Science.gov

Sample records for atmospheric physics department

  1. Tumultuous Atmosphere (Physical, Mental), the Main Barrier to Emergency Department Inter-Professional Communication

    PubMed Central

    Varjoshani, Nasrin Jafari; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: A highly important factor in enhancing quality of patient care and job satisfaction of health care staff is inter-professional communication. Due to the critical nature of the work environment, the large number of staff and units, and complexity of professional tasks and interventions, inter-professional communication in an emergency department is particularly and exceptionally important. Despite its importance, inter-professional communication in emergency department seems unfavorable. Thus, this study was designed to explain barriers to inter-professional communication in an emergency department. Methodology & Methods: This was a qualitative study with content analysis approach, based on interviews conducted with 26 participants selected purposively, with diversity of occupation, position, age, gender, history, and place of work. Interviews were in-depth and semi-structured, and data were analyzed using the inductive content analysis approach. Results: In total, 251 initial codes were extracted from 30 interviews (some of the participants re-interviewed) and in the reducing trend of final results, 5 categories were extracted including overcrowded emergency, stressful emergency environment, not discerning emergency conditions, ineffective management, and inefficient communication channels. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental) was the common theme between categories, and was decided to be the main barrier to effective inter-professional communication. Conclusion: Tumultuous atmosphere (physical-mental) was found to be the most important barrier to inter-professional communication. This study provided a better understanding of these barriers in emergency department, often neglected in most studies. It is held that by reducing environmental turmoil (physical-mental), inter-professional communication can be improved, thereby improving patient care outcomes and personnel job satisfaction. PMID:25560351

  2. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental), the main barrier to emergency department inter-professional communication.

    PubMed

    Jafari Varjoshani, Nasrin; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2014-08-22

    A highly important factor in enhancing quality of patient care and job satisfaction of health care staff is inter-professional communication. Due to the critical nature of the work environment, the large number of staff and units, and complexity of professional tasks and interventions, inter-professional communication in an emergency department is particularly and exceptionally important. Despite its importance, inter-professional communication in emergency department seems unfavorable. Thus, this study was designed to explain barriers to inter-professional communication in an emergency department. This was a qualitative study with content analysis approach, based on interviews conducted with 26 participants selected purposively, with diversity of occupation, position, age, gender, history, and place of work. Interviews were in-depth and semi-structured, and data were analyzed using the inductive content analysis approach. In total, 251 initial codes were extracted from 30 interviews (some of the participants re-interviewed) and in the reducing trend of final results, 5 categories were extracted including overcrowded emergency, stressful emergency environment, not discerning emergency conditions, ineffective management, and inefficient communication channels. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental) was the common theme between categories, and was decided to be the main barrier to effective inter-professional communication. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical-mental) was found to be the most important barrier to inter-professional communication. This study provided a better understanding of these barriers in emergency department, often neglected in most studies. It is held that by reducing environmental turmoil (physical-mental), inter-professional communication can be improved, thereby improving patient care outcomes and personnel job satisfaction.

  3. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.; MacCracken, M.C.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gresho, P.M.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-08-01

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications.

  4. Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindzen, Richard A.

    2005-08-01

    Motion is manifest in the atmosphere in an almost infinite variety of ways. In Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Dr. Richard Lindzen describes the nature of motion in the atmosphere, develops fluid dynamics relevant to the atmosphere, and explores the role of motion in determining the climate and atmospheric composition. The author presents the material in a lecture note style, and the emphasis throughout is on describing phenomena that are at the frontiers of current research, but due attention is given to the methodology of research and to the historical background of these topics. The author's treatment and choice of topics is didactic. Problems at the end of each chapter will help students assimilate the material. In general the discussions emphasize physical concepts, and throughout Dr. Lindzen makes a concerted effort to avoid the notion that dynamic meteorology is simply the derivation of equations and their subsequent solution. His desire is that interested students will delve further into solution details. The book is intended as a text for first year graduate students in the atmospheric sciences. Although the material in the book is self contained, a familiarity with differential equations is assumed; some background in fluid mechanics is helpful.

  5. Retention at Departments of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Rafael; Rosa, Luis

    2013-03-01

    A thriving physics department is the end result of many actions, taken over time, that results in the development of a sense of community between the faculty and the students. As part of this sense of community, gifted students must receive special attention and innovative ideas must be incorporated to successfully accommodate the needs of these students. We have found that the best retention strategy for gifted undergraduates is the total involvement of them in undergraduate research projects and also the development of leadership in extracurricular activities within the department. A careful employment strategy is needed to secure a faculty committed to the goals of the community.

  6. Physics departments with women faculty members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan C.

    2014-10-01

    Last month we examined the representation of women among newly hired physics faculty members. This month we consider the proportion of physics departments with women on their faculties in the professorial ranks—assistant, associate, and full professors. There continue to be some physics departments that have no women faculty members. The percentage is higher at bachelor's-granting departments than at PhD-granting departments, largely because of the small number of faculty members at most bachelor's-granting departments. About 47% of bachelor's-granting departments had no women faculty members, while one percent of these departments had only women. We studied the number of physics departments with no women among their faculty and found that there are actually fewer of these than would be expected given the small number of faculty members in a typical department and given the overall proportion of women among current physics faculty members.1 Next month we will take a closer Proportion of Physics Departments with Women Faculty* by Highest Degree Granted, 2009-10 Academic Year look at the growth in the representation of women among faculty members in PhD-granting departments. If you have any questions or comments, please contact Susan White at the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics (swhite@aip.org).

  7. Planetary atmospheric physics and solar physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on current and planned research activities in the major areas of solar physics, planetary atmospheres, and space astronomy. The approach to these unsolved problems involves experimental techniques, theoretical analysis, and the use of computers to analyze the data from space experiments. The point is made that the research program is characterized by each activity interacting with the other activities in the laboratory.

  8. Assessing the Physical Environment of Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Hassan; Javadzadeh, Hamidreza; Hassanpour, Kasra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency Department (ED) is considered to be the heart of a hospital. Based on many studies, a well-organized physical environment can enhance efficacy. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of physical environment in EDs on efficacy. Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted via the faculty members of the ED and residents of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using a predefined questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Sixty-two participants, including 21 females and 41 males, completed the questionnaires. The mean age of the participants was 37 years (SD: 8.42). The mean work experience was 8 years (SD: 4.52) and all the studied variables varied within a range of 3.3 - 4.2. Time indices had the highest mean among variables followed by capacity, work space, treatment units, critical care units and, triage indices, respectively. Conclusions: In general, time indices including length of patient stay in the ED and space capacity, emphasizing the need to address these shortcomings. PMID:26839860

  9. Student's Guide to Undergraduate Physics Major Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llano, Margaret T.

    Provided are data on the physics programs of 622 institutions which offer the baccalaureate degree in physics. The guide is intended for students who aim to become physics majors in college, students interested in science, transfer students, school and community college counselors, and physics faculty. For each institution, information is supplied…

  10. Atmospheric trident production for probing new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shao-Feng; Lindner, Manfred; Rodejohann, Werner

    2017-09-01

    We propose to use atmospheric neutrinos as a powerful probe of new physics beyond the Standard Model via neutrino trident production. The final state with double muon tracks simultaneously produced from the same vertex is a distinctive signal at large Cherenkov detectors. We calculate the expected event numbers of trident production in the Standard Model. To illustrate the potential of this process to probe new physics we obtain the sensitivity on new vector/scalar bosons with coupling to muon and tau neutrinos.

  11. Number of Women in Physics Departments: A Simulation Analysis. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Ivie, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Women's representation in physics lags behind most other STEM disciplines. Currently, women make up about 13% of faculty members in all physics degree-granting departments, and there are physics departments with no women faculty members at all. These two data points are often cited as evidence of a lack of equity for women. In this article,…

  12. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  13. Atmospheric cloud physics thermal systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Engineering analyses performed on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics (ACPL) Science Simulator expansion chamber and associated thermal control/conditioning system are reported. Analyses were made to develop a verified thermal model and to perform parametric thermal investigations to evaluate systems performance characteristics. Thermal network representations of solid components and the complete fluid conditioning system were solved simultaneously using the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) computer program.

  14. Physics of the Sun and its Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.; Narain, U.

    ch. 1. Recent advances in solar physics / B. N. Dwivedi -- ch. 2. Overview of the Sun / S. S. Hasan -- ch. 3. Seismic view of the Sun / S. M. Chitre and B. N. Dwivedi -- ch. 4. Solar magnetism / P. Venkatakrishnan and S. Gosain -- ch. 5. Waves and oscillations in the solar atmosphere / R. Erdélyi -- ch. 6. VUV spectroscopy of solar plasma / A. Mohan -- ch. 7. Active region diagnostics / H. E. Mason and D. Tripathi -- ch. 8. Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion in the lower solar atmosphere / V. Krishan -- ch. 9. On solar coronal heating mechanisms / K. Pandey and U. Narain -- ch. 10. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated phenomena / N. Srivastava -- ch. 11. The radio Sun / P. K. Manoharan -- ch. 12. The solar wind / P. K. Manoharan -- ch. 13. The Sun-Earth system: our home in space / J. L. Lean.

  15. Physical activity promotion: a local and state health department perspective.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul; Gonzalez, Eloisa; Ginsburg, David; Abrams, Jennifer; Fielding, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Local and state health departments are well-positioned to serve as catalysts for the institutional and community changes needed to increase physical activity across the population. Efforts should focus on evidence-based strategies, including promotion of high-quality physical education in schools, social support networks and structured programs for physical activity in communities, and organizational practices, policies, and programs that promote physical activity in the workplace. Health departments must also focus on land use and transportation practices and policies in communities where the built environment creates major impediments to physical activity, particularly in economically disadvantaged communities disproportionately burdened by chronic disease.

  16. Atmospheric cloud physics laboratory project study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, W. E.; Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering studies were performed for the Zero-G Cloud Physics Experiment liquid cooling and air pressure control systems. A total of four concepts for the liquid cooling system was evaluated, two of which were found to closely approach the systems requirements. Thermal insulation requirements, system hardware, and control sensor locations were established. The reservoir sizes and initial temperatures were defined as well as system power requirements. In the study of the pressure control system, fluid analyses by the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory were performed to determine flow characteristics of various orifice sizes, vacuum pump adequacy, and control systems performance. System parameters predicted in these analyses as a function of time include the following for various orifice sizes: (1) chamber and vacuum pump mass flow rates, (2) the number of valve openings or closures, (3) the maximum cloud chamber pressure deviation from the allowable, and (4) cloud chamber and accumulator pressure.

  17. Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, J. L.; Fogal, G. L.; Scollon, T. R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents the development background and the present status of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) thermal control capability. The ACPL, a Spacelab payload, is currently in the initial flight hardware development phase for a first flight scheduled in June 1981. The ACPL is intended as a facility for conducting a wide variety of cloud microphysics experimentation under zero gravity conditions. The cloud chambers, which are key elements of the ACPL, have stringent thermal requirements. Thus the expansion chamber inner walls must be uniform to within + or - 0.1 C during both steady-state and transient operation over a temperature range of +30 to -25 C. Design progression of the expansion chamber, from early in-house NASA-MSFC concepts (including test results of a prototype chamber) to a thermal control concept currently under development, is discussed.

  18. History of the New York University Physics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin; Henry Stroke, H.

    2011-09-01

    We trace the history of physics at New York University after its founding in 1831, focusing especially on its relatively recent history, which can be divided into five periods: the Gregory Breit period from 1929 to 1934; the prewar period from 1935 to 1941; the wartime period from 1942 to 1945; the postwar period from around 1961 to 1973 when several semiautonomous physics departments were united into a single all-university department under a single head; and after 1973 when the University Heights campus was sold to New York City and its physics department joined the one at the Washington Square campus. For each of these periods we comment on the careers and work of prominent members of the physics faculty and on some of the outstanding graduate students who later went on to distinguished careers at NYU and elsewhere.

  19. Multiscale Atmospheric Physics Modeled by Cumulant Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Brad; Chini, Greg

    2014-03-01

    We investigate a systematic and physically based approach to modeling subgrid physics statistically with the use of an expansion in equal-time cumulants. To accomplish this we replace the zonal average employed in previous work with a low-pass filter that separates small and large scales in the zonal direction. The statistics are non-local, inhomogeneous, and anisotropic; the sole approximation is the neglect of 3-point and higher correlation functions. The closure respects the conservation of energy, enstrophy, and angular momentum. An advantage of the formulation is that correlations between large and small scale processes are treated explicitly without the introduction of phenomenological parameterizations. The approach is tested against full numerical simulation of idealized 1- and 2-layer models of the atmospheric general circulation and shown to yield accurate low-order statistics. (The computer model used to perform these tests runs on OS X and is publicly available.) We identify important multiscale interactions and discuss the computational cost of the new scheme. Supported in part by NSF DMR-1306806 and CCF-1048701.

  20. A Comparison of Physical Medicine Departments in Vocational vs. Physical Restoration Oriented Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James D.; Egerman, Karl

    To compare the physical medicine departments of selected vocationally oriented rehabilitation centers with each other and with centers that are primarily oriented toward physical restoration, six facilities were studied. Conclusions were as follow: nearly all physical medicine departments have staffing problems; quality of service appears…

  1. Assessing the physical service setting: a look at emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    To determine the attributes of the physical setting that are important for developing a positive service climate within emergency departments and to validate a measure for assessing physical service design. The design of the physical setting is an important and contributing factor for creating a service climate in organizations. Service climate is defined as employee perceptions of the practices, procedures, and behaviors that get rewarded, supported, and expected with regard to customer service and customer service quality. There has been research conducted which identifies antecedents within organization that promotes a positive service climate which in turn creates service-oriented behaviors by employees toward clients. The antecedent of the physical setting and its impact on perceptions of service climate has been less commonly explored. Using the concept of the physical service setting (which may be defined as aspects of the physical, built environment that facilitate the delivery of quality service), attributes of the physical setting and their relationship with service climate were explored by means of a quantitative paper survey distributed to emergency nurses (n = 180) throughout a province in Canada. The results highlight the validity and reliability of six scales measuring the physical setting and its relation to service. Respondents gave low ratings to the physical setting of their departments, in addition to low ratings of service climate. Respondents feel that the design of the physical setting in the emergency departments where they work is not conducive to providing quality service to clients. Certain attributes of the physical setting were found to be significant in influencing perceptions of service climate, hence service quality, within the emergency department setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Physical fitness of an industrial fire department vs. a municipal fire department.

    PubMed

    Garver, Julie N; Jankovitz, Kristine Z; Danks, Jane M; Fittz, Ashley A; Smith, Heather S; Davis, Steven C

    2005-05-01

    Both industrial and municipal firefighters need to maintain high levels of physical fitness and minimize cardiovascular risk factors. The nature of firefighter responsibilities in industrial and municipal settings may vary, affecting the ability to sustain high levels of physical fitness. We compared the working conditions, physical fitness, and exercise training practices of an industrial fire department (n = 17) to those of a nearby municipal fire department (n = 55). After informed consent, aerobic capacity, muscular strength, muscular endurance, body composition, flexibility, blood lipid concentrations, and blood pressure levels were measured. Exercise training practices and related factors were assessed using a questionnaire. Despite programmatic differences, these departments demonstrated similar, relatively high degrees of physical fitness and similar blood lipid concentrations, blood pressure levels, and cardiac risk factors. It is recommended that fire departments involve appropriately trained staff, schedule on-duty times for exercise, offer well-equipped exercise facilities, and follow National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for exercise conditioning in order to maintain a high degree of physical fitness.

  3. The Physics Department of Moscow University: In Its Ladies' Faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elena, Ermolaeva

    2005-10-01

    In commemoration of the 250th anniversary of Moscow University, the Women Council of MSU published a biographical dictionary dedicated to women who contributed significantly to the academic success of their institution and who distinguished themselves both in research and in teaching. The book contains brief biographies of some 619 women employed by MSU; 63 of these entries are for members of the Department of Physics and of its adjacent research institutes. They are doctors of sciences, full professors, recipients of government as well as university awards, and some are WWII veterans. Their lives in science have embodied all tendencies of the Soviet period of the country. The great majority graduated from Moscow State University and have been working at MSU for more than 25 years. At present, the Physics Department consists of 37 sectors with more than two hundred doctors of sciences, 15% of whom are women. The information supplied by the dictionary, combined with data on the younger staff of MSU with similar degrees in physics, lets us compare tendencies in women's professional development, their research and teaching careers, and their success in publishing. It also lets us see some of the key issues. Since 1933 (the year of establishment) more than 25,000 people have graduated from the Physics Department, a quarter of whom were girls. Of 90 students who have graduated with honors this year, one third were girls, and of 22 award-winning thesis this year, 10 were defended by them. About 400 persons are participating in the 3-year postgraduate program of the Physics Department; 30% of all students enrolled this year are girls. Half the winners of annual awards to students, postgraduate students, and ``young scientists'' in physics this year were girls. The percent of successful women in physics is growing.

  4. Planetary atmospheres: Microwave spectroscopic and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd

    1990-01-01

    Ground-based spectroscopic observations of isotopes of CO in the atmosphere of Mars, Venus, and Titan were collected over the 1982-1990 period. These observations were analyzed to obtain information on the photochemistry, dynamics, and thermal profiles of these planetary atmospheres. In the cases of the mesosphere (80-100 km altitude) of Venus and the lower atmosphere (0-70 km altitude) of Mars, the primary conclusion of this research is that significant interannual variation in the global, thermal, and compositional structures of these atmospheres occur over 10 year periods. The Titan studies have focussed on pinning down the true atmosphere CO abundance. A more detailed summary of the results for each of these planetary atmospheres is provided.

  5. University of Michigan Physics Department: E[superscript2]Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The E[superscript 2]Coach project from the Department of Physics at the University of Michigan (UM) addresses the challenge of providing individual student support in high-enrollment introductory science courses. This web application employs tailored communications technology, course experiences, student data, and analytics to deliver customized…

  6. The Hispanic Experience in Physical Education Programs and Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Cervantes, Carlos M.; Vigo-Valentin, Alexander N.; Canabal-Torres, Maria Y.; Ortiz-Castillo, Esther M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges and identify strategies to increase the representation of Hispanic faculty in the academy, particularly Physical Education (PE) programs and departments at doctorate-granting universities. Recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Hispanic faculty are provided.…

  7. The Hispanic Experience in Physical Education Programs and Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Cervantes, Carlos M.; Vigo-Valentin, Alexander N.; Canabal-Torres, Maria Y.; Ortiz-Castillo, Esther M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges and identify strategies to increase the representation of Hispanic faculty in the academy, particularly Physical Education (PE) programs and departments at doctorate-granting universities. Recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Hispanic faculty are provided.…

  8. University of Michigan Physics Department: E[superscript2]Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The E[superscript 2]Coach project from the Department of Physics at the University of Michigan (UM) addresses the challenge of providing individual student support in high-enrollment introductory science courses. This web application employs tailored communications technology, course experiences, student data, and analytics to deliver customized…

  9. Basic research in meteorology and atmospheric physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effect was studied of the variations of the electromagnetic properties of the three phases of water on measurements of atmospheric and oceanographic parameters by microwave instruments aboard satellites. Other studies reported include: orbital detection of extrasolar planets, detection of stratospheric aerosols from earth orbit, chemistry of Jupiter's atmosphere, and stratospheric ozone.

  10. Improving Climate and Gender Equity in Physics Departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yennello, Sherry

    2010-02-01

    We need to open the door of science to women and minorities. We need to invite them in and encourage them to succeed. We need to teach them the secret handshake and transfer all the writing on the men's room walls and all-white country clubs into accessible places. We need to promote them to positions of national prominence. We need to do this out of respect to our mothers and the pioneering scientists who have come before us. We need to do this for our daughters and sons, so that our grandchildren may only know this discrimination as a piece of history. We need to do this now -- for the sake of our country, our science, our technical workforce, our economy and because it is the right thing to do. The Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP) has been helping physics departments improve their climate as a means to enhance gender equity. The CSWP site visit program has been giving departments valuable feedback on their climate for many years. In May 2007, a workshop on ``Gender Equity: Enhancing the Physics Enterprise in Universities and National Laboratories'' was held to address the issue of underrepresentation of women in physics by engaging the stake holders. This fall a new ``Conversation on Gender Equity'' has begun. Successful strategies for improving the climate and increasing the representation of women in physics will be presented. )

  11. Basic research in meteorology and atmospheric physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opstbaum, R.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is reported of methods for sounding the atmospheric temperature profile by remote measurements. The emphasis for this period was placed on sounding in the microwave region of the spectrum, sounding in cloudy atmosphere, and measuring sea temperatures remotely. Summaries of the research in the following areas are included: orbital detection of stratospheric aerosols, monthly precipitation charts for the world, determining planetary cloud structure by remote polarization measurement, analysis of Mariner 6 and 7 multicolor photometric photographs of Mars, and techniques for photometric detection of extrasolar planets.

  12. Astronomical, physical, and meteorological parameters for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Travis, Larry D.

    1986-01-01

    A newly compiled table of astronomical, physical, and meteorological parameters for planetary atmospheres is presented. Formulae and explanatory notes for their application and a complete listing of sources are also given.

  13. Security Implications of Physical Design Attributes in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Pati, Debajyoti; Pati, Sipra; Harvey, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    Security, a subset of safety, is equally important in the efficient delivery of patient care. The emergency department (ED) is susceptible to violence creating concerns for the safety and security of patients, staff, and visitors and for the safe and efficient delivery of care. Although there is an implicit and growing recognition of the role of the physical environment, interventions typically have been at the microlevel. The objective of this study was to identify physical design attributes that potentially influence safety and efficiency of ED operations. An exploratory, qualitative research design was adopted to examine the efficiency and safety correlates of ED physical design attributes. The study comprised a multimeasure approach involving multidisciplinary gaming, semistructured interviews, and touring interviews of frontline staff in four EDs at three hospital systems across three states. Five macro physical design attributes (issues that need to be addressed at the design stage and expensive to rectify once built) emerged from the data as factors substantially associated with security issues. They are design issues pertaining to (a) the entry zone, (b) traffic management, (c) patient room clustering, (d) centralization versus decentralization, and (e) provisions for special populations. Data from this study suggest that ED security concerns are generally associated with three sources: (a) gang-related violence, (b) dissatisfied patients, and (c) behavioral health patients. Study data show that physical design has an important role in addressing the above-mentioned concerns. Implications for ED design are outlined in the article. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.

    2011-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  15. Local Health Department Engagement in Community Physical Activity Policy.

    PubMed

    Goins, Karin V; Ye, Jiali; Leep, Carolyn J; Robin, Nathalie; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed correlates of self-reported local health department (LHD) participation in community policy/advocacy activities that support physical activity. In 2014, cross-sectional data from the nationally representative 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments study administered by the National Association of County and City Health Officials were analyzed. Outcomes were participation in policy/advocacy activities related to urban design/land use, active transportation, and access to recreational facilities. Independent variables included structural characteristics, performance improvement efforts, and collaboration. Multivariate logistic regression models were computed. Representatives of 490 LHDs participated (79% response rate). Respondents reported similar participation in urban design/land use (25%); active transportation (16%); and recreational facility access (23%) policy/advocacy. LHDs with populations of ≥500,000 were more likely to report urban design/land use (p=0.004) as well as active transportation policy/advocacy participation (p=0.007) compared with those with populations of ≤50,000. LHDs with a community health improvement plan were more likely to participate in urban design/land use policy/advocacy (p=0.001). LHDs who regularly use the Community Guide were more likely to report policy/advocacy activity on active transportation (p=0.007) and expanding access to recreation facilities (p=0.009). LHDs engaged in a land use partnership were more likely to report urban design/land use (p<0.001) and active transportation (p=0.001) policy/advocacy participation. Participation in community physical activity policy/advocacy among LHDs was low in this study and varied by LHD characteristics. Intervention opportunities include assisting smaller LHDs and promoting performance improvement efforts and evidence-based practice resources. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical mechanisms of solar activity effects in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebel, A.

    1989-01-01

    A great variety of physical mechanisms of possibly solar induced variations in the middle atmosphere has been discussed in the literature during the last decades. The views which have been put forward are often controversial in their physical consequences. The reason may be the complexity and non-linearity of the atmospheric response to comparatively weak forcing resulting from solar activity. Therefore this review focuses on aspects which seem to indicate nonlinear processes in the development of solar induced variations. Results from observations and numerical simulations are discussed.

  17. An Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory for the Space Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.; Anderson, J.; Schrick, B.; Ellsworth, C.; Davis, M.

    1976-01-01

    Results of research and engineering analyses to date show that it is feasible to develop and fly on the first Spacelab mission a multipurpose laboratory in which experiments can be performed on the microphysical processes in atmospheric clouds. The paper presents a series of tables on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory, with attention given to experiment classes, the preliminary equipment list (particle generators, optical and imaging devices, particle detectors and characterizers, etc.), initial equipment (scientific equipment subsystems and flight support subsystems), and scientific functional requirements (the expansion chamber, the continuous flow diffusion chamber, the static diffusion chamber, the humidifier, and particle generators).

  18. Highlights from the First Ever Demographic Study of Solar Physics, Space Physics, and Upper Atmospheric Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; White, S. C.; Ivie, R.

    2014-12-01

    Members of the Education & Workforce Working Group and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) conducted the first ever National Demographic Survey of working professionals for the 2012 National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey to learn about the demographics of this sub-field of space science. The instrument contained questions for participants on: the type of workplace; basic demographic information regarding gender and minority status, educational pathways (discipline of undergrad degree, field of their PhD), how their undergraduate and graduate student researchers are funded, participation in NSF and NASA funded spaceflight missions and suborbital programs, and barriers to career advancement. Using contact data bases from AGU, the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (AAS-SPD), attendees of NOAA's Space Weather Week and proposal submissions to NSF's Atmospheric, Geospace Science Division, the AIP's Statistical Research Center cross correlated and culled these data bases resulting in 2776 unique email addresses of US based working professionals. The survey received 1305 responses (51%) and generated 125 pages of single space answers to a number of open-ended questions. This talk will summarize the highlights of this first-ever demographic survey including findings extracted from the open-ended responses regarding barriers to career advancement which showed significant gender differences.

  19. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutjes, Casper; Sarria, David; Broberg Skeltved, Alexander; Luque, Alejandro; Diniz, Gabriel; Østgaard, Nikolai; Ebert, Ute

    2016-11-01

    The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate models for the interaction of electrons, positrons and photons of up to 40 MeV energy with atmospheric air. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, EGS5 and FLUKA developed in other fields of physics and of the custom-made codes GRRR and MC-PEPTITA against each other within the parameter regime relevant for high energy atmospheric physics. We focus on basic tests, namely on the evolution of monoenergetic and directed beams of electrons, positrons and photons with kinetic energies between 100 keV and 40 MeV through homogeneous air in the absence of electric and magnetic fields, using a low energy cutoff of 50 keV. We discuss important differences between the results of the different codes and provide plausible explanations. We also test the computational performance of the codes. The Supplement contains all results, providing a first benchmark for present and future custom-made codes that are more flexible in including electrodynamic interactions.

  20. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  1. Computerized Schedule Construction in College and University Physical Education Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattlestad, Neil

    This paper describes the use of a computer in scheduling physical education classes and activities. The advantages of the computer are pointed out in terms of person hours of work saved for the school administrator. (JD)

  2. Women among Physics & Astronomy Faculty: Results from the 2010 Survey of Physics Degree-Granting Departments. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; White, Susan; Garrett, Arnell; Anderson, Garrett

    2013-01-01

    Between March and July 2010, each of the 796 departments that awarded at least a bachelor's degree in physics or astronomy were contacted by e-mail, mail, and certified mail. Follow-up contacts were made for departments that had not yet responded. Responses were received from 744 departments (93%). The percentage of women among physics…

  3. Coordination of an Education Department with Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Departments in a Residential Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Joy DeMarino

    The paper focuses on coordination of an educational program for non-ambulatory cerebral palsied and profoundly retarded clients (21 years old and younger) in a residential setting not being served by the Texas Education Department. Covered in outline form are the school's requirements governing educational programs, program development,…

  4. Implementation multi representation and oral communication skills in Department of Physics Education on Elementary Physics II

    SciTech Connect

    Kusumawati, Intan; Marwoto, Putut Linuwih, Suharto

    2015-09-30

    The ability of multi representation has been widely studied, but there has been no implementation through a model of learning. This study aimed to determine the ability of the students multi representation, relationships multi representation capabilities and oral communication skills, as well as the application of the relations between the two capabilities through learning model Presentatif Based on Multi representation (PBM) in solving optical geometric (Elementary Physics II). A concurrent mixed methods research methods with qualitative–quantitative weights. Means of collecting data in the form of the pre-test and post-test with essay form, observation sheets oral communication skills, and assessment of learning by observation sheet PBM–learning models all have a high degree of respectively validity category is 3.91; 4.22; 4.13; 3.88. Test reliability with Alpha Cronbach technique, reliability coefficient of 0.494. The students are department of Physics Education Unnes as a research subject. Sequence multi representation tendency of students from high to low in sequence, representation of M, D, G, V; whereas the order of accuracy, the group representation V, D, G, M. Relationship multi representation ability and oral communication skills, comparable/proportional. Implementation conjunction generate grounded theory. This study should be applied to the physics of matter, or any other university for comparison.

  5. Implementation multi representation and oral communication skills in Department of Physics Education on Elementary Physics II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumawati, Intan; Marwoto, Putut; Linuwih, Suharto

    2015-09-01

    The ability of multi representation has been widely studied, but there has been no implementation through a model of learning. This study aimed to determine the ability of the students multi representation, relationships multi representation capabilities and oral communication skills, as well as the application of the relations between the two capabilities through learning model Presentatif Based on Multi representation (PBM) in solving optical geometric (Elementary Physics II). A concurrent mixed methods research methods with qualitative-quantitative weights. Means of collecting data in the form of the pre-test and post-test with essay form, observation sheets oral communication skills, and assessment of learning by observation sheet PBM-learning models all have a high degree of respectively validity category is 3.91; 4.22; 4.13; 3.88. Test reliability with Alpha Cronbach technique, reliability coefficient of 0.494. The students are department of Physics Education Unnes as a research subject. Sequence multi representation tendency of students from high to low in sequence, representation of M, D, G, V; whereas the order of accuracy, the group representation V, D, G, M. Relationship multi representation ability and oral communication skills, comparable/proportional. Implementation conjunction generate grounded theory. This study should be applied to the physics of matter, or any other university for comparison.

  6. Theoretical studies of the physics of the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1992-01-01

    Significant advances in our theoretical basis for understanding several physical processes related to dynamical phenomena on the sun were achieved. We have advanced a new model for spicules and fibrils. We have provided a simple physical view of resonance absorption of MHD surface waves; this allowed an approximate mathematical procedure for obtaining a wealth of new analytical results which we applied to coronal heating and p-mode absorption at magnetic regions. We provided the first comprehensive models for the heating and acceleration of the transition region, corona, and solar wind. We provided a new view of viscosity under coronal conditions. We provided new insights into Alfven wave propagation in the solar atmosphere. And recently we have begun work in a new direction: parametric instabilities of Alfven waves.

  7. The Impact of Physically Embedded Librarianship on Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Erin; Barham, Rebecca; Monahan, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Academic librarians have been engaged in embedded librarianship for nearly 15 years, yet there are few published research studies on the impact of physically embedded librarians, who work alongside departmental faculty. This study leveraged a change in reference service to analyze what happened when subject librarians moved from the library…

  8. The Impact of Physically Embedded Librarianship on Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Erin; Barham, Rebecca; Monahan, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Academic librarians have been engaged in embedded librarianship for nearly 15 years, yet there are few published research studies on the impact of physically embedded librarians, who work alongside departmental faculty. This study leveraged a change in reference service to analyze what happened when subject librarians moved from the library…

  9. Roster of Physics Departments with Enrollment and Degree Data, 1999. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    This roster contains detailed data from the annual Survey of Enrollments and Degrees conducted by the American Institute of Physics. The roster contains data reported by degree-granting physics departments in the United States for 1998-1999 introductory physics course enrollments, 1998-1999 degrees, and fall 1999 undergraduate majors and graduate…

  10. Number of Physics Faculty: Results from the 2008 Survey of Physics Degree-Granting Departments. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Ephraim, Arnell; White, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Between March 20 and July 8, 2008 (the spring semester of 2008), the authors contacted each of the 763 departments in the US that award at least a bachelor's degree in physics by e-mail, mail, and certified mail. They received responses from 713 departments (93%). This report describes their findings. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  11. The role of physics departments in the recruitment, preparation and support of pre-college teachers of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, Lane

    2008-05-01

    The United States faces a critical shortage of qualified physics and physical science teachers. The number of high school students taking physics is increasing but the number of physics majors pursuing careers in pre-college teaching is not nearly sufficient to meet the demand. College and university physics departments have content expertise and ready access to potential future teachers of physics. In order to address the crisis in physics and physical science education, APS, AAPT, and AIP have developed the PhysTEC project. Seattle Pacific University is one of six fully funded PhysTEC sites. The PhysTEC project also supports a coalition of more than one hundred institutions that are committed to improving K-12 physics and physical science education. This talk will describe the national PhysTEC project along with our local PhysTEC program. We will explore ways in which physics departments can more fully integrate the preparation of pre-college physics teachers within existing departmental priorities. We will discuss opportunities for regional partnerships between 2-year and 4-year colleges, school districts, and teacher preparation programs. We will also highlight ways in which our research on the learning and teaching of physics informs the development of tools that teachers and teacher educators can use to diagnose student ideas and to design subsequent instruction that capitalizes on these ideas. In collaboration with Stamatis Vokos, Seattle Pacific University and Pam Kraus, Facet Innovations LLC.

  12. Atmospheric corrosion monitoring at the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.

    1995-12-31

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at the US Department of Energy`s K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, TN has been stored in large steel cylinders which have undergone significant atmospheric corrosion damage over the last 35 years. A detailed experimental program to characterize and monitor the corrosion damage was initiated in 1992. Large amounts of corrosion scale and deep pits are found to cover cylinder surfaces. Ultrasonic wall thickness measurements have shown uniform corrosion losses up to 20 mils (0.5 mm) and pits up to 100 mils (2.5 mm) deep. Electrical resistance corrosion probes, time-of-wetness sensors and thermocouples have been attached to cylinder bodies. Atmospheric conditions are monitored using rain gauges, relative humidity sensors and thermocouples. Long-term (16 years) data are being obtained from mild steel corrosion coupons on test racks as well as attached directly to cylinder surfaces. Corrosion rates have been found to intimately related to the times-of-wetness, both tending to be higher on cylinder tops due to apparent sheltering effects. Data from the various tests are compared, discrepancies are discussed and a pattern of cylinder corrosion as a function of cylinder position and location is described.

  13. Atmospheric Model Effects on Infrasound Source Inversion from the Source Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, L. A.; Aur, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiments (SPE) consist of a series of underground explosive shots at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to gain an improved understanding of the generation and propagation of physical signals in the near and far field. Characterizing the acoustic and infrasound source mechanism from underground explosions is of great importance in non-proliferation activities. To this end we perform full waveform source inversion of infrasound data collected from SPE shots at distances from 300 m to 1 km and frequencies up to 20 Hz. Our method requires estimating the state of the atmosphere at the time of each shot, computing Green's functions through these atmospheric models, and subsequently inverting these signals in the frequency domain to obtain a source time function. To estimate the state of the atmosphere at the time of the shot, we utilize two different datasets: North American Regional Reanalysis data, a comprehensive but lower resolution dataset, and locally obtained sonde and surface weather observations. We synthesize Green's functions through these atmospheric models using Sandia's moving media acoustic propagation simulation suite. These models include 3-D variations in topography, temperature, pressure, and wind. We will compare and contrast the atmospheric models derived from the two weather datasets and discuss how these differences affect computed source waveforms and contribute to modeling uncertainty. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Scientific Infrastructure to Support Atmospheric Science and Aerosol Science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs at Barrow, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Dexheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific infrastructure to support atmospheric science and aerosol science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs at Barrow, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's located at Barrow, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Barrow has been in place since 1998, with many improvements since then. Barrow instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Doppler Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Manual and state-of-art automatic Balloon sounding systems, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at Barrow and the challenges of maintaining these instruments in an Arctic site.

  15. Roster of Physics Departments with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2002. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    This roster contains detailed data from the annual Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. The survey was conducted in the 2002-2003 academic year. It includes all degree-granting physics departments in the United states. Presented in this roster are the data reported by those departments for their 2001-2002 introductory course enrollments, 2002-200…

  16. An Investigation of the Class Management Profiles of Students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydar, Hacer Özge; Hazar, Muhsin; Yildiz, Ozer; Yildiz, Mehtap; Tingaz, Emre Ozan; Gökyürek, Belgin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine and analyze the class management profiles of 3rd and 4th grade students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Departments of universities in Turkey based on gender, grade level and university. The research population comprised 375 students (170 females and 205 males) of Physical Education and Sports…

  17. Modeling an integrative physical examination program for the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Scott G

    2006-10-01

    Current policies governing the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs physical examination programs are out of step with current evidence-based medical practice. Replacing periodic and other routine physical examination types with annual preventive health assessments would afford our service members additional health benefit at reduced cost. Additionally, the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs repeat the physical examination process at separation and have been unable to reconcile their respective disability evaluation systems to reduce duplication and waste. A clear, coherent, and coordinated strategy to improve the relevance and utility of our physical examination programs is long overdue. This article discusses existing physical examination programs and proposes a model for a new integrative physical examination program based on need, science, and common sense.

  18. Technical Report for Calculations of Atmospheric Dispersion at Onsite Locations for Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Alan; Chaves, Chris

    2015-04-04

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has performed an evaluation of the technical bases for the default value for the atmospheric dispersion parameter χ/Q. This parameter appears in the calculation of radiological dose at the onsite receptor location (co-located worker at 100 meters) in safety analysis of DOE nuclear facilities. The results of the calculation are then used to determine whether safety significant engineered controls should be established to prevent and/or mitigate the event causing the release of hazardous material. An evaluation of methods for calculation of the dispersion of potential chemical releases for the purpose of estimating the chemical exposure at the co-located worker location was also performed. DOE’s evaluation consisted of: (a) a review of the regulatory basis for the default χ/Q dispersion parameter; (b) an analysis of this parameter’s sensitivity to various factors that affect the dispersion of radioactive material; and (c) performance of additional independent calculations to assess the appropriate use of the default χ/Q value.

  19. Investigation of Students' Multiple Intelligence Domains in Three Different Departments of the School of Physical Education and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ürgüp, Sabri; Aslan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the schools of physical education and sports in Turkey consist of three departments, which are physical education and sports teaching department, coaching education and sports management departments. All of these departments are applying similar entrance examinations, and mostly similar curriculum and learning styles to the…

  20. Investigation of Students' Multiple Intelligence Domains in Three Different Departments of the School of Physical Education and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ürgüp, Sabri; Aslan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the schools of physical education and sports in Turkey consist of three departments, which are physical education and sports teaching department, coaching education and sports management departments. All of these departments are applying similar entrance examinations, and mostly similar curriculum and learning styles to the…

  1. Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation.

    PubMed

    Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-07

    We review the properties and applications of ultrashort laser pulses in the atmosphere, with a particular focus on filamentation. Filamentation is a non-linear propagation regime specific of ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses in the atmosphere. Typical applications include remote sensing of atmospheric gases and aerosols, lightning control, laser-induced spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering, and the generation of sub-THz radiation.

  2. Physics and medical applications of cold atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were applied in a quest to understand physics of cold plasmas. In particular it was established that the streamer head charge is about 108 electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 107 V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 1019 m3. We have demonstrated the efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin). Both in-vitro andin-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasmainduces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at ~24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed.

  3. Becoming a Health and Physical Education (HPE) Teacher: Student Teacher "Performances" in the Physical Education Subject Department Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Tony; Sirna, Karen; Tinning, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study considered how physical education teacher education students "perform" their "selves" within subject department offices during the practicum or "teaching practice". The research was framed by a conceptual framework informed by the work of Goffman on "performance" and "front". The findings revealed three common performances across the…

  4. Becoming a Health and Physical Education (HPE) Teacher: Student Teacher "Performances" in the Physical Education Subject Department Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Tony; Sirna, Karen; Tinning, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study considered how physical education teacher education students "perform" their "selves" within subject department offices during the practicum or "teaching practice". The research was framed by a conceptual framework informed by the work of Goffman on "performance" and "front". The findings revealed three common performances across the…

  5. A Call To Action for Physics Departments: Findings and Recommendations of the National Task Force on Teacher Education in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokos, Stamatis

    2010-10-01

    The National Task Force on Teacher Education in Physics (T-TEP) concluded its two-year investigation of the professional preparation of teachers of physics in the U.S. T-TEP, formed by APS, AAPT, and AIP, was charged with (a) identifying generalizable, yet flexible, strategies that institutions, and in particular physics departments and schools or colleges of education, can employ to increase the number of qualified physics teachers, (b) identifying effective strategies in recruitment, models of professional preparation, and higher education systems of support during the first three years of teaching, and (c) articulating research, policy, and funding implications. In this talk, the major findings and recommendations of the T-TEP report will be discussed and ways to leverage the report to transform the physics teacher education system will be outlined.

  6. Physical therapy in the emergency department: development of a novel practice venue.

    PubMed

    Fleming-McDonnell, Debra; Czuppon, Sylvia; Deusinger, Susan S; Deusinger, Robert H

    2010-03-01

    The American Physical Therapy Association's Vision 2020 advocates that physical therapists be integral members of health care teams responsible for diagnosing and managing movement and functional disorders. This report details the design and early implementation of a physical therapist service in the emergency department (ED) of a large, urban hospital and presents recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of physical therapists in this setting. Emergency departments serve multiple purposes in the American health care system, including care of patients with non-life-threatening illnesses. Physical therapists have expertise in screening for problems that are not amenable to physical therapy and in addressing a wide range of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain problems. This expertise invites inclusion into the culture of ED practice. This administrative case report describes planning and early implementation of a physical therapist practice in an ED, shares preliminary outcomes, and provides suggestions for expansion and effectiveness testing of practice in this novel venue. Referrals have increased and length of stay has decreased for patients receiving physical therapy. Preliminary surveys suggest high patient and practitioner satisfaction with physical therapy services. Outpatient physical therapy follow-up options were developed. Educating ED personnel to triage patients who show deficits in pain and functional mobility to physical therapy has challenged the usual culture of ED processes. Practice in the hospital ED enables physical therapists to fully use their knowledge, diagnostic skills, and ability to manage acute pain and musculoskeletal injury. Recommendations for future action are made to encourage more institutions across the country to incorporate physical therapy in EDs to enhance the process and outcome of nonemergent care.

  7. Bacterial contamination in physical therapy departments in the State of Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Aljadi,, Sameera H.; Al-Shemmari,, Mashael; Al-Ramzi,, Jumana; Al-Abdullatif,, Shoug; Hajeyah,, Zahraa; Jamal,, Laila; Al-Bahar,, Sara

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Interferential therapy and electrical stimulation are electrophysical modalities commonly used in physical therapy departments to treat patients with musculoskeletal problems. These machines are applied directly to the patient’s skin via a medium or electrodes, which can facilitate the transmission of microorganisms from one patient to another. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of microorganism contamination in the machines sponges at physical therapy departments in Kuwait hospitals. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty samples comprising sponges from interferential therapy and electrical stimulation machines, and water from hot pack units were collected from 5 physical therapy departments in 5 different hospitals. The samples were analyzed at a Medical Laboratory to explore the extent and type of microorganisms present. [Results] Forty-one of the 60 samples (68.3%) were positive for microorganism contamination. Of the 41 contaminated samples, 28 (68.3%) were sponges and 13 (31.7%) were water samples. The major microorganisms found were Acinetobacter baumannii (21.9%), Serratia marcescens (12.2%), and Staphylococcus lentus (7.3%). [Conclusion] Interferential therapy and electrical stimulation in physical therapy departments have a high probability of causing cross contamination between patients. Physical therapists are encouraged to adhere to safety guidelines, such as disinfection management, disposal of used sponges, and regular sponge replacement. PMID:28626312

  8. Illinois State University FOCUS Initiative: Civic Engagement and Outreach Projects in the ISU Physics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansher, J. A.; Holland, D. L.; Johns, G. F.; Willmitch, T. R.

    2007-05-01

    The Illinois State University Physics Department has long realized the importance of providing educational outreach opportunities to the wider community. Creating and maintaining community networks with engaging outreach projects helps us broaden the appreciation of physics, as well as encourage young students to consider careers in the sciences. A key aspect of these ISU Physics programs is that we involve our undergraduates in them, thereby fostering civic engagement in the next generation of scientists. This presentation highlights how our department promotes basic science literacy, and awareness of space physics and astronomy through several existing outreach projects. We also describe how we operate under the broader scope of the ISU FOCUS Initiative, and the NASA Solar System Ambassadors program.

  9. Narrative Accounts of US Teachers' Collaborative Curriculum Making in a Physical Education Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, JeongAe; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2015-01-01

    Through the use of narrative inquiry, this research study explores the collaborative curriculum making experiences of six teachers (three males; three females) in one physical education (PE) department in an urban middle school in the U.S. Collaboration; as defined in this work, this has to do with teachers' voluntary interactions and their shared…

  10. Narrative Accounts of US Teachers' Collaborative Curriculum Making in a Physical Education Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, JeongAe; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2015-01-01

    Through the use of narrative inquiry, this research study explores the collaborative curriculum making experiences of six teachers (three males; three females) in one physical education (PE) department in an urban middle school in the U.S. Collaboration; as defined in this work, this has to do with teachers' voluntary interactions and their shared…

  11. Academic Planning in the Physical Education Department of Polk Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Hershel H.

    This study illustrates an attempt to quantitatively express justification for altering the workloads and compensation for members of the physical education department of Polk Community College (Florida). While equitable workloads can be det4rmined in most other fields because credit hours coincide with an instructor's time in class, the physical…

  12. Roster of Physics Departments with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2001. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    This roster contains detailed data from the annual Survey of Enrollments and Degrees conducted in the 2001-2002 academic year. The roster contains data reported by physics departments in the United States for their 2000-2001 introductory course enrollments, 2000-2001 degrees, and fall 2001 undergraduate major and graduate student enrollments. Of…

  13. Titan. [physical and chemical processes in satellite atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.; Tomasko, M. G.; Flasar, F. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Strobel, D. F.; Stevenson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that Titan, which is the second largest satellite in the solar system, is considerably larger than Mercury. It is made unique by its dense atmosphere, which consists mainly of nitrogen, although a substantial component of methane is present. The basic properties of Titan are summarized in a table. Many of the data were obtained during the close pass of Voyager 1 in November 1980. The atmospheric temperature decreases from its surface value of 94 K at a pressure of 1500 mbar to a minimum of 71 K at a height of 42 km and a pressure of 128 mbar. Details of atmospheric composition and thermal structure are discussed, taking into account chemical identifications and abundances, the vertical temperature structure, the horizontal temperature and opacity structure, and the radiative equilibrium. The upper atmosphere composition and temperature is considered along with the properties of aerosols, and meteorology and atmospheric dynamics. Titan's interior has an average density of 1.88 g per cu cm. Attention is given to Titan's surface and interior, and its formation.

  14. Managing a Basic Unit Responsible for a Basic Discipline: The Physics Department at the Technical University, Aachen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felderhof, B. U.

    1983-01-01

    The administrative structure of the physics department in a major European technical university is described, particularly with regard to the organization of teaching and research functions. The department is subdivided into an institute of theoretical physics and several institutes of experimental physics, with a more important subdivision into…

  15. Managing a Basic Unit Responsible for a Basic Discipline: The Physics Department at the Technical University, Aachen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felderhof, B. U.

    1983-01-01

    The administrative structure of the physics department in a major European technical university is described, particularly with regard to the organization of teaching and research functions. The department is subdivided into an institute of theoretical physics and several institutes of experimental physics, with a more important subdivision into…

  16. Final Report: High Energy Physics Program (HEP), Physics Department, Princeton University

    SciTech Connect

    Callan, Curtis G.; Gubser, Steven S.; Marlow, Daniel R.; McDonald, Kirk T.; Meyers, Peter D.; Olsen, James D.; Smith, Arthur J.S.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Tully, Christopher G.; Stickland, David P.

    2013-04-30

    The activities of the Princeton Elementary particles group funded through Department of Energy Grant# DEFG02-91 ER40671 during the period October 1, 1991 through January 31, 2013 are summarized. These activities include experiments performed at Brookhaven National Lab; the CERN Lab in Geneva, Switzerland; Fermilab; KEK in Tsukuba City, Japan; the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; as well as extensive experimental and the- oretical studies conducted on the campus of Princeton University. Funded senior personnel include: Curtis Callan, Stephen Gubser, Valerie Halyo, Daniel Marlow, Kirk McDonald, Pe- ter Meyers, James Olsen, Pierre Pirou e, Eric Prebys, A.J. Stewart Smith, Frank Shoemaker (deceased), Paul Steinhardt, David Stickland, Christopher Tully, and Liantao Wang.

  17. Improving Throughput of the ACME Climate Model by Parallel Splitting Atmospheric Physics and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, P.; Taylor, M.

    2015-12-01

    If fluid dynamics and atmospheric physics parameterizations were computed in parallel, they could be calculated simultaneously on separate cores of a supercomputer. This would greatly increase model throughput for high-resolution simulations. Additionally, because atmospheric physics is embarrassingly parallel, more sophisticated physics parameterizations could be used without slowing simulations down by simply increasing the number of cores used. The downside to this approach is that it increases time-truncation error. In this presentation, we demonstrate that parallel splitting the ACME model and using a smaller timestep for physics results in faster, more accurate solutions.

  18. Physical modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer in the UNH Flow Physics Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Power, Gregory; Gilooly, Stephanie; Wosnik, Martin; Klewicki, Joe; Turner, John

    2016-11-01

    The Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH has test section dimensions W =6.0m, H =2.7m, L =72m. It can achieve high Reynolds number boundary layers, enabling turbulent boundary layer, wind energy and wind engineering research with exceptional spatial and temporal instrument resolution. We examined the FPF's ability to experimentally simulate different types of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) using upstream roughness arrays. The American Society for Civil Engineers defines standards for simulating ABLs for different terrain types, from open sea to dense city areas (ASCE 49-12). The standards require the boundary layer to match a power law shape, roughness height, and power spectral density criteria. Each boundary layer type has a corresponding power law exponent and roughness height. The exponent and roughness height both increase with increasing roughness. A suburban boundary layer was chosen for simulation and a roughness element fetch was created. Several fetch lengths were experimented with and the resulting boundary layers were measured and compared to standards in ASCE 49-12: Wind Tunnel Testing for Buildings and Other Structures. Pitot tube and hot wire anemometers were used to measure average and fluctuating flow characteristics. Velocity profiles, turbulence intensity and velocity spectra were found to compare favorably.

  19. Vapor chambers for an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Loose, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The methanol/stainless steel vapor chambers (flat-plate heat pipes) discussed in this paper were developed for use in spaceborne atmospheric cloud chambers. This application imposed stringent thermal and mechanical requirements on the design. Flatness, low thermal mass, vibration, and structural integrity requirements were achieved in addition to precision temperature uniformity and thermal transport. Heat transfer coefficients on the order of 0.34 to 0.40 W/sq cm -C were measured. The vapor chambers are capable of transporting 170 W-cm per cm of width in either the axial or side-to-side direction.

  20. Cognitive-based approach in teaching 1st year Physics for Life Sciences, including Atmospheric Physics and Climate Change components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    Most 1st year students who take the service course in Physics - Physics for Life Sciences - in Australia encounter numerous problems caused by such factors as no previous experience with this subject; general perception that Physics is hard and only very gifted people are able to understand it; lack of knowledge of elementary mathematics; difficulties encountered by lecturers in teaching university level Physics to a class of nearly 200 students with no prior experience, diverse and sometime disadvantageous backgrounds, different majoring areas, and different learning abilities. As a result, many students either drop, or fail the subject. In addition, many of those who pass develop a huge dislike towards Physics, consider the whole experience as time wasted, and spread this opinion among their peers and friends. The above issues were addressed by introducing numerous changes to the curriculum and modifying strategies and approaches in teaching Physics for Life Sciences. Instead of a conventional approach - teaching Physics from simple to complicated, topic after topic, the students were placed in the world of Physics in the same way as a newborn child is introduced to this world - everything is seen all the time and everywhere. That created a unique environment where a bigger picture and all details were always present and interrelated. Numerous concepts of classical and modern physics were discussed, compared, and interconnected all the time with “Light” being a key component. Our primary field of research is Atmospheric Physics, in particular studying the atmospheric composition and structure using various satellite and ground-based data. With this expertise and also inspired by an increasing importance of training a scientifically educated generation who understands the challenges of the modern society and responsibilities that come with wealth, a new section on environmental physics has been developed. It included atmospheric processes and the greenhouse

  1. Research relative to atmosphere physics and spacecraft applications studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Stuart W.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is reported in several areas of research. Brief descriptions are given in each of the following areas: Spacelab data analysis; San Marco activity; Molecular physics; Stellar energy analysis; Troposphere data analysis; Voyager encounter analysis; Laser activity; Gravity wave study; Venus studies; and Shuttle environmental studies.

  2. Physical design correlates of efficiency and safety in emergency departments: a qualitative examination.

    PubMed

    Pati, Debajyoti; Harvey, Thomas E; Pati, Sipra

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and identify physical design correlates of safety and efficiency in emergency department (ED) operations. This study adopted an exploratory, multimeasure approach to (1) examine the interactions between ED operations and physical design at 4 sites and (2) identify domains of physical design decision-making that potentially influence efficiency and safety. Multidisciplinary gaming and semistructured interviews were conducted with stakeholders at each site. Study data suggest that 16 domains of physical design decisions influence safety, efficiency, or both. These include (1) entrance and patient waiting, (2) traffic management, (3) subwaiting or internal waiting areas, (4) triage, (5) examination/treatment area configuration, (6) examination/treatment area centralization versus decentralization, (7) examination/treatment room standardization, (8) adequate space, (9) nurse work space, (10) physician work space, (11) adjacencies and access, (12) equipment room, (13) psych room, (14) staff de-stressing room, (15) hallway width, and (16) results waiting area. Safety and efficiency from a physical environment perspective in ED design are mutually reinforcing concepts--enhancing efficiency bears positive implications for safety. Furthermore, safety and security emerged as correlated concepts, with security issues bearing implications for safety, thereby suggesting important associations between safety, security, and efficiency.

  3. Physical violence among elderly: analysis of admissions to an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Kılıç Öztürk, Yasemin; Düzenli, Erhan; Karaali, Cem; Öztürk, Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Physical violence is defined as deliberate use of physical force likely to result in trauma, bodily injury, pain, or impairment. Present study is pioneering effort to evaluate mechanisms and sociodemographic features of physical violence targeting the elderly in Turkey and to investigate preventive measures. Database records and forensic reports were analyzed in this retrospective study of 54 elderly patients with trauma as result of physical violence who were admitted to emergency department of Şanlıurfa Training and Research Hospital between January 2012 and July 2013. Of the 54 patients evaluated, 50 (92.4%) were male. History of experiencing previous violence was described by 55.6% (n=30) of the patients. Instances of repeat violence and firearm injuries most often occurred in the home (p=0.006, p=0.007). Need for surgical treatment was also greater among cases that occurred in the home (p=0.016). Firearm injury, recurrent violence, and surgical treatment rates were higher among cases that occurred in the home. Urgent preventive measures are especially needed for the elderly who have already been victims of physical violence.

  4. Scientific Method in Teaching Physics in Languages and Social Sciences Department of High—Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagl, Mirko G.; Obadović, Dušanka Ž.; Stojanović, Maja M.

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of scientific materials in the last few decades, demands that the contemporary educational system should select and develop methods of effective learning in the process of acquiring skills and knowledge usable and feasible for a longer period of time. Grammar schools as general educational institutions possess all that is necessary for the development of new teaching methods and fitting into contemporary social tendencies. In the languages and social sciences department in of grammar schools physics is the only natural sciences subject present during all four years. The classical approach to teaching is tiring as such and creates aversion towards learning physic when it deals with pupils oriented towards social sciences. The introduction of scientific methods raises the motivation to a substantial level and when applied both the teacher and pupils forget when the class starts or ends. The assignment has shown the analysis of initial knowledge of physics of the pupils attending the first grade of languages and social sciences department of of grammar schools as a preparation for the introduction of the scientific method, the analysis of the initial test with the topic of gravitation, as well as the analysis of the final test after applying the scientific method through the topic of gravitation. The introduction of the scientific method has duly justified the expectations and resulted in increasing the level of achievement among the pupils in the experimental class.

  5. Physical Chemistry of the Freezing Process of Atmospheric Aqueous Drops.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J

    2017-04-27

    In supercooled aqueous solutions, ice nucleation is the initial stage of the freezing process. In this paper, we present experimental results that indicate that during the freezing of aqueous solutions, freeze-induced phase separation (FIPS) into pure ice and a freeze-concentrated solution (FCS) takes place. Our observations involve the use of an optical cryo-microscope (OC-M) to record images and movies. The results visually indicate for the first time that there are two freezing processes for (NH4)3H(SO4)2/H2O solutions: (i) contact freezing, as is the case for pure water drops, and (ii) the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process, which is the growth of frozen drops (ice) at the expense of liquid ones. We also present OC-M images of frozen micrometer-scaled H2SO4/H2O drops that support our previous finding that freezing of these solutions generates mixed-phase particles, namely an ice core coated with a FCS. These results are relevant for atmospheric as well as for pharmaceutical sciences.

  6. Theory of planetary atmospheres: an introduction to their physics and chemistry /2nd revised and enlarged edition/

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, J.W.; Hunten, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models of planetary atmospheres are characterized in an introductory text intended for graduate physics students and practicing scientists. Chapters are devoted to the vertical structure of an atmosphere; atmospheric hydrodynamics; the chemistry and dynamics of the earth stratosphere; planetary astronomy; ionospheres; airglows, auroras, and aeronomy; and the stability of planetary atmospheres. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  7. Influence of atmospheric states in semi-arid areas on hospital admission in cardio-surgical department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Aizenberg, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The influence of the changes in atmospheric state, typical for areas close to big deserts, on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was analyzed. Under test was the group of 3256 patients (77 % males, 23 % females), hospitalized in the Cardio-Surgical Department of Soroka Medical Center at Ben-Gurion University (BGU, Israel) during 2000-2008. To explore the relationship between atmospheric parameters and AMI, multivariate regression analysis has been performed. AMI was most frequent in winter to spring and least in summer. The highest number of cases was recorded in December and the lowest in September. Hospital admissions showed a higher prevalence in men than in women; the ratio is 3.3/1.0. About 60 % of males were aged between 45 and 65 years old with maximum ˜55 (21 %), whereas 60 % of women hospital admissions were aged between 65 and 80 years old with maximum ˜72 (24 %). The result suggested that the monthly mean relative humidity at daytime and its overall daily differences, wind speed, and respirable fraction of particulate concentration are associated with the admission for AMI. The results of the study confirm the importance of atmospheric state variability for cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Influence of atmospheric states in semi-arid areas on hospital admission in cardio-surgical department.

    PubMed

    Yackerson, Naomy S; Zilberman, Arkadi; Aizenberg, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The influence of the changes in atmospheric state, typical for areas close to big deserts, on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was analyzed. Under test was the group of 3256 patients (77 % males, 23 % females), hospitalized in the Cardio-Surgical Department of Soroka Medical Center at Ben-Gurion University (BGU, Israel) during 2000-2008. To explore the relationship between atmospheric parameters and AMI, multivariate regression analysis has been performed. AMI was most frequent in winter to spring and least in summer. The highest number of cases was recorded in December and the lowest in September. Hospital admissions showed a higher prevalence in men than in women; the ratio is 3.3/1.0. About 60 % of males were aged between 45 and 65 years old with maximum ∼55 (21 %), whereas 60 % of women hospital admissions were aged between 65 and 80 years old with maximum ∼72 (24 %). The result suggested that the monthly mean relative humidity at daytime and its overall daily differences, wind speed, and respirable fraction of particulate concentration are associated with the admission for AMI. The results of the study confirm the importance of atmospheric state variability for cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Influence of atmospheric states in semi-arid areas on hospital admission in cardio-surgical department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Aizenberg, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the changes in atmospheric state, typical for areas close to big deserts, on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was analyzed. Under test was the group of 3256 patients (77 % males, 23 % females), hospitalized in the Cardio-Surgical Department of Soroka Medical Center at Ben-Gurion University (BGU, Israel) during 2000-2008. To explore the relationship between atmospheric parameters and AMI, multivariate regression analysis has been performed. AMI was most frequent in winter to spring and least in summer. The highest number of cases was recorded in December and the lowest in September. Hospital admissions showed a higher prevalence in men than in women; the ratio is 3.3/1.0. About 60 % of males were aged between 45 and 65 years old with maximum ˜55 (21 %), whereas 60 % of women hospital admissions were aged between 65 and 80 years old with maximum ˜72 (24 %). The result suggested that the monthly mean relative humidity at daytime and its overall daily differences, wind speed, and respirable fraction of particulate concentration are associated with the admission for AMI. The results of the study confirm the importance of atmospheric state variability for cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  11. Some current themes in physical hydrology of the land-atmosphere interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Certain themes arise repeatedly in current literature dealing with the physical hydrology of the interface between the atmosphere and the continents. Papers contributed to the 1991 International Association of Hydrological Sciences Symposium on Hydrological Interactions between Atmosphere, Soil and Vegetation echo these themes, which are discussed in this paper. The land-atmosphere interface is the region where atmosphere, soil, and vegetation have mutual physical contact, and a description of exchanges of matter or energy among these domains must often consider the physical properties and states of the entire system. A difficult family of problems is associated with the reconciliation of the wide range of spatial scales that arise in the course of observational, theoretical, and modeling activities. These scales are determined by some of the physical elements of the interface, by patterns of natural variability of the physical composition of the interface, by the dynamics of the processes at the interface, and by methods of measurement and computation. Global environmental problems are seen by many hydrologists as a major driving force for development of the science. The challenge for hydrologists will be to respond to this force as scientists rather than problem-solvers.

  12. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 2: Atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Atmospheric and Space Physics working group of the space shuttle mission planning activity are presented. The principal objectives defined by the group are: (1) to investigate the detailed mechanisms which control the near-space environment of the earth, (2) to perform plasma physics investigations not feasible in ground-based laboratories, and (3) to conduct investigations which are important in understanding planetary and cometary phenomena. The core instrumentation and laboratory configurations for conducting the investigations are defined.

  13. Development of an Easy-to-Use Tool for the Assessment of Emergency Department Physical Design

    PubMed Central

    Majidi, Alireza; Tabatabaey, Ali; Motamed, Hassan; Motamedi, Maryam; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Physical design of the emergency department (ED) has an important effect on its role and function. To date, no guidelines have been introduced to set the standards for the construction of EDs in Iran. In this study, we aim to devise an easy-to-use tool based on the available literature and expert opinion for the quick and effective assessment of EDs in regards to their physical design. For this purpose, based on current literature on emergency design, a comprehensive checklist was developed. Then, this checklist was analyzed by a panel consisting of heads of three major EDs and contradicting items were decided. 178 crude items were derived from available literature. The Items were categorized in to three major domains of Physical space, Equipment, and Accessibility. The final checklist approved by the panel consisted of 163 items categorized into six domains. Each item was phrased as a “Yes or No” question for ease of analysis, meaning that the criterion is either met or not. PMID:26495348

  14. Atmospheric effects in astroparticle physics experiments and the challenge of ever greater precision in measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louedec, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Astroparticle physics and cosmology allow us to scan the universe through multiple messengers. It is the combination of these probes that improves our understanding of the universe, both in its composition and its dynamics. Unlike other areas in science, research in astroparticle physics has a real originality in detection techniques, in infrastructure locations, and in the observed physical phenomenon that is not created directly by humans. It is these features that make the minimisation of statistical and systematic errors a perpetual challenge. In all these projects, the environment is turned into a detector medium or a target. The atmosphere is probably the environment component the most common in astroparticle physics and requires a continuous monitoring of its properties to minimise as much as possible the systematic uncertainties associated. This paper introduces the different atmospheric effects to take into account in astroparticle physics measurements and provides a non-exhaustive list of techniques and instruments to monitor the different elements composing the atmosphere. A discussion on the close link between astroparticle physics and Earth sciences ends this paper.

  15. Relationships among Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Students' Motivation, Atmosphere, and Satisfaction in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yi-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationships among teachers' self-efficacy, and students' learning motivation, learning atmosphere, and learning satisfaction in senior high school physical education (PE). A sample of 462 PE teachers and 2681 students was drawn using stratified random sampling and cluster sampling from high schools in…

  16. Relationships among Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Students' Motivation, Atmosphere, and Satisfaction in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yi-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationships among teachers' self-efficacy, and students' learning motivation, learning atmosphere, and learning satisfaction in senior high school physical education (PE). A sample of 462 PE teachers and 2681 students was drawn using stratified random sampling and cluster sampling from high schools in…

  17. Efficient physics-based predictive 3D image modeling and simulation of optical atmospheric refraction phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Colin N.; Hammel, Stephen M.; Tsintikidis, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    We present some preliminary results and discussion of our ongoing effort to develop a prototype volumetric atmospheric optical refraction simulator which uses 3D nonlinear ray-tracing and state-of-art physics-based rendering techniques. The tool will allow simulation of optical curved-ray propagation through nonlinear refractivity gradient profiles in volumetric atmospheric participating media, and the generation of radiometrically accurate images of the resulting atmospheric refraction phenomena, including inferior and superior mirages, over-the-horizon viewing conditions, looming and sinking, towering and stooping of distant objects. The ability to accurately model and predict atmospheric optical refraction conditions and phenomena is important in both defense and commercial applications. Our nonlinear refractive ray-trace method is currently CPU-parallelized and is well-suited for GPU compute implementation.

  18. Physics of the upper atmosphere: Series B - Theoretical models and results of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovskii, A. I.

    The papers contained in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical research in the physics of the upper atmosphere and analysis of processes occurring in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. Topics discussed include the meridional structure of stationary planetary waves in the middle atmosphere; a model kinetic equation for describing free molecular flows in capillaries; analysis of long-period oscillations of atmospheric parameters in the tropical zone; and some characteristics of ozone distribution in the winter periods of 1983/84 and 1984/85. Papers are also presented on natural and anthropogenic sources of ozone-active compounds in the atmosphere and on the variability of the temperature and geopotential heights of isobaric surfaces in the tropical stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere.

  19. Forum: What Has Actually Changed in Physics Departments in the Situation for Women, Graduate Students and Other People?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Ivie, Rachel; Campbell, David; Murnane, Margaret; Kirby, Kate; Catlla, Anne

    2006-03-01

    The decade of the 90's was a period of intense scrutiny of climate issues in physics departments, e.g. the status of women, the job situation for new Ph.D.'s and postdocs, and the preparation of physicists for careers inside and outside of physics. There were many conference sessions on these topics, and both APS members and leadership instigated important efforts to focus on specific areas. These efforts included the program of visiting committees to departments to examine the situation for women by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics, the AIP's various studies of a statistical nature, and the creation by the APS of a Committee on Careers and the Forum on Graduate Student Affairs, as well as the recent APS-AAPT task force on graduate education. This forum patterned after similar sessions 10 years ago - will examine how physics departments have changed as a result of such efforts. It will begin with short (12-minute) talks by a panel of experts to describe what has happened in key areas. The greater part of the session will be a period of observations, questions, and discussion from the audience and the panel together. The purpose is to have an interchange on these interrelated topics from which we can all learn. THE TOPICS TO BE INTRODUCED IN THE SHORT TALKS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SESSION ARE: 1) changes in graduate enrollment, composition, and subsequent jobs (Patrick Mulvey); 2) women in physics and astronomy departments 2005 (Rachel Ivie); 3) changes in graduate curricula and environment (David Campbell); 4) CSWP site visits to physics departments what’s been accomplished and learned (Margaret Murnane); 5) survey of ethical issues in physics departments and the physics profession: results and reactions (Kate Kirby); and (6) physics departments from the point of view of younger physicists (Anne Catlla). The bulk of the session will be a public forum, on these and related issues, among the audience and the panel.

  20. Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator In The Department Of Physics And Nuclear Engineering At West Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Don; Shannon, Mike; Kovanen, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; Bright, Kevin; Edwards, Ronald; Danon, Yaron; Moretti, Brian; Musk, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. The NSERC has created an experimental pyroelectric crystal accelerator program to enhance undergraduate education at USMA in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering. This program provides cadets with hands-on experience in designing their own experiments using an inexpensive tabletop accelerator. This device uses pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate gas ions to energies of ˜100 keV. Within the next year, cadets and faculty at USMA will use this device to create neutrons through the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion process, effectively creating a compact, portable neutron generator. The double crystal pyroelectric accelerator will also be used by students to investigate neutron, x-ray, and ion spectroscopy.

  1. Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator In The Department Of Physics And Nuclear Engineering At West Point

    SciTech Connect

    Gillich, Don; Kovanen, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; Bright, Kevin; Edwards, Ronald; Moretti, Brian; Shannon, Mike; Musk, Jeffrey; Danon, Yaron

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. The NSERC has created an experimental pyroelectric crystal accelerator program to enhance undergraduate education at USMA in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering. This program provides cadets with hands-on experience in designing their own experiments using an inexpensive tabletop accelerator. This device uses pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate gas ions to energies of {approx}100 keV. Within the next year, cadets and faculty at USMA will use this device to create neutrons through the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion process, effectively creating a compact, portable neutron generator. The double crystal pyroelectric accelerator will also be used by students to investigate neutron, x-ray, and ion spectroscopy.

  2. Falsification of the Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within the Frame of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Gerhard; Tscheuschner, Ralf D.

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier (1824), Tyndall (1861), and Arrhenius (1896), and which is still supported in global climatology, essentially describes a fictitious mechanism, in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics, such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature, it is taken for granted that such a mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper, the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, (c) the frequently mentioned difference of 33° is a meaningless number calculated wrongly, (d) the formulas of cavity radiation are used inappropriately, (e) the assumption of a radiative balance is unphysical, (f) thermal conductivity and friction must not be set to zero, the atmospheric greenhouse conjecture is falsified.

  3. Misconceptions on Classical Mechanics by Freshman University Students: A Case Study in a Physics Department in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylos, George; Evangelakis, George A.; Kotsis, Konstantinos T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results of an empirical research study on Newton's laws classical mechanics and its perceptions on freshman students at the Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Greece. Results and outcome measures reveal misconceptions on students' perceptions in consideration of the fundamental concepts in freshman Physics education.…

  4. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube wave energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  5. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  6. Julius Elster and Hans Geitel - Dioscuri of physics and pioneer investigators in atmospheric electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Rudolf G. A.; Schlegel, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Julius Elster and Hans Geitel contributed to the physics at the turn of the 19-20th century in many ways. We first summarize the life of these exceptional scientists. Then - owing to the topic of this journal - we focus on their atmospheric electricity research. With their experiments, careful evaluations and ingenious interpretation, Elster and Geitel made important contributions to precipitation electricity, the influence of solar radiation on the electric state of the atmosphere, the nature of charge carriers and the ionization of air by radioactivity. They proved their experimental skills by inventing new instruments with unprecedented accuracy and reliability. A very modern concept was their attitude to undertake long-term measurements at various locations. A section on their recognition in the physics community and their scientific distinctions concludes the paper.

  7. Design evaluations for a flight cloud physics holocamera. [holographic/photographic camera for low-g Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.; Kurtz, R. L.; Lemons, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a holographic/photographic camera to be used with the zero-g or low-g Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The flight prototype holocamera is intended to record particles from 0.01 to 5 microns for an optimum two-dimensional plane only in the microscopic photography mode, particles on a volume basis in the in-line holography mode from 5 microns up, and all particle sizes possible on a volume basis in the acute sideband holography mode.

  8. Effects of sintering atmosphere on the physical and mechanical properties of modified BOF slag glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wen-bin; Li, Yu; Cang, Da-qiang; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Fan, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes an efficient way to utilize all the chemical components of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag to prepare high value-added glass-ceramics. A molten modified BOF slag was converted from the melting BOF slag by reducing it and separating out iron component in it, and the modified BOF slag was then quenched in water to form glasses with different basicities. The glasses were subsequently sintered in the temperature range of 600-1000°C in air or nitrogen atmosphere for 1 h. The effects of different atmospheres on the physical and mechanical properties of sintered samples were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by conducting experiment on evaluating the sintering shrinkage, water absorption and bulk density. It is found that the kinetics of the sintering process is significantly affected by sintering atmosphere. In particular, compared with sintering in air atmosphere, sintering in N2 atmosphere promotes the synergistic growth of pyroxene and melilite crystalline phases, which can contribute to better mechanical properties and denser microstructure.

  9. Verochka Zingan or recollections from the Physics Department of the Moscow University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    The author recollects his studentship during 70-th years at the Physics Department of the Moscow University. He was graduated from the theoretical Physics Department in 1977. The Rectors of the University that times were I.G. Petrovskii, R.V. Khokhlov and A.A. Logunov. The dean of the Physics Department was V.S. Fursov. As a particular event a meet with the former prime-minister of the USSR A.N. Kosygin is reported. Between professors mentioned throughout the recollections are A.I.Kitaigorodskii, Ya. B. Zel'dovich, D.D. Ivanenko, A.A. Sokolov, A.A. Vlasov, V.B. Braginsky, I.M. Ternov, L.A. Artsimovich, E.P. Velikhov and other, including that which became University professors later. A great number of colleagues from the Physics, Chemistry, Phylological and Historical Departments of the Moscow University are mentioned. Particularly, the students which entered the group 113 in 1971 and finished the group 601 in 1977 are listed. The recollections include 5 parts. Persons cited throughout the paper: A.N. Kosygin, A.S. Golovin, V. Kostyukevich, I.M. Ternov, E.G. Pozdnyak, A. N. Matveev, V.P. Elyutin, V.V. Kerzhentsev, 113 academic group (1971), V. Topala, E.A. Marinchuk, P.Paduraru, A.I. Kitaygorodski, A. Leahu, S. Berzan, B. Ursu, I. Coanda (Koade), M. Stefanovici, O. Bulgaru, A. Iurie-Apostol, A.S. Davydov, M.I. Kaganov, I.M. Lifshitz, Ya. B. Zel'dovich, A.Zhukov, A.I. Buzdin, N.S. Perov, V. Dolgov, P. Vabishchevich, A.A. Samarskii, V. Makarov, Irina Kamenskih, A.A. Arsen'ev, L.A. Artsimovich, A.A. Tyapkin, B.M. Pontecorvo, D.I. Blokhintsev, I.G. Petrovskii, R.V. Khokhlov, V.N. Rudenko, A.A. Sokolov, D.D. Ivanenko (Iwanenko), A.A. Vlasov, V.N. Ponomarev, N.N. Bogolyubov, N.N. Bogolyubov (Jr), V.Ch. Zhukovskii, Tamara Tarasova, Zarina Radzhabova (Malovekova), V.Malovekov, Tatiana Shmeleva, Alexandra C.Nicolescu, Tatiana Nicolescu, Rano Mahkamova, Miriam Yandieva, Natalia Germaniuk (Grigor'eva), E. Grigor'ev, A. Putro, Elena Nikiforova, B. Kostrykin, Galia Laufer, K

  10. Department of Energy ALARA implementation guide. Response to the Health Physics Society

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    In the August 1993 Health Physics Society (HPS) newsletter, the HPS Scientific and Public Issues Committee published a Position Statement entitled {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.{close_quotes}. In this article, this HPS committee made the statement that they were deeply concerned by the trend for agencies to incorporate the ALARA concept as a regulatory requirements, without providing specific guidance as to what it means and how to implement it consistently. The HPS position paper was in response to the DOE notice on proposed rulemaking for Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 834, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment{close_quotes} (10 CFR 834). In the notice of proposed rulemaking for 10 CFR 834, the Department of Energy (DOE) defined ALARA as follows: {open_quotes}As used in this part, ALARA is not a dose limit, but rather a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below the applicable limit of this part as is reasonably achievable{close_quotes} (10 CFR 834.2, p. 16283 of the Federal Register). The HPS position paper continues, {open_quotes}The section goes on to elaborate on what is meant by a process without providing sufficient guidance to assure uniform applicability of the process.{close_quotes}. Although this concern is directed towards the ALARA process as it relates to the environment, the Office of Health, which is responsible for occupational workers, shares the same definition for ALARA.

  11. Investigations on physics of planetary atmospheres and small bodies of the Solar system, extrasolar planets and disk structures around the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Delets, O. S.; Dlugach, J. M.; Zakhozhay, O. V.; Kostogryz, N. M.; Krushevska, V. M.; Kuznyetsova, Y. G.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Ovsak, O. S.; Rozenbush, O. E.; Romanyuk, Ya. O.; Shavlovskiy, V. I.; Yanovitskij, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The history and main becoming stages of Planetary system physics Department of the Main astronomical observatory of National academy of Sciences of Ukraine are considered. Fundamental subjects of department researches and science achievements of employees are presented. Fields of theoretical and experimental researches are Solar system planets and their satellites; vertical structures of planet atmospheres; radiative transfer in planet atmospheres; exoplanet systems of Milky Way; stars having disc structures; astronomical engineering. Employees of the department carry out spectral, photometrical and polarimetrical observations of Solar system planets, exoplanet systems and stars with disc structures. 1. From the history of department 2. The main directions of department research 3. Scientific instrumentation 4. Telescopes and observation stations 5. Theoretical studies 6. The results of observations of planets and small Solar system bodies and their interpretation 7. The study of exoplanets around the stars of our galaxy 8. Spectral energy distribution of fragmenting protostellar disks 9. Cooperation with the National Technical University of Ukraine (KPI) and National University of Ukraine "Lviv Polytechnic" to study the impact of stratospheric aerosol changes on weather and climate of the Earth 10. International relations. Scientific and organizational work. Scientific conferences, congresses, symposia 11. The main achievements of the department 12. Current researches 13. Anniversaries and awards

  12. The Four-Year Investigation of Physical and Physiological Features of Students in a Physical Education and Sports Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocak, Yucel

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Student candidates who want to be a Physical Education Teacher in Turkey should take special ability exams of Physical Education and Sports Schools. In this exam, it is required to have a high physical capability apart from a high level of special branch skills. For this reason, the students who pass and start their education at…

  13. Feasibility study of a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiments laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinden, A. B.; Eaton, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    A feasibility and concepts study for a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiment laboratory is discussed. The primary objective was to define a set of cloud physics experiments which will benefit from the near zero-gravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft, identify merits of this environment relative to those of groundbased laboratory facilities, and identify conceptual approaches for the accomplishment of the experiments in an orbiting spacecraft. Solicitation, classification and review of cloud physics experiments for which the advantages of a near zero-gravity environment are evident are described. Identification of experiments for potential early flight opportunities is provided. Several significant accomplishments achieved during the course of this study are presented.

  14. Physical modeling of long-range infrasonic propagation in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulichkov, S. N.; Chunchuzov, I. P.; Bush, G. A.; Perepelkin, V. G.

    2008-04-01

    The results of experiments on the physical modeling of long-range infrasonic propagation in the atmosphere are given. Such modeling is based on the possible coincidence between the forms of the vertical profiles of the effective sound speed stratification in the atmospheric boundary layer (between 0 and 600 m for the case under consideration) and in the atmosphere as a whole (from the land surface up to thermospheric heights (about 150 km)). The source of acoustic pulses was an oscillator of detonation type. Owing to the detonation of a gas mixture of air (or oxygen) and propane, this generator was capable of producing short, powerful (the maximum acoustic pressure was on the order of 30 to 60 Pa at a distance of 50 to 100 m from the oscillator), and sufficiently stable acoustic pulses with a spectral maximum at frequencies of 40 to 60 Hz and a pulsing period of 20 to 30 s. The sites of acoustic-signal recording were located at different distances (up to 6.5 km) from the source and in different azimuthal directions. The temperature and wind stratifications were monitored in real time during the experiments with an acoustic locator—a sodar—and a temperature profiler. The data on the physical modeling of long-range sound propagation in the atmosphere are analyzed to verify the physical and mathematical models of predicting acoustic fields in the inhomogeneous moving atmosphere on the basis of the parabolic equation and the method of normal waves. A satisfactory agreement between calculated and experimental data is obtained. One more task was to compare the theoretical relations between variations in the azimuths and angles of tilting of sound rays about the horizon and the parameters of anisotropic turbulence in the lower troposphere and stratosphere with the experimental data. A theoretical interpretation of the experimental results is proposed on the basis of the theory of anisotropic turbulence in the atmosphere. The theoretical and experimental results are

  15. Fundamental Distinctions in Physics underlying Nonsteady Forcings of Wind Turbine Power vs. Drivetrain by Atmospheric Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, James; Lavely, Adam; Nandi, Tarak

    2016-11-01

    Whereas the primary function of a wind turbine (WT) is the generation of electricity, wind farm profitability is decreased both by integrated losses in power and increases in premature failures of drivetrain components resulting from energetic nonsteady aerodynamic forcings of WT rotors by atmospheric and wake turbulence. Here we contrast the physics underlying dominant nonsteady atmospheric turbulence forcings of the bending moments in the WT rotor plane (torque/power) vs. the out-of-plane bending moments (OPBM) that underlie premature drivetrain component failure. Using an advanced actuator line model of the 5 MW NREL and the 1.5 MW GE wind turbine rotors embedded within a high-fidelity spectral LES of a typical daytime convective atmospheric boundary layer, we show that (1) the physics underlying large torque vs. OBPM fluctuations are associated with fundamentally different turbulence eddy characteristics and (2) nonsteady response centers on 4 characteristic time scales associated advection of eddies and load response of blades cutting through internal turbulence eddy structure. Supported by DOE. Computer resources by NSF/XSEDE.

  16. Physical therapy in critically ill adult patients: recommendations from the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine Department of Physical Therapy.

    PubMed

    França, Eduardo Ériko Tenório de; Ferrari, Francimar; Fernandes, Patrícia; Cavalcanti, Renata; Duarte, Antonio; Martinez, Bruno Prata; Aquim, Esperidião Elias; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulete

    2012-03-01

    Complications from immobility in intensive care unit patients contribute to functional decline, increased healthcare costs, reduced quality of life and higher post-discharge mortality. Physical therapy focuses on promoting recovery and preserving function, and it may minimize the impact of these complications. A group of Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine physical therapy experts developed this document that contains minimal physical therapy recommendations appropriate to the Brazilian real-world clinical situation. Prevention and treatment of atelectasis, procedures related to the removal of secretions and treatment of conditions related to physical deconditioning and functional decline are discussed. Equally important is the consideration that prescribing and executing activities, mobilizations and exercises are roles of the physical therapist, whose diagnosis should precede any intervention.

  17. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Flux and Searches for New Physics with AMANDA-II

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer; Collaboration, IceCube

    2009-06-02

    The AMANDA-II detector, operating since 2000 in the deep ice at the geographic South Pole, has accumulated a large sample of atmospheric muon neutrinos in the 100 GeV to 10 TeV energy range. The zenith angle and energy distribution of these events can be used to search for various phenomenological signatures of quantum gravity in the neutrino sector, such as violation of Lorentz invariance (VLI) or quantum decoherence (QD). Analyzing a set of 5511 candidate neutrino events collected during 1387 days of livetime from 2000 to 2006, we find no evidence for such effects and set upper limits on VLI and QD parameters using a maximum likelihood method. Given the absence of evidence for new flavor-changing physics, we use the same methodology to determine the conventional atmospheric muon neutrino flux above 100 GeV.

  18. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino flux and searches for new physics with AMANDA-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Breder, D.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Day, C. T.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; De Young, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Knops, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Leich, H.; Lennarz, D.; Lucke, A.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miyamoto, H.; Mohr, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Patton, S.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Potthoff, N.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terranova, C.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wiedemann, A.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.

    2009-05-01

    The AMANDA-II detector, operating since 2000 in the deep ice at the geographic South Pole, has accumulated a large sample of atmospheric muon neutrinos in the 100 GeV to 10 TeV energy range. The zenith angle and energy distribution of these events can be used to search for various phenomenological signatures of quantum gravity in the neutrino sector, such as violation of Lorentz invariance or quantum decoherence. Analyzing a set of 5511 candidate neutrino events collected during 1387 days of livetime from 2000 to 2006, we find no evidence for such effects and set upper limits on violation of Lorentz invariance and quantum decoherence parameters using a maximum likelihood method. Given the absence of evidence for new flavor-changing physics, we use the same methodology to determine the conventional atmospheric muon neutrino flux above 100 GeV.

  19. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino flux and searches for new physics with AMANDA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; Berghaus, P.; Boersma, D. J.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Eisch, J.; Finley, C.; Ganugapati, R.; Gladstone, L.; Grullon, S.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hill, G. C.; Hoshina, K.; Jacobsen, J.

    2009-05-15

    The AMANDA-II detector, operating since 2000 in the deep ice at the geographic South Pole, has accumulated a large sample of atmospheric muon neutrinos in the 100 GeV to 10 TeV energy range. The zenith angle and energy distribution of these events can be used to search for various phenomenological signatures of quantum gravity in the neutrino sector, such as violation of Lorentz invariance or quantum decoherence. Analyzing a set of 5511 candidate neutrino events collected during 1387 days of livetime from 2000 to 2006, we find no evidence for such effects and set upper limits on violation of Lorentz invariance and quantum decoherence parameters using a maximum likelihood method. Given the absence of evidence for new flavor-changing physics, we use the same methodology to determine the conventional atmospheric muon neutrino flux above 100 GeV.

  20. The Use of Computer Competencies of Students in the Departments of Physical Education and Sport Teaching, and School Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okan, Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the levels of the use of computer, which is nowadays one of the most important technologies, of teacher candidate studying in the departments of Physical Education and Sport Teaching, and School teaching; also aims to research whether there is differences according to various criteria or not. In research, data were…

  1. Putting Physics First: Three Case Studies of High School Science Department and Course Sequence Reorganization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Douglas B.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the process of shifting to a "Physics First" sequence in science course offerings in three school districts in the United States. This curricular sequence reverses the more common U.S. high school sequence of biology/chemistry/physics, and has gained substantial support in the physics education community over the…

  2. Putting Physics First: Three Case Studies of High School Science Department and Course Sequence Reorganization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Douglas B.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the process of shifting to a "Physics First" sequence in science course offerings in three school districts in the United States. This curricular sequence reverses the more common U.S. high school sequence of biology/chemistry/physics, and has gained substantial support in the physics education community over the…

  3. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the area of solar physics, new calculations of the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone was performed. The original theory developed was corrected by including a new frequency factor describing temporal variations of the turbulent energy spectrum. We have modified the original Stein code by including this new frequency factor, and tested the code extensively. Another possible source of the mechanical energy generated in the solar convective zone is the excitation of magnetic flux tube waves which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region. The problem as to how efficiently those waves are generated in the Sun was recently solved. The propagation of nonlinear magnetic tube waves in the solar atmosphere was calculated, and mode coupling, shock formation, and heating of the local medium was studied. The wave trapping problems and evaluation of critical frequencies for wave reflection in the solar atmosphere was studied. It was shown that the role played by Alfven waves in the wind accelerations and the coronal hole heating is dominant. Presently, we are performing calculations of wave energy fluxes generated in late-type dwarf stars and studying physical processes responsible for the heating of stellar chromospheres and coronae. In the area of physics of waves, a new analytical approach for studying linear Alfven waves in smoothly nonuniform media was recently developed. This approach is presently being extended to study the propagation of linear and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in stratified, nonisothermal and solar atmosphere. The Lighthill theory of sound generation to nonisothermal media (with a special temperature distribution) was extended. Energy cascade by nonlinear MHD waves and possible chaos driven by these waves are presently considered.

  4. Turkish community pharmacists’ self-report of their pharmacies’ physical atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Cagirci, Simge; Yegenoglu, Selen; Uner, Mehmet Mithat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is a great recognition that store interiors and exteriors can be designed to create feelings in potential customers which can have an important reinforcing effect on purchase. In this study it is mainly aimed to explore the behaviors of the community pharmacists related to their store's physical environment. Also we aimed to determine whether any difference exist between behaviors of pharmacists serving in high and low socio-economic regions. Methods: A total of 200 pharmacists that work socio-economically different regions were randomly selected from 1424 pharmacists registered in Ankara Chamber of Pharmacists. A uniform questionnaire was applied to the pharmacists by using a face-to-face interview technique. Findings: There are differences in terms of behavior between the pharmacists serving in high and low socio-economic regions within the context of putting importance to their stores’ atmosphere. More pharmacists attach importance to the physical sight of their pharmacy serving in high socio-economic regions (90%) vs. pharmacists in low socio-economic regions (70%). Also pharmacists in high socio-economic regions indicated higher importance level of selection of the decoration equipments (84%) than pharmacists serving in high socio-economic regions (60%). Conclusion: Our study suggests that some pharmacists pay more attention to interior atmospheric elements and others do not. There is a difference in terms of attaching importance to some store atmospheric elements (i.e. physical site, decoration equipment, it's color, wall color, etc.) serving in high versus low socio-economic regions in this context. PMID:24991582

  5. History, Physical Examination, Laboratory Testing, and Emergency Department Ultrasonography for the Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashika; Mehta, Ninfa; Secko, Michael; Schechter, Joshua; Papanagnou, Dimitri; Pandya, Shreya; Sinert, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a common differential for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain. The diagnostic accuracy of history, physical examination, and bedside laboratory tests for AC have not been quantitatively described. We performed a systematic review to determine the utility of history and physical examination (H&P), laboratory studies, and ultrasonography (US) in diagnosing AC in the ED. We searched medical literature from January 1965 to March 2016 in PubMed, Embase, and SCOPUS using a strategy derived from the following formulation of our clinical question: patients-ED patients suspected of AC; interventions-H&P, laboratory studies, and US findings commonly used to diagnose AC; comparator-surgical pathology or definitive diagnostic radiologic study confirming AC; and outcome-the operating characteristics of the investigations in diagnosing AC were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated using Meta-DiSc with a random-effects model (95% CI). Study quality and risks for bias were assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Separate PubMed, Embase, and SCOPUS searches retrieved studies for H&P (n = 734), laboratory findings (n = 74), and US (n = 492). Three H&P studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria with AC prevalence of 7%-64%. Fever had sensitivity ranging from 31% to 62% and specificity from 37% to 74%; positive LR [LR+] was 0.71-1.24, and negative LR [LR-] was 0.76-1.49. Jaundice sensitivity ranged from 11% to 14%, and specificity from 86% to 99%; LR+ was 0.80-13.81, and LR- was 0.87-1.03. Murphy's sign sensitivity was 62% (range = 53%-71%), and specificity was 96% (range = 95%-97%); LR+ was 15.64 (range = 11.48-21.31), and LR- was 0.40 (range = 0.32-0.50). Right upper quadrant pain had sensitivity ranging from 56% to 93% and specificity of 0% to 96%; LR+ ranged from 0.92 to 14.02, and LR- from 0.46 to 7.86. One laboratory study met

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Algorithms and physical parameters involved in the calculation of model stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D. C.

    This contribution summarizes the Doctoral Thesis presented at Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba for the degree of PhD in Astronomy. We analyze some algorithms and physical parameters involved in the calculation of model stellar atmospheres, such as atomic partition functions, functional relations connecting gaseous and electronic pressure, molecular formation, temperature distribution, chemical compositions, Gaunt factors, atomic cross-sections and scattering sources, as well as computational codes for calculating models. Special attention is paid to the integration of hydrostatic equation. We compare our results with those obtained by other authors, finding reasonable agreement. We make efforts on the implementation of methods that modify the originally adopted temperature distribution in the atmosphere, in order to obtain constant energy flux throughout. We find limitations and we correct numerical instabilities. We integrate the transfer equation solving directly the integral equation involving the source function. As a by-product, we calculate updated atomic partition functions of the light elements. Also, we discuss and enumerate carefully selected formulae for the monochromatic absorption and dispersion of some atomic and molecular species. Finally, we obtain a flexible code to calculate model stellar atmospheres.

  8. Aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties observed in the ambient atmosphere during haze pollution conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Xie, Yisong; Li, Donghui; Li, Kaitao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Li; Lv, Yang; Qie, Lili; Xu, Hua

    Aerosol’s properties in the ambient atmosphere may differ significantly from sampling results due to containing of abundant water content. We performed sun-sky radiometer measurements in Beijing during 2011 and 2012 winter to obtain distribution of spectral and angular sky radiance. The measurements are then used to retrieve aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, including single scattering albedo, size distribution, complex refractive indices and aerosol component fractions identified as black carbon, brown carbon, mineral dust, ammonium sulfate-like components and water content inside particle matters. We found that during winter haze condition aerosol is dominated by fine particles with center radius of about 0.2 micron. Fine particles contribute about 93% to total aerosol extinction of solar light, and result in serious decrease of atmospheric visibility during haze condition. The percentage of light absorption of haze aerosol can up to about 10% among its total extinction, much higher than that of unpolluted conditions, that causes significant radiative cooling effects suppressing atmospheric convection and dispersion of pollutants. Moreover, the average water content occupies about one third of the ambient aerosol in volume which suggests the important effect of ambient humidity in the formation of haze pollution.

  9. A review of chemical and physical characterisation of atmospheric metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Paul; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the human health impacts associated with airborne nanoparticle exposure has led to considerable research activity aimed at better characterising these particles and understanding which particle properties are most important in the context of effects on health. Knowledge of the sources, chemical composition, physical structure and ambient concentrations of nanoparticles has improved significantly as a result. Given the known toxicity of many metals and the contribution of nanoparticles to their oxidative potential, the metallic content of the nanoparticulate burden is likely to be an important factor to consider when attempting to assess the impact of nanoparticle exposure on health. This review therefore seeks to draw together the existing knowledge of metallic nanoparticles in the atmosphere and discuss future research priorities in the field. The article opens by outlining the reasons behind the current research interest in the field, and moves on to discuss sources of nanoparticles to the atmosphere. The next section reviews ambient concentrations, covering spatial and temporal variation, mass and number size distributions, air sampling and measurement techniques. Further sections discuss the chemical and physical composition of particles. The review concludes by summing up the current state of research in the area and considering where future research should be focused.

  10. [Leisure-time physical activity of first-year students in 3 health science departments].

    PubMed

    Mora i Ripoll, R; Fuentes i Almendras, M; Sentis i Vilalta, J

    1997-12-01

    Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for many chronic diseases which have high prevalence in developed countries. The aims of this study are to describe leisure-time physical activity levels and to identify preferences for its practice among first grade students in three Health Sciences Faculties at the University of Barcelona. During the year 1994-95, a total of 887 first grade students of three Faculties, Pharmacy (n = 573), Medicine (n = 222) and Dentistry (n = 92), were interviewed using a recall of their leisure time physical activity over last 8 months. Physical activity level was classified into four categories: non-active, low, medium and high, based on the number of hours per week. Statistical methods consisted in the estimation of rates, comparisons using the chi-square test, and computing the odds ratio. Women were 75% of students. Fifty per cent of men and 71.5% of women referred to be non-active or having low physical activity level (chi 2 = 36.8; DF = 3; p < 0.0001), being no evidence of association with current smoking or overweight (Body Mass Index > or = 25). Among the rest of students, men's most frequently reported activities were football, swimming and tennis, and those of women's were swimming, aerobic and tennis. Physical activity level among first grade health sciences university students is poorly exemplary. More physical activity promotion is needed, particularly to female students, as an important primary preventive measure among this group.

  11. Practical Experiences of Links between a Hospital Physics Department and Local Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, C. B.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are links between hospitals and local schools. Some aspects of the links, such as a medical physics convention, collaboration with teachers, work experience for students, and experimental projects are described. (YP)

  12. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics. [Indiana Univ. Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C J; Macfarlane, M H; Matsui, T; Serot, B D

    1993-01-01

    A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e[prime]p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus[endash]nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark[endash]gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon[endash]nucleon force.

  13. The Sensitivity of Simulated Tropical Cyclones to Tunable Physical Parameters in Community Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F.; Posselt, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The inability to explicitly resolve the sub-grid scale physical processes (e.g. cloud, precipitation and convection) of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) greatly limits their performance in simulating tropical cyclones (TCs) and predicting their future changes. To address it, this study carried out a total of 92 simulations and investigated the sensitivity of TC simulation to 24 physical parameters that control the deep convection, shallow convection, turbulence, cloud microphysics and cloud macrophysics processes in Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The Reed-Jablonowski TC test case is utilized and run at horizontal resolution of 0.5°×0.5° with 30 vertical levels. The sensitivity is assessed by the uncertainty each parameter exerts on simulated TC while perturbing it from its minimum to maximum with other 23 parameters set to their default value. The uncertainty is characterized by changes on simulated TC intensity (measured by absolute maximum wind speed at 100 m above surface), precipitation rate, shortwave cloud radiative forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud radiative forcing (LWCF), cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud ice water path (IWP), the latter five of which are quantified by their area-weighted value over the tropical cyclone region. Both the relative importance among these 24 physical parameters on TC simulation and the response function describing how they affect the six TC characteristics are quantified. It is found that the simulated TC intensity is most sensitive to the parcel fractional mass entrainment rate in Zhang-McFarlane (ZM) deep convection scheme. Decreasing this parameter enables a change from tropical depression to Category-4 storm. In contrast, other 23 physical parameters cause intensity uncertainty within 10 m/s. The precipitation rate, SWCF, LWP and IWP are also found to receive major impact from parameters in ZM deep convection scheme while the LWCF is dominated by parameters both in ZM deep convection and

  14. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics policy statement No. 13: recommended guidelines on the development of safety and quality management systems for medical physics departments.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Stelios

    2009-12-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement outlines the way in which a Safety and Quality Management System can be developed for Medical Physics Departments. The Policy Statement can help Medical Physicists to eliminate or at least minimize accidents or incidences due to improper use or application of medical technology on one hand and on the other to guarantee a safe, effective and efficient usage of new highly complicated and sophisticated technologies and procedures.

  15. Is geometry more universal than physics in atmospheric boundary layer flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BelušIć, D.; Mahrt, L.

    2012-05-01

    We show that the geometry of motions in atmospheric boundary-layer time series exhibits considerable independence from scale in spite of changing physics. The scale-independence of structure shapes is shown by using a simple technique to extract basic shapes from the time series for timescales between 3 s and 2 h. A set of predefined basic shapes is chosen subjectively as those that occur most frequently in the time series: sine, step, ramp-cliff and cliff-ramp. The frequency of occurrence of shapes changes with the timescale, with a pronounced minimum at scales between 2 and 10 min depending on the stability and the shape function. This is in accordance with the minimum of kinetic energy between turbulence and mesoscales. However, the ratios of occurrences between different shapes are approximately scale-independent. What shapes are preferred depends only on the variable examined. The physics of different shapes and scales is examined from characteristics of individual shapes. Steep edges of shapes seem to be predominantly related to downward transport of heat and momentum, which weakens with increasing scale. Sine shapes on the other hand seem to be related to turbulent eddies and shear instability at small scales, and to internal gravity waves at larger scales with stable stratification. Therefore, the physics of individual shapes is shown to change with scale, while the geometry seems to remain approximately scale-independent.

  16. Understanding Measures of Magnetic Activity Using Physics-based Models of the Solar Interior and Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbett, W. P.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial progress has been made over the past decade in the effort to better understand how magnetic flux and energy is generated in the convective interior of the Sun, how it emerges into the solar atmosphere, and how manifestations of solar magnetic activity (such as sunspots, coronal mass ejections, and flares) are connected within a dynamic magnetic environment spanning the solar convection zone-to-corona system. Here, we present a brief overview of recent efforts to model the evolution of active region magnetic fields and sunspots over a range of physical conditions and spatial and temporal scales. We will focus on how dynamic, physics-based numerical models can be used to better understand observed relationships between different measures of solar activity as a function of time (e.g., sunspot activity and morphologies, unsigned magnetic flux measured at the photosphere, coronal X-ray emissivity). We will determine whether local physics-based models of active region evolution can be used to better constrain proxies of solar activity such as the sunspot number, which remains the only direct record available to trace the very long-term influence of the solar dynamo on the earth's environment.

  17. Research in experimental elementary particle physics. A proposal to the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew P. White; Kaushik De; Paul A. Draper; Ransom Stephens

    1995-04-13

    We report on the activities of the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Texas at Arlington for the period 1994-95. We propose the continuation of the research program for 1996-98 with strong participation in the detector upgrade and physics analysis work for the D0 Experiment at Fermilab, prototyping and pre-production studies for the muon and calorimeter systems for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN, and detector development and simulation studies for the PP2PP Experiment at Brookhaven.

  18. Quantum Information in Non-physics Departments at Liberal Arts Colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmoreland, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Quantum information and quantum computing have changed our thinking about the basic concepts of quantum physics. These fields have also introduced exciting new applications of quantum mechanics such as quantum cryptography and non-interactive measurement. It is standard to teach such topics only to advanced physics majors who have completed coursework in quantum mechanics. Recent encounters with teaching quantum cryptography to non-majors and a bout of textbook-writing suggest strategies for teaching this interesting material to those without the standard quantum mechanics background. This talk will share some of those strategies.

  19. The Association of Physical Access With the Interval Between Attending the Hospital and Receiving Service in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, MohammadReza; Haji Nabi, Kamran; Ayoubian, Ali; Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relation between physical access in emergency department ‎(ED) and the time patients have to wait before being served is unknown. Objectives: Our objective was to discover the associations between the physical access in ED and the time patients had to wait before receiving services. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, statistical society comprised two portions, namely, public hospitals’ EDs and referred patients to the ward. Data on waiting time for 240 patients in six public and private hospitals were gathered. In addition, physical condition of EDs was inspected by visiting these hospitals. A designed checklist, based on the introduced physical space, was filled for each hospital. Results of the checklist were scored using Likert’s five-points scale and Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient were applied to determine the relationship between physical access and waiting time. Results: The correlation between the waiting time beginning from the very moment of stepping into the ward until first examination and physical condition at the triage wards in private (P < 0.001) and public hospitals (P > 0.05) was not significant. The waiting interval, beginning from the very moment of stepping into the ward until first examination and access to physical space of ED, was significant for private hospitals (P < 0.001) and insignificant for public hospitals (P > 0.05). Conclusions: According to the results, there was a direct correlation between access to physical space in ED and waiting time. In addition, improving the physical access did not necessarily result in shorter waiting time. Therefore, to improve triage process, improvement of waiting time indices, and modifying forms of work process in ED are recommended. PMID:25763222

  20. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system.

    PubMed

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-06-28

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere-ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system--System 4--has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981-2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  1. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric high-energy physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Mnatsakanyan, Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the numerous thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs), i.e., enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it, helped to establish a new scientific topic—high-energy physics in the atmosphere. Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiating high-energy processes in thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Mount Aragats in Armenia during the strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma-ray energy spectra proved that RREAs are a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the "beams" of "electron accelerators" operating in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking in May-June, and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at an altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. All relevant information is being gathered, including data on particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mount Aragats on August 28, 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes.

  2. Leading by example: a local health department-community collaboration to incorporate physical activity into organizational practice.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Antronette K; Lewis, Lavonna B; Sloane, David C; Guinyard, Joyce Jones; Diamant, Allison L; Nascimento, Lori M; McCarthy, William J

    2004-01-01

    A multisectoral model promoting sociocultural environmental change to increase physical activity levels among African Americans in Los Angeles County, California, was developed and implemented. This model represents a true collaboration between a local health department and a community lead agency. Community organizations serving targeted areas of the county participated in one or more interventions incorporating physical activity into routine organizational practice, which centered around modeling the behaviors promoted ("walking the talk"). In the current study, level of organizational support for physical activity integration was assessed, as reflected in the extent of organizational commitment associated with each intervention. Individual-level data, characterizing the sociodemography, health status, and health behaviors of organization staff, members, and clients, are presented to document the average risk burden in the targeted population. Nearly half of the more than 200 participating organizations actively embraced incorporating physical activity into their regular work routines, with more than 25 percent committed at the highest level of involvement. Broad capacity and support for organizational integration of physical activity was demonstrated, with the observed level of commitment varying by organization type. Similar to the successful evolution of tobacco control, some of the responsibility ("cost") for physical activity adoption and maintenance can and should be shifted from the individual to organizational entities, such as workplaces.

  3. Interactions between spacecraft motions and the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    In evaluating the effects of spacecraft motions on atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) experimentation, the motions of concern are those which will result in the movement of the fluid or cloud particles within the experiment chambers. Of the various vehicle motions and residual forces which can and will occur, three types appear most likely to damage the experimental results: non-steady rotations through a large angle, long-duration accelerations in a constant direction, and vibrations. During the ACPL ice crystal growth experiments, the crystals are suspended near the end of a long fiber (20 cm long by 200 micron diameter) of glass or similar material. Small vibrations of the supported end of the fiber could cause extensive motions of the ice crystal, if care is not taken to avoid this problem.

  4. DOE Closeout Report from SUNY Albany High Energy Physics to Department of Energy Office of Science.

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Jesse; Jain, Vivek

    2014-08-15

    A report from the SUNY Albany Particle Physics Group summarizing our activities on the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. We summarize our work: on data analysis projects, on efforts to improve detector performance, and on service work to the experiment.

  5. The History of the Physics Department of the Technical University of Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Alexandru

    2016-02-01

    A very complete outline of the history of the Physics Departament of the Technical University of Moldova has been given, since its foundation in 1964. The main lecturers, professors are listed with short biographical data, their main scientific interests and didactic works. The Internet page is well illustrated.

  6. Research supported by the department of energy Task C: Experimental high energy physics. 1995 Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, J.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes work of the University of Oregon high-energy physics group related to the Stanford Linear Detector, LEP`s OPAL detector, the NuTeV experiment at Fermilab, the SSC`s GEM detector, and top-quark studies at the Next Linear Collider. 160 refs., 53 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Nevada Department of Education Physical Education Content Standards [and] Performance Level Descriptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    This document presents content and performance standards for physical education in Nevada's public schools. The five content standards are: students will understand and apply movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills; students will demonstrate competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few…

  8. Physical modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer for wind energy and wind engineering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Power, Gregory; Turner, John; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH has test section dimensions W6.0m, H2.7m, L=72m. It can achieve high Reynolds number boundary layers, enabling turbulent boundary layer, wind energy and wind engineering research with exceptional spatial and temporal instrument resolution. We examined the FPF's ability to experimentally simulate different types of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL): the stable, unstable, and neutral ABL. The neutral ABL is characterized by a zero potential temperature gradient, which is readily achieved in the FPF by operating when air and floor temperatures are close to equal. The stable and unstable ABLs have positive and negative vertical temperature gradients, respectively, which are more difficult to simulate without direct control of air or test section floor temperature. The test section floor is a 10 inch thick concrete cement slab and has significant thermal mass. When combined with the diurnal temperature variation of the ambient air, it is possible to achieve vertical temperature gradients in the test section, and produce weakly stable or weakly unstable boundary layer. Achievable Richardson numbers and Obukhov lengths are estimated. The different boundary layer profiles were measured, and compared to theoretical atmospheric models. Supported by UNH Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research SURF.

  9. Trade-wind Clouds in Community Atmosphere Model Hindcasts: Impacts of Resolution and Parameterized Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, B.

    2016-12-01

    Shallow cumulus clouds predominate in the trade-wind regions and the response of this widespread regime has been directly linked to the spread in climate model estimates of cloud feedback and climate sensitivity. Observations and process-model simulations show that trade-wind regions foster multi-layered cloud structures with complicated relationships to their environment that manifest as different cloud variability near the cloud base versus cloud top as well as inhomogeneous horizontal distributions of cloud. Assessments of these clouds in climate models show a disturbing spread among models in the vertical structure, but much less spread in the cloud radiative effect signaling compensating biases. The models also fail to capture the observed correlations between clouds and environmental parameters, often showing the opposite sign compared to observations. Based on such errors, one hypothesis is that climate models lack the proper parameterized physics to represent shallow convection. An alternate hypothesis is that models do not capture observed mesoscale variability, leading to erroneous cloud statistics. Of course, the hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. A series of hindcasts are performed with the Community Atmosphere Model to test these hypotheses. One set of hindcasts uses the standard 1-degree grid spacing, and it is shown that the clouds are similar to long-term, free-running simulations. A parallel set of hindcasts with a refined 0.25-degree mesh over the northern Atlantic trade-wind region allows a detailed comparison of the model's ability to represent trade-wind clouds with and without mesoscale variability explicitly resolved. Two more sets of hindcasts are run with the same grid configurations but using updated parameterized physics that change the representation of clouds, turbulence, and shallow convection. The updated physics are nominally less sensitive to horizontal resolution, which is tested by comparing the coarse and fine resolution, and

  10. The U.C. Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory and Department of Physics Submillimeter Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, D. T.; Genzel, R.

    1986-01-01

    The UCB submm heterodyne receiver is a complete system for high-resolution astronomical spectroscopy in the 350-micron and 450-micron atmospheric windows. This compact system mounts directly at the Cassegrain focus of large optical and IR telescopes. It consists of a laser local oscillator, open structure mixer, quasi-optical coupling system, a broad-band IF system, and an acoustooptical spectrometer. The local oscillator is a 1-m-long submm laser optically pumped by a CO2 laser. The mixer is a quasi-optical corner-cube antenna structure and Schottky diode. The mixer is currently operated at room temperature, and its performance at 77 K is being evaluated. The system noise temperature is less than 7000 K SSB during observations.

  11. Experimental program for investigating the basic physics of the lunar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsat, T.; Hodges, R.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Robertson, S.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Wang, X.

    2008-12-01

    The tenuous lunar atmosphere is a surface-bound exosphere (SBE) similar to that found throughout the solar system, for example on Mercury, various icy satellites, over the rings of Saturn, on large asteroids, and on Kuiper Belt objects. Its time-dependent constituents arise from a dynamic balance between sources that may be sporadic (solar wind, sputtering, micrometeoroid impacts, outgassing) and loss mechanisms (escape, ionization). In an SBE, the atoms and molecules released from the surface follow approximately ballistic orbits, either returning to the surface or escaping to space without collisions. The mechanisms by which the lunar atmosphere is formed, in particular the role of constant micrometeoroid bombardment of the lunar surface, are subject to ongoing debate. We discuss here a series of open questions regarding the lunar atmosphere as well as an experimental program to address them. Particular outstanding questions include: What is the relative role of hypervelocity micrometeoroid impacts vs. Solar wind sputtering in regolith escape? Similarly, what is their relative role in the production of the observed Na in the exosphere? What is the physical mechanism by which He is released from the regolith, and under what conditions is it released with sub-escape velocities? How is implanted He freed preferentially to 40Ar? How do the particulate ejecta and plasma clouds released from micrometeoroid impacts interact, and how do they affect the lofting of fine regolith material? Laboratory investigation of these basic physical mechanisms can additionally provide input to the analysis and interpretation of the forthcoming LADEE measurements. The necessary experimental program considerations include appropriate sources, including a hypervelocity dust accelerator with the ability to accelerate micron-sized dust particles to realistic velocities (tens of km/s), and the capability for sputtering by solar wind constituent ions at realistic energies (~1 keV). Diagnostic

  12. Usage of "Powergraph" software at laboratory lessons of "general physics" department of MEPhI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyachin, N. A.; Matronchik, A. Yu.; Khangulyan, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    One considers usage of "PowerGraph" software in laboratory exercise "Study of sodium spectrum" of physical experiment lessons. Togethe with the design of experiment setup, one discusses the sodium spectra digitized with computer audio chip. Usage of "PowerGraph" software in laboratory experiment "Study of sodium spectrum" allows an efficient visualization of the sodium spectrum and analysis of its fine structure. In particular, it allows quantitative measurements of the wavelengths and line relative intensities.

  13. Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experiment Laboratory engineering concepts/design tradeoffs. Volume 1: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, R. V.; Eaton, L. R.; Wilkinson, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    The work is summarized which was accomplished from January 1974 to October 1974 for the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineation of candidate experiments that require the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity are reported. The experiment program and the laboratory concept for a Spacelab payload to perform cloud microphysics research are defined. This multimission laboratory is planned to be available to the entire scientific community to utilize in furthering the basic understanding of cloud microphysical processes and phenomenon, thereby contributing to improved weather prediction and ultimately to provide beneficial weather control and modification.

  14. "SMART": A Compact and Handy FORTRAN Code for the Physics of Stellar Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapar, A.; Poolamäe, R.

    2003-01-01

    A new computer code SMART (Spectra from Model Atmospheres by Radiative Transfer) for computing the stellar spectra, forming in plane-parallel atmospheres, has been compiled by us and A. Aret. To guarantee wide compatibility of the code with shell environment, we chose FORTRAN-77 as programming language and tried to confine ourselves to common part of its numerous versions both in WINDOWS and LINUX. SMART can be used for studies of several processes in stellar atmospheres. The current version of the programme is undergoing rapid changes due to our goal to elaborate a simple, handy and compact code. Instead of linearisation (being a mathematical method of recurrent approximations) we propose to use the physical evolutionary changes or in other words relaxation of quantum state populations rates from LTE to NLTE has been studied using small number of NLTE states. This computational scheme is essentially simpler and more compact than the linearisation. This relaxation scheme enables using instead of the Λ-iteration procedure a physically changing emissivity (or the source function) which incorporates in itself changing Menzel coefficients for NLTE quantum state populations. However, the light scattering on free electrons is in the terms of Feynman graphs a real second-order quantum process and cannot be reduced to consequent processes of absorption and emission as in the case of radiative transfer in spectral lines. With duly chosen input parameters the code SMART enables computing radiative acceleration to the matter of stellar atmosphere in turbulence clumps. This also enables to connect the model atmosphere in more detail with the problem of the stellar wind triggering. Another problem, which has been incorporated into the computer code SMART, is diffusion of chemical elements and their isotopes in the atmospheres of chemically peculiar (CP) stars due to usual radiative acceleration and the essential additional acceleration generated by the light-induced drift. As

  15. Minimally-Invasive Gene Transfection by Chemical and Physical Interaction of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma irradiated to the living-cell is investigated for medical applications such as gene transfection, which is expected to play an important role in molecular biology, gene therapy, and creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the conventional gene transfection using the plasma has some problems that the cell viability is low and the genes cannot be transferred into some specific lipid cells, which is attributed to the unknown mechanism of the gene transfection using the plasma. Therefore, the time-controlled atmospheric pressure plasma flow is generated and irradiated to the living-cell suspended solution for clarifying the transfection mechanism toward developing highly-efficient and minimally- invasive gene transfection system. In this experiment, fluorescent dye YOYO-1 is used as the simulated gene and LIVE/DEAD Stain is simultaneously used for cell viability assay. By the fluorescence image, the transfection efficiency is calculated as the ratio of the number of transferred and surviving cells to total cell count. It is clarified that the transfection efficiency is significantly increased by the short-time (<4 sec) and short-distance (<40 mm) plasma irradiation, and the high transfection efficiency of 53% is realized together with the high cell viability (>90%). This result indicates that the physical effects such as the electric field caused by the charged particles arriving at the surface of the cell membrane, and chemical effects associated with plasma-activated products in solution act synergistically to enhance the cell-membrane transport with low-damage. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24108004.

  16. Comparison of polarized radiative transfer programs with applications to atmospheric and oceanic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Dennis

    We first introduce the topic of radiative transfer and how it applies to a range of problems in physics from remote sensing of the Earth's atmospheres and oceans to investigating skin cancer. We then review the theoretical basis for radiative transfer modeling, which is further supplemented by Appendices 1-3. Afterwards a comparison is presented of two different methods for polarized radiative transfer in coupled media consisting of two adjacent slabs with different refractive indices, each slab being a stratified medium with no change in optical properties except in the direction of stratification. One of the methods is based on solving the integro-differential radiative transfer equation for the two coupled slabs using the discrete ordinate approximation. The other method is based on probabilistic and statistical concepts and simulates the propagation of polarized light using the Monte Carlo approach. The emphasis is on non-Rayleigh scattering for particles in the Mie regime. Comparisons with benchmark results available for a slab with constant refractive index show that both methods reproduce these benchmark results when the refractive index is set to be the same in the two slabs. We then we present a simple study to investigate the sensitivity of the Stokes components I, Q, and U to changes in a bimodal aerosol model for atmosphere-ocean scenes. Preliminary results show that there is significant promise in using the Q Stokes parameter in addition to I, while for this case U is deemed to be insensitive to our simple aerosol model. Lastly we conclude the work completed and suggest possible avenues for future work.

  17. Subgrid-scale physical parameterization in atmospheric modeling: How can we make it consistent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Approaches to subgrid-scale physical parameterization in atmospheric modeling are reviewed by taking turbulent combustion flow research as a point of reference. Three major general approaches are considered for its consistent development: moment, distribution density function (DDF), and mode decomposition. The moment expansion is a standard method for describing the subgrid-scale turbulent flows both in geophysics and engineering. The DDF (commonly called PDF) approach is intuitively appealing as it deals with a distribution of variables in subgrid scale in a more direct manner. Mode decomposition was originally applied by Aubry et al (1988 J. Fluid Mech. 192 115-73) in the context of wall boundary-layer turbulence. It is specifically designed to represent coherencies in compact manner by a low-dimensional dynamical system. Their original proposal adopts the proper orthogonal decomposition (empirical orthogonal functions) as their mode-decomposition basis. However, the methodology can easily be generalized into any decomposition basis. Among those, wavelet is a particularly attractive alternative. The mass-flux formulation that is currently adopted in the majority of atmospheric models for parameterizing convection can also be considered a special case of mode decomposition, adopting segmentally constant modes for the expansion basis. This perspective further identifies a very basic but also general geometrical constraint imposed on the massflux formulation: the segmentally-constant approximation. Mode decomposition can, furthermore, be understood by analogy with a Galerkin method in numerically modeling. This analogy suggests that the subgrid parameterization may be re-interpreted as a type of mesh-refinement in numerical modeling. A link between the subgrid parameterization and downscaling problems is also pointed out.

  18. Physical Properties of Meteoroids based on Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Nakamura, Takuji; Kero, Johan; Szasz, Csilla; Virtanen, Jenni; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Koschny, Detlef

    We present a novel approach to reliably interpret the meteor head echo scattering measurements detected by the 46.5 MHz MU radar system near Shigaraki, Japan. A meteor head echo is caused by radio waves scattered from the dense region of plasma surrounding and co-moving with a meteoroid during atmospheric flight. The signal Doppler shift and/or range rate of the target can therefore be used to determine meteoroid velocity. The data reduction steps include determining the exact trajectory of the meteoroids entering the observation volume of the antenna beam and calculating meteoroid mass and velocity as a function of time. The model is built using physically based parameterization. The considered observation volume is narrow, elongated in the vertical direction, and its area of greatest sensitivity covers a circular area of about 10 km diameter at an altitude of 100 km above the radar. Over 100000 meteor head echoes have been detected over past years of observations. Most of the events are faint with no alternative to be detected visually or with intensified video (ICCD) cameras. In this study we are focusing on objects which have entered the atmosphere with almost vertical trajectories, to ensure the observed segment of the trajectory to be as complete as possible, without loss of its beginning or end part due to beam-pattern related loss of signal power. The analysis output parameters are range, altitude, radial velocity, meteoroid velocity, instantaneous target position, Radar Cross Section (RCS), meteor radiant, meteoroid ballistic and ablation coefficients, mass loss parameter and meteoroid mass, with possibility to derive other parameters.

  19. Physical properties of meteoroids based on middle and upper atmosphere radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, M.; Kero, J.; Virtanen, J.; Szasz, C.; Nakamura, T.; Peltoniemi, J.; Koschny, D.

    2014-07-01

    We present a novel approach to reliably interpret the meteor head-echo scattering measurements detected by the 46.5 MHz MU radar system near Shigaraki, Japan. A meteor head echo is caused by radio waves scattered from the dense region of plasma surrounding and co-moving with a meteoroid during atmospheric flight. The signal Doppler shift and/or range rate of the target can therefore be used to determine meteoroid velocity. The data reduction steps include determining the exact trajectory of the meteoroids entering the observation volume of the antenna beam and calculating meteoroid mass and velocity as a function of time. The model is built using physically-based parametrization. The considered observation volume is narrow, elongated in the vertical direction, and its area of greatest sensitivity covers a circular area of about 10 km diameter at an altitude of 100 km above the radar. Over 100,000 meteor head echoes have been detected over past years of observations. Most of the events are faint with no alternative to be detected visually or with intensified video (ICCD) cameras. In this study we are focusing on objects which have entered the atmosphere with almost vertical trajectories, to ensure the observed segment of the trajectory to be as complete as possible, without loss of its beginning or end part due to beam-pattern-related loss of signal power. The analysis output parameters are range, altitude, radial velocity, meteoroid velocity, instantaneous target position, Radar Cross Section (RCS), meteor radiant, meteoroid ballistic and ablation coefficients, mass loss parameter and meteoroid mass, with possibility to derive other parameters.

  20. Chemical, physical and radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols measured at Mt. Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in East Asia during biomass burning seasons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Lee, C.; Wang, S.; Chuang, M.; Chia, E.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Lin, J.; Hung, H.; Hsiao, T.; Liang, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the chemical, physical and radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols measured at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) which is located at Mt. Lulin (2,862 m MSL; 23o 28'07"N, 120o52'25"E) in central Taiwan, East Asia, and has been operated since 13 April, 2006. LABS is unique because its location and altitude enhances the global network of GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) in the Southeast Asian region, where no high-elevation baseline station is available. Our site is located between the GAW Waliguan station (3,810 m) on the Tibetan plateau and the Mauna Loa Observatory (3,397m) in Hawaii. We will particularly focus on the results obtained during the spring season, when biomass burning activities prevail in northern Southeast Asia. Chemical characterization of fine and coarse aerosol particles, including water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon, and trace elements, will be presented. Aerosol optical properties, including scattering, absorption, extinction, single scattering albedo, Ångström exponent, and aerosol optical depth, as well as the derived radiative forcing efficiency, will be discussed. Results of cloud condensation nuclei measurements, made intermittently, will also be presented. Trajectory studies indicate that this site experiences a variety of air masses originating from contaminated and clean source regions, giving a distinctive contrast of atmospheric changes. To summarize the results, the maximum values (and monthly means) of these chemical, physical and radiative parameters generally occurred during spring time, especially in March, corresponding to prevailing biomass burning activities in SE Asia. Besides, LABS is also one of the supersites during the 2010-2013 spring campaigns of the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) for studying the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate over Southeast Asian region. Results of source (northern Thailand

  1. Physics and chemistry of non-equilibrium, atmospheric pressure plasmas containing fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiawan

    The physics and chemistry of low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasmas containing fluorine have been investigated with current, voltage, and power measurements, infrared absorption spectroscopy, and optical emission spectroscopy. The plasma source consisted of two closely spaced metal electrodes, supplied with radio-frequency power at 13.56 MHz. The fluorine atom concentration was measured in the downstream region of a carbon tetrafluoride and helium plasma using infrared spectroscopy. The gas discharge generated 1.2 x 10 15 cm-3 of F atoms, which is ˜100 times higher than that found in low-pressure plasmas. A numerical model of the plasma indicated that most of the F atoms were generated by the reaction of CF4 with metastable helium atoms. It was discovered that the atmospheric pressure, radio-frequency plasma could be made to undergo sheath breakdown with conversion from an alpha- to a gamma-mode discharge. With 0.4 vol% nitrogen in helium, this transition was accompanied by a 40% drop in voltage, a 12% decrease in current, and a surge in power density from 25 to 2083 W/cm3. The shift in intense plasma emission from the bulk gas to the surface of the electrodes was documented by optical techniques. When the plasma was operated in the alpha and gamma modes, 5.2% and 15.2% of the N2 was dissociated into atoms, respectively. In the latter case, the low dissociation efficiency was ascribed to the nonuniform structure of the plasma across the gap. In plasmas containing 1.0 vol% carbon tetrafluoride and sulfur hexafluoride, the alpha to gamma transition occurred smoothly with no discharge contraction. The electron density in these plasmas equaled 6.0 x 1011 cm-3, compared to 1.9 x 1013 cm -3 in pure helium. The drop in plasma density was due to fast electron attachment processes caused by the electronegative molecules, which also resulted in a high density of negative ions, up to 1013 cm-3. In addition, the non-equilibrium, atmospheric pressure plasma was used to

  2. Phase B-final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL). A spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Progress in the development of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is outlined. The fluid subsystem, aerosol generator, expansion chamber, optical system, control systems, and software are included.

  3. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  4. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) task flow is shown. Current progress is identified. The requirements generated in task 1 have been used to formulate an initial ACPL baseline design concept. ACPL design/functional features are illustrated. A timetable is presented of the routines for ACPL integration with the spacelab system.

  5. Modification of the continuous flow diffusion chamber for use in zero-gravity. [atmospheric cloud physics lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, G.

    1978-01-01

    The design philosophy and performance characteristics of the continuous flow diffusion chamber developed for use in ground-based simulation of some of the experiments planned for the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory during the first Spacelab flight are discussed. Topics covered include principle of operation, thermal control, temperature measurement, tem-powered heat exchangers, wettable metal surfaces, sample injection system, and control electronics.

  6. Spatial-Spectral Studies of Cometary Volatiles and the Physical Environment of Inner Cometary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, Boncho P.; Fougere, Nicolas; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Mumma, Michael J.; Combi, Michael R.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Paganini, Lucas; Cordiner, Martin; Gibb, Erika L.; Milam, Stefanie N.

    2015-11-01

    How is water released in comets - directly from the nucleus versus sublimation from icy grains in the coma? How common and how prevalent are icy grains as a source of gas-phase water (and other volatiles) among the active comet population? These questions are being addressed through synergy between spatial-spectral studies of native volatiles in comets and the physical models tested against them. This synergy is extending the state-of-the-art in both domains. Ground-based near-IR spectroscopy (Keck, NASA IRTF, and ESO VLT) allowed measurements of spatially resolved inner coma temperatures and column densities for H2O - the most abundant volatile in the coma. These measurements motivated the inclusion of new physics in the models. The evolved models now open new questions and trigger improvement in the accuracy of measured temperature profiles, most recently extended to other molecules (HCN in the near-IR) and to other wavelength domains (CH3OH, through ALMA; S. Milam et al., this meeting). The net result is deeper quantitative insight into the competition among processes that cause heating and cooling of the coma and into the prevalent mechanism(s) for release of native volatiles in the gas phase.The same inner-coma modeling formalisms are used to interpret both the environment of Rosetta's mission target (67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko) and those from the ground-based observations reported here (Combi et al. 2015, LPSC, #1714; Fougere et al., this meeting). While ground-based spectroscopy offers less detail than in-situ missions, it can probe the comae of many comets that may differ greatly from one another and from Rosetta's target, thereby assessing the extent to which the inner-coma environment of 67P is unique, and how it relates to other comets.We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA Planetary Atmospheres, Solar System Workings, Planetary Astronomy, and Astrobiology programs, and from NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants program.

  7. A descriptive analysis of research methods classes in departments of kinesiology and physical education in the United States.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Stephen; Keating, Xiaofen Deng

    2002-03-01

    Research training takes many forms and is generally a part of graduate education. A common and important aspect of research training is the introductory research methods class offered by many departments. The purpose of this study was to examine the content, process, and instructors of introductory research methods classes in departments of kinesiology and physical education in the United States. A survey was designed and extensively pilot tested. The sample was selected from all departments offering graduate degrees in the United States. Among the many results, the data indicate that one book was required reading in more than half the classes and class size averaged about 19 students. A number of objectives were statedfor most classes, with understanding research, applying research to professional situations, critiquing the research literature, and planning research indicated most often. Quantitative design and analysis topics were emphasized more strongly than qualitative design and analysis topics. Professors indicated that more than half the class time was spent lecturing and most grades were based on exams, preparation of a research proposal, and regular assignments. The professors were relatively experienced, had a variety ofspecialty areas, and were reasonably productive researchers. The trends suggest that alternative research methodologies have not been quickly added to the research methods curriculum.

  8. A Study of Physical-Chemical Effects on the Atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere During Forbush Decrease Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugal, W.; Pacini, A. A.; Echer, E.; Echer, M. P. D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present here a study about some possible physical-chemical changes on the Southern hemisphere atmosphere, in Brazil, due to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) flux decreases (Forbush Decreases). Galactic Cosmic Rays are energetic particles that come from interstellar medium and arrive on the Earth isotropically and continuously. These particles interact with atmosphere constituents and induce the ionization of the neutral atmosphere. It is known that the presence of ions on the troposphere can change the vapor condensation patterns, since some ions can behave like cloud condensation nuclei. So, there is a work hypothesis, that the GCR flux decrease can cause some change on the physical-chemical of the atmosphere. We have investigated this possible effect, using three periods of Forbush Decrease effects (Nov/01, Oct/03 e Jul/12) with different magnitudes, on three different latitudinal range of Brazilian sector, Porto Alegre (30.08o S , YY O); Brasília (15.75o S , YY O) and Belém (1.46o S , YY O). The atmospheric effects are assessed by analysis of the temperature, pressure, humidity and aerossol data profiles, since the surface up to stratosphere. We have also studied, for comparison, high latitude atmosphere by atmospheric data from Jokioinen - Filand (60.8o N , 23.5o E) for the same three FDs. Then, our aim with this study is to investigate possible GCR decreases effects in the lower atmosphere at high, medium and low latitudes. The results obtained in this study will be compared with previous published works.

  9. Physics and applications of atmospheric non-thermal air plasma with reference to environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marode, E.; Djermoune, D.; Dessante, P.; Deniset, C.; Ségur, P.; Bastien, F.; Bourdon, A.; Laux, C.

    2009-12-01

    Since air is a natural part of our environment, special attention is given to the study of plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure and their applications. This fact promoted the study of electrical conduction in air-like mixtures, i.e. mixtures containing an electronegative gas component. If the ionization growth is not limited its temporal evolution leads to spark formation, i.e. a thermal plasma of several thousand kelvins in a quasi-local thermodynamic equilibrium state. But before reaching such a thermal state, a plasma sets up where the electrons increase their energy characterized by an electron temperature Te much higher than that of heavy species T or T+ for the ions. Since the plasma is no longer characterized by only one temperature T, it is said to be in a non-thermal plasma (NTP) state. Practical ways are listed to prevent electron ionization from going beyond the NTP states. Much understanding of such NTP may be gathered from the study of the simple paradigmatic case of a discharge induced between a sharp positively stressed point electrode facing a grounded negative plane electrode. Some physical properties will be gathered from such configurations and links underlined between these properties and some associated applications, mostly environmental. Aerosol filtration and electrostatic precipitators, pollution control by removal of hazardous species contained in flue gas exhaust, sterilization applications for medical purposes and triggering fuel combustion in vehicle motors are among such applications nowadays.

  10. Coupling submesoscale physics to seabirds behaviour at the ocean-atmosphere interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Monte, S.; Cotté, C.; d'Ovidio, F.; Lévy, M.; Le Corre, M.; Weimerskirch, H.

    2012-04-01

    During their journeys, seabirds are faced to environmental heterogeneity of the scale of tens of Kms in extension and of days in duration, that are induced in the open ocean by mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence. We combine tracking of frigatebirds in the Mozambique channel - available for the first time with 3-D resolution - and multisatellite-based nonlinear diagnostics to inquire how birds respond to the coupled ocean-atmosphere physics. Birds behaviour along their flight trajectory are categorized in 5 classes of vertical displacement, e.g. slow or fast descents, and are superimposed with the submesoscale structures obtained by a Lagrangian reanalysis or remote-sensing measures. We show that frigatebirds modify their behaviour at such scale over and outside transport and thermal fronts. We suggest that birds colocalization with structures generated by horizontal transport is a consequence of their quest for food (preferentially located on thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. Our multidisciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data and contribute to elucidate the response of marine ecosystems to environmental change.

  11. The physical theory of one dimensional galactic cosmic-ray propagation in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, K.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical theory of atmospheric cosmic-ray propagation is developed based on a phenomenological model of hadron-nucleus collisions. This model correctly predicts the sea level cosmic-ray nucleon, pion and muon spectra, the cosmic-ray ionization profile in the atmosphere, and neutron flux and density profiles in the atmosphere. It is concluded that the large scale properties of atmospheric cosmic-rays can be accurately predicted on the basis of a nucleonic cascade with all secondaries mediated by pion production. Implications for energy independence of cross sections, the recent 70 GeV results from Serpukhov, and nucleonic relaxation rates in the atmosphere are discussed.

  12. Hospital based emergency department visits attributed to child physical abuse in United States: predictors of in-hospital mortality.

    PubMed

    Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Asad, Rahimullah; Lee, Min Kyeong; Nalliah, Romesh P; Rampa, Sankeerth; Speicher, David G; Rotta, Alexandre T; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2014-01-01

    To describe nationally representative outcomes of physical abuse injuries in children necessitating Emergency Department (ED) visits in United States. The impact of various injuries on mortality is examined. We hypothesize that physical abuse resulting in intracranial injuries are associated with worse outcome. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all payer hospital based ED database, for the years 2008-2010. All ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations with a diagnosis of "Child physical abuse" (Battered baby or child syndrome) due to various injuries were identified using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes. In addition, we also examined the prevalence of sexual abuse in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between mortality and types of injuries after adjusting for a multitude of patient and hospital level factors. Of the 16897 ED visits that were attributed to child physical abuse, 5182 (30.7%) required hospitalization. Hospitalized children were younger than those released treated and released from the ED (1.9 years vs. 6.4 years). Male or female partner of the child's parent/guardian accounted for >45% of perpetrators. Common injuries in hospitalized children include- any fractures (63.5%), intracranial injuries (32.3%) and crushing/internal injuries (9.1%). Death occurred in 246 patients (13 in ED and 233 following hospitalization). Amongst the 16897 ED visits, 1.3% also had sexual abuse. Multivariable analyses revealed each 1 year increase in age was associated with a lower odds of mortality (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.96, p < 0.0001). Females (OR = 2.39, 1.07-5.34, p = 0.03), those with intracranial injuries (OR = 65.24, 27.57-154.41, p<0.0001), or crushing/internal injury (OR = 4.98, 2.24-11.07, p<0.0001) had higher odds of mortality compared to their male counterparts. In this

  13. Hospital Based Emergency Department Visits Attributed to Child Physical Abuse in United States: Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Asad, Rahimullah; Lee, Min Kyeong; Nalliah, Romesh P.; Rampa, Sankeerth; Speicher, David G.; Rotta, Alexandre T.; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe nationally representative outcomes of physical abuse injuries in children necessitating Emergency Department (ED) visits in United States. The impact of various injuries on mortality is examined. We hypothesize that physical abuse resulting in intracranial injuries are associated with worse outcome. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all payer hospital based ED database, for the years 2008–2010. All ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations with a diagnosis of “Child physical abuse” (Battered baby or child syndrome) due to various injuries were identified using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes. In addition, we also examined the prevalence of sexual abuse in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between mortality and types of injuries after adjusting for a multitude of patient and hospital level factors. Results Of the 16897 ED visits that were attributed to child physical abuse, 5182 (30.7%) required hospitalization. Hospitalized children were younger than those released treated and released from the ED (1.9 years vs. 6.4 years). Male or female partner of the child’s parent/guardian accounted for >45% of perpetrators. Common injuries in hospitalized children include- any fractures (63.5%), intracranial injuries (32.3%) and crushing/internal injuries (9.1%). Death occurred in 246 patients (13 in ED and 233 following hospitalization). Amongst the 16897 ED visits, 1.3% also had sexual abuse. Multivariable analyses revealed each 1 year increase in age was associated with a lower odds of mortality (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81–0.96, p<0.0001). Females (OR = 2.39, 1.07–5.34, p = 0.03), those with intracranial injuries (OR = 65.24, 27.57–154.41, p<0.0001), or crushing/internal injury (OR = 4.98, 2.24–11.07, p<0

  14. Verbal abuse and physical assault in the emergency department: Rates of violence, perceptions of safety, and attitudes towards security.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Bradley; Affleck, Julia

    2017-08-01

    Emergency Department (ED) workers are prone to occupational violence, however the extent and impact of this may not be evenly felt across all roles in the ED. Explore: 1) the rate of verbal abuse and physical assaults experienced by ED staff, 2) perceptions of safety, 3) attitudes towards security officers, and 4) formal reporting of incidents. 330 ED workers were surveyed at four public hospitals in one metropolitan health service district in Queensland, Australia, including 179 nurses, 83 medical staff, 44 administration staff, 14 allied health, and 9 operational. Nurses were more likely to have been physically assaulted in the last six months and were less likely to feel safe. Most ED staff across all roles experienced verbal abuse. Nurses were better than medical staff at reporting instances of occupational violence although overall reporting across all roles was low. Staff who thought that security officers respond to incidents quickly and are a visible presence in the ED were more likely to feel safe in the ED. Workers in the ED, particularly nurses, experience high rates of verbal abuse and physical aggression and there may be a case for having designated security guards in the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of Physical Atmosphere on Air Quality and the Utility of Satellite Observations in Air Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Park, Y. H.; Doty, K.; Khan, M. N.; Dornblaser, B.

    2012-12-01

    Physical atmosphere significantly impacts air quality as it regulates production, accumulation, and transport of atmospheric pollutants. Consequently, air quality simulations are greatly influenced by the uncertainties that emanates from the simulation of physical atmosphere. Since air quality model predictions are increasingly being used in health studies, regulatory applications, and policy making, reducing such uncertainties in model simulations is of outmost importance. This paper describes some of the critical aspects of physical atmosphere affecting air quality models that can be improved by utilizing satellite observations. Retrievals of skin temperature, surface albedo, surface insolation, cloud top temperature and cloud reflectance obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) by NASA/MSFC GOES Product Generation System (GPGS) have been utilized to improve the air quality simulations used in the State Implementation Plan (SIP) attainment demonstrations. Satellite observations of ground temperature are used to recover surface moisture and heat capacity and thereby improving model simulation of air temperature. Observations of clouds are utilized to improve the photochemical reaction rates within the photochemical model and also to assimilate clouds in the meteorological model. These techniques have been implemented and tested in some of the widely used air quality decision modeling systems such as MM5/WRF/CMAQ/CAMx. The results from these activities show significant improvements in air quality simulations.

  16. Far-extreme UV novel coatings for applications in heliophysics, astrophysics, and atmosphere physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larruquert, Juan; Rodriguez-de Marcos, Luis; Mendez, Jose Antonio; Aznarez, Jose Antonio; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; Malvezzi, A. Marco; Giglia, Angelo; Miotti, Paolo; Frassetto, Fabio; Massone, Giuseppe

    Observations in the far UV (FUV, here 100-200 nm) and the extreme UV (EUV, here 10-100 nm) for heliophysics, and also for astrophysics and atmosphere physics, can benefit from the development of more efficient coatings. Among the difficulties for this, radiation absorption of most materials in these ranges result in limited optical performance and little design flexibility of coatings. Research at GOLD has been devoted to the development of novel coatings with improved performance mostly in the 50-200 nm spectral range. One research line has pursued the search and characterization of promising uncommon materials. A second research line has followed the development of novel multilayer coatings with improved performance over the available ones. Hence multilayer coatings have been developed for various targets, such as broadband mirrors, narrowband reflective/ transmissive filters, and polarizers. Attention has been focused on coatings for two fundamental wavelengths for physics of the solar corona, Lyman alpha (121.6 nm) and beta (102.6 nm) H spectral lines, along with other important lines such as O VI’s 103.2 and 103.8 nm. Little experience was available on filters for imaging at 102.6 nm with the requirement of a strong rejection of the often much more intense 121.6-nm line. At GOLD we have developed reflective multilayers based on Al, LiF, and SiC that provide a reflectance of 40-45% at 102.6 nm, with a 102.6/121.6-nm reflectance ratio of the order of 100 for samples aged in desiccators. As a continuation of this research, the present design may be adjusted to tune the multilayer coating to shift it to also cover the O VI lines. New coatings are also necessary for FUV polarimetry, which is a powerful technique to interpret the role of the coronal plasma in the energy-transfer processes from the inner parts of the Sun to the outer space. Hence it is necessary to develop efficient polarizers for the above wavelengths. A collaboration is underway for the

  17. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system

    PubMed Central

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system—System 4—has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981–2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  18. Public emergency department: the psychosocial impact on the physical domain of quality of life of nursing professionals

    PubMed Central

    Kogien, Moisés; Cedaro, José Juliano

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the psychosocial factors of work related to harm caused in the physical domain of the quality of life of nursing professionals working in a public emergency department. Method cross-sectional, descriptive study addressing 189 nursing professionals. The Job Stress Scale and the short version of an instrument from the World Health Organization to assess quality of life were used to collect data. Robert Karasek's Demand-Control Model was the reference for the analysis of the psychosocial configuration. The risk for damage was computed with a confidence interval of 95%. Results In regard to the psychosocial environment, the largest proportion of workers reported low psychological demands (66.1%) and low social support (52.4%), while 60.9% of the professionals experienced work situations with a greater potential for harm: high demand job (22.8%) and passive work (38.1%). Conclusions low intellectual discernment, low social support and experiencing a high demand job or a passive job were the main risk factors for damage in the physical domain of quality of life. PMID:24553703

  19. Utility of the History and Physical Examination in the Detection of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Emergency Department Patients.

    PubMed

    Dezman, Zachary Dw; Mattu, Amal; Body, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Chest pain accounts for approximately 6% of all emergency department (ED) visits and is the most common reason for emergency hospital admission. One of the most serious diagnoses emergency physicians must consider is acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This is both common and serious, as ischemic heart disease remains the single biggest cause of death in the western world. The history and physical examination are cornerstones of our diagnostic approach in this patient group. Their importance is emphasized in guidelines, but there is little evidence to support their supposed association. The purpose of this article was to summarize the findings of recent investigations regarding the ability of various components of the history and physical examination to identify which patients presenting to the ED with chest pain require further investigation for possible ACS. Previous studies have consistently identified a number of factors that increase the probability of ACS. These include radiation of the pain, aggravation of the pain by exertion, vomiting, and diaphoresis. Traditional cardiac risk factors identified by the Framingham Heart Study are of limited diagnostic utility in the ED. Clinician gestalt has very low predictive ability, even in patients with a non-diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG), and gestalt does not seem to be enhanced appreciably by clinical experience. The history and physical alone are unable to reduce a patient's risk of ACS to a generally acceptable level (<1%). Ultimately, our review of the evidence clearly demonstrates that "atypical" symptoms cannot rule out ACS, while "typical" symptoms cannot rule it in. Therefore, if a patient has symptoms that are compatible with ACS and an alternative cause cannot be identified, clinicians must strongly consider the need for further investigation with ECG and troponin measurement.

  20. Utility of the History and Physical Examination in the Detection of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dezman, Zachary DW; Mattu, Amal; Body, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Chest pain accounts for approximately 6% of all emergency department (ED) visits and is the most common reason for emergency hospital admission. One of the most serious diagnoses emergency physicians must consider is acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This is both common and serious, as ischemic heart disease remains the single biggest cause of death in the western world. The history and physical examination are cornerstones of our diagnostic approach in this patient group. Their importance is emphasized in guidelines, but there is little evidence to support their supposed association. The purpose of this article was to summarize the findings of recent investigations regarding the ability of various components of the history and physical examination to identify which patients presenting to the ED with chest pain require further investigation for possible ACS. Previous studies have consistently identified a number of factors that increase the probability of ACS. These include radiation of the pain, aggravation of the pain by exertion, vomiting, and diaphoresis. Traditional cardiac risk factors identified by the Framingham Heart Study are of limited diagnostic utility in the ED. Clinician gestalt has very low predictive ability, even in patients with a non-diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG), and gestalt does not seem to be enhanced appreciably by clinical experience. The history and physical alone are unable to reduce a patient’s risk of ACS to a generally acceptable level (<1%). Ultimately, our review of the evidence clearly demonstrates that “atypical” symptoms cannot rule out ACS, while “typical” symptoms cannot rule it in. Therefore, if a patient has symptoms that are compatible with ACS and an alternative cause cannot be identified, clinicians must strongly consider the need for further investigation with ECG and troponin measurement. PMID:28611898

  1. Biological and physical controls in the Southern Ocean on past millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Lippold, Jörg; Vogel, Hendrik; Frank, Norbert; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial period and deglaciation were accompanied by rapid changes in atmospheric CO2 that remain unexplained. While the role of the Southern Ocean as a 'control valve' on ocean–atmosphere CO2 exchange has been emphasized, the exact nature of this role, in particular the relative contributions of physical (for example, ocean dynamics and air–sea gas exchange) versus biological processes (for example, export productivity), remains poorly constrained. Here we combine reconstructions of bottom-water [O2], export production and 14C ventilation ages in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic, and show that atmospheric CO2 pulses during the last glacial- and deglacial periods were consistently accompanied by decreases in the biological export of carbon and increases in deep-ocean ventilation via southern-sourced water masses. These findings demonstrate how the Southern Ocean's 'organic carbon pump' has exerted a tight control on atmospheric CO2, and thus global climate, specifically via a synergy of both physical and biological processes. PMID:27187527

  2. Biological and physical controls in the Southern Ocean on past millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Lippold, Jörg; Vogel, Hendrik; Frank, Norbert; Jaccard, Samuel L; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2016-05-17

    Millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial period and deglaciation were accompanied by rapid changes in atmospheric CO2 that remain unexplained. While the role of the Southern Ocean as a 'control valve' on ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange has been emphasized, the exact nature of this role, in particular the relative contributions of physical (for example, ocean dynamics and air-sea gas exchange) versus biological processes (for example, export productivity), remains poorly constrained. Here we combine reconstructions of bottom-water [O2], export production and (14)C ventilation ages in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic, and show that atmospheric CO2 pulses during the last glacial- and deglacial periods were consistently accompanied by decreases in the biological export of carbon and increases in deep-ocean ventilation via southern-sourced water masses. These findings demonstrate how the Southern Ocean's 'organic carbon pump' has exerted a tight control on atmospheric CO2, and thus global climate, specifically via a synergy of both physical and biological processes.

  3. Biological and physical controls in the Southern Ocean on past millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Lippold, Jörg; Vogel, Hendrik; Frank, Norbert; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial period and deglaciation were accompanied by rapid changes in atmospheric CO2 that remain unexplained. While the role of the Southern Ocean as a 'control valve' on ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange has been emphasized, the exact nature of this role, in particular the relative contributions of physical (for example, ocean dynamics and air-sea gas exchange) versus biological processes (for example, export productivity), remains poorly constrained. Here we combine reconstructions of bottom-water [O2], export production and 14C ventilation ages in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic, and show that atmospheric CO2 pulses during the last glacial- and deglacial periods were consistently accompanied by decreases in the biological export of carbon and increases in deep-ocean ventilation via southern-sourced water masses. These findings demonstrate how the Southern Ocean's 'organic carbon pump' has exerted a tight control on atmospheric CO2, and thus global climate, specifically via a synergy of both physical and biological processes.

  4. Phase B: Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL), a spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary identification of the Supporting Research and Technology (SR&T) necessary during the planned evolution of atmospheric cloud physics is discussed. All requirements are for subsequent flights over its expected ten year lifetime. Those components identified as requiring some SR&T work prior to inclusion are listed. A data sheet is included for each item, briefly justifying the need, giving general objectives for the proposed development effort and identifying approximate schedule requirements on the program.

  5. Russian investigations in the field of atmospheric radiation in 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Yu. M.; Shul'gina, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    A short survey prepared by the Russian Commission on Atmospheric Radiation contains the most significant results of works in the field of atmospheric-radiation studies performed in 2007-2010. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences prepared for the International Association on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). During this period, the Russian Commission on Atmospheric Radiation, jointly with concerned departments and organizations, ran the conference "Physics and Education," dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Department of Physics at St. Petersburg State University (2007); the International Symposium of CIS Countries "Atmospheric Radiation and Dynamics" (2009); and the 5th International Conference "Atmospheric Physics, Climate, and Environment" (2010). At the conferences, central problems in modern atmosphere physics were discussed: radiative transfer and atmospheric optics; greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols; remote methods of measurements; and new measurement data. This survey presents five directions covering the whole spectrum of investigations performed in the field of atmospheric radiation.

  6. Marine Primary Aerosol in the Mediterranean atmosphere: physical and chemical properties from a mesocosm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'anna, B.; Sellegri, K.; Charriere, B.; Sempere, R.; Mas, S.; George, C.; Meme, A.; R'Mili, B.; Schwier, A. N.; Rose, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a special marine environment characterized by low biological activity and high anthropogenic pressure. It is often difficult to discriminated the contribution of Primary Sea Salt Aerosol (SSA) formed at the sea-air interface from background level of the aerosol. An alternative tool to study the sea-air exchanges in a controlled environment is provided by the mesocosms, which represent an important link between field studies and laboratory experiments. A mesocosms experiment was performed in May 2013 at the Oceanographic and Marine Station STARESO in Western Corsica. Three mesocosms were simultaneously filled with pooled and screened (<1000 μm) subsurface (1 m) seawater from the Bay. Each mesocosm had a maximum water column depth of 2 m and contained 2260 L of Bay water and covered with transparent (teflon film) dome to prevent atmospheric contamination. The three mesocosms were equipped with a pack of optical and physicochemical sensors and received different treatements: one was left unchanged as control and two were enriched by addition of nitrates and phosphates respecting Redfield ration (N:P = 16). The evolution of the three systems was followed for 20 days. A set of sensors in each mesocosm were established at 0.5 m and allowed to monitor at high frequency (every 2 min): water temperature, conductivity, pH, incident light, fluorescence of chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentration. The mesocosms waters were daily sampled for chemical (dissolved oxygen, colored dissolved organic matter, nitrates, phosphates, silicates, transparent polyssacharides, dicarboxylic acids and related polar compounds) and biological (chlorophyll a, virus, phytoplankton and zooplankton concentration) analyses. Finally, few liters of sea-water from each mesocosms were sampled daily and immediately transferred to a bubble-bursting apparatus to simulate SSA. Size distribution and particle number were followed by SMPS and APS in the range of 10nm to 10

  7. A simple-physics global circulation model for Venus: Sensitivity assessments of atmospheric superrotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Young, R. E.; Schubert, G.; Covey, C.; Grossman, A. S.

    2007-03-01

    A 3D global circulation model is adapted to the atmosphere of Venus to explore the nature of the planet's atmospheric superrotation. The model employs the full meteorological primitive equations and simplified forms for diabatic and other nonconservative forcings. It is therefore economical for performing very long simulations. To assess circulation equilibration and the occurrence of atmospheric superrotation, the climate model is run for 10,000-20,000 day integrations at 4° × 5° latitude-longitude horizontal resolution, and 56 vertical levels (denoted L56). The sensitivity of these simulations to imposed Venus-like diabatic heating rates, momentum dissipation rates, and various other key parameters (e.g., near-surface momentum drag), in addition to model configuration (e.g., low versus high vertical domain and number of atmospheric levels), is examined. We find equatorial superrotation in several of our numerical experiments, but the magnitude of superrotation is often less than observed. Further, the meridional structure of the mean zonal overturning (i.e., Hadley circulation) can consist of numerous cells which are symmetric about the equator and whose depth scale appears sensitive to the number of vertical layers imposed in the model atmosphere. We find that when realistic diabatic heating is imposed in the lowest several scales heights, only extremely weak atmospheric superrotation results.

  8. The Use of Full-Physics Atmospheric Modeling for Wind Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, J. E.; Berg, L. K.; Fast, J. D.; Gustafson, W. I.; Rishel, J. P.; Shaw, W. J.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation will describe a number of issues relevant to the use of mesoscale meteorological models for the development and operation of wind power plants. An accurate description of the local winds over a range of spatial and temporal scales is important for wind plants. In addition to various measurement methods, a number of modeling tools can be used to explore winds at these scales, including a full-physics mesoscale model such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Simulations in regions of complex terrain can, however, have significant amounts of uncertainty, and results can be sensitive to the model parameters such as turbulence representation, the horizontal and vertical grid spacing, and initial and boundary conditions. Numerous studies conducted by PNNL scientists have quantified the performance of WRF. These evaluations included simulation of low-level winds in a number of geographic areas with both simple and complex terrain. However, previous research focused on comparisons with data from intensive, short-duration field campaigns that may not be completely relevant for wind plants. The identification of long- term, high quality data sets is therefore an important aspect of evaluating and improving model performance in wind energy applications. One such source of quality-assured meteorological data is from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. It is an ideal location for evaluating the performance of the WRF model for both prognosis of the local winds, as would be appropriate for a wind resource characterization, and for an analysis of severe wind events, which is important for wind turbine safety. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and covers approximately 1500 sq km. The topography in this region is dominated by a number of significant ridges around a central basin, and severe wind events are frequent, especially during the springtime. Wind energy has been explored in this area, and a wind plant with

  9. Public Outreach of the South Texas Health Physic Society and Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R. O.

    2003-02-24

    In a cooperative effort of the members of the South Texas Chapter of the Heath Physics Society (STC-HPS) and the Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department, great efforts have been made to reach out and provide educational opportunities to members of the general public, school age children, and specifically teachers. These efforts have taken the form of Science Teacher Workshops (STW), visits to schools all over the state of Texas, public forums, and many other educational arenas. A major motivational factor for these most recent efforts can be directly tied to the attempt of the State of Texas to site a low-level radioactive waste facility near Sierra Blanca in West Texas. When the State of Texas first proposed to site a low level radioactive waste site after the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 was passed, many years of political struggle ensued. Finally, a site at Sierra Blanca in far West Texas was selected for study and characterization for a disposal site for waste generated in the Texas Compact states of Maine, Vermont and Texas. During this process, the outreach to and education of the local public became a paramount issue.

  10. Report on Foundation and Organization of Econophysics Graduate Courses at Faculty of Physics of University of Warsaw and Department of Physics and Astronomy of the Wrocław University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutner, R.; Grech, D.

    2008-09-01

    Two different, working examples of organization of econophysics graduate courses at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw and the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the Wrocław University are considered. In the first example we have a system where the interdisciplinary, econophysical education begins only after three years study of physics. Within this system the M.Sc. as well as Ph.D. theses in econophysics are conducted only at the Faculty of Physics. In the second example the B.Sc. theses in econophysics are accomplished in the Department of Physics and Astronomy again after three years study but higher degrees can be prepared either in physics in the Institute of Theoretical Physics or in economy in the Institute of Economical Sciences. M.Sc. and Ph.D. theses can also be conducted. For both examples, the graduate students of econophysics are obliged to participate in traditional (typical) economical lectures and trainings which are offered them by economical departments while lectures and trainings (tutorials and/or laboratory classes) in econophysics are offered them by physics departments themselves. Thus Poland is one of a few countries, where so modern interdisciplinary knowledge is systematically offered to students.

  11. Physics-based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-07

    solution to the model parameters. As such, part of this effort examines the forward problem to improve understanding of the physical mechanisms that...environmental factors including refractivity. Study of the forward problem in this context improves our understanding of the physical mechanisms impacting EM...please find the Final Technical Report with SF 298 for Dr. Erin E. Hackett’s ONR grant entitled Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine

  12. The physical properties of the Jovian atmosphere inferred from eclipses of the Galilean satellites. II - 1971 apparition.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, M. J.; Hall, J. S.; Boyce, P. B.; Albrecht, R.

    1972-01-01

    Further simultaneous two-color photoelectric photometry of Ganymede was carried out at blue (4500 A) and yellow (5790 A) wavelengths during its eclipse by Jupiter on Mar. 10, 1971. In both colors, the shape of the ingress light curve was again reliably determined for extinctions up to 9 mag. Neither curve showed any evidence of a refraction tail. The observations have been interpreted in terms of the local optical transmission properties of the Jovian atmosphere. At gas number densities of about 5 x 10 to the 18th power per cu cm the maximum photon scattering mean free path at visual wavelengths was 47 km atm. Evidence indicates that neither a simple reflecting-layer model or a semiinfinite homogeneous scattering model provides an adequate physical description of the atmosphere.

  13. Planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with some of the principal data on extraterrestrial atmospheres obtained during the period 1975-1978. The atmospheres of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and the Jovian satellites are examined, showing that many first-order questions concerning composition, physical state, and kinematics of these atmospheres have been answered.

  14. Atmospheric aerosols: A literature summary of their physical characteristics and chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains a summary of 199 recent references on the characterization of atmospheric aerosols with respect to their composition, sources, size distribution, and time changes, and with particular reference to the chemical elements measured by modern techniques, especially activation analysis.

  15. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: the role of biological particles in cloud physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhler, O.; Demott, P. J.; Vali, G.; Levin, Z.

    2007-12-01

    As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and potential impact of biological particles in the atmosphere, this paper introduces and summarizes the potential role of biological particles in atmospheric clouds. Biological particles like bacteria or pollen may be active as both cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) and thereby can contribute to the initial cloud formation stages and the development of precipitation through giant CCN and IN processes. The paper gives an introduction to aerosol-cloud processes involving CCN and IN in general and provides a short summary of previous laboratory, field and modelling work which investigated the CCN and IN activity of bacterial cells and pollen. Recent measurements of atmospheric ice nuclei with a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) and of the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of bacterial cells are also briefly discussed. As a main result of this overview paper we conclude that a proper assessment of the impact of biological particles on tropospheric clouds needs new laboratory, field and modelling work on the abundance of biological particles in the atmosphere and their CCN and heterogeneous IN properties.

  16. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: the role of biological particles in cloud physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhler, O.; Demott, P. J.; Vali, G.; Levin, Z.

    2007-08-01

    As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and potential impact of biological particles in the atmosphere, this paper introduces and summarizes the potential role of biological particles in atmospheric clouds. Biological particles like bacteria or pollen may be active as both cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) and thereby can contribute to the initial cloud formation stages and the development of precipitation through giant CCN and IN processes. The paper gives an introduction to aerosol-cloud processes like CCN and IN in general and provides a short summary of previous laboratory, field and modelling work investigating the CCN and IN activity of bacterial cells and pollen. Recent measurements of atmospheric ice nuclei with a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) and of the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of bacterial cells are also briefly discussed. As a main result of this overview paper we conclude that a proper assessment of the impact of biological particles on tropospheric clouds needs new laboratory, field and modelling work investigating the abundance of biological particles in the atmosphere and their CCN and heterogeneous IN properties.

  17. In-Situ Study of Physical Properties and Structure of Atmospheric Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    AIAA Aerospace Siences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, 10-13 January. Minsk, L.D., 1982: Proceedings of First International Workshop: Atmospheric...of 55 Ice Accretion Liquid Fraction in Two Wind Tuunels, The 43rd AIAA Aerospace Siences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, 10-13 January 2005

  18. Physics of the atmosphere: Response of the water vapor channel of the Meteosat satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roulleau, M.; Poc, M. M.; Scott, N.; Chedin, A.

    1980-01-01

    An accurate model of the atmospheric transmission function is used to obtain the relationship between the cloudless radiances measured by the 6-7 microns Meteosat radiometer (water vapor channel) and the numerical parameters associated to each point of an image. This relationship is compared to the temporary calibration curve published by the European Space Agency.

  19. Environmental consequences of nuclear war (SCOPE 28), Vol. 1: Physical and atmospheric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pittock, A.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Crutzen, P.J.; MacCracken, M.C.; Shapiro, C.S.; Turco, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an interdisciplinary look at current scientific knowledge of the possible environmental consequences of a nuclear war. The authors assess the likely magnitude of changes in sunlight, temperature, precipitation, atmospheric chemistry, and more. Volume One reviews existing nuclear arsenals, war scenarios, immediate and subsequent effects.

  20. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1982. Atmospheric physics. Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The first article in this report, although dealing with simple terrain, summarizes an effort to obtain measures of parameters important in transport and diffusion in the lower atmosphere solely by use of a Doppler acoustic sounding system. The second article describes participation in a multiagency experiment (Shoreline Environment Atmospheric Dispersion Experiment, SEADEX) to study the fate of materials released over a surface with notable surface nonuniformities, specifically at a coastal nuclear power plant during onshore flow conditions. The third and fourth articles in this report address research on the local behavior of pollutants emitted from diesel engines in urban areas. Most effort was directed toward field studies on circulation patterns in street canyons, exchange rates with the atmosphere above rooftops, and characterization of particles in outdoor urban microclimates. The remainder of the report is quite diverse and contains multiple articles on perhaps only one or two types of research. One is numerical modeling of the behavior of atmospheric pollutants, especially gaseous and particulate substances associated with acid deposition. The modeling and theoretical capabilities have been developed in part to consider potential nonlinear relationships between anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and the distant deposition of resulting acidifying substances. On the experimental side, field phases of research designed to compare methods of analyses of precipitation samples and to study local urban effects on precipitation chemistry were completed. Each report is indexed separately.

  1. The molecular physics of photolytic fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in planetary atmospheres (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Schmidt, J. A.; Hattori, S.; Danielache, S.; Meusinger, C.; Schinke, R.; Ueno, Y.; Nanbu, S.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Yoshida, N.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric photochemistry is able to produce large mass independent anomalies in atmospheric trace gases that can be found in geological and cryospheric records. This talk will present theoretical and experimental investigations of the molecular mechanisms producing photolytic fractionation of isotopes with special attention to sulfur and oxygen. The zero point vibrational energy (ZPE) shift and reflection principle theories are starting points for estimating isotopic fractionation, but these models ignore effects arising from isotope-dependent changes in couplings between surfaces, excited state dynamics, line densities and hot band populations. The isotope-dependent absorption spectra of the isotopologues of HCl, N2O, OCS, CO2 and SO2 have been examined in a series of papers and these results are compared with experiment and ZPE/reflection principle models. Isotopic fractionation in planetary atmospheres has many interesting applications. The UV absorption of CO2 is the basis of photochemistry in the CO2-rich atmospheres of the ancient Earth, and of Mars and Venus. For the first time we present accurate temperature and isotope dependent CO2 absorption cross sections with important implications for photolysis rates of SO2 and H2O, and the production of a mass independent anomaly in the Ox reservoir. Experimental and theoretical results for OCS have implications for the modern stratospheric sulfur budget. The absorption bands of SO2 are complex with rich structure producing isotopic fractionation in photolysis and photoexcitation.

  2. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1980. Atmospheric physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Contained are twenty-six abstracts of on-going research programs at Argonne National Laboratory concerning the modeling of environmental air pollutants concentration and transport for January-December 1980. Studies on pollutant transport modeling, fluid flow models, and atmospheric precipitations chemistry are included. (DLS)

  3. Final Progress Report to the Department of Energy's Office of Science on the Committee on Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Board on Physics and Astronomy

    2001-01-01

    The Committee on Nuclear Physics (CNP), under the National Research Council's Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), conducted an assessment of the field as part of the BPA's survey of physics in the last decade, titled ''Physics in a New Era.'' The CNP report was published by the National Academy Press in early 1999 under the title ''Nuclear Physics: The Core of Matter, The Fuel of Stars.''

  4. Missed connections: A case study of the social networks of physics doctoral students in a single department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaub, Alexis Victoria

    Gender disparity is an issue among the many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Although many previous studies examine gender issues in STEM as an aggregate discipline, there are unique issues to each of the fields that are considered STEM fields. Some fields, such as physics, have fewer women graduating with degrees than other fields. This suggests that women's experiences vary by STEM field. The majority of previous research also examines gender and other disparities at either the nationwide or individual level. This project entailed social network analysis through survey and interview data to examine a single physics department's doctoral students in order to provide a comprehensive look at student social experiences. In addition to examining gender, other demographic variables were studied to see if the results are truly associated with gender; these variables include race/ethnicity, year in program, student type, relationship status, research type, undergraduate institute, and subfield. Data were examined to determine if there are relationships to social connections and outcome variables such as persistence in completing the degree and the time to degree. Data collected on faculty were used to rank faculty members; data such as h-indices and number of students graduate over the past 5 years were collected. Fifty-five (55) of 110 possible participants completed the survey; forty-three are male, and twelve are female. Twenty-eight of the fifty-five survey participants were interview; twenty-three are male, and five are female. Findings for peer networks include that peer networks are established during the first year and do not change drastically as one progresses in the program. Geographic location within the campus affects socializing with peers. Connections to fellow students are not necessarily reciprocated; the maximum percentage of reciprocated connections is 60%. The number of connections one has varies by network purpose

  5. Summary of the NASA/MSFC FY-79 Severe Storm and Local Weather research review. [cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics reserach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Significant acomplishments, current focus of work, plans for FY-80, and recommendations for new research are outlined for 36 research projects proposed for technical monitoring by the Atmospheric Sciences Division at Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of the investigations, which were reviewed at a two-day meeting, relate to cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics.

  6. Physical Properties of Dust in the Martian Atmosphere: Analysis of Contradictions and Possible Ways of Their Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugach, Zh. M.; Korablev, O. I.; Morozhenko, A. V.; Moroz, V. I.; Petrova, E. V.; Rodin, A. V.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in forming the Martian climate. However, the basic physical properties of the Martian aerosols are still poorly known; there are many contradictions in their estimates. We present an analytical overview of the published results and potentialities of various methods. We consider mineral dust. Zonally averaged data obtained from mapping IR instruments (TES and IRTM) give the optical thickness of mineral aerosols τ9 = 0.05-0.1 in the 9-μm band for quite atmospheric conditions. There is a problem of comparing these estimates with those obtained in the visible spectral range. We suggest that the commonly used ratio τvis/τ9 >2 depends on the interpretation and it may actually be smaller. The ratio τvis/τ9 ~ 1 is in better agreement with the IRIS data (materials like montmorillonite). If we assume that τvis/τ9 = 1 and take into account the nonspherical particle shape, then the interpretation of ground-based integrated polarimetric observations (τ < 0.04) can be reconciled with IR measurements from the orbit. However, for thin layers, the sensitivity of both methods to the optical thickness is poorly understood: on the one hand, polarimetry depends on the cloud cover and, on the other hand, the interpretation of IR measurements requires that the atmospheric temperature profile and the surface temperature and emissivity be precisely known. For quite atmospheric conditions, the local optical-thickness estimates obtained by the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer method and from the sky brightness measured from Viking 1 and 2 and Mars Pathfinder landers are much larger: τ = 0.3-0.6. Estimates of the contrasts in images from the Viking orbiters yield the same values. Thus, there is still a factor of 3 to 10 difference between different groups of optical-thickness estimates for the quiet atmosphere. This difference is probably explained by the contribution of condensation clouds and/or by local/time variations.

  7. Identification of women exposed to acute physical intimate partner violence in an emergency department setting in Finland.

    PubMed

    Leppäkoski, Tuija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Paavilainen, Eija

    2010-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is seen as a serious health risk factor for women with significant acute and long-term health consequences and it affects women from all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Knowledge of these consequences of IPV may help emergency department (ED) professionals to identify these women and provide them with appropriate care, including information on a variety of community services, and refer those women to such services if necessary. The study aimed to describe the frequency of ED visits by women exposed to physical intimate partner violence as estimated by ED professionals (nurses, practical nurses, emergency medical technicians) and identification of acute IPV. In this study 'partner' is defined as a woman's husband, former husband, current or former cohabitant or partner. This design was used as part of a larger, descriptive, cross-sectional multi-centre and multi-method study. Data were collected from 28 EDs in 13 Finnish hospital districts. Altogether 488 questionnaires were returned, which yielded a response rate of 51%. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and quantitative content analysis. Findings showed that 48% (n = 231) of the ED professionals reported that they encountered women in IPV relationships at least once a month. Over one-fifth of the ED professionals reported having repeatedly encountered the same women visiting the ED for IPV related injuries. Over half of the participants reported having problems 'often' or 'now and then' when identifying women exposed to IPV. Those with training on IPV estimated that they had identified women exposed to IPV more often. To conclude, the research suggests that improvement of identification of acute IPV requires that training be arranged and jointly agreed written procedures for handling IPV be introduced. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. The physics and phenomenology of One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP™) reactors for surface treatment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece Roth, J.; Rahel, Jozef; Dai, Xin; Sherman, Daniel M.

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we present data on the physics and phenomenology of plasma reactors based on the One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP™) that are useful in optimizing the conditions for plasma formation, uniformity and surface treatment applications. It is shown that the real (as opposed to reactive) power delivered to a reactor is divided between dielectric heating of the insulating material and power delivered to the plasma available for ionization and active species production. A relationship is given for the dielectric heating power input as a function of the frequency and voltage at which the OAUGDP™ discharge is operated.

  9. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a Spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas related to the final definition and preliminary design study of the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) were covered: (1) proposal organization, personnel, schedule, and project management, (2) proposed configurations, (3) study objectives, (4) ACPL experiment program listing and description, (5) mission/flight flexibility and modularity/commonality, (6) study plan, and (7) description of following tasks: requirement analysis and definition task flow, systems analysis and trade studies, subsystem analysis and trade studies, specifications and interface control documents, preliminary design task flow, work breakdown structure, programmatic analysis and planning, and project costs. Finally, an overview of the scientific requirements was presented.

  10. Science on Spacelab. [astronomy, high energy astrophysics, life sciences, and solar, atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Spacelab was developed by the European Space Agency for the conduction of scientific and technological experiments in space. Spacelab can be taken into earth orbit by the Space Shuttle and returned to earth after a period of 1-3 weeks. The Spacelab modular system of pallets, pressurized modules, and racks can contain large payloads with high power and telemetry requirements. A working group has defined the 'Atmospheres, Magnetospheres, and Plasmas-in-Space' project. The project objectives include the absolute measurement of solar flux in a number of carefully selected bands at the same time at which atmospheric measurements are made. NASA is committed to the concept that the scientist is to play a key role in its scientific programs.

  11. Science on Spacelab. [astronomy, high energy astrophysics, life sciences, and solar, atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Spacelab was developed by the European Space Agency for the conduction of scientific and technological experiments in space. Spacelab can be taken into earth orbit by the Space Shuttle and returned to earth after a period of 1-3 weeks. The Spacelab modular system of pallets, pressurized modules, and racks can contain large payloads with high power and telemetry requirements. A working group has defined the 'Atmospheres, Magnetospheres, and Plasmas-in-Space' project. The project objectives include the absolute measurement of solar flux in a number of carefully selected bands at the same time at which atmospheric measurements are made. NASA is committed to the concept that the scientist is to play a key role in its scientific programs.

  12. Optical holography applications for the zero-g Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A complete description of holography is provided, both for the time-dependent case of moving scene holography and for the time-independent case of stationary holography. Further, a specific holographic arrangement for application to the detection of particle size distribution in an atmospheric simulation cloud chamber. In this chamber particle growth rate is investigated; therefore, the proposed holographic system must capture continuous particle motion in real time. Such a system is described.

  13. A Hot Downflowing Model Atmosphere for Umbral Flashes and the Physical Properties of Their Dark Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, V. M. J.; Mathioudakis, M.; Socas-Navarro, H.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2017-08-01

    We perform non-LTE inversions in a large set of umbral flashes, including the dark fibrils visible within them, and in the quiescent umbra by using the inversion code NICOLE on a set of full Stokes high-resolution Ca ii λ8542 observations of a sunspot at disk center. We find that the dark structures have Stokes profiles that are distinct from those of the quiescent and flashed regions. They are best reproduced by atmospheres that are more similar to the flashed atmosphere in terms of velocities, even if with reduced amplitudes. We also find two sets of solutions that finely fit the flashed profiles: a set that is upflowing, featuring a transition region that is deeper than in the quiescent case and preceded by a slight dip in temperature, and a second solution with a hotter atmosphere in the chromosphere but featuring downflows close to the speed of sound at such heights. Such downflows may be related, or even dependent, on the presence of coronal loops, rooted in the umbra of sunspots, as is the case in the region analyzed. Similar loops have been recently observed to have supersonic downflows in the transition region and are consistent with the earlier “sunspot plumes,” which were invariably found to display strong downflows in sunspots. Finally, we find, on average, a magnetic field reduction in the flashed areas, suggesting that the shock pressure is moving field lines in the upper layers.

  14. Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health Annual Report to the Michigan Department of Public Health, December 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Council on Physical Fitness & Health.

    The projects which the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health undertook in 1978 are reported and described here. The projects and activities include: a school physical fitness program that provided assistance to public, private, and parochial schools in monitoring the physical fitness levels of all students in grades kindergarten through…

  15. Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health Annual Report to the Michigan Department of Public Health, December 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Council on Physical Fitness & Health.

    The projects which the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health undertook in 1978 are reported and described here. The projects and activities include: a school physical fitness program that provided assistance to public, private, and parochial schools in monitoring the physical fitness levels of all students in grades kindergarten through…

  16. Observed variations of methane on Mars unexplained by known atmospheric chemistry and physics.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Franck; Forget, François

    2009-08-06

    The detection of methane on Mars has revived the possibility of past or extant life on this planet, despite the fact that an abiogenic origin is thought to be equally plausible. An intriguing aspect of the recent observations of methane on Mars is that methane concentrations appear to be locally enhanced and change with the seasons. However, methane has a photochemical lifetime of several centuries, and is therefore expected to have a spatially uniform distribution on the planet. Here we use a global climate model of Mars with coupled chemistry to examine the implications of the recently observed variations of Martian methane for our understanding of the chemistry of methane. We find that photochemistry as currently understood does not produce measurable variations in methane concentrations, even in the case of a current, local and episodic methane release. In contrast, we find that the condensation-sublimation cycle of Mars' carbon dioxide atmosphere can generate large-scale methane variations differing from those observed. In order to reproduce local methane enhancements similar to those recently reported, we show that an atmospheric lifetime of less than 200 days is necessary, even if a local source of methane is only active around the time of the observation itself. This implies an unidentified methane loss process that is 600 times faster than predicted by standard photochemistry. The existence of such a fast loss in the Martian atmosphere is difficult to reconcile with the observed distribution of other trace gas species. In the case of a destruction mechanism only active at the surface of Mars, destruction of methane must occur with an even shorter timescale of the order of approximately 1 hour to explain the observations. If recent observations of spatial and temporal variations of methane are confirmed, this would suggest an extraordinarily harsh environment for the survival of organics on the planet.

  17. Analysis of Physical Properties of Dust Suspended in the Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Kelly; McKay, Chris; Cantwell, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Methods for iteratively determining the infrared optical constants for dust suspended in the Mars atmosphere are described. High quality spectra for wavenumbers from 200 to 2000 1/cm were obtained over a wide range of view angles by the Mariner 9 spacecraft, when it observed a global Martian dust storm in 1971-2. In this research, theoretical spectra of the emergent intensity from Martian dust clouds are generated using a 2-stream source-function radiative transfer code. The code computes the radiation field in a plane-parallel, vertically homogeneous, multiply scattering atmosphere. Calculated intensity spectra are compared with the actual spacecraft data to iteratively retrieve the optical properties and opacity of the dust, as well as the surface temperature of Mars at the time and location of each measurement. Many different particle size distributions a-re investigated to determine the best fit to the data. The particles are assumed spherical and the temperature profile was obtained from the CO2 band shape. Given a reasonable initial guess for the indices of refraction, the searches converge in a well-behaved fashion, producing a fit with error of less than 1.2 K (rms) to the observed brightness spectra. The particle size distribution corresponding to the best fit was a lognormal distribution with a mean particle radius, r(sub m) 0.66 pm, and variance, omega(sup 2) = 0.412 (r(sub eff) = 1.85 microns, v(sub eff) =.51), in close agreement with the size distribution found to be the best fit in the visible wavelengths in recent studies. The optical properties and the associated single scattering properties are shown to be a significant improvement over those used in existing models by demonstrating the effects of the new properties both on heating rates of the Mars atmosphere and in example spectral retrieval of surface characteristics from emission spectra.

  18. Investigation of Annealing Atmospheres on Physical Properties of Cigs Films Grown by Electrodeposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, Chihi; Fethi, Boujmil Mohamed; Brahim, Bessais

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of different annealing conditions (influence of the annealing temperature and atmosphere) on structural, microstructure, optical and electrical properties of electrodeposited CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibited all the samples have grown preferentially in the [112] crystal orientation with the chalcopyrite structure and without unwanted secondary CIGS phases. With the increase of annealing temperature, energy band gap of the CIGS film decrease from 1.32 to 1.12eV. The electrical properties of the films distinctly upgraded after annealing in nitrogen+ Se vapor, and worsened when annealed in vacuum.

  19. Assessment of two physical parameterization schemes for desert dust emissions in an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astitha, M.; Abdel Kader, M.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter and more specific desert dust has been the topic of numerous research studies in the past due to the wide range of impacts in the environment and climate and the uncertainty of characterizing and quantifying these impacts in a global scale. In this work we present two physical parameterizations of the desert dust production that have been incorporated in the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry). The scope of this work is to assess the impact of the two physical parameterizations in the global distribution of desert dust and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using either technique. The dust concentration and deposition has been evaluated using the AEROCOM dust dataset for the year 2000 and data from the MODIS and MISR satellites as well as sun-photometer data from the AERONET network was used to compare the modelled aerosol optical depth with observations. The implementation of the two parameterizations and the simulations using relatively high spatial resolution (T106~1.1deg) has highlighted the large spatial heterogeneity of the dust emission sources as well as the importance of the input parameters (soil size and texture, vegetation, surface wind speed). Also, sensitivity simulations with the nudging option using reanalysis data from ECMWF and without nudging have showed remarkable differences for some areas. Both parameterizations have revealed the difficulty of simulating all arid regions with the same assumptions and mechanisms. Depending on the arid region, each emission scheme performs more or less satisfactorily which leads to the necessity of treating each desert differently. Even though this is a quite different task to accomplish in a global model, some recommendations are given and ideas for future improvements.

  20. Accessing Solar Irradiance Data via LISIRD, the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratz, C. K.; Wilson, A.; Snow, M. A.; Lindholm, D. M.; Woods, T. N.; Traver, T.; Woodraska, D.

    2015-12-01

    The LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter, LISIRD, http://lasp.colorado.edu/lisird, allows the science community and the public to explore and access solar irradiance and related data sets using convenient, interactive or scriptable, standards-based interfaces. LISIRD's interactive plotting allows users to investigate and download irradiance data sets from a variety of sources, including space missions, ground observatories, and modeling efforts. LISIRD's programmatic interfaces allow software-level data retrievals and facilitate automation. This presentation will describe the current state of LISIRD, provide details of the data sets it serves, outline data access methods, identify key technologies in-use, and address other related aspects of serving spectral and other time series data. We continue to improve LISIRD by integrating new data sets, and also by advancing its data management and presentation capabilities to meet evolving best practices and community needs. LISIRD is hosted and operated by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, LASP, which has been a leader in Atmospheric and Heliophysics science for over 60 years. LASP makes a variety of space-based measurements of solar irradiance, which provide crucial input for research and modeling in solar-terrestrial interactions, space physics, planetary, atmospheric, and climate sciences. These data sets consist of fundamental measurements, composite data sets, solar indices, space weather products, and models. Current data sets available through LISIRD originate from the SORCE, SDO (EVE), UARS (SOLSTICE), TIMED (SEE), and SME space missions, as well as several other space and ground-based projects. LISIRD leverages several technologies to provide flexible and standards-based access to the data holdings available through LISIRD. This includes internet-accessible interfaces that permit data access in a variety of formats, data subsetting, as well as program-level access from data analysis

  1. World Trade Center-related physical and mental health burden among New York City Fire Department emergency medical service workers.

    PubMed

    Yip, Jennifer; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Webber, Mayris P; Kablanian, Andrea; Hall, Charles B; Vossbrinck, Madeline; Liu, Xiaoxue; Weakley, Jessica; Schwartz, Theresa; Kelly, Kerry J; Prezant, David J

    2016-01-01

    To describe the health burden among Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) emergency medical service (EMS) workers and examine its association with work at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site. In this observational cohort study, we used FDNY physician diagnoses to estimate the cumulative incidence of physical health conditions including rhinosinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), obstructive airways disease (OAD) and cancer among EMS workers and demographically similar firefighters who were active on 11 September 2001 (9/11). Validated screening instruments were used to estimate the prevalence of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression and probable harmful alcohol use. We also analysed the association between health conditions and WTC-exposure. Among 2281 EMS workers, the 12-year post-9/11 cumulative incidence (11 September 2001 to 31 December 2013) of rhinosinusitis was 10.6%; GERD 12.1%; OAD 11.8%; cancer 3.1%. The prevalence of probable PTSD up to 12 years after exposure was 7%; probable depression 16.7%; and probable harmful alcohol use 3%. Compared with unexposed, EMS workers who arrived earliest at the site had higher adjusted relative risks (aRR) for most conditions, including rhinosinusitis (aRR=3.7; 95% CI 2.2 to 6.0); GERD (aRR=3.8; 95% CI 2.4 to 6.1); OAD (aRR=2.4: 95% CI 1.7 to 3.6); probable PTSD (aRR=7.0; 95% CI 3.6 to 13.5); and, probable depression (aRR=2.3; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.1). In this 12-year study, we documented a high burden of health conditions associated with WTC-exposure among FDNY EMS workers. These findings underscore the importance of continued monitoring and treatment of this workforce. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Are there physical links between Saturn's magnetospheric planetary period oscillations, neutral atmosphere circulation, and thunderstorm activity? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provan, G.; Cowley, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Suggestions that the planetary period oscillations (PPOs) observed in Saturn's magnetosphere may be driven or influenced by neutral atmospheric perturbations, motivates an exploratory comparison of PPO rotation periods with available tropospheric and stratospheric determinations. Non-polar atmospheric rotation periods occupy the range ~10.2-10.7 h associated with the latitudinal jet structure, are similar north and south, and independent of season, while PPO periods lie in a narrower partly overlapping range ~10.6-10.8 h, are persistently shorter north than south, and undergo a seasonal cycle. In this cycle, widely-separated north-south PPO periods during southern summer converge across equinox to values lying within the atmospheric west jet band, remaining well-separated from east jet periods. Closest convergence occurred one year post-equinox, contemporaneously with the switch in seasonal thunderstorm activity from southern to northern hemispheres. Since most large-scale atmospheric phenomena are related to the west jets, rotating with closely similar periods, they also rotate with periods close to the PPOs under post-equinoctial conditions, but not otherwise. Specifically, post-equinox northern PPOs rotate with a period close to the southern thunderstorms, as well as the north polar spot and hexagon features, while the post equinox southern PPOs rotate with a period close to the pre-equinox northern ';string of pearls' and the first co-located post-equinox northern thunderstorm, the Great White Spot event. However, even under these conditions no consistent correspondences in period are found at a detailed level, which taken together with the lack of correspondence at other times, does not suggest a direct physical link exists between these phenomena.

  3. Saturn's magnetospheric planetary period oscillations, neutral atmosphere circulation, and thunderstorm activity: Implications, or otherwise, for physical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, S. W. H.; Provan, G.

    2013-11-01

    that the planetary period oscillations (PPOs) observed in Saturn's magnetosphere may be driven or influenced by neutral atmospheric perturbations motivate an exploratory comparison of PPO rotation periods with available tropospheric and stratospheric determinations. Nonpolar atmospheric rotation periods occupy the range ~10.2-10.7 h associated with the latitudinal jet structure, are similar north and south, and are independent of season, while PPO periods lie in a narrower partly overlapping range ~10.6-10.8 h, are persistently shorter north than south, and undergo a seasonal cycle. In this cycle, widely separated north-south PPO periods during southern summer converge across equinox to values lying within the atmospheric west jet band, remaining well-separated from east jet periods. Closest convergence occurred 1 year post equinox, contemporaneously with the switch in seasonal thunderstorm activity from Southern to Northern Hemispheres. Since most large-scale atmospheric phenomena are related to the west jets, rotating with closely similar periods, they also rotate with periods close to the PPOs under post equinoctial conditions but not otherwise. Specifically, post equinox northern PPOs rotate with a period close to the southern thunderstorms, as well as the north polar spot and hexagon features, while the post equinox southern PPOs rotate with a period close to the pre-equinox northern "string of pearls" and the first colocated post equinox northern thunderstorm, the Great White Spot event. However, even under these conditions, no consistent correspondences in period are found at a detailed level, which taken together with the lack of correspondence at other times does not suggest a direct physical link exists between these phenomena.

  4. Simultaneous physical retrieval of atmospheric and surface state from Martian spectra: the phi MARS algorithm and application to TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Mancarella, F.; Fonti, S.; Roush, T.

    The problem of fully simultaneous retrieval of surface and atmosphere has been satisfactorily addressed as far as Earth is concerned in many works \\citep{masACP09,carENSO05}, especially for high-resolution instruments. However, such retrieval know-how has been not completely implemented in other planetary contexts. In this perspective, we present a new methodology for the simultaneous retrieval of surface and atmospheric parameters of Mars. The methodology, fully explained in \\cite{liuzzi2015} is based on a non-linear, iterative optimal estimation scheme, supported by a statistical retrieval procedure used to initialize the physical retrieval algorithm with a reliable first guess of the atmospheric parameters. The forward module \\cite{liuzzi2014} is fully integrated with the inverse one, and it is a monochromatic radiative transfer model with the capability to calculate genuine analytical Jacobians of any desired geophysical parameter. We describe both the mathematical framework of the methodology and, as a proof of concept, its application to a large sample of data acquired by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). Results are drawn for the case of surface temperature and emissivity, atmospheric temperature profile, water vapour, dust and ice mixing ratios. Some work has also been done for revisiting the claims of methane detection with TES data \\citep{fon10,fonti2015}. Comparison with climate models and other TES data analyses show a very good agreement and consistency. Moreover, we will show how the methodology can be applied to other instruments looking at Mars, simply customizing part of the forward and reverse modules.

  5. Physics-based modeling tool development for spectral-sensing measurements under atmospheric attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xifeng; Voelz, David G.; Montoya, Joseph; Salinas, Miguel

    2017-05-01

    In an experimental setting where new sensing techniques are being developed and the source/medium/system parameters are in a constant state of change, a flexible radiometric prediction tool can be essential for experimental design and analysis. The Spectral Signature Sensing (SSS) analysis and visualization software development is a user-friendly analytic tool that is designed for radiometric analysis and modeling of radiant optical energy from a source to a detection system. Transmission through the atmosphere is computed with MODTRAN and the code features multiple-source options and a flexible set of parameters for the detector. It also provides a Google Earth display function to visualize the simulation scenario. In this paper a summary is presented of the radiometric calculations applied in this modeling tool. The essential components and the main features are briefly described including the system-component inputs, other options such as save and load inputs, and the resulting spectral plots and radiometric output.

  6. Aerosol and nucleation research in support of NASA cloud physics experiments in space. [ice nuclei generator for the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory on Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.; Rogers, D.; Gordon, G.; Saunders, C. P. R.; Reischel, M.; Black, R.

    1978-01-01

    Tasks performed in the development of an ice nucleus generator which, within the facility concept of the ACPL, would provide a test aerosol suitable for a large number and variety of potential experiments are described. The impact of Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory scientific functional requirements on ice nuclei generation and characterization subsystems was established. Potential aerosol generating systems were evaluated with special emphasis on reliability, repeatability and general suitability for application in Spacelab. Possible contamination problems associated with aerosol generation techniques were examined. The ice nucleating abilities of candidate test aerosols were examined and the possible impact of impurities on the nucleating abilities of those aerosols were assessed as well as the relative merits of various methods of aerosol size and number density measurements.

  7. The Composition and Physical Structure of the Io Torus and Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Generally speaking the goal of the research was to provide detailed spectral analysis of a Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope EUV/FUV spectrum of the Io plasma torus. The specific research tasks outlined to achieve this goal were: Line identifications and brightnesses. Verify line identifications with independent data sets. Simple physical modeling to derive ne, ni, Te. Determine neutral source rates. Determine implications of minor species abundances for Io processes. Determine spatial structure from HUT data.

  8. The Composition and Physical Structure of the Io Torus and Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Generally speaking the goal of the research was to provide detailed spectral analysis of a Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope EUV/FUV spectrum of the Io plasma torus. The specific research tasks outlined to achieve this goal were: Line identifications and brightnesses. Verify line identifications with independent data sets. Simple physical modeling to derive ne, ni, Te. Determine neutral source rates. Determine implications of minor species abundances for Io processes. Determine spatial structure from HUT data.

  9. African Americans & Hispanics among Physics & Astronomy Faculty: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics & Astronomy Degree-Granting Departments. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Anderson, Garrett; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The United States is becoming more and more diverse, but the representation of some minority groups in physics and astronomy lags behind. Although 13% of the US population is African American or black, and 17% is Hispanic (US Census), the representation of these two groups in physics and astronomy is much lower. For this reason, African Americans…

  10. Physical Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer with Implications for Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Barry D., II

    Ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant dependent on complex photochemical reactions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and is sensitive to meteorological conditions that govern solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed/direction (Stockwell, 2011). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has classified O 3 as one of the six criteria pollutants that is considered harmful to both plants and human health (Hollingsworth, 2007). The current study investigates the influence of the diurnal cycle of the BL on the surface air pollutants. Specifically, it examines how the nighttime and transition period turbulence impacts the concentration of ozone at the surface and in the atmospheric column during the following day. In order to complete the study, a series of models including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Comprehensive Air Quality model with Extensions (CAMx) are used to simulate atmospheric conditions in the Maryland and Texas areas. BL processes such as the minimum diffusivity or BL parameterization within CAMx are investigated. The Blackadar scheme was found to artificially suppress the nocturnal BL height and appears to be the cause of a 15 ppbv high model bias. An experiment is then conducted where a minimum BL height of 160 m and an improvement of 7% in the median model bias are found in the Maryland area. With Maryland being in a NOx-limited regime, the same process of setting a minimum height is tested in the Texas area using the YSU scheme but minimal differences produced minuscule changes in the vertical diffusivity. The use of the Ri number improved the model bias by another 5 ppbv or 13% over using the Blackadar BL scheme. A new algorithm to predict the nocturnal BL depth is implemented into the WRF YSU scheme, which scales the Ribc with the Obukhov length adding a dependency on near surface properties of the flow. The algorithm is tested using meteorological surface measurements and tower

  11. Development of an Atmospheric Climate Model with Self-Adapting Grid and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Joyce E.

    2013-08-10

    This project was targeting the development of a computational approach that would allow resolving cloud processes on small-scales within the framework of the most recent version of the NASA/NCAR Finite-Volume Community Atmospheric Model (FVCAM). The FVCAM is based on the multidimensional Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian (FFSL) dynamical core and uses a ?vertically Lagrangian? finite-volume (FV) representation of the model equations with a mass-conserving re-mapping algorithm. The Lagrangian coordinate requires a remapping of the Lagrangian volume back to Eulerian coordinates to restore the original resolution and keep the mesh from developing distortions such as layers with overlapping interfaces. The main objectives of the project were, first, to develop the 3D library which allows refinement and coarsening of the model domain in spherical coordinates, and second, to develop a non-hydrostatic code for calculation of the model variables within the refined areas that could be seamlessly incorporated with the hydrostatic finite volume dynamical core when higher resolution is wanted. We also updated the aerosol simulation model in CAM in order to ready the model for the treatment of aerosol/cloud interactions.

  12. Fly in Atmosphere by Drag Force - Easy Thrust Generation Aircraft Engine Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Celestin, Mwizerwa

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to present to the science community another way to fly in atmosphere, a way which is much more cheaper, efficient, safe and easy. Over the years scientists have been trying to find a way to built the vertically taking off vehicles but there have been no satisfactory success(what have been found was very expensive), Even aircrafts we know now need very sophisticated and expensive engines and not efficient enough. This way of flying may help our governments to spend less money on technologies and will help people to travel at very low prices so that, it may be a solution to the crisis which the world faces nowadays. In other words, it is my proposal to the next generation technologies we was looking for for years because everything can fly from the car to the trucks, the spaceships and even the hotels maybe constructed and fly as we construct the ships which sail in the oceans. My way of flying will have many applications in all the aspect of travel as it is going to be explained.

  13. Spectro-microscopic Characterization of Physical Properties and Phase Separations in Individual Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OBrien, R. E.; Wang, B.; Neu, A.; Kelly, S. T.; Lundt, N.; Epstein, S. A.; MacMillan, A.; You, Y.; Laskin, A.; Nizkorodov, S.; Bertram, A. K.; Moffet, R.; Gilles, M.

    2013-12-01

    The phase state and liquid-liquid phase separations of ambient and laboratory generated aerosol particles were investigated using (1) scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) coupled to a relative humidity (RH) controlled in-situ chamber and (2) environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The phase states of the particles were determined from measurements of their size and optical density. A comparison is made between the observed phase states of ambient samples and of laboratory generated aerosols to determine how well laboratory samples represent the phase of ambient samples. In addition, liquid-liquid phase separations in laboratory generated particles were investigated. Preliminary results showing that liquid-liquid phase separations occur at RH's between the deliquescence and efflorescence points and that the organic phase surrounds the inorganic phase will be presented. The STXM/NEXAFS technique provides insight into the degree of mixing at the deliquescence point and the degree of phase separation for particles of atmospherically relevant sizes.

  14. Numerical evaluation of static-chamber measurements of soil-atmospheric gas exchange--Identification of physical processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Striegl, Robert G.; Russell, Thomas F.; Hutchinson, Gordon L.; Livingston, Gerald P.

    1996-01-01

    The exchange of gases between soil and atmosphere is an important process that affects atmospheric chemistry and therefore climate. The static-chamber method is the most commonly used technique for estimating the rate of that exchange. We examined the method under hypothetical field conditions where diffusion was the only mechanism for gas transport and the atmosphere outside the chamber was maintained at a fixed concentration. Analytical and numerical solutions to the soil gas diffusion equation in one and three dimensions demonstrated that gas flux density to a static chamber deployed on the soil surface was less in magnitude than the ambient exchange rate in the absence of the chamber. This discrepancy, which increased with chamber deployment time and air-filled porosity of soil, is attributed to two physical factors: distortion of the soil gas concentration gradient (the magnitude was decreased in the vertical component and increased in the radial component) and the slow transport rate of diffusion relative to mixing within the chamber. Instantaneous flux density to a chamber decreased continuously with time; steepest decreases occurred so quickly following deployment and in response to such slight changes in mean chamber headspace concentration that they would likely go undetected by most field procedures. Adverse influences of these factors were reduced by mixing the chamber headspace, minimizing deployment time, maximizing the height and radius of the chamber, and pushing the rim of the chamber into the soil. Nonlinear models were superior to a linear regression model for estimating flux densities from mean headspace concentrations, suggesting that linearity of headspace concentration with time was not necessarily a good indicator of measurement accuracy.

  15. Gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric aerosols: interplay of physical state, non-ideal mixing and morphology.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Zuend, Andreas; Bertram, Allan K; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-07-21

    Atmospheric aerosols, comprising organic compounds and inorganic salts, play a key role in air quality and climate. Mounting evidence exists that these particles frequently exhibit phase separation into predominantly organic and aqueous electrolyte-rich phases. As well, the presence of amorphous semi-solid or glassy particle phases has been established. Using the canonical system of ammonium sulfate mixed with organics from the ozone oxidation of α-pinene, we illustrate theoretically the interplay of physical state, non-ideality, and particle morphology affecting aerosol mass concentration and the characteristic timescale of gas-particle mass transfer. Phase separation can significantly affect overall particle mass and chemical composition. Semi-solid or glassy phases can kinetically inhibit the partitioning of semivolatile components and hygroscopic growth, in contrast to the traditional assumption that organic compounds exist in quasi-instantaneous gas-particle equilibrium. These effects have significant implications for the interpretation of laboratory data and the development of improved atmospheric air quality and climate models.

  16. The atmospheric component of the Mediterranean Sea water budget in a WRF multi-physics ensemble and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luca, Alejandro; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Drobinski, Philippe; Brossier, Cindy Lebeaupin

    2014-11-01

    The use of high resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled regional climate models to study possible future climate changes in the Mediterranean Sea requires an accurate simulation of the atmospheric component of the water budget (i.e., evaporation, precipitation and runoff). A specific configuration of the version 3.1 of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) regional climate model was shown to systematically overestimate the Mediterranean Sea water budget mainly due to an excess of evaporation (~1,450 mm yr-1) compared with observed estimations (~1,150 mm yr-1). In this article, a 70-member multi-physics ensemble is used to try to understand the relative importance of various sub-grid scale processes in the Mediterranean Sea water budget and to evaluate its representation by comparing simulated results with observed-based estimates. The physics ensemble was constructed by performing 70 1-year long simulations using version 3.3 of the WRF model by combining six cumulus, four surface/planetary boundary layer and three radiation schemes. Results show that evaporation variability across the multi-physics ensemble (˜10 % of the mean evaporation) is dominated by the choice of the surface layer scheme that explains more than ˜70 % of the total variance and that the overestimation of evaporation in WRF simulations is generally related with an overestimation of surface exchange coefficients due to too large values of the surface roughness parameter and/or the simulation of too unstable surface conditions. Although the influence of radiation schemes on evaporation variability is small (˜13 % of the total variance), radiation schemes strongly influence exchange coefficients and vertical humidity gradients near the surface due to modifications of temperature lapse rates. The precipitation variability across the physics ensemble (˜35 % of the mean precipitation) is dominated by the choice of both cumulus (˜55 % of the total variance) and planetary boundary layer (˜32 % of

  17. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  18. In situ acoustic-based analysis system for physical and chemical properties of the lower Martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrelly, F. A.; Petri, A.; Pitolli, L.; Pontuale, G.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental acoustic reconnaissance and sounding experiment (EARS), is composed of two parts: the environmental acoustic reconnaissance (EAR) instrument and the environmental acoustic sounding experiment (EASE). They are distinct, but have the common objective of characterizing the acoustic environment of Mars. The principal goal of the EAR instrument is "listening" to Mars. This could be a most significant experiment if one thinks of everyday life experience where hearing is possibly the most important sense after sight. Not only will this contribute to opening up this important area of planetary exploration, which has been essentially ignored until now, but will also bring the general public closer in contact with our most proximate planet. EASE is directed at characterizing acoustic propagation parameters, specifically sound velocity and absorption, and will provide information regarding important physical and chemical parameters of the lower Martian atmosphere; in particular, water vapor content, specific heat capacity, heat conductivity and shear viscosity, which will provide specific constraints in determining its composition. This would enable one to gain a deeper understanding of Mars and its analogues on Earth. Furthermore, the knowledge of the physical and chemical parameters of the Martian atmosphere, which influence its circulation, will improve the comprehension of its climate now and in the past, so as to gain insight on the possibility of the past presence of life on Mars. These aspect are considered strategic in the contest of its exploration, as is clearly indicated in NASA's four main objectives on "Long Term Mars Exploration Program" (http://marsweb.jpl.nasa.gov/mer/science).

  19. Influence of Inert and Oxidizing Atmospheres on the Physical and Optical Properties of Luminescent Carbon Dots Prepared through Pyrolysis of a Model Molecule.

    PubMed

    Machado, Cláudia Emanuele; Tartuci, Letícia Gazola; de Fátima Gorgulho, Honória; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Bettini, Jefferson; Pereira dos Santos, Daniela; Ferrari, Jefferson Luis; Schiavon, Marco Antônio

    2016-03-18

    This work used L-tartaric acid as a model molecule to evaluate how the use of inert and oxidizing atmospheres during pyrolysis affected the physical and optical properties of the resulting carbon dots (CDs). Pyrolysis revealed to be a simple procedure that afforded CDs in a single step, dismissed the addition of organic solvents, and involved only one extraction stage that employed water. By X-ray diffraction a dependency between the structure of the CDs and the atmosphere (oxidizing or inert) used during the pyrolysis was found. Potentiometric titration demonstrated that the CDs were largely soluble in water; it also aided characterization of the various groups that contained sp(3) -hybridized carbon atoms on the surface of the dots. Raman spectroscopy suggested that different amounts of sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms emerged on the CDs depending on the pyrolysis atmosphere. In conclusion, the pyrolysis atmosphere influenced the physical properties, such as the composition and the final structure.

  20. The contributions of Lewis Fry Richardson to drainage theory, soil physics, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, John; Raats, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The EGU Division on Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics awards the Lewis Fry Richardson Medal. Richardson's significance is highlighted in http://www.egu.eu/awards-medals/portrait-lewis-fry-richardson/, but his contributions to soil physics and to numerical solutions of heat and diffusion equations are not mentioned. We would like to draw attention to those little known contributions. Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) made important contributions to many fields including numerical weather prediction, finite difference solutions of partial differential equations, turbulent flow and diffusion, fractals, quantitative psychology and studies of conflict. He invented numerical weather prediction during World War I, although his methods were not successfully applied until 1950, after the invention of fast digital computers. In 1922 he published the book `Numerical weather prediction', of which few copies were sold and even fewer were read until the 1950s. To model heat and mass transfer in the atmosphere, he did much original work on turbulent flow and defined what is now known as the Richardson number. His technique for improving the convergence of a finite difference calculation is known as Richardson extrapolation, and was used by John Philip in his 1957 semi-analytical solution of the Richards equation for water movement in unsaturated soil. Richardson's first papers in 1908 concerned the numerical solution of the free surface problem of unconfined flow of water in saturated soil, arising in the design of drain spacing in peat. Later, for the lower boundary of his atmospheric model he needed to understand the movement of heat, liquid water and water vapor in what is now called the vadose zone and the soil plant atmosphere system, and to model coupled transfer of heat and flow of water in unsaturated soil. Finding little previous work, he formulated partial differential equations for transient, vertical flow of liquid water and for transfer of heat and water vapor. He

  1. Physical Processes Governing Atmospheric Trace Constituents Measured from an Aircraft on PEM-Tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E.; Hoell, James M., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Before the mission, the PI (principal investigator) was instrumental in securing real-time use of the new 51-level ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) meteorological data. During the mission, he provided flight planning and execution guidance as meteorologist for the P-3B. Mr. Yong Zhu computed and plotted meteorological forecast maps using the ECMWF data and transmitted them to the field from MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Dr. John Cho was in the field for the Christmas Island portion to extract data from the on-site NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) radars for local wind profiles that were used at the flight planning meetings. When the power supply for the VHF radar failed, he assisted the NOAA engineer in its repair. After the mission, Mr. Zhu produced meteorological data memos, which were made available to the PEM (Pacific Exploratory Mission)-Tropics B science team on request. An undergraduate student, Ms. Danielle Morse, wrote memos annotating the cloud conditions seen on the aircraft external monitor video tapes. Dr. Cho and the PI circulated a memo regarding the status (and associated problems) of the meteorological measurement systems on the DC-8 and P-3B to the relevant people on the science team. Several papers by members of our project were completed and accepted by JGR (Journal of Geophysical Research) for the first special section on PEM-Tropics B. These papers included coverage of the following topics: 1) examination of boundary layer data; 2) water vapor transport; 3) tropospheric trace constituent layers; 4) summarizations of the meteorological background and events during PEM-Tropics B; 5) concomitant lidar measurements of ozone, water vapor, and aerosol.

  2. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    New calculations of the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone have been performed. The treatment of convective turbulence in the sun and solar-like stars, in particular, the precise nature of the turbulent power spectrum has been recognized as one of the most important issues in the wave generation problem. Several different functional forms for spatial and temporal spectra have been considered in the literature and differences between the energy fluxes obtained for different forms often exceed two orders of magnitude. The basic criterion for choosing the appropriate spectrum was the maximal efficiency of the wave generation. We have used a different approach based on physical and empirical arguments as well as on some results from numerical simulation of turbulent convection.

  3. On the role of atmospheric forcing on upper ocean physics in the Southern Ocean and biological impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Magdalena M.

    The Southern Ocean (SO) plays a key role in regulating climate by absorbing nearly half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2). Both physical and biogeochemical processes contribute to the net CO2 sink. As a result of global warming and ozone depletion, westerly winds have increased, with consequences for upper ocean physics but little is known on how primary producers are expected to respond to changes in atmospheric forcing. This thesis addresses the impact of atmospheric forcing on upper ocean dynamics and phytoplankton bloom development in the SO on synoptic storm scales, combining a broad range of observations derived from satellites, reanalysis, profiling floats and Southern elephant seals. On atmospheric synoptic timescales (2-10 days), relevant for phytoplankton growth and accumulation, wind speed has a larger impact on satellite Chl-a variability than surface heat fluxes or wind stress curl. In summer, strong winds are linked to deep mixed layers, cold sea surface temperatures and enhanced satellite chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), which suggest wind-driven entrainment plays a role in sustaining phytoplankton blooms at the surface. Subsurface bio-optical data from floats and seals reveal deep Chl-a fluorescence maxima (DFM) are ubiquitous in summer and tend to sit at the base of the mixed layer, but can occur in all seasons. The fact that wind speed and Chl-a correlations are maximal at zero lag time (from daily data) and incubation experiments indicate phytoplankton growth occurs 3-4 days after iron addition, suggests high winds in summer entrain Chl-a from a subsurface maximum. Vertical profiles also reveal Chl-a fluorescence unevenness within hydrographically defined mixed layers, suggesting the biological timescales of adaptation through the light gradient (i.e. growth and/or photoacclimation) are often faster than mixing timescales, and periods of quiescence between storms are long enough for biological gradients to form within the homogeneous layer in density

  4. Physical-Biogeochemical Interactions that Alter the Uptake of Atmospheric CO2 in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, S. R.; Hakkinen, S. M.; McClain, C. R.

    2009-04-01

    The Barents Sea is characterized by significant calcification rates during summer promoted by intense coccolithophore blooms that peak during August. Coccolithophores, among which Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi) is the most abundant and widespread species, are considered to be the most productive calcifying organisms on Earth. They inhabit the surface layer (MLD 20m) in highly stratified waters where light intensity is high. E. huxleyi often forms massive blooms in temperate and sub-polar oceans. Coupling of the coccolithophore organic carbon and carbonate pumps interact to consume (photosynthesis) and produce (calcification) CO2. The so-called Rain Ratio, defined as the ratio of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) to particulate organic carbon (POC) in exported biogenic matter, determines the relative strength of the two biological carbon pumps and influences the flux of CO2 across the surface ocean - atmosphere interface. Here we use a combination of satellite ocean color algorithms, coupled ice-ocean model products, an SST-dependent pCO2 algorithm, and gas exchange parameterization to describe the seasonal and decadal variability of the air-sea CO2 flux in the Barents Sea. Model-derived SST and SSS (1955-2008) are used in conjunction with the pCO2 algorithm and carbonate chemistry to derive decadal trends of sea-air CO2 flux, pH and calcite saturation state. Phytoplankton and calcite production have strong spatial variability. Nutrient supply, biomass and calcite concentrations are modulated by light and MLD seasonal cycle. The size, intensity, and location of coccolithophore blooms vary from year to year, but the peak bloom is always in June in the Central Basin of the sub-polar North Atlantic (45oW - 10oW, 50oN - 65oN) and August in the Barents Sea. Calcification rates range from 5% to 27% of net primary production. The Barents Sea PIC production is about twice that of the Central Basin. Predicted freshening and warming of polar seas may increase stratification

  5. Viability and DNA damage of halobacteria under physical stress conditions, including a simulated Martian atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidler, G.; Leuko, S.; Radax, C.; Stan-Lotter, H.

    2003-04-01

    Several viable halobacteria were isolated from Alpine rock salt of Permo-Triassic age and described as novel species (1, 2). They have apparently survived in the salt sediments over extremely long periods of time. Halobacteria could therefore be suitable model organisms for exploring the possibility of long-term survival of microorganisms on other planets. In addition, the discovery of extraterrestrial halite makes it plausible to consider a specific search for halophiles, perhaps in the planned sample return missions to Mars. We are developing experimental procedures to test the viability of halobacteria under Martian conditions. Cells of two species of haloarchaea were used: 1. Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, whose whole genome sequence is already known; 2. Halococcus dombrowskii, a novel isolate from Austrian Permo-Triassic rock salt (2). Cells were grown in complex medium, containing up to 4 M NaCl, and were kept at minus 70riptsizeraisebox{1.5ex{o}}C for up to seven days, or freeze-dried in a lyophilizer. In addition, exposure experiments of halobacterial cells in a liquid nitrogen cooled Martian simulation chamber, at the Austrian Academy of Sceinces, were begun, where temperatures from about plus 5 to minus 100riptsizeraisebox{1.5ex{o}}C, pressures of 6-8 mbar, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere (or other gas mixtures) can be produced. Survival of cells was evaluated by determination of colony-forming units, microscopic examination of cellular morphology, and examination of potential strand breaks in DNA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results showed a reduction of viable cells, following deep freezing, or lyophilization, respectively, by a factor of about 10 to 100, depending somewhat on the presence of cations, glycerol and other protective substances. Data will be presented on the DNA from stressed halobacterial cells, following digestion by restriction enzymes and separation by PFGE. 1) Stan-Lotter H, McGenity TJ, Legat A, Denner EBM, Glaser K

  6. Incorporating a Full-Physics Meteorological Model into an Applied Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.

    2004-08-23

    A new modeling system has been developed to provide a non-meteorologist with tools to predict air pollution transport in regions of complex terrain. This system couples the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) with Earth Tech’s CALMET-CALPUFF system using a unique Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This system is most useful in data-sparse regions, where there are limited observations to initialize the CALMET model. The user is able to define the domain of interest, provide details about the source term, and enter a surface weather observation through the GUI. The system then generates initial conditions and time constant boundary conditions for use by MM5. MM5 is run and the results are piped to CALPUFF for the dispersion calculations. Contour plots of pollutant concentration are prepared for the user. The primary advantages of the system are the streamlined application of MM5 and CALMET, limited data requirements, and the ability to run the coupled system on a desktop or laptop computer. In comparison with data collected as part of a field campaign, the new modeling system shows promise that a full-physics mesoscale model can be used in an applied modeling system to effectively simulate locally thermally-driven winds with minimal observations as input. An unexpected outcome of this research was how well CALMET represented the locally thermally-driven flows.

  7. Physical properties and pyrolysis characteristics of rice husks in different atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinsheng; Lu, Zhenlin; Jia, Lei; Chen, Jiangxian

    This paper explores the physical properties and pyrolysis characteristics of rice husk combustion in air and in argon. The SEM results show that the outer epidermis of combusted RHIR (rice husk in air) is well organized with features that include papillae shapes and full, straight, high ridges. The inner epidermis of the RHIR has long rectangular furrow tissues. The results also show that the outer epidermis of pyrolyzed RHR (rice husk in argon) has ridges that are not as straight as for the RHIR and the top of the papillae have small holes. The inner surface of the RHR looks a some cracked. XPS analysis shows that the surfaces of RHIR and RHR contain carbon, oxygen, and silicon. The carbon was found to be in the elemental graphite form, the oxygen in the -2 oxidation state, and the silicon in the Si4+ form as SiO2. The DSC graphs have ;camel peaks;, showing that an increase in rate of heating leads to an increase in the exothermic peaks. Calculations show that, initially, increased temperature leads to increased activation energy for pyrolysis, but as the temperature continues to increase, the activation energy decreases again. The frequency factor follows the same trend. In analysis of carbon content, rice husk volatile carbon content is the largest, it is about 33.94%, especially 700 °C, the carbon content of volatile minimum is about 0.33%.

  8. Large-scale atmospheric influence on the physical and biogeochemical properties of the Benguela upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    The Namibian upwelling region is one of the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems and among the most productive areas in the World Ocean. Here, upwelling indices have been defined in three ways. First, by performing EOF analyses of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations HadlSST1 and high resolution ocean model simulations (MPI-OM (STORM) and MOM4), driven by meteorological reanalysis. Second, water vertical velocity of STORM and MOM4. Third, the area between the 13°C isotherm and the coastline was used to indicate the intensity of the upwelling. Correlations with observed atmospheric variables (NCEP reanalysis) over the whole southern Atlantic show which conditions favour upwelling: higher than normal South Atlantic anticyclone, strong and southerly wind/wind stress and pressure and air temperature contrast between ocean and land. Separating the coastal area off southern Africa at Lüderitz (28°S) depicts the differences between the northern and southern Benguela upwelling region. Northern Benguela is characterised by a negative trend in upwelling over the last 60 year, Southern Benguela by a positive one. Furthermore, Northern Benguela upwelling seems to be influenced strongly by the conditions described above while the wind field correlated with the upwelling south of 28°S do not show stronger southerly winds. Additionally, the southern upwelling index of MOM4 is not reflected properly in the corresponding SST field. A reason for this could be an overlaying signal, possibly the advection of warm air from the Indian or the central Atlantic Ocean. The sea level pressure (SLP) gradient between land and ocean of NCEP reanalysis provide a opposite trend to the one postulated by Bakun (¹). We did not find an indication for a stronger pressure contrast between land and ocean. Correlations with indices of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and an index of the tropical Atlantic SST variability. None of these correlations is

  9. Site/Systems Operations, Maintenance and Facilities Management of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Susan

    2005-08-01

    This contract covered the site/systems operations, maintenance, and facilities management of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site.

  10. Use of physical restraints among patients with bipolar disorder in Ethiopian Mental Specialized Hospital, outpatient department: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Belete, Habte

    2017-12-01

    Even though United Nation announced that all persons with a mental illness shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human being, up to now, the use of coercion (physical restrain) is still considered as unavoidable in managing abnormal behavior of psychiatric patients. But, there is no information regarding the magnitude and contributing factors of physical restrain among bipolar patients in low-income countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital from May 1 to June 1, 2015 among 400 participants who were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected by interviewing; adjusted odd ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used and p value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of physical restrain was 65%. Factors like, having two or more episodes [AOR = 1.84 95% CI (1.16, 2.93)], history of aggression [AOR = 2.14, 95% CI (1.26, 3.63)], comorbid illness [AOR = 1.76, 95% CI (1.26, 3.63)], use of antipsychotic [AOR = 1.79, 95% CI (1.08, 2.95)] and current use of Khat [AOR = 1.83, 95% CI (1.10, 3.04)] were associated significantly. The prevalence of physical restraint is found high among bipolar patients and it needs public health attention.

  11. Physical protection cooperation between US Department of Energy national laboratories and Special Scientific and Production State Enterprise (Eleron) of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Mishin, E.T.; Davydov, Y.L.; Izmailov, A.

    1996-07-01

    US DOE national laboratories and Russian institutes are becoming increasingly cooperative in support of nonproliferation of nuclear materials. This paper describes completed projects, current work, and areas of possible future cooperation between US laboratories and a Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM) entity, Special Scientific and Production State Enterprise (SNPO). The Kurchatov Institute, SNPO, and the US national laboratories jointly completed a physical protection system (PPS) for a facility housing two reactors at Kurchatov Institute within a very short time frame in 1994. Spin- off projects from this work resulted in a US-witnessed acceptance test of the new system adhering to a procedure adopted in Russia, and visits by DOE laboratories` personnel to SNPO`s sensor development and test facilities at Dubna and Penza. SNPO was one of the MINATOM sites at which Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a vulnerability assessment training course. Current cooperative projects include additional physical protection upgrades at Kurchatov where SNPO is involved as an installer and supplier of sensors, alarm display, video, and fiber optic equipment. Two additional contracts between SNL and SNPO result in information on Russian sensor performance and cost and an exchange of US and Russian sensors. Russian sensors will be tested in the United States,a nd US sensors will be tested in Russia. Pacific Northwest Laboratory administers a contract to document the process of certifying physical protection equipment for use at MINATOM facilities. Recent interest in transportation security has opened a new area of cooperation between the national laboratories and SNPO. Future projects are expected to include SNPO participation in physical protection upgrades at other locations in Russia, pedestrian and vehicle portal development, positive personnel identifier testing, and the exchange and testing of additional equipment.

  12. Evaluation of the Army Physical Training and Weight Control Programs. Part 1. The Army Medical Department Officer Advanced Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    identify by block nume, br) Physic.l fitness; weight control; body fat , injuries, exercise ’facilities; exerct’se history; smoking, attitudes...Measures of strength, stamina, and body fat percentage were collected, and a survey instrument covering lifestyle, nature of fitness program to which...THIS PAG•,(•.m•Do& A•ft Q. " .5- variables, lifestyle, body fat level, attitudes, and fitness; (2) assessed the / impact of Instutitional support for

  13. Physical and chemical characterization of marine atmospheric aerosols over the North and South Pacific Oceans using single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, H.; Jung, J.; Miura, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of marine atmospheric aerosols were characterized and compared over the North and South Pacific Ocean during two trans-Pacific cruises (from Japan to Chile and Australia to Japan) during the period of January-June 2009, which cover broad region of Pacific Ocean from 40°N to 55°S and 140°E to 70°W. The measured parameters of aerosol properties were single particle size-resolved chemical composition (D = 100 ~ 1500 nm), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and condensation nuclei (CN) concentrations, size distribution from 10 nm to 5 μm, total aerosol nitrate and sulfate concentrations, and filter-based chemical composition. Trace gas concentrations of O3 and CO were also measured to aid air parcel categorization during the cruises. Reflecting larger anthropogenic emission in the Northern Hemisphere, pronounced concentration gradient between the North and South Pacific Ocean was observed for aerosol nitrate, CO, and O3. Aerosol sulfate also showed a similar concentration drop in the equatorial region, relatively higher sulfate concentration was observed in 30°S-40°S and 55°S regions, which was associated with increased aerosol methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration but little increase in local marine chlorophyll concentration, suggesting contribution of long-range transported marine biogenic sulfur from the high primary production area over the South Pacific high latitude region. Aerosol chemical classification by single particle chemical analysis revealed that certain aerosol types, such as biomass burning, elemental carbon, and elemental/organic carbon mixed type, were mainly observed in the North Pacific region, while several specific organic aerosol types with abundant aged organic and disulfur composition were identified in the South Pacific region. Further comparison of aerosol properties, aerosol sources, and atmospheric aerosol processing in the North and South Pacific Oceans will be discussed.

  14. The Comparison of Self-Efficacy Belief Levels on Anatomy Education between the Undergraduate Students from Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Department and the Associate Students from Vocational School of Health Services in Western Black Sea Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Derya; Colak, Tuncay; Colak, Serap; Gungor, Tugba; Yener, Deniz M.; Aksu, Elif; Guzelordu, Dilsat; Sivri, Ismail; Colak, Enis; Ors, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation (PTR) undergraduate degree departments and Vocational School of Health Services (VSHS) associate degree departments train healthcare professionals, which is important for both continuance of human health and treatment of various illnesses. Anatomic structures underlie the illnesses that these departments treat…

  15. Does Size Matter? Searching for Rhyme or Reason in Course-End Student Surveys in a Large, Eclectic Physics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, David

    2006-10-01

    Over the past eight years, surveys of student opinion have been collected (near term-end) in all courses at Utah State University using the same survey instrument. The instrument consists of 25 questions, each of which can be responded to by choosing an integer ranking between 1 (``very poor'') and 6 (``excellent''). The University reports a statistical summary of all surveys each term in which all responses are treated equally irrespective of class size (a factor University administrators have asserted is negligible). Discussions of survey content at USU usually focus solely on two items: ``rate the course'' and ``rate the instructor.'' To some extent faculty tenure, promotion, and salary are based on these two aggregated data. Because of their possible impact on faculty careers, I have examined all responses in all surveys collected over the years in my department. Typical of social data, these results exhibit substantial variability and are highly non-normal. Appropriately treated, however, they reveal a significant class size dependence on the two ``rate the...'' global items. This fact harbors potentially important policy considerations for departments (like mine) that have a broad range of class enrollments.

  16. Use of high-volume outdoor smog chamber photo-reactors for studying physical and chemical atmospheric aerosol formation and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric particulate matter has a large impact on climate, biosphere behaviour and human health. Its study is complex because of large number of species are present at low concentrations and the continuous time evolution, being not easily separable from meteorology, and transport processes. Closed systems have been proposed by isolating specific reactions, pollutants or products and controlling the oxidizing environment. High volume simulation chambers, such as EUropean PHOtoREactor (EUPHORE), are an essential tool used to simulate atmospheric photochemical reactions. This communication describes the last results about the reactivity of prominent atmospheric pollutants and the subsequent particulate matter formation. Specific experiments focused on organic aerosols have been developed at the EUPHORE photo-reactor. The use of on-line instrumentation, supported by off-line techniques, has provided well-defined reaction profiles, physical properties, and up to 300 different species are determined in particulate matter. The application fields include the degradation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollutants, and pesticides under several atmospheric conditions, studying their contribution on the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The studies performed at the EUPHORE have improved the mechanistic studies of atmospheric degradation processes and the knowledge about the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric particulate matter formed during these processes.

  17. Sensitivities of the hydrologic cycle to model physics, grid resolution, and ocean type in the aquaplanet Community Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, James J.; Medeiros, Brian; Clement, Amy C.; Pendergrass, Angeline G.

    2017-06-01

    Precipitation distributions and extremes play a fundamental role in shaping Earth's climate and yet are poorly represented in many global climate models. Here, a suite of idealized Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) aquaplanet simulations is examined to assess the aquaplanet's ability to reproduce hydroclimate statistics of real-Earth configurations and to investigate sensitivities of precipitation distributions and extremes to model physics, horizontal grid resolution, and ocean type. Little difference in precipitation statistics is found between aquaplanets using time-constant sea-surface temperatures and those implementing a slab ocean model with a 50 m mixed-layer depth. In contrast, CAM version 5.3 (CAM5.3) produces more time mean, zonally averaged precipitation than CAM version 4 (CAM4), while CAM4 generates significantly larger precipitation variance and frequencies of extremely intense precipitation events. The largest model configuration-based precipitation sensitivities relate to choice of horizontal grid resolution in the selected range 1-2°. Refining grid resolution has significant physics-dependent effects on tropical precipitation: for CAM4, time mean zonal mean precipitation increases along the Equator and the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) narrows, while for CAM5.3 precipitation decreases along the Equator and the twin branches of the ITCZ shift poleward. Increased grid resolution also reduces light precipitation frequencies and enhances extreme precipitation for both CAM4 and CAM5.3 resulting in better alignment with observational estimates. A discussion of the potential implications these hydrologic cycle sensitivities have on the interpretation of precipitation statistics in future climate projections is also presented.Plain Language SummaryPrecipitation plays a fundamental role in shaping Earth's climate. Global climate models predict the average precipitation reasonably well but often struggle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953535"><span>Increased Screening for Child <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Abuse in Emergency <span class="hlt">Departments</span> in a Regional Trauma System: Response to a Sentinel Event.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilkins, Ginger G; Ball, Jane; Mann, N Clay; Nadkarni, Milan; Meredith, J Wayne</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A pediatric patient was assaulted while being treated at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center, prompting a Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services site visit. The process of screening for <span class="hlt">physical</span> abuse and protection of patients was reevaluated and revised, and a new guideline was implemented and shared with referral hospitals. During this same time period, 13 referral hospitals participated in an unrelated federally funded study determining the impact of recognition and care of injured children in states with and without a pediatric emergency care facility recognition program. A pre-post study analysis revealed that screening for abuse doubled during this time period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Experiments+AND+Environmental+AND+Chemistry&pg=2&id=EJ749871','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Experiments+AND+Environmental+AND+Chemistry&pg=2&id=EJ749871"><span>Fine-Structure Measurements of Oxygen A Band Absorbance for Estimating the Thermodynamic Average Temperature of the Earth's <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>: An Experiment in <span class="hlt">Physical</span> and Environmental Chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Daniele; Colavita, Paula</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The experiment describe the measures of the A band transitions of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> oxygen, a rich series of rotation-electronic absorption lines falling in the deep red portion of the optical spectrum and clearly visible owing to attenuation of solar radiation. It combines pure <span class="hlt">physical</span> chemistry with analytical and environmental science and provides a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770007241','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770007241"><span>Phase B: Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Cloud <span class="hlt">Physics</span> Laboratory (ACPL): A spacelab mission payload. Final review (DR-MA-03)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clausen, O. W.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Systems design for an initial <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> cloud <span class="hlt">physics</span> laboratory to study microphysical processes in zero gravity is presented. Included are descriptions of the fluid, thermal, mechanical, control and data, and electrical distribution interfaces with Spacelab. Schedule and cost analysis are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952963','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952963"><span>Final Report DE-FG02-00ER54583: "<span class="hlt">Physics</span> of <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Pressure Glow Discharges" and "Nanoparticle Nucleation and Dynamics in Low-Pressure Plasmas"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Uwe Kortshagen; Joachim Heberlein; Steven L. Girshick</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>This project was funded over two periods of three years each, with an additional year of no-cost extension. Research in the first funding period focused on the <span class="hlt">physics</span> of uniform <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure glow discharges, the second funding period was devoted to the study of the dynamics of nanometer-sized particles in plasmas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=earths+AND+atmosphere&pg=3&id=EJ749871','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=earths+AND+atmosphere&pg=3&id=EJ749871"><span>Fine-Structure Measurements of Oxygen A Band Absorbance for Estimating the Thermodynamic Average Temperature of the Earth's <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>: An Experiment in <span class="hlt">Physical</span> and Environmental Chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Daniele; Colavita, Paula</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The experiment describe the measures of the A band transitions of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> oxygen, a rich series of rotation-electronic absorption lines falling in the deep red portion of the optical spectrum and clearly visible owing to attenuation of solar radiation. It combines pure <span class="hlt">physical</span> chemistry with analytical and environmental science and provides a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23570473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23570473"><span>Diagnostic accuracy of history, <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination, and bedside ultrasound for diagnosis of extremity fractures in the emergency <span class="hlt">department</span>: a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Joshi, Nikita; Lira, Alena; Mehta, Ninfa; Paladino, Lorenzo; Sinert, Richard</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Understanding history, <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination, and ultrasonography (US) to diagnose extremity fractures compared with radiography has potential benefits of decreasing radiation exposure, costs, and pain and improving emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> (ED) resource management and triage time. The authors performed two electronic searches using PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies published between 1965 to 2012 using a strategy based on the inclusion of any patient presenting with extremity injuries suspicious for fracture who had history and <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination and a separate search for US performed by an emergency physician (EP) with subsequent radiography. The primary outcome was operating characteristics of ED history, <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination, and US in diagnosing radiologically proven extremity fractures. The methodologic quality of the studies was assessed using the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy tool (QUADAS-2). Nine studies met the inclusion criteria for history and <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination, while eight studies met the inclusion criteria for US. There was significant heterogeneity in the studies that prevented data pooling. Data were organized into subgroups based on anatomic fracture locations, but heterogeneity within the subgroups also prevented data pooling. The prevalence of fracture varied among the studies from 22% to 70%. Upper extremity <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination tests have positive likelihood ratios (LRs) ranging from 1.2 to infinity and negative LRs ranging from 0 to 0.8. US sensitivities varied between 85% and 100%, specificities varied between 73% and 100%, positive LRs varied between 3.2 and 56.1, and negative LRs varied between 0 and 0.2. Compared with radiography, EP US is an accurate diagnostic test to rule in or rule out extremity fractures. The diagnostic accuracy for history and <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination are inconclusive. Future research is needed to understand the accuracy of ED US when combined with history and <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination for upper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008POBeo..84..251C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008POBeo..84..251C"><span><span class="hlt">Physical</span> and plasmachemical aspects of diffuse coplanar barrier discharge as a novel <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span>-pressure plasma source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cernak, M.; Kovacik, D.; Zahoranova, A.; Rahel, J.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Collaborating Czech and Slovakian university teams have recently developed an innovative plasma source, the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD), which has the potential to move a step closer to the industry requirement for in-line treatment of low-added-value materials using a highly-nonequlibrium ambient air plasma (Simor et al. 2002, The idea is to generate a thin (on the order of 0.1 mm) layer of highly-nonequlibrium plasma with a high power density (up to 100 W/cm^3) in the immediate vicinity of the treated surface and bring it into a close contact with the treated surface. Comparing to <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span>-pressure glow discharge, volume dielectric barrier discharge, and plasma jet plasmas, such a diffuse plasma layer is believed to provide substantial advantages in energy consumption, exposure time, and technical simplicity. A brief outline of <span class="hlt">physical</span> mechanism and basic properties of DCSBD will given using the results of emission spectroscopy, high-speed camera, and spatially resolved cross-correlation spectroscopy studies. The presentation will review also a current state of the art in in-line plasma treatment of low-cost materials and opportunities for the use of the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DCSBD). The results obtained on the ambient air plasma treatments of textile, paper, wood, and glass illustrate that DCSBD offers outstanding performance with extremely low energy consumption for large area, uniform surface modifications of materials under continuous process conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016419','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016419"><span>MECA Workshop on <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Processes, Measurements and Interpretations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clifford, Stephen M. (Editor); Haberle, Robert M. (Editor)</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The workshop was held to discuss a variety of questions related to the detection and cycling of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> water. Among the questions addressed were: what factors govern the storage and exchange of water between planetary surfaces and <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>; what instruments are best suited for the measurement and mapping of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> water; do regolith sources and sinks of water have uniquely identifiable column abundance signatures; what degree of time and spatial resolution in column abundance data is necessary to determine dynamic behavior. Of special importance is the question, does the understanding of how <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> water is cycled on Earth provide any insights for the interpretation of Mars <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920044107&hterms=Space+physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSpace%2Bphysics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920044107&hterms=Space+physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSpace%2Bphysics"><span>The middle <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and space observations; International Summer School on Space <span class="hlt">Physics</span>, Marseille, France, Aug. 1990, Proceedings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Papers are presented on topics in the dynamics of the middle <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, the homogeneous chemistry of gas-phase neutral constituents in the middle <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, stratospheric turbulence, the stratospheric ozone balance considered as a coupled chemical system, and gases of biological origin in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. Consideration is also given to lidar measurements of ozone, microwave techniques for the measurement of stratospheric constituents, the seasonal evolution of the extratropical middle <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, the WINDII experiment on the UARS satellite, and the use of the European polar platform for middle-<span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980201262','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980201262"><span><span class="hlt">Department</span> of <span class="hlt">Physics</span>' Involvement of the Impact Testing Project of the High Speed Civil Transport Program (HSCT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>VonMeerwall, Ernst D.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The project involved the impact testing of a kevlar-like woven polymer material, PBO. The purpose was to determine whether this material showed any promise as a lightweight replacement material for jet engine fan containment. The currently used metal fan containment designs carry a high drag penalty due to their weight. Projectiles were fired at samples of PBO by means of a 0.5 inch diameter Helium powered gun. The Initial plan was to encase the samples inside a purpose-built steel "hot box" for heating and ricochet containment. The research associate's responsibility was to develop the data acquisition programs and techniques necessary to determine accurately the impacting projectile's velocity. Beyond this, the Research Associate's duties include any <span class="hlt">physical</span> computations, experimental design, and data analysis necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435250"><span>Emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kerber, Kevin A; Hofer, Timothy P; Meurer, William J; Fendrick, A Mark; Morgenstern, Lewis B</p> <p>2011-03-24</p> <p>Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> (ED) templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT) scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6%) to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%). The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2%) when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6%) when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3073892','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3073892"><span>Emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> (ED) templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Methods Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT) scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. Results The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6%) to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%). The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2%) when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6%) when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Conclusions Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery. PMID:21435250</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/176805','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/176805"><span>Final performance report to the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy by Prairie View A & M University High Energy <span class="hlt">Physics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Judd, D.J.</p> <p>1992-05-14</p> <p>The High Energy <span class="hlt">Physics</span> (HEP) group at Prairie View A&M University is a collaboratory with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and the universities listed below. The purpose of this collaboration is to contribute to the understanding of heavy quark hadroproduction. Our efforts began in the early 1980`s at Fermilab with the study of the charmonium states, J/{psi} and {chi}, (DE-FG-86ER-40297) and presently with the continued studies of the charmonium system and direct photon production (Fermilab experiment E705) and new studies on bottom production (Fermilab experiment E771) in the High Intensity Laboratory (Proton-West Area) of Fermilab. The Prairie View group will, as a part of their task, be directly responsible for a major part of the PWC system upgrade by developing the electronics for the readouts of the PWC pad chambers. Six in all, these chambers, are a part of new multilevel triggering scheme and represents a departure from the triggering methodology of the previous trigger processors in earlier experiments. The Prairie View group is also involved with the Bottom Collider Detector (BCD) Collaboration which is proposing to study bottom production at the Fermilab Collider and at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22408144','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22408144"><span>On the <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes ruling an <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Prevosto, L. Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E.; Kelly, H.</p> <p>2015-02-15</p> <p>Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm{sup 2}, both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1493P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31F1493P"><span>Multi-scale Drivers of Variations in <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Evaporative Demand Based on Observations and <span class="hlt">Physically</span>-based Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, L.; Sheffield, J.; Li, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key link between the availability of water resources and climate change and climate variability. Variability of ET has important environmental and socioeconomic implications for managing hydrological hazards, food and energy production. Although there have been many observational and modeling studies of ET, how ET has varied and the drivers of the variations at different temporal scales remain elusive. Much of the uncertainty comes from the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> evaporative demand (AED), which is the combined effect of radiative and aerodynamic controls. The inconsistencies among modeled AED estimates and the limited observational data may originate from multiple sources including the limited time span and uncertainties in the data. To fully investigate and untangle the intertwined drivers of AED, we present a spectrum analysis to identify key controls of AED across multiple temporal scales. We use long-term records of observed pan evaporation for 1961-2006 from 317 weather stations across China and <span class="hlt">physically</span>-based model estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET). The model estimates are based on surface meteorology and radiation derived from reanalysis, satellite retrievals and station data. Our analyses show that temperature plays a dominant role in regulating variability of AED at the inter-annual scale. At the monthly and seasonal scales, the primary control of AED shifts from radiation in humid regions to humidity in dry regions. Unlike many studies focusing on the spatial pattern of ET drivers based on a traditional supply and demand framework, this study underlines the importance of temporal scales when discussing controls of ET variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860034768&hterms=physical+science&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Bscience','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860034768&hterms=physical+science&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Bscience"><span>Goddard Laboratory for <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences <span class="hlt">physical</span> retrieval system for remote determination of weather and climate parameter from HIRS2 and MSU observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susskind, J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>At the Goddard Laboratory for <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences (GLAS) a <span class="hlt">physically</span> based satellite temperature sounding retrieval system, involving the simultaneous analysis of HIRS2 and MSU sounding data, was developed for determining <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and surface conditions which are consistent with the observed radiances. In addition to determining accurate <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> temperature profiles even in the presence of cloud contamination, the system provides global estimates of day and night sea or land surface temperatures, snow and ice cover, and parameters related to cloud cover. Details of the system are described elsewhere. A brief overview of the system is presented, as well as recent improvements and previously unpublished results, relating to the sea-surface intercomparison workshop, the diurnal variation of ground temperatures, and forecast impact tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984SPIE..481..122S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984SPIE..481..122S"><span>Goddard Laboratory For <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Retrieval System For Remote Determination Of Weather And Climate Parameter From Hirs2 And Msu Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Susskind, J.</p> <p>1984-08-01</p> <p>At the Goddard Laboratory for <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences (GLAS) we have developed a <span class="hlt">physi-cally</span> based satellite temperature sounding retrieval system, involving the simultaneous analysis of HIRS2 and MSU sounding data, for determining <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and surface conditions which are consistent with the observed radiances. In addition to determining accurate <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> temperature profiles even in the presence of cloud contamination, the system provides global estimates of day and night sea or land surface temperatures, snow and ice cover, and parameters related to cloud cover. Details of the system are described elsewhere. Here, a brief overview of the system is presented as well as recent improvements and previously unpublished results, relating to the sea-surface intercomparison workshop, the diurnal variation of ground temperatures, and forecast impact tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860034768&hterms=climate+science&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bscience','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860034768&hterms=climate+science&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bscience"><span>Goddard Laboratory for <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences <span class="hlt">physical</span> retrieval system for remote determination of weather and climate parameter from HIRS2 and MSU observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susskind, J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>At the Goddard Laboratory for <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences (GLAS) a <span class="hlt">physically</span> based satellite temperature sounding retrieval system, involving the simultaneous analysis of HIRS2 and MSU sounding data, was developed for determining <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and surface conditions which are consistent with the observed radiances. In addition to determining accurate <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> temperature profiles even in the presence of cloud contamination, the system provides global estimates of day and night sea or land surface temperatures, snow and ice cover, and parameters related to cloud cover. Details of the system are described elsewhere. A brief overview of the system is presented, as well as recent improvements and previously unpublished results, relating to the sea-surface intercomparison workshop, the diurnal variation of ground temperatures, and forecast impact tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.142..496K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.142..496K"><span>Measurements of the impact of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aging on <span class="hlt">physical</span> and optical properties of ambient black carbon particles in Los Angeles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krasowsky, Trevor S.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Wang, Dongbin; Sioutas, Constantinos; Ban-Weiss, George A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Understanding how <span class="hlt">physical</span> and optical properties of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> black carbon (BC) particles vary in time and space is critical for reducing uncertainty in climate forcing estimates from ambient BC. In this study, ambient BC was measured in Rubidoux, California, approximately 90 km (55 miles) downwind of downtown Los Angeles. Collocated NOx and NOy measurements were used to estimate the photochemical age of the sampled air. Sampling was conducted throughout entire days between February 3, 2015 and March 12, 2015 to capture diurnal and daily variations in ambient BC. Both ambient and thermally-denuded air was sampled in 15-min cycles to compare the <span class="hlt">physical</span> and optical properties of coated versus uncoated BC particles. <span class="hlt">Physical</span> properties of individual BC particles including mass and coating thickness were measured using a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and BC optical properties were measured using a Photoacoustic Extinctiometer (PAX) at 870 nm. The mean BC mass concentration (±standard deviation) for the campaign was 0.12 ± 0.08 μg m-3. BC mass concentrations were higher on weekdays than weekends, though only differences between 11:00 and 17:00 h were statistically distinguishable. The fraction of total BC particles that were thickly-coated (f) was found to be relatively low, with a mean of 0.05 ± 0.02 over the campaign. Values for f peaked in the afternoon when photochemical pollutant concentrations are also generally at a maximum. Further, f at 15:00-16:00 h was found to be statistically higher on weekends than weekdays, potentially due to a higher relative amount of ambient SOA to BC on weekends versus weekdays, which would enhance SOA coating of primary BC particles as they age during transport from the western Los Angeles basin to our sampling site on weekends. Differences at other hours during the photochemically active period of the day (10:00-14:00 h) were not statistically different although the weekend values were systematically higher</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.664e2041B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.664e2041B"><span>Optimisation of the usage of LHC and local computing resources in a multidisciplinary <span class="hlt">physics</span> <span class="hlt">department</span> hosting a WLCG Tier-2 centre</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barberis, Stefano; Carminati, Leonardo; Leveraro, Franco; Mazza, Simone Michele; Perini, Laura; Perlz, Francesco; Rebatto, David; Tura, Ruggero; Vaccarossa, Luca; Villaplana, Miguel</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present the approach of the University of Milan <span class="hlt">Physics</span> <span class="hlt">Department</span> and the local unit of INFN to allow and encourage the sharing among different research areas of computing, storage and networking resources (the largest ones being those composing the Milan WLCG Tier-2 centre and tailored to the needs of the ATLAS experiment). Computing resources are organised as independent HTCondor pools, with a global master in charge of monitoring them and optimising their usage. The configuration has to provide satisfactory throughput for both serial and parallel (multicore, MPI) jobs. A combination of local, remote and cloud storage options are available. The experience of users from different research areas operating on this shared infrastructure is discussed. The promising direction of improving scientific computing throughput by federating access to distributed computing and storage also seems to fit very well with the objectives listed in the European Horizon 2020 framework for research and development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7190687','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7190687"><span>Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (<span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 4: <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Sciences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains 20 papers. Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report of 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title <span class="hlt">Physical</span> and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category and each Field Task proposal/agreement is introduced by an abstract that describes the projects reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1989. 74 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A34E..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A34E..04B"><span>A <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Experiment to determine the Impact of <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Condensation of Water Vapor on Surface Air Movement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bunyard, P. P.; Nechev, P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">physical</span> experiment, in which <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> air is enclosed in two interconnecting 4.8-metre high insulated PVC columns, consistently gives results showing that the condensation of water vapor, precipitated by means of refrigeration coils, gives rise to detectable air movements, with air speeds of up to 0.1 m/s. Once the compressor, sited well away from the two columns, is shut down, heavy drops of precipitated water are obtained which funnel into a flask for collection and measurement. The results in kg.m-2 (mm) from the 20 m3 volume of enclosed air accord well (>90%) with the <span class="hlt">physical</span> calculations based on water vapor as an ideal gas. Air flow, resulting from the highly localized condensation, is measured through the movement of light-weight gauzes and an anemometer. It has a circulation time of some two minutes, such that both columns show cooling and a significant reduction in specific humidity from 0.01 to 0.005 (kg water vapor to kg dry air, r) with a drop in relative humidity of up to 40 per cent. Air flow is minimal during the control, non-refrigeration period of the experiment but becomes substantial within a minute of the compressor being switched on. The negative partial pressure change peaks at as much as 0.4 Pa/s during the first 30 minutes but reduces to approx. 0.08 Pa/s during the latter part of the 110 minute- long experiment. Airflow displays an inverse relationship to the partial pressure change, initially rising rapidly and then reducing before returning to zero once refrigeration has been switched off. Inverse correlations of up to 0.8 or higher between the partial pressure reduction and the airflow are obtained routinely. Semi-aquatic vegetation from the nearby marshland enhances precipitation, suggesting that evapotranspiration adds significantly to humidity. Without vegetation the condensation rate is 0.06 to 0.07 millimol.m-3.s-1 on average compared with 0.11 when vegetation is present. Cooling, by some 2°C, combined with a reduction in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3799B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3799B"><span>A <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Experiment to determine the Impact of <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Condensation of Water Vapour on Surface Air Movement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bunyard, Peter</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">physical</span> experiment, in which <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> air is enclosed in two interconnecting 4.8-metre high insulated PVC columns, consistently gives results showing that the condensation of water vapor, precipitated by means of refrigeration coils, gives rise to detectable air movements, with air speeds of up to 0.1 m/s. Once the compressor, sited well away from the two columns, is shut down, heavy drops of precipitated water are obtained which funnel into a flask for collection and measurement. The results in kg.m-2 (mm) from the 20 m3 volume of enclosed air accord well (>90%) with the <span class="hlt">physical</span> calculations based on water vapour as an ideal gas. Air flow, resulting from the highly localized condensation, is measured through the movement of light-weight gauzes and an anemometer. It has a circulation time of some two minutes, such that both columns show cooling and a significant reduction in specific humidity from 0.01 to 0.005 (kg water vapour to kg dry air, r) with a drop in relative humidity of up to 40 per cent. Air flow is minimal during the control, non-refrigeration period of the experiment but becomes substantial within a minute of the compressor being switched on. The negative partial pressure change peaks at as much as 0.4 Pa/s during the first 30 minutes but reduces to approx.0.08 Pa/s during the latter part of the 110 minute-long experiment. Airflow displays an inverse relationship to the partial pressure change, initially rising rapidly and then reducing before returning to zero once refrigeration has been switched off. Inverse correlations of up to 0.8 or higher between the partial pressure reduction and the airflow are obtained routinely. Semi-aquatic vegetation from the nearby marshland enhances precipitation, suggesting that evapotranspiration adds significantly to humidity. Without vegetation the condensation rate is 0.06 to 0.07 millimol.m-3.s-1 on average compared with 0.11 when vegetation is present. Cooling, by some 2°C, combined with a reduction in</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA624791','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA624791"><span><span class="hlt">Physics</span>-based Stabilization of Spectral Elements for the 3D Euler Equations of Moist <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Convection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>3D Euler Equations of Moist <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Convection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...STABILIZATION OF SPECTRAL ELEMENTS FOR THE 3D EULER EQUATIONS OF MOIST <span class="hlt">ATMOSPHERIC</span> CONVECTION SIMONE MARRAS, ANDREAS MÜLLER, FRANCIS X. GIRALDO Dept. Appl...spectral elements, we introduce a dissipative scheme based on the solution of the compressible Euler equations that are regularized through the addi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH43B1643L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH43B1643L"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> coupling of Tsunami: observations from Tohoku and impact on tsunami <span class="hlt">physical</span> properties and phase/group velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lognonne, P. H.; Kherani, E. A.; Coisson, P.; Astafyeva, E.; Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L. M.; Yahagi, T.; Khelfi, K.; Sladen, A.; Hebert, H.; Makela, J. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Tsunamis, through a dynamic coupling between the ocean and <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, are generating <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> waves, detected in the ionosphere for tsunamis with amplitudes as much as 1 cm in the open ocean. Signals associated to the Tohoku tsunami have therefore been observed with huge signal to noise ratio, not only over Japan, but all over the Pacific, up to Chili. These signals have been moreover modelled, not only for the Total Electronic Contents perturbation signals, but also of the airglow detected for the first time over Hawaii and for the magnetic perturbations detected in Japan. We present in this paper the two sides of this coupling. The first side resumes the different observations and modelling of the Tohoku ionospheric signals observed by GEONET, by the GSI magnetic network and by Airglow cameras in Hawaii and Chili. Comparison between data and modelling are shown. The second side present the effects of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> coupling on the tsunami properties, i.e. amplitudes, phase/group velocities and excitation coefficients. By taking into account the coupling of tsunami with both the solid Earth and <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, we show that specific resonances between the ocean and the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> exist, enabling to understand the large and peaked signal spectrum. Local Time and geographical variations of this coupling is studied, as well as its dependence with the ocean depth. The impacts of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> coupling on the propagation travel time of tsunamis is finally presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760003845','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760003845"><span>The <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> of Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, J. E. (Editor)</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Topics considered at the conference included the dynamics, structure, chemistry, and evolution of the Venus <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, as well as cloud <span class="hlt">physics</span> and motion. Infrared, ultraviolet, and radio occultation methods of analysis are discussed, and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> models are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27195499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27195499"><span>Prediction of Mobility Limitations after Hospitalization in Older Medical Patients by Simple Measures of <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Performance Obtained at Admission to the Emergency <span class="hlt">Department</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard; Petersen, Janne; Beyer, Nina; Andersen, Ove; Jørgensen, Lillian Mørch; Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Bandholm, Thomas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mobility limitations relate to dependency in older adults. Identification of older patients with mobility limitations after hospital discharge may help stratify treatment and could potentially counteract dependency seen in older adults after hospitalization. We investigated the ability of four <span class="hlt">physical</span> performance measures administered at hospital admission to identify older medical patients who manifest mobility limitations 30 days after discharge. Prospective cohort study of patients (≥65 years) admitted to the emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> for acute medical illness. During the first 24 hours, we assessed: handgrip strength, 4-meter gait speed, the ability to rise from a chair (chair-stand), and the Cumulated Ambulation Score. The mobility level 30 days after discharge was evaluated using the de Morton Mobility Index. A total of 369 patients (77.9 years, 62% women) were included. Of those, 128 (40%) patients had mobility limitations at follow-up. Univariate analyzes showed that each of the <span class="hlt">physical</span> performance measures was strongly associated with mobility limitations at follow-up (handgrip strength(women), OR 0.86 (0.81-0.91), handgrip strength(men), OR 0.90 (0.86-0.95), gait speed, OR 0.35 (0.26-0.46), chair-stand, OR 0.04 (0.02-0.08) and Cumulated Ambulation Score OR 0.49 (0.38-0.64). Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the results and the associations were not modified by any of the covariates: age, gender, cognitive status, the severity of the acute medical illness, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Based on prespecified cut-offs the prognostic accuracy of the four measures for mobility limitation at follow-up was calculated. The sensitivity and specificity were: handgrip strength(women), 56.8 (45.8-67.3), 75.7 (66.8-83.2), handgrip strength(men), 50.0 (33.8-66.2), 80.8 (69.9-89.1), gait speed, 68.4 (58.2-77.4), 81.4 (75.0-86.8), chair-stand 67.8 (58.6-76.1), 91.8 (86.8-95.3), and Cumulated Ambulation Score, 40.2 (31.6-49.2), 92.0 (87</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24267018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24267018"><span>Type IV sensitizations in <span class="hlt">physical</span> therapists: patch test results of the Information Network of <span class="hlt">Departments</span> of Dermatology (IVDK) 2007-2011.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Girbig, Maria; Hegewald, Janice; Seidler, Andreas; Bauer, Andrea; Uter, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Jochen</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Physical</span> therapists frequently come in contact with materials that can potentially cause skin irritation and/or allergies. Nevertheless analyses of professionally relevant sensitization patterns are currently lacking. A descriptive analysis of the patch test results from the Information Network of <span class="hlt">Departments</span> of Dermatology (IVDK) was carried out considering patients employed full-time as <span class="hlt">physical</span> therapists during the years 2007-2011. Information includes dermatologic diagnoses, possible contact substances and cofactors as well as the "hit list" of the most common allergens. Among the patients (n = 134) the most common diagnoses (1(st) and 2(nd) ) were allergic contact dermatitis (23.9 %), chronic irritant dermatitis (17.2 %) and atopic dermatitis (19.4 %). In 80 of the 134 patients (59.7 %), the skin lesions were located on the hands. In 62 (46.3 %) of the cases, skin disease was considered work-related. The contact with cosmetics, creams, disinfectants, topical medications and the use of gloves were relevant as putative triggering factors for the respondents. The most common allergens were nickel (II) sulfate (16.5 %), fragrance mix (12.2 %) and fragrance mix II (13.0 %). In this first comprehensive study of contact allergies among <span class="hlt">physical</span> therapists in German-speaking countries, a link between skin disease and work was felt likely in nearly 50 % of the tested cohort. To which extent the results shown in this work can be confirmed and which consequences these have for occupational preventive measures should be examined in additional, preferably longitudinal studies. © The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.604C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.604C"><span>JEM-EUSO: an opportunity for carrying out researches in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span>, meteorology and climatology using remote sensing techniques from space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cassardo, C.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p> of clouds in the respective pixels and the cloud-top altitude. Thus, besides providing valuable information for the Extreme Energy Cosmic Ray observation from space, the potential of the AMS could be very effective in observing poor studied transient <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> phenomena and in addressing research on other relevant questions in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span> that are yet without answers. Among these, we could quote: monitoring cloud coverage; monitoring air transparency by detecting aerosol and subvisible clouds layers; creating 3D cloud maps, by evaluating top, depth and other cloud properties, and interpreting their dynamics; carrying out micro-meteors statistics; studying gravity waves; understanding space-<span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> interactions and possibly related climate changes; improving the knowledge on mesoscale convective system; finding the aerosols distribution in lower <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and establishing their role in provoking thunderstorms; impact phenomena of meteorites and interaction of dust with clouds and radiative properties in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>; monitoring and understanding light transient phenomena (elves, sprites, terrestrial gamma flashes and generally <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> discharge phenomena) with their possible impact on aviation safety). The expected benefits of this unique effort will have long-lasting effects on fundamental <span class="hlt">physics</span> of high energies and important relapses on <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span> science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3049M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3049M"><span>Influence of the micro-<span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of the aerosol on the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> correction of OLI data acquired over desert area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manzo, Ciro; Bassani, Cristiana</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on the evaluation of surface reflectance obtained by different <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> correction algorithms of the Landsat 8 OLI data considering or not the micro-<span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of the aerosol when images are acquired in desert area located in South-West of Nile delta. The <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> correction of remote sensing data was shown to be sensitive to the aerosol micro-<span class="hlt">physical</span> properties, as reported in Bassani et al., 2012. In particular, the role of the aerosol micro-<span class="hlt">physical</span> properties on the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> correction of remote sensing data was investigated [Bassani et al., 2015; Tirelli et al., 2015]. In this work, the OLI surface reflectance was retrieved by the developed OLI@CRI (OLI <span class="hlt">ATmospherically</span> Corrected Reflectance Imagery) <span class="hlt">physically</span>-based <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> correction which considers the aerosol micro-<span class="hlt">physical</span> properties available from the two AERONET stations [Holben et al., 1998] close to the study area (El_Farafra and Cairo_EMA_2). The OLI@CRI algorithm is based on 6SV radiative transfer model, last generation of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code [Kotchenova et al., 2007; Vermote et al., 1997], specifically developed for Landsat 8 OLI data. The OLI reflectance obtained by the OLI@CRI was compared with reflectance obtained by other <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> correction algorithms which do not consider micro-<span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of aerosol (DOS) or take on aerosol standard models (FLAASH, implemented in ENVI software). The accuracy of the surface reflectance retrieved by different algorithms were calculated by comparing the spatially resampled OLI images with the MODIS surface reflectance products. Finally, specific image processing was applied to the OLI reflectance images in order to compare remote sensing products obtained for same scene. The results highlight the influence of the <span class="hlt">physical</span> characterization of aerosol on the OLI data improving the retrieved <span class="hlt">atmospherically</span> corrected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910502S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910502S"><span>Evaluating <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Processes during the Freeze-Up Season using a Coupled Sea Ice-Ocean-<span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Forecast Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solomon, Amy; Intrieri, Janet; Persson, Ola; Cox, Christopher; Hughes, Mimi; Grachev, Andrey; Capotondi, Antonietta; de Boer, Gijs</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Improved sea ice forecasting must be based on improved model representation of coupled system processes that impact the sea ice thermodynamic and dynamic state. Pertinent coupled system processes remain uncertain and include surface energy fluxes, clouds, precipitation, boundary layer structure, momentum transfer and sea-ice dynamics, interactions between large-scale circulation and local processes, and others. In this presentation, we use a fully-coupled ocean-sea ice-<span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> forecast system as a testbed for investigating biases in 0-10 day forecasts, with a focus on processes that determine fluxes at the ocean-ice-air interface. Model results and validation examples from an experimental, weather-scale, coupled ice-ocean-<span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> model for 2015 and 2016 fall, sea ice freeze-up season will be presented. The model, a limited-area, fully-coupled <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>-ice-ocean model (named, RASM-ESRL), was developed from the larger-scale Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) architecture. RASM-ESRL includes the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> model, Parallel Ocean Program (POP2) model, Community Ice Model (CICE5) and the NCAR Community Land Model. The domain is limited to the Arctic and all components are run with 10 km horizontal resolution. Components are coupled using a regionalized version of the CESM flux coupler (CPL7), which includes modifications important for resolving the sea ice pack's inertial response to transient (i.e. weather) events. The model is initialized with a GFS <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, satellite-derived sea ice analyses using AMSR-2, and forced by 3-hourly GFS forecasts at the lateral boundaries. Experimental forecasts were run daily from late-July through mid-November in 2015 and 2016. These daily forecasts have been compared with observations of surface fluxes and vertical <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> profiles at the International Arctic Systems for Observing the <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> (IASOA) stations, and with <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and oceanic observations obtained within the sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28640133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28640133"><span>Effectiveness of education in point-of-care ultrasound-assisted <span class="hlt">physical</span> examinations in an emergency <span class="hlt">department</span>: A before-and-after study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, Yoo Jin; Jung, Jae Yun; Kwon, Hyuksool</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Implementation of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS)-assisted <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination (PE) in emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span> (EDs) was conducted in the ED of an urban tertiary teaching hospital. This study examines the effect of POCUS implementation in emergency medicine <span class="hlt">departments</span> by using a systematic education program on image acquisition to analyze decision making.Educating staff on POCUS involved a technique related to image acquisition and then accurately diagnosing subsequent POCUS results. The quasi-experimental, uncontrolled before-and-after study was performed to evaluate the education effect. POCUS orders for eligible patients, length of stay (LOS) in ED, and return visits (RVs) to ED between the "before" period (March 1, 2015 to February 28, 2016) and the "after" period (March 1, 2016 to February 28, 2017) were compared. Piecewise regression was used to assess trend differences of LOS and RVs between the periods.A total of 16,942 and 16,287 patients were included in the before and after periods of education, respectively. During the study periods, 966 (6%) and 2801 (18%) POCUS were ordered, respectively (rate difference  =  12%; P < .001). Before the education, the median LOS was 6.55 (interquartile rage [IQR]: 6.2-6.75) and the trend slope of LOS was -0.01. After the education, the median LOS was 5.25 (IQR: 4.85-5.45) and the trend slope (the change of which was considered significant, at a P value of .012) was -0.15. Before the education, the median RV rate was 6.4% (IQR: 6.15-6.65) and the trend slope of RVs was -0.01. After the education, the median RVs was 5.25% (IQR: 4.95-5.35) and the trend slope of RVs was also significant, at -0.11.The education of POCUS-PE in ED successfully increased use of POCUS, and reduced the LOS and RV rate in ED.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA572465','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA572465"><span>Improvement of the Cloud <span class="hlt">Physics</span> Formulation in the U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean-<span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-09-30</p> <p>following tasks: 1. Investigation of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in COAMPS using the CIMMS bulk drizzle parameterization 2...Naval Research Laboratory’s Coupled Ocean/<span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) equipped with the CIMMS bulk drizzle scheme. In an...activation parameterization, giant CCN parameterization, SGS variability) developed at CIMMS /OU will be made available to NRL and registered COAMPS users</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JQSRT.182..128L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JQSRT.182..128L"><span><span class="hlt">Physical</span> inversion of the full IASI spectra: Assessment of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> parameters retrievals, consistency of spectroscopy and forward modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Venafra, S.; Camy-Peyret, C.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Spectra observed by the Infrared <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sounder Interferometer (IASI) have been used to assess both retrievals and the spectral quality and consistency of current forward models and spectroscopic databases for <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> gas line and continuum absorption. The analysis has been performed with thousands of observed spectra over sea surface in the Pacific Ocean close to the Mauna Loa (Hawaii) validation station. A simultaneous retrieval for surface temperature, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> temperature, H2O, HDO, O3 profiles and gas average column abundance of CO2, CO, CH4, SO2, N2O, HNO3, NH3, OCS and CF4 has been performed and compared to in situ observations. The retrieval system considers the full IASI spectrum (all 8461 spectral channels on the range 645-2760 cm-1). We have found that the average column amount of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> greenhouse gases can be retrieved with a precision better than 1% in most cases. The analysis of spectral residuals shows that, after inversion, they are generally reduced to within the IASI radiometric noise. However, larger residuals still appear for many of the most abundant gases, namely H2O, CH4 and CO2. The H2O ν2 spectral region is in general warmer (higher radiance) than observations. The CO2ν2 and N2O/CO2ν3 spectral regions now show a consistent behavior for channels, which are probing the troposphere. Updates in CH4 spectroscopy do not seem to improve the residuals. The effect of isotopic fractionation of HDO is evident in the 2500-2760 cm-1 region and in the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> window around 1200 cm-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A11E..05Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A11E..05Z"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Aging and Its Impacts on <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Properties of Soot Aerosols: Results from the 2009 SHARP/SOOT Campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, R.; Khalizov, A. F.; Zheng, J.; Reed, C. C.; Collins, D. R.; Olaguer, E. P.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> aerosols impact the Earth energy balance directly by scattering solar radiation back to space and indirectly by changing the albedo, frequency, and lifetime of clouds. Carbon soot (or black carbon) produced from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning represents a major component of primary aerosols. Because of high absorption cross-sections over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectra, black carbon contributes significantly to climate change by direct radiative forcing and is the second most important component causing global warming after carbon dioxide. In areas identified as aerosol hotspots, which include many megacities, solar heating by soot-containing aerosols is roughly comparable to heating due to greenhouse gases. In addition, light absorbing soot aerosols may reduce photolysis rates at the surface level, producing a noticeable impact on photochemistry. Enhanced light absorption and scattering by soot can stabilize the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, retarding vertical transport and exacerbating accumulation of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) pollutants within the planetary boundary layer. Less surface heating and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> stabilization may decrease formation of clouds, and warming in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> can evaporate existing cloud droplets by lowering relative humidity. Furthermore, soot-containing aerosols represent a major type of PM that has adverse effects on human health. When first emitted, soot particles are low-density aggregates of loosely connected primary spherules. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically hydrophobic, but may become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) during <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aging by acquiring hydrophilic coatings. Hygroscopic soot particles, being efficient CCN, can exert indirect forcing on climate. In this talk, results will be presented on measurements of soot properties during the 2009 SHARP/SOOT Campaign. Ambient aerosols and fresh soot particles injected into a captured air chamber were monitored to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+atomic+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ228806','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+atomic+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ228806"><span><span class="hlt">Physics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bromley, D. Allan</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of <span class="hlt">physics</span>. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in <span class="hlt">physics</span> research. (Author/SA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+atomic+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ228806','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+atomic+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ228806"><span><span class="hlt">Physics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bromley, D. Allan</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of <span class="hlt">physics</span>. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in <span class="hlt">physics</span> research. (Author/SA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RaSc...52..559B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RaSc...52..559B"><span>A <span class="hlt">physics</span>-based model for the ionization of samarium by the MOSC chemical releases in the upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Briczinski, Stanley J.; Viggiano, Albert; Caton, Ronald G.; Pedersen, Todd R.; Holmes, Jeffrey M.; Ard, Shaun; Shuman, Nicholas; Groves, Keith M.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Atomic samarium has been injected into the neutral <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> for production of electron clouds that modify the ionosphere. These electron clouds may be used as high-frequency radio wave reflectors or for control of the electrodynamics of the F region. A self-consistent model for the photochemical reactions of Samarium vapor cloud released into the upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> has been developed and compared with the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experimental observations. The release initially produces a dense plasma cloud that that is rapidly reduced by dissociative recombination and diffusive expansion. The spectral emissions from the release cover the ultraviolet to the near infrared band with contributions from solar fluorescence of the atomic, molecular, and ionized components of the artificial density cloud. Barium releases in sunlight are more efficient than Samarium releases in sunlight for production of dense ionization clouds. Samarium may be of interest for nighttime releases but the artificial electron cloud is limited by recombination with the samarium oxide ion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..345N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..345N"><span>Simulations of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> TGFs and related <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes: detection from space and side effects on MXGS/ASIM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Navarro-González, Javier; Blay, Pere; Espinós, Hector; Reglero, Víctor; Connell, Paul; Eyles, Chris</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) is an ESA mission which will be attached to the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The main goal of the ASIM mission is to characterize the optical and high-energy emission related to severe thunderstorms. We are setting up a set of simulations in order to analyse the expected detections from ASIM and in particular from the Modular X-ray and Gamma-ray Sensor (MXGS) imager. On the one hand we have developed a mass model of the instrument for its use in Geant4 applications. We plan to characterize the response of the instrument to the incident high-energy radiation, and the effects of background from backscattered photons from the Columbus module. On the other hand we are developing a set of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> models to set up Geant4 simulations of electron avalanche and gamma-ray propagation, with emphasis on: a) the possible residual optical emission due to interaction with <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> components, and b) the expected spectral and timing properties of the resulting high-energy emission towards space. We plan to include comparisons with other software toolkits like CORSIKA or LEPTRACK (under developed at the University of Valencia).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=philosophy+AND+physics&pg=6&id=EJ136803','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=philosophy+AND+physics&pg=6&id=EJ136803"><span>Establishing an Undergraduate Research Program in <span class="hlt">Physics</span>: How it was Done</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cohen, Samuel A.; MacVicar, Margaret L. A.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Reports on the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) <span class="hlt">physics</span> <span class="hlt">department</span>. Surveys the philosophy and objectives of the program, its organization, rules, funding, growth, <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, problems, and accomplishments. (Author/CP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8483M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8483M"><span>Analysis of vegetation by the application of a <span class="hlt">physically</span>-based <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> correction algorithm to OLI data: a case study of Leonessa Municipality, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Petracchini, Francesco; Bassani, Cristiana</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Remote sensing techniques allow to estimate vegetation parameters related to large areas for forest health evaluation and biomass estimation. Moreover, the parametrization of specific indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) allows to study biogeochemical cycles and radiative energy transfer processes between soil/vegetation and <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. This paper focuses on the evaluation of vegetation cover analysis in Leonessa Municipality, Latium Region (Italy) by the use of 2015 Landsat 8 applying the OLI@CRI (OLI <span class="hlt">ATmospherically</span> Corrected Reflectance Imagery) algorithm developed following the procedure described in Bassani et al. 2015. The OLI@CRI is based on 6SV radiative transfer model (Kotchenova et al., 2006) ables to simulate the radiative field in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>-earth coupled system. NDVI was derived from the OLI corrected image. This index, widely used for biomass estimation and vegetation analysis cover, considers the sensor channels falling in the near infrared and red spectral regions which are sensitive to chlorophyll absorption and cell structure. The retrieved product was then spatially resampled at MODIS image resolution and then validated by the NDVI of MODIS considered as reference. The <span class="hlt">physically</span>-based OLI@CRI algorithm also provides the incident solar radiation at ground at the acquisition time by 6SV simulation. Thus, the OLI@CRI algorithm completes the remote sensing dataset required for a comprehensive analysis of the sub-regional biomass production by using data of the new generation remote sensing sensor and an <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> radiative transfer model. If the OLI@CRI algorithm is applied to a temporal series of OLI data, the influence of the solar radiation on the above-ground vegetation can be analysed as well as vegetation index variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6503687','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6503687"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> science and power production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Randerson, D.</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span> and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and how they can be removed from the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ187672.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ187672.pdf"><span>What Should We Be Teaching about the <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Atkinson, Bruce</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Because study of climatology in most college and university geography <span class="hlt">departments</span> is descriptive, it gives no fundamental insights into geophysical processes. In order to achieve a quantified understanding of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> processes, geographers must have expertise in mathematics, <span class="hlt">physics</span>, and instrumentation. For journal availability, see 506 593.…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982EOSTr..63S.513.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982EOSTr..63S.513."><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> merger in London</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>At the invitation of Imperial College, the Laboratory for Planetary <span class="hlt">Atmospheres</span>, University College London, will be integrated in August with the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">Physics</span> Group to form a single teaching and research unit. The new group, to be located at Imperial College, will be headed by Garry Hunt.The new group will possess a balanced research program in the observational and interpretative aspects of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span>. The existing Imperial College group actively researches cumulonimbus dynamics and climate modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED560871.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED560871.pdf"><span>Roster of <span class="hlt">Physics</span> <span class="hlt">Departments</span> with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2014: Results from the 2014 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Physics</span> bachelor's degree production has more than doubled since the recent low in 1999 and total enrollments in US undergraduate <span class="hlt">physics</span> programs continue to increase. The all-time high of 7,526 bachelor's degrees in the class of 2014 represents the 15th consecutive year that the number of <span class="hlt">physics</span> bachelor's conferred has increased. First-year…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED569985.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED569985.pdf"><span>Roster of <span class="hlt">Physics</span> <span class="hlt">Departments</span> with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2015: Results from the 2015 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Physics</span> bachelor's degree production continues to increase, with the 8,122 bachelor's awarded representing yet another all-time high. Further increases in <span class="hlt">physics</span> bachelor's degree production are anticipated as undergraduate junior- and senior-level enrollments continue to climb. The all-time high of 1,860 <span class="hlt">physics</span> PhDs conferred in the class of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...U61A01D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...U61A01D"><span>The Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC): Showcasing Mathematical and Computational <span class="hlt">Physics</span> in a Critical <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, A. B.; Cahalan, R. F.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>The Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC) is an on-going initiative involving an international group of over 30 researchers engaged in the numerical modeling of three-dimensional radiative transfer as applied to clouds. Because of their strong variability and extreme opacity, clouds are indeed a major source of uncertainty in the Earth's local radiation budget (at GCM grid scales). Also 3D effects (at satellite pixel scales) invalidate the standard plane-parallel assumption made in the routine of cloud-property remote sensing at NASA and NOAA. Accordingly, the test-cases used in I3RC are based on inputs and outputs which relate to cloud effects in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> heating rates and in real-world remote sensing geometries. The main objectives of I3RC are to (1) enable participants to improve their models, (2) publish results as a community, (3) archive source code, and (4) educate. We will survey the status of I3RC and its plans for the near future with a special emphasis on the mathematical models and computational approaches. We will also describe some of the prime applications of I3RC's efforts in climate models, cloud-resolving models, and remote-sensing observations of clouds, or that of the surface in their presence. In all these application areas, computational efficiency is the main concern and not accuracy. One of I3RC's main goals is to document the performance of as wide a variety as possible of three-dimensional radiative transfer models for a small but representative number of ``cases.'' However, it is dominated by modelers working at the level of linear transport theory (i.e., they solve the radiative transfer equation) and an overwhelming majority of these participants use slow-but-robust Monte Carlo techniques. This means that only a small portion of the efficiency vs. accuracy vs. flexibility domain is currently populated by I3RC participants. To balance this natural clustering the present authors have organized a systematic outreach towards</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JAtS...62.2136K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JAtS...62.2136K"><span>Simulations of the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> General Circulation Using a Cloud-Resolving Model as a Superparameterization of <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khairoutdinov, Marat; Randall, David; Demott, Charlotte</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Traditionally, the effects of clouds in GCMs have been represented by semiempirical parameterizations. Recently, a cloud-resolving model (CRM) was embedded into each grid column of a realistic GCM, the NCAR Community <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Model (CAM), to serve as a superparameterization (SP) of clouds. Results of the standard CAM and the SP-CAM are contrasted, both using T42 resolution (2.8° × 2.8° grid), 26 vertical levels, and up to a 500-day-long simulation. The SP was based on a two-dimensional (2D) CRM with 64 grid columns and 24 levels collocated with the 24 lowest levels of CAM. In terms of the mean state, the SP-CAM produces quite reasonable geographical distributions of precipitation, precipitable water, top-of-the-<span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> radiative fluxes, cloud radiative forcing, and high-cloud fraction for both December-January-February and June-July-August. The most notable and persistent precipitation bias in the western Pacific, during the Northern Hemisphere summer of all the SP-CAM runs with 2D SP, seems to go away through the use of a small-domain three-dimensional (3D) SP with the same number of grid columns as the 2D SP, but arranged in an 8 × 8 square with identical horizontal resolution of 4 km. Two runs with the 3D SP have been carried out, with and without explicit large-scale momentum transport by convection. Interestingly, the double ITCZ feature seems to go away in the run that includes momentum transport.The SP improves the diurnal variability of nondrizzle precipitation frequency over the standard model by precipitating most frequently during late afternoon hours over the land, as observed, while the standard model maximizes its precipitation frequency around local solar noon. Over the ocean, both models precipitate most frequently in the early morning hours as observed. The SP model also reproduces the observed global distribution of the percentage of days with nondrizzle precipitation rather well. In contrast, the standard model tends to precipitate more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ACP.....7.2705P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ACP.....7.2705P"><span>Sub-micron <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosols in the surroundings of Marseille and Athens: <span class="hlt">physical</span> characterization and new particle formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Dal Maso, M.; Junninen, H.; Koponen, I. K.; Hussein, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Andronopoulos, S.; Robin, D.; Hämeri, K.; Bartzis, J. G.; Kulmala, M.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The properties of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosol particles in Marseille and Athens were investigated. The studies were performed in Marseille, France, during July 2002 and in Athens, Greece, during June 2003. The aerosol size distribution and the formation and growth rates of newly formed particles were characterized using Differential Mobility Particle Sizers. Hygroscopic properties were observed using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. During both campaigns, the observations were performed at suburban, almost rural sites, and the sites can be considered to show general regional background behavior depending on the wind direction. At both sites there were clear pattern for both aerosol number concentration and hygroscopic properties. Nucleation mode number concentration increased during the morning hours indicating new particle formation, which was observed during more than 30% of the days. The observed formation rate was typically more than 1 cm-3 s-1, and the growth rate was between 1.2-9.9 nm h-1. Based on hygroscopicity measurements in Athens, the nucleation mode size increase was due to condensation of both water insoluble and water soluble material. However, during a period of less anthropogenic influence, the growth was to a larger extent due to water insoluble components. When urban pollution was more pronounced, growth due to condensation of water soluble material dominated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ACPD....6.8605P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ACPD....6.8605P"><span>Sub-micron <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosols in the surroundings of Marseille and Athens: <span class="hlt">physical</span> characterization and new particle formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Dal Maso, M.; Junninen, H.; Koponen, I. K.; Hussein, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Andronopoulos, S.; Robin, D.; Hämeri, K.; Bartzis, J. G.; Kulmala, M.</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>The properties of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosol particles in Marseille and Athens were investigated. The studies were performed in Marseille, France during July 2002 and in Athens Greece during June 2003. The aerosol size distribution and the formation and growth rates of newly formed particles were characterized using Differential Mobility Particle Sizers. Hygroscopic properties were observed using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. During both campaigns, the observations were performed at suburban, almost rural sites, and the sites can be considered to show general regional background behavior depending on the wind direction. At both sites there were clear pattern for both aerosol number concentration and hygroscopic properties. Nucleation mode number concentration increased during the morning hours indicating new particle formation, which was observed during more than 30% of the days. The observed formation rate was typically more than 1 cm-3 s-1, and the growth rate was between 1.2-9.9 nm h-1. Based on hygroscopicity measurements in Athens, the nucleation mode size increase was due to condensation of both water insoluble and water soluble material. However, during a period of less anthropogenic influence, the growth was to a larger extent due to water insoluble components. When urban pollution was more pronounced, growth due to condensation of water soluble material dominated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhD...48T4003K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhD...48T4003K"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> pressure argon surface discharges propagated in long tubes: <span class="hlt">physical</span> characterization and application to bio-decontamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kovalova, Zuzana; Leroy, Magali; Jacobs, Carolyn; Kirkpatrick, Michael J.; Machala, Zdenko; Lopes, Filipa; Laux, Christophe O.; DuBow, Michael S.; Odic, Emmanuel</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Pulsed corona discharges propagated in argon (or in argon with added water vapor) at <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure on the interior surface of a 49 cm long quartz tube were investigated for the application of surface bio-decontamination. H2O molecule dissociation in the argon plasma generated reactive species (i.e. OH in ground and excited states) and UV emission, which both directly affected bacterial cells. In order to facilitate the evaluation of the contribution of UV radiation, a DNA damage repair defective bacterial strain, Escherichia coli DH-1, was used. Discharge characteristics, including propagation velocity and plasma temperature, were measured. Up to ~5.5 and ~5 log10 reductions were observed for E. coli DH-1 bacteria (from 106 initial load) exposed 2 cm and 44 cm away from the charged electrode, respectively, for a 20 min plasma treatment. The factors contributing to the observed bactericidal effect include desiccation, reactive oxygen species (OH) plus H2O2 accumulation in the liquid phase, and UV-B (and possibly VUV) emission in dry argon. The steady state temperature measured on the quartz tube wall did not exceeded 29 °C the contribution of heating, along with that of H2O2 accumulation, was estimated to be low. The effect of UV-B emission alone or in combination with the other stress factors of the plasma process was examined for different operating conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50E5202V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50E5202V"><span>Single channel <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure transporting plasma and plasma stream demultiplexing: <span class="hlt">physical</span> characterization and application to E. coli bacteria inactivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valinataj Omran, A.; Sohbatzadeh, F.; Siadati, S. N.; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, A.; Akishev, Y.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>In this article, we developed transporting plasma sources that operate at <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure. The effect of electrode configuration on plasma transporting was investigated. In order to increase the transporting plasma cross-section, we converted a plasma stream into four plasma channels by a cylindrical housing. Electron excitation and rotational temperatures were estimated using optical emission spectroscopy. Furthermore, the electrical and temporal characteristics of the plasma, discharge power and charge deposition on the target were investigated. The propagation characteristics of single and multi-channel transporting plasma were compared with the same cross-sectional area. Two configurations for multi-channels were designed for this purpose. Escherichia coli bacteria were exposed to the single and multi-channel transporting discharge for different time durations. After exposure, the results indicated that the inactivation zones were significantly increased by a multi-channel transporting plasma. Finally, E. coli inactivation by those plasma apparatuses was compared with that of several standard antimicrobial test discs such as Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin and Cefixime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMED11C0863D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMED11C0863D"><span>A Year-Long Research Experience Program in Solar and <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">Physics</span> at the Queensborough Community College of the City University of New York (CUNY)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Damas, M. C.; Cheung, T. D.; Ngwira, C.; Mohamed, A.; Knipp, D. J.; Johnson, L. P.; Zheng, Y.; Paglione, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Queensborough Community College (QCC) of the City University of New York (CUNY), a Hispanic and minority-serving institution, is the recipient of a 2-year NSF EAGER (Early Concept Grants for Exploratory Research) grant to design and implement a high-impact practice integrated research and education program in solar and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span>. Through a strong collaboration with CUNY/City College of New York and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), the project engages underrepresented community college students in geosciences-related STEM fields through a year-long research experience with two components: 1) during the academic year, students are enrolled in a course-based introductory research (CURE) where they conduct research on real-world problems; and 2) during the summer, students are placed in research internships at partner institutions. We will present the results of the first year-long research experience, including successes and challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED547630.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED547630.pdf"><span>Roster of <span class="hlt">Physics</span> <span class="hlt">Departments</span> with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2013: Results from the 2013 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Physics</span> bachelor's degree production has more than doubled since the recent low in 1999, and enrollment in U.S. undergraduate <span class="hlt">physics</span> programs continues to increase. The all-time high of 7,329 bachelor's degrees in the class of 2013 represents the 14th consecutive year that the number of <span class="hlt">physics</span> bachelor's conferred has increased.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED524566.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED524566.pdf"><span>Roster of <span class="hlt">Physics</span> <span class="hlt">Departments</span> with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2010: Results from the 2010 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Academic year 2009-10 produced more <span class="hlt">physics</span> bachelor's and more <span class="hlt">physics</span> PhDs than in any other year in US history. The 6,017 <span class="hlt">physics</span> bachelor's degrees earned in the class of 2010 represent a 65% increase from the class of 1999 eleven years earlier. The 1,558 PhDs in the class of 2010 is up 43% from a recent low 6 years earlier. Non-US citizens…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED535119.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED535119.pdf"><span>Roster of <span class="hlt">Physics</span> <span class="hlt">Departments</span> with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2011: Results from the 2011 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Academic year 2010-11 produced 2 new all-time highs for <span class="hlt">physics</span> bachelor's and <span class="hlt">physics</span> PhDs conferred in the U.S. The 6,296 <span class="hlt">physics</span> bachelor's degrees earned in the class of 2011 represent a 73% increase from a recent low in the class of 1999 twelve years earlier. The 1,688 PhDs in the class of 2011 is up 55% from a recent low 7 years earlier.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1254331','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1254331"><span>SRNL <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Technologies Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>The Savannah River National Laboratory, <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy’s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1254331','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1254331"><span>SRNL <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Technologies Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.</p> <p>2016-05-10</p> <p>The Savannah River National Laboratory, <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy’s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..81...60A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..81...60A"><span>Validation of the Institute of <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">Physics</span> emergency response model with the meteorological towers measurements and SF6 diffusion and pool fire experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>An, Junling; Xiang, Weiling; Han, Zhiwei; Xiao, Kaitao; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Jianbin; Yan, Pingzhong; Li, Jie; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian; Li, Ying</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The urban canopy layer parameterization (UCP), a successive bias correction method (SBC), an <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> dispersion module for denser-than-air releases, and the emission intensity of chemicals monitored by a Fourier-transform-infrared remote sensor (EM27) were incorporated into the Institute of <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">Physics</span> emergency response model (IAPERM). IAPERM's performance was tested in Beijing using the field data collected from a 325-m meteorological tower and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) diffusion and pool fire experiments. The results show that the IAPERM simulations of the vertical wind speeds in the urban canopy layer (UCL) with the UCP perform much better than those with the Monin-Obukhov similarity parameterization scheme. The IAPERM forecasts for air temperature and relative humidity are more accurate than those for wind speed and direction, which require correction. When the SBC with the local terrain effect is adopted, the wind speed and direction and the maximum concentrations of black carbon near the ground are well forecasted. IAPERM reproduces the spatial distributions of the SF6 observations more accurately near the release source (≤500 m) than at locations far away from the release source with the use of the observed meteorological parameters. These results suggest that IAPERM could be a promising tool for passive and dense gas diffusion simulations or forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A22C..02D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A22C..02D"><span>Mercury in the Arctic spring: a tracer for <span class="hlt">physical</span> and chemical processes linking the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> to the land and sea (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.; Steffen, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Arctic mercury story is an intriguing one: gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is oxidized to reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during early spring <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> mercury deposition events. The RGM produced is readily deposited to snow and ice surfaces. <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> mercury depletion events (AMDEs) are associated with mercury concentrations in surface snow and sea ice that are routinely above 100 ng/L. The GEM to RGM oxidation is driven by sunlight, halogen oxide radicals and the presence of snow and ice crystal surfaces. The most likely source of halogens (and the halogen oxides) is likely newly formed sea ice or the open water on which sea ice grows. The complex relationships between sea ice, leads, open sea water and the lower <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> is not well understood. However, mercury is a tracer linking <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> chemical and <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes, sea ice conditions, the snow pack, and arctic ecosystems. Previous work has shown that interactions between snow and ice crystal surfaces and RGM likely drive the scavenging and deposition of RGM to the snow pack. This yields insight into how mercury (and potentially other contaminants and chemical compounds) are adsorbed onto or otherwise associated with snow and ice crystals. Some of the RGM deposited to the snow pack is subsequently reduced to GEM that evades from the snow pack. This is evident during the onset of spring snow melt when GEM values increase well above ambient background values of 1.6 ng per cubic meter. However, some of the deposited RGM remains in the snow pack and becomes part of the spring melt runoff event. We have been measuring mercury in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, in snow, in snow melt runoff and in soils near Barrow, Alaska for the past 5 years. During the Ocean-<span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>-Sea Ice-Snow (OASIS) campaign in the spring of 2009 we collected snow, frost flowers and brine on the sea ice. Our results show that mercury is readily scavenged by frost flowers and snow on the sea ice. We also collected snow and melt during the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..APR.E2007B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..APR.E2007B"><span>The <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Muon Lifetime, with the Lead Absorption Potential for Muons and References to the Standard Model of Particle <span class="hlt">Physics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barazandeh, Cioli; Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Majewski, Walerian</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Muon is one of twelve fundamental particles and has the longest free-particle lifetime. It decays into three leptons through an exchange of weak vector bosons W +/W-. Muons are present in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> secondary cosmic rays and reach the sea level. By detecting the time delay between arrival of muons and appearance of decay electrons in a scintillation detector, we will measure muon's lifetime at rest. From the lifetime we can find the ratio gw /MW of the weak coupling constant gw (a weak analog of the electric charge) to mass of the W-boson MW. Vacuum expectation value v of the Higgs field, which determines masses Standard Model (SM) particles, can be calculated as v =2MWc2/gw =(τmμc2/6π3\\hcirc)1/4mμc2 regarding muon mass mμ and muon lifetime τ only. Using the experimental value for MWc2 = 80.4 GeV, we will find weak coupling constant gw. With the SM relation e =gwsin θ√ hcε0 and experimental value of the Z0-photon weak mixing angle θ = 29o we use our muon lifetime to find the elementary electric charge e value. In this experiment we will also determine the sea level fluxes of low-energy (<160 MeV) and high-energy cosmic muons, then will shield the detector with varying thicknesses of lead plates and from the new values of fluxes find the energy-dependent muon stopping power in lead.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.854a2030M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.854a2030M"><span>Towards <span class="hlt">physics</span>-based operational modeling of the unsteady wind turbine response to <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and wake-induced turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marichal, Y.; De Visscher, I.; Chatelain, P.; Winckelmans, G.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The objective of the present work is to develop a tool able to predict, in a computationally affordable way, the unsteady wind turbine power production and loads as well as its wake dynamics, as a function of the turbine dynamics and incoming wind conditions. Based on the lessons learned from a previous study about the characterization of the unsteady wake dynamics, the framework for an operational wake model is presented. The approach relies on an underlying vorticity-based skeleton consisting of different components, such as a regularized Vortex Sheet Tube (VST) and Vortex Dipole Line (VDL). <span class="hlt">Physically</span> based evolution equations, accounting for the various flow phenomena occurring in the wake (such as advection, turbulent diffusion/core spreading, source/sink terms, etc.), are then derived. Once calibrated, the wake model is shown to be in good agreement with results of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) obtained using an Immersed Lifting Line-enabled Vortex Particle-Mesh method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036169','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036169"><span>The dynamical core, <span class="hlt">physical</span> parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the <span class="hlt">physical</span> system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, <span class="hlt">physical</span> parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17836565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17836565"><span><span class="hlt">Physics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bromley, D A</p> <p>1980-07-04</p> <p>From massive quarks deep in the hearts of atomic nuclei to the catastrophic collapse of giant stars in the farthest reaches of the universe, from the partial realization of Einstein's dream of a unified theory of the forces of nature to the most practical applications in technology, medicine, and throughout contemporary society, <span class="hlt">physics</span> continues to have a profound impact on man's view of the universe and on the quality of life. The author argues that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, new insight-and the new questions-have been among the most productive in the history of the field and puts into context his selection of some of the most important new developments in this fundamental science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzAOP..52..467T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzAOP..52..467T"><span>Russian investigations in the field of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> radiation in 2011-2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Timofeev, Yu. M.; Shul'gina, E. M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A short survey prepared by the Russian Commission on <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Radiation contains the most significant results of work in the field of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span>-radiation studies performed in 2011-2014. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences prepared for the International Association on Meteorology and <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences (IAMAS)1. During this period, the Russian Commission on <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Radiation, jointly with the concerned <span class="hlt">departments</span> and organizations, organized two International Symposiums on Radiation and Dynamics (ISARD-2011 and ISARD-2013). At these conferences, the central problems in modern <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span> were discussed: radiative transfer (RT) and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> optics; greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols; remote methods of measurements; and new measurement data. This survey presents six directions covering the whole spectrum of investigations performed in the field of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015assn.book.....Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015assn.book.....Y"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> and Space Sciences: Neutral <span class="hlt">Atmospheres</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yiǧit, Erdal</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The SpringerBriefs on <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> and Space Sciences in two volumes presents a concise and interdisciplinary introduction to the basic theory, observation & modeling of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and ionospheric coupling processes on Earth. The goal is to contribute toward bridging the gap between meteorology, aeronomy, and planetary science. In addition recent progress in several related research topics, such <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> wave coupling and variability, is discussed. Volume 1 will focus on the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, while Volume 2 will present the ionosphere— the plasma environment. Volume 1 is aimed primarily at (research) students and researchers that would like to gain quick insight in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> sciences and current research. It also is a useful tool for professors who would like to develop a course in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24442174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24442174"><span>A comparative study on epidemiology, spectrum and outcome analysis of <span class="hlt">physical</span> trauma cases presenting to emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> of Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital and its outreach centers in rural area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S K; Kayastha, S R; Parajuli, N; Dhoju, D; Shrestha, D</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Physical</span> trauma is one of the major cause of mortality and morbidity among young and active age group and its increasing trend is of main concern. There are only few studies concerning the spectrum of <span class="hlt">physical</span> trauma in Nepal. This study aims to evaluate the epidemiological spectrum, the extent, severity of the <span class="hlt">physical</span> trauma and the outcome evaluation of patients with <span class="hlt">physical</span> trauma over a period of one year in the emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> of the Kathmandu University Hospital and compare the same parameters with those patients presenting to the various outreach centers of the hospital in the community. Patient treatment files from the emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> and the reports from various outreach centers were retrieved for a period of one year (May 2011 to April 2012). Epidemiological information, mode, type and anatomic location of injuries were recorded. Outcome evaluation was assessed by number of patients discharged from emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> of the hospital or the outreach centers after the treatment, patients admitted for inpatient management and referred to other centers for further specialty management. In a period of one year, total 2205 (20%) of <span class="hlt">physical</span> trauma cases presented to the emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> and 1994 (6.12%) in the outreach centres. Most commonly involved age group in <span class="hlt">physical</span> trauma both in Hospital set up and in Community set up were the young adults (15 to 49 years). Fall from height was the commonest mode of injury followed by road traffic accidents among the patients coming to the hospital while significant number of trauma patients coming to outreach centers were due to fall from height. In the hospital set up, 1525 (69.2%) of the cases were discharged while 537 (24.4%) needed inpatient management and 85 (3.8%) needed referral to other centers for the specialty management. In case of outreaches, half of the patients were discharged after the primary treatment and almost another half were referred to the hospital, mainly for need of further</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED547643.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED547643.pdf"><span>Roster of <span class="hlt">Physics</span> <span class="hlt">Departments</span> with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2012: Results from the 2012 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The number of <span class="hlt">physics</span> degrees earned in the U.S. continues to rise, with bachelor's and PhDs yet again reaching all-time highs. The 6,776 <span class="hlt">physics</span> bachelor's degrees awarded in the 2011-2012 academic year represent an 8% increase over the previous year and an 86% increase from a recent low in 1999. Similarly, the number of PhDs (1,762) in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16023757','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16023757"><span>[Evaluation of the attitude towards disabled persons of 3rd and 4th year medical students using the "Attitude towards disabled persons" questionnaire. Effect of courses and rotations in <span class="hlt">physical</span> medicine and rehabilitation <span class="hlt">departments</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richard, I; Compain, V; Mouillie, J M; Adès, F; Garnier, F; Dubas, F; Saint-André, J P</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Modifications of the medical curriculum have included a compulsory course on disability. To determine whether attendance in a course on disability and/or rotations in <span class="hlt">physical</span> medicine and rehabilitation <span class="hlt">departments</span> modify the attitude of medical students towards disabled people. All third- and fourth-year students completed a translated version of the ATDPb. This questionnaire rates items evaluating attitude towards disabled people on a 6-point scale (minimum 0; maximum 180). Retro-translation was performed to control the translation. During the second year, all students had attended a general course in ethics. Fourth-year students had attended a 17 hours course on disability, and 21 of 78 had spent 9 weeks in the <span class="hlt">physical</span> medicine and rehabilitation <span class="hlt">department</span>. The study compares fourth-year students to third-year students, considered as controls, and students having spent a rotation in the <span class="hlt">physical</span> medicine and rehabilitation <span class="hlt">department</span> to others. The mean score of all students was 108.86+/-15.84 (73-160) on the ATDP scale. Males and females did not differ significantly, and the score did not change from that before the course on disability (109.95+/-14.98 vs 107.6+/-16.65, P=0.23) nor after a rotation in the <span class="hlt">physical</span> medicine and rehabilitation <span class="hlt">department</span> (113.52+/-11.42 vs 108.54+/-16.03, P=0.14). Development and validation of scores that would fit better to the European cultural context would be useful. The present method of theoretical courses and rotations do not improve the attitude of students towards disabled people and should be modified if this objective is to be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Astrophysics&pg=6&id=ED237335','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Astrophysics&pg=6&id=ED237335"><span>Women in <span class="hlt">Physics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roth, Laura M.; O'Fallon, Nancy M.</p> <p></p> <p>This booklet presents information about career opportunities for women in <span class="hlt">physics</span>. Included are summaries of research areas in <span class="hlt">physics</span> (optical <span class="hlt">physics</span>, solid-state <span class="hlt">physics</span>, materials science, nuclear <span class="hlt">physics</span>, high-energy <span class="hlt">physics</span>, astrophysics, cryogenics, plasma <span class="hlt">physics</span>, biophysics, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span>) and differences between theory and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=astrophysics+AND+career&id=ED237335','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=astrophysics+AND+career&id=ED237335"><span>Women in <span class="hlt">Physics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roth, Laura M.; O'Fallon, Nancy M.</p> <p></p> <p>This booklet presents information about career opportunities for women in <span class="hlt">physics</span>. Included are summaries of research areas in <span class="hlt">physics</span> (optical <span class="hlt">physics</span>, solid-state <span class="hlt">physics</span>, materials science, nuclear <span class="hlt">physics</span>, high-energy <span class="hlt">physics</span>, astrophysics, cryogenics, plasma <span class="hlt">physics</span>, biophysics, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span>) and differences between theory and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Workplace+AND+health+AND+Higher+AND+Education&pg=4&id=EJ811861','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Workplace+AND+health+AND+Higher+AND+Education&pg=4&id=EJ811861"><span>The Social Tasks of Learning to Become a <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education Teacher: Considering the HPE Subject <span class="hlt">Department</span> as a Community of Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sirna, Karen; Tinning, Richard; Rossi, Toni</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Initial teacher education (ITE) students participate in various workplaces within schools and in doing so, form understandings about the numerous, and at times competing, expectations of teachers' work. Through these experiences they form understandings about themselves as health and <span class="hlt">physical</span> education (HPE) teachers. This paper examines the ways…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=child+AND+obesity&pg=3&id=EJ909304','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=child+AND+obesity&pg=3&id=EJ909304"><span>Self-Efficacy Expectations in Teacher Trainees and the Perceived Role of Schools and Their <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education <span class="hlt">Department</span> in the Educational Treatment of Overweight Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martinez-Lopez, Emilio; Zagalaz Sanchez, Maria; Ramos Alvarez, Manuel; de la Torre Cruz, Manuel</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study is about the relation between self-efficacy expectations and the attitude towards child and youth obesity, as well as the role of the school in this matter. A questionnaire was given to a sample of 436 trainee <span class="hlt">physical</span> education teachers from eight universities in Andalusia (Spain). The questionnaire was a version of "Teaching…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1139103.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1139103.pdf"><span>A Comparison of Students in <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education and Sports College and the Students in Other <span class="hlt">Departments</span> in Terms of Problem Solving Skills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Görücü, Alpaslan; Cantav, Erkan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this research, it is aimed to analyze the problem solving skills of university students in terms of different variables and to analyze the differences among the levels of perceived problem solving skill of the students of <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education and Sports College and other branch students. The sample consists of the university students from the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=obesity+AND+youth&pg=2&id=EJ909304','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=obesity+AND+youth&pg=2&id=EJ909304"><span>Self-Efficacy Expectations in Teacher Trainees and the Perceived Role of Schools and Their <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education <span class="hlt">Department</span> in the Educational Treatment of Overweight Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martinez-Lopez, Emilio; Zagalaz Sanchez, Maria; Ramos Alvarez, Manuel; de la Torre Cruz, Manuel</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study is about the relation between self-efficacy expectations and the attitude towards child and youth obesity, as well as the role of the school in this matter. A questionnaire was given to a sample of 436 trainee <span class="hlt">physical</span> education teachers from eight universities in Andalusia (Spain). The questionnaire was a version of "Teaching…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dental+AND+technician&pg=2&id=ED110294','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dental+AND+technician&pg=2&id=ED110294"><span>Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical <span class="hlt">Department</span>. Attachment 10. PT/OT QPCB Task Sort for <span class="hlt">Physical</span> and Occupational Therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.</p> <p></p> <p>This publication is Attachment 10 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties in <span class="hlt">physical</span> and occupational therapy. (BT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sirna&id=EJ811861','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sirna&id=EJ811861"><span>The Social Tasks of Learning to Become a <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education Teacher: Considering the HPE Subject <span class="hlt">Department</span> as a Community of Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sirna, Karen; Tinning, Richard; Rossi, Toni</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Initial teacher education (ITE) students participate in various workplaces within schools and in doing so, form understandings about the numerous, and at times competing, expectations of teachers' work. Through these experiences they form understandings about themselves as health and <span class="hlt">physical</span> education (HPE) teachers. This paper examines the ways…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=acid+AND+water&id=ED534271','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=acid+AND+water&id=ED534271"><span>Research in <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Chemistry and Chemical Education: Part A--Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Compounds Part B--The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maron, Marta Katarzyna</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation is a combination of two research areas, experimental <span class="hlt">physical</span> chemistry, Chapters I to V, and chemical education, Chapters VI to VII. Chapters I to V describe research on the water-mediated chemistry of oxidized <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> molecules and the impact that water has on the spectra of these environmental systems. The role of water…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Changes+AND+temperature+AND+water&pg=2&id=ED534271','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Changes+AND+temperature+AND+water&pg=2&id=ED534271"><span>Research in <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Chemistry and Chemical Education: Part A--Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Compounds Part B--The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maron, Marta Katarzyna</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation is a combination of two research areas, experimental <span class="hlt">physical</span> chemistry, Chapters I to V, and chemical education, Chapters VI to VII. Chapters I to V describe research on the water-mediated chemistry of oxidized <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> molecules and the impact that water has on the spectra of these environmental systems. The role of water…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ge%26Ae..55..521P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ge%26Ae..55..521P"><span><span class="hlt">Physical</span> bases of the generation of short-term earthquake precursors: A complex model of ionization-induced geophysical processes in the lithosphere-<span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>-ionosphere-magnetosphere system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pulinets, S. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.; Karelin, A. V.; Davidenko, D. V.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>This paper describes the current understanding of the interaction between geospheres from a complex set of <span class="hlt">physical</span> and chemical processes under the influence of ionization. The sources of ionization involve the Earth's natural radioactivity and its intensification before earthquakes in seismically active regions, anthropogenic radioactivity caused by nuclear weapon testing and accidents in nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage, the impact of galactic and solar cosmic rays, and active geophysical experiments using artificial ionization equipment. This approach treats the environment as an open complex system with dissipation, where inherent processes can be considered in the framework of the synergistic approach. We demonstrate the synergy between the evolution of thermal and electromagnetic anomalies in the Earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. This makes it possible to determine the direction of the interaction process, which is especially important in applications related to short-term earthquake prediction. That is why the emphasis in this study is on the processes proceeding the final stage of earthquake preparation; the effects of other ionization sources are used to demonstrate that the model is versatile and broadly applicable in geophysics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2954795','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2954795"><span>Do Author-Suggested Reviewers Rate Submissions More Favorably than Editor-Suggested Reviewers? A Study on <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Chemistry and <span class="hlt">Physics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bornmann, Lutz; Daniel, Hans-Dieter</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Ratings in journal peer review can be affected by sources of bias. The bias variable investigated here was the information on whether authors had suggested a possible reviewer for their manuscript, and whether the editor had taken up that suggestion or had chosen a reviewer that had not been suggested by the authors. Studies have shown that author-suggested reviewers rate manuscripts more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers do. Methodology/Principal Findings Reviewers' ratings on three evaluation criteria and the reviewers' final publication recommendations were available for 552 manuscripts (in total 1145 reviews) that were submitted to <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Chemistry and <span class="hlt">Physics</span>, an interactive open access journal using public peer review (authors' and reviewers' comments are publicly exchanged). Public peer review is supposed to bring a new openness to the reviewing process that will enhance its objectivity. In the statistical analysis the quality of a manuscript was controlled for to prevent favorable reviewers' ratings from being attributable to quality instead of to the bias variable. Conclusions/Significance Our results agree with those from other studies that editor-suggested reviewers rated manuscripts between 30% and 42% less favorably than author-suggested reviewers. Against this backdrop journal editors should consider either doing without the use of author-suggested reviewers or, if they are used, bringing in more than one editor-suggested reviewer for the review process (so that the review by author-suggested reviewers can be put in perspective). PMID:20976226</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20976226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20976226"><span>Do author-suggested reviewers rate submissions more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers? A study on <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> chemistry and <span class="hlt">physics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bornmann, Lutz; Daniel, Hans-Dieter</p> <p>2010-10-14</p> <p>Ratings in journal peer review can be affected by sources of bias. The bias variable investigated here was the information on whether authors had suggested a possible reviewer for their manuscript, and whether the editor had taken up that suggestion or had chosen a reviewer that had not been suggested by the authors. Studies have shown that author-suggested reviewers rate manuscripts more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers do. Reviewers' ratings on three evaluation criteria and the reviewers' final publication recommendations were available for 552 manuscripts (in total 1145 reviews) that were submitted to <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Chemistry and <span class="hlt">Physics</span>, an interactive open access journal using public peer review (authors' and reviewers' comments are publicly exchanged). Public peer review is supposed to bring a new openness to the reviewing process that will enhance its objectivity. In the statistical analysis the quality of a manuscript was controlled for to prevent favorable reviewers' ratings from being attributable to quality instead of to the bias variable. Our results agree with those from other studies that editor-suggested reviewers rated manuscripts between 30% and 42% less favorably than author-suggested reviewers. Against this backdrop journal editors should consider either doing without the use of author-suggested reviewers or, if they are used, bringing in more than one editor-suggested reviewer for the review process (so that the review by author-suggested reviewers can be put in perspective).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926564"><span><span class="hlt">Physical</span> Characterization and Effect of Effective Surface Area on the Sensing Properties of Tin Dioxide Thin Solid Films in a Propane <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; González-Vidal, José Luis; Torres, Gonzalo Alberto; de la Luz Olvera, María; Castañeda, Luis</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">physical</span> properties and the effect of effective surface area (ESA) on the sensing properties of tin dioxide [SnO2] thin films in air and propane [C3H8] <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> as a function of operating temperature and gas concentration have been studied in this paper. SnO2 thin films with different estimated thicknesses (50, 100 and 200 nm) were deposited on glass substrates by the chemical spray technique. Besides, they were prepared at two different deposition temperatures (400 and 475 °C). Tin chloride [SnCl4 · 5H2O] with 0.2 M concentration value and ethanol [C2H6O] were used as tin precursor and solvent, respectively. The morphological, and structural properties of the as-prepared films were analyzed by AFM and XRD, respectively. Gas sensing characteristics of SnO2 thin solid films were measured at operating temperatures of 22, 100, 200, and 300 °C, and at propane concentration levels (0, 5, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm). ESA values were calculated for each sample. It was found that the ESA increased with the increasing thickness of the films. The results demonstrated the importance of the achieving of a large effective surface area for improving gas sensing performance. SnO2 thin films deposited by spray chemical were chosen to study the ESA effect on gas sensing properties because their very rough surfaces were appropriate for this application. PMID:24379046</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21247060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21247060"><span>Sports biomechanics in the research of the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Biomechanics of University School of <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education in Poznań. Part 2. Biomechanics of rowing: research conducted in the rowing pool and under real conditions. Reconstruction and synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dworak, Lechosław B</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to reconstruct the early phase of scientific research conducted at the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Biomechanics of the College of <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education and since 1972 at the University School of <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education in Poznań, with special attention paid to the works on biomechanics of rowing, carried out as part of the Ministerial Project PR 105 entitled The effectiveness of training, sports competition as well as regeneration in sports. Two kinds of biomechanical research are described: the several years' expert research conducted on the Rowing National Team in an original two-module Rowing Pool Testing Station BTW-1, as well as research on geometric optimization of the rowing station, conducted under real conditions, in reservoirs, with the use of a prototypical, unique at that time, computer measurement system BIOMIK, installed in the rower's own boat. The projects were carried out by doctoral students from the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Biomechanics and the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Clinical Biomechanics, Andrzej Lisiecki and Wojciech Mikołajczyk, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA800370','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA800370"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">Physics</span> and Sound Propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1950-09-01</p> <p>t$ytefe ness of »012 in». 3%Ls. material! was,chosenfor Jöver^ reasons.«. It can be; molded and fired in any convenient ,shape| Once fired* it has...ability of the spores was .jnucfe" incralisad.: ."’-: ’. :.. ’.-."_-•-_._ A:\\- .x._ . .; ..-:"’- - - _- -.. - . * l^osu^sPfor... bread at higher frequencies» In contrast, the Fraunhofer law (Eq0 US), is much too broad at 7.5 kc and below but fits fairly weil at 10 kc* In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MAR.T1012B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MAR.T1012B"><span>Measurement of Casimir force with magnetic materials Alexandr Banishev, Chia-Cheng Chang, Umar Mohideen <span class="hlt">Department</span> of <span class="hlt">Physics</span> and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banishev, Alexandr; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Mohideen, Umar</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The Casimir effect is important in various fields from atomic <span class="hlt">physics</span> to nanotechnology. According to the Lifshitz theory of the Casimir force, the interaction between two objects depends both on their dielectric permittivity and magenetic permeability. Thus the role of magnetic properties on the Casimir force is interesting particularly due to the possibility of a reduction the Casimir force. In this report we will present the results of a Casimir force measurement between a magnetic material such as nickel coated on SiO2 plate and a Au-coated sphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043415&hterms=lw&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dlw','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043415&hterms=lw&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dlw"><span>Calculation of surface and top of <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> radiative fluxes from <span class="hlt">physical</span> quantities based on ISCCP data sets. 2: Validation and first results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rossow, W. B.; Zhang, Y.-C.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We use global, multiyear observations of the properties of clouds, the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, and the surface to calculate global shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes at the top of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and at the surface at a resolution of 280 km and 3 hours for every third month from April 1985 to January 1989. Our validation studies suggest that the specification of cloud effects is no longer the dominant uncertainty in reconstructing the radiative fluxes at the top of <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and at the surface. Rather cloud property uncertainties are now roughly equal contributors to the flux uncertainty, along with surface and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> properties. The resulting SW and LW flux data sets suggest the following conclusions: (1) The net SW heating of Earth appears predominantly at the surface, whereas the net LW cooling arises predominantly from the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. The net cooling effect of clouds on top of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> radiation appears primarily at the surface rather than in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. (2) Clouds have almost no net effect on the global mean radiation balance of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, but they enhance the latitudinal gradient in the LW cooling and reinforce the radiative forcing for the mean <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> circulation. Clouds act to mute seasonal contrasts however. (3) Clouds enhance the land-ocean contrasts of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> cooling, reinforcing the growth of standing eddy motions; but reduce land-ocean contrasts of the surface heating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043415&hterms=results+top&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dresults%2Btop','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043415&hterms=results+top&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dresults%2Btop"><span>Calculation of surface and top of <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> radiative fluxes from <span class="hlt">physical</span> quantities based on ISCCP data sets. 2: Validation and first results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rossow, W. B.; Zhang, Y.-C.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We use global, multiyear observations of the properties of clouds, the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, and the surface to calculate global shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes at the top of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and at the surface at a resolution of 280 km and 3 hours for every third month from April 1985 to January 1989. Our validation studies suggest that the specification of cloud effects is no longer the dominant uncertainty in reconstructing the radiative fluxes at the top of <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and at the surface. Rather cloud property uncertainties are now roughly equal contributors to the flux uncertainty, along with surface and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> properties. The resulting SW and LW flux data sets suggest the following conclusions: (1) The net SW heating of Earth appears predominantly at the surface, whereas the net LW cooling arises predominantly from the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. The net cooling effect of clouds on top of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> radiation appears primarily at the surface rather than in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. (2) Clouds have almost no net effect on the global mean radiation balance of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, but they enhance the latitudinal gradient in the LW cooling and reinforce the radiative forcing for the mean <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> circulation. Clouds act to mute seasonal contrasts however. (3) Clouds enhance the land-ocean contrasts of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> cooling, reinforcing the growth of standing eddy motions; but reduce land-ocean contrasts of the surface heating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.9188D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.9188D"><span>Satellite-beacon Ionospheric-scintillation Global Model of the upper <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> (SIGMA) II: Inverse modeling with high-latitude observations to deduce irregularity <span class="hlt">physics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deshpande, K. B.; Bust, G. S.; Clauer, C. R.; Scales, W. A.; Frissell, N. A.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Spogli, L.; Mitchell, C.; Weatherwax, A. T.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Ionospheric scintillation is caused by irregularities in the ionospheric electron density. The characterization of ionospheric irregularities is important to further our understanding of the underlying <span class="hlt">physics</span>. Our goal is to characterize the intermediate (0.1-10 km) to medium (10-100 km) scale high-latitude irregularities which are likely to produce these scintillations. In this paper, we characterize irregularities observed by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) during a geomagnetically active period on 9 March 2012. For this purpose, along with the measurements, we are using the recently developed model: "Satellite-beacon Ionospheric-scintillation Global Model of the upper <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>" (SIGMA). The model is particularly applicable at high latitudes as it accounts for the complicated geometry of the magnetic field lines in these regions and is presented in an earlier paper. We use an inverse modeling technique to derive irregularity parameters by comparing the high rate (50 Hz) GNSS observations to the modeled outputs. In this investigation, we consider experimental observations from both the northern and southern high latitudes. The results include predominance of phase scintillations compared to amplitude scintillations that imply the presence of larger-scale irregularities of sizes above the Fresnel scale at GPS frequencies, and the spectral index ranges from 2.4 to 4.2 and the RMS number density ranges from 3e11 to 2.3e12 el/m3. The best fits we obtained from our inverse method that considers only weak scattering mostly agree with the observations. Finally, we suggest some improvements in order to facilitate the possibility of accomplishing a unique solution to such inverse problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H24C..01M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H24C..01M"><span><span class="hlt">Physical</span> Processes Associated with Heavy Flooding Rainfall in Nashville, Tennessee, and Vicinity during 1-2 May 2010: The Role of an <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> River and Mesoscale Convective Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, B. J.; Neiman, P. J.; Ralph, F. M.; Barthold, F. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A multi-scale analysis is conducted in order to examine the <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes that resulted in prolonged heavy rainfall and devastating flash flooding across western and central Tennessee and Kentucky on 1-2 May 2010, during which Nashville, Tennessee, received 344.7 mm of rainfall and incurred 11 flood-related fatalities. On the synoptic scale, heavy rainfall was supported by a persistent corridor of strong water vapor transport rooted in the Tropics that was manifested as an <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> river (AR). This AR developed as water vapor was extracted from the eastern tropical Pacific and the Caribbean Sea and transported into the central Mississippi Valley by a strong southerly low-level jet (LLJ) positioned between a persistent lee trough along the eastern Mexico coast and a broad, stationary subtropical ridge positioned over the southeastern U.S. and the subtropical Atlantic. The AR, associated with substantial water vapor content and moderate convective available potential energy, supported the successive development of two quasi-stationary mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) on 1 May and 2 May, respectively. These MCSs were both linearly organized and exhibited back building and echo training, processes which afforded the repeated movement of convective cells over the same area of western and central Tennessee and Kentucky, resulting in a narrow band of rainfall totals of 200-400 mm. Mesoscale analyses reveal that the MCSs developed on the warm side of a slow-moving cold front and that the interaction between the southerly LLJ and convectively generated surface outflow boundaries was fundamental for repeatedly generating convection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EOSTr..90..302A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EOSTr..90..302A"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Science for Environmental Scientists</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anyah, Richard</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Concepts in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and environmental sciences are intimately connected, but the two disciplines are often treated as if they are only thinly interrelated. <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Science for Environmental Scientists dispenses with such unrealistic separations between the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and the environment by delving into concepts that link <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> dynamics, chemistry, and dispersion to the environment. With a fashionable and consistent layout, the book comprises 11 well-written chapters contributed by renowned experts in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> chemistry, air pollution, climate change science, and boundary layer <span class="hlt">physics</span>. In an uncommonly detailed fashion, the book weaves together <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and environmental science concepts, especially those related to <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> chemistry and dispersion as well as the long-term climatic factors and short-term planetary boundary layer dynamics and <span class="hlt">physics</span> that affect coupled biosphere-<span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A51C0036F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A51C0036F"><span>Investigation of Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Chlorine Chemistry: Modeling and Environmental Chamber Studies Authors: Cameron B. Faxon, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, and David Allen University of Texas at Austin, McKetta <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Chemical Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faxon, C. B.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Allen, D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Previous work has shown that gas phase atomic chlorine radicals (Cl*) can influence tropospheric photochemistry, including concentrations of volatile organic compound (VOC) and ozone. These radicals are produced through both gas phase and heterogeneous pathways. This work presents computational and experimental investigation into the heterogeneous reactions of chloride aerosols. An overview of a sensitivity analysis of the <span class="hlt">physical</span> parameters involved in the heterogeneous production of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) (R1-R5) will comprise the computational work presented. NO2(g) + NO3(g) ↔ N2O5(g) (R1) N2O5(aq) ↔ N2O5(aq) (R2) N2O5(aq) ↔ NO2+(aq) + NO3-(aq) (R3) NO2+(aq) + H2O(aq) → H3O+(aq) + HNO3(aq) (R4a) NO2+(aq) + Cl- → ClNO2 + H2O(aq) (R4b) NO3-(aq) + H+ ↔ HNO3+(aq) (R5) Relative parameters include the reactive uptake coefficient, ClNO2 yield, particle surface area, and gas phase concentrations of VOCs and NOx. The sensitivity analysis results were generated through photochemical box modeling and focus on the production of ClNO2 and impacts to ozone production. Results were compared to a base case scenario in which all heterogeneous reactions were absent. Parameter values reaching the upper limits reported in the literature were tested, and results indicate that ClNO2 chemistry can potentially change peak O3 concentrations by -10.5% to 27%. NOx availability was also found to play an important role. Experimental results of the heterogeneous reaction between OH* and particulate chloride (R6-R7) will also be discussed. The mechanism is shown below, and OH***Cl- represents an intermediate species forming at the particle surface. OH(g) + Cl-(aq) → OH***Cl-(aq) (R6) 2OH***Cl-(aq) → Cl2,g + 2OH-(aq) (R7) Environmental chamber experiments involving the exposure of NaCl aerosol particles to typical <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> conditions (HOx, NOx, O3 and UV radiation) were performed. A 10 cubic meter teflon reaction chamber equipped with UV lights was used to contain the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760015171','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760015171"><span>Phase B - final definition and preliminary design study for the initial <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Cloud <span class="hlt">Physics</span> Laboratory (ACPL): A spacelab mission payload. Work breakdown structure for phase C/D DR-MA-06 (preliminary issue)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and Dictionary (DR-MA-06) for initial and subsequent flights of the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Cloud <span class="hlt">Physics</span> Laboratory (ACPL) is presented. An attempt is made to identify specific equipment and components in each of the eleven subsystems; they are listed under the appropriate subdivisions of the WBS. The reader is cautioned that some of these components are likely to change substantially during the course of the study, and the list provided should only be considered representative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1366151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1366151"><span>[Results of a comparative study of the success of treatment of pain in the lumbar spine at the Moravske Toplice health spa, at the <span class="hlt">department</span> of <span class="hlt">physical</span> therapy and rehabilitation and at the <span class="hlt">department</span> of rheumatology of the Maribor Teaching Hospital].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kranjc, I; Turk, Z</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A parallel investigation of the success of treating patients with chronic low back pain has been carried out at the Moravci Spa, at the <span class="hlt">Department</span> for <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Therapy and Rehabilitation and at the Rheumatology <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Maribor Teaching Hospital. One hundred patients suffering from low-back pain were given a 14-day treatment in the termomineral water (T--36 degrees C) of the Moravci Spa. A comparative group of another 100 patients also suffering from pain in the lumbar region of the spine underwent equal balneo-<span class="hlt">physical</span> treatment in plain water (T--32 degrees C) at the Dept. for <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Therapy and Rehabilitation and at the Dept. of Rheumatology at Maribor Teaching Hospital, Slovenia. The educational background of the two groups features a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001): the percentage of patients with lower education was higher at the Moravci Spa (67%) compared with only 46% among those treated at Maribor Teaching Hospital. Correspondingly, the difference in occupation of the two groups were similar (p < 0.005): prevalent among the patients at Moravci Spa were bluecollar workers (40%) compared with white-collar workers (27%). The percentage of white-collar workers at Maribor Teaching Hospital was 45%. The average age of the patients treated at the Moravci Spa was 46.9 +/- 9.5 years (28-77 years), at Maribor Teaching Hospital it was 45.2 +/- 8.2 years (26-71 years). There was no statistically significant difference in age (p < 0.10) between the two groups. Generalized spondylochondrosis was present in both groups, i.e. 87%; approximately 10% of the patients from both groups underwent surgical treatment of hernia disci.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017QuEle..47..140A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017QuEle..47..140A"><span>Potentialities of laser systems for remote sensing of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> at a wide variability of optical and <span class="hlt">physical</span> characteristics: dimensionless-parametric modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agishev, R. R.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Within the framework of generalisation of different approaches to the modelling of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> lidars, the methodology capabilities for dimensionless-parametric analysis are expanded. The developed approach simplifies the analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio and potential capabilities of existing and newly developed monitoring systems with a wide variability of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and optical conditions and a great variety of modern lidars. Its applicability to the problems of remote <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> sensing, environmental monitoring and lidar navigation in providing the eye safety, noise immunity and reliability is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A51A..08H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A51A..08H"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> black carbon concentrations in North America, ~1100 to 2005. Liaquat Husain and Tanveer Ahmed Wadsworth Center, New York State <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA, and <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY, 12201-0509, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Husain, L.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Black carbon (BC) aerosols in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> absorb solar radiation, and cause heating of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, may alter Earth's cloud cover, and impact precipitation cycle. The best estimate for radiative forcing from BC with 90% certainty is + 1.1 Wm-2 ( + 0.17 to 2.1 Wm-2), second only to that of CO2. A major uncertainty in the estimation is a lack of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> BC data. Models are used to estimate BC emissions into the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. They have not been validated by field data. We report measurements of BC in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, over a period of several centuries using lake sediments. Retrieval of such records provides an invaluable source for understanding changes in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> with time. Numerous studies have been conducted with such an objective. Owing to a lack of knowledge of deposition rates of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosols into the lake sediments, a major shortcoming of these studies have been an inability to convert the measurements of chemical species in lake sediments into the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. We have developed a technique to overcome this shortcoming by measuring black carbon in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosols, and in lake sediment cores. The concentrations of BC were determined in daily filters collected at Whiteface Mountain, NY, from 1978 to 2005. Cores from two lakes around Whiteface Mountain, NY, were collected. Cores were (1) sectioned in thin slices, (2) freeze dried, (3) dated using the 210Pb technique, (4) BC chemically separated, and (5) concentrations measured using the thermal-optical method. By The deposition rate of BC from the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> to the lakes was determined by comparing the BC concentration in air and the sediments for the 1978 -2005 period. The deposition rate so determined was used to concert the BC in the sediment into the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> for the ~1978 to ~1100 period. The BC concentrations for the industrial period, ~1850 was low but rapidly increased from ~1900, peaked ~1925, decreased very slowly ~ 1980, followed by a sharp decrease. Concentrations has</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1352A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1352A"><span>APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER <span class="hlt">PHYSICS</span> AND TECHNOLOGY: Adaptive compensation of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> phase distortions using the spatial spectrum of images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anufriev, A. V.; Zimin, Yu A.; Tolmachev, Alexei I.</p> <p>1987-10-01</p> <p>A theoretical investigation is reported of an algorithm for adaptive compensation of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> phase distortions using the spatial spectrum of images. This algorithm can be used to reconstruct images of incoherently illuminated objects of arbitrary shape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.888a2205G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.888a2205G"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> neutrinos in JUNO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Wan-lei; JUNO Collaboration</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>This paper explores the JUNO sensitivities to the neutrino mass hierarchy by use of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> neutrinos. Here we conservatively use the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> νµ and {\\displaystyle \\bar{ν }}μ charged current events with the muon track length Lµ > 5 m for the <span class="hlt">physical</span> analysis. It is found that the JUNO’s mass hierarchy sensitivity will reach 0.9 σ for a 200 kton-years exposure, which is complementary to the JUNO reactor antineutrino results. According to the optimistic estimation, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> neutrinos in JUNO may give a better sensitivity to the mass hierarchy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20653326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20653326"><span>Sports biomechanics in the research of the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Biomechanics of University School of <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education in Poznań. Part 1. Biomechanics of rowing: tests on rowing ergometers, reconstruction and synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dworak, Lechosław B</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the early phase of scientific research conducted at the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Biomechanics of the University School of <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Education in Poznan, particularly the work on biomechanics of rowing, conducted as part of the Ministerial Project PR 105, entitled "The effectiveness of training and competition as well as regeneration in sports". Three kinds of research have been described, carried out with the use of the rowing ergometers. The first was the research on neuromuscular coordination in the rowing cycle, the second was the research on kinematic and dynamic characteristics of rowing on the Universal Rowing Ergometer UEW - 1, while the last one concerned determination of maximum forces generated by functional muscle groups in two characteristic rowing positions within the closed biochain of the torso and the limbs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816287J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816287J"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Nitrogen Inputs to the Ocean and their Impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jickells, Tim D.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>, even with the increased transport across shelf to the open ocean from low latitude fluvial systems identified. 1. School of Environmental Science University of East Anglia UK 2. Energy Research Centre University of Cape Town SA 3. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Biological Sciences University of S California USA 4. <span class="hlt">Departments</span> of Oceanography and <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences Texas A&M University USA 5. JRC Ispra Italy 6. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Oceanography Dalhousie University Canada 7. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Environmental Sciences U. Virginia USA 8. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Chemistry, University of Crete, Greece 9. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Biology Dalhousie University, Canada 10. School of Environmental Science and Engineering Pohang University S Korea. 11. Faculty of Geosciences University of Utrecht Netherlands 12. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Earth System Science University of California at Irvine USA 13. WMO Geneva 14. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Geography University of California USA 15. GEOMAR Keil Germany 16. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences, University of Miami, USA 17. Geosciences Division at <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India 18. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria, Canada 19. School of Environmentak Sciences, U Liverpool UK 20. Center for International Collaboration, <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo Japan 21. Oak Ridge Associated Universities USA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28214369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28214369"><span>Diagnostic Accuracy of History, <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Examination, Laboratory Tests, and Point-of-care Ultrasound for Pediatric Acute Appendicitis in the Emergency <span class="hlt">Department</span>: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benabbas, Roshanak; Hanna, Mark; Shah, Jay; Sinert, Richard</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common surgical emergency in children. Accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial but challenging due to atypical presentations and the inherent difficulty of obtaining a reliable history and <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination in younger children. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of history, <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination, laboratory tests, Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) and Emergency <span class="hlt">Department</span> Point-of-Care Ultrasound (ED-POCUS) in the diagnosis of AA in ED pediatric patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis and used a test-treatment threshold model to identify diagnostic findings that could rule in/out AA and obviate the need for further imaging studies, specifically computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and radiology <span class="hlt">department</span> ultrasound (RUS). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS up to October 2016 for studies on ED pediatric patients with abdominal pain. Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) was used to evaluate the quality and applicability of included studies. Positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) for diagnostic modalities were calculated and when appropriate data was pooled using Meta-DiSc. Based on the available literature on the test characteristics of different imaging modalities and applying the Pauker-Kassirer method we developed a test-treatment threshold model. Twenty-one studies were included encompassing 8,605 patients with weighted AA prevalence of 39.2%. Studies had variable quality using the QUADAS-2 tool with most studies at high risk of partial verification bias. We divided studies based on their inclusion criteria into two groups of "undifferentiated abdominal pain" and abdominal pain "suspected of AA." In patients with undifferentiated abdominal pain, history of "pain migration to right lower quadrant (RLQ)" (LR+ = 4.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.59-6.44) and presence of "cough/hop pain" in the <span class="hlt">physical</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H14A..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H14A..06S"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Mixing of CO2 above Carbon Storage Sites: Coupling <span class="hlt">Physics</span> Based Models within a CO2 Sequestration System Modeling Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stauffer, P. H.; Olsen, S. C.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Dubey, M. K.; Guthrie, G. D.; Pawar, R. J.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is studying the injection of CO2 into geologic repositories. We are formulating the problem as science based decision framework that can address issues of risk, cost, and technical requirements at all stages of the sequestration process. The framework, called CO2-PENS , is implemented in a system model that is capable of performing stochastic simulations to address uncertainty in different geologic sequestration scenarios. In this talk we examine the changes <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> concentrations directly above a potential repository caused by diffuse CO2 leakage that migrates to the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> from the repository. We present an <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> mixing model that accounts for local surface effects, local climate data, and daily variations in the mixing layer thickness. We compare model results to field data collected at a controlled flux tower experiment. We next show how the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> mixing model can provide estimates of uncertainty when used from within the CO2- PENS framework. Finally, we discuss data needs and future work needed to make the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> component more flexible so that it can quickly be applied to any potential repository.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/195672','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/195672"><span>DOE research on <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schwartz, S.E.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the <span class="hlt">Department`s</span> Environmental Sciences Division, the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the <span class="hlt">Department`s</span> major research activity focusing on <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994EOSTr..75S.434.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994EOSTr..75S.434."><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> lab</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A new $11.3 million <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Emergency Response Facility is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Calif. The facility, which will take 18 months to build, will house Livermore's <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) and research components of the Regional <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences (RAS) division, which have been housed in trailers for the past 17 years. Along with studying the effects of episodic releases of hazardous materials in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, the RAS division also is working on developing <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> models on a variety of space scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5335199','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5335199"><span>Fermilab <span class="hlt">Physics</span> <span class="hlt">Department</span> Fastbus TDC module</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cancelo, G.; Hansen, S.; Cotta-Ramusino, A.</p> <p>1991-07-01</p> <p>A prototype 64 channel Fastbus TDC built at Fermilab is described. The module features a full custom CMOS four channel gated integrator chip. One level of analog buffering at the inputs is implemented on chip. A four event deep output queue at the bus interface allows a high event rate with low dead time. Each channel can record up to two hits per event. With an occupation rate of 10%, the module can operate at 40,000 events per second with dead time on the order of 15%. The TDC operates in common stop mode with a full scale of 1 {mu}sec and a resolution of 1 nsec. 5 refs., 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.652a2025G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.652a2025G"><span>Changes in the electro-<span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span>-pressure air</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28202383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28202383"><span>Randomized Controlled Trial of Screening, Risk Modification, and <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Therapy to Prevent Falls Among the Elderly Recently Discharged From the Emergency <span class="hlt">Department</span> to the Community: The Steps to Avoid Falls in the Elderly Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matchar, David B; Duncan, Pamela W; Lien, Christopher T; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Lee, Mina; Gao, Fei; Sim, Rita; Eom, Kirsten</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial, tailored program of <span class="hlt">physical</span> therapy to reduce the occurrence of falls among a heterogeneous group of high-risk elderly Singaporeans recently discharged from the emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> (ED). Randomized controlled trial. Communities. Adults (N=354) aged ≥65 years who were seen in the ED for a fall or fall-related injuries and discharged home. The intervention primarily consisted of a tailored program of <span class="hlt">physical</span> therapy focused on progressive training in strength, balance, and gait for a period of 3 months. Participants in the intervention group also received screening and follow-up for vision, polypharmacy, and environmental hazards. Participants in the control group received usual care prescribed by a physician and educational materials on falls prevention. The primary outcome measure was experiencing at least 1 fall during the 9-month study period (a 3-mo active intervention phase and a 6-mo maintenance phase). Secondary outcome measures were the occurrence of at least 1 injurious fall during the study period and a change in the Short <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Performance Battery (SPPB) score. Participants were assessed both after 3 and 9 months. During the 9-month study period, 37.8% of the control group and 30.5% of the intervention group fell at least once, which was not statistically significantly different (odds ratio [OR]=.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], .46-1.12; P=.146). The intervention group had statistically significantly fewer individuals with injurious falls (OR=.56; 95% CI, .32-.98; P=.041) and less deterioration in <span class="hlt">physical</span> performance, reflected by a mean difference of 0.6 in SPPB scores (P=.029). Multivariate analyses indicated a strong interaction effect between the intervention and the presence of 2 or more major comorbidities; after accounting for this effect, the intervention program reduced the number of people experiencing at least 1 fall (OR=.34; 95% CI, .17-.67; P=.002). We observed that in this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RuPhJ..54.1152V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RuPhJ..54.1152V"><span>A change in the electro-<span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of narrow-band CdHgTe solid solutions acted upon by a volume discharge induced by an avalanche electron beam in the air at <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Korotaev, A. G.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The effect of a nanosecond volume discharge forming in an inhomogeneous electrical field at <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure on the CdHgTe (MCT) epitaxial films of the p-type conduction with the hole concentration 2·1016 cm3 and mobility 500 cm2·V-1·s-1 is studied. The measurement of the electrophysical parameters of the MCT specimens upon irradiation shows that a layer exhibiting the n-type conduction is formed in the near-surface region of the epitaxial films. After 600 pulses and more, the thickness and the parameters of the layer are such that the measured field dependence of the Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of the n-type conduction. Analysis of the preliminary results reveals that the foregoing nanosecond volume discharge in the air at <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure is promising for modification of electro-<span class="hlt">physical</span> MCT properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770014823','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770014823"><span>The NASA program on upper <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the NASA Upper <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Research Program is to develop a better understanding of the <span class="hlt">physical</span> and chemical processes that occur in the earth's upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> with emphasis on the stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043414&hterms=lw&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dlw','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043414&hterms=lw&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dlw"><span>Calculation of surface and top of <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> radiative fluxes from <span class="hlt">physical</span> quantities based on ISCCP data sets. 1: Method and sensitivity to input data uncertainties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.-C.; Rossow, W. B.; Lacis, A. A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The largest uncertainty in upwelling shortwave (SW) fluxes (approximately equal 10-15 W/m(exp 2), regional daily mean) is caused by uncertainties in land surface albedo, whereas the largest uncertainty in downwelling SW at the surface (approximately equal 5-10 W/m(exp 2), regional daily mean) is related to cloud detection errors. The uncertainty of upwelling longwave (LW) fluxes (approximately 10-20 W/m(exp 2), regional daily mean) depends on the accuracy of the surface temperature for the surface LW fluxes and the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> temperature for the top of <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> LW fluxes. The dominant source of uncertainty is downwelling LW fluxes at the surface (approximately equal 10-15 W/m(exp 2)) is uncertainty in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> temperature and, secondarily, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> humidity; clouds play little role except in the polar regions. The uncertainties of the individual flux components and the total net fluxes are largest over land (15-20 W/m(exp 2)) because of uncertainties in surface albedo (especially its spectral dependence) and surface temperature and emissivity (including its spectral dependence). Clouds are the most important modulator of the SW fluxes, but over land areas, uncertainties in net SW at the surface depend almost as much on uncertainties in surface albedo. Although <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and surface temperature variations cause larger LW flux variations, the most notable feature of the net LW fluxes is the changing relative importance of clouds and water vapor with latitude. Uncertainty in individual flux values is dominated by sampling effects because of large natrual variations, but uncertainty in monthly mean fluxes is dominated by bias errors in the input quantities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790016460','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790016460"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> neutrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Korff, S. A.; Mendell, R. B.; Merker, M.; Light, E. S.; Verschell, H. J.; Sandie, W. S.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Contributions to fast neutron measurements in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> are outlined. The results of a calculation to determine the production, distribution and final disappearance of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> neutrons over the entire spectrum are presented. An attempt is made to answer questions that relate to processes such as neutron escape from the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and C-14 production. In addition, since variations of secondary neutrons can be related to variations in the primary radiation, comment on the modulation of both radiation components is made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26ARv..22...76H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26ARv..22...76H"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> and adaptive optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickson, Paul</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> optics is the study of optical effects induced by the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> on light propagating from distant sources. Of particular concern to astronomers is <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> turbulence, which limits the performance of ground-based telescopes. The past two decades have seen remarkable growth in the capabilities and performance of adaptive optics (AO) systems. These opto-mechanical systems actively compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth's turbulent <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. By sensing, and correcting, wavefront distortion introduced by <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> index-of-refraction variations, AO systems can produce images with resolution approaching the diffraction limit of the telescope at near-infrared wavelengths. This review highlights the <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes and fundamental relations of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> optics that are most relevant to astronomy, and discusses the techniques used to characterize <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> turbulence. The fundamentals of AO are then introduced and the many types of advanced AO systems that have been developed are described. The principles of each are outlined, and the performance and limitations are examined. Aspects of photometric and astrometric measurements of AO-corrected images are considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the challenges related to current and future AO systems, particularly those that will equip the next generation of large, ground-based optical and infrared telescopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ126514.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ126514.pdf"><span>Long Term Baseline <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goldman, Mark A.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Describes a program designed to measure the normal concentrations of certain chemical and <span class="hlt">physical</span> parameters of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> so that quantitative estimates can be made of local, regional, and global pollution. (GS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810064M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810064M"><span>The Third Pole Environment Programme (TPE): A new base for the processes study of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span> and environment over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Yaoming</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Tibetan Plateau, with the most prominent and complicated terrain on the globe and an elevation of more than 4000 m on average above sea leave (msl), is often called the "Third Pole" due to its significance parallel with Antarctica and the Arctic. The exchange of energy, water vapor and some greenhouse gases between land surface and <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> over the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding regions play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and some international organizations, a Third Pole Environment (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) is now implementing over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding region. The background of the establishment of the TPEP, the establishing and monitoring plan of long-term scale (5-10 years) of the TPEP will be shown firstly. Then the preliminary observational analysis results, such as the characteristics of land surface heat fluxes, CO2 flux and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning (diurnal variation, inter-monthly variation and vertical variation etc), aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas, the characteristics of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and soil variables, the structure of the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Boundary Layer (ABL) and the turbulent characteristics have also been shown in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=earths+AND+atmosphere&pg=4&id=EJ285786','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=earths+AND+atmosphere&pg=4&id=EJ285786"><span>The <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ingersoll, Andrew P.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The composition and dynamics of the earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> are discussed, considering the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>'s role in distributing the energy of solar radiation received by the earth. Models of this activity which help to explain climates of the past and predict those of the future are also considered. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5461988','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5461988"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sloane, C.S. ); Tesche, T.W. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This book covers the predictive strength of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> models. The book covers all of the major important <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> areas, including large scale models for ozone depletion and global warming, regional scale models for urban smog (ozone and visibility impairment) and acid rain, as well as accompanying models of cloud processes and biofeedbacks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6409007','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6409007"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Release Advisory Capability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.</p> <p>1983-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA469265','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA469265"><span>Satellite Attitude Control Using <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Drag</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Satellite Attitude Control Using <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Drag THESIS David B. Guettler, Captain, USAF AFIT/GA/ENY/07-M10 <span class="hlt">DEPARTMENT</span> OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...U.S. Government. AFIT/GA/ENY/07-M10 Satellite Attitude Control Using <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Drag THESIS Presented to the Faculty <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Aeronautics and...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GA/ENY/07-M10 Satellite Attitude Control Using <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Drag David B. Guettler, BS Captain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B51D0448B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B51D0448B"><span>Isotopes and soil <span class="hlt">physic</span> analysis as a tool to meet answers related to soil-plant-<span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> behavior of Amazon forest during droughts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borma, L. D. S.; Oliveira, R. S.; Silva, R. D.; Chaparro Saaveedra, O. F.; Barros, F. V.; Bittencourt, P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Droughts and floods are part of the Amazon weather pattern, but in face of climate change, it has been expected an increase in their intensity and duration. Forests are important regulators of climate. However, it is still unknown how they respond to an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme droughts. Additionally, there are great uncertainties related with the forest behavior in an enriched CO2 environment. For the Amazon rainforest, some authors report forest growth in a drier climate, while others report forest mortality in these same conditions. The crucial factor in this process seem the linkage between <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> demand from water and its provision by soil moisture, intermediated by the plants. In theory, in regions where soil moisture is high, even in the absence of rainfall conditions, water exists in enough quantity to meet the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> demand, and majority of plants behave as an evergreen forest. This is the case, for example, for some research sites of equatorial regions of the Amazon forest, which tend to increase evapotranspiration rates in dry season, when the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> demand is higher. However, the extent to which soil moisture decreases, the plant is no longer able to meet the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> demand, limiting evapotranspiration and possibly, entering in a dormant state. To understand the forest response to droughts, in terms of its potential to maintain or reduce evapotranspiration rates, it is necessary to know water dynamics in soil and soil layers where plants are able to extract water. It's a challenge, considering the great variability of soils and plants that forms the huge biodiversity of the Amazon forest. Here, we present an experiment design based on isotopic analyzes in a small watershed in Amazon basin. In order to understand the dynamics of the water used by the plant during the evaporation process, isotope analysis were carried out in soil water collected from shallow and deep groundwater, in the water collected on the bark</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2231355','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2231355"><span>Hospital outpatient perceptions of the <span class="hlt">physical</span> environment of waiting areas: the role of patient characteristics on <span class="hlt">atmospherics</span> in one academic medical center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tsai, Chun-Yen; Wang, Mu-Chia; Liao, Wei-Tsen; Lu, Jui-Heng; Sun, Pi-hung; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Breen, Gerald-Mark</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background This study examines hospital outpatient perceptions of the <span class="hlt">physical</span> environment of the outpatient waiting areas in one medical center. The relationship of patient characteristics and their perceptions and needs for the outpatient waiting areas are also examined. Method The examined medical center consists of five main buildings which house seventeen primary waiting areas for the outpatient clinics of nine medical specialties: 1) Internal Medicine; 2) Surgery; 3) Ophthalmology; 4) Obstetrics-Gynecology and Pediatrics; 5) Chinese Medicine; 6) Otolaryngology; 7) Orthopedics; 8) Family Medicine; and 9) Dermatology. A 15-item structured questionnaire was developed to rate patient satisfaction covering the four dimensions of the <span class="hlt">physical</span> environments of the outpatient waiting areas: 1) visual environment; 2) hearing environment; 3) body contact environment; and 4) cleanliness. The survey was conducted between November 28, 2005 and December 8, 2005. A total of 680 outpatients responded. Descriptive, univariate, and multiple regression analyses were applied in this study. Results All of the 15 items were ranked as relatively high with a range from 3.362 to 4.010, with a neutral score of 3. Using a principal component analysis' summated scores of four constructed dimensions of patient satisfaction with the <span class="hlt">physical</span> environments (i.e. visual environment, hearing environment, body contact environment, and cleanliness), multiple regression analyses revealed that patient satisfaction with the <span class="hlt">physical</span> environment of outpatient waiting areas was associated with gender, age, visiting frequency, and visiting time. Conclusion Patients' socio-demographics and context backgrounds demonstrated to have effects on their satisfaction with the <span class="hlt">physical</span> environment of outpatient waiting areas. In addition to noticing the overall rankings for less satisfactory items, what should receive further attention is the consideration of the patients' personal characteristics when</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014prpl.conf..739M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014prpl.conf..739M"><span>Exoplanetary <span class="hlt">Atmospheres</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madhusudhan, N.; Knutson, H.; Fortney, J. J.; Barman, T.</p> <p></p> <p>The study of exoplanetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> is one of the most exciting and dynamic frontiers in astronomy. Over the past two decades ongoing surveys have revealed an astonishing diversity in the planetary masses, radii, temperatures, orbital parameters, and host stellar properties of exoplanetary systems. We are now moving into an era where we can begin to address fundamental questions concerning the diversity of exoplanetary compositions, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> and interior processes, and formation histories, just as have been pursued for solar system planets over the past century. Exoplanetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> provide a direct means to address these questions via their observable spectral signatures. In the last decade, and particularly in the last five years, tremendous progress has been made in detecting <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> signatures of exoplanets through photometric and spectroscopic methods using a variety of spaceborne and/or groundbased observational facilities. These observations are beginning to provide important constraints on a wide gamut of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> properties, including pressure-temperature profiles, chemical compositions, energy circulation, presence of clouds, and nonequilibrium processes. The latest studies are also beginning to connect the inferred chemical compositions to exoplanetary formation conditions. In the present chapter, we review the most recent developments in the area of exoplanetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>. Our review covers advances in both observations and theory of exoplanetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>, and spans a broad range of exoplanet types (gas giants, ice giants, and super-Earths) and detection methods (transiting planets, direct imaging, and radial velocity). A number of upcoming planet-finding surveys will focus on detecting exoplanets orbiting nearby bright stars, which are the best targets for detailed <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> characterization. We close with a discussion of the bright prospects for future studies of exoplanetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20299587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20299587"><span>Saturn: <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P</p> <p>2010-03-19</p> <p>The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the <span class="hlt">physics</span>, chemistry, and dynamics of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and magnetosphere?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19727483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19727483"><span>Reactions at surfaces in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>: integration of experiments and theory as necessary (but not necessarily sufficient) for predicting the <span class="hlt">physical</span> chemistry of aerosols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J</p> <p>2009-09-28</p> <p>While particles have significant deleterious impacts on human health, visibility and climate, quantitative understanding of their formation, composition and fates remains problematic. Indeed, in many cases, even qualitative understanding is lacking. One area of particular uncertainty is the nature of particle surfaces and how this determines interactions with gases in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, including water, which is important for cloud formation and properties. The focus in this Perspective article is on some chemistry relevant to airborne particles and especially to reactions occurring on their surfaces. The intent is not to provide a comprehensive review, but rather to highlight a few selected examples of interface chemistry involving inorganic and organic species that may be important in the lower <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. This includes sea salt chemistry, nitrate and nitrite ion photochemistry, organics on surfaces and heterogeneous reactions of oxides of nitrogen on proxies for airborne mineral dust and boundary layer surfaces. Emphasis is on the molecular level understanding that can only be gained by fully integrating experiment and theory to elucidate these complex systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..49..224B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..49..224B"><span>PM2.5-bound PAHs and hydroxy-PAHs in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosol samples: Correlations with season and with <span class="hlt">physical</span> and chemical factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrado, Ana Isabel; García, Susana; Barrado, Enrique; Pérez, Rosa María</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Over a one-year period, the concentrations of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and two of their hydroxy derivatives (OH-PAHs) were monitored in a suburb of Madrid (Spain). The levels of other chemical indicators of urban pollution (nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, etc.), as well as a series of meteorological variables (temperature, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure, etc.) were determined simultaneously. PAH concentrations varied according to the environmental conditions such that depending on the wind direction and speed, levels exceeded those expected for outside the central city area. Concentrations of 2-hydroxyphenanthrene ranged from 12 to 200 pg m-3 and those of 1-hydroxypyrene from 3 to 60 pg m-3. Their variations were directly related to levels of phenanthrene and pyrene and also found to depend on the weather conditions, especially temperature and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure. Through multivariate analysis (factor and cluster analyses) a clear link was detected between the concentrations of PAHs or hydroxy-PAHs and those of other chemical pollutants (nitrogen and sulphur oxides). We also observed an inverse relationship with temperature, ozone concentration, solar radiation and UV radiation intensity. Changes in both PAHs and OH-PAHs were clearly seasonal, increasing in the colder months and undergoing a reduction in the warmer months of the year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740008192&hterms=Percent+Composition&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DPercent%2BComposition','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740008192&hterms=Percent+Composition&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DPercent%2BComposition"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Daniels, G. E.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> is made up of a number of gases in different relative amounts. Near sea level and up to about 90 km, the amount of these <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> gases in clean, relatively dry air is practically constant. Four of these gases, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, make up 99.99 percent by volume of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. Two gases, ozone and water vapor, change in relative amounts, but the total amount of these two is very small compared to the amount of the other gases. The <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> composition shown in a table can be considered valid up to 90 km geometric altitude. Above 90 km, mainly because of molecular dissociation and diffusive separation, the composition changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6947847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6947847"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> tritium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oestlund, H.G.; Mason, A.S.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Research progress for the year 1979 to 1980 are reported. Concentrations of tritiated water vapor, tritium gas and tritiated hydrocarbons in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> at selected sampling points are presented. (ACR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5968387','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5968387"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> pollution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pickett, E.E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1341B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1341B"><span>APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER <span class="hlt">PHYSICS</span> AND TECHNOLOGY: Influence of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> fluctuations of the induced temperature on the characteristics of laser radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banakh, Viktor A.; Smalikho, I. N.</p> <p>1987-10-01</p> <p>The expression for the function representing the second-order mutual coherence of a laser beam propagating in a turbulent <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> under thermal self-interaction conditions is derived in the aberration-free approximation. An analysis is made of the width of a beam, its wind refraction, and the radius of coherence as a function of the initial coherence of the radiation, of conditions of diffraction on the transmitting aperture, and of fluctuations of the wind velocity. It is shown that on increase in the power the coherence radius of cw laser radiation first increases because of thermal defocusing and then decreases due to the appearance (because of fluctuations of the wind velocity) of induced temperature inhomogeneities in air in the beam localization region. The conditions under which fluctuations of the induced temperature have a significant influence on the coherence of the radiation are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6308141','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6308141"><span>Recent studies of buried charges of single, multiple, and plate explosives, with details of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> propagation effects, applied to human and <span class="hlt">physical</span> impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reed, J.W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Characteristics of blast waves from explosions in simple geometries and containment media have been well defined by hydrodynamic models and verified by experiment. A large class of useful explosions, those only partially contained by the close surrounding medium, are less adequately understood. This report addresses the problem of airblast emitted into the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> from explosions buried in the ground at less than containment depth. Examples of such explosions have arisen in cratering excavation, mining and quarrying, ordnance disposal, and military High Explosives Simulation Tests (HEST). Some recent HEST data have been assembled here to help define an empirical approach to airblast predictions, for operational safety as well as for controlling environmental impact on neighboring communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JOpt...16i4004M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JOpt...16i4004M"><span>Experimental confirmation and <span class="hlt">physical</span> understanding of ultra-high bit rate impulse radio in the THz digital communication channels of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandehgar, Mahboubeh; Yang, Yihong; Grischkowsky, D.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We have performed highly accurate numerical calculations of high bit rate impulse propagation through the seven digital communication channels of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> at RH 58% (10 g m-3). These calculations maximized bit rates for pathlengths equal to or longer than 100 m. We have experimentally verified our calculations for three channels with a propagation pathlength of 137 m and RH 65% (11.2 g m-3). Excellent agreement between measurement and theory was obtained for Channel 3 at 252 GHz, bit rate 84 Gb s-1, FWHM bandwidth (BW) 180 GHz; Channel 6 at 672 GHz, 45 Gb s-1, BW 84 GHz; and Channel 7 at 852 GHz, 56.8 Gb s-1, BW 108 GHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006BGD.....3..871H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006BGD.....3..871H"><span>Increased <span class="hlt">physical</span> protection of soil carbon in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation after five years of free <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> CO2 enrichment (FACE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoosbeek, M. R.; Vos, J. M.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. E.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in aggrading forests and plantations have demonstrated significant increases in net primary production (NPP) and C storage in forest vegetation. The extra C uptake may also be stored in forest floor litter and in forest soil. After five years of FACE treatment at the EuroFACE short rotation poplar plantation, the increase of total soil C% was larger under elevated than under ambient CO2. However, the fate of this additional C allocated belowground remains unclear. The stability of soil organic matter is controlled by the chemical structure of the organic matter and the existence of protection offered by the soil matrix and minerals. Fresh litter entering the soil enhances microbial activity which induces the binding of organic matter and soil particles into macro-aggregates. As the enclosed organic matter is decomposed, microbial and decomposition products become associated with mineral particles. This association results in the formation of micro-aggregates (within macro-aggregates) in which organic matter is stabilized and protected. FACE and N-fertilization treatment did not affect the micro- and macro-aggregate weight, C or N fractions obtained by wet sieving. However, Populus euramericana increased the micro- and small macro-aggregates weight and C fractions. The obtained macro-aggregates were broken up in order to isolate recently formed micro-aggregates within macro-aggregates (iM-micro-aggregates). FACE increased the iM-micro-aggregate weight and C fractions. This study reveals that: 1) Species has an effect on the formation of macro-aggregates. The choice of species in a plantation or the effect of global change on species diversity, may therefore affect the stabilization and protection of soil C in aggregates. And 2) Increased <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> CO2 concentration increases the stabilization and protection of soil C in micro-aggregates formed within macro-aggregates. This mechanism increases the C sink of forest soils</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5617S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5617S"><span>From surface wave to cloud: An <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> <span class="hlt">physical</span> process in improving the too cold tongue bias and precipitation in a climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Yajuan; Qiao, Fangli; Song, Zhenya</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The coupled <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span>-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) without flux correction still show defects in simulating sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation, with too cold tongue and obvious double-ITCZ biases in the tropical Pacific. We make an effort to improve SST too cold tongue bias and the north-south asymmetry of zonal-averaged precipitation distribution in the Community Climate System Model version3 (CCSM3) by incorporating the non-breaking wave-induced vertical mixing. The oceanic thermocline depth deepens in the central and eastern tropical Pacific under the wave mixing effect. SST warming characterized as a conspicuous maximum in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific contributes to moisture increasing in <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> through evaporation process. The non-uniform SST brings out distinct horizontal gradient in air pressure across the tropics, which result in an abnormal wind convergence in the central Pacific. As a result, an enhanced Walker circulation and Hadley cell are driven by wind gradient and more latent heat. The subsidence branch of the Walker circulation in the eastern Pacific suppress the formation of clouds, so that more shortwave radiation is absorbed by the ocean. However, in the central to western Pacific, the updraft of the Walker circulation with abundant water vapor provides favorable conditions for cloud formation in middle and high troposphere. A positive feedback between water vapor and cloud fraction warms the SST by less longwave radiation releasing. The warm anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific restrict the westward expansion of cold tongue. Furthermore, the intensive updraft of Hadley circulation with high humidity increases rainfall in the low-latitudes of the northern hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Geology+AND+economic&pg=2&id=EJ549877','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Geology+AND+economic&pg=2&id=EJ549877"><span>Comparative Research Productivity Measures for Economic <span class="hlt">Departments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Huettner, David A.; Clark, William</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Develops a simple theoretical model to evaluate interdisciplinary differences in research productivity between economics <span class="hlt">departments</span> and related subjects. Compares the research publishing statistics of economics, finance, psychology, geology, <span class="hlt">physics</span>, oceanography, chemistry, and geophysics. Considers a number of factors including journal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=geophysics&pg=3&id=EJ549877','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=geophysics&pg=3&id=EJ549877"><span>Comparative Research Productivity Measures for Economic <span class="hlt">Departments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Huettner, David A.; Clark, William</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Develops a simple theoretical model to evaluate interdisciplinary differences in research productivity between economics <span class="hlt">departments</span> and related subjects. Compares the research publishing statistics of economics, finance, psychology, geology, <span class="hlt">physics</span>, oceanography, chemistry, and geophysics. Considers a number of factors including journal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85..341P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85..341P"><span>A First Course on <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pincus, Robert</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Textbooks almost never make their authors rich, and Grant Petty already has a day job as an associate professor at the University of Wisconsin, so he must have had something he wanted to say pretty urgently to write A First Course in <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Radiation. He has certainly taken a different approach than the authors of the half-dozen tomes that already exist on the subject. His book is aimed directly at beginning students, and it is written in casual language, short on math and long on <span class="hlt">physical</span> reasoning and applications to real-world problems. The book may not quite live up to what Petty wants it to be, but it will suit its intended audience much better than anything else available. In <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> sciences <span class="hlt">departments</span> everywhere, there are many students who are not interested in radiation-dynamics types with a passing interest in <span class="hlt">physics</span>. Petty has tailored the book for this kind of student in the hopes that he can convey a few important or interesting ideas. Other texts on the subject are rigorous and complete; this one strives to be engaging above all. It is a near-perfect interpolation between, say, Craig Bohren's books, which people gobble up but which lack the math a textbook needs, and books like Liou's, which are a dense mass of equations. I will bet that more than a few students actually read through Petty's books.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018555','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018555"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Photochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.</p> <p>1961-01-01</p> <p>The upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. Some of them are luminescent, causing the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......170M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......170M"><span>Research in <span class="hlt">physical</span> chemistry and chemical education: Part A: Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Compounds Part B: The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maron, Marta Katarzyna</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation is a combination of two research areas, experimental <span class="hlt">physical</span> chemistry, Chapters I to V, and chemical education, Chapters VI to VII. Chapters I to V describe research on the water-mediated chemistry of oxidized <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> molecules and the impact that water has on the spectra of these environmental systems. The role of water in the Earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> has been of considerable interest due to its ability to impact chemistry and climate. Oxidized <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> molecules in the presence of water have the ability to form hydrogen bonded water complexes. The spectroscopic investigation of nitric acid-water complexes, outlined in Chapter III, was undertaken to characterize intermolecular hydrogen bonds in a water-restricted environment at ambient temperatures. Additionally, this characterization of nitric acid-water complexes allowed for the comparison of calculated overtone OH-stretching vibrational band frequencies, intensities, and anharmonicities of intermolecular hydrogen-bonded water complexes with experimental observations. Oxidized organic molecules, such as aldehydes and ketones, in addition to forming hydrogen-bonded water complexes can undergo a hydration reaction of the carbonyl group and form germinal diols in the presence of water. This chemistry has been studied extensively in bulk aqueous media, however little is known about this process in the gas-phase at low water concentrations. The focus of the studies outlined in Chapters IV and V is motivated by the ability of pyruvic acid and formaldehyde to form germinal diols and water complexes in water-restricted environment. This water-mediated chemistry changes the <span class="hlt">physical</span> and chemical properties of these organic molecules, therefore, impacting the partitioning between gas and particle phase, as well as the chemistry and photochemistry of oxidized organic molecules in the Earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. The results presented in this dissertation may help resolve the significant discrepancy between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830007071&hterms=infrared+absorption+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dinfrared%2Babsorption%2Bspectroscopy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830007071&hterms=infrared+absorption+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dinfrared%2Babsorption%2Bspectroscopy"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> trace molecule spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farmer, C. B.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The Spacelab investigation entitled <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) is designed to obtain fundamental information related to the chemistry and <span class="hlt">physics</span> of the Earth's upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> using the techniques of infrared absorption spectroscopy. There are two principal objectives to be met. The first is the determination, on a global scale, of the compositional structure of the upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and its spatial variability. The establishment of this variability represents the first step toward determining the characteristic residence times for the upper <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> constituents; the magnitudes of their sources and sinks; and, ultimately, an understanding of their effects on the stability of the stratosphere. The second objective is to provide the high-resolution, calibrated spectral information which is essential for the detailed design of advanced instrumentation for subsequent global monitoring of specific species found to be critical to <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> stability. This information will be disseminated in the form of a three dimensional atlas of solar absorption spectra obtained over a range of latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24500239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24500239"><span>Multi-<span class="hlt">physics</span> modelling contributions to investigate the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> cosmic rays on the single event upset sensitivity along the scaling trend of CMOS technologies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hubert, G; Regis, D; Cheminet, A; Gatti, M; Lacoste, V</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Particles originating from primary cosmic radiation, which hit the Earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> give rise to a complex field of secondary particles. These particles include neutrons, protons, muons, pions, etc. Since the 1980s it has been known that terrestrial cosmic rays can penetrate the natural shielding of buildings, equipment and circuit package and induce soft errors in integrated circuits. Recently, research has shown that commercial static random access memories are now so small and sufficiently sensitive that single event upsets (SEUs) may be induced from the electronic stopping of a proton. With continued advancements in process size, this downward trend in sensitivity is expected to continue. Then, muon soft errors have been predicted for nano-electronics. This paper describes the effects in the specific cases such as neutron-, proton- and muon-induced SEU observed in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. The results will allow investigating the technology node sensitivity along the scaling trend. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28214695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28214695"><span>The effects of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure cold plasma treatment on microbiological, <span class="hlt">physical</span>-chemical and sensory characteristics of vacuum packaged beef loin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bauer, A; Ni, Y; Bauer, S; Paulsen, P; Modic, M; Walsh, J L; Smulders, F J M</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Effects on vacuum packaged and non-packaged beef longissimus samples exposed to <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> cold plasma (ACP) generated at different powers were studied over a 10day period of vacuum-, and a subsequent 3day period of aerobic storage. Exposure of non-covered beef samples under high power ACP conditions resulted in increased a*, b*, Chroma and Hue values, but ACP treatment of packaged loins did not impact colour (L*, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue), lipid peroxidation, sarcoplasmic protein denaturation, nitrate/nitrite uptake, or myoglobin isoform distribution. Colour values measured after 3days of aerobic storage following unpackaging (i.e. 20days post-mortem) were similar and all compliant with consumer acceptability standards. Exposure to ACP of the polyamide-polyethylene packaging film inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and two Escherichia coli strains resulted in >2 log reduction without affecting the integrity of the packaging matrix. Results indicate that ACP can reduce microbial numbers on surfaces of beef packages without affecting characteristics of the packaged beef. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..67..385B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..67..385B"><span>Exploratory data analysis of PAH, nitro-PAH and hydroxy-PAH concentrations in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> PM10-bound aerosol particles. Correlations with <span class="hlt">physical</span> and chemical factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrado, Ana Isabel; García, Susana; Castrillejo, Yolanda; Barrado, Enrique</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>A method is proposed to determine PAHs, OH-PAHs and nitro-PAHs in samples of PM10 particulate matter based on liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, and applied to quantify such compounds over a 14-month period in a semiurban area of a large city (Madrid, Spain). A clear seasonal trend was observed in the levels of the compounds. The mean overall concentration of all the PAHs determined was 1250 pg m-3; with levels rising in the colder months to 2062 pg m-3 and descending in the warm months to 725 pg m-3. The same effect was observed for the OH-PAHs, showing a mean of 83 pg m-3 and values of 153 pg m-3 and 36 pg m-3 in the colder and warmer months, and for the nitro-PAHs, with a mean of 132 pg m-3 and levels of 162 pg m-3 and of 112 pg m-3 in the colder and warmer months, respectively. These trends were confirmed in the statistical analysis, which clearly revealed the difference between PAH levels in the months April-September compared to October-December or January-March. Correlations were also found between PAH patterns and those of their hydroxy- and nitro derivatives, as well as between both derivatives. Negative correlation was observed between O3 and OH-PAH levels and direct correlation between the presence of nitrogen oxides in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and nitro-PAHs in the particulate matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930061186&hterms=MSA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DMSA','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930061186&hterms=MSA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DMSA"><span>Dimethylsulfide/cloud condensation nuclei/climate system - Relevant size-resolved measurements of the chemical and <span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosol particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Quinn, P. K.; Covert, D. S.; Bates, T. S.; Kapustin, V. N.; Ramsey-Bell, D. C.; Mcinnes, L. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The mass and number relationships occurring within the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> dimethylsulfide/cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)/climate system, using simultaneous measurements of particulate phase mass size distributions of nss SO4(2-), methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and NH4(+); number size distributions of particles having diameters between 0.02 and 9.6 microns; CCN concentrations at a supersaturation of 0.3 percent; relative humidity; and temperature, obtained for the northeastern Pacific Ocean in April and May 1991. Based on these measurements, particulate nss SO4(2-), MSA, and NH4(+) mass appeared to be correlated with both particle effective surface area and number in the accumulation mode size range (0.16 to 0.5 micron). No correlations were found in the size range below 0.16 micron. A correlation was also found between nss SO4(2-) mass and the CCN number concentration, such that a doubling of the SO4(2-) mass corresponded to a 40 percent increase in the CCN number concentration. However, no correlation was found between MSA mass and CCN concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930061186&hterms=msa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmsa','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930061186&hterms=msa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmsa"><span>Dimethylsulfide/cloud condensation nuclei/climate system - Relevant size-resolved measurements of the chemical and <span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosol particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Quinn, P. K.; Covert, D. S.; Bates, T. S.; Kapustin, V. N.; Ramsey-Bell, D. C.; Mcinnes, L. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The mass and number relationships occurring within the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> dimethylsulfide/cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)/climate system, using simultaneous measurements of particulate phase mass size distributions of nss SO4(2-), methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and NH4(+); number size distributions of particles having diameters between 0.02 and 9.6 microns; CCN concentrations at a supersaturation of 0.3 percent; relative humidity; and temperature, obtained for the northeastern Pacific Ocean in April and May 1991. Based on these measurements, particulate nss SO4(2-), MSA, and NH4(+) mass appeared to be correlated with both particle effective surface area and number in the accumulation mode size range (0.16 to 0.5 micron). No correlations were found in the size range below 0.16 micron. A correlation was also found between nss SO4(2-) mass and the CCN number concentration, such that a doubling of the SO4(2-) mass corresponded to a 40 percent increase in the CCN number concentration. However, no correlation was found between MSA mass and CCN concentration.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2574918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2574918"><span>Submarine <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knight, D R; Tappan, D V; Bowman, J S; O'Neill, H J; Gordon, S M</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>Nuclear submariners live and work in an <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> composed of approximately 80% naturally occurring nitrogen, 19% oxygen (manufactured aboard ship), and a complex mixture of inorganic and organic contaminants. The concentrations of contaminants exist as a balance between the rates of production from human and operational activities and the rate of removal by engineering systems. The biological effects of inorganic gases, particularly carbon dioxide, have been extensively studied. Investigators are now attempting to define the composition and concentration of volatile organic compounds that accumulate during 90-day submergences. Medical studies have not conclusively shown that crewmembers incur adverse health effects from continuous exposures to the sealed <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> of nuclear submarines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5147808','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5147808"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harshvardhan, M.R. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Studies of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> radiative processes are summarized for the period 1987-1990. Topics discussed include radiation modeling; clouds and radiation; radiative effects in dynamics and climate; radiation budget and aerosol effects; and gaseous absorption, particulate scattering and surface reflection. It is concluded that the key developments of the period are a defining of the radiative forcing to the climate system by trace gases and clouds, the recognition that cloud microphysics and morphology need to be incorporated not only into radiation models but also climate models, and the isolation of a few important unsolved theoretical problems in <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1324287','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1324287"><span><span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> to Electrons (A2e): Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Zayas, Jose; Derby, Mike; Ralston, Kiersten; Clark, Charlton; Brake, Dan; Johnson, Nick</p> <p>2016-09-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> to Electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex <span class="hlt">physics</span> governing electricity generation by wind plants. The goal of A2e is to ensure future wind plants are sited, built, and operated in a way that produces the most cost-effective, usable electric power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1324287','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1324287"><span><span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> to Electrons (A2e): Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zayas, Jose; Derby, Mike; Ralston, Kiersten; Clark, Charlton; Brake, Dan; Johnson, Nick</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> to Electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex <span class="hlt">physics</span> governing electricity generation by wind plants. The goal of A2e is to ensure future wind plants are sited, built, and operated in a way that produces the most cost-effective, usable electric power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9727A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9727A"><span>Lithosphere-<span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> coupling: Spectral element modeling of the evolution of acoustic waves in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> from an underground source.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Averbuch, Gil; Price, Colin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Lithosphere-<span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> coupling: Spectral element modeling of the evolution of acoustic waves in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> from an underground source. G. Averbuch, C. Price <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Israel Infrasound is one of the four Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty technologies for monitoring nuclear explosions. This technology measures the acoustic waves generated by the explosions followed by their propagation through the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. There are also natural phenomena that can act as an infrasound sources like sprites, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The infrasound waves generated from theses phenomena can also be detected by the infrasound arrays. In order to study the behavior of these waves, i.e. the <span class="hlt">physics</span> of wave propagation in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, their evolution and their trajectories, numerical methods are required. This presentation will deal with the evolution of acoustic waves generated by underground sources (earthquakes and underground explosions). A 2D Spectral elements formulation for lithosphere-<span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> coupling will be presented. The formulation includes the elastic wave equation for the seismic waves and the momentum, mass and state equations for the acoustic waves in a moving stratified <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. The coupling of the two media is made by boundary conditions that ensures the continuity of traction and velocity (displacement) in the normal component to the interface. This work has several objectives. The first is to study the evolution of acoustic waves in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> from an underground source. The second is to derive transmission coefficients for the energy flux with respect to the seismic magnitude and earth density. The third will be the generation of seismic waves from acoustic waves in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. Is it possible?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315932','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315932"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10097&hterms=Scientists+lies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DScientists%2Blies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10097&hterms=Scientists+lies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DScientists%2Blies"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><p/> With its Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), half of the Ralph instrument, New Horizons captured several pictures of mesoscale gravity waves in Jupiter's equatorial <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. Buoyancy waves of this type are seen frequently on Earth - for example, they can be caused when air flows over a mountain and a regular cloud pattern forms downstream. In Jupiter's case there are no mountains, but if conditions in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> are just right, it is possible to form long trains of these small waves. The source of the wave excitation seems to lie deep in Jupiter's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, below the visible cloud layers at depths corresponding to pressures 10 times that at Earth's surface. The New Horizons measurements showed that the waves move about 100 meters per second faster than surrounding clouds; this is about 25% of the speed of sound on Earth and is much greater than current models of these waves predict. Scientists can 'read' the speed and patterns these waves to learn more about activity and stability in the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> layers below.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A21E0293K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A21E0293K"><span>The Association of Pre-storm Ground Wetness with Inland Penetration of Monsoon Depressions : A Study Using Self Organizing Maps (SOM) C.M. Kishtawal Meteorology and Oceanography Group, Space Applications Center, Ahmedabad, INDIA Dev Niyogi2 <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Agronomy, and <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Earth and <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kishtawal, C. M.; Niyogi, D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Monsoon depressions (MDs)are probably the most important rain bearing systems that occur during the Indian summer monsoon season. The unique topography of Indian peninsula and Indo-china region favor the formation and development of MDs in the warm and moist air over the Bay of Bengal. After formation the MDs move in a north-northwest track along the monsoon trough to the warmer and drier heat low regions of Northwest India and Pakistan. The dynamic structure of MDs is largely maintained by convergence of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> water vapor flux coupled with the lower tropospheric divergent circulation (Chen et al., 2005), and they weaken rapidly after landfall due to the lack of surface moisture fluxes (Dastoor and Krishnamurti, 1991). In the present study we explored the association between pre-storm wetness conditions and the post-landfall situation of MDs using 54-year long observations (1951-2004) of 183 MDs and daily surface rainfall. Our analysis suggests that the MD’s post-landfall behavior is most sensitive to mean inland rainfall between To-1 to To-8 days (the pre-storm rainfall), where To is the day of formation of MD in the Bay of Bengal. Further, pre-storm rainfall over a broad region along the monsoon trough is found to exhibit the maximum association with the MDs inland lifespan. We further carried out the unsupervised classification of pre-storm rainfall patterns using Self Organizing Map(SOM), a topology preserving map that maps data from higher dimensions onto a two dimensional grid(Kohenen, 1990). The SOM patterns of rainfall indicate that pre-storm wetness is strongly associated with the inland penetration length of MDs with wetter conditions supporting MDs to survive longer after the landfall. Although the pre-storm inland wetness has not been found to be associated with the formation of MDs and a number of MDs form during relatively dry inland conditions during the early (June) and late (September) phases of monsoon, the inland-penetration and post</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13695.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13695.pdf"><span>77 FR 33443 - National Oceanic and <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-06</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office <span class="hlt">DEPARTMENT</span> OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Administration Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Administration (NOAA), Commerce...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007prpl.conf..733M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007prpl.conf..733M"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheres</span> of Extrasolar Giant Planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marley, M. S.; Fortney, J.; Seager, S.; Barman, T.</p> <p></p> <p>The key to understanding an extrasolar giant planet's spectrum - and hence its detectability and evolution - lies with its <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. Now that direct observations of thermal emission from extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) are in hand, <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> models can be used to constrain <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> composition, thermal structure, and ultimately the formation and evolution of detected planets. We review the important <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes that influence the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> structure and evolution of EGPs and consider what has already been learned from the first generation of observations and modeling. We pay particular attention to the roles of cloud structure, metallicity, and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> chemistry in affecting detectable properties through Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting giant planets. Our review stresses the uncertainties that ultimately limit our ability to interpret EGP observations. Finally we will conclude with a look to the future as characterization of multiple individual planets in a single stellar system leads to the study of comparative planetary architectures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016060','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016060"><span>New <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> sensor analysis study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parker, K. G.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The functional capabilities of the ESAD Research Computing Facility are discussed. The system is used in processing <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> measurements which are used in the evaluation of sensor performance, conducting design-concept simulation studies, and also in modeling the <span class="hlt">physical</span> and dynamical nature of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> processes. The results may then be evaluated to furnish inputs into the final design specifications for new space sensors intended for future Spacelab, Space Station, and free-flying missions. In addition, data gathered from these missions may subsequently be analyzed to provide better understanding of requirements for numerical modeling of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eaa..bookE1817E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eaa..bookE1817E"><span>Planetary <span class="hlt">Atmospheres</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Encrenaz, T.; Murdin, P.</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>Planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> are the external gaseous envelopes which surround the planets. In the case of the telluric planets, they represent only a negligible fraction of their mass, but they play an essential role in the energy balance between the surfaces and the Sun. In the case of the GIANT PLANETS, which are mostly gaseous, they account for a large fraction of their total mass and constitute the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012atph.book..203H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012atph.book..203H"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Acoustics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heimann, Dietrich; Schady, Arthur; Feng, Joseph</p> <p></p> <p>This chapter deals with sound propagation in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, which is an important link in the functional chain from noise emissions from aircraft, road and rail vehicles, and wind turbines to noise perception. The principle processes in outdoor sound propagation are explained. They include refraction, diffraction, and reflection. Two sound propagation models for scientific applications are briefly outlined. Finally, three illustrative applications and their results are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95R.266W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95R.266W"><span>Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Ping Yang</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webster, Peter J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences section of AGU awards one of the five Ascent Awards to Professor Ping Yang of the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences at Texas A&M University for significant contributions to <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> scattering, radiative transfer, and remote sensing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010094541','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010094541"><span>Solar <span class="hlt">Physics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, S. T.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the <span class="hlt">physical</span> parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes in solar <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the <span class="hlt">physical</span> process for the Sun-Earth connections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title28-vol2-sec79-13.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title28-vol2-sec79-13.pdf"><span>28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of <span class="hlt">physical</span> presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of <span class="hlt">physical</span> presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> nuclear testing. 79.13 Section 79.13 Judicial Administration <span class="hlt">DEPARTMENT</span> OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title28-vol2-sec79-13.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title28-vol2-sec79-13.pdf"><span>28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of <span class="hlt">physical</span> presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of <span class="hlt">physical</span> presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> nuclear testing. 79.13 Section 79.13 Judicial Administration <span class="hlt">DEPARTMENT</span> OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title28-vol2-sec79-13.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title28-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title28-vol2-sec79-13.pdf"><span>28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of <span class="hlt">physical</span> presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of <span class="hlt">physical</span> presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> nuclear testing. 79.13 Section 79.13 Judicial Administration <span class="hlt">DEPARTMENT</span> OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=partnership&pg=6&id=EJ1028252','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=partnership&pg=6&id=EJ1028252"><span>Partnerships with Academic <span class="hlt">Departments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>English, Anthony M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic <span class="hlt">departments</span> in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090015906&hterms=mystery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmystery','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090015906&hterms=mystery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmystery"><span>Understanding <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Catastrophes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chao, Winston C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, as in other parts of nature, is full of phenomena that involve rapid transitions from one (quasi-) equilibrium state to another--- i.e. catastrophes. These (quasi-) equilibria are the multiple solutions of the same dynamical system. Unlocking the mystery behind a catastrophe reveals not only the <span class="hlt">physical</span> mechanism responsible for the transition, but also how the (quasi-) equilibria before and after the transition are maintained. Each catastrophe is different, but they do have some common traits. Understanding these common traits is the first step in studying these catastrophes. In this seminar, three examples chosen based on the speaker's research interest--tropical cyclogenesis, stratospheric sudden warming, and monsoon onset--are given to illustrate how <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> catastrophes can be studied.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090015906&hterms=speakers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dspeakers','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090015906&hterms=speakers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dspeakers"><span>Understanding <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Catastrophes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chao, Winston C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, as in other parts of nature, is full of phenomena that involve rapid transitions from one (quasi-) equilibrium state to another--- i.e. catastrophes. These (quasi-) equilibria are the multiple solutions of the same dynamical system. Unlocking the mystery behind a catastrophe reveals not only the <span class="hlt">physical</span> mechanism responsible for the transition, but also how the (quasi-) equilibria before and after the transition are maintained. Each catastrophe is different, but they do have some common traits. Understanding these common traits is the first step in studying these catastrophes. In this seminar, three examples chosen based on the speaker's research interest--tropical cyclogenesis, stratospheric sudden warming, and monsoon onset--are given to illustrate how <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> catastrophes can be studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/548716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/548716"><span>Enabling <span class="hlt">department</span>-scale supercomputing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greenberg, D.S.; Hart, W.E.; Phillips, C.A.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy (DOE) national laboratories have one of the longest and most consistent histories of supercomputer use. The authors summarize the architecture of DOE`s new supercomputers that are being built for the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The authors then argue that in the near future scaled-down versions of these supercomputers with petaflop-per-weekend capabilities could become widely available to hundreds of research and engineering <span class="hlt">departments</span>. The availability of such computational resources will allow simulation of <span class="hlt">physical</span> phenomena to become a full-fledged third branch of scientific exploration, along with theory and experimentation. They describe the ASCI and other supercomputer applications at Sandia National Laboratories, and discuss which lessons learned from Sandia`s long history of supercomputing can be applied in this new setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880005975','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880005975"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamill, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas; Clarke, Antony; Goodman, Jindra; Levin, Zev; Tomasko, Martin; Toon, O. Brian; Whitten, Robert</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The following types of experiments for a proposed Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility are described: (1) growth of liquid water drop populations; (2) coalescence; (3) drop breakup; (4) breakup of freezing drops; (5) ice nucleation for large aerosols or bacteria; (6) scavenging of gases, for example, SO2 oxidation; (7) phoretic forces, i.e., thermophoresis versus diffusiophoresis; (8) Rayleigh bursting of drops; (9) charge separation due to collisions of rimed and unrimed ice; (10) charged drop dynamics; (11) growth of particles in other planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>; and (12) freezing and liquid-liquid evaporation. The required capabilities and desired hardware for the facility are detailed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/664586','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/664586"><span>Fire <span class="hlt">Department</span> Emergency Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>In 1995 the SRS Fire <span class="hlt">Department</span> published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire <span class="hlt">Department</span> which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rotation+AND+staff&pg=5&id=ED256222','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rotation+AND+staff&pg=5&id=ED256222"><span>Chairing a Small <span class="hlt">Department</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bowker, Lee H.; Lynch, David M.</p> <p></p> <p>Ten management problems for chairs of small <span class="hlt">departments</span> in small colleges are discussed, along with problem-solving strategies for these administrators. Serious disagreements within a small and intimate <span class="hlt">department</span> may create a country club culture in which differences are smoothed over and the personal idiosyncrasies of individual members are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950012619','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950012619"><span>Solar flare model <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hawley, Suzanne L.; Fisher, George H.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Solar flare model <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> computed under the assumption of energetic equilibrium in the chromosphere are presented. The models use a static, one-dimensional plane parallel geometry and are designed within a <span class="hlt">physically</span> self-consistent coronal loop. Assumed flare heating mechanisms include collisions from a flux of non-thermal electrons and x-ray heating of the chromosphere by the corona. The heating by energetic electrons accounts explicitly for variations of the ionized fraction with depth in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. X-ray heating of the chromosphere by the corona incorporates a flare loop geometry by approximating distant portions of the loop with a series of point sources, while treating the loop leg closest to the chromospheric footpoint in the plane-parallel approximation. Coronal flare heating leads to increased heat conduction, chromospheric evaporation and subsequent changes in coronal pressure; these effects are included self-consistently in the models. Cooling in the chromosphere is computed in detail for the important optically thick HI, CaII and MgII transitions using the non-LTE prescription in the program MULTI. Hydrogen ionization rates from x-ray photo-ionization and collisional ionization by non-thermal electrons are included explicitly in the rate equations. The models are computed in the 'impulsive' and 'equilibrium' limits, and in a set of intermediate 'evolving' states. The impulsive <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> have the density distribution frozen in pre-flare configuration, while the equilibrium models assume the entire <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> is in hydrostatic and energetic equilibrium. The evolving <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> represent intermediate stages where hydrostatic equilibrium has been established in the chromosphere and corona, but the corona is not yet in energetic equilibrium with the flare heating source. Thus, for example, chromospheric evaporation is still in the process of occurring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750051512&hterms=pollution+atmospheric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpollution%2Batmospheric','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750051512&hterms=pollution+atmospheric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpollution%2Batmospheric"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> microphysical experiments on an orbital platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Eaton, L. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The Zero-Gravity <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Cloud <span class="hlt">Physics</span> Laboratory is a Shuttle/Spacelab payload which will be capable of performing a large range of microphysics experiments. This facility will complement terrestrial cloud <span class="hlt">physics</span> research by allowing many experiments to be performed which cannot be accomplished within the confines of a terrestrial laboratory. This paper reviews the general Cloud <span class="hlt">Physics</span> Laboratory concept and the experiment scope. The experimental constraints are given along with details of the proposed equipment. Examples of appropriate experiments range from three-dimensional simulation of the earth and planetary <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and of ocean circulation to cloud electrification processes and the effects of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pollution materials on microphysical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA231926','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA231926"><span>Range Reference <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>, Nellis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>mecan to the intercept ol a given probability ellipse, equation 43 is also applicable. 2.7 Statistical Parameters for Non-Standard Orthogonal Axes...clockw ise fronti true north. Rotation of the mecans through (X (legrees: X, Xcos ~(90 -) W + sin (90 - () (44) ’ s (go - o.) u in (90 - (X) (45) Rotation...8217TABLE 3-1. Primary <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Constants Used in RRA Production. P0 Standard <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure at sea level (1.0 13250 X 10 Newton /in 2 ) (2116.22 Ib</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8286N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8286N"><span>ESA <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Toolbox</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niemeijer, Sander</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The ESA <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Toolbox (BEAT) is one of the ESA Sentinel Toolboxes. It consists of a set of software components to read, analyze, and visualize a wide range of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> data products. In addition to the upcoming Sentinel-5P mission it supports a wide range of other <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> data products, including those of previous ESA missions, ESA Third Party missions, Copernicus <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Monitoring Service (CAMS), ground based data, etc. The toolbox consists of three main components that are called CODA, HARP and VISAN. CODA provides interfaces for direct reading of data from earth observation data files. These interfaces consist of command line applications, libraries, direct interfaces to scientific applications (IDL and MATLAB), and direct interfaces to programming languages (C, Fortran, Python, and Java). CODA provides a single interface to access data in a wide variety of data formats, including ASCII, binary, XML, netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, CDF, GRIB, RINEX, and SP3. HARP is a toolkit for reading, processing and inter-comparing satellite remote sensing data, model data, in-situ data, and ground based remote sensing data. The main goal of HARP is to assist in the inter-comparison of datasets. By appropriately chaining calls to HARP command line tools one can pre-process datasets such that two datasets that need to be compared end up having the same temporal/spatial grid, same data format/structure, and same <span class="hlt">physical</span> unit. The toolkit comes with its own data format conventions, the HARP format, which is based on netcdf/HDF. Ingestion routines (based on CODA) allow conversion from a wide variety of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> data products to this common format. In addition, the toolbox provides a wide range of operations to perform conversions on the data such as unit conversions, quantity conversions (e.g. number density to volume mixing ratios), regridding, vertical smoothing using averaging kernels, collocation of two datasets, etc. VISAN is a cross-platform visualization and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED012303.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED012303.pdf"><span>A SURVEY OF <span class="hlt">DEPARTMENTS</span> OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN DELAWARE TO ASCERTAIN THE EMPHASIS BEING GIVEN TO THE AREAS OF ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE, FLORICULTURE, AND TURF IN THE COURSE OF STUDY AND THE <span class="hlt">PHYSICAL</span> FACILITIES AVAILABLE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>BARWICK, RALPH P.</p> <p></p> <p>IN ORDER TO DETERMINE WHAT TEACHING UNITS WERE INCLUDED IN THE STATE'S VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE PROGRAMS AND THE FACILITIES AVAILABLE TO AID INSTRUCTION IN THESE AREAS, 18 HIGH SCHOOLS IN DELAWARE WERE SURVEYED. IN 11 SCHOOLS THE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE <span class="hlt">DEPARTMENTS</span> WERE INCLUDING ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE, SEVEN WERE INCLUDING FLORICULTURE, AND 10 WERE…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SunGe...1a..61G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SunGe...1a..61G"><span>Rocket Measurements of the Direct Solar Lyman-alpha Radiation Penetrating in the <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guineva, V. H.; Witt, G.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.; Tashev, V. L.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>The resonance transition 2P-2S of the atomic hydrogen (Lyman-alpha emission) is the strongest and most conspicuous feature in the solar EUV spectrum. The Lyman-alpha radiation transfer depends on the resonance scattering from the hydrogen atoms in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and on the O2 absorption. Since the Lyman-alpha extinction in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> is a measure for the column density of the oxygen molecules, the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> temperature profile can be calculated thereof. Rocket measurements of the direct Lyman-alpha radiation vertical profile in the summer mesosphere and thermosphere (up to 120 km), at high latitudes will be carried out in June 2006. The Lyman-alpha flux will be registered by a detector of solar Lyman-alpha radiation, manufactured in the Stara Zagora <span class="hlt">Department</span> of the Solar-Terrestrial Influences Laboratory (STIL BAS). Its basic part is an ionization camera, filled in with NO. The scientific data analysis will include raw data reduction, radiative transfer simulations, temperature retrieval as well as co-analysis with other parameters, measured near the polar summer mesopause. This project is a scientific cooperation between STIL-BAS, Stara Zagora <span class="hlt">Department</span> and the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">Physics</span> Group at the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Meteorology (MISU), Stockholm University, Sweden. The joint project is part from the rocket experiment HotPay I, in the ALOMAR eARI Project, EU's 6th Framework Programme, Andoya Rocket Range, Andenes, Norway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25842427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25842427"><span>[Improving emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> organisation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yordanov, Youri; Beltramini, Alexandra; Debuc, Erwan; Pateron, Dominique</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span> use has been constantly increasing over the world. Overcrowding is defined as a situation which compromises patient safety because of delayed cares. This situation is often reached. Emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span> have to continuously improve their organization to be able to ensure the same quality of care to a higher number of patients. Thus a good organization is essential: it doesn't always avoid overcrowding. The rest of the hospital has to be involved in this process to ensure efficiency. We examine the various interventions and procedures that can be found in medical literature for improving patients flow and management in emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920005563','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920005563"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Embleton, Tony F. W.; Daigle, Gilles A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Reviewed here is the current state of knowledge with respect to each basic mechanism of sound propagation in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and how each mechanism changes the spectral or temporal characteristics of the sound received at a distance from the source. Some of the basic processes affecting sound wave propagation which are present in any situation are discussed. They are geometrical spreading, molecular absorption, and turbulent scattering. In geometrical spreading, sound levels decrease with increasing distance from the source; there is no frequency dependence. In molecular absorption, sound energy is converted into heat as the sound wave propagates through the air; there is a strong dependence on frequency. In turbulent scattering, local variations in wind velocity and temperature induce fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the sound waves as they propagate through an inhomogeneous medium; there is a moderate dependence on frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030002796','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030002796"><span><span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Analyzer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>California Measurements, Inc.'s model PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer is produced in both airborne and ground-use versions. Originating from NASA technology, it is a quick and accurate method of detecting minute amounts of mass loadings on a quartz crystal -- offers utility as highly sensitive detector of fine particles suspended in air. When combined with suitable air delivery system, it provides immediate information on the size distribution and mass concentrations of aerosols. William Chiang, obtained a NASA license for multiple crystal oscillator technology, and initially developed a particle analyzer for NASA use with Langley Research Center assistance. Later his company produced the modified PC-2 for commercial applications Brunswick Corporation uses the device for <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> research and in studies of smoke particles in Fires. PC-2 is used by pharmaceutical and chemical companies in research on inhalation toxicology and environmental health. Also useful in testing various filters for safety masks and nuclear installations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880005120','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880005120"><span>Middle <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 25</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roper, R. G. (Editor)</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>GLOBMET (the Global Meteor Observation System) was first proposed by the Soviet Geophysical Committee and was accepted by the Middle <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Program Steering Committee in 1982. While the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> dynamics data from the system are of primary interest to MAP, GLOBMET also encompasses the astronomical radio and optical observations of meteoroids, and the <span class="hlt">physics</span> of their interaction with the Earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. These astronomical observations and interactional <span class="hlt">physics</span> with the Earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> are discussed in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/ne/nebraska-department-transportation','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/ne/nebraska-department-transportation"><span>Nebraska <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Transportation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Nebraska <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Transportation, a state agency located at 1500 Highway 2, Lincoln, NE 68509, for alleged violations of its municipal separate stormwater sewer sy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ257650.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ257650.pdf"><span>Other <span class="hlt">Departments</span> . . . Other Ways.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>ADE Bulletin, 1981</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>This collection of project and program descriptions describes a successful student recruiting method, the features of the United States Air Force Academy's English <span class="hlt">department</span>, a writing program for the professions, and the writing program at Pennsylvania's Beaver College. (AEA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=store+AND+marketing&pg=7&id=EJ173851','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=store+AND+marketing&pg=7&id=EJ173851"><span>Developing the Art <span class="hlt">Department</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ball, Harold E.; Stark, Barry</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Methods for developing effective inventories for a college store art <span class="hlt">department</span> are discussed and illustrated. Both on-campus course needs and needs prompted by the local community are considered. (LBH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10135349','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10135349"><span>Environmental assessment for the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> radiation and <span class="hlt">physical</span> and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy`s <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/765362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/765362"><span>ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [<span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Radiation Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.</p> <p>1995-09-27</p> <p>Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying <span class="hlt">physical</span> mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy's (DOE) <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..270....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..270....1H"><span>Titan's surface and <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayes, Alexander G.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Ádámkovics, Máté</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Since its arrival in late 2004, the NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn has revealed Titan to be a world that is both strange and familiar. Titan is the only extraterrestrial body known to support standing bodies of stable liquid on its surface and, along with Earth and early Mars, is one of three places in the Solar System known to have had an active hydrologic cycle. With <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressures of 1.5 bar and temperatures of 90-95 K at the surface, methane and ethane condense out of Titan's nitrogen-dominated <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and flow as liquids on the surface. Despite vast differences in environmental conditions and materials from Earth, Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle drives climatic and geologic processes which generate landforms that are strikingly similar to their terrestrial counterparts, including vast equatorial dunes, well-organized channel networks that route material through erosional and depositional landscapes, and lakes and seas of liquid hydrocarbons. These similarities make Titan a natural laboratory for studying the processes that shape terrestrial landscapes and drive climates, probing extreme conditions impossible to recreate in earthbound laboratories. Titan's exotic environment ensures that even rudimentary measurements of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span>/surface interactions, such as wind-wave generation or aeolian dune development, provide valuable data to anchor <span class="hlt">physical</span> models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6754767','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6754767"><span>Hazards Control <span class="hlt">Department</span> annual technology review, 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J.</p> <p>1988-07-01</p> <p>This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control <span class="hlt">Department</span> from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health <span class="hlt">Physics</span>, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation <span class="hlt">Physics</span>, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control <span class="hlt">Department</span>, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1f20LN2mKIA','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1f20LN2mKIA"><span>Solar <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Simulation - AGU Dec. 9, 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This movie shows a numerical simulation of a small area of the solar <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> at ~10,000K. Numerical models bridge the gap between IRIS observations and the <span class="hlt">physical</span> mechanisms driving solar even...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21210288','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21210288"><span>Neutrino <span class="hlt">physics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peccei, R. D.</p> <p>1999-10-25</p> <p>These lectures describe some aspects of the <span class="hlt">physics</span> of massive neutrinos. After a brief introduction of neutrinos in the Standard Model, I discuss possible patterns for their masses. In particular, I show how the presence of a large Majorana mass term for the right-handed neutrinos can engender tiny neutrino masses for the observed neutrinos. If neutrinos have mass, different flavors of neutrinos can oscillate into one another. To analyze this phenomena, I develop the relevant formalism for neutrino oscillations, both in vacuum and in matter. After reviewing the existing (negative) evidence for neutrino masses coming from direct searches, I discuss evidence for, and hints of, neutrino oscillations in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, the sun, and at accelerators. Some of the theoretical implications of these results are emphasized. I close these lectures by briefly outlining future experiments which will shed further light on <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span>, accelerator and solar neutrino oscillations. A pedagogical discussion of Dirac and Majorana masses is contained in an appendix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790002813','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790002813"><span>Working model of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and near planetary space of Jupiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moroz, V. I. (Editor)</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Basic <span class="hlt">physical</span> characteristics of Jupiter, its gravitational field, <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, electromagnetic radiation, magnetosphere, meteorite situation and satellites are presented in tables, graphs and figures. Means of observation of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and three models of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> are presented and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED090029.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED090029.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>, Science (Experimental): 5343.08.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reese, Sandra Kay</p> <p></p> <p>This unit of instruction deals with a study of the general <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> by layers with an emphasis on <span class="hlt">physical</span> characteristics. The formation of layers in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and the energy relationships that exist between them are also discussed. No requisites for prior course work, experience, or courses to be taken concurrently are required for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atmospheric+AND+pressure&id=EJ1083358','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atmospheric+AND+pressure&id=EJ1083358"><span>An <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Pressure Ping-Pong "Ballometer"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kazachkov, Alexander; Kryuchkov, Dmitriy; Willis, Courtney; Moore, John C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Classroom experiments on <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure focus largely on demonstrating its existence, often in a most impressive way. A series of amusing <span class="hlt">physics</span> demonstrations is widely known and practiced by educators teaching the topic. However, measuring the value of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure(P[subscript atm]) is generally done in a rather mundane way,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ATM&pg=2&id=EJ1083358','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ATM&pg=2&id=EJ1083358"><span>An <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Pressure Ping-Pong "Ballometer"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kazachkov, Alexander; Kryuchkov, Dmitriy; Willis, Courtney; Moore, John C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Classroom experiments on <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure focus largely on demonstrating its existence, often in a most impressive way. A series of amusing <span class="hlt">physics</span> demonstrations is widely known and practiced by educators teaching the topic. However, measuring the value of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> pressure(P[subscript atm]) is generally done in a rather mundane way,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880005193','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880005193"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> electricity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>In the last three years the focus was on the information contained in the lightning measurement, which is independent of other meteorological measurements that can be made from space. The characteristics of lightning activity in mesoscale convective systems were quantified. A strong relationship was found between lightning activity and surface rainfall. It is shown that lightning provides a precursor signature for wet microbursts (the strong downdrafts that produce windshears hazardous to aircraft) and that the lightning signature is a direct consequence of storm evolution. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) collaborated with NASA scientists in the preliminary analysis and scientific justification for the design and deployment of an optical instrument which can detect lightning from geostationary orbit. Science proposals for the NASA mesoscale science program and for the Tethered Satellite System were reviewed. The weather forecasting research and unmanned space vehicles. Software was written to ingest and analyze the lightning ground strike data on the MSFC McIDAS system. The capabilities which were developed have a wide application to a number of problems associated with the operational impacts of electrical discharge within the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26952123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26952123"><span>[Emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span>--2016 update].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zimmermann, M; Brokmann, J C; Gräff, I; Kumle, B; Wilke, P; Gries, A</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Acute medical care in hospital emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span> has experienced rapid development in recent years and gained increasing importance not only from a professional medical point of view but also from an economic and health policy perspective. The present article therefore provides an update on the situation of emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span> in Germany. Care in emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span> is provided with an increasing tendency to patients of all ages presenting with varying primary symptoms, complaints, illnesses and injury patterns. In the process, patients reach the emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> by various routes and structural provision. Cross-sectional communication and cooperation, prioritization and organization of emergency management and especially medical staff qualifications increasingly play a decisive role in this process. The range of necessary knowledge and skills far exceeds the scope of prehospital medical emergency care and the working environment differs substantially. In addition to existing structural and economic problems, the latest developments, as well as future proposals for the design of in-hospital emergency medical care in interdisciplinary emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span> are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27899735','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27899735"><span>Improving <span class="hlt">Departments</span> of Psychology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diener, Ed</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Our procedures for creating excellent <span class="hlt">departments</span> of psychology are based largely on selection-hiring and promoting the best people. I argue that these procedures have been successful, but I suggest the implementation of policies that I believe will further improve <span class="hlt">departments</span> in the behavioral and brain sciences. I recommend that we institute more faculty development programs attached to incentives to guarantee continuing education and scholarly activities after the Ph.D. degree. I also argue that we would do a much better job if we more strongly stream our faculty into research, education, or service and not expect all faculty members to carry equal responsibility for each of these. Finally, I argue that more hiring should occur at advanced levels, where scholars have a proven track record of independent scholarship. Although these practices will be a challenge to implement, institutions do ossify over time and thus searching for ways to improve our <span class="hlt">departments</span> should be a key element of faculty governance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980004621','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980004621"><span>NASA's Upper <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Research Program UARP and <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1994 - 1996. Report to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kendall, Rose (Compiler); Wolfe, Kathy (Compiler)</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology, and monitoring of the Earth's upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, with emphasis on the stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Research Program (UARP) and the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Science Division in the Office of Mission to Planet Earth at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort are also provided by the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aeronautics. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the <span class="hlt">physics</span>, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and their effect on the distribution of chemical species in the stratosphere, such as ozone; understand the relationship of the trace constituent composition of the lower stratosphere and the lower troposphere to the radiative balance and temperature distribution of the Earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>; and accurately assess possible perturbations of the upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> caused by human activities as well as by natural phenomena. In compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Law 101-549, NASA has prepared a report on the state of our knowledge of the Earth's upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, particularly the stratosphere, and on the progress of UARP and ACMAP. The report for the year 1996 is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA UARP and ACMAP in a document entitled, Research Summary 1994-1996. Part 2 is entitled Present State of Knowledge of the Upper <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-04/pdf/2010-27916.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-04/pdf/2010-27916.pdf"><span>75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology <span class="hlt">Department</span>, Kalamazoo, MI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-11-04</p> <p>... Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology <span class="hlt">Department</span>, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National..., Anthropology <span class="hlt">Department</span>, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from... <span class="hlt">physical</span> anthropologist in the Anthropology <span class="hlt">Department</span> at Western Michigan University, studied the remains...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyW...29k..12E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyW...29k..12E"><span>NPL closes acoustics <span class="hlt">department</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Extance, Andy</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The UK's National <span class="hlt">Physical</span> Laboratory (NPL) has withdrawn funding for its acoustics, polymer and thermoelectrics groups, triggering concern among airborne acoustics specialists that the move could undermine the country's noise-management policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20838108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20838108"><span>Rethinking emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> visits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Resar, Roger K; Griffin, Frances A</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Efforts to date have been unable to reverse the trend of increased emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> utilization. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement has developed a framework for reducing avoidable emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> visits on the basis of the formation of local coalitions. These coalitions include interested partners approaching improvement by integrating community resources and nonmedical solutions. Targeted patient populations are identified via homogeneous characteristics. Open-ended interview questions are used to identify possible community and nonmedical solutions to complement medical strategies. This article describes the framework and process of testing. If validated, this approach will have significant policy implications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A43G0326J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A43G0326J"><span>Multi-Year Application and Evaluation over U.S. using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry and the <span class="hlt">Physics</span>/Aerosol Packages from the Community <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Model version 5 (WRF-CAM5)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jena, C. K.; Zhang, Y.; Campbell, P. C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Multiyear applications of an online-coupled meteorological and chemical transport model allow an assessment of the variation trends in simulated meteorology, air quality and their interactions over a period of time during which emissions and meteorology are changed. In this work, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry and the <span class="hlt">physics</span>/aerosol packages of the Community <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Model version 5 (WRF-CAM5) is applied for five full years of 2008 - 2012 over U.S. to evaluate the model's capability in reproducing the observations and to examine the changes in model predictions due to changes in meteorology and emissions. The model predictions of meteorological, radiative, and cloud variables, chemical concentrations, and column mass abundances are evaluated against satellite data and surface measurements across U.S. A comprehensive evaluation shows overall good performance for temperature and relative humidity at 2-m, precipitation against most datasets (except for NCDC), radiation variables, cloud fraction, cloud droplet number concentration, and precipitable water vapor in terms of domain average performance statistics, multi-year trends and inter-seasonal variability. Large biases exist in surface concentrations of sulfate, elemental carbon, PM2.5 against IMPROVE and PM10, column abundances of NO2 and O3, aerosol optical depth, cloud condensation nuclei, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical thickness. These biases indicate uncertainties in the model representations of boundary layer processes (e.g., surface roughness), cloud processes (e.g., microphysics and cumulus parameterization), emissions (e.g., biogenic and wildfire emissions), chemistry and aerosol treatment (e.g., winter photochemistry, aerosol thermodynamics). Overall, these results demonstrate promising skills of WRF-CAM5 for long-term simulations at a regional scale and suggest the above areas of potential improvements to further improve model skill and reduce uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992EOSTr..73...52S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992EOSTr..73...52S"><span>Martian Surface and <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuraytz, Benjamin C.</p> <p></p> <p>The NASA-sponsored Martian Surface and <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> Through Time Study Project convened its first major meeting at the University of Colorado in Boulder, September 23-25, 1991. The workshop, co-sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and the Laboratory for <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> and Space <span class="hlt">Physics</span> at the University of Colorado, brought together an international group of 125 scientists to discuss a variety of issues relevant to the goals of the MSATT Program. The workshop program committee included co-convenors Robert Haberle, MSATT Steering Committee Chairman NASA Ames Research Center) and Bruce Jakosky (University of Colorado), and committee members Amos Banin (NASA Ames Research Center and Hebrew University), Benjamin Schuraytz (LPI), and Kenneth Tanaka (U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz.).The purpose of the workshop was to begin exploring and defining the relationships between different aspects of Mars science—the evolution of the surface, the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, volatiles, and climate. Specific topics addressed in the 88 contributed abstracts included the current nature of the surface with respect to <span class="hlt">physical</span> properties and photometric observations and interpretations; the history of geological processes, comprising water and ice-related geomorphology, impact cratering, and volcanism; and the geochemistry and mineralogy of the surface with emphasis on compositional and spectroscopic studies and weathering processes. Also addressed were the present <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, focusing on structure and dynamics, volatile and dust distribution, and the upper <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>; long-term volatile evolution based on volatiles in SNC meteorites (certain meteorites thought to have come from Mars) and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> evolution processes; climate history and volatile cycles in relation to early climate and the polar caps, ground ice, and regolith; and future mission concepts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070016600','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070016600"><span>The <span class="hlt">Atmospheres</span> of Extrasolar Planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this chapter we examine what can be learned about extrasolar planet <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> by concentrating on a class of planets that transit their parent stars. As discussed in the previous chapter, one way of detecting an extrasolar planet is by observing the drop in stellar intensity as the planet passes in front of the star. A transit represents a special case in which the geometry of the planetary system is such that the planet s orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. As we will explore, the transiting planets provide opportunities for detailed follow-up observations that allow <span class="hlt">physical</span> characterization of extrasolar planets, probing their bulk compositions and <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008165','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008165"><span>The Jovian <span class="hlt">Atmospheres</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allison, Michael (Editor); Travis, Larry D. (Editor)</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A conference on the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> of Saturn was discussed in several papers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vacuum&pg=3&id=EJ988036','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vacuum&pg=3&id=EJ988036"><span>Strengthening Science <span class="hlt">Departments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Teachers do not work in a vacuum. They are, in most cases, part of a science <span class="hlt">department</span> in which teachers and the chairperson have important roles in science education reform. Current reform is shaped by national standards documents that emphasize the pedagogical and conceptual importance of best practices framed by constructivism and focused on…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED033891.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED033891.pdf"><span>Maryland <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This document traces the historical development of the Maryland <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Education from the first notable efforts to establish free schooling in 1825 to the present. An introductory section briefly sketches early development of a centralized system and the establishment of a state board in 1870. "From 1900 to World War I" focuses on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=kk&pg=3&id=ED031884','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=kk&pg=3&id=ED031884"><span>Planning Homemaking <span class="hlt">Departments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schooler, Ruth; Mather, Mary</p> <p>1961-01-01</p> <p>A comprehensive guide for home economists, the article treats five major ideas for planning home economics <span class="hlt">departments</span> in schools, as follows--(1) the importance of sharing the planning responsibility among teacher, parent, and administrator, citing an example of successful planning, (2) the need for teaching methods, course content and equipment…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bank+AND+data&pg=6&id=EJ1041565','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bank+AND+data&pg=6&id=EJ1041565"><span><span class="hlt">Department</span>-Initiated Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the activity of three secondary school mathematics <span class="hlt">departments</span> in England in self-initiated states of change that led to overall improvements in students' achievements when compared to previous cohorts. This took place without intervention and without their participation in external projects. They provide examples of departments…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1045145','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1045145"><span>Honoring Energy <span class="hlt">Department</span> Vets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Chu, Steven; Majors, Alvan; Underwood, David</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Veterans from the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and the National Guard who work at the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy met Wednesday with Secretary Steven Chu, who hosted more than a dozen former service members to thank them for their continued service to America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kk&pg=3&id=ED031884','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kk&pg=3&id=ED031884"><span>Planning Homemaking <span class="hlt">Departments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schooler, Ruth; Mather, Mary</p> <p>1961-01-01</p> <p>A comprehensive guide for home economists, the article treats five major ideas for planning home economics <span class="hlt">departments</span> in schools, as follows--(1) the importance of sharing the planning responsibility among teacher, parent, and administrator, citing an example of successful planning, (2) the need for teaching methods, course content and equipment…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED323626.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED323626.pdf"><span>Personnel <span class="hlt">Department</span> Automation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilkinson, David</p> <p></p> <p>In 1989, the Austin Independent School District's Office of Research and Evaluation was directed to monitor the automation of personnel information and processes in the district's <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Personnel. Earlier, a study committee appointed by the Superintendent during the 1988-89 school year identified issues related to Personnel Department…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bank+AND+service&pg=4&id=EJ1041565','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bank+AND+service&pg=4&id=EJ1041565"><span><span class="hlt">Department</span>-Initiated Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the activity of three secondary school mathematics <span class="hlt">departments</span> in England in self-initiated states of change that led to overall improvements in students' achievements when compared to previous cohorts. This took place without intervention and without their participation in external projects. They provide examples of departments…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=vacuum&pg=3&id=EJ988036','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=vacuum&pg=3&id=EJ988036"><span>Strengthening Science <span class="hlt">Departments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Teachers do not work in a vacuum. They are, in most cases, part of a science <span class="hlt">department</span> in which teachers and the chairperson have important roles in science education reform. Current reform is shaped by national standards documents that emphasize the pedagogical and conceptual importance of best practices framed by constructivism and focused on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9612E..0CP','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9612E..0CP"><span>Lidar investigations of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Philbrick, C. Russell; Hallen, Hans D.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Ground based lidar techniques using Raleigh and Raman scattering, differential absorption (DIAL), and supercontinuum sources are capable of providing unique signatures to study dynamical processes in the lower <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. The most useful profile signatures of dynamics in the lower <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> are available in profiles of time sequences of water vapor and aerosol optical extinction obtained with Raman and DIAL lidars. Water vapor profiles are used to study the scales and motions of daytime convection cells, residual layer bursts into the planetary boundary layer (PBL), variations in height of the PBL layer, cloud formation and dissipation, scale sizes of gravity waves, turbulent eddies, as well as to study the seldom observed phenomena of Brunt-Väisälä oscillations and undular bore waves. Aerosol optical extinction profiles from Raman lidar provide another tracer of dynamics and motion using sequential profiles <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> aerosol extinction, where the aerosol distribution is controlled by dynamic, thermodynamic, and photochemical processes. Raman lidar profiles of temperature describe the stability of the lower <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and measure structure features. Rayleigh lidar can provide backscatter profiles of aerosols in the troposphere, and temperature profiles in the stratosphere and mesosphere, where large gravity waves, stratospheric clouds, and noctilucent clouds are observed. Examples of several dynamical features are selected to illustrate interesting processes observed with Raman lidar. Lidar experiments add to our understanding of <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes that modify <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> structure, initiate turbulence and waves, and describe the relationships between energy sources, <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> stability parameters, and the observed dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARV17001G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARV17001G"><span>Medical <span class="hlt">Physics</span> Panel Discussion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guèye, Paul; Avery, Steven; Baird, Richard; Soares, Christopher; Amols, Howard; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Drew</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>The panel discussion will explore opportunities and vistas in medical <span class="hlt">physics</span> research and practice, medical imaging, teaching medical <span class="hlt">physics</span> to undergraduates, and medical <span class="hlt">physics</span> curricula as a recruiting tool for <span class="hlt">physics</span> <span class="hlt">departments</span>. Panel members consist of representatives from NSBP (Paul Guèye and Steven Avery), NIH/NIBIB (Richard Baird), NIST (Christopher Soares), AAPM (Howard Amols), ASTRO (Prabhakar Tripuraneni), and Jefferson Lab (Stan Majewski and Drew Weisenberger). Medical Physicists are part of <span class="hlt">Departments</span> of Radiation Oncology at hospitals and medical centers. The field of medical <span class="hlt">physics</span> includes radiation therapy <span class="hlt">physics</span>, medical diagnostic and imaging <span class="hlt">physics</span>, nuclear medicine <span class="hlt">physics</span>, and medical radiation safety. It also ranges from basic researcher (at college institutions, industries, and laboratories) to applications in clinical environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940036077&hterms=Uranus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DUranus','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940036077&hterms=Uranus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DUranus"><span>The <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> of Uranus and Neptune</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lunine, Jonathan I.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> of Uranus and Neptune are discussed in the light of the Voyager 2 flybys of these planets. A basic overview of their <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> is presented, with emphasis on thermal structure, composition, energy and opacity sources, cloud structure, and the horizontal structure of the <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>. The nature and implications of the different internal heat flows on the two planets, and the implications of the deuterium and helium abundances for the origin and evolution of these ice giants, as distinct from Jupiter and Saturn, are discussed. Selected chemical and <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes in the <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> of Uranus and Neptune are illustrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870000873','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870000873"><span>Optical models of the molecular <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zuev, V. E.; Makushkin, Y. S.; Mitsel, A. A.; Ponomarev, Y. N.; Rudenko, V. P.; Firsov, K. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The use of optical and laser methods for performing <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> investigations has stimulated the development of the optical models of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. The principles of constructing the optical models of molecular <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> for radiation with different spectral composition (wideband, narrowband, and monochromatic) are considered in the case of linear and nonlinear absorptions. The example of the development of a system which provides for the modeling of the processes of optical-wave energy transfer in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> is presented. Its <span class="hlt">physical</span> foundations, structure, programming software, and functioning were considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940036077&hterms=Uranus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DUranus','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940036077&hterms=Uranus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DUranus"><span>The <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> of Uranus and Neptune</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lunine, Jonathan I.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> of Uranus and Neptune are discussed in the light of the Voyager 2 flybys of these planets. A basic overview of their <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> is presented, with emphasis on thermal structure, composition, energy and opacity sources, cloud structure, and the horizontal structure of the <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>. The nature and implications of the different internal heat flows on the two planets, and the implications of the deuterium and helium abundances for the origin and evolution of these ice giants, as distinct from Jupiter and Saturn, are discussed. Selected chemical and <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes in the <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> of Uranus and Neptune are illustrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170006480','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170006480"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Research 2016 Technical Highlights</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Platnick, Steven</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Divisions goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and <span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. Members of the various laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMED51B0430R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMED51B0430R"><span>Promoting Interests in <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Science at a Liberal Arts Institution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roussev, S.; Sherengos, P. M.; Limpasuvan, V.; Xue, M.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Coastal Carolina University (CCU) students in Computer Science participated in a project to set up an operational weather forecast for the local community. The project involved the construction of two computing clusters and the automation of daily forecasting. Funded by NSF-MRI, two high-performance clusters were successfully established to run the University of Oklahoma's Advance Regional Prediction System (ARPS). Daily weather predictions are made over South Carolina and North Carolina at 3-km horizontal resolution (roughly 1.9 miles) using initial and boundary condition data provided by UNIDATA. At this high resolution, the model is cloud- resolving, thus providing detailed picture of heavy thunderstorms and precipitation. Forecast results are displayed on CCU's website (https://marc.coastal.edu/HPC) to complement observations at the National Weather Service in Wilmington N.C. Present efforts include providing forecasts at 1-km resolution (or finer), comparisons with other models like Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the examination of local phenomena (like water spouts and tornadoes). Through these activities the students learn about shell scripting, cluster operating systems, and web design. More importantly, students are introduced to <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Science, the processes involved in making weather forecasts, and the interpretation of their forecasts. Simulations generated by the forecasts will be integrated into the contents of CCU's course like Fluid Dynamics, <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences, <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> <span class="hlt">Physics</span>, and Remote Sensing. Operated jointly between the <span class="hlt">departments</span> of Applied <span class="hlt">Physics</span> and Computer Science, the clusters are expected to be used by CCU faculty and students for future research and inquiry-based projects in Computer Science, Applied <span class="hlt">Physics</span>, and Marine Science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20156855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20156855"><span>Emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> triage revisited.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>FitzGerald, Gerard; Jelinek, George A; Scott, Deborah; Gerdtz, Marie Frances</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Triage is a process that is critical to the effective management of modern emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span>. Triage systems aim, not only to ensure clinical justice for the patient, but also to provide an effective tool for departmental organisation, monitoring and evaluation. Over the last 20 years, triage systems have been standardised in a number of countries and efforts made to ensure consistency of application. However, the ongoing crowding of emergency <span class="hlt">departments</span> resulting from access block and increased demand has led to calls for a review of systems of triage. In addition, international variance in triage systems limits the capacity for benchmarking. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the literature pertaining to emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> triage in order to inform the direction for future research. While education, guidelines and algorithms have been shown to reduce triage variation, there remains significant inconsistency in triage assessment arising from the diversity of factors determining the urgency of any individual patient. It is timely to accept this diversity, what is agreed, and what may be agreeable. It is time to develop and test an International Triage Scale (ITS) which is supported by an international collaborative approach towards a triage research agenda. This agenda would seek to further develop application and moderating tools and to utilise the scales for international benchmarking and research programmes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fingerprint&pg=6&id=EJ237396','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fingerprint&pg=6&id=EJ237396"><span><span class="hlt">Physics</span> in Police Investigations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Young, Peter</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Described are several techniques and pieces of equipment developed by the Police Scientific <span class="hlt">Department</span> Branch in its application of <span class="hlt">physics</span> to police problems. Topics discussed include fingerprints, documents, and photographs. (Author/DS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ237396.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ237396.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Physics</span> in Police Investigations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Young, Peter</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Described are several techniques and pieces of equipment developed by the Police Scientific <span class="hlt">Department</span> Branch in its application of <span class="hlt">physics</span> to police problems. Topics discussed include fingerprints, documents, and photographs. (Author/DS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/14041','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/14041"><span>A dynamics based view of <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>-fire interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Brian E. Potter</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Current research on severe fire interactions with the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> focuses largely on examination of correlations between fire growth and various <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> properties, and on the development of indices based on these correlations. The author proposes that progress requires understanding the <span class="hlt">physics</span> and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> dynamics behind the correlations. A conceptual 3-stage...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002iaf..confE.121L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002iaf..confE.121L"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Climate Experiment Plus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lundahl, K.</p> <p></p> <p>ACE+ is an <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> sounding mission using radio occultation techniques and is a combination of the two Earth Explorer missions ACE and WATS earlier proposed to ESA. ACE was highly rated by ESA in the Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 1999 and was prioritised as number three and selected as a "hot-stand-by". A phase A study was carried out during 2000 and 2001. ACE will observe <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> parameters using radio occultations from an array of 6 micro-satellites which track the L- band signal of GPS satellites to map the detailed refractivity and thermal structure of the global <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> from surface to space. Water vapour and wind in <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Troposphere and Stratosphere WATS was the response to ESA's Call for Ideas for the next Earth Explorer Core Missions in 2001. WATS combines ACE GPS <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> occultations and LEO-LEO cross-link occultations. Cross-links strongly enhance the capability of measuring humidity relative to the ACE mission. The Earth Science Advisory Committée at ESA noted that the LEO-GNSS occultation technique is already well established through several missions in recent years and could not recommend WATS for a Phase A study as an Earth Explorer Core Mission. The ESAC was, however, deeply impressed by the LEO-LEO component of the WATS proposal and would regard it as regrettable if this science would be lost and encourages the ACE/WATS team to explore other means to achieve its scientific goal. ACE+ is therefore the response to ESA's 2nd Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 2001 and will contribute in a significant manner to ESA's Living Planet Programme. ACE+ will considerably advance our knowledge about <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> <span class="hlt">physics</span> and climate change processes. The mission will demonstrate a highly innovative approach using radio occultations for globally measuring profiles of humidity and temperature throughout the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and stratosphere. A constellation of 4 small satellites, tracking L-band GPS/GALILEO signals and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17739803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17739803"><span><span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>-surface exchange measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dabberdt, W F; Lenschow, D H; Horst, T W; Zimmerman, P R; Oncley, S P; Delany, A C</p> <p>1993-06-04</p> <p>The exchange of various trace species and energy at the earth's surface plays an important role in climate, ecology, and human health and welfare. Surface exchange measurements can be difficult to obtain yet are important to understand <span class="hlt">physical</span> processes, assess environmental and global change impacts, and develop robust parameterizations of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> processes. The <span class="hlt">physics</span> and turbulent structure of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> boundary layer are reviewed as they contribute to dry surface exchange rates (fluxes). Micrometeorological, budget, and enclosure techniques used to measure or estimate surface fluxes are described, along with their respective advantages and limitations. Various measurement issues (such as site characteristics, sampling considerations, sensor attributes, and flow distortion) impact on the ability to obtain representative surface-based and airborne flux data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H21A1005Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H21A1005Z"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Downscaling using Genetic Programming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zerenner, T.; Venema, V.; Simmer, C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The coupling of models for the different components of the soil-vegetation-<span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> system is required to understand component interactions and feedback processes. The Transregional Collaborative Research Center 32 (TR 32) has developed a coupled modeling platform, TerrSysMP, consisting of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> model COSMO, the land-surface model CLM, and the hydrological model ParFlow. These component models are usually operated at different resolutions in space and time owing to the dominant processes. These different scales should also be considered in the coupling mode, because it is for instance unfeasible to run the computationally quite expensive <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> models at the usually much higher spatial resolution required by hydrological models. Thus up- and downscaling procedures are required at the interface between <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> model and land-surface/subsurface models. Here we present an advanced <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> downscaling scheme, that creates realistic fine-scale fields (e.g. 400 m resolution) of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> state variables from the coarse <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> model output (e.g. 2.8 km resolution). The mixed <span class="hlt">physical</span>/statistical scheme is developed from a training data set of high-resolution <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> model runs covering a range different weather conditions using Genetic Programming (GP). GP originates from machine learning: From a set of functions (arithmetic expressions, IF-statements, etc.) and terminals (constants or variables) GP generates potential solutions to a given problem while minimizing a fitness or cost function. We use a multi-objective approach that aims at fitting spatial structures, spatially distributed variance and spatio-temporal correlation of the fields. We account for the spatio-temporal nature of the data in two ways. On the one hand we offer GP potential predictors, which are based on our <span class="hlt">physical</span> understanding of the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> processes involved (spatial and temporal gradients, etc.). On the other hand we include functions operating on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910071931&hterms=particle+physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dparticle%2Bphysics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910071931&hterms=particle+physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dparticle%2Bphysics"><span>The <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> as particle detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stanev, Todor</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle <span class="hlt">physics</span> on the moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910071931&hterms=Particle+physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DParticle%2Bphysics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910071931&hterms=Particle+physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DParticle%2Bphysics"><span>The <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> as particle detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stanev, Todor</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle <span class="hlt">physics</span> on the moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SGeo...27...63A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SGeo...27...63A"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Electrification in the Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aplin, Karen L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> electrification is not a purely terrestrial phenomenon: all Solar System planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> become slightly electrified by cosmic ray ionisation. There is evidence for lightning on Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and it is possible on Mars, Venus and Titan. Controversy surrounds the role of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> electricity in <span class="hlt">physical</span> climate processes on Earth; here, a comparative approach is employed to review the role of electrification in the <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> of other planets and their moons. This paper reviews the theory, and, where available, measurements, of planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> electricity which is taken to include ion production and ion aerosol interactions. The conditions necessary for a planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> electric circuit similar to Earth’s, and the likelihood of meeting these conditions in other planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>, are briefly discussed. <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> electrification could be important throughout the solar system, particularly at the outer planets which receive little solar radiation, increasing the relative significance of electrical forces. Nucleation onto <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> ions has been predicted to affect the evolution and lifetime of haze layers on Titan, Neptune and Triton. <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> electrical processes on Titan, before the arrival of the Huygens probe, are summarised. For planets closer to Earth, heating from solar radiation dominates <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> circulations. However, Mars may have a global circuit analogous to the terrestrial model, but based on electrical discharges from dust storms. There is an increasing need for direct measurements of planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> electrification, in particular on Mars, to assess the risk for future unmanned and manned missions. Theoretical understanding could be increased by cross-disciplinary work to modify and update models and parameterisations initially developed for a specific <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, to make them more broadly applicable to other planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2847003','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2847003"><span>Clinical features from the history and <span class="hlt">physical</span> examination that predict the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism in symptomatic emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> patients: results of a prospective, multi-center study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Courtney, D. Mark; Kline, Jeffrey A.; Kabrhel, Christopher; Moore, Christopher L.; Smithline, Howard A; Nordenholz, Kristen E.; Richman, Peter B.; Plewa, Michael C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Study Objective Prediction rules for pulmonary embolism (PE) employ variables explicitly shown to estimate the probability of PE. However, clinicians often use variables that have not been similarly validated, yet are implicitly believed to modify probability of PE. The objective of this study was to measure the predictive value of 13 implicit variables. Methods Patients were enrolled in a prospective cohort study from 12 centers in the United States; all had an objective test for PE (D-dimer, CT angiography, or V/Q scan). Clinical features including 12 predefined previously validated (explicit) variables and 13 variables not part of existing prediction rules (implicit) were prospectively recorded at presentation. The primary outcome was VTE (venous thromboembolism: PE or deep venous thrombosis), diagnosed by imaging up to 45 days after enrollment. Variables with adjusted odds ratios from logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals not crossing unity were considered significant. Results 7,940 patients (7.2% VTE+) were enrolled. Mean age was 49±17 years and 67% were female. Eight of 13 implicit variables were significantly associated with VTE; those with an adjusted OR >1.5 included non-cancer related thrombophilia (1.99), pleuritic chest pain (1.53), and family history of VTE (1.51). Implicit variables that predicted no VTE outcome included: substernal chest pain, female gender, and smoking. Nine of 12 explicit variables predicted a positive outcome of VTE, including unilateral leg swelling, recent surgery, estrogen, hypoxemia and active malignancy. Conclusions In symptomatic outpatients being considered for possible PE, non-cancer related thrombophilia, pleuritic chest pain, and family history of VTE increase probability of PE or DVT. Other variables that are part of existing pretest probability systems were validated as important predictors in this diverse sample of US Emergency <span class="hlt">department</span> patients. PMID:20045580</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MRE.....4d6406M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MRE.....4d6406M"><span>Influence of (Ar  +  O2) <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and CdCl2 coating heat treatment on <span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of CdS thin film for solar cell applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohamed, W. S.; Hasaneen, M. F.; Shokr, E. Kh</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> treated CdS film has the highest figure of merit value of 29  ×  10-4 Ω-1. The obtained results confirm that the CdCl2 heat treatment process in (Ar  +  O2) <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> can enhance the <span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of CdS thin films as a promising window layer or buffer layer material for CdS/CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981SPIE..314....2C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981SPIE..314....2C"><span>Photoelectronic Radiology <span class="hlt">Department</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capp, M. P.; Nudelman, Sol; Fisher, Donald; Ovitt, Theron W.; Pond, Gerald D.; Frost, Meryl M.; Roehrig, Hans; Seeger, Joachim; Oimette, Donald</p> <p>1981-11-01</p> <p>The University of Arizona <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Radiology first considered establishing a photoelectronic radiology <span class="hlt">department</span> in 1973. It seemed clear that the technology had progressed far enough for us to investigate the possibility of total film replacement.' Data from the space program in particular indicated at that time that sophisticated television images over 1000 x 1000 lines were approaching the detail seen on the traditional x-ray film. This technology has been known over many years of research and development as "photoelectronic imaging devices (PEID) ."14 However, at that time film replacement was out of the question. What was not out of the question was the consideration of using a subtraction technique, "digital video subtraction angiography." To this end, we, and independently the University of Wisconsin,314 proceeded to develop this technology.5'6 Our intravenous video subtraction images in patients started in our research laboratory in 1977 and in March of 1980 we opened a biplane special procedures room dedicated only to photoelectronic imaging (no film).7'8 Digital video subtraction angiography has been successful and is described in much greater detail in these Proceedings by other authors. Current efforts are under way toward total replacement of film. This is an immense problem, one that will require a much greater sophistication of computers, storage devices, system analysis, and cooperation from both the radiologist and the clinician.9'10 In a theoretical study we converted our 65,000 procedures-per-year <span class="hlt">department</span> to complete photoelectronic imaging (no film) and estimated that we would save approximately five million dollars over ten years.15 Extrapolating this to the entire United States would result in a conservative estimate of saving one billion dollars per year. Not included in these mathematics are cost-effective savings of the physicians' time and effort.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=498409','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=498409"><span>Formaldehyde in pathology <span class="hlt">departments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clark, R P</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology <span class="hlt">departments</span> and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA195614','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA195614"><span><span class="hlt">Department</span> of Energy Technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>and 2) to organize a working group for "Knowledge Preparedness" This is a group maintaining knowledge on nuclear reactors and nuclear R & D. (This work...should not be confused with eme~rgency preparedness, where a large organization is set up for a specific nedcby reactor). The working group z-ol...<span class="hlt">physics</span> codes have been performed as support for - DR3 fuel management - conversion from 93% to 20% enriched fuel in DR3 - silicium irradiation in DR3 for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5927P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5927P"><span>Validation of LAIC model within the framework of ISSI project "Multi-instrument space-borne observations and validation of the <span class="hlt">physical</span> model of the Lithosphere-<span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pulinets, Sergey; Ouzounov, Dimitar; Laic Team</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A new international project to study the complex chain of interactions of different layers of <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and near-Earth space plasma in presence of ionization sources and <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> loading by aerosol and dust, was initiated with the support of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern. The Lithosphere-<span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) concept initially created to understand the pre-earthquake phenomena in <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and ionosphere, demonstrated its universality and ability to explain other natural phenomena involving <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>-ionosphere coupling from below such as tropical cyclones, thunderstorm activity, dust storms, volcano eruptions etc. The project aim, defined within the frame of the ISSI projects, can advance the Multi-instrument space-borne observations for studying the Earth Geospace environment. The currently project development utilizes multi-instrument ground and space-born observations collected all over the world to explore the variety of natural phenomena. First results show, that our planet environment could be regarded as an open complex system where interactions between different layers of <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> play important role in its thermodynamics and electrodynamics. Holistic approach to the geospheres interaction gives the new insight of our near-planet environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64..950.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64..950."><span>New mineral <span class="hlt">physics</span> panels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The AGU Committee on Mineral <span class="hlt">Physics</span> has formed itself into six panels. The committee chairman is Orson L. Anderson of the <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles; foreign secretary is Robert Liebermann, <span class="hlt">Department</span> of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook. The six panels are as follows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003318"><span><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Research 2014 Technical Highlights</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Platnick, Steven</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Division's goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and <span class="hlt">physical</span> properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. Members of the various Laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HGSS....4...83A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HGSS....4...83A"><span>Lord Kelvin's <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> electricity measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) made important contributions to the study of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> electricity during a brief but productive period from 1859-1861. By 1859 Kelvin had recognised the need for "incessant recording" of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> electrical parameters, and responded by inventing both the water dropper equaliser for measuring the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> potential gradient (PG), and photographic data logging. The water dropper equaliser was widely adopted internationally and is still in use today. Following theoretical considerations of electric field distortion by local topography, Kelvin developed a portable electrometer, using it to investigate the PG on the Scottish island of Arran. During these environmental measurements, Kelvin may have unwittingly detected <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> PG changes during solar activity in August/September 1859 associated with the "Carrington event", which is interesting in the context of his later statements that solar magnetic influence on the Earth was impossible. Kelvin's <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> electricity work presents an early representative study in quantitative environmental <span class="hlt">physics</span>, through the application of mathematical principles to an environmental problem, the design and construction of bespoke instrumentation for real world measurements and recognising the limitations of the original theoretical view revealed by experimental work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MmSAI..87..104C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MmSAI..87..104C"><span><span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> in a Test Tube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Claudi, R.; Pace, E.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Piccioni, G.; Billi, D.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Coccola, L.; Erculiani, M. S.; Fedel, M.; Galletta, G.; Giro, E.; La Rocca, N.; Morosinotto, T.; Poletto, L.; Schierano, D.; Stefani, S.</p> <p></p> <p>The ancestor philosophers' dream of thousand of new world is finally realised: more than 1800 extrasolar planets have been discovered in the neighborhood of our Sun. Most of them are very different from those we used to know in our Solar System. Others orbit the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Space missions, as JWST and the very recently proposed ARIEL, or ground based instruments, like SPHERE@VLT, GPI@GEMINI and EPICS@ELT, have been proposed and built to measure the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> transmission, reflection and emission spectra over a wide wavelength range of these new worlds. In order to interpret the spectra coming out by this new instrumentation, it is important to know in detail the optical characteristics of gases in the typical <span class="hlt">physical</span> conditions of the planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span> and how those characteristics could be affected by radiation driven photochemical and bio-chemical reaction. Insights in this direction can be achieved from laboratory studies of simulated planetary <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> of different pressure and temperature conditions under the effects of radiation sources, used as proxies of different bands of the stellar emission. ''<span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span> in a Test Tube'' is a collaboration among several Italian astronomical, biological and engineering institutes in order to share their experiencece in performing laboratory experiments on several items concerning extrasolar planet <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0202481&hterms=supply+demand&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsupply%2Bdemand','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0202481&hterms=supply+demand&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsupply%2Bdemand"><span>Progress 7 Supply Vehicle <span class="hlt">Departs</span> for Incineration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The unpiloted Russian Progress 7 supply ship <span class="hlt">departs</span> from the Zvezda Service Module's docking port on the International Space Station. Carrying its load of trash and urneeded equipment, it will be deorbited and burned up in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. The undocking paves the way for the arrival of the new Progress 8, filled with fresh supplies. Soviet designers realized that long-duration missions in space would demand a constant supply of consumable materials from Earth. The cost-effective Progress spacecraft made possible an almost permanent presence in space and stands out as a single biggest contribution to this achievement. Propulsion and service systems were installed in the tail section of the vehicle and the cargo ship was inseparable during its entire flight. Upon conclusion of its supply mission to the Station, it would be directed into the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> to burn up.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450665.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450665.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Physics</span> Academic Workforce Report, 2000. AIP Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ivie, Rachel; Stowe, Katie; Czujko, Roman</p> <p></p> <p>This report discusses trends in the <span class="hlt">physics</span> academic workforce and the implications of these trends for the future academic job market. In March 2000, a survey was sent to 766 U.S. <span class="hlt">physics</span> <span class="hlt">departments</span> that grant at least a bachelor's degree in <span class="hlt">physics</span>, and 725 responses were received, a response rate of 95%. Degree-granting <span class="hlt">physics</span> <span class="hlt">departments</span> in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA211243','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA211243"><span>Diagnostic Study of <span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>-Terrain Interaction Leading to the Formation of Dust Clouds and Poor Visibilities Over Near East Desert Areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-06-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">Department</span> of <span class="hlt">Physics</span> and <span class="hlt">Atmospheric</span> Sciences Jackson State University T-kn 9 . C Jackson, MS 39217 Approved For Public Release; "A"’ N Distribution Unlimited...7 4. c Data Collection and Analysis . .... . .......... 9 4.d Results ......... ......................... . 11 4.e...thunderstorm outflow (duration up to 30 minutes) c ) frontal passage (several hours in advance of a cold front and approximately an hour after passage of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010aidp.book...97S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010aidp.book...97S"><span><span class="hlt">Atmosphere</span>-Ionosphere Electrodynamic Coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sorokin, V. M.; Chmyrev, V. M.</p> <p></p> <p>Numerous phenomena that occur in the mesosphere, ionosphere, and the magnetosphere of the Earth are caused by the sources located in the lower <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and on the ground. We describe the effects produced by lightning activity and by ground-based transmitters operated in high frequency (HF) and very low frequency (VLF) ranges. Among these phenomena are the ionosphere heating and the formation of plasma density inhomogeneities, the excitation of gamma ray bursts and <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> emissions in different spectral bands, the generation of ULF/ELF/VLF electromagnetic waves and plasma turbulence in the ionosphere, the stimulation of radiation belt electron precipitations and the acceleration of ions in the upper ionosphere. The most interesting results of experimental and theoretical studies of these phenomena are discussed below. The ionosphere is subject to the action of the conductive electric current flowing in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>-ionosphere circuit. We present a <span class="hlt">physical</span> model of DC electric field and current formation in this circuit. The key element of this model is an external current, which is formed with the occurrence of convective upward transport of charged aerosols and their gravitational sedimentation in the <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>. An increase in the level of <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> radioactivity results in the appearance of additional ionization and change of electrical conductivity. Variation of conductivity and external current in the lower <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> leads to perturbation of the electric current flowing in the global <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>-ionosphere circuit and to the associated DC electric field perturbation both on the Earth's surface and in the ionosphere. Description of these processes and some results of the electric field and current calculations are presented below. The seismic-induced electric field perturbations produce noticeable effects in the ionosphere by generating the electromagnetic field and plasma disturbances. We describe the generation mechanisms of such experimentally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=LV-2007-00027&hterms=Dvd&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DDvd','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=LV-2007-00027&hterms=Dvd&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DDvd"><span>Aerodynamic Heating and Deceleration During Entry into Planetary <span class="hlt">Atmospheres</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1962-01-01</p> <p>Aerodynamic Heating and Deceleration During Entry into Planetary <span class="hlt">Atmospheres</span>. Dr. Chapman's lecture examines the <span class="hlt">physics</span> behind spacecraft entry into planetary <span class="hlt">atmospheres</span>. He explains how scientists determine if a planet has an <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span> and how scientists can compute deceleration when the <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> conditions are unknown. Symbols and equations used for calculations for aerodynamic heating and deceleration are provided. He also explains heat transfer in bodies approaching an <span class="hlt">atmosphere</span>, deceleration, and the use of ablation in protecting spacecraft from high temperatures during <span class="hlt">atmospheric</span> entry. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030962. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> <script type="text/javascript"><!-- // var lastDiv = ""; function showDiv(divName) { // hide last div if (lastDiv) { document.getElementById(lastDiv).className = "hiddenDiv"; } //if value of the box is not nothing and an object with that name exists, then change the class if (divName && document.getElementById(divName)) { document.getElementById(divName).className = "visibleDiv"; lastDiv = divName; } } //--> </script> <script> /** * Function that tracks a click on an outbound link in Google Analytics. * This function takes a valid URL string as an argument, and uses that URL string * as the event label. */ var trackOutboundLink = function(url,collectionCode) { try { h = window.open(url); setTimeout(function() { ga('send', 'event', 'topic-page-click-through', collectionCode, url); }, 1000); } catch(err){} }; </script> <!-- Google Analytics --> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-1122789-34', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> <!-- End Google Analytics --> <script> showDiv('page_1') </script> </body> </html>