instrument's main detector is described and the results of laboratory tests of the imaging system are presented. The mask-antimask subtraction, applied after a flat-fielding procedure, produced a 60% increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of a strong (~100σ) point source (662 keV photons coming from a 137Cs radioactive source) image by eliminating systematic distortions in the instrumental background measured over the detector plane.

  8. Mathematical Investigation of Gamma Ray and Neutron Absorption Grid Patterns for Homeland Defense Related Fourier Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccio, Dona

    2003-01-01

    Terrorist suitcase nuclear devices typically using converted Soviet tactical nuclear warheads contain several kilograms of plutonium. This quantity of plutonium emits a significant number of gamma rays and neutrons as it undergoes radioactive decay. These gamma rays and neutrons normally penetrate ordinary matter to a significant distance. Unfortunately this penetrating quality of the radiation makes imaging with classical optics impractical. However, this radiation signature emitted by the nuclear source may be sufficient to be imaged from low-flying aerial platforms carrying Fourier imaging systems. The Fourier imaging system uses a pair of co-aligned absorption grids to measure a selected range of spatial frequencies from an object. These grids typically measure the spatial frequency in only one direction at a time. A grid pair that looks in all directions simultaneously would be an improvement over existing technology. A number of grid pairs governed by various parameters were investigated to solve this problem. By examining numerous configurations, it became apparent that an appropriate spiral pattern could be made to work. A set of equations was found to describe a grid pattern that produces straight fringes. Straight fringes represent a Fourier transform of a point source at infinity. An inverse Fourier transform of this fringe pattern would provide an accurate image (location and intensity) of a point source.

  9. Three-dimensional and tomographic imaging device for X-ray and gamma-ray emitting objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An instrument for obtaining quantitative, three-dimensional and tomographic information relating to X-ray and gamma-ray emitting objects and for the orthoscopic viewing of such objects includes a multiple-pinhole aperture plate held spaced from an X-ray or gamma-ray to visible-light converter which is coupled to a visible-light image intensifier. The spacing between the aperture plate and the converter is chosen such that the mini-images of an emitting object formed by the pinholes do not substantially overlap as they impinge on the converter. The output of the image intensifier is digitized by a digitizing camera in terms of position and intensity and fed into a digital computer. The computer may output quantitative information relating to the emitting object directly, such as that relating to tomograms, or provide information in analogue form when coupled with a suitable viewing device to give an orthoscopic, three-dimensional image of the object.

  10. Spectrum of atmospheric gamma rays to 10 MeV at lambda = 40 deg. [as function of altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, L. E.; Schwartz, D. A.; Ling, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Results of measurements of the differential counting rate spectra due to atmospheric gamma rays as a function of altitude to 3.6 g/sq cm over Texas. Two gain settings and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer were used to cover the range from 0.2 to 10 MeV. The detector was a 7.6 x 7.6 cm NaI crystal, which was surrounded on five sides by a 2-cm-thick plastic anticoincidence shield for charged particle rejection. The system had a nearly isotropic response to photons above 0.2 MeV. The spectrum at ceiling appeared as a steep continuum with a power-law index of about 1.4. The only obvious feature was the 0.51-MeV positron annihilation line. The spectral shape was independent for depths less than 20 g/sq cm, the absolute intensity varying in proportion to the intensity of the cosmic ray secondary charged particles. Also, at depths less than 30 g/sq cm the observed flux variation with altitude can be described in terms of an empirical depth-dependent source function.

  11. The imaging of extra-galactic low-energy gamma-ray sources prospects, techniques, and instrumentation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark Harold

    1987-01-01

    Improved understanding of the nature of active galaxies will require detailed observations of 10 to 20 sources, while understanding of their gamma ray luminosity function and its evolution will require the detection of approximately 100 sources. Instruments capable of detecting 100 active galaxies at low-energy, gamma ray energies are achievable. The angular resolution of an instrument, as well as its sensitivity, can limit the number of sources it can observe. An investigation of the angular resolution requirements for future low-energy gamma ray instruments is presented. It was found that the strictest requirements arise not from the need to resolve detectable sources, but from the need to control the level of direction-to-direction fluctuations in the diffuse background level. It was concluded that gamma-ray instruments capable of detecting 100 active galaxies must have sub-degree angular resolution. The use of the coded aperture imaging technique is proposed as a method of achieving accurate control of systematic errors and fine angular resolution without unduly increasing the time needed to conduct full sky surveys. An analysis of coded aperture imaging is presented for instruments that employ masks based on hexagonal uniformly redundant arrays. An instrument, the gamma-ray imaging payload, was built that employs these imaging techniques. The design and testing of the instrument is described in detail. Preliminary results from a balloon flight of the instruments are shown, demonstrating its imaging performance.

  12. Physics and astrophysics with gamma-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    In the past few years gamma-ray astronomy has entered a golden age. A modern suite of telescopes is now scanning the sky over both hemispheres and over six orders of magnitude in energy. At ˜TeV energies, only a handful of sources were known a decade ago, but the current generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS) has increased this number to nearly one hundred. With a large field of view and duty cycle, the Tibet and Milagro air shower detectors have demonstrated the promise of the direct particle detection technique for TeV gamma rays. At ˜GeV energies, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has increased the number of known sources by nearly an order of magnitude in its first year of operation. New classes of sources that were previously theorized to be gamma-ray emitters have now been confirmed observationally. Moreover, there have been surprise discoveries of GeV gamma-ray emission from source classes for which no theory predicted it was possible. In addition to elucidating the processes of high-energy astrophysics, gamma-ray telescopes are making essential contributions to fundamental physics topics including quantum gravity, gravitational waves, and dark matter. I summarize the current census of astrophysical gamma-ray sources, highlight some recent discoveries relevant to fundamental physics, and describe the synergetic connections between gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy. This is a brief overview intended in particular for particle physicists and neutrino astronomers, based on a presentation at the Neutrino 2010 conference in Athens, Greece. I focus in particular on results from Fermi (which was launched soon after Neutrino 2008), and conclude with a description of the next generation of instruments, namely HAWC and the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  13. VERITAS: An Atmospheric Imaging Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2006-10-27

    VERITAS is one of a new generation of imaging air Cerenkov telescope arrays built to study astrophysical sources emitting gamma rays in the GeV to TeV energy range. The catalog of objects that can be studied by these ground-based instruments is expanding rapidly. The observations now possible make a critical contribution to understanding some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. The imaging Cerenkov technique makes use of atmospheric calorimetry. The types of objects studied and the optical nature of ground-based gamma-ray telescopes places them solidly within the field of astronomy. However, the strong connections to particle processes, the electronic instrumentation, and reconstruction methods are those familiar to high energy particle physics. The advances in instrumentation that have brought about the current success of the field are reviewed and prospects for future improvements discussed.

  14. A Mechanically-Cooled, Highly-Portable, HPGe-Based, Coded-Aperture Gamma-Ray Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Hayward, Jason P; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Coded-aperture gamma-ray imaging is a mature technology that is capable of providing accurate and quantitative images of nuclear materials. Although it is potentially of high value to the safeguards and arms-control communities, it has yet to be fully embraced by those communities. One reason for this is the limited choice, high-cost, and low efficiency of commercial instruments; while instruments made by research organizations are frequently large and / or unsuitable for field work. In this paper we present the results of a project that mates the coded-aperture imaging approach with the latest in commercially-available, position-sensitive, High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detec-tors. The instrument replaces a laboratory prototype that, was unsuitable for other than demonstra-tions. The original instrument, and the cart on which it is mounted to provide mobility and pointing capabilities, has a footprint of ~ 2/3 m x 2 m, weighs ~ 100 Kg, and requires cryogen refills every few days. In contrast, the new instrument is tripod mounted, weighs of order 25 Kg, operates with a laptop computer, and is mechanically cooled. The instrument is being used in a program that is ex-ploring the use of combined radiation and laser scanner imaging. The former provides information on the presence, location, and type of nuclear materials while the latter provides design verification information. To align the gamma-ray images with the laser scanner data, the Ge imager is fitted and aligned to a visible-light stereo imaging unit. This unit generates a locus of 3D points that can be matched to the precise laser scanner data. With this approach, the two instruments can be used completely independently at a facility, and yet the data can be accurately overlaid based on the very structures that are being measured.

  15. The History of Ground-Based Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Astrophysics with the Atmospheric Air Cherenkov Telescope Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2013-06-01

    In the recent two decades the ground-based technique of imaging atmosphericescopes has established itself as a powerful new discipline in science. As of today some ˜ 150 sources of gamma rays of very different types, of both galactic and extragalactic origin, have been discovered due to this technique. The study of these sources is providing clues to many basic questions in astrophysics, astro-particle physics, physics of cosmic rays and cosmology. The current generation of telescopes, despite the young age of the technique, offers a solid performance. The technique is still maturing, leading to the next generation large instrument known under the name Cherenkov Telescope Array. The latter's sensitivity will be an order of magnitude higher than that of the currently best instruments VERITAS, H.E.S.S. and MAGIC. This article is devoted to outlining the milestones in a long history that step-by-step have given shape to this technique and have brought about today's successful source marathon.

  16. Pixellated thallium bromide detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, T.; Hitomi, K.; Shoji, T.; Hiratate, Y.

    2004-06-01

    Recently, pixellated semiconductor detectors exhibit high-energy resolution, which have been studied actively and fabricated from CdTe, CZT and HgI 2. Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor characterized with its high atomic numbers (Tl=81, Br=35) and high density (7.56 g/cm 3). Thus, TlBr exhibits higher photon stopping power than other semiconductor materials used for radiation detector fabrication such as CdTe, CZT and HgI 2. The wide band gap of TlBr (2.68 eV) permits the detectors low-noise operation at around room temperature. Our studies made an effort to fabricate pixellated TlBr detectors had sufficient detection efficiency and good charge collection efficiency. In this study, pixellated TlBr detectors were fabricated from the crystals purified by the multipass zone-refining method and grown by the horizontal traveling molten zone (TMZ) method. The TlBr detector has a continuous cathode over one crystal surface and 3×3 pixellated anodes (0.57×0.57 mm 2 each) surrounded by a guard ring on the opposite surface. The electrodes were realized by vacuum evaporation of palladium through a shadow mask. Typical thickness of the detector was 2 mm. Spectrometric performance of the TlBr detectors was tested by irradiating them with 241Am (59.5 keV), 57Co (122 keV) and 137Cs (662 keV) gamma-ray sources at temperature of -20°C. Energy resolutions (FWHM) were measured to be 4.0, 6.0 and 9.7 keV for 59.5, 122 and 662 keV gamma-rays, respectively.

  17. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory being released from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-35 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered the Earth's atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, GRO's Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center, kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientist to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of star, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in BATSE's science program.

  18. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  19. Solar flare gamma-ray and hard x ray imaging with the GRID-on-a-balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwig, Larry E.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, Brian R.; Starr, R.; Hurford, G. J.; Hudson, H. S.; Vanbeek, F.; Greene, M. E.; Johnson, W. N.; Norris, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    A primary scientific objective for solar flare research during the rapidly approaching maximum in solar activity is the imaging of gamma-ray and hard x ray sources of solar flare emissions. These goals will be pursued by the Gamma Ray Imaging Device (GRID) instrument, one of three instruments recently selected for NASA's Max '91 Solar Balloon Program. The GRID instrument is based on the technique of Fourier transform imaging and utilizes scanning modulation grid collimator optics to provide full-Sun imaging with 1.9-arcsecond resolution over the energy range from 20 to 700 keV at time resolutions from 0.1 to 2 s. The GRID telescope will employ 32 subcollimators, each composed of a matched pair of high-Z collimator grids separated by 5.2 meters and a phoswich scintillation spectrometer detector having no spatial resolution. The subcollimators and integrally-mounted fine aspect system are contained within a telescope canister which will be pointed to 0.1 degree accuracy and cyclically scanned to produce source modulation. The 32 subcollimators provide a uniform distribution of grid slit orientations and a logarithmic distribution of slit spacings corresponding to angular dimensions of 1.9 arcseconds to several arcminutes. The instrument is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than the HXIS instrument on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and nearly 10 times more sensitive than any similar instrument scheduled to fly during the next solar maximum. The payload, designed for long-duration high-altitude balloon capability, is scheduled for its first science flight (8 to 14 days duration) from the Antarctic in January of 1992.

  20. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

  1. Development of a detector based on Silicon Drift Detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busca, P.; Butt, A. D.; Fiorini, C.; Marone, A.; Occhipinti, M.; Peloso, R.; Quaglia, R.; Bombelli, L.; Giacomini, G.; Piemonte, C.; Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Nelms, N.; Shortt, B.

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with the development of a new gamma detector based on Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) to readout large LaBr3:Ce scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging applications. The research is supported by the European Space Agency through the Technology Research Programme (TRP) and by Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) within the Gamma project. The SDDs, produced at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) semiconductor laboratories, are designed as monolithic arrays of 3 × 3 units, each one of an active area of 8 mm × 8 mm (overall area of 26 mm × 26 mm). The readout electronics and the architecture of the camera are briefly described and then first experimental results coupling the SDD array with a 1'' × 1'' LaBr3:Ce scintillator are reported. An energy resolution of 3% FWHM at 662 keV has been measured at -20°C, better than coupling the same scintillator with a photomultiplier tube. The same scintillator is also used to evaluate position sensitivity with a 1 mm collimated Cs-137 source. The main difficulty in determining the position of the gamma-ray interaction in the crystal is associated to the high thickness/diameter ratio of the crystal (1:1) and the use of reflectors on all lateral and top sides the crystal. This last choice enhances energy resolution but makes imaging capability more challenging because light is spread over all photodetectors. Preliminary results show that the camera is able to detect shifts in the measured signals, when the source is moved with steps of 5 mm. A modified version of the centroid method is finally implemented to evaluate the imaging capability of the system.

  2. Recent progress of MPPC-based scintillation detectors in high precision X-ray and gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Fujita, T.; Nishiyama, T.; Kurei, Y.; Tsujikawa, T.; Oshima, T.; Taya, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Ogata, H.; Okochi, H.; Ohsuka, S.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, S.

    2015-06-01

    The multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) is a promising light sensor for various applications, not only in physics experiments but also in nuclear medicine, industry, and even high-energy astrophysics. In this paper, we present the current status and most recent progress of the MPPC-based scintillation detectors, such as (1) a high-precision X-ray and gamma-ray spectral image sensor, (2) next-generation PET detectors with MRI, TOF, and DOI measurement capabilities, and (3) a compact gamma camera for environmental radiation surveys. We first present a new method of fabricating a Ce:GAGG scintillator plate (1 or 2 mm thick) with ultra-fine resolution (0.2 mm/pixel), cut using a dicing saw to create 50 μm wide micro-grooves. When the plate is optically coupled with a large-area MPPC array, excellent spatial resolution of 0.48 mm (FWHM) and energy resolution of 14% (FWHM) are obtained for 122 keV gamma rays. Hence, the detector can act as a convenient "multi-color" imaging device that can potentially be used for future SPECT and photon-counting CT. We then show a prototype system for a high-resolution MPPC-based PET scanner that can realize ≃1 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution, even under a strong magnetic field of 4.7 T. We develop a front-end ASIC intended for future TOF-PET scanner with a 16-channel readout that achieves a coincidence time resolution of 489 ps (FWHM). A novel design for a module with DOI-measurement capability for gamma rays is also presented by measuring the pulse height ratio of double-sided MPPCs coupled at both ends of scintillation crystal block. Finally, we present the concept of a two-plane Compton camera consisting of Ce:GAGG scintillator arrays coupled with thin MPPC arrays. As a result of the thin and compact features of the MPPC device, the camera not only achieves a small size (14×14×15 cm3) and light weight (1.9 kg) but also excellent sensitivity, compared to the conventional PMT-based pinhole camera used in Fukushima. Finally, we briefly

  3. The very-high-energy gamma-ray sky.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy has emerged as a truly observational discipline, with many detected sources representing different galactic and extragalactic source populations-supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae, giant molecular clouds, star formation regions, compact binary systems, and active galactic nuclei. It is expected that observations with the next generation of stereoscopic arrays of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes over a very broad energy range from 10(10) to 10(15) electron volts will dramatically increase the number of very-high-energy gamma-ray sources, thus having a huge impact on the development of astrophysics, cosmology, and particle astrophysics. PMID:17204642

  4. The very-high-energy gamma-ray sky.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy has emerged as a truly observational discipline, with many detected sources representing different galactic and extragalactic source populations-supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae, giant molecular clouds, star formation regions, compact binary systems, and active galactic nuclei. It is expected that observations with the next generation of stereoscopic arrays of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes over a very broad energy range from 10(10) to 10(15) electron volts will dramatically increase the number of very-high-energy gamma-ray sources, thus having a huge impact on the development of astrophysics, cosmology, and particle astrophysics.

  5. Applying the new gamma ray imager diagnostic to measurements of runaway electron Bremsstrahlung radiation in the DIII-D Tokamak (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. M.; Pace, D. C.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Commaux, N.; Eidietis, N. W.; Hollmann, E. M.; Shiraki, D.

    2016-11-01

    A new gamma ray imager (GRI) is developed to probe the electron distribution function with 2D spatial resolution during runaway electron (RE) experiments at the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic is sensitive to 0.5-100 MeV gamma rays, allowing characterization of the RE distribution function evolution during RE growth and dissipation. The GRI consists of a lead "pinhole camera" mounted on the DIII-D midplane with 123 honeycombed tangential chords 20 cm wide that span the vessel interior. Up to 30 bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors capture RE bremsstrahlung radiation for Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) capable of discriminating up to 20 000 pulses per second. Digital signal processing routines combining shaping filters are performed during PHA to reject noise and record gamma ray energy. The GRI setup and PHA algorithms will be described and initial data from experiments will be presented. A synthetic diagnostic is developed to generate the gamma ray spectrum of a GRI channel given the plasma information and a prescribed distribution function. Magnetic reconstructions of the plasma are used to calculate the angle between every GRI sightline and orient and discriminate gamma rays emitted by a field-aligned RE distribution function.

  6. Dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay and imaging with mono-energetic gamma-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2013-02-05

    A dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay and imaging with mono-energetic gamma-ray sources includes a detector arrangement consists of three detectors downstream from the object under observation. The latter detector, which operates as a beam monitor, is an integrating detector that monitors the total beam power arriving at its surface. The first detector and the middle detector each include an integrating detector surrounding a foil. The foils of these two detectors are made of the same atomic material, but each foil is a different isotope, e.g., the first foil may comprise U235 and second foil may comprise U238. The integrating detectors surrounding these pieces of foil measure the total power scattered from the foil and can be similar in composition to the final beam monitor. Non-resonant photons will, after calibration, scatter equally from both foils.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF VIRTUAL FRISCH-GRID CdZnTe DETECTOR DESIGNS FOR IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF GAMMA RAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    BOLOTNIKOV,A.E.; ABDUL-JABBAR, N.M.; BABALOLA, S.; CAMARDA, G.S.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A.; JACKSON, E.; JACKSON, H.; JAMES, J.R.; LURYI, A.L.; JAMES, R.B.

    2007-08-21

    In the past, various virtual Frisch-grid designs have been proposed for cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and other compound semiconductor detectors. These include three-terminal, semi-spherical, CAPture, Frisch-ring, capacitive Frisch-grid and pixel devices (along with their modifications). Among them, the Frisch-grid design employing a non-contacting ring extended over the entire side surfaces of parallelepiped-shaped CZT crystals is the most promising. The defect-free parallelepiped-shaped crystals with typical dimensions of 5x5{approx}12 mm3 are easy to produce and can be arranged into large arrays used for imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. In this paper, we report on further advances of the virtual Frisch-grid detector design for the parallelepiped-shaped CZT crystals. Both the experimental testing and modeling results are described.

  8. Development of the 3-D Track Imager for Medium and High-Energy Gamma-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) and Advanced Pair Telescope (APT) are envisioned as the next medium (0.3 ^ 50 MeV) and high-energy (30 MeV - greater than 100 GeV) gamma-ray missions. These missions will address many research focus areas of the Structure and Evolution of the Universe Roadmap. These areas include: element formation, matter, energy, & magnetic field interactions in galaxies, AGN & GRB emission, and behavior of matter in extreme environments of black holes & pulsars. Achieving these science goals requires a substantial increases in telescope sensitivity and angular resolution. This talk will discuss how these goals can be met with the three-dimensional track imager (3-DTI), a large volume, low density, time projection chamber with two-dimensional micro-well detector readout and report on our development of a 10 cm x 10 cm x 30 prototype instrument.

  9. Development activities of a CdTe/CdZnTe pixel detector for gamma-ray spectrometry with imaging and polarimetry capability in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, J. L.; Hernanz, M.; Álvarez, J. M.; Álvarez, L.; La Torre, M.; Caroli, E.; Lozano, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Ullán, M.; Cabruja, E.; Martínez, R.; Chmeissani, M.; Puigdengoles, C.

    2013-05-01

    In the last few years we have been working on feasibility studies of future instruments in the gamma-ray range, from several keV up to a few MeV, in collaboration with other research institutes. High sensitivities are essential to perform detailed studies of cosmic explosions and cosmic accelerators, e.g., Supernovae, Classical Novae, Supernova Remnants (SNRs), Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), Pulsars, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN).Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) are very attractive materials for gamma-ray detection, since they have already demonstrated their great performance onboard current space missions, such as IBIS/INTEGRAL and BAT/SWIFT, and future projects like ASIM onboard the ISS. However, the energy coverage of these instruments is limited up to a few hundred keV, and there has not been yet a dedicated instrument for polarimetry.Our research and development activities aim to study a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer in the MeV range based on CdTe detectors, suited either for the focal plane of a focusing mission or as a calorimeter for a Compton camera. In addition, our undergoing detector design is proposed as the baseline for the payload of a balloon-borne experiment dedicated to hard X- and soft gamma-ray polarimetry, currently under study and called CμSP (CZT μ-Spectrometer Polarimeter). Other research institutes such as INAF-IASF, DTU Space, LIP, INEM/CNR, CEA, are involved in this proposal. We will report on the main features of the prototype we are developing at the Institute of Space Sciences, a gamma-ray detector with imaging and polarimetry capabilities in order to fulfil the combined requirement of high detection efficiency with good spatial and energy resolution driven by the science.

  10. Detection of gamma rays from a starburst galaxy.

    PubMed

    Acero, F; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barres de Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bühler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L-M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Füssling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Keogh, D; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Marandon, V; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Paz Arribas, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2009-11-20

    Starburst galaxies exhibit in their central regions a highly increased rate of supernovae, the remnants of which are thought to accelerate energetic cosmic rays up to energies of approximately 10(15) electron volts. We report the detection of gamma rays--tracers of such cosmic rays--from the starburst galaxy NGC 253 using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray flux above 220 billion electron volts is F = (5.5 +/- 1.0(stat) +/- 2.8(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), implying a cosmic-ray density about three orders of magnitude larger than that in the center of the Milky Way. The fraction of cosmic-ray energy channeled into gamma rays in this starburst environment is five times as large as that in our Galaxy.

  11. Gamma-ray camera flyby

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Animation based on an actual classroom demonstration of the prototype CCI-2 gamma-ray camera's ability to image a hidden radioactive source, a cesium-137 line source, in three dimensions. For more information see http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/06/02/applied-nuclear-physics/.

  12. Compton DIV: Using a Compton-Based Gamma-Ray Imager for Design Information Verification of Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, M; Verbeke, J; Dougan, A; Wang, T; Decman, D

    2009-07-04

    A feasibility study has been performed to determine the potential usefulness of Compton imaging as a tool for design information verification (DIV) of uranium enrichment plants. Compton imaging is a method of gamma-ray imaging capable of imaging with a 360-degree field of view over a broad range of energies. These systems can image a room (with a time span on the order of one hour) and return a picture of the distribution and composition of radioactive material in that room. The effectiveness of Compton imaging depends on the sensitivity and resolution of the instrument as well the strength and energy of the radioactive material to be imaged. This study combined measurements and simulations to examine the specific issue of UF{sub 6} gas flow in pipes, at various enrichment levels, as well as hold-up resulting from the accumulation of enriched material in those pipes. It was found that current generation imagers could image pipes carrying UF{sub 6} in less than one hour at moderate to high enrichment. Pipes with low enriched gas would require more time. It was also found that hold-up was more amenable to this technique and could be imaged in gram quantities in a fraction of an hour. another questions arises regarding the ability to separately image two pipes spaced closely together. This depends on the capabilities of the instrument in question. These results are described in detail. In addition, suggestions are given as to how to develop Compton imaging as a tool for DIV.

  13. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Paciesas, W.S. ); Fishman, G.J. )

    1992-01-01

    This proceedings represents the works presented at the Gamma-Ray Bursts Workshop -- 1991 which was held on the campus of theUniversity of Alabama in Huntsville, October 16-18. The emphasis ofthe Workshop was to present and discuss new observations of gamma-ray bursts made recently by experiments on the Compton Gamma-RayObservatory (CGRO), Granat, Ginga, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Prognozand Phobos. These presentations were complemented by some groundbased observations, reanalysis of older data, descriptions offuture gamma-ray burst experiments and a wide-ranging list oftheoretical discussions. Over seventy papers are included in theproceedings. Eleven of them are abstracted for the database. (AIP)

  14. Cosmic-Ray Accelerators in Milky Way studied with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Kamae, Tuneyoshi; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2012-05-04

    High-energy gamma-ray astrophysics is now situated at a confluence of particle physics, plasma physics and traditional astrophysics. Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST) and upgraded Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) have been invigorating this interdisciplinary area of research. Among many new developments, I focus on two types of cosmic accelerators in the Milky-Way galaxy (pulsar, pulsar wind nebula, and supernova remnants) and explain discoveries related to cosmic-ray acceleration.

  15. A high resolution liquid xenon imaging telescope for 0.3-10 MeV gamma-ray astrophysics: Construction and initial balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1994-01-01

    An instrument is described which will provide a direct image of gamma-ray line or continuum sources in the energy range 300 keV to 10 MeV. The use of this instrument to study the celestial distribution of the (exp 26)Al isotope by observing the 1.809 MeV deexcitation gamma-ray line is illustrated. The source location accuracy is 2' or better. The imaging telescope is a liquid xenon time projection chamber coupled with a coded aperture mask (LXe-CAT). This instrument will confirm and extend the COMPTEL observations from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) with an improved capability for identifying the actual Galactic source or sources of (exp 26)Al, which are currently not known with certainty. sources currently under consideration include red giants on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), novae, Type 1b or Type 2 supernovae, Wolf-Rayet stars and cosmic-rays interacting in molecular clouds. The instrument could also identify a local source of the celestial 1.809 MeV gamma-ray line, such as a recent nearby supernova.

  16. Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Woosley, Stan

    2012-11-01

    Prologue C. Kouveliotou, R. A . M. J. Wijers and S. E. Woosley; 1. The discovery of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon R. W. Klebesadel; 2. Instrumental principles E. E. Fenimore; 3. The BATSE era G. J. Fishman and C. A. Meegan; 4. The cosmological era L. Piro and K. Hurley; 5. The Swift era N. Gehrels and D. N. Burrows; 6. Discoveries enabled by multi-wavelength afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts J. Greiner; 7. Prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts T. Piran, R. Sari and R. Mochkovitch; 8. Basic gamma-ray burst afterglows P. Mészáros and R. A. M. J. Wijers; 9. The GRB-supernova connection J. Hjorth and J. S. Bloom; 10. Models for gamma-ray burst progenitors and central engines S. E. Woosley; 11. Jets and gamma-ray burst unification schemes J. Granot and E. Ramirez-Ruiz; 12. High-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos E. Waxman; 13. Long gamma-ray burst host galaxies and their environments J. P. U. Fynbo, D. Malesani and P. Jakobsson; 14. Gamma-ray burst cosmology V. Bromm and A. Loeb; 15. Epilogue R. D. Blandford; Index.

  17. Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of pulsar physics with the detection of over 80 gamma-ray pulsars. Several new populations have been discovered, including 24 radio quiet pulsars found through gamma-ray pulsations alone and about 20 millisecond gamma-ray pulsars. The gamma-ray pulsations from millisecond pulsars were discovered by both folding at periods of known radio millisecond pulsars or by detecting them as gamma-ray sources that are followed up by radio pulsar searches. The second method has resulted in a phenomenally successful synergy, with -35 new radio MSPs (to date) having been discovered at Fermi unidentified source locations and the gamma-ray pulsations having then been detected in a number of these using the radio timing solutions. The higher sensitivity and larger energy range of the Fermi Large Area Telescope has produced detailed energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectroscopy on brighter pulsars, that have ruled out polar cap models as the major source of the emission in favor of outer magnetosphere accelerators. The large number of gamma-ray pulsars now allows for the first time meaningful population and sub-population studies that are revealing surprising properties of these fascinating sources.

  18. Gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W. (Editor); Trombka, J. I. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers on gamma ray astrophysics are summarized. Data cover the energy region from about 0.3 MeV to a few hundred GeV and theoretical models of production mechanisms that give rise to both galactic and extragalactic gamma rays.

  19. Gamma ray detector shield

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

    1985-08-26

    A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

  20. Instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, David L.; Fichtel, Carl E.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1988-01-01

    The current status of gamma-ray-telescope technology for ground, airborne, and space observations is surveyed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs and tables of typical data. For the low- and medium-energy ranges, consideration is given to detectors and detector cooling systems, background-rejection methods, radiation damage, large-area detectors, gamma-ray imaging, data analysis, and the Compton-interaction region. Also discussed are the gamma-ray interaction process at high energies; multilevel automated spark-chamber gamma-ray telescopes; the Soviet Gamma-1 telescope; the EGRET instrument for the NASA Gamma-Ray Observatory; and Cerenkov, air-shower, and particle-detector instruments for the TeV and PeV ranges. Significant improvements in resolution and sensitivity are predicted for the near future.

  1. Gamma-Ray Astronomy from the Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horns, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    The observation of cosmic gamma-rays from the ground is based upon the detection of gamma-ray initiated air showers. At energies between approximately 1011 eV and 1013 eV, the imaging air Cherenkov technique is a particularly successful approach to observe gamma-ray sources with energy fluxes as low as ≈ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1. The observations of gamma-rays in this energy band probe particle acceleration in astrophysical plasma conditions and are sensitive to high energy phenomena beyond the standard model of particle physics (e.g., self-annihilating or decaying dark matter, violation of Lorentz invariance, mixing of photons with light pseudoscalars). The current standing of the field and its major instruments are summarized briefly by presenting selected highlights. A new generation of ground based gamma-ray instruments is currently under development. The perspectives and opportunities of these future facilities will be discussed.

  2. 3D printing in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Imaging: A novel method for fabricating high-density imaging apertures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian W; Moore, Jared W; Barrett, Harrison H; Fryé, Teresa; Adler, Steven; Sery, Joe; Furenlid, Lars R

    2011-12-10

    Advances in 3D rapid-prototyping printers, 3D modeling software, and casting techniques allow for cost-effective fabrication of custom components in gamma-ray and X-ray imaging systems. Applications extend to new fabrication methods for custom collimators, pinholes, calibration and resolution phantoms, mounting and shielding components, and imaging apertures. Details of the fabrication process for these components, specifically the 3D printing process, cold casting with a tungsten epoxy, and lost-wax casting in platinum are presented.

  3. 3D printing in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Imaging: A novel method for fabricating high-density imaging apertures☆

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Moore, Jared W.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Fryé, Teresa; Adler, Steven; Sery, Joe; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in 3D rapid-prototyping printers, 3D modeling software, and casting techniques allow for cost-effective fabrication of custom components in gamma-ray and X-ray imaging systems. Applications extend to new fabrication methods for custom collimators, pinholes, calibration and resolution phantoms, mounting and shielding components, and imaging apertures. Details of the fabrication process for these components, specifically the 3D printing process, cold casting with a tungsten epoxy, and lost-wax casting in platinum are presented. PMID:22199414

  4. PRECISE {gamma}-RAY TIMING AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF 17 FERMI {gamma}-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, P. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Grove, J. E.; Gwon, C.; Kerr, M.; Parent, D.; Makeev, A.; Abdo, A. A.; Guillemot, L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kramer, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Rea, N.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Camilo, F.; Dormody, M.; Harding, A. K.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Michelson, P. F.

    2011-06-01

    We present precise phase-connected pulse timing solutions for 16 {gamma}-ray-selected pulsars recently discovered using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope plus one very faint radio pulsar (PSR J1124-5916) that is more effectively timed with the LAT. We describe the analysis techniques including a maximum likelihood method for determining pulse times of arrival from unbinned photon data. A major result of this work is improved position determinations, which are crucial for multiwavelength follow-up. For most of the pulsars, we overlay the timing localizations on X-ray images from Swift and describe the status of X-ray counterpart associations. We report glitches measured in PSRs J0007+7303, J1124-5916, and J1813-1246. We analyze a new 20 ks Chandra ACIS observation of PSR J0633+0632 that reveals an arcminute-scale X-ray nebula extending to the south of the pulsar. We were also able to precisely localize the X-ray point source counterpart to the pulsar and find a spectrum that can be described by an absorbed blackbody or neutron star atmosphere with a hard power-law component. Another Chandra ACIS image of PSR J1732-3131 reveals a faint X-ray point source at a location consistent with the timing position of the pulsar. Finally, we present a compilation of new and archival searches for radio pulsations from each of the {gamma}-ray-selected pulsars as well as a new Parkes radio observation of PSR J1124-5916 to establish the {gamma}-ray to radio phase offset.

  5. Neutrons, X rays, and gamma rays: Imaging detectors, material characterization techniques, and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, John M.; Cline, David B.; Lanza, Richard; Mildner, David F. R.

    1993-02-01

    Topics addressed include scintillating fiber technology and applications; materials characterization techniques using gamma-rays, X-rays, and neutrons; survey of principles; systems in operation; new detection systems; and applications and sources of neutrons. Also discussed are a directional fast neutron detector using scintillating fibers and electrooptics; a dark-matter detector, a novel light counter, and the ICARUS project; the major problems of MeV and GeV gamma-ray astrophysics; a compact, tunable source of monochromatic highly-directional X-rays; recent advances in neutron tomography; tailoring neutron spectra for fast neutron spectroscopy; area detectors for neutron protein crystallography; features of microstrip proportional counters; thermal neutron imaging using microchannel plates; an image plate neutron detector; a characterization of an accelerator neutron source based on the Be(d,n) reaction; and tailoring neutron spectra for fast neutron spectroscopy. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  6. The Gamma Ray Imaging Detector of the AGILE satellite: A novel application of silicon trackers for detection of astrophysics high-energy photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappoldi, Andrea; AGILE Collaboration

    2009-10-01

    AGILE is a project of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) Scientific Program dedicated to Gamma ray astrophysics. It is designed to be a very light and compact instrument, capable of photon detections and imaging in both the 30 MeV-50 GeV and 18-60 keV energy ranges, with a large field of view (FOV is ˜3 and ˜1 sr, respectively). The core of the instrument (launched on April 23, 2007 from the Indian Space Research Organization's launch facility) is represented by the Gamma Ray Imaging Detector (GRID), which is a silicon tracker developed by the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), with a spatial resolution of ˜40 μm. The GRID performances have been studied by means of a GEANT Montecarlo, and tested with a dedicated calibration campaign using the tagged gamma beam available at Beam Test Facility (BTF) of INFN Frascati Laboratory.

  7. Electron-tracking Compton gamma-ray camera for small animal and phantom imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabuki, Shigeto; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Amano, Hiroo; Nakamoto, Yuji; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Michiaki; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Ueda, Masashi; Okada, Tomohisa; Kubo, Atsushi; Kunieda, Etuso; Nakahara, Tadaki; Kohara, Ryota; Miyazaki, Osamu; Nakazawa, Tetsuo; Shirahata, Takashi; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ogawa, Koichi; Togashi, Kaori; Saji, Hideo; Tanimori, Toru

    2010-11-01

    We have developed an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) for medical use. Our ETCC has a wide energy dynamic range (200-1300 keV) and wide field of view (3 sr), and thus has potential for advanced medical use. To evaluate the ETCC, we imaged the head (brain) and bladder of mice that had been administered with F-18-FDG. We also imaged the head and thyroid gland of mice using double tracers of F-18-FDG and I-131 ions.

  8. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Bursts and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to analysis of archival data from balloon flight experiments were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  9. Gamma ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1984-01-01

    The interpretations and implications of the astrophysical observations of gamma-ray lines are reviewed. At the Galactic Center e(+)-e(-) pairs from a compact object produce an annihilation line that shows no redshift, indicating an annihilation site far removed from this object. In the jets of SS433, gamma-ray lines are produced by inelastic excitations, probably in dust grains, although line emission from fusion reactions has also been considered. Observations of diffuse galactic line emission reveal recently synthesized radioactive aluminum in the interstellar medium. In gamma-ray bursts, redshifted pair annihilation lines are consistent with a neutron star origin for the bursts. In solar flares, gamma-ray line emission reveals the prompt acceleration of protons and nuclei, in close association with the flare energy release mechanism.

  10. Feasibility tests of a dual modality system for imaging using gamma rays and NIR light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Nikolay; Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn; Baneva, Yanka; Bello, Michele; De Rosa, Matteo; Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Moschini, Giuliano; Rossi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    We are developing a dual system for small-animal imaging in multimodality studies, which consists of a highspatial resolution gamma-camera and a scanner for Near-Infra-Red (NIR) light. The gamma-camera is assembled from a position-sensitive photomultiplier and a scintillation-crystal with parallel-hole collimator. On the other hand, the NIR imaging is designed for near-object scanning, and features two operational modes: Transmission and Fluorescence. In the Transmission mode, the NIR light, coming from five different wavelength LEDs, crosses the sample and is subsequently measured by an array sensor. In the Fluorescence mode, the emission from nanoparticles, such as singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) administered in the imaged object, is excited using the laser. The gamma-camera energy and spatial resolutions have been measured. This latter has been assessed by using specially-designed phantoms like capillary tubes or volumes with cavities filled with a radioactive solution. The NIR-scanner spatial resolution has been determined along two perpendicular directions using standards, placed at different distances from the sensor. The results show that both the NIR scanning-system and the gamma-camera feature good imaging-parameters and can be applied to multimodality studies.

  11. Hard-X-Ray/Soft-Gamma-Ray Imaging Sensor Assembly for Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    An improved sensor assembly has been developed for astronomical imaging at photon energies ranging from 1 to 100 keV. The assembly includes a thallium-doped cesium iodide scintillator divided into pixels and coupled to an array of high-gain avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Optionally, the array of APDs can be operated without the scintillator to detect photons at energies below 15 keV. The array of APDs is connected to compact electronic readout circuitry that includes, among other things, 64 independent channels for detection of photons in various energy ranges, up to a maximum energy of 100 keV, at a count rate up to 3 kHz. The readout signals are digitized and processed by imaging software that performs "on-the-fly" analysis. The sensor assembly has been integrated into an imaging spectrometer, along with a pair of coded apertures (Fresnel zone plates) that are used in conjunction with the pixel layout to implement a shadow-masking technique to obtain relatively high spatial resolution without having to use extremely small pixels. Angular resolutions of about 20 arc-seconds have been measured. Thus, for example, the imaging spectrometer can be used to (1) determine both the energy spectrum of a distant x-ray source and the angular deviation of the source from the nominal line of sight of an x-ray telescope in which the spectrometer is mounted or (2) study the spatial and temporal development of solar flares, repeating - ray bursters, and other phenomena that emit transient radiation in the hard-x-ray/soft- -ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  12. Attributes from NMIS Time Coincidence, Fast-Neutron Imaging, Fission Mapping, And Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Alicia L; Grogan, Brandon R; Mullens, James Allen; Hayward, J P; Mihalczo, John T

    2012-01-01

    This work tests a systematic procedure for analyzing data acquired by the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with fast-neutron imaging and high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry capabilities. NMIS has been under development by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Verification since the mid-1990s, and prior to that by the National Nuclear Security Administration Y-12 National Security Complex, with NMIS having been used at Y-12 for template matching to confirm inventory and receipts. In this present work, a complete set of NMIS time coincidence, fast-neutron imaging, fission mapping, and HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry data was obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for a configuration of fissile and nonfissile materials. The data were then presented for analysis to someone who had no prior knowledge of the unknown object to accurately determine the description of the object by applying the previously-mentioned procedure to the simulated data. The best approximation indicated that the unknown object was composed of concentric cylinders: a void inside highly enriched uranium (HEU) (84.7 {+-} 1.9 wt % {sup 235}U), surrounded by depleted uranium, surrounded by polyethylene. The final estimation of the unknown object had the correct materials and geometry, with error in the radius estimates of material regions varying from 1.58% at best and 4.25% at worst; error in the height estimates varied from 2% to 12%. The error in the HEU enrichment estimate was 5.9 wt % (within 2.5{sigma} of the true value). The accuracies of the determinations could be adequate for arms control applications. Future work will apply this iterative reconstructive procedure to other unknown objects to further test and refine it.

  13. Gamma ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jentschel, M.; Guenther, M. M.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    Via refractive or diffractive scattering one can shape {gamma} ray beams in terms of beam divergence, spot size and monochromaticity. These concepts might be particular important in combination with future highly brilliant gamma ray sources and might push the sensibility of planned experiments by several orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate the experimental feasibility of gamma ray monochromatization on a ppm level and the creation of a gamma ray beam with nanoradian divergence. The results are obtained using the inpile target position of the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble and the crystal spectrometer GAMS. Since the refractive index is believed to vanish to zero with 1/E{sup 2}, the concept of refractive optics has never been considered for gamma rays. The combination of refractive optics with monochromator crystals is proposed to be a promising design. Using the crystal spectrometer GAMS, we have measured for the first time the refractive index at energies in the energy range of 180 - 2000 keV. The results indicate a deviation from simple 1/E{sup 2} extrapolation of X-ray results towards higher energies. A first interpretation of these new results will be presented. We will discuss the consequences of these results on the construction of refractive optics such as lenses or refracting prisms for gamma rays and their combination with single crystal monochromators.

  14. The application of two-dimensional imaging to very high energy gamma ray astronomy. [Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Weekes, T.C.

    1992-12-01

    After an introductory overview of gamma-ray astronomy, very brief summaries of research results are given. Summary topics may be grouped as follows: observations (survey of candidate gamma-ray sources; Cygnus X-3; Markarian 421; AGN's: general survey; Crab observations: pulsar outburst; Geminga; AE Aqr; bursts; ARTEMIS; muon telescope), technical developments (11m telescope: dedication and performance; 10m mount control; CCD cameras; light cones; filters; GRANITE upgrade; trigger configuration; miror coatings; lightning protection), data analysis (quick look; optical disk archive; false source method), infrastructure, and reviews.

  15. Gamma-Ray Burst Physics with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, N.; /INFN, Pisa

    2006-10-06

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV, the upper end of which is one of the last poorly observed region of the celestial electromagnetic spectrum. The ancestor of the GLAST/LAT was the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector, which flew onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). The amount of information and the step forward that the high energy astrophysics made thanks to its 9 years of observations are impressive. Nevertheless, EGRET uncovered the tip of the iceberg, raising many questions, and it is in the light of EGRET's results that the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) vastly more capable than instruments own previously, as well as a secondary instrument, the GLAST Bursts Monitor, or GBM, to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) science is one of the most exciting challenges for the GLAST mission, exploring the high energy emission of one of the most intense phenomena in the sky, shading light on various problems: from the acceleration of particles to the emission processes, to more exotic physics like Quantum Gravity effect. In this paper we report the work done so far in the simulation development as well as the study of the LAT sensitivity to GRB.

  16. Prospects for gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission and the Gamma Ray Experiment aboard the SMM spacecraft are discussed. Mission plans for interplanetary probes are also discussed. The Gamma Ray observatory and its role in future gamma ray astronomy is highlighted. It is concluded that gamma ray astronomy will be of major importance in the development of astronomical models and in the development of comsological theory.

  17. A Compton camera for low energy gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, James Walter

    C-SPRINT is a prototype electronically-collimated imaging system that has been built using pixellated, low-noise, position-sensitive silicon as the first detector, and a sodium iodide scintillation detector ring as the second detector. The camera was intended to characterize potential performance gains of Compton cameras in nuclear medicine applications. The system consists of a single 4.5 x 1.5 x 0.03 cm3 silicon pad detector module with 2 keV energy resolution centered at the front face of a 50 cm diameter, 12 cm long NaI detector annulus. Calculations of the Uniform Cramer-Rao lower bound show that a "design Compton camera" based on our prototype can challenge existing mechanically-collimated systems at low to medium energies (˜140.5 - 400 keV) despite the deleterious effects of Doppler broadening. Measurements with our current system have yielded system sensitivity and spatial resolution estimates using 99mTc and 131I isotopes. Results showed an absolute efficiency of 1.8 x 10 -7 for 99mTc and 1.2 x 10-6 for 131I. The 99mTc value is an order of magnitude lower than predicted because of a combination of worse than expected silicon detector triggering performance, timing resolution issues, and system dead time effects. After correcting for these, efficiency predictions based on Monte Carlo analysis fall within 10% of the measured values. Spatial resolution estimates are also within 10% of analytical predictions. Measured resolution for the 99mTc point source was 15 min FWHM while in the 131I case, resolution improved to 8 mm FWHM. Extended source imaging was performed to characterize system performance under more challenging conditions. Images obtained were compared with measurements using a clinically-available mechanically collimated Anger camera. A resolution-variance study was also conducted for both isotopes. The results showed that the C-SPRINT camera performance on a per-detected photon basis was worse than the Anger camera for 99mTc but was similar for

  18. A liquid xenon imaging telescope for gamma ray astrophysics: Design and expected performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Chen, D.; Bolotnikov, A.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution telescope for imaging cosmic x ray sources in the MeV region, with an angular resolution better than 0.5 deg is being developed as balloon-borne payload. The instrument consists of a 3-D liquid xenon TPC as x ray detector, coupled with a coded aperture at a distance of 1 meter. A study of the actual source distribution of the 1.809 MeV line from the decay of Al-26 and the 511 keV positron-electron annihilation line is among the scientific objectives, along with a search for new x ray sources. The telescope design parameters and expected minimum flux sensitivity to line and continuum radiation are presented. The unique capablity of the LXe-TPC as a Compton Polarimeter is also discussed.

  19. Prototype AEGIS: A Pixel-Array Readout Circuit for Gamma-Ray Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barber, H. Bradford; Augustine, F. L.; Furenlid, L.; Ingram, C. M.; Grim, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor detector arrays made of CdTe/CdZnTe are expected to be the main components of future high-performance, clinical nuclear medicine imaging systems. Such systems will require small pixel-pitch and much larger numbers of pixels than are available in current semiconductor-detector cameras. We describe the motivation for developing a new readout integrated circuit, AEGIS, for use in hybrid semiconductor detector arrays, that may help spur the development of future cameras. A basic design for AEGIS is presented together with results of an HSPICE™ simulation of the performance of its unit cell. AEGIS will have a shaper-amplifier unit cell and neighbor pixel readout. Other features include the use of a single input power line with other biases generated on-board, a control register that allows digital control of all thresholds and chip configurations and an output approach that is compatible with list-mode data acquisition. An 8×8 prototype version of AEGIS is currently under development; the full AEGIS will be a 64×64 array with 300 μm pitch. PMID:26345126

  20. Early-time Observations of Gamma-ray Burst Error Boxes with the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, George Grant

    2000-08-01

    Approximately three times per day a bright flash of high energy radiation from the depths of the universe encounters the Earth. These gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were discovered circa 1970 yet their origin remains a mystery. Traditional astronomical observations of GRBs are hindered by their transient nature. They have durations of only a few seconds and occur at random times from unpredictable directions. In recent years, precise GRB localizations and rapid coordinate dissemination have permitted sensitive follow-up observations. These observations resulted in the identification of long wavelength counterparts within distant galaxies. Despite the wealth of data now available the physical mechanism which produces these extremely energetic phenomena is still unknown. In the near future, simultaneous and early-time optical observations of GRBs will aid in constraining the theoretical models. The Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (LOTIS) is an automated robotic wide field-of-view telescope dedicated to the search for prompt and early-time optical emission from GRBs. Since routine operations began in October 1996 LOTIS has responded to over 145 GRB triggers. LOTIS has not yet detected optical emission from a GRB but upper limits provided by the telescope constrain the theoretical emission mechanisms. Super-LOTIS, also a robotic wide field-of-view telescope, is 100 times more sensitive than LOTIS. Routine observations from Steward Observatory's Kitt Peak Station will begin in the immediate future. During engineering test runs Super-LOTIS obtained its first upper limit on the early-time optical afterglow of GRBs. An overview of the history and current state of GRBs is presented. Theoretical models are reviewed briefly. The LOTIS and Super-LOTIS hardware and operating procedures are discussed. A summary of the results from both LOTIS and Super-LOTIS and an interpretation of those results is presented. Plans for future studies with both systems are briefly stated.

  1. CANGAROO-III SEARCH FOR TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM TWO CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kiuchi, R.; Mori, M.; Enomoto, R.; Kifune, T.; Bicknell, G. V.; Clay, R. W.; Edwards, P. G.; Gunji, S.; Inoue, K.; Hara, S.; Itoh, C.; Hara, T.; Hattori, T.; Kawachi, A.; Hayashi, S.; Kajino, F.; Higashi, Y.; Kabuki, S.; Hirai, Y.; Katagiri, H.

    2009-10-10

    Because accretion and merger shocks in clusters of galaxies may accelerate particles to high energies, clusters are candidate sites for the origin of ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays. A prediction was presented for gamma-ray emission from a cluster of galaxies at a detectable level with the current generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray emission was produced via inverse Compton upscattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electron-positron pairs generated by collisions of UHE cosmic rays in the cluster. We observed two clusters of galaxies, Abell 3667 and Abell 4038, searching for very high energy gamma-ray emission with the CANGAROO-III atmospheric Cherenkov telescope system in 2006. The analysis showed no significant excess around these clusters, yielding upper limits on the gamma-ray emission. From a comparison of the upper limit for the northwest radio relic region of Abell 3667 with a model prediction, we derive a lower limit for the magnetic field of the region of approx0.1 muG. This shows the potential of gamma-ray observations in studies of the cluster environment. We also discuss the flux upper limit from cluster center regions using a model of gamma-ray emission from neutral pions produced in hadronic collisions of cosmic-ray protons with the intracluster medium. The derived upper limit of the cosmic-ray energy density within this framework is an order of magnitude higher than that of our Galaxy.

  2. Radionuclides in the ground-level atmosphere in Vilnius, Lithuania, in March 2011, detected by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Druteikienė, R; Lujanienė, G; Maceika, E; Plukis, A; Remeikis, V

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the ground-level air monitoring results obtained in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, on 14 March-14 April 2011 after the recent earthquake and subsequent Tsunami having a crucial impact on Japanese nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on 11 March 2011. To collect representative diurnal aerosol samples a powerful sampling system ensuring the air filtration rate of 5500 m(3) h(-1) was used. The following artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclides have been determined: (129m)Te, (132)Te (in equilibrium with its daughter (132)I), (131)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs and (137)Cs. Activity concentration of the globally distributed fission product (137)Cs has increased from a background value of 1.6 μBq m(-3) to the value of 0.9 mBq m(-3) at the beginning of April. The activity ratio (134)Cs/(137)Cs was found to be close to 1, with a slightly higher activity of (134)Cs. The maximum aerosol-associated (131)I activity concentration of 3.45 mBq m(-3) was by four orders of magnitude lower than that measured at the same location in April-May 1986 as a consequence of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The estimated gaseous fraction of iodine-131 constituted about 70% of the total (131)I activity.

  3. Gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

    2012-08-24

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow. PMID:22923573

  4. A Compact Monitoring System for Recording X-Rays, Gamma Rays and Neutrons Generated By Atmospheric Lightning Discharges and Other Natural Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, I. M.; Alves, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The generation of X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons by atmospheric lightning discharges has been predicted by different researchers several decades ago. But only within the last 25 years the first experimental evidences of events relating the generation of these radiations with lightning have been made; since then there is a continuing effort to collect more information about this type of phenomenon. In this study we describe a compact monitoring system to detect simultaneously X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons using rather inexpensive off-the-shelf commercial detectors (Micro Roengten Radiation Monitor, 8-inch gamma tube coupled to a 3x3 inch sodium iodide [Nai(Tl)] crystal, Ludlum He-3 neutron detector) and accompanying computer interfaces. The system is extremely portable and can be powered with small automotive batteries, if necessary. Measurements are performed at ground-level. Preliminary measurements have already yielded positive results, e.g., changes in the neutron flux related to a lightning discharge and varying weather conditions have been observed in the city of Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil (23° 11‧ 11″S, 45° 52‧ 43″ W, 600 m above sea level). This a pilot study, in the near future a larger number of these compact monitoring system will be installed in different location in order to increase the area coverage. Although the main objective of the study is to detect high-energy events produced by lightning discharges, the monitoring system will also be able to detect changes in the radiation background produced by other natural phenomena.

  5. Early-time observations of gamma-ray burst error boxes with the Livermore optical transient imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G G

    2000-08-01

    Despite the enormous wealth of gamma-ray burst (GRB) data collected over the past several years the physical mechanism which causes these extremely powerful phenomena is still unknown. Simultaneous and early time optical observations of GRBs will likely make an great contribution t o our understanding. LOTIS is a robotic wide field-of-view telescope dedicated to the search for prompt and early-time optical afterglows from gamma-ray bursts. LOTIS began routine operations in October 1996 and since that time has responded to over 145 gamma-ray burst triggers. Although LOTIS has not yet detected prompt optical emission from a GRB its upper limits have provided constraints on the theoretical emission mechanisms. Super-LOTIS, also a robotic wide field-of-view telescope, can detect emission 100 times fainter than LOTIS is capable of detecting. Routine observations from Steward Observatory's Kitt Peak Station will begin in the immediate future. During engineering test runs under bright skies from the grounds of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Super-LOTIS provided its first upper limits on the early-time optical afterglow of GRBs. This dissertation provides a summary of the results from LOTIS and Super-LOTIS through the time of writing. Plans for future studies with both systems are also presented.

  6. Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

  7. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the MSFC Very Low Frequency transient monitoring program were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  8. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1992-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to mission operations and data analysis for the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory, to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the Marshall Space Flight Center Very Low Frequency transient monitoring program, and to compilation and analysis of induced radioactivity data were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  9. Celestial gamma ray study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the research activities performed by Stanford University investigators as part of the data reduction effort and overall support of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. This report is arranged chronologically, with each subsection detailing activities during roughly a one year period of time, beginning in June 1991.

  10. Supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The observation of very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma rays is an excellent tool to study the most energetic and violent environments in the Galaxy. This energy range is only accessible with ground-based instruments such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) that reconstruct the energy and direction of the primary gamma ray by observing the Cherenkov light from the induced extended air showers in Earths atmosphere. The main goals of Galactic VHE gamma-ray science are the identification of individual sources of cosmic rays (CRs), such as supernova remnants (SNRs), and the study of other extreme astrophysical objects at the highest energies, such as gamma-ray binaries and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). One of the main challenges is the discrimination between leptonic and hadronic gamma-ray production channels. To that end, the gamma-ray signal from each individual source needs to be brought into context with the multi-wavelength environment of the astrophysical object in question, particularly with observations tracing the density of the surrounding interstellar medium, or synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons. In this review presented at the European Cosmic Ray Symposium 2014 (ECRS2014), the most recent developments in the field of Galactic VHE gamma-ray science are highlighted, with particular emphasis on SNRs and PWNe.

  11. CELESTE: A Large Heliostat Array for Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Bergeret, H.; Cordier, A.; Dumora, D.; Eschstruth, P.; Espigat, P.; Fabre, B.; Fleury, P.; Giebels, B.; Merkel, B.; Meynadier, C.; Paré, E.; Procureur, J.; Québert, J.; Rob, L.; Roy, Ph.; Salamon, M. H.; Schovanek, P.; Vrana, J.

    1997-03-01

    Breakthroughs in high energy gamma ray astronomy both on the ground and in space since circa 1990 sparked campaigns to extend the sensitivity of the atmospheric Cherenkov detectors down to the energy range of the satellite detectors. While the Cherenkov imagers have yielded the best results near 1 TeV, we argue that wavefront sampling is better suited to begin exploration of the sub-100 GeV range. Specifically, we describe work that has been done on Celeste, a project to transform the Themis central receiver solar power plant in the French Pyrenees into a 20 GeV to 200 GeV gamma ray telescope. Celeste will complement the 200 GeV to 20 TeV instruments already running at Themis.

  12. CELESTE: A large heliostat array for gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Bergeret, H.; Cordier, A.; Dumora, D.; Eschstruth, P.; Espigat, P.; Fabre, B.; Fleury, P.; Giebels, B.; Merkel, B.; Meynadier, C.; Paré, E.; Procureur, J.; Québert, J.; Rob, L.; Roy, Ph.; Salamon, M. H.; Schovanek, P.; Vrana, J.

    1997-03-01

    Breakthroughs in high energy gamma ray astronomy both on the ground and in space since circa 1990 sparked campaigns to extend the sensitivity of the atmospheric Cherenkov detectors down to the energy range of the satellite detectors. While the Cherenkov imagers have yielded the best results near 1 TeV, we argue that wavefront sampling is better suited to begin exploration of the sub-100 GeV range. Specifically, we describe work that has been done on Celeste, a project to transform the Themis central receiver solar power plant in the French Pyrenees into a 20 GeV to 200 GeV gamma ray telescope. Celeste will complement the 200 GeV to 20 TeV instruments already running at Themis.

  13. Gamma ray astronomy in perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the development of gamma ray astronomy is presented. Gamma ray telescopes and other optical measuring instruments are highlighted. Emphasis is placed on findings that were unobtainable before gamma ray astronomy. Information on evolution of the solar system, the relationship of the solar system to the galaxy, and the composition of interstellar matter is discussed.

  14. Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

  15. Calculation of External Gamma-Ray and Beta-Ray Doses from Accidental Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides.

    1981-02-25

    SUBDOSA-II calculates submersion doses from an acute release of radionuclides to the atmosphere, as did SUBDOSA. Doses are calculated as a function of distance from release point, atmospheric stability, and wind speed for a specified radionuclide inventory. Contributions from both beta and gamma radiation are included as a function of tissue depth.

  16. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1994-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) is one of four instruments on the Compton observatory which was launched by the space shuttle Atlantis on April 5, 1991. As of mid-March, 1994, BATSE detected more than 925 cosmic gamma-ray bursts and more than 725 solar flares. Pulsed gamma rays have been detected from at least 16 sources and emission from at least 28 sources (including most of the pulsed sources) has been detected by the earth occultation technique. UAH participation in BATSE is extensive but can be divided into two main areas, operations and data analysis. The daily BATSE operations tasks represent a substantial level of effort and involve a large team composed of MSFC personnel as well as contractors such as UAH. The scientific data reduction and analysis of BATSE data is also a substantial level of effort in which UAH personnel have made significant contributions.

  17. Gamma ray collimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, Edgar J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A gamma ray collimator including a housing having first and second sections is disclosed. The first section encloses a first section of depleted uranium which is disposed for receiving and supporting a radiation emitting component such as cobalt 60. The second section encloses a depleted uranium member which is provided with a conical cut out focusing portion disposed in communication with the radiation emitting element for focusing the emitted radiation to the target.

  18. A Search for Simultaneous Optical Counterparts of Gamma-Ray Bursts (LOTIS: Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.-S.

    1999-01-01

    Under this grant the UC Berkeley PI, K. Hurley, joined the LOTIS collaboration. His task was to provide precise localization data on cosmic gamma-ray bursts, so that the LOTIS automated camera data could be searched more efficiently for evidence of optical emission from gamma-ray burst sources. This was accomplished. A program is now in place which automatically sends Interplanetary Network data on bursts via e-mail to H.S. Park, for every burst detected by the GRB experiment aboard the Ulysses spacecraft (for which K. Hurley is the P.I.). The data consist either of triangulation annuli (obtained when just two spacecraft observe the burst) or error boxes (when three widely separated spacecraft observe it). These define a locus of possible burst positions. The annuli intersect the large error circles of the CGRO-BATSE experiment, and reduce their areas by a factor of approximately 25 or more. The error boxes reduce the areas by factors of several hundred. This in turn reduces the area which must be searched for an optical counterpart. No such counterparts have been observed to date by the LOTIS experiment, but several interesting upper limits have been obtained.

  19. A 12-bit, 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for a CZT-based multi-channel gamma-ray imager using a new digital calibration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Wei, T.; Yang, L.; Hu, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The successive approximation register-analog to digital converter (SAR-ADC) is widely used in the CdZnTe-based gamma-ray imager because of its outstanding characteristics of low power consumption, relatively high resolution, and small die size. This study proposes a digital bit-by-bit calibration method using an input ramp signal to further improve the conversion precision and power consumption of an SAR-ADC. The proposed method is based on the sub-radix-2 redundant architecture and the perturbation technique. The proposed calibration algorithm is simpler, more stable, and faster than traditional approaches. The prototype chip of the 12-bit, 1 MS/s radiation-hardened SAR-ADC has been designed and fabricated using the TSMC 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. This SAR-ADC consumes 3 mW power and occupies a core area of 856× 802μm2. The digital bit-by-bit calibration algorithm is implemented via MATLAB for testing flexibility. The effective number of bits for this digitally calibrated SAR-ADC reaches 11.77 bits. The converter exhibits high conversion precision, low power consumption, and radiation-hardened design. Therefore, this SAR-ADC is suitable for multi-channel gamma-ray imager applications.

  20. UNIDENTIFIED {gamma}-RAY SOURCES: HUNTING {gamma}-RAY BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Ajello, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Tosti, G.; Gasparrini, D.

    2012-06-10

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the major improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one-third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated with low-energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of active galactic nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated with the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray LAT catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart to each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated with {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  1. Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: Hunting Gamma-Ray Blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, A.Paggi.D.

    2012-04-02

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the large improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated to low energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of Active Galactic Nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated to the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated to {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  2. Interannual similarity and variation in seasonal circulation of Mars' atmospheric Ar as seen by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer on Mars Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Ann L.; Boynton, William V.; Forget, Francois; Lian, Yuan; Richardson, Mark; Starr, Richard; Metzger, Albert E.; Hamara, David; Economou, Thanasis

    2012-04-01

    More than 3 Mars' years (MY) of atmospheric argon (Ar) measurements are used to study annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric transport and mixing. Data are obtained over the period 20 May 2002 to 4 May 2008 by the Gamma Subsystem (GS) of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft in orbit around Mars. Here we augment previous studies of Mars' Ar in which strong seasonal variations were observed and horizontal meridional mixing coefficients for the southern hemisphere were computed. Comparison of year-to-year seasonal abundance shows strong similarity but also some short-period (˜15°-30° Ls) and interannual variations. Evidence for short periods of strong eddy transport is exhibited during autumn and winter. The seasonal change in Ar concentration for southern latitudes is relatively gradual and well defined, but seasonal changes at high northern latitudes are chaotic and indicate that atmospheric disturbance is ubiquitous. Major topographic landforms (Elysium, Tharsis, Noachis Terra, Hellas) apparently have little control over seasonal Ar concentration at the spatial resolution of the GRS data set. Some indication of local enhanced Ar concentration is present from 30°N to 60°N for the Hellas and Tharsis sectors in late winter and early spring. The data show some significant (3σ) differences between MY 26 and MY 27 in geographical sectors that are likely produced by local weather. The GS data do not show seasonal variation of Ar at equatorial and low-latitude zones, in contrast to those from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) measurements from the Mars Exploration Rovers.

  3. Detection of Pulsed Gamma Rays Above 100 GeV from the Crab Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VERITAS Collaboration; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hughes, G.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lyutikov, M.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nuñez, P.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pizlo, F.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma rays from the Crab pulsar at energies above 100 giga-electron volts (GeV) with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The detection cannot be explained on the basis of current pulsar models. The photon spectrum of pulsed emission between 100 mega-electron volts and 400 GeV is described by a broken power law that is statistically preferred over a power law with an exponential cutoff. It is unlikely that the observation can be explained by invoking curvature radiation as the origin of the observed gamma rays above 100 GeV. Our findings require that these gamma rays be produced more than 10 stellar radii from the neutron star.

  4. Detection of pulsed gamma rays above 100 GeV from the Crab pulsar.

    PubMed

    Aliu, E; Arlen, T; Aune, T; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bouvier, A; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cannon, A; Cesarini, A; Christiansen, J L; Ciupik, L; Collins-Hughes, E; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Duke, C; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Finley, J P; Finnegan, G; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gall, D; Gibbs, K; Gillanders, G H; Godambe, S; Griffin, S; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Huan, H; Hughes, G; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, P; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Lyutikov, M; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; Majumdar, P; McArthur, S; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nuñez, P; Ong, R A; Orr, M; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pizlo, F; Pohl, M; Prokoph, H; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Ruppel, J; Saxon, D B; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Sentürk, G D; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Tešić, G; Theiling, M; Thibadeau, S; Tsurusaki, K; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Vivier, M; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Weisgarber, T; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma rays from the Crab pulsar at energies above 100 giga-electron volts (GeV) with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The detection cannot be explained on the basis of current pulsar models. The photon spectrum of pulsed emission between 100 mega-electron volts and 400 GeV is described by a broken power law that is statistically preferred over a power law with an exponential cutoff. It is unlikely that the observation can be explained by invoking curvature radiation as the origin of the observed gamma rays above 100 GeV. Our findings require that these gamma rays be produced more than 10 stellar radii from the neutron star.

  5. Can Astrophysical Gamma Ray Sources Mimic Dark Matter Annihilation in Galactic Satellites?

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Taylor, James E.; Wai, Lawrence L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-01

    The nature of the cosmic dark matter is unknown. The most compelling hypothesis is that dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the 100 GeV mass range. Such particles would annihilate in the galactic halo, producing high-energy gamma rays which might be detectable in gamma ray telescopes such as the GLAST satellite. We investigate the ability of GLAST to distinguish between the WIMP annihilation spectrum and the spectrum of known astrophysical source classes. Focusing on the emission from the galactic satellite halos predicted by the cold dark matter model, we find that the WIMP gamma-ray spectrum is unique; the separation from known source classes can be done in a convincing way. We discuss the follow-up of possible WIMP sources with Imaging Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes. Finally we discuss the impact that Large Hadron Collider data might have on the study of galactic dark matter.

  6. Analysis of atmospheric gamma-ray flashes detected in near space with allowance for the transport of photons in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, L. P. Donskoy, E. N.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2008-07-15

    Monte Carlo simulations of transport of the bremsstrahlung produced by relativistic runaway electron avalanches are performed for altitudes up to the orbit altitudes where terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) have been detected aboard satellites. The photon flux per runaway electron and angular distribution of photons on a hemisphere of radius similar to that of the satellite orbits are calculated as functions of the source altitude z. The calculations yield general results, which are recommended for use in TGF data analysis. The altitude z and polar angle are determined for which the calculated bremsstrahlung spectra and mean photon energies agree with TGF measurements. The correlation of TGFs with variations of the vertical dipole moment of a thundercloud is analyzed. We show that, in agreement with observations, the detected TGFs can be produced in the fields of thunderclouds with charges much smaller than 100 C and that TGFs are not necessarily correlated with the occurrence of blue jets and red sprites.

  7. SYNTH - Gamma Ray Spectrum Synthesizer

    2009-05-18

    SYNTH was designed to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code allows a user to specify the physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of radionuclides emitting gamma radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence and type of any intervening absorbers, the size and type of the gamma-ray detector, and the electronic set-up used to gather the data.

  8. Gamma-ray Astrophysics with AGILE

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Francesco |; Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.

    2007-07-12

    AGILE will explore the gamma-ray Universe with a very innovative instrument combining for the first time a gamma-ray imager and a hard X-ray imager. AGILE will be operational in spring 2007 and it will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources. Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV AGILE is now (March 2007) undergoing launcher integration and testing. The PLSV launch is planned in spring 2007. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2007.

  9. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  10. Modeling of Pulses in Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere that are associated with lightning activities. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Photon spectra corresponding to the mechanism of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. On the other hand, Celestin and Pasko [JGR, 116, A03315, 2011] have shown theoretically that the large flux of thermal runaway electrons generated by streamers during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders in intracloud lightning flashes could be responsible for TGFs. Recently, based on analysis of the temporal profiles of 278 TGF events observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor, Foley et al. [JGR, 119, 5931, 2014] have suggested that 67% of TGF pulses detected are asymmetric and these asymmetric pulses are consistent with the production mechanism of TGFs by relativistic feedback discharges. In the present work, we employ a Monte Carlo model to study the temporal distribution of photons at low-orbit satellite altitudes during TGF events. Using the pulse fitting method described in [Foley et al., 2014], we further investigate the characteristics of TGF pulses. We mainly focus on the effects of Compton scattering on the symmetry properties and the rise and fall times of TGF pulses.

  11. Wavefront sampling technique : VHE gamma-ray experiments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, P. N.

    2002-03-01

    Atmospheric Cverenkov techniques is the only method which has been successfully used to probe the sky in the TeV energy band. However it has certain intrinsic drawbacks arising primarily out of the presence of cosmic rays which out-number gamma-rays by around a factor of ~ 1000. Second generation experiments in the field have developed some novel techniques by which a bulk of the cosmic rays could be rejected thus increasing the signal to noise ratio. Thus the field emerged from an era when the confidence level of positive results were rarely larger than a few standard deviations. The underlying technique responsible for this phenomenal success was the ability to identify the primary species from the Cverenkov images recorded at the observation level, first demonstrated by simulation studies. Subsequently, it was found again through simulation techniques, that the spatial sampling of Cverenkov photons too is potentially a viable as well as powerful technique which is yet to be fully exploited. Several Cverenkov telescope arrays are now in advanced stages of operation which employ this technique in order to reduce the cosmic ray background. This technique, also called the wavefront sampling technique, is being employed for studying TeV gamma-rays at the Pachmarhi Array of Cverenkov Telescopes (PACT). While comparing the two power ful techniques, we will also discuss the progress made by the PACT team in trying to achieve a significant signal to noise ratio by this method. PACT has detected a steady flux of TeV gamma-rays from the Crab Nebula at a significance level of 13.4?. PACT also detectred the TeV ?-ays flares from Mkn421 during two episodes, one in January 2000 and the other in January 2001. The variability of gamma-ray count rate is consistent with other contemporaneous observations of the sources.

  12. Numerical simulations of planetary gamma-ray spectra induced by galactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Masarik, J.; Reedy, R.C.

    1994-07-01

    The fluxes of cosmic-ray-produced gamma rays escaping from Mars were calculated using the LAHET Code System and basic nuclear data for {gamma}-ray production. Both surface water content and atmospheric thickness strongly affect the fluxes of {gamma}-ray lines escaping from Mars.

  13. A High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for 0.3-10 MeV Gamma Ray Astrophysics: Construction and Initial Balloon Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1993-01-01

    The results achieved with a 3.5 liter liquid xenon time projection chamber (LXe-TPC) prototype during the first year include: the efficiency of detecting the primary scintillation light for event triggering has been measured to be higher than 85%; the charge response has been measured to be stable to within 0.1% for a period of time of about 30 hours; the electron lifetime has been measured to be in excess of 1.3 ms; the energy resolution has been measured to be consistent with previous results obtained with small volume chambers; X-Y gamma ray imaging has been demonstrated with a nondestructive orthogonal wires readout; Monte Carlo simulation results on detection efficiency, expected background count rate at balloon altitude, background reduction algorithms, telescope response to point-like and diffuse sources, and polarization sensitivity calculations; and work on a 10 liter LXe-TPC prototype and gas purification/recovery system.

  14. Analysis of position error by time constant in read-out resistive network for gamma-ray imaging detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Su-Jin; Park, Chang-In; Son, Byung-Hee; Jung, Mi; Jang, Teak-Jin; Lee, Chun-Sik; Choi, Young-Wan

    2016-03-01

    Position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) in array are used as gamma ray position detector. Each PMT converts the light of wide spectrum range (100 nm ~ 2500 nm) to electrical signal with amplification. Because detection system size is determined by the number of output channels in the PSPMTs, resistive network has been used for reducing the number of output channels. The photo-generated current is distributed to the four output current pulses according to a ratio by resistance values of resistive network. The detected positions are estimated by the peak value of the distributed current pulses. However, due to parasitic capacitance of PSPMTs in parallel with resistor in the resistive network, the time constants should be considered. When the duration of current pulse is not long enough, peak value of distributed pulses is reduced and detected position error is increased. In this paper, we analyzed the detected position error in the resistive network and variation of time constant according to the input position of the PSPMTs.

  15. Mobile, hybrid Compton/coded aperture imaging for detection, identification and localization of gamma-ray sources at stand-off distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornga, Shawn R.

    The Stand-off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) program is an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) project through the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) with the goal of detection, identification and localization of weak radiological sources in the presence of large dynamic backgrounds. The Raytheon-SORDS Tri-Modal Imager (TMI) is a mobile truck-based, hybrid gamma-ray imaging system able to quickly detect, identify and localize, radiation sources at standoff distances through improved sensitivity while minimizing the false alarm rate. Reconstruction of gamma-ray sources is performed using a combination of two imaging modalities; coded aperture and Compton scatter imaging. The TMI consists of 35 sodium iodide (NaI) crystals 5x5x2 in3 each, arranged in a random coded aperture mask array (CA), followed by 30 position sensitive NaI bars each 24x2.5x3 in3 called the detection array (DA). The CA array acts as both a coded aperture mask and scattering detector for Compton events. The large-area DA array acts as a collection detector for both Compton scattered events and coded aperture events. In this thesis, developed coded aperture, Compton and hybrid imaging algorithms will be described along with their performance. It will be shown that multiple imaging modalities can be fused to improve detection sensitivity over a broader energy range than either alone. Since the TMI is a moving system, peripheral data, such as a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) must also be incorporated. A method of adapting static imaging algorithms to a moving platform has been developed. Also, algorithms were developed in parallel with detector hardware, through the use of extensive simulations performed with the Geometry and Tracking Toolkit v4 (GEANT4). Simulations have been well validated against measured data. Results of image reconstruction algorithms at various speeds and distances will be presented as well as

  16. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  17. Gamma-ray astronomy: From Fermi up to the HAWC high-energy {gamma}-ray observatory in Sierra Negra

    SciTech Connect

    Carraminana, Alberto; Collaboration: HAWC Collaboration

    2013-06-12

    Gamma-rays represent the most energetic electromagnetic window for the study of the Universe. They are studied both from space at MeV and GeV energies, with instruments like the Fermi{gamma}-ray Space Telescope, and at TeV energies with ground based instruments profiting of particle cascades in the atmosphere and of the Cerenkov radiation of charged particles in the air or in water. The Milagro gamma-ray observatory represented the first instrument to successfully implement the water Cerenkov technique for {gamma}-ray astronomy, opening the ground for the more sensitive HAWC {gamma}-ray observatory, currently under development in the Sierra Negra site and already providing early science results.

  18. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Pak-Hin T.; Hui, Chung Y.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs). Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC) emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  19. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  20. Gamma-ray line astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations of gamma-ray line emission from solar flares, gamma-ray bursts, the galactic center, the interstellar medium and the jets of SS433 are reviewed. The implications of these observations on high energy processes in these sources are discussed.

  1. Ammonia excitation imaging of shocked gas towards the W28 gamma-ray source HESS J1801-233

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Nigel I.; de Wilt, Phoebe; Rowell, Gavin P.; Nicholas, Brent P.; Burton, Michael. G.; Walsh, Andrew; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko

    2016-10-01

    We present 12 mm Mopra observations of the dense (>103 cm-3) molecular gas towards the north-east of the W28 supernova remnant (SNR). This cloud is spatially well matched to the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1801-233 and is known to be an SNR-molecular cloud interaction region. Shock-disruption is evident from broad NH3 (1,1) spectral linewidths in regions towards the W28 SNR, while strong detections of spatially extended NH3 (3,3), NH3(4,4) and NH3(6,6) inversion emission towards the cloud strengthen the case for the existence of high temperatures within the cloud. Velocity dispersion measurements and NH3(n,n)/(1,1) ratio maps, where n = 2, 3, 4 and 6, indicate that the source of disruption is from the side of the cloud nearest to the W28 SNR, suggesting that it is the source of cloud-disruption. Towards part of the cloud, the ratio of ortho to para-NH3 is observed to exceed 2, suggesting gas-phase NH3 enrichment due to NH3 liberation from dust-grain mantles. The measured NH3 abundance with respect to H2 is ˜(1.2 ± 0.5) × 10-9, which is not high, as might be expected for a hot, dense molecular cloud enriched by sublimated grain-surface molecules. The results are suggestive of NH3 sublimation and destruction in this molecular cloud, which is likely to be interacting with the W28 SNR shock.

  2. Search for Short Bursts of Gamma Rays with SGARFACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroedter, M.; Manseri, H.; LeBohec, S.; Krennrich, F.; Downdall, C.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, S.; Horan, D.; Smith, A.; Toner, J.; Weekes, T.

    The Short GAmma Ray Front Air Cherenkov Experiment is designed to search for bursts of gamma rays above 200 MeV lasting from 60 nanoseconds to longer than 20 microseconds. The custom-designed trigger and data-acquisition system of SGARFACE piggy-backs on the existing Whipple 10m telescope. The experiment has operated for more than 3 years during which time about 1.2 million events were recorded. The majority of events originate from cosmic-ray showers from which we see, both, Cherenkov emission and fluorescence light. Rejection of background events is achieved through timing and imaging information available for each event. Potential sources of bursts of gamma rays are evaporation of primordial black holes within about 240 pc and gamma-ray emission accompanying giant radio pulses. Results are presented on the search for evaporation of primordial black holes and gamma-ray emission coincident with giant pulses from the Crab Nebula.

  3. Development of the instruments for the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, J. J.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is to be launched in 1988 by the STS. The GRO will feature four very large instruments: the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The instruments weigh from 900-1200 kg each, and required the development of specialized lifting and dolly devices to permit their assembly, manipulation and testing. The GRO is intended a{s a tool for studying discrete celestial objects such as black holes, neutron stars and other gamma-ray emitting objects, scanning for nucleosynthesis processes, mapping the Galaxy and other, high energy galaxies in terms of gamma rays, searching for cosmological effects and observing gamma ray bursts. The instruments will be sensitive from the upper end mof X-rya wavelengths to the highest energies possible. Details of the hardware and performance specifications of each of the instruments are discussed.

  4. Astrophysics with the 3-DTI Gamma-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, S.D.; Barbier, L.M.; Bloser, P.F.; Floyd, S.R.; Krizmanic, J.F.; Link, J.T.; Mirrchell, J.W.; McConnel, M.L.; de Nolfo, G.A.; Ryan, J.M.; Sambruna, R.M.; Son, S.

    Despite notable progress in gamma-ray astronomy, understanding the astrophysical sources of medium energy (MeV-range) gamma-rays still remains somewhat of a mystery. Medium-energy gamma-ray observations require diverse measurement techniques since the objects that produce these gamma- rays are both extended and point-like, transient and steady, and include both continuum and line emissions. The challenge is to develop a future gamma-ray instrument to survey the Galaxy with greatly improved sensitivity by increasing the overall aperture and effectively addressing background rejection. Clearly, this survey would be enhanced by observations at other wavelengths such as those from SWIFT and GLAST, and INTEGRAL. The ability to constrain the incident gamma-ray direction with highly precise imaging techniques and thus obtain dramatic improvements in sensitivity opens up the field of gamma-ray observations to many exciting new potential discoveries. We discuss the design of a Compton telescope with electron tracking and highlight some of the interesting MeV gamma-ray astrophysics questions that can be addressed by such a telescope.

  5. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraveo, Patrizia A.

    2014-08-01

    Isolated neutron stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. In the 1970s, only two sources had been identified, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space in both the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star (NS) magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. We are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known gamma-ray-emitting NSs. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011, and we are now over 150. The gamma-ray-emitting NS population exhibits roughly equal numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet young INSs, plus an astonishing, and unexpected, group of isolated and binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The number of MSPs is growing so rapidly that they are on their way to becoming the most numerous members of the family of gamma-ray-emitting NSs. Even as these findings have set the stage for a revolution in our understanding of gamma-ray-emitting NSs, long-term monitoring of the gamma-ray sky has revealed evidence of flux variability in the Crab Nebula as well as in the pulsed emission from PSR J2021+4026, challenging a four-decades-old, constant-emission paradigm. Now we know that both pulsars and their nebulae can, indeed, display variable emission.

  6. Investigation of Martian H2O and CO2 via orbital gamma ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, L. G.; Squyres, S. W.

    1987-08-01

    The capability of an orbital gamma ray spectrometer to address presently unanswered questions concerning H2O and CO2 on Mars is investigated. The gamma ray signal produced by the Martian atmosphere and by several simple models of Martian surface materials is calculated. Results are reported for: (1) the production of neutrons in the atmosphere and in the subsurface material by cosmic ray interactions, (2) the scattering of neutrons and the resultant neutron energy spectrum and spatial distributions, (3) the reproduction of gamma rays by neutron prompt capture and nonelastic scatter reactions, (4) the production of gamma rays by natural radionuclides, (5) the attenuation of the gamma ray signal by passage through surface materials and the Martian atmosphere, (6) the production of the gamma ray continuum background, and (7) the uncertainty in gamma ray line strengths that results from the combined signal and background observed by the detector.

  7. Gamma-ray transfer and energy deposition in supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Sutherland, Peter G.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Solutions to the energy-independent (gray) radiative transfer equations are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Ni-56 and Co-56 decay gamma-ray energy deposition in supernovae. The comparison shows that an effective, purely absorptive, gray opacity, kappa(sub gamma) approximately (0. 06 +/- 0.01)Y(sub e) sq cm/g, where Y is the total number of electrons per baryon, accurately describes the interaction of gamma-rays with the cool supernova gas and the local gamma-ray energy deposition within the gas. The nature of the gamma-ray interaction process (dominated by Compton scattering in the relativistic regime) creates a weak dependence of kappa(sub gamma) on the optical thickness of the (spherically symmetric) supernova atmosphere: The maximum value of kappa(sub gamma) applies during optically thick conditions when individual gamma-rays undergo multiple scattering encounters and the lower bound is reached at the phase characterized by a total Thomson optical depth to the center of the atmosphere tau(sub e) approximately less than 1. Gamma-ray deposition for Type Ia supernova models to within 10% for the epoch from maximum light to t = 1200 days. Our results quantitatively confirm that the quick and efficient solution to the gray transfer problem provides an accurate representation of gamma-ray energy deposition for a broad range of supernova conditions.

  8. The LXeCAT instrument for gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, E.; Xu, F.; Zhou, M.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Masuda, K.; Chupp, E. L.; Dunphy, P. P.; Fishman, G.; Pendelton, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Liquid Xenon Coded Aperture Telescope (LXeCAT) and its capability to image astrophysical gamma-ray sources in the MeV region is described. The gamma-ray detector is a Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber (LXeTPC) triggered by the primary scintillation light. Effective background rejection is a direct consequence of the intrinsic three-dimensional imaging capability of the LXeTPC. Initial results with a 10 liter prototype confirm an energy resolution of 6% FWHM, a position resolution of 1 mm RMS and a light triggering efficiency higher than 90% for 1 MeV gamma-rays.

  9. High energy gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

  10. The solar gamma ray and neutron capabilities of COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M.; Lockwood, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging Compton telescope COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) has unusual spectroscopic capabilities for measuring solar gamma-ray and neutron emission. The launch of the GRO is scheduled for June 1990 near the peak of the sunspot cycle. With a 30 to 40 percent probability for the Sun being in the COMPTEL field-of-view during the sunlit part of an orbit, a large number of flares will be observed above the 800 keV gamma-ray threshold of the telescope. The telescope energy range extends to 30 MeV with high time resolution burst spectra available from 0.1 to 10 MeV. Strong Compton tail suppression of instrumental gamma-ray interactions will facilitate improved spectral analysis of solar flare emissions. In addition, the high signal to noise ratio for neutron detection and measurement will provide new neutron spectroscopic capabilities. Specifically, a flare similar to that of 3 June 1982 will provide spectroscopic data on greater than 1500 individual neutrons, enough to construct an unambiguous spectrum in the energy range of 20 to 200 MeV. Details of the instrument and its response to solar gamma-rays and neutrons will be presented.

  11. Can Gamma Ray Bursts be Detected Using Infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Jahi; McGruder, C.; Hetzer, C.

    2010-01-01

    CAN GAMMA RAY BURST BE DETECTED USING INFRASOUND Infrasound has been used to detect sonic disturbances in earth's atmosphere caused by terrestrial events such as earthquakes and lightning. It may be possible to detect celestial events such as Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB's) through this method. We have searched for GRB's which are known to have caused ionospheric disturbances in infrasonic data. None of the selected GRB's were found to be associated with infrasonic disturbances.

  12. Jet Shockwaves Produce Gamma Rays

    NASA Video Gallery

    Theorists believe that GRB jets produce gamma rays by two processes involving shock waves. Shells of material within the jet move at different speeds and collide, generating internal shock waves th...

  13. Gamma-ray-selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giommi, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The gamma-ray band is the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum. As such it is also where selection effects are most severe, as it can only be reached by the most extreme non-thermal AGN. Blazars, with their emission dominated by non-thermal blue-shifted radiation arising in a relativistic jet pointed in the direction of the observer, naturally satisfy this though requirement. For this reason, albeit these sources are intrisically very rare (orders of magnitude less abundant than radio quiet AGN of the same optical magnitude) they almost completely dominate the extragalactic gamma-ray and very high energy sky. I will discuss the emission of different types of blazars and the selection effects that are at play in the gamma-ray band based on recent results from the current generation of gamma-ray astronomy satellites, ground-based Cherenkov telescopes, and Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. SuperAGILE and Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pacciani, Luigi; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Lapshov, Igor; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Tavani, Marco; Barbiellini, Guido; Mastropietro, Marcello; Morelli, Ennio; Rapisarda, Massimo

    2006-05-19

    The solid-state hard X-ray imager of AGILE gamma-ray mission -- SuperAGILE -- has a six arcmin on-axis angular resolution in the 15-45 keV range, a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. The instrument is very light: 5 kg only. It is equipped with an on-board self triggering logic, image deconvolution, and it is able to transmit the coordinates of a GRB to the ground in real-time through the ORBCOMM constellation of satellites. Photon by photon Scientific Data are sent to the Malindi ground station at every contact. In this paper we review the performance of the SuperAGILE experiment (scheduled for a launch in the middle of 2006), after its first onground calibrations, and show the perspectives for Gamma Ray Bursts.

  15. Gamma-ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy is a valuable source of information on solar activity, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis. Cosmic gamma-ray lines were first observed from solar flares and more recently from the galactic center and a transient event. The latter may give an important insight into nuclear reactions taking place near neutron stars and black holes and a measure of the gravitational redshifts of such objects.

  16. Directional detector of gamma rays

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Samson A.; Levert, Francis E.

    1979-01-01

    A directional detector of gamma rays comprises a strip of an electrical cuctor of high atomic number backed with a strip of a second electrical conductor of low atomic number. These elements are enclosed within an electrical conductor that establishes an electrical ground, maintains a vacuum enclosure and screens out low-energy gamma rays. The detector exhibits a directional sensitivity marked by an increased output in the favored direction by a factor of ten over the output in the unfavored direction.

  17. Development of electron tracking Compton camera for both balloon and future satellite experiments for MeV gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimori, Toru; Ikeno, Masahiro; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Kabuki, Shigeto; Parker, Joseph D.; Kishimoto, Yuji; Komura, Shotaro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Iwaki, Satoru; Sawano, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Kiseki; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Yasushi; Tanaka, Manobu; Takada, Atsushi; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ueno, Kazuki

    2012-09-01

    In order to explore MeV gamma-ray astronomy, we have developed the Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) consisting of a Time projection Chamber based on the micro pixel gas counter and pixel array scintillators. By measuring the track of a recoil electron in the TPC event by event, the ETCC measures the direction of each gamma-ray, and provides both good background rejection and an angular resolution over ~1 degree. A 1m-cubic size ETCC in satellite would be a good candidate for an All sky MeV gamma-ray survey of a wide band energy region of 0.1-100MeV with several ten times better sensitivity than COMPTEL. Already we carried out a balloon experiment with a small ETCC (Sub-MeV gamma ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment: SMILE-I) in 2006, and measured diffuse cosmic and atmosphere gamma rays. We are now constructing a 30cm-cube ETCC to catch gamma-rays from the Crab and terrestrial gamma-ray bursts at the North Pole from 2013 (SMILE-II project). Terrestrial gamma-ray bursts are generated by relativistic electron precipitation in the Pole region. Recently performance of tracking a recoil electron has been dramatically improved, which may enable us to reach the ideal efficiency expected for the detector. In addition, we mention about the unique capability to find a high-z Gamma-Ray Bursts beyond z>10 by ETCC, in particular long duration GRBs over 1000 sec, which are expected to be due to POP-III stars.

  18. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy: the effects of hydrogen absorption cross-section of the gamma-ray spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lapides, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy of planet surfaces is one of several possible methods that are useful in determining the elemental composition of planet surfaces from orbiting spacecraft. This has been demonstrated on the Apollos 15 and 16 missions as well as the Soviet Mars-5 mission. Planetary gamma-ray emission is primarily the result of natural radioactive decay and cosmic-ray and solar-flare-induced nuclear reactions. Secondary neutron reactions play a large role in the more intense gamma-ray emission. The technique provides information on the elemental composition of the top few tens of centimeters of the planet surface. Varying concentrations of hydrogen and compositional variations that alter the macroscopic thermal-neutron absorption cross section have a significant effect on the neutron flux in the planet surface and therefore also on the gamma-ray emission from the surface. These effects have been systematically studied for a wide range of possible planetary compositions that include Mercury, the moon, Mars, the comets, and the asteroids. The problem of the Martian atmosphere was also investigated. The results of these calculations, in which both surface neutron fluxes and gamma-ray emission fluxes were determined, were used to develop general procedures for obtaining planet compositions from the gamma-ray spectrum. Several changes have been suggested for reanalyzing the Apollos 15 and 16 gamma-ray results. In addition, procedures have been suggested that can be applied to neutron-gamma techniques in mineral and oil exploration.

  19. Enhancing the quality of radiographic images acquired with point-like gamma-ray sources through correction of the beam divergence and attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Silvani, M. I.; Almeida, G. L.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-11-11

    Radiographic images acquired with point-like gamma-ray sources exhibit a desirable low penumbra effects specially when positioned far away from the set object-detector. Such an arrangement frequently is not affordable due to the limited flux provided by a distant source. A closer source, however, has two main drawbacks, namely the degradation of the spatial resolution - as actual sources are only approximately punctual - and the non-homogeneity of the beam hitting the detector, which creates a false attenuation map of the object being inspected. This non-homogeneity is caused by the beam divergence itself and by the different thicknesses traversed the beam even if the object were an homogeneous flat plate. In this work, radiographic images of objects with different geometries, such as flat plates and pipes have undergone a correction of beam divergence and attenuation addressing the experimental verification of the capability and soundness of an algorithm formerly developed to generate and process synthetic images. The impact of other parameters, including source-detector gap, attenuation coefficient, ratio defective-to-main hull thickness and counting statistics have been assessed for specifically tailored test-objects aiming at the evaluation of the ability of the proposed method to deal with different boundary conditions. All experiments have been carried out with an X-ray sensitive Imaging Plate and reactor-produced {sup 198}Au and {sup 165}Dy sources. The results have been compared with other technique showing a better capability to correct the attenuation map of inspected objects unveiling their inner structure otherwise concealed by the poor contrast caused by the beam divergence and attenuation, in particular for those regions far apart from the vertical of the source.

  20. Enhancing the quality of radiographic images acquired with point-like gamma-ray sources through correction of the beam divergence and attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvani, M. I.; Almeida, G. L.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-11-01

    Radiographic images acquired with point-like gamma-ray sources exhibit a desirable low penumbra effects specially when positioned far away from the set object-detector. Such an arrangement frequently is not affordable due to the limited flux provided by a distant source. A closer source, however, has two main drawbacks, namely the degradation of the spatial resolution - as actual sources are only approximately punctual - and the non-homogeneity of the beam hitting the detector, which creates a false attenuation map of the object being inspected. This non-homogeneity is caused by the beam divergence itself and by the different thicknesses traversed the beam even if the object were an homogeneous flat plate. In this work, radiographic images of objects with different geometries, such as flat plates and pipes have undergone a correction of beam divergence and attenuation addressing the experimental verification of the capability and soundness of an algorithm formerly developed to generate and process synthetic images. The impact of other parameters, including source-detector gap, attenuation coefficient, ratio defective-to-main hull thickness and counting statistics have been assessed for specifically tailored test-objects aiming at the evaluation of the ability of the proposed method to deal with different boundary conditions. All experiments have been carried out with an X-ray sensitive Imaging Plate and reactor-produced 198Au and 165Dy sources. The results have been compared with other technique showing a better capability to correct the attenuation map of inspected objects unveiling their inner structure otherwise concealed by the poor contrast caused by the beam divergence and attenuation, in particular for those regions far apart from the vertical of the source.

  1. The future of gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knödlseder, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    The field of gamma-ray astronomy has experienced impressive progress over the last decade. Thanks to the advent of a new generation of imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS) and thanks to the launch of the Fermi-LAT satellite, several thousand gamma-ray sources are known today, revealing an unexpected ubiquity of particle acceleration processes in the Universe. Major scientific challenges are still ahead, such as the identification of the nature of Dark Matter, the discovery and understanding of the sources of cosmic rays, or the comprehension of the particle acceleration processes that are at work in the various objects. This paper presents some of the instruments and mission concepts that will address these challenges over the next decades. xml:lang="fr"

  2. STS-37 Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) grappled by RMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Backdropped against the Earth's cloud-covered surface, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) with its solar array (SA) panels deployed is grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) during STS-37 systems checkout. GRO's four complement instruments are visible: the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) (at the bottom); the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) (center); the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) (top); and Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) (on four corners).

  3. Gamma-ray tracking method for pet systems

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.

    2010-06-08

    Gamma-ray tracking methods for use with granular, position sensitive detectors identify the sequence of the interactions taking place in the detector and, hence, the position of the first interaction. The improved position resolution in finding the first interaction in the detection system determines a better definition of the direction of the gamma-ray photon, and hence, a superior source image resolution. A PET system using such a method will have increased efficiency and position resolution.

  4. Search for TeV gamma rays from the X-ray pulsar 1E2259 + 586

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawley, M. F.; Fegan, D. J.; Hillas, A. M.; Kwok, P. W.; Lamb, R. C.; Lang, M. J.; Lewis, D. A.; Macomb, D.; Reynolds, P. T.; Vacanti, G.; Weekes, T. C.

    1991-03-01

    Evidence for TeV gamma-ray emission from 1E2259 + 586 has recently been reported by the Durham Group (Brazier et al., 1990). Evidence suggests that the source is a steady gamma-ray emitter, with a flux an order of magnitude higher than that of the Crab Nebula (Weekes et al., 1989). The Whipple Collaboration observed 1E2259 + 586 for a total of 80 H between November 1985 and November 1988 using the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique. These observations, were analysed for evidence of periodic emission at the fundamental and second harmonic of the X-ray period. No evidence for gamma-ray emission from this source is found.

  5. Very-high-energy Gamma-ray Observations Of Synchrotron-dominated Supernova Remnants With H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Ryan C. G.; Sushch, I.; Paz Arribas, M.; Volpe, F.; Komin, N.; Kerschhaggl, M.; H.E.S.S. Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are expected to produce very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma rays through interactions of high-energy particles with the surrounding medium and photon fields. VHE gamma-ray emission has indeed been discovered, by ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as the H.E.S.S. telescope array, from a number of SNRs, establishing them as a prominent source class in the VHE domain. Of particular interest are the handful of SNRs whose X-ray spectra are dominated by non-thermal synchrotron emission; of these, the H.E.S.S. array has detected VHE gamma-ray emission from RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622 (Vela Jr.), RCW 86, SN 1006 and HESS J1731-347. The shell-type SNRs G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 also belong to this subclass and are further notable for their young ages (< 1 kyr), especially G1.9+0.3, which was recently determined to be the youngest SNR in the Galaxy ( 100 yr). These unique characteristics motivated investigations with H.E.S.S. to search for VHE gamma rays. The results of the H.E.S.S. observations and analyses will be presented, along with implications for potential particle acceleration scenarios, and discussed in comparison with the previously detected VHE gamma-ray shells.

  6. Imaging of prompt gamma rays emitted during delivery of clinical proton beams with a Compton camera: feasibility studies for range verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Avery, Stephen; Mackin, Dennis S.; Beddar, Sam

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the ability of a prototype Compton camera (CC) to measure prompt gamma rays (PG) emitted during delivery of clinical proton pencil beams for prompt gamma imaging (PGI) as a means of providing in vivo verification of the delivered proton radiotherapy beams. A water phantom was irradiated with clinical 114 MeV and 150 MeV proton pencil beams. Up to 500 cGy of dose was delivered per irradiation using clinical beam currents. The prototype CC was placed 15 cm from the beam central axis and PGs from 0.2 MeV up to 6.5 MeV were measured during irradiation. From the measured data (2D) images of the PG emission were reconstructed. (1D) profiles were extracted from the PG images and compared to measured depth dose curves of the delivered proton pencil beams. The CC was able to measure PG emission during delivery of both 114 MeV and 150 MeV proton beams at clinical beam currents. 2D images of the PG emission were reconstructed for single 150 MeV proton pencil beams as well as for a 5   ×   5 cm mono-energetic layer of 114 MeV pencil beams. Shifts in the Bragg peak (BP) range were detectable on the 2D images. 1D profiles extracted from the PG images show that the distal falloff of the PG emission profile lined up well with the distal BP falloff. Shifts as small as 3 mm in the beam range could be detected from the 1D PG profiles with an accuracy of 1.5 mm or better. However, with the current CC prototype, a dose of 400 cGy was required to acquire adequate PG signal for 2D PG image reconstruction. It was possible to measure PG interactions with our prototype CC during delivery of proton pencil beams at clinical dose rates. Images of the PG emission could be reconstructed and shifts in the BP range were detectable. Therefore PGI with a CC for in vivo range verification during proton treatment delivery is feasible. However, improvements in the prototype CC detection efficiency and reconstruction algorithms are necessary

  7. Imaging of prompt gamma rays emitted during delivery of clinical proton beams with a Compton camera: feasibility studies for range verification.

    PubMed

    Polf, Jerimy C; Avery, Stephen; Mackin, Dennis S; Beddar, Sam

    2015-09-21

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the ability of a prototype Compton camera (CC) to measure prompt gamma rays (PG) emitted during delivery of clinical proton pencil beams for prompt gamma imaging (PGI) as a means of providing in vivo verification of the delivered proton radiotherapy beams. A water phantom was irradiated with clinical 114 MeV and 150 MeV proton pencil beams. Up to 500 cGy of dose was delivered per irradiation using clinical beam currents. The prototype CC was placed 15 cm from the beam central axis and PGs from 0.2 MeV up to 6.5 MeV were measured during irradiation. From the measured data (2D) images of the PG emission were reconstructed. (1D) profiles were extracted from the PG images and compared to measured depth dose curves of the delivered proton pencil beams. The CC was able to measure PG emission during delivery of both 114 MeV and 150 MeV proton beams at clinical beam currents. 2D images of the PG emission were reconstructed for single 150 MeV proton pencil beams as well as for a 5   ×   5 cm mono-energetic layer of 114 MeV pencil beams. Shifts in the Bragg peak (BP) range were detectable on the 2D images. 1D profiles extracted from the PG images show that the distal falloff of the PG emission profile lined up well with the distal BP falloff. Shifts as small as 3 mm in the beam range could be detected from the 1D PG profiles with an accuracy of 1.5 mm or better. However, with the current CC prototype, a dose of 400 cGy was required to acquire adequate PG signal for 2D PG image reconstruction. It was possible to measure PG interactions with our prototype CC during delivery of proton pencil beams at clinical dose rates. Images of the PG emission could be reconstructed and shifts in the BP range were detectable. Therefore PGI with a CC for in vivo range verification during proton treatment delivery is feasible. However, improvements in the prototype CC detection efficiency and reconstruction algorithms are necessary

  8. Wavelet-based techniques for the gamma-ray sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Samuel D.; Fox, Patrick J.; Cholis, Ilias; Lee, Samuel K.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate how the image analysis technique of wavelet decomposition can be applied to the gamma-ray sky to separate emission on different angular scales. New structures on scales that differ from the scales of the conventional astrophysical foreground and background uncertainties can be robustly extracted, allowing a model-independent characterization with no presumption of exact signal morphology. As a test case, we generate mock gamma-ray data to demonstrate our ability to extract extended signals without assuming a fixed spatial template. For some point source luminosity functions, our technique also allows us to differentiate a diffuse signal in gamma-rays from dark matter annihilation and extended gamma-ray point source populations in a data-driven way.

  9. Recent developments in semiconductor gamma-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, Paul N.; Amman, Mark; Tindall, Craig; Lee, Julie S.

    2003-10-28

    The successful development of lithium-drifted Ge detectors in the 1960's marked the beginning of the significant use of semiconductor crystals for direct detection and spectroscopy of gamma rays. In the 1970's, high-purity Ge became available, which enabled the production of complex detectors and multi-detector systems. In the following decades, the technology of semiconductor gamma-ray detectors continued to advance, with significant developments not only in Ge detectors but also in Si detectors and room-temperature compound-semiconductor detectors. In recent years, our group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a variety of gamma ray detectors based on these semiconductor materials. Examples include Ge strip detectors, lithium-drifted Si strip detectors, and coplanar-grid CdZnTe detectors. These advances provide new capabilities in the measurement of gamma rays, such as the ability to perform imaging and the realization of highly compact spectroscopy systems.

  10. The Most Remote Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    seconds is larger than that of the Sun during its entire life time (about 10,000 million years). "Gamma-ray bursts" are in fact by far the most powerful events since the Big Bang that are known in the Universe. While there are indications that gamma-ray bursts originate in star-forming regions within distant galaxies, the nature of such explosions remains a puzzle. Recent observations with large telescopes, e.g. the measurement of the degree of polarization of light from a gamma-ray burst in May 1999 with the VLT ( ESO PR 08/99), are now beginning to cast some light on this long-standing mystery. The afterglow of GRB 000131 ESO PR Photo 28a/00 ESO PR Photo 28a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 475 pix - 41k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 949 pix - 232k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1200 x 1424 pix - 1.2Mb] ESO PR Photo 28b/00 ESO PR Photo 28b/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 480 pix - 67k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 959 pix - 288k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1200 x 1439 pix - 856k] Caption : PR Photo 28a/00 is a colour composite image of the sky field around the position of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 that was detected on January 31, 2000. It is based on images obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal. The object is indicated with an arrow, near a rather bright star (magnitude 9, i.e., over 1 million times brighter than the faintest objects visible on this photo). This and other bright objects in the field are responsible for various unavoidable imaging effects, caused by optical reflections (ring-shaped "ghost images", e.g. to the left of the brightest star) and detector saturation effects (horizontal and vertical straight lines and coloured "coronae" at the bright objects, and areas of "bleeding", e.g. below the bright star). PR Photo 28b/00 shows the rapid fading of the optical counterpart of GRB 000131 (slightly left of the centre), by means of exposures with the VLT on February 4 (upper left), 6 (upper right), 8 (lower left) and March 5 (lower right). It is no longer visible on the last photo

  11. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    ScienceCinema

    Isabelle Grenier

    2016-07-12

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  12. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Grenier, Isabelle

    2009-04-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008. In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  13. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Isabelle Grenier

    2009-04-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  14. Gamma Ray Astronomy with LHAASO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernetto, S.; LHAASO Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The aim of LHAASO is the development of an air shower experiment able to monitor with unprecedented sensitivity the gamma ray sky at energies from ~200 GeV to 1 PeV, and at the same time be an instrument able to measure the cosmic ray spectrum, composition and anisotropy in a wide energy range (~1 TeV to 1 EeV). LHAASO, thanks to the large area and the high capability of background rejection, can reach sensitivities to gamma ray fluxes above 30 TeV that are about 100 times higher than that of current instruments, offering the possibility to monitor for the first time the gamma ray sky up to PeV energies and to discover the long sought “Pevatrons”.

  15. The application of two-dimensional imaging to very high energy gamma ray astronomy. Annual report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Weekes, T.C.

    1992-12-01

    After an introductory overview of gamma-ray astronomy, very brief summaries of research results are given. Summary topics may be grouped as follows: observations (survey of candidate gamma-ray sources; Cygnus X-3; Markarian 421; AGN`s: general survey; Crab observations: pulsar outburst; Geminga; AE Aqr; bursts; ARTEMIS; muon telescope), technical developments (11m telescope: dedication and performance; 10m mount control; CCD cameras; light cones; filters; GRANITE upgrade; trigger configuration; miror coatings; lightning protection), data analysis (quick look; optical disk archive; false source method), infrastructure, and reviews.

  16. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  17. Gamma ray induced DNA damage in human and mouse leucocytes measured by SCGE-Pro: a software developed for automated image analysis and data processing for Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, R C; Bhilwade, H N; Rajagopalan, R; Bannur, S V

    2001-02-20

    The studies reported in this communication had two major objectives: first to validate the in-house developed SCGE-Pro: a software developed for automated image analysis and data processing for Comet assay using human peripheral blood leucocytes exposed to radiation doses, viz. 2, 4 and 8 Gy, which are known to produce DNA/chromosome damage using alkaline Comet assay. The second objective was to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on DNA damage in mouse peripheral blood leucocytes using identical doses and experimental conditions, e.g. lyses, electrophoretic conditions and duration of electrophoresis which are known to affect tail moment (TM) and tail length (TL) of comets. Human and mouse whole blood samples were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays, e.g. 2, 4 and 8 Gy at a dose rate of 0.668Gy/min between 0 and 4 degrees C in air. After lyses, cells were electrophorased under alkaline conditions at pH 13, washed and stained with propidium iodide. Images of the cells were acquired and analyzed using in-house developed imaging software, SCGE-Pro, for Comet assay. For each comet, total fluorescence, tail fluorescence and tail length were measured. Increase in TM and TL was considered as the criteria of DNA damage. Analysis of data revealed heterogeneity in the response of leucocytes to gamma ray induced DNA damage both in human as well as in mouse. A wide variation in TM and TL was observed in control and irradiated groups of all the three donors. Data were analyzed for statistical significance using one-way ANOVA. Though a small variation in basal level of TM and TL was observed amongst human and mouse controls, the differences were not statistically significant. A dose-dependent increase in TM (P<0.001) and TL (P<0.001) was obtained at all the radiation doses (2-8 Gy) both in human and mouse leucocytes. However, there was a difference in the nature of dose response curves for human and mouse leucocytes. In human leucocytes, a linear increase in TM

  18. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. )

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  19. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events.

  20. Upgrade of the JET Gamma-Ray Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Soare, S.; Curuia, M.; Anghel, M.; Constantin, M.; David, E.; Zoita, V.; Craciunescu, T.; Falie, D.; Pantea, A.; Tiseanu, I.; Kiptily, V.; Prior, P.; Edlington, T.; Griph, S.; Krivchenkov, Y.; Loughlin, M.; Popovichev, S.; Riccardo, V.; Syme, B.; Thompson, V.

    2008-03-12

    The JET gamma-ray camera diagnostics have already provided valuable information on the gamma-ray imaging of fast ion in JET plasmas /1,2/. The applicability of gamma-ray imaging to high performance deuterium and deuterium-tritium JET discharges is strongly dependent on the fulfilment of rather strict requirements for the characterisation of the neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields. These requirements have to be satisfied within very stringent boundary conditions for the design, such as the requirement of minimum impact on the co-existing neutron camera diagnostics. The JET Gamma-Ray Cameras (GRC) upgrade project deals with these issues with particular emphasis on the design of appropriate neutron/gamma-ray filters ('neutron attenuators'). Several design versions have been developed and evaluated for the JET GRC neutron attenuators at the conceptual design level. The main design parameter was the neutron attenuation factor. The two design solutions, that have been finally chosen and developed at the level of scheme design, consist of: a) one quasi-crescent shaped neutron attenuator (for the horizontal camera) and b) two quasi-trapezoid shaped neutron attenuators (for the vertical one). The second design solution has different attenuation lengths: a short version, to be used together with the horizontal attenuator for deuterium discharges, and a long version to be used for high performance deuterium and DT discharges. Various neutron-attenuating materials have been considered (lithium hydride with natural isotopic composition and {sup 6}Li enriched, light and heavy water, polyethylene). Pure light water was finally chosen as the attenuating material for the JET gamma-ray cameras. The neutron attenuators will be steered in and out of the detector line-of-sight by means of an electro-pneumatic steering and control system. The MCNP code was used for neutron and gamma ray transport in order to evaluate the effect of the neutron attenuators on the neutron field of the

  1. Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very

  2. Neutrons and Gamma Rays from Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of neutron and gamma-ray production in flares is reviewed and comparisons of the calculations with data are made. The principal conclusions pertain to the accelerated proton and electron numbers and spectra in flares and to the interaction site of these particles in the solar atmosphere. For the June 21, 1980 flare, from which high-energy neutrons and high-energy ( MeV) photons were seen, the electron-to-proton ratio is energy dependent and much smaller than unity at energies greater than 1 MeV. The interaction site of these particles appears to be the solar chromosphere.

  3. Cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    The distribution in angle and flux of gamma-ray bursts indicates that the majority of gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, i.e., at z of about 1. The rate is then about 10 exp -8/yr in a galaxy like the Milky Way, i.e., orders of magnitude lower than the estimated rate for collisions between neutron stars in close binary systems. The energy per burst is about 10 exp 51 ergs, assuming isotropic emission. The events appear to be less energetic and more frequent if their emission is strongly beamed. Some tests for the distance scale are discussed: a correlation between the burst's strength and its spectrum; the absorption by the Galactic gas below about 2 keV; the X-ray tails caused by forward scattering by the Galactic dust; about 1 month recurrence of some bursts caused by gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies; and a search for gamma-ray bursts in M31. The bursts appear to be a manifestation of something exotic, but conventional compact objects can provide an explanation. The best possibility is offered by a decay of a bindary composed of a spinning-stellar-mass black-hole primary and a neutron or a strange-quark star secondary. In the final phase the secondary is tidally disrupted, forms an accretion disk, and up to 10 exp 54 ergs are released. A very small fraction of this energy powers the gamma-ray burst.

  4. Quasars, blazars, and gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Dermer, C D; Schlickeiser, R

    1992-09-18

    Before the launch of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), the only source of >100-megaelectron volt (MeV) gamma radiation known outside our galaxy was the quasar 3C 273. After less than a year of observing, 13 other extragalactic sources have been discovered with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on CGRO, and it is expected that many more will be found before the full sky survey is complete. All 14 sources show evidence of blazar properties at other wavelengths; these properties include high optical polarization, extreme optical variability, flat-spectrum radio emission associated with a compact core, and apparent superluminal motion. Such properties are thought to be produced by those few, rare extragalactic radio galaxies and quasars that are favorably aligned to permit us to look almost directly down a relativistically outflowing jet of matter expelled from a supermassive black hole. Although the origin of the gamma rays from radio jets is a subject of much controversy, the gamma-ray window probed by CGRO is providing a wealth of knowledge about the central engines of active galactic nuclei and the most energetic processes occurring in nature.

  5. Quasars, blazars, and gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Dermer, C D; Schlickeiser, R

    1992-09-18

    Before the launch of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), the only source of >100-megaelectron volt (MeV) gamma radiation known outside our galaxy was the quasar 3C 273. After less than a year of observing, 13 other extragalactic sources have been discovered with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on CGRO, and it is expected that many more will be found before the full sky survey is complete. All 14 sources show evidence of blazar properties at other wavelengths; these properties include high optical polarization, extreme optical variability, flat-spectrum radio emission associated with a compact core, and apparent superluminal motion. Such properties are thought to be produced by those few, rare extragalactic radio galaxies and quasars that are favorably aligned to permit us to look almost directly down a relativistically outflowing jet of matter expelled from a supermassive black hole. Although the origin of the gamma rays from radio jets is a subject of much controversy, the gamma-ray window probed by CGRO is providing a wealth of knowledge about the central engines of active galactic nuclei and the most energetic processes occurring in nature. PMID:17841159

  6. Cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, E.; Epstein, R.; Ho, C.; Intzand, J.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Gamma-ray bursts are brief events that dominate the emission from all other gamma-ray objects in the sky, flicker for tens of seconds, and then turn off. Their nature remains uncertain despite years of efforts to understand them. One hypothesis is that the bursts arise within our galaxy albeit in an extended halo of neutron stars. Another hypothesis uses the isotropic distribution of gamma-ray bursts to argue that they come from nearly the edge of the universe. If gamma-ray bursts originate from cosmological distances, then the expansion of the universe should cause the dimmer (and presumably further) bursts to last longer. The authors have developed methods for measuring this time stretching, related the time stretching to the distance to the bursts, determined how the detailed physics causes temporal variations, and found the amount of total energy and peak luminosity that the events must be producing.

  7. Gamma ray slush hydrogen monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Peng; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    Mass attenuation for 109Cd radiation have been measured in mixtures of phases and in single phases of five chemical compounds. As anticipated, the mass attenuation coefficients are independent of the phases of the test chemicals. It is recommended that a slush hydrogen monitoring system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation be developed for utilization aboard the NASP.

  8. Gamma ray slush hydrogen monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Peng; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1992-01-01

    Mass attenuation for 109Cd radiation have been measured in mixtures of phases and in single phases of five chemical compounds. As anticipated, the mass attenuation coefficients are independent of the phases of the test chemicals. It is recommended that a slush hydrogen monitoring system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation be developed for utilization aboard the NASP.

  9. From Enigma to Tool: Gamma-Ray Burst Reveals Secrets of Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Five years ago, astronomers knew almost nothing about Gamma Ray Bursts. Now, a team of observers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope has used a gamma-ray burst as a powerful tool to unveil the nature of the galaxy in which it occurred, more than 7 billion light-years away. VLA Images of GRB980703 Host Galaxy "We believe that gamma-ray bursts may become one of the best available tools for studying the history of star formation in the universe," said Edo Berger, a graduate student at Caltech. Berger worked with Caltech astronomy professor Shri Kulkarni and Dale Frail, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, to study a gamma-ray burst first seen on July 3, 1998. The astronomers presented their results at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Pasadena, CA. "For the first time, we've seen the host galaxy of a gamma-ray burst with a radio telescope," Berger said. "Previously, gamma-ray-burst host galaxies have been seen with optical telescopes, but detecting this galaxy with a radio telescope has given us new clues about the nature of the galaxy itself -- clues we couldn't have gotten any other way," he added. For example, based on optical-telescope studies, astronomers estimated that new stars are forming in the host galaxy at the rate of about the mass equivalent of 20 suns per year. However, data from the radio observations show that the actual star-formation rate is 25 times greater -- the mass equivalent of 500 suns per year. "With the VLA, we are seeing the entire region of star formation in this galaxy, including the areas so dusty that visible light can't get out," said Frail. Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions since the Big Bang. First discovered in 1967 by a satellite launched to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban treaty, gamma-ray bursts remained one of astronomy's premier mysteries for 30 years. For three decades

  10. Gamma rays and cosmic rays at Venus: The Pioneer Venus gamma ray detector and considerations for future measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lawrence, David J.

    2015-05-01

    We draw attention to, and present a summary archive of the data from, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma-ray Burst Detector (OGBD), an instrument not originally conceived with Venus science in mind. We consider the possibility of gamma-ray flashes generated by lightning and model the propagation of gamma rays in the Venusian atmosphere, finding that if gamma rays originate at the upper range of reported cloud top altitudes (75 km altitude), they may be attenuated by factors of only a few, whereas from 60 km altitude they are attenuated by over two orders of magnitude. The present archive is too heavily averaged to reliably detect such a source (and we appeal to investigators who may have retained a higher-resolution archive), but the data do provide a useful and unique record of the cosmic ray flux at Venus 1978-1993. We consider other applications of future orbital gamma ray data, such as atmospheric occultations and the detection of volcanic materials injected high in the atmosphere.

  11. Advances in gamma-ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma ray line observations of solar flares, gamma ray transients, and the galactic center are reviewed and interpreted. Prospects of future line detections are discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N82-27200

  12. Swift's 500th Gamma Ray Burst

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 13, 2010, NASA's Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer satellite discovered its 500th burst. Swift's main job is to quickly localize each gamma-ray burst (GRB), report its position so that others...

  13. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  14. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Oldaker, Mark E.

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  15. CANGAROO-III OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCE HESS J1614-518

    SciTech Connect

    Mizukami, T.; Kubo, H.; Tanimori, T.; Kabuki, S.; Yoshida, T.; Nakamori, T.; Enomoto, R.; Kifune, T.; Akimoto, M.; Ishioka, H.; Kawachi, A.; Bicknell, G. V.; Clay, R. W.; Edwards, P. G.; Gunji, S.; Hara, S.; Hara, T.; Hayashi, S.; Kajino, F.; Katagiri, H. E-mail: kubo@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2011-10-20

    We report the detection, with the CANGAROO-III imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, of a very high energy gamma-ray signal from the unidentified gamma-ray source HESS J1614-518, which was discovered in the H.E.S.S. Galactic plane survey. Diffuse gamma-ray emission was detected above 760 GeV at the 8.9{sigma} level during an effective exposure of 54 hr from 2008 May to August. The spectrum can be represented by a power law: (8.2 {+-} 2.2{sub stat} {+-} 2.5{sub sys}) x 10{sup -12} x (E/1 TeV){sup -}{gamma} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1} with a photon index {gamma} of 2.4 {+-} 0.3{sub stat} {+-} 0.2{sub sys}, which is compatible with that of the H.E.S.S. observations. By combining our result with multiwavelength data, we discuss the possible counterparts for HESS J1614-518 and consider radiation mechanisms based on hadronic and leptonic processes for a supernova remnant (SNR), stellar winds from massive stars, and a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Although a leptonic origin from a PWN driven by an unknown pulsar remains possible, hadronic-origin emission from an unknown SNR is preferred.

  16. CANGAROO-III Observation of TeV Gamma Rays from the Unidentified Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1614-518

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, T.; Kubo, H.; Yoshida, T.; Nakamori, T.; Enomoto, R.; Tanimori, T.; Akimoto, M.; Bicknell, G. V.; Clay, R. W.; Edwards, P. G.; Gunji, S.; Hara, S.; Hara, T.; Hayashi, S.; Ishioka, H.; Kabuki, S.; Kajino, F.; Katagiri, H.; Kawachi, A.; Kifune, T.; Kiuchi, R.; Kunisawa, T.; Kushida, J.; Matoba, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Matsuzawa, I.; Mizumura, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Mori, M.; Muraishi, H.; Naito, T.; Nakayama, K.; Nishijima, K.; Ohishi, M.; Otake, Y.; Ryoki, S.; Saito, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Stamatescu, V.; Suzuki, T.; Swaby, D. L.; Thornton, G.; Tokanai, F.; Toyota, Y.; Tsuchiya, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yokoe, Y.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Yukawa, Y.

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection, with the CANGAROO-III imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, of a very high energy gamma-ray signal from the unidentified gamma-ray source HESS J1614-518, which was discovered in the H.E.S.S. Galactic plane survey. Diffuse gamma-ray emission was detected above 760 GeV at the 8.9σ level during an effective exposure of 54 hr from 2008 May to August. The spectrum can be represented by a power law: (8.2 ± 2.2stat ± 2.5sys) × 10-12 × (E/1 TeV)-γ cm-2 s-1 TeV-1 with a photon index γ of 2.4 ± 0.3stat ± 0.2sys, which is compatible with that of the H.E.S.S. observations. By combining our result with multiwavelength data, we discuss the possible counterparts for HESS J1614-518 and consider radiation mechanisms based on hadronic and leptonic processes for a supernova remnant (SNR), stellar winds from massive stars, and a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Although a leptonic origin from a PWN driven by an unknown pulsar remains possible, hadronic-origin emission from an unknown SNR is preferred.

  17. The Tunka detector complex: from cosmic-ray to gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnev, N.; Astapov, I.; Barbashina, N.; Bogdanov, A.; Bogorodskii, D.; Boreyko, V.; Büker, M.; Brückner, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Chvalaev, O.; Gress, O.; Gress, T.; Dyachok, A.; Epimakhov, S.; Gafatov, A.; Gorbunov, N.; Grebenyuk, V.; Grinuk, A.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Horns, D.; Huege, T.; Ivanova, A.; Kalinin, A.; Karpov, N.; Kalmykov, N.; Kazarina, Y.; Kindin, V.; Kirichkov, N.; Kiryuhin, S.; Kleifges, M.; Kokoulin, R.; Komponiest, K.; Konstantinov, A.; Konstantinov, E.; Korobchenko, A.; Korosteleva, E.; Kostunin, D.; Kozhin, V.; Krömer, O.; Kunnas, M.; Kuzmichev, L.; Lenok, V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Monkhoev, R.; Nachtigall, R.; Pakhorukov, A.; Panasyuk, M.; Pankov, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Platonov, V.; Poleschuk, V.; Popova, E.; Porelli, A.; Prosin, V.; Ptuskin, V.; Rubtsov, G.; Rühle, C.; Samoliga, V.; Satunin, P.; Savinov, V.; Saunkin, A.; Schröder, F.; Semeney, Yu; Shaibonov (junior, B.; Silaev, A.; Silaev (junior, A.; Skurikhin, A.; Slucka, V.; Spiering, C.; Sveshnikova, L.; Tabolenko, V.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Tluczykont, M.; Voronin, D.; Wischnewski, R.; Zagorodnikov, A.; Zurbanov, V.; Yashin, I.

    2015-08-01

    TAIGA stands for “Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy” and is a project to build a complex, hybrid detector system for ground-based gamma- ray astronomy from a few TeV to several PeV, and for cosmic-ray studies from 100 TeV to 1 EeV. TAIGA will search for ”PeVatrons” (ultra-high energy gamma-ray sources) and measure the composition and spectrum of cosmic rays in the knee region (100 TeV - 10 PeV) with good energy resolution and high statistics. TAIGA will include Tunka-HiSCORE (an array of wide-angle air Cherenkov stations), an array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, an array of particle detectors, both on the surface and underground, and the TUNKA-133 air Cherenkov array.

  18. Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of M 31 with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, R.

    2014-07-01

    VERITAS, an array of 12 m imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes in southern Arizona, is one of the world's most sensitive detectors of astrophysical very-high-energy (VHE, > 100 GeV) gamma rays. We present the current status of the VERITAS observations of M 31 (Andromeda Galaxy) including an upper limit on the VHE flux and a comparison with theoretical predictions. The dominant mechanism for the formation of diffuse gamma rays is expected to be through the inelastic collision of high-energy cosmic rays with the interstellar medium (ISM). M 31 provides an opportunity to probe this mechanism due to its proximity and spatial extent, with the VERITAS point-spread function sufficient to resolve the ISM dense star-forming ring and the galaxy core with its multiple supernova remnants.

  19. Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, John

    2016-08-01

    VERITAS is an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy that has been in full scientific operation since 2007. The VERITAS collaboration is conducting several key science projects, one of which is the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN). So far, VERITAS has invested more than 3000 hours in observations of AGN, with approximately 150 objects observed. The program has resulted in the successful detection of 34 AGN as VHE gamma-ray sources, with the majority belonging to the blazar AGN subclass. Significant effort is made to acquire multiwavelength data coincident with the VERITAS observations. An overview of the VERITAS AGN program and its key results will be presented.

  20. Cosmic ray albedo gamma rays from the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1992-01-01

    We estimate the flux of gamma-rays that result from collisions of high energy galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere. An important aspect of our model is the propagation of cosmic rays through the magnetic fields of the inner solar systems. We use diffusion to model propagation down to the bottom of the corona. Below the corona we trace particle orbits through the photospheric fields to determine the location of cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere and evolve the resultant cascades. For our nominal choice of parameters, we predict an integrated flux of gamma rays (at 1 AU) of F(E(sub gamma) greater than 100 MeV) approximately = 5 x 10(exp -8)/sq cm sec. This can be an order of magnitude above the galactic background and should be observable by the Energetic Gamma Ray experiment telescope (EGRET).

  1. Recommended Priorities for NASA's Gamma Ray Astronomy Program 1999-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carol, Ladd

    1999-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Astronomy Program Working Group (GRAPWG) recommends priorities for the NASA Gamma-Ray Astronomy Program. The highest priority science topic is nuclear astrophysics and sites of gamma ray line emission. Other high priority topics are gamma ray bursts, hard x-ray emission from accreting black holes and neutron stars, the Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the High-resolution Spectroscopic Imager (HSI), and the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The recommendations include special consideration for technology development, TeV astronomy, the ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) program, the International Space Station, optical telescope support, and data analysis and theory.

  2. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L. (Editor); Ramaty, R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of gamma ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics are discussed. Line spectra from solar, stellar, planetary, and cosmic gamma rays are examined as well as HEAO investigations, the prospects of a gamma ray observatory, and follow-on X-ray experiments in space.

  3. Gamma ray astrophysics. [emphasizing processes and absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.

  4. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  5. High energy gamma ray balloon instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Baker, R. G.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chesney, J. R.; Derdeyn, S. M.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hunter, S. D.; Jacques, J. S.; Laubenthal, N. A.

    1985-01-01

    The High Energy Gamma Ray Balloon Instrument was built in part to verify certain subsystems' performance for the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument, the high energy telescope to be carried on the Gamma Ray Observatory. This paper describes the instrument, the performance of some subsystems, and some relevant results.

  6. Elemental mapping of the moon using gamma rays : past, present, and future /

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    The energies and intensities of gamma rays From a planetary surface can be used to infer the elemental composition of an object with no or a thin atmosphere. The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers in 1972 and 1973 produced many of the results for the distribution of elements in the Moon that are now generally well accepted. Lunar Prospector in 1998 and 1999 globally mapped the Moon with gamma rays and neutrons. Both missions used spectrometers with poor energy resolution ({approx}8-10%). The Japanese plan to send a high-resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometer to the Moon in about 2004 on their SELENE mission. However, little has been done since the 1970s on the models used to unfold planetary gamma-ray spectra. More work needs to be done on understanding what to expect in future gamma-ray spectra and how to unfold such data.

  7. Effects of overburden, biomass and atmospheric inversions on energy and angular distributions of gamma rays from U, K, Th, and airborne radon sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, R.M.; Leggett, D.; Wells, M.B.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a set of radiation transport calculations that were run with the AHISN S/sub n/ discrete ordinates code and a point kernel code to determine the energy, polar angle and height in air distributions of the total and direct gamma-ray flux densities from: (1) uranium sources of 3.2, 200 and 800 ppM in a sandstone orebody covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (2) thorium sources of 12, 25 and 80 ppM in a sandstone ore body covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (3) potassium source (2.5 wt %) in a sandstone ore body covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (4) constant airborne source with height for no inversion and for inversion layer heights of 65.22, 260.32 and 458.43 m; (5) exponentially decreasing airborne source for no inversion and inversion layer heights of 65.22, 260.32 and 458.43 m; (6) 3.2 ppM uranium source in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm thick; (7) 12 ppM thorium source in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm; (8) 2.5 wt % of potassium in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm thick; and (9) 3.2 ppM, 200 ppM, and 800 ppM uranium source in sandstone orebody covered with overburden thicknesses of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm. Gamma-ray emission from the decay of natural uranium, thorium, radon, and potassium are given in a 45-energy group structure applicable to the energy windows used to map the potential uranium ore reserves.

  8. Radio imaging of the very-high-energy gamma-ray emission region in the central engine of a radio galaxy.

    PubMed

    Acciari, V A; Aliu, E; Arlen, T; Bautista, M; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Butt, Y; Byrum, K; Cannon, A; Celik, O; Cesarini, A; Chow, Y C; Ciupik, L; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gall, D; Gillanders, G H; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Horan, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, P; Karlsson, N; Kieda, D; Kildea, J; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; LeBohec, S; Maier, G; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Petry, D; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Swordy, S P; Theiling, M; Toner, J A; Varlotta, A; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Williams, D A; Wissel, S; Wood, M; Walker, R C; Davies, F; Hardee, P E; Junor, W; Ly, C; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barres de Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bühler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L-M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Füssling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göhring, D; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Keogh, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Marandon, V; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Paz Arribas, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schröder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Anderhub, H; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Balestra, S; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; Becerra González, J; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Borla Tridon, D; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bose, D; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Curtef, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Cea del Pozo, E; Delgado Mendez, C; De los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Dominguez, A; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Errando, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; García López, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Goebel, F; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Jogler, T; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldón, J; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Oya, I; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Reichardt, I; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sanchez-Conde, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Wagner, R M; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2009-07-24

    The accretion of matter onto a massive black hole is believed to feed the relativistic plasma jets found in many active galactic nuclei (AGN). Although some AGN accelerate particles to energies exceeding 10(12) electron volts and are bright sources of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, it is not yet known where the VHE emission originates. Here we report on radio and VHE observations of the radio galaxy Messier 87, revealing a period of extremely strong VHE gamma-ray flares accompanied by a strong increase of the radio flux from its nucleus. These results imply that charged particles are accelerated to very high energies in the immediate vicinity of the black hole.

  9. Radio imaging of the very-high-energy gamma-ray emission region in the central engine of a radio galaxy.

    PubMed

    Acciari, V A; Aliu, E; Arlen, T; Bautista, M; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Butt, Y; Byrum, K; Cannon, A; Celik, O; Cesarini, A; Chow, Y C; Ciupik, L; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gall, D; Gillanders, G H; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Horan, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, P; Karlsson, N; Kieda, D; Kildea, J; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; LeBohec, S; Maier, G; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Petry, D; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Swordy, S P; Theiling, M; Toner, J A; Varlotta, A; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Williams, D A; Wissel, S; Wood, M; Walker, R C; Davies, F; Hardee, P E; Junor, W; Ly, C; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barres de Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bühler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L-M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Füssling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göhring, D; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Keogh, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Marandon, V; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Paz Arribas, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schröder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Anderhub, H; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Balestra, S; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; Becerra González, J; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Borla Tridon, D; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bose, D; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Curtef, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Cea del Pozo, E; Delgado Mendez, C; De los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Dominguez, A; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Errando, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; García López, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Goebel, F; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Jogler, T; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldón, J; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Oya, I; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Reichardt, I; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sanchez-Conde, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Wagner, R M; Zabalza, V

    2009-07-24

    The accretion of matter onto a massive black hole is believed to feed the relativistic plasma jets found in many active galactic nuclei (AGN). Although some AGN accelerate particles to energies exceeding 10(12) electron volts and are bright sources of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, it is not yet known where the VHE emission originates. Here we report on radio and VHE observations of the radio galaxy Messier 87, revealing a period of extremely strong VHE gamma-ray flares accompanied by a strong increase of the radio flux from its nucleus. These results imply that charged particles are accelerated to very high energies in the immediate vicinity of the black hole. PMID:19574351

  10. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    A unique opportunity for journalists and cameramen to view INTEGRAL will be provided at ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands on Tuesday 22 September. On show will be the full-size structural thermal model which is now beeing examined in ESA's test centre. Following introductions to the project, the INTEGRAL spacecraft can be seen, filmed and photographed in its special clean room environment.. Media representatives wishing to participate in the visit to ESA's test centre and the presentation of INTEGRAL are kindly requested to return by fax the attached registration form to ESA Public relations, Tel. +33 (0) 1.53.69.71.55 - Fax. +33 (0) 1.53.69.76.90. For details please see the attached programme Gamma-ray astronomy - why ? Gamma-rays cannot be detected from the ground since the earth's atmosphere shields us from high energetic radiation. Only space technology has made gamma-astronomy possible. To avoid background radiation effects INTEGRAL will spend most of its time in the orbit outside earth's radiation belts above an altitude of 40'000 km. Gamma-rays are the highest energy form of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic phenomena occurring in nature and addresses some of the most fundamental problems in physics. We know for instance that most of the chemical elements in our bodies come from long-dead stars. But how were these elements formed? INTEGRAL will register gamma-ray evidence of element-making. Gamma-rays also appear when matter squirms in the intense gravity of collapsed stars or black holes. One of the most important scientific objectives of INTEGRAL is to study such compact objects as neutron stars or black holes. Besides stellar black holes there may exist much bigger specimens of these extremely dense objects. Most astronomers believe that in the heart of our Milky Way as in the centre of other galaxies there may lurk giant black holes. INTEGRAL will have to find evidence of these exotic objects. Even

  11. Solar gamma-ray lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite has observed emissions produced by nuclear reactions in over 20 separate solar flares. The observed intensity from different flares ranges over a factor of 100, and the time scale for their production ranges from 10-s pulses to complete events lasting over 1000 s. The emissions include narrow and broadened prompt gamma-ray lines from numerous isotopes from Li-7 to Fe-56 and cover the energy range from 0.431 MeV (Be-7) to 7.12 MeV (O-16). The instrument has also observed emissions at energies greater than 10 MeV from the decay of pi0 mesons, from electron bremsstrahlung, and from the direct observation of greater-than-100-MeV solar neutrons. The intensity, temporal and spectral properties of these emissions are reviewed from the point of view that solar flares represent an astrophysical particle-acceleration site.

  12. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a final report for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program from 06/01/91-07/31/97. The topics include: 1) Solar Flare Neutron Spectra and Accelerated Ions; 2) Gamma Ray Lines From The Orion Complex; 3) Implications of Nuclear Line Emission From The Orion Complex; 4) Possible Sites of Nuclear Line Emission From Massive OB Associations; 5) Gamma-Ray Burst Repitition and BATSE Position Uncertainties; 6) Effects of Compton Scattering on BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra; and 7) Selection Biases on the Spectral and Temporal Distribution of Gamma Ray Bursts.

  13. Gamma ray astronomy. [source mechanisms review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D.

    1974-01-01

    The various source mechanisms for celestial gamma rays are reviewed. The gamma-ray data are examined as a source of information about the processes and source locations for the production of charged particle cosmic rays, galactic structure, explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae, regions of confinement for cosmic rays, regions where matter-antimatter annihilation occurs, and the general condition in cosmological space both in the past and present. Topics include gamma rays from pi mesons by nuclear interactions, nuclear and supernovae lines, diffuse emission and discrete sources, interstellar absorption and detection of gamma rays, and others. A brief view of the available gamma-ray detection systems and techniques is presented.

  14. Periodic gamma-ray emissions from Geminga at or = 10(12) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, R. K.; Rawat, H. S.; Sanecha, V. K.; Rannot, R. C.; Sapru, M.; Tickoo, A. K.; Qazi, R. A.; Bhat, C. L.; Razdan, H.; Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of data from an atmospheric Cerenkov telescope indicated the periodic emission of gamma rays of energy 10 to the 12th power eV, at 60.25 second period, from 2CG 195+4. The gamma ray flux at 99% confidence level is estimated to be 9.5 x 10 to 12 photons/sq cm/s.

  15. GRASP - Gamma ray astronomy with spectroscopy and positioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bignami, G.F.; Dean, A.J.; Durouchoux, P.; Lund, N.; McBreen, B.; Ramsden, D.; Staubert, R.; Taylor, B.G.; Vedrenne, G.

    1987-02-01

    The GRASP telescope, which is currently under assessment by the European Space Agency as a future space mission, is designed to generate high resolution images of the gamma-ray sky with high sensitivity and fine spectral resolution. The telescope employs a coded aperture mask and the capability to function as a Spectral Imager is achieved by the incorporation of an array of discrete germanium solid state detectors within the matrix of a larger position sensitive (CsI(T1) gamma-ray detection plane.

  16. Miniature gamma-ray camera for tumor localization

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.C.; Olsen, R.W.; James, R.B.; Cross, E.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop technology for a miniature gamma-ray camera for use in nuclear medicine. The camera will meet a need of the medical community for an improved means to image radio-pharmaceuticals in the body. In addition, this technology-with only slight modifications-should prove useful in applications requiring the monitoring and verification of special nuclear materials (SNMs). Utilization of the good energy resolution of mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detectors provides a means for rejecting scattered gamma-rays and improving the isotopic selectivity in gamma-ray images. The first year of this project involved fabrication and testing of a monolithic mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detector arrays and appropriate collimators/apertures. The second year of the program involved integration of the front-end detector module, pulse processing electronics, computer, software, and display.

  17. Europe's space camera unmasks a cosmic gamma-ray machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-11-01

    The new-found neutron star is the visible counterpart of a pulsating radio source, Pulsar 1055-52. It is a mere 20 kilometres wide. Although the neutron star is very hot, at about a million degrees C, very little of its radiant energy takes the form of visible light. It emits mainly gamma-rays, an extremely energetic form of radiation. By examining it at visible wavelengths, astronomers hope to figure out why Pulsar 1055-52 is the most efficient generator of gamma-rays known so far, anywhere the Universe. The Faint Object Camera found Pulsar 1055-52 in near ultraviolet light at 3400 angstroms, a little shorter in wavelength than the violet light at the extremity of the human visual range. Roberto Mignani, Patrizia Caraveo and Giovanni Bignami of the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan, Italy, report its optical identification in a forthcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters (1 January 1997). The formal name of the object is PSR 1055-52. Evading the glare of an adjacent star The Italian team had tried since 1988 to spot Pulsar 1055-52 with two of the most powerful ground-based optical telescopes in the Southern Hemisphere. These were the 3.6-metre Telescope and the 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. Unfortunately an ordinary star 100,000 times brighter lay in almost the same direction in the sky, separated from the neutron star by only a thousandth of a degree. The Earth's atmosphere defocused the star's light sufficiently to mask the glimmer from Pulsar 1055-52. The astronomers therefore needed an instrument in space. The Faint Object Camera offered the best precision and sensitivity to continue the hunt. Devised by European astronomers to complement the American wide field camera in the Hubble Space Telescope, the Faint Object Camera has a relatively narrow field of view. It intensifies the image of a faint object by repeatedly accelerating electrons from photo-electric films, so as to produce

  18. Sky and Elemental Planetary Mapping Via Gamma Ray Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roland, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Low-energy gamma ray emissions ((is) approximately 30keV to (is) approximately 30MeV) are significant to astrophysics because many interesting objects emit their primary energy in this regime. As such, there has been increasing demand for a complete map of the gamma ray sky, but many experiments to do so have encountered obstacles. Using an innovative method of applying the Radon Transform to data from BATSE (the Burst And Transient Source Experiment) on NASA's CGRO (Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory) mission, we have circumvented many of these issues and successfully localized many known sources to 0.5 - 1 deg accuracy. Our method, which is based on a simple 2-dimensional planar back-projection approximation of the inverse Radon transform (familiar from medical CAT-scan technology), can thus be used to image the entire sky and locate new gamma ray sources, specifically in energy bands between 200keV and 2MeV which have not been well surveyed to date. Samples of these results will be presented. This same technique can also be applied to elemental planetary surface mapping via gamma ray spectroscopy. Due to our method's simplicity and power, it could potentially improve a current map's resolution by a significant factor.

  19. The INTEGRAL view of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Corsi, A.; Foley, S.; McGlynn, S.; De Cesare, G.; Bazzano, A.

    2011-04-01

    After more than six and half years in orbit, the ESA space observatory INTEGRAL has provided new, exciting results in the soft gamma-ray energy range (from a few keV to a few MeV). With the discovery of about 700 hard X-Ray sources, it has changed our previous view of a sky composed of peculiar and “monster” sources. The new high energy sky is in fact full of a large variety of normal, very energetic emitters, characterized by new accretion and acceleration processes (see also IBIS cat4 (Bird et al., 2010). At the same time, about one GRB/month is detected and imaged by the two main gamma-ray instruments on board: IBIS and SPI. In this paper, we review the major achievements of the INTEGRAL observatory in the field of Gamma-Ray Bursts. We summarize the global properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts detected by INTEGRAL, with respect to their duration, spectral index, and peak flux distributions. We recall INTEGRAL results on the spectral lag analysis, showing how long-lag GRBs appear to form a separate population at low peak fluxes. We review the outcome of polarisation studies performed by using INTEGRAL data. Finally, concerning single GRB studies, we highlight the properties of particularly interesting Gamma-Ray Bursts in the INTEGRAL sample.

  20. Optical Emissions Associated with Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Measurements have correlated TGFs with initial development stages of normal polarity intracloud lightning that transports negative charge upward (+IC) [e.g., Lu et al., GRL, 37, L11806, 2010; JGR, 116, A03316, 2011]. Moreover, Østgaard et al. [GRL, 40, 2423, 2013] have recently reported, for the first time, space-based observations of optical emissions from TGF-associated IC lightning flashes, and Dwyer et al. [GRL, 40, 4067, 2013] recently quantified optical emissions associated with TGFs based on assumption that these emissions are similar to those produced by extensive air showers. In the present study, we quantify optical emissions resulting from the excitation of air molecules produced by the large population of electrons involved in TGF events based on two possible production mechanisms: relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005] and acceleration of thermal runaway electrons produced by high-potential intra-cloud lightning leaders [e.g., Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011; Xu et al., GRL, 39, L08801, 2012]. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that electron energy distributions established from these two production mechanisms are inherently different over the full energy range, and also substantially different from those produced in extensive air showers. Moreover, we show that TGFs are

  1. Optical Emissions Associated with Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Celestin, S. J.; Pasko, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Measurements have correlated TGFs with initial development stages of normal polarity intracloud lightning that transports negative charge upward (+IC) [e.g., Lu et al., GRL, 37, L11806, 2010; JGR, 116, A03316, 2011]. Moreover, Østgaard et al. [GRL, 40, 2423, 2013] have recently reported, for the first time, space-based observations of optical emissions from TGF-associated IC lightning flashes. The purpose of the present work is to quantify the intensities of optical emissions resulting from the excitation of air molecules produced by conventional streamer discharges in negative corona flashes of stepping negative leaders and by the large amount of electrons involved in TGF events based on two production mechanisms: relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005] and production of runaway electrons by high-potential +IC lightning leaders [e.g., Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011; Xu et al., GRL, 39, L08801, 2012]. We employ a Monte Carlo model to simulate the acceleration of electrons in the energy range from sub-eV to GeV in either large-scale homogeneous electric field sustaining RREAs or highly inhomogeneous electric field produced around the lightning leader tip region. With the knowledge of the electron energy distribution function, a model similar to that described in [Liu and Pasko, JGR, 109, A

  2. COMPACT, TUNABLE COMPTON SCATTERING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2009-08-20

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  3. STS-37 Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) grappled by RMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Backdropped against the Earth's expansive desert in the Mid East, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) with its solar array (SA) panels deployed is grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) during STS-37 systems checkout. GRO's four complement instruments are visible: the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) (at the bottom); the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) (center); the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) (top); and Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) (on four corners). The view was taken by STS-37 crew through an aft flight deck overhead window.

  4. STS-37 Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) grappled by RMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Backdropped against the Earth's surface, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) with its solar array (SA) panels deployed is grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) during STS-37 systems checkout. GRO's four complement instruments are visible: the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) (at the bottom); the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) (center); the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) (top); and Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) (on four corners). The view was taken by STS-37 crew through an aft flight deck overhead window.

  5. Simulated gamma-ray pulse profile of the Crab pulsar with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtovoi, A.; Zampieri, L.

    2016-07-01

    We present simulations of the very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray light curve of the Crab pulsar as observed by the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The CTA pulse profile of the Crab pulsar is simulated with the specific goal of determining the accuracy of the position of the interpulse. We fit the pulse shape obtained by the Major Atmospheric Gamma-Ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescope with a three-Gaussian template and rescale it to account for the different CTA instrumental and observational configurations. Simulations are performed for different configurations of CTA and for the ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) mini-array. The northern CTA configuration will provide an improvement of a factor of ˜3 in accuracy with an observing time comparable to that of MAGIC (73 h). Unless the VHE spectrum above 1 TeV behaves differently from what we presently know, unreasonably long observing times are required for a significant detection of the pulsations of the Crab pulsar with the high-energy-range sub-arrays. We also found that an independent VHE timing analysis is feasible with Large Size Telescopes. CTA will provide a significant improvement in determining the VHE pulse shape parameters necessary to constrain theoretical models of the gamma-ray emission of the Crab pulsar. One of such parameters is the shift in phase between peaks in the pulse profile at VHE and in other energy bands that, if detected, may point to different locations of the emission regions.

  6. High Redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 gamma-ray bursts per year for 7 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. GRBs are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=9.4 giving information on metallicity, star formation rate and reionization. The talk will present the latest results.

  7. PROGRESS ON MARGIE, A GAMMA-RAY BURST ULTRA-LONG DURATION BALLOON MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    D. BAND; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    We are designing the Minute of Arc Resolution Gamma-ray Imaging Experiment (MARGIE) as a 100 day Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) mission to: (1) detect and localize gamma-ray bursts; and (2) survey the hard X-ray sky. Major advances in designing the CZT detectors increase the sensitivity to higher energy. Design of the gondola has also progressed.

  8. Balloon-borne experiment for observation of sub-MeV/MeV gamma-rays from Crab Nebula using an Electron Tracking Compton Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Shotaro

    In astronomy, the observations of gamma-ray in sub-MeV/MeV energy band is expected to provide much information of various high energy phenomena, for example, the nucleosynthesis in supernovae, the particle acceleration in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and the strong gravity potential of black holes. However, sufficient observation has not yet been achieved due to difficulties of Compton gamma-ray imaging and rejection of large radiation backgrounds produced by the interaction of cosmic rays with a satellite body. To advance the MeV gamma-ray astronomy, we have developed an Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) as a next-generation MeV gamma-ray telescope. In comparison with a classical Compton camera, the ETCC measures a three dimensional track of the Compton recoil electron in the gas detector, which makes it possible to restrict the arrival direction of each incident gamma-ray to arc segment and remove backgrounds strongly using the kinematics test of Compton scattering and the particle identification by energy loss rate of charged particle. We planned the balloon experiments “Sub-MeV gamma-ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment” (SMILE) to check the performance of ETCC in space for the future satellite observation. We have already carried out the first balloon borne experiment in 2006 using a small size ETCC with a 10 times 10 times 15 cm(3) detection area (SMILE-I), and we observed successfully the fluxes of the diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays at an altitude of 35 km during a live time of 3 hours and reveal the good background rejection ability of an ETCC. As the next step of SMILE, we plan to observe bright celestial sources like Crab Nebula to verify the gamma-ray imaging ability of an ETCC (SMILE-II) at middle latitude in the northern hemisphere. We have already constructed the SMILE-II flight ETCC system using a large size ETCC with (30 cm)(3) detection area and completely upgraded data acquisition system for reducing the dead

  9. Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

  10. Understanding Doppler Broadening of Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Sullivan, John P.

    2014-07-03

    Doppler-broadened gamma ray peaks are observed routinely in the collection and analysis of gamma-ray spectra. If not recognized and understood, the appearance of Doppler broadening can complicate the interpretation of a spectrum and the correct identification of the gamma ray-emitting material. We have conducted a study using a simulation code to demonstrate how Doppler broadening arises and provide a real-world example in which Doppler broadening is found. This report describes that study and its results.

  11. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes produced by energetic electrons during the stepping of lightning leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, S. J.; Xu, W.; Pasko, V. P.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bursts of high-energy photons originating from the Earth's atmosphere in association with thunderstorm activity. TGFs were serendipitously discovered by BATSE detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory originally launched to perform observations of celestial gamma-ray sources [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994]. These events have also been detected by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) satellite [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010], and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010]. Moreover, measurements have correlated TGFs with initial development stages of normal polarity intracloud lightning that transports negative charge upward (+IC) [Lu et al., JGR, 116, A03316, 2011]. Photon spectra corresponding to well-established model of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. However, it has been suggested that long unbranched +IC lightning leaders could produce a sufficient number of energetic electrons to explain TGFs without invoking further amplification in RREAs [Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011]. In this work, we use Monte Carlo models to study the photon spectra at low-orbit satellite altitudes associated with energetic electrons produced during the negative corona flashes of stepping negative leaders in +IC discharges. We show that the obtained spectra agree with current satellite measurements, which suggests that TGFs can be produced directly by lightning discharges.

  12. Integral's first look at the gamma-ray Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    powerful gamma-ray instruments. It has a camera, or imager, called IBIS and a spectrometer, SPI. Spectrometers are used to measure the energy of the gamma rays received. Gamma-ray sources are often extremely variable and can fluctuate within minutes or seconds. It is therefore crucial to record data simultaneously in different wavelengths. To achieve this, Integral also carries an X-ray and an optical monitor (JEM-X and OMC). All four instruments will observe the same objects, at the same time. In this way they can capture fleeting events completely. Integral sends the data from all the instruments to the Integral Science Data Centre (ISDC) near Geneva, Switzerland, where they are processed for eventual release to the scientific community. “We have been optimising the instruments’ performance to produce the best overall science. We expect to be ready for astronomers around the world to use Integral by the end of the year,” says Arvind Parmar, acting Integral Project Scientist at ESA. “These images and spectra prove that Integral can certainly do the job it was designed to do, and more", which is to unlock some of the secrets of the high-energy Universe. Integral’s primary mission will last for two years, but it is carrying enough fuel to continue for five years, all being well. Notes to Editors Integral was launched on board a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, on 17 October 2002. The satellite was placed in a tilted orbit that looped from 600 to 153 000 kilometres above the Earth and back again. Integral’s own thrusters then steered the spacecraft, in a series of five manoeuvres, into its operational orbit, between 9 000 and 153 000 kilometres above the Earth. Although Integral orbits above the Earth's atmosphere and weather, it still has ‘space weather’ to contend with. Space weather consists of a constant rain of tiny particles that can temporarily blind detectors designed to register gamma radiation. “The flashes last

  13. Nuclear Deexcitation Gamma Ray Lines from Accelerated Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, R. J.; Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    2001-12-01

    Since the comprehensive treatment of nuclear deexcitation gamma-ray line emission by Ramaty, Kozlovsky and Lingenfelter in 1979, many new laboratory measurements of the cross sections have become available. Such new measurements allow improved theoretical evaluations of cross sections and the addition of more lines in the analyses of gamma-ray data. For example, the inclusion of lines produced by energetic 3He will provide unique information about its abundance. We present these improved cross sections as a function of the projectile energy for proton, alpha and 3He reactions with He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca and Fe. We also present calculations of gamma-ray line yields based on these cross sections and show how line ratios depend on the assumed ambient and accelerated-particle abundances and on the accelerated-particle energy spectrum. Such calculations are essential for interpretation of gamma-ray line observations of astrophysical sites that contain significant fluxes of energetic particles such as solar flares, the Earth's atmosphere, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, the interstellar medium and galactic nebulae. Part of the research reported here was supported by NASA DPR S92680F and W19977.

  14. Future prospects for gamma-ray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C.

    1980-01-01

    Astrophysical phenomena discussed are: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; astrophysical nucleo-synthesis; solar particle acceleration; the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the solar system; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies, especially active ones; and the degree of matter antimater symmetry of the universe. The gamma ray results of GAMMA-I, the gamma ray observatory, the gamma ray burst network, solar polar, and very high energy gamma ray telescopes on the ground provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes.

  15. Gamma-rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Central Region of the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we review the prospects for the FERMI satellite (formerly known as GLAST) to detect gamma-rays from dark matter annihilations in the Central Region of the Milky Way, in light of the recent observations and discoveries of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. While the existence of significant astrophysical backgrounds in this part of the sky limits FERMI's discovery potential to some degree, this can be mitigated by exploiting the peculiar energy spectrum and angular distribution of the dark matter annihilation signal relative to those of astrophysical backgrounds.

  16. Constraining faint terrestrial gamma-ray flashes with stacking analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. M.; Buzbee, P.; Aron-Dine, S.; Kelley, N. A.; Holzworth, R. H., II; Hutchins, M. L.; Dwyer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We searched for gamma-ray emission from lightning using a satellite (the Reuven Ramaty Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI)) and an instrument on an aircraft (the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE)). Both instruments have detected terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) via direct searches for statistically significant bursts of gamma-rays. In our new analysis, we instead identified times when the instruments were near known lightning discharges based on VLF radio data (from the Worldwide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) in the case of RHESSI and from three North American networks in the case of ADELE). We then stacked together the gamma-ray signals for each instrument, with times adjusted to be relative to the time of radio emission for each discharge (corrected for light propagation time to the spacecraft in the case of RHESSI). The resulting stacked gamma-ray time profile is sensitive to an average level of gamma-ray emission far lower than what can be recognized above background for a single TGF. The summed signal from small, untriggered TGFs is remarkably weak, and preliminary evidence suggests that it comes mostly from distant, bright TGFs observed outside the main bremsstrahlung beam, not from a population of subluminous TGFs near the spacecraft. Under the assumption of a broken power-law differential distribution of TGF intensities, we find that the index must break (harden or cut off) just below the current sensitivity limit of satellites like RHESSI and Fermi, and that less than 1% of lightning can produce a TGF that belongs to the same distribution as those that are observable.

  17. ESA's gamma-ray astronomy mission's Russian launch confirmed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-11-01

    The Agreement, signed in Moscow on 18 November 1997 by ESA's Director General Antonio Rodotà, and his Russian counterpart Yuri Koptev, also assures a place for Russian astronomers in Integral's science team supervising the instrumental and astonomical aspects of the mission. The Agreement is the culmination of five years of study and negotiation that began when scientists and engineers were first defining Integral, even before its selection in 1993 as a medium-size mission to be included in ESA's science programme. In April 2001, the four-stage Proton rocket will put Integral's mass of nearly 4 tonnes into a very high orbit. Orbiting the Earth every 48 hours, never approaching closer than 46 000 kilometres, Integral will avoid the Earth's radiation belts and will be capable of observing the Universe for 24 hours a day. Integral's mission team has managed to reduce costs substantially through the use of an adapted version of the service module (bus) of ESA's XMM X-ray astronomy spacecraft, due for launch in 1999. NASA will take part in the mission too, with ground stations in its Deep Space Network helping to maintain 24-hour operation. With astronomical instruments provided by teams led by European scientists, Integral will be a thoroughly international mission under ESA leadership. Instruments of advanced design will make Integral the first gamma-ray astronomical mission to provide sharp images of gamma-ray sources in the cosmos and accurate measurement of gamme-ray energies. It will far surpass the recent Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (NASA, 1991) and Granat (Russia, 1989). These in turn were big improvements on ESA's COS-B (1975), which pioneered gamma-ray astronomy twenty years ago. ESA returns to this branch of space astronomy at a time of high excitement. Gamma-ray astronomy offers special insights into some of the most violent events in the Universe, including gamma-ray bursts and activity close to black holes.

  18. AGILE and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Francesco; Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.

    2006-05-19

    AGILE is a Scientific Mission dedicated to high-energy astrophysics supported by ASI with scientific participation of INAF and INFN. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV. The broadband detection of GRBs and the study of implications for particle acceleration and high energy emission are primary goals of th emission. AGILE can image GRBs with 2-3 arcminutes error boxes in the hard X-ray range, and provide broadband photon-by photon detection in the 15-45 keV, 03-50 MeV, and 30 MeV-30 GeV energy ranges. Microsecond on-board photon tagging and a {approx} 100 microsecond gamma-ray detection deadtime will be crucial for fast GRB timing. On-board calculated GRB coordinates and energy fluxes will be quickly transmitted to the ground by an ORBCOMM transceiver. AGILE have recently (December 2005) completed its gamma-ray calibration. It is now (January 2006) undergoing satellite integration and testing. The PLSV launch is planned in early 2006. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2006. It will be the only mission entirely dedicated to high-energy astrophysics above 30 MeV during the period mid-2006/mid-2007.

  19. Ion-induced gamma-ray detection of fast ions escaping from fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiura, M. Mushiake, T.; Doi, K.; Wada, M.; Taniike, A.; Matsuki, T.; Shimazoe, K.; Yoshino, M.; Nagasaka, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kisaki, M.; Fujimoto, Y.; Fujioka, K.; Yamaoka, H.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2014-11-15

    A 12 × 12 pixel detector has been developed and used in a laboratory experiment for lost fast-ion diagnostics. With gamma rays in the MeV range originating from nuclear reactions {sup 9}Be(α, nγ){sup 12}C, {sup 9}Be(d, nγ){sup 12}C, and {sup 12}C(d, pγ){sup 13}C, a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector measured a fine-energy-resolved spectrum of gamma rays. The HPGe detector enables the survey of background-gamma rays and Doppler-shifted photo peak shapes. In the experiments, the pixel detector produces a gamma-ray image reconstructed from the energy spectrum obtained from total photon counts of irradiation passing through the detector's lead collimator. From gamma-ray image, diagnostics are able to produce an analysis of the fast ion loss onto the first wall in principle.

  20. The AGILE Mission and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Francesco; Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.

    2007-05-01

    The AGILE Mission will explore the gamma-ray Universe with a very innovative instrument combining for the first time a gamma-ray imager and a hard X-ray imager. AGILE will be operational at the beginning of 2007 and it will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources, Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV. The broadband detection of GRBs and the study of implications for particle acceleration and high energy emission are primary goals of the mission. AGILE can image GRBs with 2-3 arcminute error boxes in the hard X-ray range, and provide broadband photon-by photon detection in the 15-45 keV, 03-50 MeV, and 30 MeV-30 GeV energy ranges. Microsecond on-board photon tagging and a {approx} 100 microsecond gamma-ray detection deadtime will be crucial for fast GRB timing. On-board calculated GRB coordinates and energy fluxes will be quickly transmitted to the ground by an ORBCOMM transceiver. AGILE is now (January 2007) undergoing final satellite integration and testing. The PLS V launch is planned in spring 2007. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2007.

  1. The status of low-energy gamma-ray astronomy and the Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief sketch of the objectives and status of the various subdisciplines in gamma-ray astronomy (below 10 GeV) are presented. The Gamma-Ray Observatory planned for launch in 1988 is described. This NASA observatory and several planned French-Soviet spacecraft are expected to elevate gamma-ray astronomy into a mature observational science for the Space Station era.

  2. The Most Remote Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    seconds is larger than that of the Sun during its entire life time (about 10,000 million years). "Gamma-ray bursts" are in fact by far the most powerful events since the Big Bang that are known in the Universe. While there are indications that gamma-ray bursts originate in star-forming regions within distant galaxies, the nature of such explosions remains a puzzle. Recent observations with large telescopes, e.g. the measurement of the degree of polarization of light from a gamma-ray burst in May 1999 with the VLT ( ESO PR 08/99), are now beginning to cast some light on this long-standing mystery. The afterglow of GRB 000131 ESO PR Photo 28a/00 ESO PR Photo 28a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 475 pix - 41k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 949 pix - 232k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1200 x 1424 pix - 1.2Mb] ESO PR Photo 28b/00 ESO PR Photo 28b/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 480 pix - 67k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 959 pix - 288k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1200 x 1439 pix - 856k] Caption : PR Photo 28a/00 is a colour composite image of the sky field around the position of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 that was detected on January 31, 2000. It is based on images obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal. The object is indicated with an arrow, near a rather bright star (magnitude 9, i.e., over 1 million times brighter than the faintest objects visible on this photo). This and other bright objects in the field are responsible for various unavoidable imaging effects, caused by optical reflections (ring-shaped "ghost images", e.g. to the left of the brightest star) and detector saturation effects (horizontal and vertical straight lines and coloured "coronae" at the bright objects, and areas of "bleeding", e.g. below the bright star). PR Photo 28b/00 shows the rapid fading of the optical counterpart of GRB 000131 (slightly left of the centre), by means of exposures with the VLT on February 4 (upper left), 6 (upper right), 8 (lower left) and March 5 (lower right). It is no longer visible on the last photo

  3. Instrumentation of LOTIS: Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System; a fully automated wide field of view telescope system searching for simultaneous optical counterparts of gamma ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.S.; Ables, E.; Barthelmy, S.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Ott, L.L.; Parker, E.L.; Williams, G.G.

    1998-03-06

    LOTIS is a rapidly slewing wide-field-of-view telescope which was designed and constructed to search for simultaneous gamma-ray burst (GRB) optical counterparts. This experiment requires a rapidly slewing ({lt} 10 sec), wide-field-of-view ({gt} 15{degrees}), automatic and dedicated telescope. LOTIS utilizes commercial tele-photo lenses and custom 2048 x 2048 CCD cameras to view a 17.6 x 17.6{degrees} field of view. It can point to any part of the sky within 5 sec and is fully automated. It is connected via Internet socket to the GRB coordinate distribution network which analyzes telemetry from the satellite and delivers GRB coordinate information in real-time. LOTIS started routine operation in Oct. 1996. In the idle time between GRB triggers, LOTIS systematically surveys the entire available sky every night for new optical transients. This paper will describe the system design and performance.

  4. GLAST: Exploring Nature's Highest Energy Processes with the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, Seth; Myers, J. D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international and multi-agency space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV. Several successful exploratory missions in gamma-ray astronomy led to the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). Launched in 1991, EGRET made the first complete survey of the sky in the 30 MeV-10 GeV range. EGRET showed the high-energy gamma-ray sky to be surprisingly dynamic and diverse, with sources ranging from the sun and moon to massive black holes at large redshifts. Most of the gamma-ray sources detected by EGRET remain unidentified. In light of the discoveries with EGRET, the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope vastly more capable than instruments flown previously, as well as a secondary instrument to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. The main instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), will have superior area, angular resolution, field of view, and deadtime that together will provide a factor of 30 or more advance in sensitivity, as well as provide capability for study of transient phenomena. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will have a field of view several times larger than the LAT and will provide spectral coverage of gamma-ray bursts that extends from the lower limit of the LAT down to 10 keV. The basic parameters of the GBM are compared to those of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument on CGRO in Table 1-2. With the LAT and GBM, GLAST will be a flexible observatory for investigating the great range of astrophysical phenomena best studied in high-energy gamma rays. NASA plans to launch GLAST in late 2005.

  5. Instrumental background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers and techniques for its reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers is presented. The calculations are based on newly available interaction cross sections and new analytic techniques, and are the most detailed and accurate published to date. Results compare well with measurements made in the 20 keV to 10 MeV energy range by the Goddard Low Energy Gamma-ray Spectrometer (LEGS). The principal components of the continuum background in spectrometers with GE detectors and thick active shields are: (1) elastic neutron scattering of atmospheric neutrons on the Ge nuclei; (2) aperture flux of atmospheric and cosmic gamma rays; (3) beta decays of unstable nuclides produced by nuclear interactions of atmospheric protons and neutrons with Ge nuclei; and (4) shield leakage of atmospheric gamma rays. The improved understanding of these components leads to several recommended techniques for reducing the background.

  6. Cloaked Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, David

    2014-06-01

    It is suggested that many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are cloaked by an ultrarelativistic baryonic shell that has high optical depth when the photons are manufactured. Such a shell would not fully block photons reflected or emitted from its inner surface, because the radial velocity of the photons can be less than that of the shell. This avoids the standard problem associated with GRBs that the thermal component should be produced where the flow is still obscured by high optical depth. The radiation that escapes high optical depth obeys the Amati relation. Observational implications may include (1) anomalously high ratios of afterglow to prompt emission, such as may have been the case in the recently discovered PTF 11agg, and (2) ultrahigh-energy neutrino pulses that are non-coincident with detectable GRB. It is suggested that GRB 090510, a short, very hard GRB with very little afterglow, was an exposed GRB, in contrast to those cloaked by baryonic shells.

  7. CLOAKED GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, David

    2014-06-01

    It is suggested that many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are cloaked by an ultrarelativistic baryonic shell that has high optical depth when the photons are manufactured. Such a shell would not fully block photons reflected or emitted from its inner surface, because the radial velocity of the photons can be less than that of the shell. This avoids the standard problem associated with GRBs that the thermal component should be produced where the flow is still obscured by high optical depth. The radiation that escapes high optical depth obeys the Amati relation. Observational implications may include (1) anomalously high ratios of afterglow to prompt emission, such as may have been the case in the recently discovered PTF 11agg, and (2) ultrahigh-energy neutrino pulses that are non-coincident with detectable GRB. It is suggested that GRB 090510, a short, very hard GRB with very little afterglow, was an exposed GRB, in contrast to those cloaked by baryonic shells.

  8. Studies of coded aperture gamma-ray optics using an Anger camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambous, P. M.; Dean, A. J.; Stephen, J. B.; Young, N. G. S.; Gourlay, A. R.

    1983-08-01

    An experimental arrangement using an Anger camera as a position-sensitive focal plane, in conjunction with a series of coded aperture masks, has been employed to generate laboratory gamma-ray images. These tests were designed to investigate quantitatively a number of potential aberrations present in any practicable imaging system. It is shown that, by proper design, the major sources of image defects may be reduced to a level compatible with the production of good quality gamma-ray sky images.

  9. Flare gamma ray continuum emission from neutral pion decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David; Mackinnon, Alec L.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate, in detail, the production of solar flare gamma ray emission above 100 MeV via the interaction of high energy protons with the ambient solar atmosphere. We restrict our considerations to the broadband gamma ray spectrum resulting from the decay of neutral pions produced in p-H reactions. Thick-target calculations are performed to determine the photon fluences. However, proton transport is not considered. Inferences about the form of the proton spectrum at 10-100 MeV have already been drawn from de-excitation gamma ray lines. Our aim is to constrain the proton spectrum at higher energies. Thus, the injected proton spectrum is assumed to have the form of a Bessel Function, characteristics of stochastic energy at higher energies. The detailed shape of the gamma ray spectra around 100 MeV is found to have a strong dependence on the spectral index of the power law and on the turnover energy (from Bessel function to power law). As would be expected, the harder the photon spectrum the wider the 100 MeV feature. The photon spectra are to be compared with observations and used to place limits upon the number of particles accelerated and to constrain acceleration models.

  10. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  11. The Gamma-ray galactic diffuse radiation and Cerenkov telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Chardonnet, P. |; Salati, P. ||; Silk, J.; Grenier, I.; Smoot, G.

    1995-12-01

    By using the PYTHIA version of the Lund Monte Carlo program, we study the photon yield of proton-proton collisions in the energy range between 10 GeV and 1 TeV. The resulting photon spectrum turns out to scale roughly with incident energy. Then, by folding the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray protons with the distribution of HI and CO, the Galactic diffuse emission of {gamma}-rays above 100 GeV is mapped. Prospects for observing that diffuse radiation with atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes are discussed. Present instruments are able to detect the {gamma}-ray glow of the Galactic center. The latter will be mapped by the next generation of telescopes if their energy threshold is decreased. However, a detailed survey of the Galactic ridge will be a real challenge, even in the long term. The MILAGRO project seems more appropriate. Finally, we investigate the {gamma}-ray emission from weakly interacting massive particles clustering at the Galactic center. It has been speculated that those species are a major component of the halo dark matter. We show that their {gamma}-ray signal is swamped in the Galactic diffuse radiation and cannot be observed at TeV energies. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Astronomical Society.}

  12. Gamma ray astronomy from satellites and balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of gamma ray astronomy topics presented at the Cosmic Ray Conference. The major conclusions at the Cosmic Ray Conference in the field of gamma ray astronomy are given. (1) MeV-emission of gamma-ray bursts is a common feature. Variations in duration and energy spectra from burst to burst may explain the discrepancy between the measured log N - log S dependence and the observed isotropy of bursts. (2) The gamma-ray line at 1.809 MeV from Al(26) is the first detected line from a radioactive nucleosynthesis product. In order to understand its origin it will be necessary to measure its longitude distribution in the Milky Way. (3) The indications of a gamma-ray excess found from the direction of Loop I is consistent with the picture that the bulk of cosmic rays below 100 GeV is produced in galactic supernova remnants. (4) The interpretation of the large scale distribution of gamma rays in the Milky Way is controversial. At present an extragalactic origin of the cosmic ray nuclei in the GeV-range cannot be excluded from the gamma ray data. (5) The detection of MeV-emission from Cen A is a promising step towards the interesting field of extragalactic gamma ray astronomy.

  13. Gamma-ray Spectral Analysis Algorithm Library

    1997-09-25

    The routines of the Gauss Algorithm library are used to implement special purpose products that need to analyze gamma-ray spectra from GE semiconductor detectors as a part of their function. These routines provide the ability to calibrate energy, calibrate peakwidth, search for peaks, search for regions, and fit the spectral data in a given region to locate gamma rays.

  14. Gamma-ray spectral analysis algorithm library

    SciTech Connect

    Egger, A. E.

    2013-05-06

    The routines of the Gauss Algorithms library are used to implement special purpose products that need to analyze gamma-ray spectra from Ge semiconductor detectors as a part of their function. These routines provide the ability to calibrate energy, calibrate peakwidth, search for peaks, search for regions, and fit the spectral data in a given region to locate gamma rays.

  15. ASTRONOMY: Neighborhood Gamma Ray Burst Boosts Theory.

    PubMed

    Schilling, G

    2000-07-01

    Titanic explosions that emit powerful flashes of energetic gamma rays are one of astronomy's hottest mysteries. Now an analysis of the nearest gamma ray burst yet detected has added weight to the popular theory that they are expelled during the death throes of supermassive stars.

  16. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized.

  17. Future Missions for Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy has made great advances in recent years, due largely to the recently completed 9-year mission of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. In this talk I will give an overview of what advances we may expect in the near future, with particular emphasis on earth-orbiting missions scheduled for flight within the next 5 years. Two missions, the High Energy Transient Explorer and Swift, will provide important new information on the sources of gamma-ray bursts. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope will investigate high energy emission from a wide variety of sources, including active galaxies and gamma-ray pulsars. The contributions of ground-based and multiwavelength observations will also be addressed.

  18. Characteristics of gamma-ray line flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.; Dennis, B.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of solar gamma rays by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) demonstrate that energetic protons and ions are rapidly accelerated during the impulsive phase. To understand the acceleration mechanisms for these particles, the characteristics of the gamma ray line flares observed by SMM were studied. Some very intense hard X-ray flares without detectable gamma ray lines were also investigated. Gamma ray line flares are distinguished from other flares by: (1) intense hard X-ray and microwave emissions; (2) delay of high energy hard X-rays; (3) emission of type 2 and/or type 4 radio bursts; and (4) flat hard X-ray spectra (average power law index: 3.1). The majority of the gamma ray line flares shared all these characteristics, and the remainder shared at least three of them. Positive correlations were found between durations of spike bursts and spatial sizes of flare loops as well as between delay times and durations of spike bursts.

  19. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Sans Second Postulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzius, R.

    In 1950, Albert Einstein intimated to Robert Shankland that in the years prior to 1905 he had considered using an emission theory [similar to that which Swiss Physicist Walter Ritz propounded in 1908.] In Ritz's theory the velocity of light with respect to an observer is c + v, where c is the velocity of light with respect to its source, and v is the relative velocity between the source and the observer. Einstein abandoned the c+v approach because he could think of no form of differential equation that could have solutions representing waves whose velocity depended [in part] on the motion of the source. For binary stars the c + v approach would predict "observed" phase relations for light arriving from different parts of a given component's orbit, such that the observed light would be, according to Einstein, all badly "mixed up" and might even "back up on itself." In 1913, the Dutch astronomer, Willem de Sitter, urged abandonment of Ritz's c + v relativity by showing that binary stars failed to provide evidence of the "mixed up" light phasing. (Apparent departures from Keplerian motion, including seeing the same star on opposite sides of its orbit at the same time [at the appropriate observer distance] were predicted by Ritz's c +v relativity.) In 1987, Vladimir Sekerin, at Tomsk University, announced that de Sitter failed to address the fact that for the observer-distances required to produce the star-in-two-places-at-once phenomenon, the angular diameter of the binary component's orbit (from the observer's viewpoint) would be too small for our atmospherically limited earth-borne "seeing" to resolve the images. In essence, de Sitter did not "de throne" Ritz. Sekerin then showed how de Sitter's binary star scenario could be interpreted as evidence "for" the Ritzian theory. (Two images briefly on top of one another will be briefly twice as bright as a single image.) He used de Sitter's equations to analog compute light curves of a number of different kinds variable

  20. Modeling gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxham, Amanda

    Discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are huge explosions of energy that happen at cosmological distances. They provide a grand physical playground to those who study them, from relativistic effects such as beaming, jets, shocks and blastwaves to radiation mechanisms such as synchrotron radiation to galatic and stellar populations and history. Through the Swift and Fermi space telescopes dedicated to observing GRBs over a wide range of energies (from keV to GeV), combined with accurate pinpointing that allows ground based follow-up observations in the optical, infrared and radio, a rich tapestry of GRB observations has emerged. The general picture is of a mysterious central engine (CE) probably composed of a black hole or neutron star that ejects relativistic shells of matter into intense magnetic fields. These shells collide and combine, releasing energy in "internal shocks" accounting for the prompt emission and flaring we see and the "external shock" or plowing of the first blastwave into the ambient surrounding medium has well-explained the afterglow radiation. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We have also included a blastwave model, which can constrain X-ray flares and explain the origin of high energy (GeV) emission seen by the Fermi telescope. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares. We calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary

  1. Solar System Gamma Ray observations using Fermi-LAT detector

    SciTech Connect

    Giglietto, N.

    2009-04-08

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in June 2008, is an international space mission dedicated to the study of the high-energy gamma rays from the Universe. The main instrument aboard Fermi is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), a pair conversion telescope equipped with the state-of-the art in gamma-ray detectors technology, and operating at energies >30 MeV. During first two months of data taking, Fermi has detected high-energy gamma rays from the quiet Sun and the Moon. This emission is produced by interactions of cosmic rays; by nucleons with the solar and lunar surface, and electrons with solar photons in the heliosphere. While the Moon was detected by EGRET on CGRO with low statistics, Fermi provides high-sensitivity measurements on a daily basis allowing both short- and long-term variability to be studied. Since Galactic cosmic rays are at their maximum flux at solar minimum we expect that the quiescent solar and lunar emission to be a maximum during the period covered by this report. Fermi is the only mission capable of monitoring the Sun at energies above several hundred MeV over the full 24th solar cycle. We present first analysis showing images of Moon and the quiet emission of the solar disk, giving a description of the analysis tools used.

  2. Observation of pulsed gamma-rays above 25 GeV from the Crab pulsar with MAGIC.

    PubMed

    Aliu, E; Anderhub, H; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Curtef, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Cea Del Pozo, E; de Los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Delgado Mendez, C; Dominguez, A; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsässer, D; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernandez, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; Garcia Lopez, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Goebel, F; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Huber, S; Jogler, T; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; Lopez, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martinez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Otte, N; Oya, I; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sanchez-Conde, M; Sartori, P; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tluczykont, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Venturini, A; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wittek, W; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J; de Jager, O C; de Ona Wilhelmi, E

    2008-11-21

    One fundamental question about pulsars concerns the mechanism of their pulsed electromagnetic emission. Measuring the high-end region of a pulsar's spectrum would shed light on this question. By developing a new electronic trigger, we lowered the threshold of the Major Atmospheric gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescope to 25 giga-electron volts. In this configuration, we detected pulsed gamma-rays from the Crab pulsar that were greater than 25 giga-electron volts, revealing a relatively high cutoff energy in the phase-averaged spectrum. This indicates that the emission occurs far out in the magnetosphere, hence excluding the polar-cap scenario as a possible explanation of our measurement. The high cutoff energy also challenges the slot-gap scenario. PMID:18927358

  3. Software tool for xenon gamma-ray spectrometer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, I. V.; Novikov, A. S.; Shustov, A. E.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Pyae Nyein, Sone; Petrenko, D.; Ulin, S. E.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Vlasik, K. F.

    2016-02-01

    Software tool "Acquisition and processing of gamma-ray spectra" for xenon gamma-ray spectrometers control was developed. It supports the multi-windows interface. Software tool has the possibilities for acquisition of gamma-ray spectra from xenon gamma-ray detector via USB or RS-485 interfaces, directly or via TCP-IP protocol, energy calibration of gamma-ray spectra, saving gamma-ray spectra on a disk.

  4. Strong gamma-ray bursts observed by COMPTEL during its second year of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kippen, R. M.; Connors, A.; Mcconnell, M.; Ryan, J.; Collmar, W.; Greiner, J.; Schonfelder, V.; Varendorff, M.; Hermsen, W.; Kuiper, L.

    1995-01-01

    The imaging Compton telescope (COMPTEL) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) can localize gamma-ray bursts occurring inside its approximately 1 sr field-of-view in the energy range from 0.75 to 30 MeV with location accuracy of 1 deg. Additional time-resolved spectral measurements in the energy range 0.1 to 10 MeV are made by individual COMPTEL 'burst' detectors. During its second year of operation COMPTEL observed several gamma-ray bursts. Locations of five strong bursts (including the rapidly imaged events GRB 930131 and GRB 930309) are presented here along with the findings from preliminary spectral analysis.

  5. Gamma-ray Astronomy and GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2007-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray (30 MeV to 100 GeV) sky has been relatively poorly studied. Most of our current knowledge comes from observations made by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), which revealed that the GeV gamma-ray sky is rich and vibrant. Studies of astrophysical objects at GeV energies are interesting for several reasons: The high energy gamma-rays are often produced by a different physical process than the better studied X-ray and optical emission, thus providing a unique information for understanding these sources. Production of such high-energy photons requires that charged particles are accelerated to equally high energies, or much greater. Thus gamma-ray astronomy is the study of extreme environments, with natural and fundamental connections to cosmic-ray and neutrino astrophysics. The launch of GLAST in 2008 will herald a watershed in our understanding of the high energy gamma-ray sky, providing dramatic improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution and energy range. GLAST will open a new avenue to study our Universe as well as to answer scientific questions EGRET observations have raised. In this talk, I will describe the GLAST instruments and capabilities and highlight some of the science we expect to address.

  6. Future prospects for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C.

    1981-01-01

    As gamma-ray astronomy moves from the discovery to the exploratory phase, the promise of gamma-ray astrophysics noted by theorists in the late 1940s and 1950s is beginning to be realized. In the future, satellites should carry instruments that will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far, and, for at least some portions of the gamma-ray energy range, these detectors will also have substantially improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance our knowledge of several astrophysical phenomena including the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects, astrophysical nucleosynthesis, solar particle acceleration, the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the solar system, the structure of our galaxy, the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays, high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies especially active ones, and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The gamma-ray results of the forthcoming programs such as Gamma-I, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the gamma-ray burst network, Solar Polar, and very high energy gamma-ray telescopes on the ground will almost certainly provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the Space Platform currently under study by N.A.S.A.

  7. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    Some basic observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Although some properties were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the Compton Observatory in the past three years. The new observation with the greatest impact has been the observed isotropic distribution of bursts along with a deficiency of weak bursts which would be expected from a homogeneous burst distribution. This is not compatible with any known Galactic population of objects. Gamma-ray bursts show an enormous variety of burst morphologies and a wide spread in burst durations. The spectra of gamma-ray bursts are characterized by rapid variations and peak power which is almost entirely in the gamma-ray energy range. Delayed gamma-ray burst photons extending to GeV energies have been detected for the first time. A time dilation effect has also been reported to be observed in gamma-ray, bursts. The observation of a gamma-ray burst counterpart in another wavelength region has yet to be made.

  8. Python in gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deil, Christoph Deil

    2016-03-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy is a relatively new window on the cosmos. The first source detected from the ground was the Crab nebula, seen by the Whipple telescope in Arizona in 1989. Today, about 150 sources have been detected at TeV energies using gamma-ray telescopes from the ground such as H.E.S.S. in Namibia or VERITAS in Arizona, and about 3000 sources at GeV energies using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Soon construction will start for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), which will be the first ground-based gamma-ray telescope array operated as an open observatory, with a site in the southern and a second site in the northern hemisphere. In this presentation I will give a very brief introduction to gamma-ray astronomy and data analysis, as well as a short overview of the software used for the various missions. The main focus will be on recent attempts to build open-source gamma-ray software on the scientific Python stack and Astropy: ctapipe as a CTA Python pipeline prototype, Fermipy and the Fermi Science Tools for Fermi-LAT analysis, Gammapy as a community-developed gamma-ray Python package and naima as a non-thermal spectral modeling and fitting package.

  9. New readout and data-acquisition system in an electron-tracking Compton camera for MeV gamma-ray astronomy (SMILE-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, T.; Matsuoka, Y.; Mizumura, Y.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Iwaki, S.; Sawano, T.; Nakamura, K.; Komura, S.; Nakamura, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Oda, M.; Miyamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Parker, J. D.; Tomono, D.; Sonoda, S.; Miuchi, K.; Kurosawa, S.

    2015-11-01

    For MeV gamma-ray astronomy, we have developed an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) as a MeV gamma-ray telescope capable of rejecting the radiation background and attaining the high sensitivity of near 1 mCrab in space. Our ETCC comprises a gaseous time-projection chamber (TPC) with a micro pattern gas detector for tracking recoil electrons and a position-sensitive scintillation camera for detecting scattered gamma rays. After the success of a first balloon experiment in 2006 with a small ETCC (using a 10×10×15 cm3 TPC) for measuring diffuse cosmic and atmospheric sub-MeV gamma rays (Sub-MeV gamma-ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment I; SMILE-I), a (30 cm)3 medium-sized ETCC was developed to measure MeV gamma-ray spectra from celestial sources, such as the Crab Nebula, with single-day balloon flights (SMILE-II). To achieve this goal, a 100-times-larger detection area compared with that of SMILE-I is required without changing the weight or power consumption of the detector system. In addition, the event rate is also expected to dramatically increase during observation. Here, we describe both the concept and the performance of the new data-acquisition system with this (30 cm)3 ETCC to manage 100 times more data while satisfying the severe restrictions regarding the weight and power consumption imposed by a balloon-borne observation. In particular, to improve the detection efficiency of the fine tracks in the TPC from ~10% to ~100%, we introduce a new data-handling algorithm in the TPC. Therefore, for efficient management of such large amounts of data, we developed a data-acquisition system with parallel data flow.

  10. Gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds as probes of the high-energy universe: hints of cascades, general constraints, and implications for TeV searches

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta; Beacom, John F.; Takami, Hajime E-mail: beacom.7@osu.edu

    2012-08-01

    Recent observations of isotropic diffuse backgrounds by Fermi and IceCube allow us to get more insight into distant very-high-energy (VHE) and ultra-high-energy (UHE) gamma-ray/neutrino emitters, including cosmic-ray accelerators/sources. First, we investigate the contribution of intergalactic cascades induced by gamma-rays and/or cosmic rays (CRs) to the diffuse gamma-ray background (DGB) in view of the latest Fermi data. We identify a possible 'VHE Excess' from the fact that the Fermi data are well above expectations for an attenuated power law, and show that cascades induced by VHE gamma rays (above ∼ 10 TeV) and/or VHECRs (below ∼ 10{sup 19} eV) may significantly contribute to the DGB above ∼ 100 GeV. The relevance of the cascades is also motivated by the intergalactic cascade interpretations of extreme TeV blazars such as 1ES 0229+200, which suggest very hard intrinsic spectra. This strengthens the importance of future detailed VHE DGB measurements. Then, more conservatively, we derive general constraints on the cosmic energy budget of high-energy gamma rays and neutrinos based on recent Fermi and IceCube observations of extragalactic background radiation. We demonstrate that these multi-messenger constraints are useful and the neutrino limit is very powerful for VHE/UHE hadronic sources. Furthermore, we show the importance of constraints from individual source surveys by future imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as Cherenkov Telescope Array, and demonstrate that the cascade hypothesis for the VHE DGB can be tested by searching for distant emitters of cascaded gamma rays.

  11. Tests of a Compton imaging prototype in a monoenergetic 4.44 MeV photon field—a benchmark setup for prompt gamma-ray imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnik, C.; Bemmerer, D.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Hueso-González, F.; Pausch, G.; Römer, K.; Rohling, H.; Schöne, S.; Wagner, L.; Kormoll, T.

    2016-06-01

    The finite range of a proton beam in tissue opens new vistas for the delivery of a highly conformal dose distribution in radiotherapy. However, the actual particle range, and therefore the accurate dose deposition, is sensitive to the tissue composition in the proton path. Range uncertainties, resulting from limited knowledge of this tissue composition or positioning errors, are accounted for in the form of safety margins. Thus, the unverified particle range constrains the principle benefit of proton therapy. Detecting prompt γ-rays, a side product of proton-tissue interaction, aims at an on-line and non-invasive monitoring of the particle range, and therefore towards exploiting the potential of proton therapy. Compton imaging of the spatial prompt γ-ray emission is a promising measurement approach. Prompt γ-rays exhibit emission energies of several MeV. Hence, common radioactive sources cannot provide the energy range a prompt γ-ray imaging device must be designed for. In this work a benchmark measurement-setup for the production of a localized, monoenergetic 4.44 MeV γ-ray source is introduced. At the Tandetron accelerator at the HZDR, the proton-capture resonance reaction 15N(p,α γ4.439)12C is utilized. This reaction provides the same nuclear de-excitation (and γ-ray emission) occurrent as an intense prompt γ-ray line in proton therapy. The emission yield is quantitatively described. A two-stage Compton imaging device, dedicated for prompt γ-ray imaging, is tested at the setup exemplarily. Besides successful imaging tests, the detection efficiency of the prototype at 4.44 MeV is derived from the measured data. Combining this efficiency with the emission yield for prompt γ-rays, the number of valid Compton events, induced by γ-rays in the energy region around 4.44 MeV, is estimated for the prototype being implemented in a therapeutic treatment scenario. As a consequence, the detection efficiency turns out to be a key parameter for prompt

  12. Gamma-ray burst cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Liang, E. W.

    2015-08-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous electromagnetic explosions in the Universe, which emit up to 8.8 × 1054 erg isotropic equivalent energy in the hard X-ray band. The high luminosity makes them detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. GRBs, as bright beacons in the deep Universe, would be the ideal tool to probe the properties of high-redshift universe: including the cosmic expansion and dark energy, star formation rate, the reionization epoch and the metal enrichment history of the Universe. In this article, we review the luminosity correlations of GRBs, and implications for constraining the cosmological parameters and dark energy. Observations show that the progenitors of long GRBs are massive stars. So it is expected that long GRBs are tracers of star formation rate. We also review the high-redshift star formation rate derived from GRBs, and implications for the cosmic reionization history. The afterglows of GRBs generally have broken power-law spectra, so it is possible to extract intergalactic medium (IGM) absorption features. We also present the capability of high-redshift GRBs to probe the pre-galactic metal enrichment and the first stars.

  13. Detecting axionlike particles with gamma ray telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D

    2007-12-01

    We propose that axionlike particles (ALPs) with a two-photon vertex, consistent with all astrophysical and laboratory bounds, may lead to a detectable signature in the spectra of high-energy gamma-ray sources. This occurs as a result of gamma rays being converted into ALPs in the magnetic fields of efficient astrophysical accelerators according to the "Hillas criterion", such as jets of active galactic nuclei or hot spots of radio galaxies. The discovery of such an effect is possible by GLAST in the 1-100 GeV range and by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes in the TeV range.

  14. NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

  15. Cosmic gamma-ray lines - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

    1980-01-01

    The various processes that lead to gamma-ray line emission and the possible astrophysical sources of such emission are reviewed. The processes of nuclear excitation, radiative capture, positron annihilation, and cyclotron radiation, which may produce gamma-ray line emission from such diverse sources as the interstellar medium, novas, supernovas, pulsars, accreting compact objects, the galactic nucleus and the nuclei of active galaxies are considered. The significance of the relative intensities, widths, and frequency shifts of the lines are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding those gamma-ray lines that have already been observed from astrophysical sources.

  16. Detecting axionlike particles with gamma ray telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D

    2007-12-01

    We propose that axionlike particles (ALPs) with a two-photon vertex, consistent with all astrophysical and laboratory bounds, may lead to a detectable signature in the spectra of high-energy gamma-ray sources. This occurs as a result of gamma rays being converted into ALPs in the magnetic fields of efficient astrophysical accelerators according to the "Hillas criterion", such as jets of active galactic nuclei or hot spots of radio galaxies. The discovery of such an effect is possible by GLAST in the 1-100 GeV range and by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes in the TeV range. PMID:18233353

  17. Experimental Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, David

    2012-07-01

    Our knowledge of the γ-ray sky has dramatically changed due to the advent of the new ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VEPJTAS) and the satellite-borne instruments (AGILE and Fermi). These facilities boosted the number of γ-ray sources by one order of magnitude in the last 6 years, providing us with about 2000 sources detected above 100 MeV (from space) and about 100 sources detected above 100 GeV (from the ground). The combination of this large leap in experimental capabilities together with the fact that the Universe is still quite unexplored at these extreme energies is evidence of a large scientific discovery potential that will surely make the decade 2010-2020 a golden age for γ-ray astronomy. In this manuscript I provide a subjective review of some of the most exciting observations from this rapidly evolving field during the last two years.

  18. Solar neon abundances from gamma-ray spectroscopy and He-3-rich particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Ramaty, R.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    Ambient solar atmospheric abundances derived from gamma-ray spectroscopy are compared with observations of solar energetic particles. Agreement is found between the gamma-ray-derived Ne/O ratio and the corresponding mean ratio for He-3-rich flares. Both of these values are significantly higher than inferred coronal Ne/O ratios. It is suggested that the mean Ne/O ratio in He-3-rich flares reflects the composition of the flare plasma rather than the acceleration process.

  19. Overview Animation of Gamma-ray Burst

    NASA Video Gallery

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the cosmos. Astronomers think most occur when the core of a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel, collapses under its own weight, and forms a b...

  20. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-11-23

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  1. Zapping Mars Rocks with Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Because we do not know what deadly microorganisms might be lurking inside samples returned from Mars, the samples will either have to be sterilized before release or kept in isolation until biological studies declare them safe. One way to execute microorganisms is with radiation, such as gamma rays. Although quite effective in snuffing out bacteria and viruses, gamma rays might also affect the mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions of the zapped rocks and soils. Carl Allen (Lockheed Martin Space Operations, Houston) and a team of 18 other analysts tested the effect of gamma rays on rock and mineral samples like those we expect on Mars. Except for some darkening of some minerals, high doses of gamma rays had no significant effect on the rocks, making gamma radiation a feasible option for sterilizing samples returned from Mars.

  2. POPULATION SYNTHESIS AND GAMMA RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. FREYER

    2000-12-11

    Population synthesis studies of binaries are always limited by a myriad of uncertainties from the poorly understood effects of binary mass transfer and common envelope evolution to the many uncertainties that still remain in stellar evolution. But the importance of these uncertainties depends both upon the objects being studied and the questions asked about these objects. Here I review the most critical uncertainties in the population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors. With a better understanding of these uncertainties, binary population synthesis can become a powerful tool in understanding, and constraining, gamma-ray burst models. In turn, as gamma-ray bursts become more important as cosmological probes, binary population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors becomes an important tool in cosmology.

  3. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D. J.

    2008-02-27

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  4. A thick Anger camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. R.; Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    The NaI(Tl) Anger camera is a natural candidate for a position sensitive detector in imaging of astrophysical gamma-ray sources. Here laboratory measurements are presented of the response of a relatively thick (5.1 cm) NaI(Tl) Anger camera designed for coded aperture imaging in the 50 keV to 2 MeV energy range. A position resolution of 10.5 mm FWHM at 122 keV and 6.3 mm FWHM at 662 keV. The energy resolution was 7 percent FWHM at 662 keV. The ability of the detector to resolve the depth of the gamma-ray interaction and the use of this depth resolution to reduce back-incident and internal background is discussed.

  5. A thick anger camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.R.; Finger, M.; Prince, T.A.

    1985-02-01

    The NaI(T1) Anger camera is a natural candidate for a position sensitive detector in imaging of astrophysical ..gamma..-ray sources. Here we present laboratory measurements of the response of a relatively thick (5.1 cm) NaI(T1) Anger camera designed for coded aperture imaging in the 50 keV to 2 MeV energy range. We obtained a position resolution of 10.5 mm FWHM at 122 keV and 6.3 mm FWHM at 662 keV. The energy resolution was 7% FWHM at 662 keV. We discuss the ability of the detector to resolve the depth of the ..gamma..-ray interaction and the use of this depth resolution to reduce back-incident and internal background.

  6. Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, Massimo Della

    2015-12-01

    I'll review the status of the Supernova/Gamma-Ray Burst connection. Several pieces of evidence suggest that long duration Gamma-ray Bursts are associated with bright SNe-Ic. However recent works suggest that GRBs might be produced in tight binary systems composed of a massive carbon-oxygen cores and a neutron star companion. Current estimates of the SN and GRB rates yield a ratio GRB/SNe-Ibc in the range ˜ 0.4% - 3%.

  7. Gamma-ray detected radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Volker; Soldi, Simona; De Jong, Sandra; Kretschmer, Karsten; Savchenko, Volodymyr

    2016-07-01

    So far 15 radio galaxies have been detected in the gamma-ray domain by CGRO/EGRET and Fermi/LAT, with a few detections also in the VHE range. We search for distinguishing parameters and estimate the total number of gamma-ray emitting radio galaxies that are potentially detectable by Fermi/LAT. We use Fermi/LAT data in comparison with X-ray and hard X-ray data in order to constrain basic parameters such as the total power of the inverse Compton branch and the position of its peak. We search for possible correlations between the radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray domain and derive the number counts distribution. We then compare their properties with those of the radio galaxies in the 3CRR and SMS4 catalogues. The data show no correlation between the peak of the inverse Compton emission and its luminosity. For the gamma-ray detected radio galaxies the luminosities in the various bands are correlated, except for the UV band, but there is no indication of a correlation of peak frequency or luminosity with the spectral slopes in the X-ray or gamma-ray band. The comparison with other bright radio galaxies shows that the gamma-ray detected objects are among those that have the largest X-ray but rather moderate radio fluxes. Their UV and X-ray luminosities are similar, but gamma-ray detected radio galaxies are predominantly of type FR-I, while the 3CRR sample contains mainly FR-II objects. The number counts of the so far gamma-ray detected radio galaxies shows a very shallow slope, indicating that potentially a fraction of radio galaxies has been missed so far or has not been identified as such, although the predicted number of 22 ± 7 is consistent with the observed 15 objects.

  8. Gamma-ray constraints on supernova nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual supernova explosions via short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring current global Galactic supernova nucleosynthesis with longer-lived radioactivity. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both Co-56 and Co-57 were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions and nucleosynthesis. Live Al-26 in the Galaxy might come from Type II supernovae, and if it is eventually shown to be so, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, and the Galactic Type II supernova rate. Type Ia supernovae, thought to be thermonuclear explosions, have not yet been detected in gamma-rays. This is somewhat surprising given current models and recent Co-56 detection attempts. Ultimately, gamma-ray measurements can confirm their thermonuclear nature, probe the nuclear burning conditions, and help evaluate their contributions to Galactic nucleosynthesis. Type Ib/c supernovae are poorly understood. Whether they are core collapse or thermonuclear events might be ultimately settled by gamma-ray observations. Depending on details of the nuclear processing, any of these supernova types might contribute to a detectable diffuse glow of Fe-60 gamma-ray lines. Previous attempts at detection have come very close to expected emission levels. Remnants of any type of age less that a few centuries might be detectable as individual spots of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission. It is in fact quite surprising that previous surveys have not discovered such spots, and the constraints on the combination of nucleosynthesis yields and supernova rates are very interesting. All of these interesting limits and possibilities mean that the next mission, International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), if it has sufficient sensitivity, is very likely to lead to the realization of much of the great potential

  9. Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts connection

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, Massimo Della

    2015-12-17

    I’ll review the status of the Supernova/Gamma-Ray Burst connection. Several pieces of evidence suggest that long duration Gamma-ray Bursts are associated with bright SNe-Ic. However recent works suggest that GRBs might be produced in tight binary systems composed of a massive carbon-oxygen cores and a neutron star companion. Current estimates of the SN and GRB rates yield a ratio GRB/SNe-Ibc in the range ∼ 0.4% − 3%.

  10. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are covered. The activities are divided into sections and described, followed by a bibliography. The astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets are investigated. These investigations are performed by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

  11. Compton scattering gamma-ray source optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartemann, Frederic; Wu, Sheldon; Albert, Félicie; Barty, Chris

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of a bright relativistic electron beam with an intense laser pulse via Compton scattering can generate tunable gamma-rays for precision nuclear photonics applications. The properties of the gamma-ray phase space will be outlined, in relation with the 6D electron bunch and 6D laser pulse phase space, along with collimation, nonlinear effects and other sources of spectral broadening. Optimization strategies will be outlines within the context of nuclear photonics applications.

  12. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes as Powerful Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Tavani, M.; Marisaldi, M.; Labanti, C.; Fuschino, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Di Cocco, G.; Morelli, E.; Rossi, E.; Argan, A.; De Paris, G.; Trois, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.

    2011-01-07

    Strong electric discharges associated with thunderstorms can produce terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs), i.e., intense bursts of x rays and {gamma} rays lasting a few milliseconds or less. We present in this Letter new TGF timing and spectral data based on the observations of the Italian Space Agency AGILE satellite. We determine that the TGF emission above 10 MeV has a significant power-law spectral component reaching energies up to 100 MeV. These results challenge TGF theoretical models based on runaway electron acceleration. The TGF discharge electric field accelerates particles over the large distances for which maximal voltages of hundreds of mega volts can be established. The combination of huge potentials and large electric fields in TGFs can efficiently accelerate particles in large numbers, and we reconsider here the photon spectrum and the neutron production by photonuclear reactions in the atmosphere.

  13. Gamma-ray astronomy using a high pressure gas scintillation drift chamber with a waveshifting fiber readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, J.; Edberg, T. K.; Parsons, A.; Sadoulet, B.; Weiss, S.; Smith, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a balloon-borne hard X-ray telescope called SIGHT (Scintillation Imaging Gas-filled Hard X-ray Telescope). SIGHT is a high sensitivity, good energy resolution instrument that images in the 30 to 300 keV region. We discuss the development of a large area, 20 atmosphere, position sensitive xenon gas scintillation drift chamber which is the gamma-ray detector at the heart of the telescope package. Results of the development of the novel waveshifting fiber readout for this chamber are presented.

  14. The blazar gamma-ray luminosity function and the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salamon, M. H.; Stecker, F. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the data from the new EGRET catalog on 'grazars' (blazers which are observed to be high-energy gamma-ray sources), together with radio data, to construct a new relation between radio and gamma-ray luminosity for these sources. Using this relation to construct a grazar gamma-ray luminosity function, we then calculate the contribution of unresolved grazars to the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation. We derive the energy spectrum of this background component above 100 MeV and the angular fluctuations in this background implied by our model.

  15. Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.

    2007-06-14

    We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Since it is the only (almost) black spot in the gamma-ray sky, it provides a unique opportunity for calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo -rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

  16. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Particle Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, Katsuaki

    2008-08-28

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are possible sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHE-CRs). To test the GRB origin of UHECRs, it is essential to search for characteristic, proton-induced signatures of secondary radiation. In this paper we present our recent results of Monte Carlo simulations that model the broadband prompt emission of GRBs including various processes associated with electrons and protons accelerated to high energies. The most notable effect of accelerated protons on the high-energy spectra is the synchrotron emission from secondary electron-positron pairs injected by photomeson interactions. Secondary photons tend to make the spectra flat, so a spectral flattening in the GeV-TeV bands may serve as a signature of UHECR acceleration. In some cases, the proton-induced photons overwhelm the photon field, resulting in a spectral peak due to inverse Compton emission from secondary pairs located around 10{sup 7} eV. We can expect to detect synchrotron photons from protons or muons. Observations with GLAST or with atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes can provide useful estimates of the bulk Lorents factor and can constrain the proton acceleration efficiency.

  17. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the

  18. Gamma ray astrophysics to the year 2000. Report of the NASA Gamma Ray Program Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Important developments in gamma-ray astrophysics up to energies of 100 GeV during the last decade are reviewed. Also, the report seeks to define the major current scientific goals of the field and proposes a vigorous program to pursue them, extending to the year 2000. The goals of gamma-ray astronomy include the study of gamma rays which provide the most direct means of studying many important problems in high energy astrophysics including explosive nucleosynthesis, accelerated particle interactions and sources, and high-energy processes around compact objects. The current research program in gamma-ray astronomy in the U.S. including the space program, balloon program and foreign programs in gamma-ray astronomy is described. The high priority recommendations for future study include an Explorer-class high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy mission and a Get Away Special cannister (GAS-can) or Scout class multiwavelength experiment for the study of gamma-ray bursts. Continuing programs include an extended Gamma Ray Observatory mission, continuation of the vigorous program of balloon observations of the nearby Supernova 1987A, augmentation of the balloon program to provide for new instruments and rapid scientific results, and continuation of support for theoretical research. Long term recommendations include new space missions using advanced detectors to better study gamma-ray sources, the development of these detectors, continued study for the assembly of large detectors in space, collaboration with the gamma-ray astronomy missions initiated by other countries, and consideration of the Space Station attached payloads for gamma-ray experiments.

  19. ON WEAK REDSHIFT DEPENDENCE OF GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA OF DISTANT BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Essey, Warren; Kusenko, Alexander

    2012-05-20

    Line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays provide a natural explanation of the hard gamma-ray spectra of distant blazars, which are believed to be capable of producing both gamma rays and cosmic rays. For sources with redshifts z {approx}> 0.1, secondary gamma rays produced in cosmic-ray interactions with background photons close to an observer can dominate over primary gamma rays originating at the source. The transition from one component to another is accompanied by a change in the spectral index depending on the source redshift. We present theoretical predictions and show that they agree with the data from Fermi Large Area Telescope. This agreement, combined with the spectral data from Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, provides evidence of cosmic-ray acceleration by active galactic nuclei and opens new opportunities for studying photon backgrounds and intergalactic magnetic fields.

  20. Very-high-energy gamma rays from a distant quasar: how transparent is the universe?

    PubMed

    Albert, J; Aliu, E; Anderhub, H; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Curtef, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Cea Del Pozo, E; de Los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Mendez, C Delgado; Dominguez, A; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Goebel, F; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Huber, S; Jogler, T; Kneiske, T M; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Otte, N; Oya, I; Panniello, M; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sanchez-Conde, M; Sartori, P; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tluczykont, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Venturini, A; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wittek, W; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2008-06-27

    The atmospheric Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope MAGIC, designed for a low-energy threshold, has detected very-high-energy gamma rays from a giant flare of the distant Quasi-Stellar Radio Source (in short: radio quasar) 3C 279, at a distance of more than 5 billion light-years (a redshift of 0.536). No quasar has been observed previously in very-high-energy gamma radiation, and this is also the most distant object detected emitting gamma rays above 50 gigaelectron volts. Because high-energy gamma rays may be stopped by interacting with the diffuse background light in the universe, the observations by MAGIC imply a low amount for such light, consistent with that known from galaxy counts.

  1. Very-high-energy gamma rays from a distant quasar: how transparent is the universe?

    PubMed

    Albert, J; Aliu, E; Anderhub, H; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Curtef, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Cea Del Pozo, E; de Los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Mendez, C Delgado; Dominguez, A; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Goebel, F; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Huber, S; Jogler, T; Kneiske, T M; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Otte, N; Oya, I; Panniello, M; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sanchez-Conde, M; Sartori, P; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tluczykont, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Venturini, A; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wittek, W; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2008-06-27

    The atmospheric Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope MAGIC, designed for a low-energy threshold, has detected very-high-energy gamma rays from a giant flare of the distant Quasi-Stellar Radio Source (in short: radio quasar) 3C 279, at a distance of more than 5 billion light-years (a redshift of 0.536). No quasar has been observed previously in very-high-energy gamma radiation, and this is also the most distant object detected emitting gamma rays above 50 gigaelectron volts. Because high-energy gamma rays may be stopped by interacting with the diffuse background light in the universe, the observations by MAGIC imply a low amount for such light, consistent with that known from galaxy counts. PMID:18583607

  2. Stereo observations of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjesteland, Thomas; Østgaard, Nikolai; Smith, David; Briggs, Michael S.; Marisaldi, Martino

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) has been observed by a few space borne detectors. The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) are the instruments with most TGF observations so far. The first Fermi GBM TGF Catalog contains 2704 TGFs detected between 2008 July 11 and 2014 July 31. Of the TGFs in the Fermi GBM catalog 23 TGFs occurred while the RHESSI sub satellite point was less than 1000 km from Fermi sub-satellite point. Of these 23 cases three TGFs were also measured by RHESSI. We will present these three TGFs that are detected by both Fermi GBM and RHESSI. This is the first stereo observation of TGFs. We have also lightning measurements from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) for the three TGFs. We will present the light curve and energy spectrum for these events.

  3. Using the ET for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D.

    1985-01-01

    A gamma-ray-telescope design is presented which makes use of the normally spent external tank (ET) of the Space Shuttle as the spacecraft and Cerenkov pressure vessel. The ET would be configured into the telescope once onorbit, using the Space Station as the base of operations for carrying out the assembly activities. The telescope provides a continuation to the NASA program in high-energy astrophysics, providing for follow-on observations to the survey work of the EGRET instrument on GRO. The most important features of the gamma-ray imaging telescope system are its collecting area of 250,000 sq cm per ET (40 times that of the EGRET instrument) and its ability to locate point sources to within several arc minutes.

  4. Search for optical bursts from gamma-ray bursters. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudec, R.; Borovicka, J.; Wenzel, W.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Cline, T.; Desai, U.; Teegarden, B.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary results of an examination of the Ondrejov and Sonneberg plate collections for possible optical counterparts to gamma-ray bursters are presented. The investigation proceeds in three different directions: (1) time-correlated searches for gamma-ray bursts (GRB) with known positions, (2) time-correlated searches for GRB without know positions, and (3) archival searches. 3 GRB with known positions and 28 GRB without known positions were studied in this way; archival searches representing a total exposure of 2.75 yr were done for 10 GRB positions, with limiting magnitudes for a 1 s flash between 3 and 8. No evidence for true optical images associated with GRB was found. Some statistical conclusions are drawn and the results obtained are discussed.

  5. IACT observations of gamma-ray bursts: prospects for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Rudy C.; Bouvier, Aurelien; Connaughton, Valerie; Goldstein, Adam; Otte, Nepomuk; Primack, Joel R.; Williams, David A.

    2013-04-01

    Gamma rays at rest frame energies as high as 90 GeV have been reported from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). There is considerable hope that a confirmed GRB detection will be possible with the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), which will have a larger effective area and better low-energy sensitivity than current-generation imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). To estimate the likelihood of such a detection, we have developed a phenomenological model for GRB emission between 1 GeV and 1 TeV that is motivated by the high-energy GRB detections of Fermi-LAT, and allows us to extrapolate the statistics of GRBs seen by lower energy instruments such as the Swift-BAT and BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory. We show a number of statistics for detected GRBs, and describe how the detectability of GRBs with CTA could vary based on a number of parameters, such as the typical observation delay between the burst onset and the start of ground observations. We also consider the possibility of using GBM on Fermi as a finder of GRBs for rapid ground follow-up. While the uncertainty of GBM localization is problematic, the small field-of-view for IACTs can potentially be overcome by scanning over the GBM error region. Overall, our results indicate that CTA should be able to detect one GRB every 20-30 months with our baseline instrument model, assuming consistently rapid pursuit of GRB alerts, and provided that spectral breaks below ~100 GeV are not a common feature of the bright GRB population. With a more optimistic instrument model, the detection rate can be as high as 1 to 2 GRBs per year.

  6. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Diehl

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at ~MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from β-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured though 56Ni, 56Co, and 44Ti lines, and a beginning has thus been made to complement conventional supernova observations with such measurements of the prime energy sources of supernova light created in their deep interiors. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in gamma rays is now being exploited towards astrophysical studies on how massive stars feed back their energy and ejecta into interstellar gas, as part of the cosmic cycle of matter through generations of stars enriching the interstellar gas and stars with metals. Large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be the dominating structures where new massive-star ejecta are injected, from 26Al gamma-ray spectroscopy. Also, constraints on the complex interiors of stars derive from the ratio of 60Fe/26Al gamma rays. Finally, the puzzling bulge-dominated intensity distribution of positron annihilation gamma rays is measured in greater detail, but still not understood; a recent microquasar flare provided evidence that such objects may be prime sources for positrons in interstellar space, rather than

  7. Mercuric iodine room temperature gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Markakis, Jeffrey M.; Gerrish, Vernon M.; Haymes, Robert C.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1990-01-01

    high resolution mercuric iodide room temperature gamma-ray detectors have excellent potential as an essential component of space instruments to be used for high energy astrophysics. Mercuric iodide detectors are being developed both as photodetectors used in combination with scintillation crystals to detect gamma-rays, and as direct gamma-ray detectors. These detectors are highly radiation damage resistant. The list of applications includes gamma-ray burst detection, gamma-ray line astronomy, solar flare studies, and elemental analysis.

  8. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Exploding Stars, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Since August, 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky, producing a full-sky image every three hours. These cosmic gamma-rays come from extreme astrophysical phenomena, many related to exploding stars (supernovae) or what these explosions leave behind: supernova remnants, neutron stars, and black holes. This talk uses sample Fermi results, plus simple demonstrations, to illustrate the exotic properties of these endpoints of stellar evolution.

  9. The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope for precision gamma-ray emission investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topchiev, N. P.; Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Finetti, N.; Gascon, D.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Martinez, M.; Men'shenin, A. L.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu; Papini, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tavani, M.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Ward, J. E.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope with excellent angular and energy resolutions is designed to search for signatures of dark matter in the fluxes of gamma-ray emission and electrons + positrons. Precision investigations of gamma-ray emission from Galactic Center, Crab, Vela, Cygnus, Geminga, and other regions will be performed, as well as diffuse gamma-ray emission, along with measurements of high-energy electron + positron and nuclei fluxes. Furthermore, it will study gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun during periods of solar activity. The GAMMA-400 energy range is expected to be from ∼20 MeV up to TeV energies for gamma rays, up to 10 TeV for electrons + positrons, and up to 1015 eV for cosmic-ray nuclei. For 100-GeV gamma rays, the GAMMA-400 angular resolution is ∼0.01° and energy resolution is ∼1% the proton rejection factor is ∼5x105. GAMMA-400 will be installed onboard the Russian space observatory.

  10. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    over 170 wafer-thin cylindrical mirrors spread over three telescopes. Its orbit takes it almost a third of the way to the Moon, so that astronomers can enjoy long, uninterrupted views of celestial objects. For more information about XMM-Newton please see: http://www.esa.int/esaSC/spk.html More about Chandra NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra programme for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington DC, USA. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, California, formerly TRW Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts. For more information about Chandra please see: http://chandra.harvard.edu/about More about the Very Large Array The Very Large Array (VLA) is a research facility of the United States National Science Foundation. With 27 dish antennas, each 25 metres in diameter, working together as a single imaging instrument, it is the most versatile and most widely used radio telescope in the world. Dedicated in 1980, the VLA has been used by thousands of scientists and has contributed valuable new information to nearly every specialty within astronomy. In 1997, the VLA made the first-ever detection of a gamma-ray burst afterglow at radio wavelengths, and has been at the forefront of gamma-ray burst afterglow research since.

  11. Inverse compton scattering gamma ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, S.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Ruelas, M.; Jovanovic, I.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G.

    2009-09-01

    Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) (e.g. U-235, Pu-239) can be detected by active interrogation with gamma rays (>6 MeV) through photofission. For long-range detection (˜1 km), an intense beam of gamma rays (˜10 14 per second) is required in order to produce measurable number of neutrons. The production of such fluxes of gamma rays, and in the pulse formats useful for detection, presents many technical challenges, and requires novel approaches to the accelerator and laser technology. RadiaBeam is currently designing a gamma ray source based on Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) from a high-energy electron beam. To achieve this, improvements in photoinjector, linac, final focus, and laser system are planned. These enhanced sub-systems build on parallel work being performed at RadiaBeam, UCLA, and elsewhere. A high-repetition rate photoinjector, a high-gradient S-band linac, and a laser pulse recirculator will be used. The proposed system will be a transportable source of high-flux, high-energy quasi-monochromatic gamma rays for active interrogation of special nuclear materials.

  12. Gamma-ray burster recurrence timescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, B. E.; Cline, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Three optical transients have been found which are associated with gamma-ray bursters (GRBs). The deduced recurrence timescale for these optical transients (tau sub opt) will depend on the minimum brightness for which a flash would be detected. A detailed analysis using all available data of tau sub opt as a function of E(gamma)/E(opt) is given. For flashes similar to those found in the Harvard archives, the best estimate of tau sub opt is 0.74 years, with a 99% confidence interval from 0.23 years to 4.7 years. It is currently unclear whether the optical transients from GRBs also give rise to gamma-ray events. One way to test this association is to measure the recurrence timescale of gamma-ray events tau sub gamma. A total of 210 gamma-ray error boxes were examined and it was found that the number of observed overlaps is not significantly different from the number expected from chance coincidence. This observation can be used to place limits on tau sub gamma for an assumed luminosity function. It was found that tau sub gamma is approx. 10 yr if bursts are monoenergetic. However, if GRBs have a power law luminosity function with a wide dynamic range, then the limit is tau sub gamma 0.5 yr. Hence, the gamma-ray data do not require tau sub gamma and tau sub opt to be different.

  13. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  14. LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirotani, Kouichi

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the electrodynamic structure of a pulsar outer-magnetospheric particle accelerator and the resulting gamma-ray emission. By considering the condition for the accelerator to be self-sustained, we derive how the trans-magnetic-field thickness of the accelerator evolves with the pulsar age. It is found that the thickness is small but increases steadily if the neutron-star envelope is contaminated by sufficient light elements. For such a light element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity of the accelerator is kept approximately constant as a function of age in the initial 10,000 yr, forming the lower bound of the observed distribution of the gamma-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars. If the envelope consists of only heavy elements, on the other hand, the thickness is greater, but it increases less rapidly than a light element envelope. For such a heavy element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity decreases relatively rapidly, forming the upper bound of the observed distribution. The gamma-ray luminosity of a general pulsar resides between these two extreme cases, reflecting the envelope composition and the magnetic inclination angle with respect to the rotation axis. The cutoff energy of the primary curvature emission is regulated below several GeV even for young pulsars because the gap thickness, and hence the acceleration electric field, is suppressed by the polarization of the produced pairs.

  15. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with the Fermi-Gamma-ray Burst Monitor: Temporal and Spectral Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, W.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Bhat, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi) was detecting 2.1 TGFs per week. This rate has increased by a factor of 8 since new flight software was uploaded to the spacecraft in November 2009 in order to increase the sensitivity of GBM to TGFs. Further upgrades to Fermi-GBM to allow observations of weaker TGFs are in progress. The high time resolution (2 s) allows temporal features to be resolved so that some insight may be gained on the origin and transport of the gamma-ray photons through the atmosphere. The absolute time of the TGFs, known to several microseconds, also allows accurate correlations of TGFs with lightning networks and other lightning-related phenomena. The thick bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM system have observed photon energies from TGFs at energies above 40 MeV. New results on the some temporal aspects of TGFs will be presented along with spectral characteristics and properties of several electron-positron TGF events that have been identified.

  16. VERITAS Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected by Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Jackson, D. J.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Newbold, M. D.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of 16 Swift-triggered Gamma-ray burst (GRB) follow-up observations taken with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) telescope array from 2007 January to 2009 June. The median energy threshold and response time of these observations were 260 GeV and 320 s, respectively. Observations had an average duration of 90 minutes. Each burst is analyzed independently in two modes: over the whole duration of the observations and again over a shorter timescale determined by the maximum VERITAS sensitivity to a burst with a t -1.5 time profile. This temporal model is characteristic of GRB afterglows with high-energy, long-lived emission that have been detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite. No significant very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission was detected and upper limits above the VERITAS threshold energy are calculated. The VERITAS upper limits are corrected for gamma-ray extinction by the extragalactic background light and interpreted in the context of the keV emission detected by Swift. For some bursts the VHE emission must have less power than the keV emission, placing constraints on inverse Compton models of VHE emission.

  17. VERITAS OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS DETECTED BY SWIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; and others

    2011-12-10

    We present the results of 16 Swift-triggered Gamma-ray burst (GRB) follow-up observations taken with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) telescope array from 2007 January to 2009 June. The median energy threshold and response time of these observations were 260 GeV and 320 s, respectively. Observations had an average duration of 90 minutes. Each burst is analyzed independently in two modes: over the whole duration of the observations and again over a shorter timescale determined by the maximum VERITAS sensitivity to a burst with a t{sup -1.5} time profile. This temporal model is characteristic of GRB afterglows with high-energy, long-lived emission that have been detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite. No significant very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission was detected and upper limits above the VERITAS threshold energy are calculated. The VERITAS upper limits are corrected for gamma-ray extinction by the extragalactic background light and interpreted in the context of the keV emission detected by Swift. For some bursts the VHE emission must have less power than the keV emission, placing constraints on inverse Compton models of VHE emission.

  18. OVERVIEW OF MONO-ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES & APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2010-05-18

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGa-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence. In conclusion, we have optimized the design of a high brightness Compton scattering gamma-ray source, specifically designed for NRF applications. Two different parameters sets have been considered: one where the number of photons scattered in a single shot reaches approximately 7.5 x 10{sup 8}, with a focal spot size around 8 {micro}m; in the second set, the spectral brightness is optimized by using a 20 {micro}m spot size, with 0.2% relative bandwidth.

  19. Galaxies and gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the high-energy spectra of several types of active galaxies and their contribution to the measured diffuse gamma-ray emission between 1 and 150 MeV are considered, using X-ray spectra of active galaxies and SAS 2 data regarding the intensity upper limits to the gamma-ray emission above 35 MeV. It is found that a substantial increase in slope of the photon energy spectrum must occur in the low energy gamma-ray region for Seyfert galaxies, BL Lac objects, and emission line galaxies; the power-law spectra observed in the X-ray range must steepen substantially between 50 keV and 50 MeV. In addition, a cosmological integration shows that Seyfert galaxies, BL Lac objects, and quasars may account for most of the 1-150 MeV diffuse background, even without significant evolution.

  20. Gamma ray lines from buried supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Meyer, P.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility that supernovae (SN), located in dense interstellar clouds, might become the sources of gamma ray lines. The SN progenitor, in such a case, has to be an O or B star so that its evolutionary lifetime is short, and an explosion inside the cloud is still possible. It is shown that, in principle, a measurement of the abundances in the ejecta is possible. Attention is given to the characteristics of a model, the expected luminosity of gamma-ray lines, and the study of specific numerical examples for testing the feasibility of the considered mechanism. On the basis of the obtained results, it is concluded that gamma-ray line production by collisional excitation in confined supernovae remnants may be quite important.

  1. Solar gamma rays and neutron observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Suri, A. N.

    1972-01-01

    The present status of knowledge concerning the impulsive and the continuous emission of solar gamma rays and neutrons is reviewed in the light of the recent solar activity in early August 1972. The gamma ray spectrometer on OSO-7 has observed the sun continuously for most of the activity period except for occultation by the earth. In association with the 2B flare on 4 August 1972 and the 3B flare on 7 August 1972, the monitor provides evidence for solar gamma ray line emission in the energy range from 300 keV to 10 MeV. A summary of all the results available from preliminary analysis of the data will be given. Significant improvements in future experiments can be made with more sensitive instruments and more extensive time coverage of the sun.

  2. Gamma rays from pulsar wind shock acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1990-01-01

    A shock forming in the wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs from a pulsar, as a result of confinement by surrounding material, could convert part of the pulsar spin-down luminosity to high energy particles through first order Fermi acceleration. High energy protons could be produced by this mechanism both in supernova remnants and in binary systems containing pulsars. The pion-decay gamma-rays resulting from interaction of accelerated protons with surrounding target material in such sources might be observable above 70 MeV with EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) and above 100 GeV with ground-based detectors. Acceleration of protons and expected gamma-ray fluxes from SN1987A, Cyg X-3 type sources and binary pulsars are discussed.

  3. Gamma Rays at Very High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, Felix

    This chapter presents the elaborated lecture notes on Gamma Rays at Very High Energies given by Felix Aharonian at the 40th Saas-Fee Advanced Course on "Astrophysics at Very High Energies". Any coherent description and interpretation of phenomena related to gammarays requires deep knowledge of many disciplines of physics like nuclear and particle physics, quantum and classical electrodynamics, special and general relativity, plasma physics, magnetohydrodynamics, etc. After giving an introduction to gamma-ray astronomy the author discusses the astrophysical potential of ground-based detectors, radiation mechanisms, supernova remnants and origin of the galactic cosmic rays, TeV emission of young supernova remnants, gamma-emission from the Galactic center, pulsars, pulsar winds, pulsar wind nebulae, and gamma-ray loud binaries.

  4. Microsecond flares in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Cohen, Justin; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Cline, Thomas L.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Matteson, James L.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that gamma-ray burst light curves may consist of many superposed flares with a duration shorter than 30/microsec. If true, the implications for the interpretation of burst data are enormous. With the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, four predictions of Mitrofanov's (1989) suggestion can be tested. Our results which contradict this suggestion are (1) the photon arrival times are not correlated between independent detectors, (2) the spectral hardness and intensity does not depend on the detector area, (3) the bursts seen by detectors which measure photon positions do not see microsecond flares, and (4) burst positions deduced from detectors with different projected areas are close to the positions deduced from time-of-flight differences between separated spacecraft. We conclude, therefore, that gamma-ray bursts are not composed of microsecond flares.

  5. MAGIC CONSTRAINTS ON {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM CYGNUS X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Bock, R. K.; Tridon, D. Borla; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V. E-mail: tysaito@mpp.mpg.d

    2010-09-20

    Cygnus X-3 is a microquasar consisting of an accreting compact object orbiting around a Wolf-Rayet star. It has been detected at radio frequencies and up to high-energy {gamma} rays (above 100 MeV). However, many models also predict a very high energy (VHE) emission (above hundreds of GeV) when the source displays relativistic persistent jets or transient ejections. Therefore, detecting such emission would improve the understanding of the jet physics. The imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope MAGIC observed Cygnus X-3 for about 70 hr between 2006 March and 2009 August in different X-ray/radio spectral states and also during a period of enhanced {gamma}-ray emission. MAGIC found no evidence for a VHE signal from the direction of the microquasar. An upper limit to the integral flux for energies higher than 250 GeV has been set to 2.2 x 10{sup -12} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (95% confidence level). This is the best limit so far to the VHE emission from this source. The non-detection of a VHE signal during the period of activity in the high-energy band sheds light on the location of the possible VHE radiation favoring the emission from the innermost region of the jets, where absorption is significant. The current and future generations of Cherenkov telescopes may detect a signal under precise spectral conditions.

  6. Discovery of a New TeV Gamma-Ray Source: VER J0521+211

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Saxon, D. B.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Theiling, M.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Böttcher, M.; Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P.; Halpern, J. P.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lister, M. L.; Liu, J.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Smith, P. S.

    2013-10-01

    We report the detection of a new TeV gamma-ray source, VER J0521+211, based on observations made with the VERITAS imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope Array. These observations were motivated by the discovery of a cluster of >30 GeV photons in the first year of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations. VER J0521+211 is relatively bright at TeV energies, with a mean photon flux of (1.93 ± 0.13stat ± 0.78sys) × 10-11 cm-2 s-1 above 0.2 TeV during the period of the VERITAS observations. The source is strongly variable on a daily timescale across all wavebands, from optical to TeV, with a peak flux corresponding to ~0.3 times the steady Crab Nebula flux at TeV energies. Follow-up observations in the optical and X-ray bands classify the newly discovered TeV source as a BL Lac-type blazar with uncertain redshift, although recent measurements suggest z = 0.108. VER J0521+211 exhibits all the defining properties of blazars in radio, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths.

  7. Results from the first year of the HAWC Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Jordan

    2016-07-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-ray Observatory in the high mountains of Mexico was completed in March of 2015 and is now giving us a new view of the TeV sky. HAWC is 15 times more sensitive than the previous generation of wide-field EAS gamma-ray instruments and is able to detect the Crab nebula at >6 σ with each daily transit. In our first year of operation, HAWC has a 5σ detection sensitivity for a source of ~50mCrab. Unlike Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), HAWC operates 24hrs/day with over a 95% on-time and observes the entire overhead sky (~2sr). HAWC's peak energy sensitivity is 2-10 TeV which is ~10x higher than IACTs such as VERITAS and HESS, which makes their observations quite complementary. This talk will present results from the first year of HAWC data including our study of the galactic plane including new sources not yet detected by IACTs as well as spectra and morphology of bright sources. In addition, results of our monitoring of transient AGN will be presented.

  8. DISCOVERY OF A NEW TeV GAMMA-RAY SOURCE: VER J0521+211

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Federici, S.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A. E-mail: errando@astro.columbia.edu E-mail: sfegan@llr.in2p3.fr; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2013-10-20

    We report the detection of a new TeV gamma-ray source, VER J0521+211, based on observations made with the VERITAS imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope Array. These observations were motivated by the discovery of a cluster of >30 GeV photons in the first year of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations. VER J0521+211 is relatively bright at TeV energies, with a mean photon flux of (1.93 ± 0.13{sub stat} ± 0.78{sub sys}) × 10{sup –11} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} above 0.2 TeV during the period of the VERITAS observations. The source is strongly variable on a daily timescale across all wavebands, from optical to TeV, with a peak flux corresponding to ∼0.3 times the steady Crab Nebula flux at TeV energies. Follow-up observations in the optical and X-ray bands classify the newly discovered TeV source as a BL Lac-type blazar with uncertain redshift, although recent measurements suggest z = 0.108. VER J0521+211 exhibits all the defining properties of blazars in radio, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths.

  9. Neutron and Gamma-ray Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Krasilnikov, Anatoly V.; Sasao, Mamiko; Kaschuck, Yuri A.; Kiptily, Vasily G.; Popovichev, Sergey V.; Nishitani, Takeo; Bertalot, Luciano

    2008-03-12

    Due to high neutron and gamma-ray yields and large size plasmas many future fusion reactor plasma parameters such as fusion power, fusion power density, ion temperature, fuel mixture, fast ion energy and spatial distributions can be well measured by various fusion product diagnostics. Neutron diagnostics provide information on fusion reaction rate, which indicates how close is the plasma to the ultimate goal of nuclear fusion and fusion power distribution in the plasma core, which is crucial for optimization of plasma breakeven and burn. Depending on the plasma conditions neutron and gamma-ray diagnostics can provide important information, namely about dynamics of fast ion energy and spatial distributions during neutral beam injection, ion cyclotron heating and generated by fast ions MHD instabilities. The influence of the fast particle population on the 2-D neutron source profile was clearly demonstrated in JET experiments. 2-D neutron and gamma-ray source measurements could be important for driven plasma heating profile optimization in fusion reactors. To meat the measurement requirements in ITER the planned set of neutron and gamma ray diagnostics includes radial and vertical neutron and gamma cameras, neutron flux monitors, neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The necessity of using massive radiation shielding strongly influences the diagnostic designs in fusion reactor, determines angular fields of view of neutron and gamma-ray cameras and spectrometers and gives rise to unavoidable difficulties in the absolute calibration. The development, testing in existing tokomaks and a possible engineering integration of neuron and gamma-ray diagnostic systems into ITER are presented.

  10. Neutron and Gamma-ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilnikov, Anatoly V.; Sasao, Mamiko; Kaschuck, Yuri A.; Kiptily, Vasily G.; Nishitani, Takeo; Popovichev, Sergey V.; Bertalot, Luciano

    2008-03-01

    Due to high neutron and gamma-ray yields and large size plasmas many future fusion reactor plasma parameters such as fusion power, fusion power density, ion temperature, fuel mixture, fast ion energy and spatial distributions can be well measured by various fusion product diagnostics. Neutron diagnostics provide information on fusion reaction rate, which indicates how close is the plasma to the ultimate goal of nuclear fusion and fusion power distribution in the plasma core, which is crucial for optimization of plasma breakeven and burn. Depending on the plasma conditions neutron and gamma-ray diagnostics can provide important information, namely about dynamics of fast ion energy and spatial distributions during neutral beam injection, ion cyclotron heating and generated by fast ions MHD instabilities. The influence of the fast particle population on the 2-D neutron source profile was clearly demonstrated in JET experiments. 2-D neutron and gamma-ray source measurements could be important for driven plasma heating profile optimization in fusion reactors. To meat the measurement requirements in ITER the planned set of neutron and gamma ray diagnostics includes radial and vertical neutron and gamma cameras, neutron flux monitors, neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The necessity of using massive radiation shielding strongly influences the diagnostic designs in fusion reactor, determines angular fields of view of neutron and gamma-ray cameras and spectrometers and gives rise to unavoidable difficulties in the absolute calibration. The development, testing in existing tokomaks and a possible engineering integration of neuron and gamma-ray diagnostic systems into ITER are presented.

  11. MIRAX sensitivity for Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacahui, J. R.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Braga, J.; Castro, M. A.; D'Amico, F.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present the detection capability of the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) experiment for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). MIRAX is an X-ray astronomy mission designed to perform a wide band hard X-ray (10-200 keV) survey of the sky, especially in the Galactic plane. With a total detection area of 169 cm2, large field of view (FoV, 20 ° × 20 °), angular resolution of 1°45‧ and good spectral and time resolution (∼8% at 60 keV, 10 μs), MIRAX will be optimized for the detection and study of transient sources, such as accreting neutron stars (NS), black holes (BH), Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), and both short and long GRBs. This is especially important because MIRAX is expected to operate in an epoch when probably no other hard X-ray wide-field imager will be active. We have performed detailed simulations of MIRAX GRB observations using the GEANT4 package, including the background spectrum and images of GRB sources in order to provide accurate predictions of the sensitivity for the expected GRB rate to be observed. MIRAX will be capable of detecting ∼44 GRBs per year up to redshifts of ∼4.5. The MIRAX mission will be able to contribute significantly to GRB science by detecting a large number of GRBs per year with wide band spectral response. The observations will contribute mainly to the part of GRB spectra where a thermal emission is predicted by the Fireball model. We also discuss the possibility of detecting GRB afterglows in the X-ray band with MIRAX.

  12. Particle Acceleration Inside Thunderstorms and the Variation in Source Spectra of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Eric; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Briggs, Michael S.; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2016-03-01

    One of the unresolved questions in the atmospheric sciences is the origin of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs). These flashes are short but intense gamma ray bursts emanating from Earth's atmosphere. This phenomenon has been observed by gamma ray detectors on orbiting satellites, e.g. NASA Fermi, intended to study astrophysical phenomena such as Gamma-ray Bursts. TGFs are thought to originate inside thunderstorms where electrons can be accelerated and emit radiation in the multi MeV range due to bremsstrahlung interactions with air molecules. These so called ``runaway electrons'' are seeded from cosmic ray air showers hitting the Earth's atmosphere from (extra) galactic sources. In this work, we present a Monte Carlo model that simulates particle physics inside a thunderstorm region. The subsequent transport of high energy gamma rays through the Earth's atmosphere and up to satellite orbit is also included. We show that by varying both the potential difference and the ambient electric field inside the thundercloud, different electron and photon energy distributions are produced. This effect may be detectable by orbiting spacecraft, and therefore serves as a method to remote sense the electric fields that exist inside thunderstorms.

  13. VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-01-22

    Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

  14. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, E. B.

    2016-09-01

    Much of George Dracoulis's research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  15. Radioactivities and gamma-rays from supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the implications of several calculations relevant to the estimation of gamma-ray signals from various explosive astronomical phenomena. After discussing efforts to constrain the amounts of Ni-57 and Ti-44 produced in SN 1987A, attention is given to the production of Al-27 in massive stars and SNs. A 'delayed detonation' model of type Ia SNs is proposed, and the gamma-ray signal which may be expected when a bare white dwarf collapses directly into a neutron star is discussed.

  16. Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Surman, Rebecca; Mclaughlin, Gail C; Hix, William Raphael

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts, while rare, may be important contributors to galactic nucleosynthesis. Here we consider the types of nucleosynthesis that can occur as material is ejected from a gamma-ray burst accretion disk. We calculate the composition of material within the disk as it dissociates into protons and neutrons and then use a parameterized outflow model to follow nuclear recombination in the wind. From the resulting nucleosynthesis we delineate the disk and outflow conditions in which iron peak, r-process, or light p-process nuclei may form. In all cases the neutrinos have an important impact on the final abundance distributions.

  17. Gamma ray astronomy and black hole astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1990-01-01

    The study of soft gamma emissions from black-hole candidates is identified as an important element in understanding black-hole phenomena ranging from stellar-mass black holes to AGNs. The spectra of Cyg X-1 and observations of the Galactic Center are emphasized, since thermal origins and MeV gamma-ray bumps are evident and suggest a thermal-pair cloud picture. MeV gamma-ray observations are suggested for studying black hole astrophysics such as the theorized escaping pair wind, the anticorrelation between the MeV gamma bump and the soft continuum, and the relationship between source compactness and temperature.

  18. Noiseless coding for the Gamma Ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R.; Lee, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The payload of several future unmanned space missions will include a sophisticated gamma ray spectrometer. Severely constrained data rates during certain portions of these missions could limit the possible science return from this instrument. This report investigates the application of universal noiseless coding techniques to represent gamma ray spectrometer data more efficiently without any loss in data integrity. Performance results demonstrate compression factors from 2.5:1 to 20:1 in comparison to a standard representation. Feasibility was also demonstrated by implementing a microprocessor breadboard coder/decoder using an Intel 8086 processor.

  19. Mercury Gamma-rays and Neutron Spectrometer for ESA BepiColompo mission: numerical simulation of neutrons and gamma-rays from Mercury subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, S. Alexander; Gunko, Natalya; Gurvits, Leonid; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Shvetsov, Valery; Timoshenko, Genagy; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Tsygan, Anatoly; Vostrukhin, Andrey

    The nuclear instrument MGNS is under development for implementation on the MPO of Bepi-Colombo mission, as the contribution of Federal Space Agency of Russia to this project. In com-parison of gamma-rays spectrometer onboard NASA's Messenger interplanetary probe, which will provide mapping data for northern hemisphere of the planet only because of elliptical orbit, the MGNS onboard MPO will provide global mapping of the planet with similar coverage of southern and northern hemispheres of the Mercury. For analyse chemistry composition of Mercury subsurface we will apply method of as-called remote sensing of neutrons. This method can be use for study celestial body of Solar system without thick atmospheres, like Moon, Mars, Phobos, Mercury etc. by the analysis of induced nuclear gamma-rays and neutron emission. These gamma-rays and neutrons are produced by energetic galactic cosmic rays colliding with nuclei of regolith within a 1-2 meter layer of subsurface. This report will also describe result of numerical simulation flux of neutrons and gamma-rays lines from Mercury subsurface. The simulation was done for four different theoretical models of surface composition (model: ChM, EM, RM and VM) and for four different surface temperature (90 , 300 , 500 and 725 ). We simulate spectrum of neutron flux generated by Mercury surface and flax of gamma-rays for two major line (Al: 7.724 MeV and Si: 3.539 MeV) as function of temperature and subsurface composition.

  20. Light Dawns on Dark Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most energetic events in the Universe, but some appear curiously faint in visible light. The biggest study to date of these so-called dark gamma-ray bursts, using the GROND instrument on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla in Chile, has found that these gigantic explosions don't require exotic explanations. Their faintness is now fully explained by a combination of causes, the most important of which is the presence of dust between the Earth and the explosion. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fleeting events that last from less than a second to several minutes, are detected by orbiting observatories that can pick up their high energy radiation. Thirteen years ago, however, astronomers discovered a longer-lasting stream of less energetic radiation coming from these violent outbursts, which can last for weeks or even years after the initial explosion. Astronomers call this the burst's afterglow. While all gamma-ray bursts [1] have afterglows that give off X-rays, only about half of them were found to give off visible light, with the rest remaining mysteriously dark. Some astronomers suspected that these dark afterglows could be examples of a whole new class of gamma-ray bursts, while others thought that they might all be at very great distances. Previous studies had suggested that obscuring dust between the burst and us might also explain why they were so dim. "Studying afterglows is vital to further our understanding of the objects that become gamma-ray bursts and what they tell us about star formation in the early Universe," says the study's lead author Jochen Greiner from the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching bei München, Germany. NASA launched the Swift satellite at the end of 2004. From its orbit above the Earth's atmosphere it can detect gamma-ray bursts and immediately relay their positions to other observatories so that the afterglows could be studied. In the new study, astronomers combined Swift

  1. Background Estimation of Gamma Ray Monitor onbaord SVOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bobing; Dong, Yongwei; Xie, Fei

    2016-07-01

    The Space multi-band Variable Object Monitor (SVOM) mission is a wide band observatory designed for making observations of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) from the visible band to gamma ray band, which is expected to be launched around year of 2021. GRM (Gamma Ray Monitor)is a GRB trigger detector onboard SVOM who detects a large portion of the sky in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray band with a PS/NaI(Tl) phoswich detector. The energy range is 15-5000 keV. GRM has 3 GRD(Gamma Ray Detector) units.The elevation angle of each GRD relative to the symmetry axis is set to 30° and the interval in azimuth angle of 3 GRDs is 120°. In order to evaluate the GRM,We make use of the mass modeling technique to estimatethe total background. It consists of three steps.First, we built a finegeometric model of GRM and a coarse model of the other payloads. Then based on the investigation about the space environment concerning SVOM low-earth orbit, in our simulation we considered cosmic rays, cosmicX-ray background (CXB), South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) trapped particles, the albedo gamma, and neutrons from interactionof cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. Finally,the Shielding Physics List supplied by Geant4 collaborations was adopted. According to our simulation, we find that CXB dominates the total background because of GRM's large field of view (for each GRD, the FOV is +/-60 degree with respect to its symmetry axis). When the Earth locates behind the SVOM, the total background of each GRD is approximately 1081 count/s on average over 15-5000 keV energy band after 100 days in orbit, and approximately 800 count/s comes from the CXB. As SVOM adopts the anti-sun pointing strategy, the Earth will in the FOV of GRM in some situation definitely. When the GRD facing the Earth, the total background reduces to approximately 659count/s because of the Earth shielding, and CXB induced background reduces to 290 count/s. So we got a function about the total background level with respect to the

  2. Found: A Galaxy's Missing Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Recent reanalysis of data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has resulted in the first detection of high-energy gamma rays emitted from a nearby galaxy. This discovery reveals more about how supernovae interact with their environments.Colliding Supernova RemnantAfter a stellar explosion, the supernovas ejecta expand, eventually encountering the ambient interstellar medium. According to models, this generates a strong shock, and a fraction of the kinetic energy of the ejecta is transferred into cosmic rays high-energy radiation composed primarily of protons and atomic nuclei. Much is still unknown about this process, however. One open question is: what fraction of the supernovas explosion power goes into accelerating these cosmic rays?In theory, one way to answer this is by looking for gamma rays. In a starburst galaxy, the collision of the supernova-accelerated cosmic rays with the dense interstellar medium is predicted to produce high-energy gamma rays. That radiation should then escape the galaxy and be visible to us.Pass 8 to the RescueObservational tests of this model, however, have beenstumped by Arp 220. This nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy is the product of a galaxy merger ~700 million years ago that fueled a frenzy of starbirth. Due to its dusty interior and extreme levels of star formation, Arp 220 has long been predicted to emit the gamma rays produced by supernova-accelerated cosmic rays. But though weve looked, gamma-ray emission has never been detected from this galaxy until now.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fang-Kun Peng (Nanjing University) reprocessed 7.5 years of Fermi observations using the new Pass 8 analysis software. The resulting increase in resolution revealed the first detection of GeV emission from Arp 220!Acceleration EfficiencyGamma-ray luminosity vs. total infrared luminosity for LAT-detected star-forming galaxies and Seyferts. Arp 220s luminosities are consistent with the scaling relation. [Peng et al. 2016

  3. Size distributions of air showers accompanied with high energy gamma ray bundles observed at Mt. Chacaltaya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matano, T.; Machida, M.; Tsuchima, I.; Kawasumi, N.; Honda, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Martinic, N.; Zapata, J.; Navia, C. E.; Aquirre, C.

    1985-01-01

    Size distributions of air showers accompanied with bundle of high energy gamma rays and/or large size bursts under emulsion chambers, to study the composition of primary cosmic rays and also characteristics of high energy nuclear interaction. Air showers initiated by particles with a large cross section of interaction may develop from narrow region of the atmosphere near the top. Starting levels of air showers by particles with smaller cross section fluctuate in wider region of the atmosphere. Air showers of extremely small size accompanied with bundle of gamma rays may be ones initiated by protons at lower level after penetrating deep atmosphere without interaction. It is determined that the relative size distribution according to the total energy of bundle of gamma rays and the total burst size observed under 15 cm lead absorber.

  4. Relativistic feedback models of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and gamma-ray glows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Relativistic feedback discharges, also known as dark lightning, are capable of explaining many of the observed properties of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) and gamma-ray glows, both created within thunderstorms. During relativistic feedback discharges, the generation of energetic electrons is self-sustained via the production of backward propagating positrons and back-scattered x-rays, resulting in very larges fluxes of energetic radiation. In addition, ionization produces large electric currents that generate LF/VLF radio emissions and eventually discharge the electric field, terminating the gamma-ray production. In this presentation, new relativistic feedback model results will be presented and compared to recent observations.

  5. A Strange Supernova with a Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-10-01

    Important Observations with La Silla Telescopes Several articles appear today in the scientific journal Nature about the strange supernova SN 1998bw that exploded earlier this year in the spiral galaxy ESO184-G82 . These studies indicate that this event was linked to a Gamma-Ray Burst and may thus provide new insights into this elusive phenomenon. Important observations of SN 1998bw have been made with several astronomical telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory by some of the co-authors of the Nature articles [1]. The measurements at ESO will continue during the next years. The early observations On April 25, the BeppoSAX satellite detected a Gamma-Ray Burst from the direction of the constellation Telescopium, deep in the southern sky. Although there is now general consensus that they originate in very distant galaxies, the underlying physical causes of these events that release great amounts of energy within seconds are still puzzling astronomers. Immediately after reports about the April 25 Burst had been received, astronomers at La Silla took some images of the sky region where the gamma-rays were observed as a "Target of Opportunity" (ToO) programme. The aim was to check if the visual light of one of the objects in the field had perhaps brightened when compared to exposures made earlier. This would then provide a strong indication of the location of the Gamma-Ray Burst. The digital exposures were transferred to the Italian/Dutch group around BeppoSax that had requested these ToO observations. Astronomers of this group quickly noticed a new, comparatively bright star, right on the arm of a small spiral galaxy. This galaxy was first catalogued in the 1970's during the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the Southern Sky and received the designation ESO184-G82 . It is located at a distance of about 140 million light-years. SN 1998bw ESO PR Photo 39a/98 ESO PR Photo 39a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 963 pix - 592k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3612 pix - 4.1Mb] ESO PR Photo 39b/98

  6. TEMPORAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN OPTICAL AND GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Daniel P.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, WeiKang; Li, Weidong; Romani, Roger W.; Cenko, S. Bradley

    2014-12-20

    We have been using the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in gamma-rays being detected with high significance (≥10σ) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a three-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The gamma-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the five-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have >100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and gamma-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find strong optical-gamma-ray correlation in many of these sources at time delays of ∼1 to ∼10 days, ranging between –40 and +30 days. A stacked average DCF of the 40 sources verifies this correlation trend, with a peak above 99% significance indicating a characteristic time delay consistent with 0 days. These findings strongly support the widely accepted leptonic models of blazar emission. However, we also find examples of apparently uncorrelated flares (optical flares with no gamma-ray counterpart and gamma-ray flares with no optical counterpart) that challenge simple, one-zone models of blazar emission. Moreover, we find that flat-spectrum radio quasars tend to have gamma-rays leading the optical, while intermediate- and high-synchrotron peak blazars with the most significant peaks have smaller lags/leads. It is clear that long-term monitoring at high cadence is necessary to reveal the underlying physical correlation.

  7. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  8. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  9. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  10. Study of gamma-ray strength functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

    1980-08-07

    The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

  11. Optical telescope BIRT in ORIGIN for gamma ray burst observing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Content, Robert; Sharples, Ray; Page, Mathew J.; Cole, Richard; Walton, David M.; Winter, Berend; Pedersen, Kristian; Hjorth, Jens; Andersen, Michael; Hornstrup, Allan; den Herder, Jan-Willem A.; Piro, Luigi

    2012-09-01

    The ORIGIN concept is a space mission with a gamma ray, an X-ray and an optical telescope to observe the gamma ray bursts at large Z to determine the composition and density of the intergalactic matter in the line of sight. It was an answer to the ESA M3 call for proposal. The optical telescope is a 0.7-m F/1 with a very small instrument box containing 3 instruments: a slitless spectrograph with a resolution of 20, a multi-imager giving images of a field in 4 bands simultaneously, and a cross-dispersed Échelle spectrograph giving a resolution of 1000. The wavelength range is 0.5 μm to 1.7 μm. All instruments fit together in a box of 80 mm x 80 mm x 200 mm. The low resolution spectrograph uses a very compact design including a special triplet. It contains only spherical surfaces except for one tilted cylindrical surface to disperse the light. To reduce the need for a high precision pointing, an Advanced Image Slicer was added in front of the high resolution spectrograph. This spectrograph uses a simple design with only one mirror for the collimator and another for the camera. The Imager contains dichroics to separate the bandwidths and glass thicknesses to compensate the differences in path length. All 3 instruments use the same 2k x 2k detector simultaneously so that telescope pointing and tip-tilt control of a fold mirror permit to place the gamma ray burst on the desired instrument without any other mechanism.

  12. Spectral and Temporal Analysis of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, E. S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, N. P.; Briggs, M. S.; Chaplin, V. L.; Connaughton, V.; Fitzpatrick, G.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes have been well studied both theoretically and by space based instruments. One of the main mysteries about TGFs is the variation in arrival times between the main "hard" pulse and the "soft" Compton tail. It is well known that TGFs may display symmetric and asymmetric time histories; however, little is known about what intrinsic property of the source allows it to behave the way it does. In this study, we use full Monte Carlo simulations, developed by Dwyer at Florida Tech, to characterize the behavior of the TGF timing with respect to atmospheric depth of the source and the TGF source location with respect to the GBM satellite footprint. The simulation generates the full relativistic runaway electron avalanches and propagates the resulting bremsstrahlung photons through the atmosphere and out to satellite altitude. In this analysis, we use the relativistic runaway electron avalanche model to show some of the clear distinctions between the low energy (< 300 keV) and high energy (> 300 keV) components of the TGF. The Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has detected TGFs as short as 50 microseconds. Here, we model those results with the Monte Carlo by simulating different source geometries and heights. We also compare other models in the field to our full Monte Carlo results, and attempt to explain the differences. Therefore, the overall goal of this study is to obtain constraints on the parameter space of TGFs in order to learn something physical about individual events.

  13. A G-APD based Camera for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhub, H.; Backes, M.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Commichau, S.; Commichau, V.; Dorner, D.; Gendotti, A.; Grimm, O.; von Gunten, H.; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U.; Köhne, J.-H.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Lorenz, E.; Lustermann, W.; Mannheim, K.; Neise, D.; Pauss, F.; Renker, D.; Rhode, W.; Rissi, M.; Ribordy, M.; Röser, U.; Stark, L. S.; Stucki, J.-P.; Tibolla, O.; Viertel, G.; Vogler, P.; Weitzel, Q.

    2011-02-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) for Gamma-ray astronomy are presently using photomultiplier tubes as photo sensors. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) promise an improvement in sensitivity and, important for this application, ease of construction, operation and ruggedness. G-APDs have proven many of their features in the laboratory, but a qualified assessment of their performance in an IACT camera is best undertaken with a prototype. This paper describes the design and construction of a full-scale camera based on G-APDs realized within the FACT project (First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope).

  14. Studying the High Energy Gamma Ray Sky with Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamae, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Thompson, D. J.; Watanabe, K.

    1998-01-01

    Building on the success of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will make a major step in the study of such subjects as blazars, gamma Ray bursts, the search for dark matter, supernova remnants, pulsars, diffuse radiation, and unidentified high energy sources. The instrument will be built on new and mature detector technologies such as silicon strip detectors, low-power low-noise LSI, and a multilevel data acquisition system. GLAST is in the research and development phase, and one full tower (of 25 total) is now being built in collaborating institutes. The prototype tower will be tested thoroughly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the fall of 1999.

  15. Gamma-Ray Background Variability in Mobile Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucott, Timothy John

    Gamma-ray background radiation significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, such as in wide-area searches for homeland security applications. Mobile detector systems in particular must contend with a variable background that is not necessarily known or even measurable a priori. This work will present measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of the background, with the goal of merging gamma-ray detection, spectroscopy, and imaging with contextual information--a "nuclear street view" of the ubiquitous background radiation. The gamma-ray background originates from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. The dominant sources in the field are the primordial isotopes potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232, as well as their decay daughters. In addition to the natural background, many artificially-created isotopes are used for industrial or medical purposes, and contamination from fission products can be found in many environments. Regardless of origin, these backgrounds will reduce detection sensitivity by adding both statistical as well as systematic uncertainty. In particular, large detector arrays will be limited by the systematic uncertainty in the background and will suffer from a high rate of false alarms. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the gamma-ray background and its variability in order to improve detection sensitivity and evaluate the performance of mobile detectors in the field. Large quantities of data are measured in order to study their performance at very low false alarm rates. Two different approaches, spectroscopy and imaging, are compared in a controlled study in the presence of this measured background. Furthermore, there is additional information that can be gained by correlating the gamma-ray data with contextual data streams (such as cameras and global positioning systems) in order to reduce the variability in the background

  16. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics: Solar gamma ray astronomy on solar maximum mission. [experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The SMM gamma ray experiment and the important scientific capabilities of the instrument are discussed. The flare size detectable as a function of spectrum integration time was studied. A preliminary estimate indicates that a solar gamma ray line at 4.4 MeV one-fifth the intensity of that believed to have been emitted on 4 August 1972 can be detected in approximately 1000 sec with a confidence level of 99%.

  17. Development of CZT strip detector modules for 0.05- to 1-MeV gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, James M.; Donmez, B.; Macri, John R.; McClish, Mickel; McConnell, Mark L.; Miller, Richard S.; Widholm, Mark; Hamel, Louis-Andre; Julien, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    We report progress in our study of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) strip detectors featuring orthogonal coplanar anode contacts. We specifically report on the performance, characterization and stability of 5 and 10 mm thick prototype CZT detectors fabricated using material from several manufacturers. Our ongoing work includes laboratory and simulation studies aimed at optimizing and developing compact, efficient, high performance detector modules for 0.05 to 1 MeV gamma radiation measurements with space-based instrumentation. The coplanar anode strip configuration retains many of the performance advantages of pixel detectors yet requires far fewer electronic channels to perform both 3-d imaging and spectroscopy. Minimizing the channel count is important for large balloon or space instruments including coded aperture telescopes (such as MARGIE or EXIST) and Compton imaging telescopes (such as TIGRE or ACT). We also present plans for developing compact, space qualified imaging modules designed for integration into closely packed large area detector arrays. We discuss issues associated with detector module and array electronics design and development.

  18. Gamma-ray astronomy--A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Stephen S.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-rays provide us with powerful insight into the highest energy processes occurring in the cosmos. This review highlights some of the progress in our understanding of gamma-ray astronomy that has been enabled by new data from GRANAT and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observaatory, and suggests requirements for future progress. In particular, the unique role of the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission and concurrent multiwavelength observations is highlighted.

  19. Gamma ray constraints on the Galactic supernova rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, D.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, Donald D.; Leising, M.; Mathews, G.; Woosley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected gamma ray signatures of Galactic supernovae of all types to estimate the significance of the lack of a gamma ray signal due to supernovae occurring during the last millenium. Using recent estimates of the nuclear yields, we determine mean Galactic supernova rates consistent with the historic supernova record and the gamma ray limits. Another objective of these calculations of Galactic supernova histories is their application to surveys of diffuse Galactic gamma ray line emission.

  20. The origin and implications of gamma rays from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1975-01-01

    Solar flares studied in the gamma ray region provide essential information on accelerated nuclei that can be obtained in no other way. A multitude of physical processes, such as particle acceleration, nuclear reactions, positron and neutron physics, and kinematical line broadening, come into consideration at gamma ray energies. Gamma ray observations are complementary to hard X ray observations, since both provide information on accelerated particles. It appears that only in the gamma ray region do these particles produce distinct spectral lines.

  1. Simultaneous optical/gamma-ray observations of GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, J.; Wenzel, W.; Hudec, R.; Moskalenko, E. I.; Metlov, V.; Chernych, N. S.; Getman, V. S.; Ziener, Rainer; Birkle, K.; Bade, N.

    1994-01-01

    Details on the project to search for serendipitous time correlated optical photographic observations of Gamma Ray Bursters (GRB's) are presented. The ongoing photographic observations at nine observatories are used to look for plates which were exposed simultaneously with a gamma ray burst detected by the gamma ray instrument team (BATSE) and contain the burst position. The results for the first two years of the gamma ray instrument team operation are presented.

  2. Monte Carlo calibration of the SMM gamma ray spectrometer for high energy gamma rays and neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Reppin, C.; Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft was primarily designed and calibrated for nuclear gamma ray line measurements, but also has a high energy mode which allows the detection of gamma rays at energies above 10 MeV and solar neutrons above 20 MeV. The GRS response has been extrapolated until now for high energy gamma rays from an early design study employing Monte Carlo calculations. The response to 50 to 600 MeV solar neutrons was estimated from a simple model which did not consider secondary charged particles escaping into the veto shields. In view of numerous detections by the GRS of solar flares emitting high energy gamma rays, including at least two emitting directly detectable neutrons, the calibration of the high energy mode in the flight model has been recalculated by the use of more sophisticated Monte Carlo computer codes. New results presented show that the GRS response to gamma rays above 20 MeV and to neutrons above 100 MeV is significantly lower than the earlier estimates.

  3. Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Actis, M.; Agnetta, G.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Aleksić, J.; Aliu, E.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Antico, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Artmann, S.; Asano, K.; Asorey, H.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balis, D.; Bamba, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Belluso, M.; Benallou, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Blake, S.; Blanch, O.; Bobkov, A. A.; Bogacz, L.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Borkowski, J.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M. S.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Casiraghi, M.; Castarede, H.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, B.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chiang, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cieślar, M.; Ciesielska, M.; Cillis, A.; Clerc, C.; Colin, P.; Colomé, J.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corlier, M.; Corona, P.; Corpace, O.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Daniel, M. K.; Dazzi, F.; Angelis, A. De; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de Jager, O.; de La Calle Pérez, I.; de La Vega, G.; de Lotto, B.; de Naurois, M.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, B.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Dettlaff, T.; di Paolo, A.; di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, H.; Digel, S. W.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Domainko, W.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcone, A. D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Federici, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Firpo, R.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, Ll.; Fontaine, G.; Fontana, A.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G. W.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gallant, Y.; García, B.; García López, R. J.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascón, D.; Gasq, C.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Geffroy, N.; Ghag, C.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Gianakaki, E.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giro, E.; Giubilato, P.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Gochna, M.; Golev, V.; Gómez Berisso, M.; González, A.; González, F.; Grañena, F.; Graciani, R.; Granot, J.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Guglielmi, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Haefner, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hallgren, A.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Hassan, T.; Haubold, T.; Hauser, M.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Herrero, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Horns, D.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Hultquist, K.; Humensky, T. B.; Huppert, J.-F.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Ingjald, J.; Inoue, Y.; Inoue, S.; Ioka, K.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jensen, H.; Jogler, T.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Kapala, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Karlsson, N.; Kasperek, J.; Katagiri, H.; Katarzyński, K.; Kawanaka, N.; Kȩdziora, B.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Klepser, S.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapp, J.; Knappy, A. R.; Kneiske, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kodani, K.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Komin, N.; Konopelko, A.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Kotuła, J.; Kowal, G.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Kretzschmann, A.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; López, A.; Lamanna, G.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubiński, P.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Maltezos, S.; Małkiewicz, P.; Mañá, C.; Manalaysay, A.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Marín, J.; Mariotti, M.; Markoff, S.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, M.; Mastichiadis, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; Medina, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mendes, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mineo, T.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Molinari, E.; Monteiro, I.; Moralejo, A.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Motta, G.; Mottez, F.; Moulin, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A. Stj.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S. J.; Nowak, N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ochoa, I.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohka, H.; Okumura, A.; Olivetto, C.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L.; Otte, A. N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Oziȩbło, A.; Paiano, S.; Pallota, J.; Panazol, J. L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pepato, A.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P. O.; Peyaud, B.; Piechocki, W.; Pita, S.; Pivato, G.; Płatos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmański, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Prandini, E.; Preece, R.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quel, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rajda, P.; Rando, R.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reimann, C.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reymond, J.-M.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Rico, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Rodriguez, S.; Roeser, U.; Romano, P.; Romero, G. E.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Sakaki, N.; Salazar, E.; Salini, A.; Sánchez, F.; Sánchez Conde, M. Á.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Seiradakis, J.; Selmane, S.; Seweryn, K.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shibata, T.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sofo Haro, M.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Suárez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K. H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, R. G.; Tam, P. H.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tchernin, C.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vegas, I.; Venter, L.; Vercellone, S.; Veyssiere, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; Volpe, F.; von Gunten, H. P.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Wagner, B.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, P.; Walter, R.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Williams, D. A.; Winde, M.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wolczko, A.; Wood, M.; Xiong, Q.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yoffo, B.; Yonetani, M.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zagdański, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zychowski, P.

    2011-12-01

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  4. Design Concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: An Advanced Facility for Ground-Based High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Actis, M

    2012-04-17

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  5. First observation of time variation in the solar-disk gamma-ray flux with Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kenny C. Y.; Beacom, John F.; Peter, Annika H. G.; Rott, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    The solar disk is a bright gamma-ray source. Surprisingly, its flux is about 1 order of magnitude higher than predicted. As a first step toward understanding the physical origin of this discrepancy, we perform a new analysis in 1-100 GeV using 6 years of public Fermi-LAT data. Compared to the previous analysis by the Fermi Collaboration, which analyzed 1.5 years of data and detected the solar disk in 0.1-10 GeV, we find two new and significant results: (1) In the 1-10 GeV flux (detected at >5 σ ), we discover a significant time variation that anticorrelates with solar activity, and (2) we detect gamma rays in 10-30 GeV at >5 σ and in 30-100 GeV at >2 σ . The time variation strongly indicates that solar-disk gamma rays are induced by cosmic rays and that solar atmospheric magnetic fields play an important role. Our results provide essential clues for understanding the underlying gamma-ray production processes, which may allow new probes of solar atmospheric magnetic fields, cosmic rays in the solar system, and possible new physics. Finally, we show that the Sun is a promising new target for ground-based TeV gamma-ray telescopes such as HAWC and LHAASO.

  6. Development of monitoring method of spatial neutron distribution in neutrons-gamma rays mixed field using imaging plate for NCT--depression of the field.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takada, Jun

    2011-12-01

    The degree of depression in the neutron field caused by neutron absorption in the materials of an imaging plate (IP) was investigated using MCNP-4C. Consequently, the IP doped with Gd, which reproduced the distribution of (157)Gd(n,γ)(158)Gd reaction rate in the previous study, depresses the relative distribution by about 50%. The depression for the IP in which Gd is replaced with similar amount of B atoms was estimated to be about 10%. The signal intensity for this IP is estimated to be at a similar level with that for Gd-doped IP.

  7. Search for optical flashes from gamma-ray bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudec, R.; Borovicka, J.; Wenzel, W.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation of the Ondrejov and Sonneberg plate collections for possible optical counterparts to gamma ray bursters (GRBs) are presented. The study proceeds in three directions: as time-correlated searches for GRBs with known positions, as time-correlated searches for GRBs without known positions, and as archival searches. The position of the Perseus flasher was also investigated using 1000 hours of monitoring. No evidence for true optical images associated with GRBs was found. Statistical conclusions are drawn and discussed.

  8. Solar gamma-ray physics comes of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, Gerald H.; Murphy, Ronald J.

    2001-10-01

    The launch of NASA's HESSI satellite will provide solar scientists with >= 2arcsec imaging/>= 2 keV spectroscopy of solar flares from ~10 keV to 10 MeV for the first time. We summarize recent developments in our understanding of solar flares based primarily on gamma-ray line measurements made over the past twenty years with instruments having moderate spectral resolution. These measurements have provided information on solar ambient abundance, density and temperature; accelerated particle composition, spectra, and transport; and flare energetics. .

  9. Hints of the Existence of Axion-Like-Particles From the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Cosmological Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; Paneque, D.; Bloom, E.; Prada, F.; Dominguez, A.; /IAA, Granada /Seville U.

    2009-06-23

    Axion Like Particles (ALPs) are predicted to couple with photons in the presence of magnetic fields. This effect may lead to a significant change in the observed spectra of gamma-ray sources such as AGNs. Here we carry out a detailed study that for the first time simultaneously considers in the same framework both the photon/axion mixing that takes place in the gamma-ray source and that one expected to occur in the intergalactic magnetic fields. An efficient photon/axion mixing in the source always means an attenuation in the photon flux, whereas the mixing in the intergalactic medium may result in a decrement and/or enhancement of the photon flux, depending on the distance of the source and the energy considered. Interestingly, we find that decreasing the value of the intergalactic magnetic field strength, which decreases the probability for photon/axion mixing, could result in an increase of the expected photon flux at Earth if the source is far enough. We also find a 30% attenuation in the intensity spectrum of distant sources, which occurs at an energy that only depends on the properties of the ALPs and the intensity of the intergalactic magnetic field, and thus independent of the AGN source being observed. Moreover, we show that this mechanism can easily explain recent puzzles in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources, like the possible detection of TeV photons from 3C 66A (a source located at z=0.444) by MAGIC and VERITAS, which should not happen according to conventional models of photon propagation over cosmological distances. Another puzzle is the recent published lower limit to the EBL intensity at 3.6 {micro}m (which is almost twice larger as the previous one), which implies very hard spectra for some detected TeV gamma-ray sources located at z=0.1-0.2. The consequences that come from this work are testable with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments, namely Fermi (formerly known as GLAST) and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like

  10. Very High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses topics related to high-energy, gamma-ray astronomy (including cosmic radiation, gamma-ray detectors, high-energy gamma-ray sources, and others). Also considers motivation for the development of this field, the principal results to date, and future prospects. (JN)

  11. Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

  12. Characterization of LaBr3:Ce and CeBr3 calorimeter modules for 3D imaging in gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostojić, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Hamadache, C.; Peyré, J.; Karkour, N.; Linget, D.; Gibelin, L.; Lafay, X.; Grave, X.; Dosme, N.; Legay, E.; Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2016-10-01

    For the purpose of future space instrumentation for γ-ray astronomy, we developed a small prototype of a Compton telescope and studied novel detector modules aimed for Compton imaging. We assembled and tested 2 modules, one with a cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr3:Ce) crystal and the other with cerium(III) bromide (CeBr3). Both crystals measure 5×5 cm2 in area and are 1 cm thick. They are coupled to and read out by 64-channel multi-anode PMTs. Our goals are to obtain the best possible energy resolution and position resolution in 3D on the first impact of an incident γ-ray within the detector. Both information are vital for successful reconstruction of a Compton image with the telescope prototype. We developed a test bench to experimentally study both modules and have utilized a customized readout electronics and data acquisition system. Furthermore, we have written a detailed Geant4 simulation of the experiment, and utilize simulated data to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm to create a simplified 3D impact position reconstruction method. We give experimental test results obtained by both modules and present detailed parametrization and results from the Geant4 simulation and from the ANN. We compare and discuss the performance of the modules and conclude by giving a brief overview of the future prospects for using such modules in γ-ray astronomy.

  13. Development of a portable X-ray and gamma-ray detector instrument and imaging camera for use in radioactive and hazardous materials management

    SciTech Connect

    Scyoc, J.M. van; James, R.B.; Anderson, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop instruments for use in the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Devices for identifying and imaging such wastes are critical to developing environmental remediation strategies. Field portable units are required to enable the on-site analysis of solids, liquids, and gas effluents. Red mercuric iodide ({alpha}-HgI{sub 2}) is a semiconductor material that can be operated as a high-energy-resolution radiation detector at ambient temperatures. This property provides the needed performance of conventional germanium- and silicon-based devices, while eliminating the need for the cryogenic cooling of such instruments. The first year of this project focused on improving the materials properties of the mercuric iodide to enable the new sensor technology; in particular the charge carrier traps limiting device performance were determined and eliminated. The second year involved the development of a field portable x-ray fluorescence analyzer for compositional analyses. The third and final year of the project focused on the development of imaging sensors to provide the capability for mapping the composition of waste masses. This project resulted in instruments useful not only for managing hazardous and radioactive wastes, but also in a variety of industrial and national security applications.

  14. Two probable optical flashes from gamma-ray bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, B. E.; Bradt, H. V.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Cline, T. L.; Desai, U.; Teegarden, B. J.; Evans, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Two images on archival photographic plates which are most likely records of optical flashes from gamma-ray bursters (GRBs) were examined. One of these images appears on a 1901 plate in the field of the Nov. 5, 1979 GRB, while the other is in the field of the Jan. 13, 1979 GRB on a plate exposed in 1944. The 1901 optical transient image is circular in shape, while all normal star images are trailed by 8 in. No optical transients are found in a control region which is 34.3 times larger than the GRB error regions examined. Independent limits on the optical flash rate from the sky yield a probability of less than 0.0001 that any one of the optical transients is due to a background flash. A total exposure of 2.7 years was examined for GRB flashes at known GRB locations on the Harvard plates and a total of three GRB flashes were seen, that the average recurrence time scale for optical flashes is roughly one year. The optical fluence of these optical flashes was measured. For the three currently known GRB optical flashes, the ratio of gamma-ray fluence (from a modern burst) to the optical fluence (from a archival burst) were measured to be 800, 900, and 900.

  15. Two probable optical flashes from gamma-ray bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, B. E.; Bradt, H. V.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Evans, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Two images on archival photographic plates which are most likely records of optical flashes from gamma-ray bursters (GRBs) were examined. One of these images appears on a 1901 plate in the field of the 5 Nov. 1979 GRB, while the other is in the field of the 13 Jan. 1979 GRB on a plate exposed in 1944. The 1901 optical transient image is circular in shape, while all normal star images are trailed by 8 in. No optical transients are found in a control region which is 34.3 times larger than the GRB error regions examined. Independent limits on the optical flash rate from the sky yield a probability of less than 0.0001 that any one of the optical transients is due to a background flash. A total exposure of 2.7 years was examined for GRB flashes at known GRB locations on the Harvard plates and a total of three GRB flashes were seen, that the average recurrence time scale for optical flashes is roughly one year. The optical fluence of these optical flashes was measured. For the three currently known GRB optical flashes, the ratio of gamma-ray fluence (from a modern burst) to the optical fluence (from a archival burst) were measured to be 800, 900, and 900.

  16. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann

    2007-01-01

    With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or

  17. NRAO Teams With NASA Gamma-Ray Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is teaming with NASA's upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) to allow astronomers to use both the orbiting facility and ground-based radio telescopes to maximize their scientific payoff. Under the new, streamlined process, astronomers can compete for coordinated observing time and support from both GLAST and NRAO's radio telescopes. GLAST satellite Artist's rendering of the GLAST spacecraft in orbit above the Earth. CREDIT: General Dynamics C4 Systems Click on Image for Larger File Images of NRAO Telescopes Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope Very Long Baseline Array Very Large Array Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array GLAST is scheduled for launch no earlier than December 14. It will perform a survey of the entire sky at gamma-ray wavelengths every 3 hours using its primary instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT). NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico, the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The NRAO is a research facility of the National Science Foundation (NSF). "Coordinated gamma-ray and radio observations of celestial objects will greatly enhance the ability to fully understand those objects. Astronomy today requires such multiwavelength studies, and this agreement paves the way for exciting, cutting-edge research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. GLAST will be vastly more capable than previous gamma-ray satellites, and will carry an instrument, the GLAST Burst Monitor, specifically designed to detect gamma-ray bursts. GLAST observers will study objects such as active galaxies, pulsars, and supernova remnants, which are also readily studied with radio telescopes. By working together, NASA's GLAST mission and NSF's NRAO facilities can study flares from blazars over the widest possible range of energies, which is crucial to understanding how black holes, notorious for drawing matter in, can

  18. Time-resolved imaging of prompt-gamma rays for proton range verification using a knife-edge slit camera based on digital photon counters.

    PubMed

    Cambraia Lopes, Patricia; Clementel, Enrico; Crespo, Paulo; Henrotin, Sebastien; Huizenga, Jan; Janssens, Guillaume; Parodi, Katia; Prieels, Damien; Roellinghoff, Frauke; Smeets, Julien; Stichelbaut, Frederic; Schaart, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    Proton range monitoring may facilitate online adaptive proton therapy and improve treatment outcomes. Imaging of proton-induced prompt gamma (PG) rays using a knife-edge slit collimator is currently under investigation as a potential tool for real-time proton range monitoring. A major challenge in collimated PG imaging is the suppression of neutron-induced background counts. In this work, we present an initial performance test of two knife-edge slit camera prototypes based on arrays of digital photon counters (DPCs). PG profiles emitted from a PMMA target upon irradiation with a 160 MeV proton pencil beams (about 6.5 × 10(9) protons delivered in total) were measured using detector modules equipped with four DPC arrays coupled to BGO or LYSO : Ce crystal matrices. The knife-edge slit collimator and detector module were placed at 15 cm and 30 cm from the beam axis, respectively, in all cases. The use of LYSO : Ce enabled time-of-flight (TOF) rejection of background events, by synchronizing the DPC readout electronics with the 106 MHz radiofrequency signal of the cyclotron. The signal-to-background (S/B) ratio of 1.6 obtained with a 1.5 ns TOF window and a 3 MeV-7 MeV energy window was about 3 times higher than that obtained with the same detector module without TOF discrimination and 2 times higher than the S/B ratio obtained with the BGO module. Even 1 mm shifts of the Bragg peak position translated into clear and consistent shifts of the PG profile if TOF discrimination was applied, for a total number of protons as low as about 6.5 × 10(8) and a detector surface of 6.6 cm × 6.6 cm.

  19. New method of analysis for TeV gamma-ray data collected by the TACTIC telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishen, Chand

    2016-08-01

    We describe a new fractal and wavelet based framework for analysing atmospheric Cerenkov images of extensive air showers. The methodology developed using simulated data has been tested with the data collected from Mrk421 and Crab nebula directions during 10 October 2009-16 May 2010 by the TACTIC telescope. The telescope detected flaring activity in TeV gamma-rays from Mrk421 during 15th-17th February 2010. Hillas parameter analysis of Cerenkov images showed presence of TeV γ-ray signal with statistical significance of 12.5 σ beyond 1TeV energy for the 265 hours data set. Based on a Monte-Carlo simulated database of Cerenkov images recorded by the TACTIC telescope, the wavelet dimension B6 can be exploited as a useful parameter to segregate gamma-ray initiated events from hadron initiated events with better efficiency. We derive a preliminary value of the relevant significance for gamma initiated events using wavelet parameter B6 for the 265 hours long observation spell of Mrk421 including the flaring episode during 15th-17th February 2010 and 66 hours data of observations on Crab nebula. Wavelet analysis approach has also been tested on Crab OFF- source data of 27 hours. Application of wavelet parameter B6 on the recorded Cerenkov images of the TACTIC telescope reveals better results in terms of segregation efficiency and enhancement of the determined value of statistical significance as compared to the Hillas parameters approach.

  20. New method of analysis for TeV gamma-ray data collected by the TACTIC telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishen, Chand

    2016-10-01

    We describe a new fractal and wavelet based framework for analysing atmospheric Cerenkov images of extensive air showers. The methodology developed using simulated data has been tested with the data collected from Mrk421 and Crab nebula directions during 10 October 2009-16 May 2010 by the TACTIC telescope. The telescope detected flaring activity in TeV gamma-rays from Mrk421 during 15th-17th February 2010. Hillas parameter analysis of Cerenkov images showed presence of TeV γ-ray signal with statistical significance of 12.5 σ beyond 1TeV energy for the 265 hours data set. Based on a Monte-Carlo simulated database of Cerenkov images recorded by the TACTIC telescope, the wavelet dimension B6 can be exploited as a useful parameter to segregate gamma-ray initiated events from hadron initiated events with better efficiency. We derive a preliminary value of the relevant significance for gamma initiated events using wavelet parameter B6 for the 265 hours long observation spell of Mrk421 including the flaring episode during 15th-17th February 2010 and 66 hours data of observations on Crab nebula. Wavelet analysis approach has also been tested on Crab OFF- source data of 27 hours. Application of wavelet parameter B6 on the recorded Cerenkov images of the TACTIC telescope reveals better results in terms of segregation efficiency and enhancement of the determined value of statistical significance as compared to the Hillas parameters approach.