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Sample records for atmospheric physics department

  1. Tumultuous Atmosphere (Physical, Mental), the Main Barrier to Emergency Department Inter-Professional Communication

    PubMed Central

    Varjoshani, Nasrin Jafari; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: A highly important factor in enhancing quality of patient care and job satisfaction of health care staff is inter-professional communication. Due to the critical nature of the work environment, the large number of staff and units, and complexity of professional tasks and interventions, inter-professional communication in an emergency department is particularly and exceptionally important. Despite its importance, inter-professional communication in emergency department seems unfavorable. Thus, this study was designed to explain barriers to inter-professional communication in an emergency department. Methodology & Methods: This was a qualitative study with content analysis approach, based on interviews conducted with 26 participants selected purposively, with diversity of occupation, position, age, gender, history, and place of work. Interviews were in-depth and semi-structured, and data were analyzed using the inductive content analysis approach. Results: In total, 251 initial codes were extracted from 30 interviews (some of the participants re-interviewed) and in the reducing trend of final results, 5 categories were extracted including overcrowded emergency, stressful emergency environment, not discerning emergency conditions, ineffective management, and inefficient communication channels. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental) was the common theme between categories, and was decided to be the main barrier to effective inter-professional communication. Conclusion: Tumultuous atmosphere (physical-mental) was found to be the most important barrier to inter-professional communication. This study provided a better understanding of these barriers in emergency department, often neglected in most studies. It is held that by reducing environmental turmoil (physical-mental), inter-professional communication can be improved, thereby improving patient care outcomes and personnel job satisfaction. PMID:25560351

  2. Atmospheric Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of extending the atmospheric observation from space is discussed. Observations of the earth's limb from GEO at microwave frequencies, global mapping of ozone, charged particle precipitation, photochemical reactions, spectral emissions from the atmosphere, microwave measurements, and radio probing of the atmosphere and ionosphere, which were not feasible prior to the availability of the shuttle because of the antenna limitations, may be readily carried out from the space stations.

  3. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.; MacCracken, M.C.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gresho, P.M.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-08-01

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications.

  4. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy Facilities: the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Addendum 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.B.; Fullam, H.T.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this addendum is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency on existing technology at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) for the control of radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere and on possible additional control technology that could further reduce these emissions. Emission of short-lived air activation products from the LAMPF in 1983 increased substantially over 1981 and 1982 to a total of 464 thousand curies, resulting in a maximum site boundary dose calculated by the US Department of Energy to be 48.4 millirem per year. Existing control technology consists of an air collection system and a stack which provides for some holdup and decay of the short-lived isotopes produced at the beam stop and in target areas. Modifications are presently being installed at the beam stop to improve experimental conditions, which will also reduce the formation of air activation products at the beam stop and provide some additional holdup time. Also under consideration is the installation of a new air tunnel and stack, at a different location, to further increase holdup time of air activation products produced at the beam stop. Alternate control technology suggested by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory includes a holdup tank system to reduce LAMPF stack emissions. The estimated costs and efficiencies in reducing radionuclide emissions are discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. The atmosphere and ocean: A physical introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, N.

    1986-01-01

    The book's contents are: The Earth within the solar system. Composition and physical properties of the ocean and atmosphere. Radiation, temperature and stability. Water in the atmosphere. Global budgets of heat, water and salt. Observations of winds and currents. The influence of the Earth's rotation on fluid motion. Waves and tides. Energy transfer in the ocean-atmosphere system. Climate variability and predictability. The atmosphere and ocean are two different environmental systems, yet both are interdependent, interacting and exchanging energy, heat and matter. This book attempts to bring the study of the atmosphere and ocean together. It is a descriptive account of physical properties, exploring their common bases, similarities, interactions and fundamental differences.

  6. A Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, W. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Russell, J. M.; Anderson, J.; Kireev, S.; Loughman, R. P.; Smith, W. L.

    2006-12-01

    With this presentation we discuss the status of plans for a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University. Hampton University is a privately endowed, non-profit, non-sectarian, co-educational, and historically black university with 38 baccalaureate, 14 masters, and 4 doctoral degree programs. The graduate program in physics currently offers advanced degrees with concentration in Atmospheric Science. The 10 students now enrolled benefit substantially from the research experience and infrastructure resident in the university's Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS), which is celebrating its tenth anniversary. Promoting a greater diversity of participants in geosciences is an important objective for CAS. To accomplish this, we require reliable pipelines of students into the program. One such pipeline is our undergraduate minor in Space, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences (SEAS minor). This minor concentraton of study is contributing to awareness of geosciences on the Hampton University campus, and beyond, as our students matriculate and join the workforce, or pursue higher degrees. However, the current graduate program, with its emphasis on physics, is not necessarily optimal for atmospheric scientists, and it limits our ability to recruit students who do not have a physics degree. To increase the base of candidate students, we have proposed creation of a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, which could attract students from a broader range of academic disciplines. The revised curriculum would provide for greater concentration in atmospheric and planetary sciences, yet maintain a degree of flexibility to allow for coursework in physics or other areas to meet the needs of individual students. The department would offer the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and maintain the SEAS minor. The university's administration and faculty have approved our plan for this new department pending authorization by the university's board of trustees, which will

  7. Fermilab Physics Department TVC chip

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.; Cotta-Ramusino, A.

    1990-07-01

    The Electronics Group in the Physics Department at Fermilab has designed and has had produced 20 prototypes of a full custom four channel time to voltage converter using the ES2 direct write 2 {mu}m CMOS process. The actual implementation of the design was performed under contract by ASIC designs Inc. of Naperville, Illinois. Each channel has two hit capability and one level of input buffering: that is, up to four voltages representing time internals can be stored from each input for later ADC conversion. The chip produces an edited list of hits and presents the appropriate analog value on its output for each digital value on its hit address lines. The next hit address and analog voltage in the event is presented in response to an external strobe. One current sum proportional to the number of inputs hit for each input buffer is also provided. The chip has been designed to be used on a fastbus TDC card developed here, but it is our belief that it could be adapted to many TDC applications. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Atmospheric cloud physics thermal systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Engineering analyses performed on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics (ACPL) Science Simulator expansion chamber and associated thermal control/conditioning system are reported. Analyses were made to develop a verified thermal model and to perform parametric thermal investigations to evaluate systems performance characteristics. Thermal network representations of solid components and the complete fluid conditioning system were solved simultaneously using the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) computer program.

  9. Atmospheric cloud physics laboratory project study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, W. E.; Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering studies were performed for the Zero-G Cloud Physics Experiment liquid cooling and air pressure control systems. A total of four concepts for the liquid cooling system was evaluated, two of which were found to closely approach the systems requirements. Thermal insulation requirements, system hardware, and control sensor locations were established. The reservoir sizes and initial temperatures were defined as well as system power requirements. In the study of the pressure control system, fluid analyses by the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory were performed to determine flow characteristics of various orifice sizes, vacuum pump adequacy, and control systems performance. System parameters predicted in these analyses as a function of time include the following for various orifice sizes: (1) chamber and vacuum pump mass flow rates, (2) the number of valve openings or closures, (3) the maximum cloud chamber pressure deviation from the allowable, and (4) cloud chamber and accumulator pressure.

  10. Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, J. L.; Fogal, G. L.; Scollon, T. R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents the development background and the present status of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) thermal control capability. The ACPL, a Spacelab payload, is currently in the initial flight hardware development phase for a first flight scheduled in June 1981. The ACPL is intended as a facility for conducting a wide variety of cloud microphysics experimentation under zero gravity conditions. The cloud chambers, which are key elements of the ACPL, have stringent thermal requirements. Thus the expansion chamber inner walls must be uniform to within + or - 0.1 C during both steady-state and transient operation over a temperature range of +30 to -25 C. Design progression of the expansion chamber, from early in-house NASA-MSFC concepts (including test results of a prototype chamber) to a thermal control concept currently under development, is discussed.

  11. Physics of planetary atmospheres and ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    The traditional atmospheric regions, the distinction between homosphere and heterosphere, and changing atmospheric composition are discussed. The validity of the barometric law based on a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, for the major part of a planetary atmosphere and its breakdown in the exosphere due to escape of atmospheric particles is considered. The formation and maintenance of photochemical and diffusion-controlled ionospheric layers are treated. Their applicability to planetary ionospheres is dealt with. The spatial extent of magnetic and nonmagnetic planet ionospheres is investigated. Thermal and nonthermal processes responsible for the mass loss of planetary atmospheres are surveyed.

  12. The Characterisation of Titan's Atmospheric Physical Properties by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (Hasi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulchignoni, M.; Ferri, F.; Angrilli, F.; Bar-Nun, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Bianchini, G.; Borucki, W.; Coradini, M.; Coustenis, A.; Falkner, P.; Flamini, E.; Grard, R.; Hamelin, M.; Harri, A. M.; Leppelmeier, G. W.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; McKay, C. P.; Neubauer, F. H.; Pedersen, A.; Picardi, G.; Pirronello, V.; Rodrigo, R.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Seiff, A.; Svedhem, H.; Vanzani, V.; Zarnecki, J.

    2002-07-01

    The Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) is a multi-sensor package which has been designed to measure the physical quantities characterising the atmosphere of Titan during the Huygens probe descent on Titan and at the surface. HASI sensors are devoted to the study of Titan's atmospheric structure and electric properties, and to provide information on its surface, whether solid or liquid.

  13. Astronomical, physical, and meteorological parameters for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Travis, Larry D.

    1986-01-01

    A newly compiled table of astronomical, physical, and meteorological parameters for planetary atmospheres is presented. Formulae and explanatory notes for their application and a complete listing of sources are also given.

  14. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.

    2011-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  15. Assessing the Physical Environment of Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Hassan; Javadzadeh, Hamidreza; Hassanpour, Kasra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency Department (ED) is considered to be the heart of a hospital. Based on many studies, a well-organized physical environment can enhance efficacy. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of physical environment in EDs on efficacy. Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted via the faculty members of the ED and residents of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using a predefined questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Sixty-two participants, including 21 females and 41 males, completed the questionnaires. The mean age of the participants was 37 years (SD: 8.42). The mean work experience was 8 years (SD: 4.52) and all the studied variables varied within a range of 3.3 - 4.2. Time indices had the highest mean among variables followed by capacity, work space, treatment units, critical care units and, triage indices, respectively. Conclusions: In general, time indices including length of patient stay in the ED and space capacity, emphasizing the need to address these shortcomings. PMID:26839860

  16. Physical mechanisms of solar activity effects in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebel, A.

    1989-01-01

    A great variety of physical mechanisms of possibly solar induced variations in the middle atmosphere has been discussed in the literature during the last decades. The views which have been put forward are often controversial in their physical consequences. The reason may be the complexity and non-linearity of the atmospheric response to comparatively weak forcing resulting from solar activity. Therefore this review focuses on aspects which seem to indicate nonlinear processes in the development of solar induced variations. Results from observations and numerical simulations are discussed.

  17. Number of Women in Physics Departments: A Simulation Analysis. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Ivie, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Women's representation in physics lags behind most other STEM disciplines. Currently, women make up about 13% of faculty members in all physics degree-granting departments, and there are physics departments with no women faculty members at all. These two data points are often cited as evidence of a lack of equity for women. In this article,…

  18. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  19. Highly physical penumbra solar radiation pressure modeling with atmospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Robert; Flury, Jakob; Bandikova, Tamara; Schilling, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    We present a new method for highly physical solar radiation pressure (SRP) modeling in Earth's penumbra. The fundamental geometry and approach mirrors past work, where the solar radiation field is modeled using a number of light rays, rather than treating the Sun as a single point source. However, we aim to clarify this approach, simplify its implementation, and model previously overlooked factors. The complex geometries involved in modeling penumbra solar radiation fields are described in a more intuitive and complete way to simplify implementation. Atmospheric effects are tabulated to significantly reduce computational cost. We present new, more efficient and accurate approaches to modeling atmospheric effects which allow us to consider the high spatial and temporal variability in lower atmospheric conditions. Modeled penumbra SRP accelerations for the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites are compared to the sub-nm/s2 precision GRACE accelerometer data. Comparisons to accelerometer data and a traditional penumbra SRP model illustrate the improved accuracy which our methods provide. Sensitivity analyses illustrate the significance of various atmospheric parameters and modeled effects on penumbra SRP. While this model is more complex than a traditional penumbra SRP model, we demonstrate its utility and propose that a highly physical model which considers atmospheric effects should be the basis for any simplified approach to penumbra SRP modeling.

  20. Highlights from the First Ever Demographic Study of Solar Physics, Space Physics, and Upper Atmospheric Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; White, S. C.; Ivie, R.

    2014-12-01

    Members of the Education & Workforce Working Group and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) conducted the first ever National Demographic Survey of working professionals for the 2012 National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey to learn about the demographics of this sub-field of space science. The instrument contained questions for participants on: the type of workplace; basic demographic information regarding gender and minority status, educational pathways (discipline of undergrad degree, field of their PhD), how their undergraduate and graduate student researchers are funded, participation in NSF and NASA funded spaceflight missions and suborbital programs, and barriers to career advancement. Using contact data bases from AGU, the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (AAS-SPD), attendees of NOAA's Space Weather Week and proposal submissions to NSF's Atmospheric, Geospace Science Division, the AIP's Statistical Research Center cross correlated and culled these data bases resulting in 2776 unique email addresses of US based working professionals. The survey received 1305 responses (51%) and generated 125 pages of single space answers to a number of open-ended questions. This talk will summarize the highlights of this first-ever demographic survey including findings extracted from the open-ended responses regarding barriers to career advancement which showed significant gender differences.

  1. An Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory for the Space Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.; Anderson, J.; Schrick, B.; Ellsworth, C.; Davis, M.

    1976-01-01

    Results of research and engineering analyses to date show that it is feasible to develop and fly on the first Spacelab mission a multipurpose laboratory in which experiments can be performed on the microphysical processes in atmospheric clouds. The paper presents a series of tables on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory, with attention given to experiment classes, the preliminary equipment list (particle generators, optical and imaging devices, particle detectors and characterizers, etc.), initial equipment (scientific equipment subsystems and flight support subsystems), and scientific functional requirements (the expansion chamber, the continuous flow diffusion chamber, the static diffusion chamber, the humidifier, and particle generators).

  2. Physical activity promotion: a local and state health department perspective.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul; Gonzalez, Eloisa; Ginsburg, David; Abrams, Jennifer; Fielding, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Local and state health departments are well-positioned to serve as catalysts for the institutional and community changes needed to increase physical activity across the population. Efforts should focus on evidence-based strategies, including promotion of high-quality physical education in schools, social support networks and structured programs for physical activity in communities, and organizational practices, policies, and programs that promote physical activity in the workplace. Health departments must also focus on land use and transportation practices and policies in communities where the built environment creates major impediments to physical activity, particularly in economically disadvantaged communities disproportionately burdened by chronic disease. PMID:19540872

  3. A Comparison of Physical Medicine Departments in Vocational vs. Physical Restoration Oriented Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James D.; Egerman, Karl

    To compare the physical medicine departments of selected vocationally oriented rehabilitation centers with each other and with centers that are primarily oriented toward physical restoration, six facilities were studied. Conclusions were as follow: nearly all physical medicine departments have staffing problems; quality of service appears…

  4. Comparison between empirical and physically based models of atmospheric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandanici, E.; Franci, F.; Bitelli, G.; Agapiou, A.; Alexakis, D.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    A number of methods have been proposed for the atmospheric correction of the multispectral satellite images, based on either atmosphere modelling or images themselves. Full radiative transfer models require a lot of ancillary information about the atmospheric conditions at the acquisition time. Whereas, image based methods cannot account for all the involved phenomena. Therefore, the aim of this paper is the comparison of different atmospheric correction methods for multispectral satellite images. The experimentation was carried out on a study area located in the catchment area of Yialias river, 20 km South of Nicosia, the Cyprus capital. The following models were tested, both empirical and physically based: Dark object subtraction, QUAC, Empirical line, 6SV, and FLAASH. They were applied on a Landsat 8 multispectral image. The spectral signatures of ten different land cover types were measured during a field campaign in 2013 and 15 samples were collected for laboratory measurements in a second campaign in 2014. GER 1500 spectroradiometer was used; this instrument can record electromagnetic radiation from 350 up to 1050 nm, includes 512 different channels and each channel covers about 1.5 nm. The spectral signatures measured were used to simulate the reflectance values for the multispectral sensor bands by applying relative spectral response filters. These data were considered as ground truth to assess the accuracy of the different image correction models. Results do not allow to establish which method is the most accurate. The physics-based methods describe better the shape of the signatures, whereas the image-based models perform better regarding the overall albedo.

  5. Revitalizing Physics Departments: The Spin-UP Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehn, J. G.; Czujko, R.; Hilborn, R.

    2007-12-01

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) has carefully measured education trends in the physics and related sciences community for nearly five decades. During the 1990s, the community realized that the number of undergraduate physics majors was declining significantly. A number of efforts were launched in the physics community intending to reverse that decline and the number of bachelor's degrees has been rebounding for the last 7 years. The National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics (NTFUP) was one such effort that identified thriving physics departments and analyzed strategies shared among those departments. In 2003 NTFUP issued a report entitled: Strategic Programs for Innovations in Undergraduate Physics, referred to as Spin-UP. A subsequent study of physics programs in two-year colleges, Spin-UP TYC, produced many similar findings published in 2005. Lessons learned as stated in the Spin-UP reports and several conferences will be reviewed. Some lessons learned include: A thriving department demonstrated (1) a widespread attitude among the faculty that the department has the primary responsibility for maintaining or improving the undergraduate program; (2) a challenging, but supportive and encouraging undergraduate program that includes a well-developed curriculum, advising and mentoring, an undergraduate research participation program, and many opportunities for informal student-faculty interactions, enhanced by a strong sense of community among the students and faculty; (3) strong and sustained leadership within the department and a clear sense of the mission of its undergraduate program; and (4) a strong disposition toward continuous evaluation of and experimentation with the undergraduate program. In short, thriving departments paid attention to undergraduates and made majors feel like members of their physics department and members of a physics community.

  6. Theoretical studies of the physics of the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1992-01-01

    Significant advances in our theoretical basis for understanding several physical processes related to dynamical phenomena on the sun were achieved. We have advanced a new model for spicules and fibrils. We have provided a simple physical view of resonance absorption of MHD surface waves; this allowed an approximate mathematical procedure for obtaining a wealth of new analytical results which we applied to coronal heating and p-mode absorption at magnetic regions. We provided the first comprehensive models for the heating and acceleration of the transition region, corona, and solar wind. We provided a new view of viscosity under coronal conditions. We provided new insights into Alfven wave propagation in the solar atmosphere. And recently we have begun work in a new direction: parametric instabilities of Alfven waves.

  7. Physics Community: Department Chairs Confront Issues In Education of Physicists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Highlights issues discussed by physics department chairpersons and administrators at a meeting on the education of physicists. Curriculum, undergraduate research, equipment needs, role of small colleges and universities, federal role in physicist education, education of physics teachers, and science education for the general public were among the…

  8. History of the New York University Physics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin; Henry Stroke, H.

    2011-09-01

    We trace the history of physics at New York University after its founding in 1831, focusing especially on its relatively recent history, which can be divided into five periods: the Gregory Breit period from 1929 to 1934; the prewar period from 1935 to 1941; the wartime period from 1942 to 1945; the postwar period from around 1961 to 1973 when several semiautonomous physics departments were united into a single all-university department under a single head; and after 1973 when the University Heights campus was sold to New York City and its physics department joined the one at the Washington Square campus. For each of these periods we comment on the careers and work of prominent members of the physics faculty and on some of the outstanding graduate students who later went on to distinguished careers at NYU and elsewhere.

  9. Absorption and emission by atmospheric gases - The physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartney, E. J.

    This book has been written for those who wish to understand better the processes of absorption and emission and their manifold effects. Persons having such interests or needs are the workers in meteorology, atmospheric physics, aerospace surveillance, and air-pollution control. Introductory ideas and useful facts are presented, taking into account an overview of absorption and emission, the electromagnetic spectrum and its parameters, the quantization of energy, the molecular origins of spectra, and the laws of blackbody radiation. Gas properties are considered along with thermodynamics, molecular kinetics, quantized energy states and population, molecular internal energies, spectra of energy transitions, and parameters of line and band absorption. Attention is given to molecular dipole moments, rotational energy and transitions, vibrational energy and transitions, and absorption and emission data.

  10. University of Michigan Physics Department: E[superscript2]Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The E[superscript 2]Coach project from the Department of Physics at the University of Michigan (UM) addresses the challenge of providing individual student support in high-enrollment introductory science courses. This web application employs tailored communications technology, course experiences, student data, and analytics to deliver customized…

  11. The Hispanic Experience in Physical Education Programs and Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Cervantes, Carlos M.; Vigo-Valentin, Alexander N.; Canabal-Torres, Maria Y.; Ortiz-Castillo, Esther M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges and identify strategies to increase the representation of Hispanic faculty in the academy, particularly Physical Education (PE) programs and departments at doctorate-granting universities. Recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Hispanic faculty are provided.…

  12. Physics and medical applications of cold atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were applied in a quest to understand physics of cold plasmas. In particular it was established that the streamer head charge is about 108 electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 107 V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 1019 m3. We have demonstrated the efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin). Both in-vitro andin-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasmainduces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at ~24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed.

  13. Physics Teacher Preparation's Role in the Transformation of a Physics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Laird

    2011-04-01

    Physics teacher preparation programs offer one vehicle of creating sustained educational transformation within a physics department. Strategic implementations pave the way for developing more and better prepared physics teachers while providing a cohort of trained peer instructors to drive reform in the physics course sequence. We present the design and results of the new physics teacher preparation programs implemented at Florida International University (FIU). FIU implemented University of Colorado's Learning Assistant (LA) program in 2008, through the support of a PhysTEC Primary Partner Institute Grant. The LA program is an experiential teaching program for undergraduates that recruits and prepares future teachers while driving reform in the department, as LAs must experience research-validated curricula in order to make informed decisions about teaching in their future. FIU's Physics LA program now employs over 40 LAs, impacts over 2,000 introductory physics students per year, and is now fully sustained by university funding. The LA program's success has prompted a spread to chemistry, earth science, mathematics, and biology and serves as the foundation in the university's strategic vision. The impact is most compelling as FIU is a minority-serving urban public research institution in Miami, Florida serving over 42,000 students, of which 64% are Hispanic, 13% are Black, and 56% are women.

  14. Vapor chambers for an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Loose, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The methanol/stainless steel vapor chambers (flat-plate heat pipes) discussed in this paper were developed for use in spaceborne atmospheric cloud chambers. This application imposed stringent thermal and mechanical requirements on the design. Flatness, low thermal mass, vibration, and structural integrity requirements were achieved in addition to precision temperature uniformity and thermal transport. Heat transfer coefficients on the order of 0.34 to 0.40 W/sq cm -C were measured. The vapor chambers are capable of transporting 170 W-cm per cm of width in either the axial or side-to-side direction.

  15. Comparison of physically and image based atmospheric correction methods for Sentinel-2 satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantzanakis, Giannis; Mitraka, Zina; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric correction is the process to retrieve the surface reflectance from remotely sensed imagery by removing the atmospheric effects (Scattering and Absorption). The process determines the optical characteristics of the atmosphere and then applies it in order to correct the atmospheric effects on satellite images. Two main categories of atmospheric correction methods can be identified, the ones that rely on radiative transfer modeling and the image-based ones. In this study, four methods are compared, three physically-based (6S, FLAASH, Sen2Cor) and one image-based (DOS) for their effectiveness on atmospheric correction of Sentinel-2 high resolution optical imagery. A Sentinel-2 image, acquired on a clear day over Heraklion, Greece was used. Ancillary information on the aerosol optical thickness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used for the physically based methods. In line with similar studies using Landsat images, the physically based methods perform better than the image-based ones also for the Sentinel-2 imagery. Nevertheless, their high computational demand and the need for ancillary atmospheric information makes them difficult to apply. Different atmospheric correction methods showed different results for specific land cover types, suggesting that the selection of the suitable method is also application dependent.

  16. Cognitive-based approach in teaching 1st year Physics for Life Sciences, including Atmospheric Physics and Climate Change components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    Most 1st year students who take the service course in Physics - Physics for Life Sciences - in Australia encounter numerous problems caused by such factors as no previous experience with this subject; general perception that Physics is hard and only very gifted people are able to understand it; lack of knowledge of elementary mathematics; difficulties encountered by lecturers in teaching university level Physics to a class of nearly 200 students with no prior experience, diverse and sometime disadvantageous backgrounds, different majoring areas, and different learning abilities. As a result, many students either drop, or fail the subject. In addition, many of those who pass develop a huge dislike towards Physics, consider the whole experience as time wasted, and spread this opinion among their peers and friends. The above issues were addressed by introducing numerous changes to the curriculum and modifying strategies and approaches in teaching Physics for Life Sciences. Instead of a conventional approach - teaching Physics from simple to complicated, topic after topic, the students were placed in the world of Physics in the same way as a newborn child is introduced to this world - everything is seen all the time and everywhere. That created a unique environment where a bigger picture and all details were always present and interrelated. Numerous concepts of classical and modern physics were discussed, compared, and interconnected all the time with “Light” being a key component. Our primary field of research is Atmospheric Physics, in particular studying the atmospheric composition and structure using various satellite and ground-based data. With this expertise and also inspired by an increasing importance of training a scientifically educated generation who understands the challenges of the modern society and responsibilities that come with wealth, a new section on environmental physics has been developed. It included atmospheric processes and the greenhouse

  17. Overview of the United States Department of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, G.M. ); Tichler, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is initiating a major atmospheric research effort, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM). The program is a key component of DOE's research strategy to address global climate change and is a direct continuation of DOE's decade-long effort to improve the ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) to provide reliable simulations of regional, and long-term climate change in response to increasing greenhouse gases. The effort is multi-disciplinary and multi-agency, involving universities, private research organizations and more than a dozen government laboratories. The objective of the ARM Research is to provide an experimental testbed for the study of important atmospheric effects, particularly cloud and radiative processes, and to test parameterizations of these processes for use in atmospheric models. This effort will support the continued and rapid improvement of GCM predictive capability. 2 refs.

  18. Women among Physics & Astronomy Faculty: Results from the 2010 Survey of Physics Degree-Granting Departments. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; White, Susan; Garrett, Arnell; Anderson, Garrett

    2013-01-01

    Between March and July 2010, each of the 796 departments that awarded at least a bachelor's degree in physics or astronomy were contacted by e-mail, mail, and certified mail. Follow-up contacts were made for departments that had not yet responded. Responses were received from 744 departments (93%). The percentage of women among physics…

  19. Theory of planetary atmospheres: an introduction to their physics and chemistry /2nd revised and enlarged edition/

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, J.W.; Hunten, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models of planetary atmospheres are characterized in an introductory text intended for graduate physics students and practicing scientists. Chapters are devoted to the vertical structure of an atmosphere; atmospheric hydrodynamics; the chemistry and dynamics of the earth stratosphere; planetary astronomy; ionospheres; airglows, auroras, and aeronomy; and the stability of planetary atmospheres. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  20. Simultaneous physical retrieval of surface emissivity spectrum and atmospheric parameters from infrared atmospheric sounder interferometer spectral radiances.

    PubMed

    Masiello, Guido; Serio, Carmine

    2013-04-10

    The problem of simultaneous physical retrieval of surface emissivity, skin temperature, and temperature, water-vapor, and ozone atmospheric profiles from high-spectral-resolution observations in the infrared is formulated according to an inverse problem with multiple regularization parameters. A methodology has been set up, which seeks an effective solution to the inverse problem in a generalized L-curve criterion framework. The a priori information for the surface emissivity is obtained on the basis of laboratory data alone, and that for the atmospheric parameters by climatology or weather forecasts. To ensure that we deal with a problem of fewer unknowns than observations, the dimensionality of the emissivity is reduced through expansion in Fourier series. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the simultaneous retrieval of emissivity, skin temperature, and atmospheric parameters with a two-dimensional L-curve criterion. The procedure has been demonstrated with spectra observed from the infrared atmospheric sounder interferometer, flying onboard the European Meteorological Operational satellite. To check the quality and reliability of the methodology, we have used spectra recorded over regions characterized by known or stable emissivity. These include sea surface, for which effective emissivity models are known, and arid lands (Sahara and Namib Deserts) that are known to exhibit the characteristic spectral signature of quartz-rich sand.

  1. Some current themes in physical hydrology of the land-atmosphere interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Certain themes arise repeatedly in current literature dealing with the physical hydrology of the interface between the atmosphere and the continents. Papers contributed to the 1991 International Association of Hydrological Sciences Symposium on Hydrological Interactions between Atmosphere, Soil and Vegetation echo these themes, which are discussed in this paper. The land-atmosphere interface is the region where atmosphere, soil, and vegetation have mutual physical contact, and a description of exchanges of matter or energy among these domains must often consider the physical properties and states of the entire system. A difficult family of problems is associated with the reconciliation of the wide range of spatial scales that arise in the course of observational, theoretical, and modeling activities. These scales are determined by some of the physical elements of the interface, by patterns of natural variability of the physical composition of the interface, by the dynamics of the processes at the interface, and by methods of measurement and computation. Global environmental problems are seen by many hydrologists as a major driving force for development of the science. The challenge for hydrologists will be to respond to this force as scientists rather than problem-solvers.

  2. Graduate Physics Education Adding Industrial Culture and Methods to a Traditional Graduate Physics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, Ken

    2005-03-01

    The education and training of the workforce needed to assure global competitiveness of American industry in high technology areas, along with the proper role of various disciplines in that educational process, is currently being re-examined. Several academic areas in science and engineering have reported results from such studies that revealed several broad themes of educational need that span and cross the boundaries of science and engineering. They included greater attention to and the development of team-building skills, personal or interactive skills, creative ability, and a business or entrepreneurial where-with-all. We will report in this paper the results of a fall 2000 Department of Education FIPSE grant to implement changes in its graduate physics program to address these issues. The proposal goal was to produce next-generation physics graduate students that are trained to evaluate and overcome complex technical problems by their participation in courses emphasizing the commercialization of technology research. To produce next-generation physics graduates who have learned to work with their student colleagues for their mutual success in an industrial-like group setting. And finally, to produce graduates who can lead interdisciplinary groups in solving complex problems in their career field.

  3. Implementation multi representation and oral communication skills in Department of Physics Education on Elementary Physics II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumawati, Intan; Marwoto, Putut; Linuwih, Suharto

    2015-09-01

    The ability of multi representation has been widely studied, but there has been no implementation through a model of learning. This study aimed to determine the ability of the students multi representation, relationships multi representation capabilities and oral communication skills, as well as the application of the relations between the two capabilities through learning model Presentatif Based on Multi representation (PBM) in solving optical geometric (Elementary Physics II). A concurrent mixed methods research methods with qualitative-quantitative weights. Means of collecting data in the form of the pre-test and post-test with essay form, observation sheets oral communication skills, and assessment of learning by observation sheet PBM-learning models all have a high degree of respectively validity category is 3.91; 4.22; 4.13; 3.88. Test reliability with Alpha Cronbach technique, reliability coefficient of 0.494. The students are department of Physics Education Unnes as a research subject. Sequence multi representation tendency of students from high to low in sequence, representation of M, D, G, V; whereas the order of accuracy, the group representation V, D, G, M. Relationship multi representation ability and oral communication skills, comparable/proportional. Implementation conjunction generate grounded theory. This study should be applied to the physics of matter, or any other university for comparison.

  4. Implementation multi representation and oral communication skills in Department of Physics Education on Elementary Physics II

    SciTech Connect

    Kusumawati, Intan; Marwoto, Putut Linuwih, Suharto

    2015-09-30

    The ability of multi representation has been widely studied, but there has been no implementation through a model of learning. This study aimed to determine the ability of the students multi representation, relationships multi representation capabilities and oral communication skills, as well as the application of the relations between the two capabilities through learning model Presentatif Based on Multi representation (PBM) in solving optical geometric (Elementary Physics II). A concurrent mixed methods research methods with qualitative–quantitative weights. Means of collecting data in the form of the pre-test and post-test with essay form, observation sheets oral communication skills, and assessment of learning by observation sheet PBM–learning models all have a high degree of respectively validity category is 3.91; 4.22; 4.13; 3.88. Test reliability with Alpha Cronbach technique, reliability coefficient of 0.494. The students are department of Physics Education Unnes as a research subject. Sequence multi representation tendency of students from high to low in sequence, representation of M, D, G, V; whereas the order of accuracy, the group representation V, D, G, M. Relationship multi representation ability and oral communication skills, comparable/proportional. Implementation conjunction generate grounded theory. This study should be applied to the physics of matter, or any other university for comparison.

  5. Scale Interactions by physics in a Simplified Multiscale Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean nonlinear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, E.; Dias, P. L. D. S.; Raupp, C. F. M.; Ramirez Gutierrez, E. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    A simplified multiscale model of the interactions between the atmosphere and ocean is developed. Two coupled nonlinear equatorial β-plane shallow water equations are used. The nonlinearities are of two types: advective and atmosphere-ocean coupling related. To mimic the main differences between the fast-atmosphere and the slow-ocean, multi-space and multi-time scalings are adopted. Three possible regimes have been discussed: intradiurnal/synoptic/intraseasonal (ISIn), synoptic/intraseasonal/interannual-El Niño (SInEN) and intraseasonal/El Niño/decadal (InEND) regimes. Special attention is given to the SInEN regime, where simplified physical parameterizations for the atmosphere-ocean coupling are developed. In this regime, the synoptic scale is the fastest atmospheric scale, the intraseasonal is the intermediate atmosphere-ocean coupling scale and the El Niño refers to the slowest inter-annual ocean scale. Analytical solutions of the SInEN equations reveal that the slow wave amplitude evolution depends on both types of nonlinearities. Nonlinear interactions of synoptic scale atmospheric waves force intraseasonal variability not only in the atmosphere but also in the ocean through wind stress. Intraseasonal ocean temperature perturbations coupled with the atmosphere through evaporation force higher order atmospheric variability and the wave-convection coupling provides another source of higher order atmospheric variability. In the ocean, nonlinear interactions of intraseasonal ocean perturbations force interannual oceanic variability. The slowest inter-annual variability in the SInEN regime is associated with either nonlinear wind stress and advective nonlinearity.

  6. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 2: Atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Atmospheric and Space Physics working group of the space shuttle mission planning activity are presented. The principal objectives defined by the group are: (1) to investigate the detailed mechanisms which control the near-space environment of the earth, (2) to perform plasma physics investigations not feasible in ground-based laboratories, and (3) to conduct investigations which are important in understanding planetary and cometary phenomena. The core instrumentation and laboratory configurations for conducting the investigations are defined.

  7. Uncertainty Response of Physics-Based Atmospheric Models Due to Internal Heating Parameters and Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, R.; Godinez, H. C.; Vittaldev, V.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events in space, including the collision of Russia's Cosmos 2251 satellite with Iridium 33 and China's Feng Yun 1C anti-satellite demonstration, have stressed the capabilities of the Space Surveillance Network and its ability to provide accurate and actionable impact probability estimates. In particular low-Earth orbiting satellites are heavily influenced by upper atmospheric density, due to drag, which is very difficult to model accurately. This work focuses on the generalized Polynomial Chaos (gPC) technique for Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) in physics-based atmospheric models. The advantage of the gPC approach is that it can efficiently model non-Gaussian probability distribution functions (pdfs). The gPC approach is used to perform UQ on future atmospheric conditions. A number of physics-based models are used as test cases, including GITM and TIE-GCM, and the gPC is shown to have good performance in modeling non-Gaussian pdfs. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established a research effort, called IMPACT (Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking), to improve impact assessment via improved physics-based modeling. A number of atmospheric models exist which can be classified as either empirical or physics-based. Physics-based models can be used to provide a forward prediction which is required for accurate collision assessments. As part of this effort, accurate and consistent UQ is required for the atmospheric models used. One of the primary sources of uncertainty is input parameter uncertainty. These input parameters, which include F10.7, AP, and solar wind parameters, are measured constantly. In turn, these measurements are used to provide a prediction for future parameter values. Therefore, the uncertainty of the atmospheric model forecast, due to potential error in the input parameters, must be correctly characterized to estimate orbital uncertainty. Internal model parameters that model how the atmosphere is

  8. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  9. The role of physics departments in the recruitment, preparation and support of pre-college teachers of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, Lane

    2008-05-01

    The United States faces a critical shortage of qualified physics and physical science teachers. The number of high school students taking physics is increasing but the number of physics majors pursuing careers in pre-college teaching is not nearly sufficient to meet the demand. College and university physics departments have content expertise and ready access to potential future teachers of physics. In order to address the crisis in physics and physical science education, APS, AAPT, and AIP have developed the PhysTEC project. Seattle Pacific University is one of six fully funded PhysTEC sites. The PhysTEC project also supports a coalition of more than one hundred institutions that are committed to improving K-12 physics and physical science education. This talk will describe the national PhysTEC project along with our local PhysTEC program. We will explore ways in which physics departments can more fully integrate the preparation of pre-college physics teachers within existing departmental priorities. We will discuss opportunities for regional partnerships between 2-year and 4-year colleges, school districts, and teacher preparation programs. We will also highlight ways in which our research on the learning and teaching of physics informs the development of tools that teachers and teacher educators can use to diagnose student ideas and to design subsequent instruction that capitalizes on these ideas. In collaboration with Stamatis Vokos, Seattle Pacific University and Pam Kraus, Facet Innovations LLC.

  10. Scientific Infrastructure to Support Atmospheric Science and Aerosol Science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs at Barrow, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Dexheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific infrastructure to support atmospheric science and aerosol science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs at Barrow, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's located at Barrow, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Barrow has been in place since 1998, with many improvements since then. Barrow instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Doppler Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Manual and state-of-art automatic Balloon sounding systems, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at Barrow and the challenges of maintaining these instruments in an Arctic site.

  11. Falsification of the Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within the Frame of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Gerhard; Tscheuschner, Ralf D.

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier (1824), Tyndall (1861), and Arrhenius (1896), and which is still supported in global climatology, essentially describes a fictitious mechanism, in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics, such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature, it is taken for granted that such a mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper, the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, (c) the frequently mentioned difference of 33° is a meaningless number calculated wrongly, (d) the formulas of cavity radiation are used inappropriately, (e) the assumption of a radiative balance is unphysical, (f) thermal conductivity and friction must not be set to zero, the atmospheric greenhouse conjecture is falsified.

  12. SPEEDY-IER: development and validation of a simplified atmospheric GCM with water isotope physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dee, S. G.; Noone, D. C.; Emile-Geay, J.; Buenning, N. H.

    2012-12-01

    Water isotope records lend insight into past climatic and hydroclimate conditions and can help identify the isotopic signature accompanying abrupt climate change events. Such signatures may be caused by changes in atmospheric dynamics, and thus the hydrological cycle, resulting in variations in precipitation amount, evaporation, origin and composition, as well as changes in circulation. However, it is usually not possible to isolate the dynamical causes of isotopic excursions in proxy records without a fast, isotope-enabled general circulation model (GCM). Currently, there are few efficient isotope-enabled models that are fit for tropical paleoclimate studies. We address the need for a fast, realistic, isotope-enabled model suitable for paleoclimate integrations with the efficient atmospheric GCM, 'SPEEDY' (Simplified Parameterizations, primitivE-Equation Dynamics) (Molteni 2003). Isotopic physics have been incorporated into SPEEDY. Our new model (SPEEDY-IER) provides physically-consistent realizations of tropical climate and isotopic excursions in proxies at a fraction of the computational cost of IPCC-class GCMs, and allows for long simulations comparable in scale to proxy archives. Stable water isotopologues H218O, HDO, and H2O are included as tracers and advected within all stages of the hydrologic cycle with appropriate equilibrium or kinetic fractionation during phase changes. The incorporation of isotope tracers provides a new metric and evaluation criteria for SPEEDY's performance given its simplified physics. Changes to SPEEDY-IER are carried out systematically, allowing us to quantify the influence of each physical process and yielding insight into the main causes of isotope variability. We investigate the effect of equilibrium and kinetic fractionation, advection, and isotopic exchange during rainfall. The final component involves the addition of a 2-bucket soil moisture model, which is now in final stages of incorporation into the full AGCM. Parameter

  13. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube wave energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  14. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  15. Design evaluations for a flight cloud physics holocamera. [holographic/photographic camera for low-g Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.; Kurtz, R. L.; Lemons, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a holographic/photographic camera to be used with the zero-g or low-g Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The flight prototype holocamera is intended to record particles from 0.01 to 5 microns for an optimum two-dimensional plane only in the microscopic photography mode, particles on a volume basis in the in-line holography mode from 5 microns up, and all particle sizes possible on a volume basis in the acute sideband holography mode.

  16. Effects of sintering atmosphere on the physical and mechanical properties of modified BOF slag glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wen-bin; Li, Yu; Cang, Da-qiang; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Fan, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes an efficient way to utilize all the chemical components of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag to prepare high value-added glass-ceramics. A molten modified BOF slag was converted from the melting BOF slag by reducing it and separating out iron component in it, and the modified BOF slag was then quenched in water to form glasses with different basicities. The glasses were subsequently sintered in the temperature range of 600-1000°C in air or nitrogen atmosphere for 1 h. The effects of different atmospheres on the physical and mechanical properties of sintered samples were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by conducting experiment on evaluating the sintering shrinkage, water absorption and bulk density. It is found that the kinetics of the sintering process is significantly affected by sintering atmosphere. In particular, compared with sintering in air atmosphere, sintering in N2 atmosphere promotes the synergistic growth of pyroxene and melilite crystalline phases, which can contribute to better mechanical properties and denser microstructure.

  17. The Impact of Physically Embedded Librarianship on Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Erin; Barham, Rebecca; Monahan, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Academic librarians have been engaged in embedded librarianship for nearly 15 years, yet there are few published research studies on the impact of physically embedded librarians, who work alongside departmental faculty. This study leveraged a change in reference service to analyze what happened when subject librarians moved from the library…

  18. Feasibility study of a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiments laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinden, A. B.; Eaton, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    A feasibility and concepts study for a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiment laboratory is discussed. The primary objective was to define a set of cloud physics experiments which will benefit from the near zero-gravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft, identify merits of this environment relative to those of groundbased laboratory facilities, and identify conceptual approaches for the accomplishment of the experiments in an orbiting spacecraft. Solicitation, classification and review of cloud physics experiments for which the advantages of a near zero-gravity environment are evident are described. Identification of experiments for potential early flight opportunities is provided. Several significant accomplishments achieved during the course of this study are presented.

  19. Atmospheric corrosion monitoring at the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.

    1995-12-31

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at the US Department of Energy`s K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, TN has been stored in large steel cylinders which have undergone significant atmospheric corrosion damage over the last 35 years. A detailed experimental program to characterize and monitor the corrosion damage was initiated in 1992. Large amounts of corrosion scale and deep pits are found to cover cylinder surfaces. Ultrasonic wall thickness measurements have shown uniform corrosion losses up to 20 mils (0.5 mm) and pits up to 100 mils (2.5 mm) deep. Electrical resistance corrosion probes, time-of-wetness sensors and thermocouples have been attached to cylinder bodies. Atmospheric conditions are monitored using rain gauges, relative humidity sensors and thermocouples. Long-term (16 years) data are being obtained from mild steel corrosion coupons on test racks as well as attached directly to cylinder surfaces. Corrosion rates have been found to intimately related to the times-of-wetness, both tending to be higher on cylinder tops due to apparent sheltering effects. Data from the various tests are compared, discrepancies are discussed and a pattern of cylinder corrosion as a function of cylinder position and location is described.

  20. Investigations on physics of planetary atmospheres and small bodies of the Solar system, extrasolar planets and disk structures around the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Delets, O. S.; Dlugach, J. M.; Zakhozhay, O. V.; Kostogryz, N. M.; Krushevska, V. M.; Kuznyetsova, Y. G.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Ovsak, O. S.; Rozenbush, O. E.; Romanyuk, Ya. O.; Shavlovskiy, V. I.; Yanovitskij, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The history and main becoming stages of Planetary system physics Department of the Main astronomical observatory of National academy of Sciences of Ukraine are considered. Fundamental subjects of department researches and science achievements of employees are presented. Fields of theoretical and experimental researches are Solar system planets and their satellites; vertical structures of planet atmospheres; radiative transfer in planet atmospheres; exoplanet systems of Milky Way; stars having disc structures; astronomical engineering. Employees of the department carry out spectral, photometrical and polarimetrical observations of Solar system planets, exoplanet systems and stars with disc structures. 1. From the history of department 2. The main directions of department research 3. Scientific instrumentation 4. Telescopes and observation stations 5. Theoretical studies 6. The results of observations of planets and small Solar system bodies and their interpretation 7. The study of exoplanets around the stars of our galaxy 8. Spectral energy distribution of fragmenting protostellar disks 9. Cooperation with the National Technical University of Ukraine (KPI) and National University of Ukraine "Lviv Polytechnic" to study the impact of stratospheric aerosol changes on weather and climate of the Earth 10. International relations. Scientific and organizational work. Scientific conferences, congresses, symposia 11. The main achievements of the department 12. Current researches 13. Anniversaries and awards

  1. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Flux and Searches for New Physics with AMANDA-II

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer; Collaboration, IceCube

    2009-06-02

    The AMANDA-II detector, operating since 2000 in the deep ice at the geographic South Pole, has accumulated a large sample of atmospheric muon neutrinos in the 100 GeV to 10 TeV energy range. The zenith angle and energy distribution of these events can be used to search for various phenomenological signatures of quantum gravity in the neutrino sector, such as violation of Lorentz invariance (VLI) or quantum decoherence (QD). Analyzing a set of 5511 candidate neutrino events collected during 1387 days of livetime from 2000 to 2006, we find no evidence for such effects and set upper limits on VLI and QD parameters using a maximum likelihood method. Given the absence of evidence for new flavor-changing physics, we use the same methodology to determine the conventional atmospheric muon neutrino flux above 100 GeV.

  2. Investigation of Students' Multiple Intelligence Domains in Three Different Departments of the School of Physical Education and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ürgüp, Sabri; Aslan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the schools of physical education and sports in Turkey consist of three departments, which are physical education and sports teaching department, coaching education and sports management departments. All of these departments are applying similar entrance examinations, and mostly similar curriculum and learning styles to the…

  3. Modeling an integrative physical examination program for the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Scott G

    2006-10-01

    Current policies governing the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs physical examination programs are out of step with current evidence-based medical practice. Replacing periodic and other routine physical examination types with annual preventive health assessments would afford our service members additional health benefit at reduced cost. Additionally, the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs repeat the physical examination process at separation and have been unable to reconcile their respective disability evaluation systems to reduce duplication and waste. A clear, coherent, and coordinated strategy to improve the relevance and utility of our physical examination programs is long overdue. This article discusses existing physical examination programs and proposes a model for a new integrative physical examination program based on need, science, and common sense.

  4. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the area of solar physics, new calculations of the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone was performed. The original theory developed was corrected by including a new frequency factor describing temporal variations of the turbulent energy spectrum. We have modified the original Stein code by including this new frequency factor, and tested the code extensively. Another possible source of the mechanical energy generated in the solar convective zone is the excitation of magnetic flux tube waves which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region. The problem as to how efficiently those waves are generated in the Sun was recently solved. The propagation of nonlinear magnetic tube waves in the solar atmosphere was calculated, and mode coupling, shock formation, and heating of the local medium was studied. The wave trapping problems and evaluation of critical frequencies for wave reflection in the solar atmosphere was studied. It was shown that the role played by Alfven waves in the wind accelerations and the coronal hole heating is dominant. Presently, we are performing calculations of wave energy fluxes generated in late-type dwarf stars and studying physical processes responsible for the heating of stellar chromospheres and coronae. In the area of physics of waves, a new analytical approach for studying linear Alfven waves in smoothly nonuniform media was recently developed. This approach is presently being extended to study the propagation of linear and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in stratified, nonisothermal and solar atmosphere. The Lighthill theory of sound generation to nonisothermal media (with a special temperature distribution) was extended. Energy cascade by nonlinear MHD waves and possible chaos driven by these waves are presently considered.

  5. Turkish community pharmacists’ self-report of their pharmacies’ physical atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Cagirci, Simge; Yegenoglu, Selen; Uner, Mehmet Mithat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is a great recognition that store interiors and exteriors can be designed to create feelings in potential customers which can have an important reinforcing effect on purchase. In this study it is mainly aimed to explore the behaviors of the community pharmacists related to their store's physical environment. Also we aimed to determine whether any difference exist between behaviors of pharmacists serving in high and low socio-economic regions. Methods: A total of 200 pharmacists that work socio-economically different regions were randomly selected from 1424 pharmacists registered in Ankara Chamber of Pharmacists. A uniform questionnaire was applied to the pharmacists by using a face-to-face interview technique. Findings: There are differences in terms of behavior between the pharmacists serving in high and low socio-economic regions within the context of putting importance to their stores’ atmosphere. More pharmacists attach importance to the physical sight of their pharmacy serving in high socio-economic regions (90%) vs. pharmacists in low socio-economic regions (70%). Also pharmacists in high socio-economic regions indicated higher importance level of selection of the decoration equipments (84%) than pharmacists serving in high socio-economic regions (60%). Conclusion: Our study suggests that some pharmacists pay more attention to interior atmospheric elements and others do not. There is a difference in terms of attaching importance to some store atmospheric elements (i.e. physical site, decoration equipment, it's color, wall color, etc.) serving in high versus low socio-economic regions in this context. PMID:24991582

  6. History of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Vanderbilt: A Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holladay, Wendell G.

    1997-11-01

    When Robert Lagemann retired from professorial services in the Department in 1977, he undertook to prepare a history of the department from the beginnings of the University in 1875 to his death in July 1994. His almost completed manuscript was deposited with the department for final preparation for publication. My report on this manuscript will discuss the contributions of L. C. Garland (1875--1895), Professor of Physics and Astronomy and Chancellor in establishing the department, the origins of the distinguished career in Astronomy of E. E. Barnard (1884--1887) the work of John ``Dynamo" Daniel (1888--1939) and the exceptional leadership of Francis G. Slack (1928--1951) who led the department into modern times, brought Max Delbrück to Vanderbilt, and helped found SESAPS and ORINS. The work of Slack's successors including Lagemann and others will be described in expanding the faculty, physical facilities, educational and research programs and research support.

  7. Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Profumo, Stefano; Beacom, John F; Rainwater, David E-mail: beacom@mps.ohio-state.edu E-mail: rain@pas.rochester.edu

    2008-04-15

    As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton-nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates.

  8. A review of chemical and physical characterisation of atmospheric metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Paul; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the human health impacts associated with airborne nanoparticle exposure has led to considerable research activity aimed at better characterising these particles and understanding which particle properties are most important in the context of effects on health. Knowledge of the sources, chemical composition, physical structure and ambient concentrations of nanoparticles has improved significantly as a result. Given the known toxicity of many metals and the contribution of nanoparticles to their oxidative potential, the metallic content of the nanoparticulate burden is likely to be an important factor to consider when attempting to assess the impact of nanoparticle exposure on health. This review therefore seeks to draw together the existing knowledge of metallic nanoparticles in the atmosphere and discuss future research priorities in the field. The article opens by outlining the reasons behind the current research interest in the field, and moves on to discuss sources of nanoparticles to the atmosphere. The next section reviews ambient concentrations, covering spatial and temporal variation, mass and number size distributions, air sampling and measurement techniques. Further sections discuss the chemical and physical composition of particles. The review concludes by summing up the current state of research in the area and considering where future research should be focused.

  9. Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Beacom, John F.; Profumo, Stefano; Rainwater, David

    2008-04-01

    As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton-nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates.

  10. Public Relations for Physics Departments: Convincing the Community that Quarks are Cool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Alaina G.

    2002-03-01

    A strong public relations program can be of great importance to a physics department. Not only can effective PR improve the reputation of an individual department, but it can also serve the greater physics community by convincing the public that quarks, quantum dots, and nanostructures are cool. Building a solid reputation with the many constituents that a physics department serves can lead to greater media exposure, improved quality of student applicants, community and industrial partnerships, and even financial support. It isn’t difficult to create a strategic PR program, but it does take planning and commitment of resources. I will discuss the techniques and tactics of effective media, community, alumni, and internal relations, with special emphasis placed on establishing connections with media outlets, creating and publicizing outreach programs for the community, initiating a newsletter, organizing an external board of advisors, and developing an effective alumni relations program. The University of Arizona Physics Department serves as a case study, but other physics departments with similar communications programs will also be incorporated.

  11. Dynamic Studies of Exoplanet Atmospheres: From Global Properties to Local Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Heather; Agol, Eric; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas; Deming, Drake; Fortney, Jonathan; Langton, Jonathan; Laughlin, Greg; Lewis, Nikole; Showman, Adam

    2008-12-01

    Spitzer's two-year warm mission represents a unique opportunity to build on its already-substantial legacy in the area of exoplanetary science with a comprehensive set of observations that would directly address fundamental questions about the physical processes that shape exoplanet atmospheres. In our proposal we outline an exciting two-pronged approach that would combine a survey of the secondary eclipses for all of the known transiting planets not already observed during the cryogenic mission with a set of phase curve observations targeting five of the most interesting objects. The first part of our study would more than double the number of systems with secondary eclipse observations and provide the statistical leverage needed to characterize the nature of the high-altitude absorber responsible for the presence of temperature inversions in the atmospheres of HD 209458b, TrES-2, TrES-4, and XO-1b. Secondary eclipse observations alone are not enough, however, as we expect the properties of these tidally-locked planets may vary substantially between the permanent day and night sides. Phase curve observations of select systems at several wavelengths allow us to map out longitudinal variations in the pressure-temperature profiles, chemistry, clouds, and circulation patterns of these highly-irradiated atmospheres, and such spatially resolved information will be absolutely critical in interpreting the results of the broader, low-resolution survey. Comparisons between the two benchmark systems HD 209458b and HD 189733b as well as a carefully-selected set of additional planets will allow us to investigate the importance of irradiation, rotation rate, surface gravity, eccentricity, and stellar metallicity in determining the pressure-temperature structure and dynamic meteorology of these atmospheres. We are requesting a total of 1138 hours for these observations.

  12. Illinois State University FOCUS Initiative: Civic Engagement and Outreach Projects in the ISU Physics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansher, J. A.; Holland, D. L.; Johns, G. F.; Willmitch, T. R.

    2007-05-01

    The Illinois State University Physics Department has long realized the importance of providing educational outreach opportunities to the wider community. Creating and maintaining community networks with engaging outreach projects helps us broaden the appreciation of physics, as well as encourage young students to consider careers in the sciences. A key aspect of these ISU Physics programs is that we involve our undergraduates in them, thereby fostering civic engagement in the next generation of scientists. This presentation highlights how our department promotes basic science literacy, and awareness of space physics and astronomy through several existing outreach projects. We also describe how we operate under the broader scope of the ISU FOCUS Initiative, and the NASA Solar System Ambassadors program.

  13. Managing a Basic Unit Responsible for a Basic Discipline: The Physics Department at the Technical University, Aachen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felderhof, B. U.

    1983-01-01

    The administrative structure of the physics department in a major European technical university is described, particularly with regard to the organization of teaching and research functions. The department is subdivided into an institute of theoretical physics and several institutes of experimental physics, with a more important subdivision into…

  14. Interactions between spacecraft motions and the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    In evaluating the effects of spacecraft motions on atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) experimentation, the motions of concern are those which will result in the movement of the fluid or cloud particles within the experiment chambers. Of the various vehicle motions and residual forces which can and will occur, three types appear most likely to damage the experimental results: non-steady rotations through a large angle, long-duration accelerations in a constant direction, and vibrations. During the ACPL ice crystal growth experiments, the crystals are suspended near the end of a long fiber (20 cm long by 200 micron diameter) of glass or similar material. Small vibrations of the supported end of the fiber could cause extensive motions of the ice crystal, if care is not taken to avoid this problem.

  15. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system.

    PubMed

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-06-28

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere-ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system--System 4--has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981-2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  16. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric high-energy physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Mnatsakanyan, Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the numerous thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs), i.e., enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it, helped to establish a new scientific topic—high-energy physics in the atmosphere. Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiating high-energy processes in thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Mount Aragats in Armenia during the strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma-ray energy spectra proved that RREAs are a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the "beams" of "electron accelerators" operating in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking in May-June, and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at an altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. All relevant information is being gathered, including data on particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mount Aragats on August 28, 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes.

  17. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system.

    PubMed

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-06-28

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere-ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system--System 4--has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981-2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  18. Measurements of Physical and Gas Exchanges between the Atmosphere and Surface at the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttal, T.; Grachev, A. A.; Makshtas, A. P.; Repina, I.; Persson, O. P.; Laurila, T. J.; Crepinsek, S.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years a number of Arctic stations have installed micro-meteorological towers in recognition of the need to explicitly quantify the detailed exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere. One of the newer installations is a 20 meter tower in Tiksi, Russia that is located at 71.58N, 128.92E in the Russian Far East. The Tiksi tower is equipped with temperature, humidity and wind sensors at several levels (allowing the calculation of turbulent heat fluxes and fine scale characterization of the near-surface boundary layer) and H2O/CO2 sensors, It is located in near proximity to measurements of incoming and outgoing solar radiation (allowing energy balance calculations), and CH4 sensors, surface O3 measurements (allowing detection of ozone depletion events), and ancillary measurements of snow depth and permafrost active layer temperature profiles. An integrated analysis will look at the variability of these physical and chemical exchanges and variations over one annual cycle with an emphasis on detecting connections and linkages. This network of measurements supports the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (www.iasoa.org) and Global Cryosphere Watch (http://globalcryospherewatch.org/)

  19. Physical modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer for wind energy and wind engineering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Power, Gregory; Turner, John; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH has test section dimensions W6.0m, H2.7m, L=72m. It can achieve high Reynolds number boundary layers, enabling turbulent boundary layer, wind energy and wind engineering research with exceptional spatial and temporal instrument resolution. We examined the FPF's ability to experimentally simulate different types of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL): the stable, unstable, and neutral ABL. The neutral ABL is characterized by a zero potential temperature gradient, which is readily achieved in the FPF by operating when air and floor temperatures are close to equal. The stable and unstable ABLs have positive and negative vertical temperature gradients, respectively, which are more difficult to simulate without direct control of air or test section floor temperature. The test section floor is a 10 inch thick concrete cement slab and has significant thermal mass. When combined with the diurnal temperature variation of the ambient air, it is possible to achieve vertical temperature gradients in the test section, and produce weakly stable or weakly unstable boundary layer. Achievable Richardson numbers and Obukhov lengths are estimated. The different boundary layer profiles were measured, and compared to theoretical atmospheric models. Supported by UNH Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research SURF.

  20. Academic Planning in the Physical Education Department of Polk Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Hershel H.

    This study illustrates an attempt to quantitatively express justification for altering the workloads and compensation for members of the physical education department of Polk Community College (Florida). While equitable workloads can be det4rmined in most other fields because credit hours coincide with an instructor's time in class, the physical…

  1. Narrative Accounts of US Teachers' Collaborative Curriculum Making in a Physical Education Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, JeongAe; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2015-01-01

    Through the use of narrative inquiry, this research study explores the collaborative curriculum making experiences of six teachers (three males; three females) in one physical education (PE) department in an urban middle school in the U.S. Collaboration; as defined in this work, this has to do with teachers' voluntary interactions and their shared…

  2. Final Report: High Energy Physics Program (HEP), Physics Department, Princeton University

    SciTech Connect

    Callan, Curtis G.; Gubser, Steven S.; Marlow, Daniel R.; McDonald, Kirk T.; Meyers, Peter D.; Olsen, James D.; Smith, Arthur J.S.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Tully, Christopher G.; Stickland, David P.

    2013-04-30

    The activities of the Princeton Elementary particles group funded through Department of Energy Grant# DEFG02-91 ER40671 during the period October 1, 1991 through January 31, 2013 are summarized. These activities include experiments performed at Brookhaven National Lab; the CERN Lab in Geneva, Switzerland; Fermilab; KEK in Tsukuba City, Japan; the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; as well as extensive experimental and the- oretical studies conducted on the campus of Princeton University. Funded senior personnel include: Curtis Callan, Stephen Gubser, Valerie Halyo, Daniel Marlow, Kirk McDonald, Pe- ter Meyers, James Olsen, Pierre Pirou e, Eric Prebys, A.J. Stewart Smith, Frank Shoemaker (deceased), Paul Steinhardt, David Stickland, Christopher Tully, and Liantao Wang.

  3. Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experiment Laboratory engineering concepts/design tradeoffs. Volume 1: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, R. V.; Eaton, L. R.; Wilkinson, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    The work is summarized which was accomplished from January 1974 to October 1974 for the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineation of candidate experiments that require the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity are reported. The experiment program and the laboratory concept for a Spacelab payload to perform cloud microphysics research are defined. This multimission laboratory is planned to be available to the entire scientific community to utilize in furthering the basic understanding of cloud microphysical processes and phenomenon, thereby contributing to improved weather prediction and ultimately to provide beneficial weather control and modification.

  4. "SMART": A Compact and Handy FORTRAN Code for the Physics of Stellar Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapar, A.; Poolamäe, R.

    2003-01-01

    A new computer code SMART (Spectra from Model Atmospheres by Radiative Transfer) for computing the stellar spectra, forming in plane-parallel atmospheres, has been compiled by us and A. Aret. To guarantee wide compatibility of the code with shell environment, we chose FORTRAN-77 as programming language and tried to confine ourselves to common part of its numerous versions both in WINDOWS and LINUX. SMART can be used for studies of several processes in stellar atmospheres. The current version of the programme is undergoing rapid changes due to our goal to elaborate a simple, handy and compact code. Instead of linearisation (being a mathematical method of recurrent approximations) we propose to use the physical evolutionary changes or in other words relaxation of quantum state populations rates from LTE to NLTE has been studied using small number of NLTE states. This computational scheme is essentially simpler and more compact than the linearisation. This relaxation scheme enables using instead of the Λ-iteration procedure a physically changing emissivity (or the source function) which incorporates in itself changing Menzel coefficients for NLTE quantum state populations. However, the light scattering on free electrons is in the terms of Feynman graphs a real second-order quantum process and cannot be reduced to consequent processes of absorption and emission as in the case of radiative transfer in spectral lines. With duly chosen input parameters the code SMART enables computing radiative acceleration to the matter of stellar atmosphere in turbulence clumps. This also enables to connect the model atmosphere in more detail with the problem of the stellar wind triggering. Another problem, which has been incorporated into the computer code SMART, is diffusion of chemical elements and their isotopes in the atmospheres of chemically peculiar (CP) stars due to usual radiative acceleration and the essential additional acceleration generated by the light-induced drift. As

  5. Subgrid-scale physical parameterization in atmospheric modeling: How can we make it consistent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Approaches to subgrid-scale physical parameterization in atmospheric modeling are reviewed by taking turbulent combustion flow research as a point of reference. Three major general approaches are considered for its consistent development: moment, distribution density function (DDF), and mode decomposition. The moment expansion is a standard method for describing the subgrid-scale turbulent flows both in geophysics and engineering. The DDF (commonly called PDF) approach is intuitively appealing as it deals with a distribution of variables in subgrid scale in a more direct manner. Mode decomposition was originally applied by Aubry et al (1988 J. Fluid Mech. 192 115-73) in the context of wall boundary-layer turbulence. It is specifically designed to represent coherencies in compact manner by a low-dimensional dynamical system. Their original proposal adopts the proper orthogonal decomposition (empirical orthogonal functions) as their mode-decomposition basis. However, the methodology can easily be generalized into any decomposition basis. Among those, wavelet is a particularly attractive alternative. The mass-flux formulation that is currently adopted in the majority of atmospheric models for parameterizing convection can also be considered a special case of mode decomposition, adopting segmentally constant modes for the expansion basis. This perspective further identifies a very basic but also general geometrical constraint imposed on the massflux formulation: the segmentally-constant approximation. Mode decomposition can, furthermore, be understood by analogy with a Galerkin method in numerically modeling. This analogy suggests that the subgrid parameterization may be re-interpreted as a type of mesh-refinement in numerical modeling. A link between the subgrid parameterization and downscaling problems is also pointed out.

  6. Minimally-Invasive Gene Transfection by Chemical and Physical Interaction of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma irradiated to the living-cell is investigated for medical applications such as gene transfection, which is expected to play an important role in molecular biology, gene therapy, and creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the conventional gene transfection using the plasma has some problems that the cell viability is low and the genes cannot be transferred into some specific lipid cells, which is attributed to the unknown mechanism of the gene transfection using the plasma. Therefore, the time-controlled atmospheric pressure plasma flow is generated and irradiated to the living-cell suspended solution for clarifying the transfection mechanism toward developing highly-efficient and minimally- invasive gene transfection system. In this experiment, fluorescent dye YOYO-1 is used as the simulated gene and LIVE/DEAD Stain is simultaneously used for cell viability assay. By the fluorescence image, the transfection efficiency is calculated as the ratio of the number of transferred and surviving cells to total cell count. It is clarified that the transfection efficiency is significantly increased by the short-time (<4 sec) and short-distance (<40 mm) plasma irradiation, and the high transfection efficiency of 53% is realized together with the high cell viability (>90%). This result indicates that the physical effects such as the electric field caused by the charged particles arriving at the surface of the cell membrane, and chemical effects associated with plasma-activated products in solution act synergistically to enhance the cell-membrane transport with low-damage. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24108004.

  7. An efficient physically based parameterization to derive surface solar irradiance based on satellite atmospheric products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jun; Tang, Wenjun; Yang, Kun; Lu, Ning; Niu, Xiaolei; Liang, Shunlin

    2015-05-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) is required in a wide range of scientific researches and practical applications. Many parameterization schemes are developed to estimate it using routinely measured meteorological variables, since SSI is directly measured at a very limited number of stations. Even so, meteorological stations are still sparse, especially in remote areas. Remote sensing can be used to map spatiotemporally continuous SSI. Considering the huge amount of satellite data, coarse-resolution SSI has been estimated for reducing the computational burden when the estimation is based on a complex radiative transfer model. On the other hand, many empirical relationships are used to enhance the retrieval efficiency, but the accuracy cannot be guaranteed out of regions where they are locally calibrated. In this study, an efficient physically based parameterization is proposed to balance computational efficiency and retrieval accuracy for SSI estimation. In this parameterization, the transmittances for gases, aerosols, and clouds are all handled in full band form and the multiple reflections between the atmosphere and surface are explicitly taken into account. The newly proposed parameterization is applied to estimate SSI with both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric and land products as inputs. These retrievals are validated against in situ measurements at the Surface Radiation Budget Network and at the North China Plain on an instantaneous basis, and moreover, they are validated and compared with Global Energy and Water Exchanges-Surface Radiation Budget and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-flux data SSI estimates at radiation stations of China Meteorological Administration on a daily mean basis. The estimation results indicates that the newly proposed SSI estimation scheme can effectively retrieve SSI based on MODIS products with mean root-mean-square errors of about 100 Wm- 1 and 35 Wm- 1 on an instantaneous and daily

  8. Comparison of polarized radiative transfer programs with applications to atmospheric and oceanic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Dennis

    We first introduce the topic of radiative transfer and how it applies to a range of problems in physics from remote sensing of the Earth's atmospheres and oceans to investigating skin cancer. We then review the theoretical basis for radiative transfer modeling, which is further supplemented by Appendices 1-3. Afterwards a comparison is presented of two different methods for polarized radiative transfer in coupled media consisting of two adjacent slabs with different refractive indices, each slab being a stratified medium with no change in optical properties except in the direction of stratification. One of the methods is based on solving the integro-differential radiative transfer equation for the two coupled slabs using the discrete ordinate approximation. The other method is based on probabilistic and statistical concepts and simulates the propagation of polarized light using the Monte Carlo approach. The emphasis is on non-Rayleigh scattering for particles in the Mie regime. Comparisons with benchmark results available for a slab with constant refractive index show that both methods reproduce these benchmark results when the refractive index is set to be the same in the two slabs. We then we present a simple study to investigate the sensitivity of the Stokes components I, Q, and U to changes in a bimodal aerosol model for atmosphere-ocean scenes. Preliminary results show that there is significant promise in using the Q Stokes parameter in addition to I, while for this case U is deemed to be insensitive to our simple aerosol model. Lastly we conclude the work completed and suggest possible avenues for future work.

  9. Chemical, physical and radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols measured at Mt. Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in East Asia during biomass burning seasons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Lee, C.; Wang, S.; Chuang, M.; Chia, E.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Lin, J.; Hung, H.; Hsiao, T.; Liang, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the chemical, physical and radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols measured at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) which is located at Mt. Lulin (2,862 m MSL; 23o 28'07"N, 120o52'25"E) in central Taiwan, East Asia, and has been operated since 13 April, 2006. LABS is unique because its location and altitude enhances the global network of GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) in the Southeast Asian region, where no high-elevation baseline station is available. Our site is located between the GAW Waliguan station (3,810 m) on the Tibetan plateau and the Mauna Loa Observatory (3,397m) in Hawaii. We will particularly focus on the results obtained during the spring season, when biomass burning activities prevail in northern Southeast Asia. Chemical characterization of fine and coarse aerosol particles, including water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon, and trace elements, will be presented. Aerosol optical properties, including scattering, absorption, extinction, single scattering albedo, Ångström exponent, and aerosol optical depth, as well as the derived radiative forcing efficiency, will be discussed. Results of cloud condensation nuclei measurements, made intermittently, will also be presented. Trajectory studies indicate that this site experiences a variety of air masses originating from contaminated and clean source regions, giving a distinctive contrast of atmospheric changes. To summarize the results, the maximum values (and monthly means) of these chemical, physical and radiative parameters generally occurred during spring time, especially in March, corresponding to prevailing biomass burning activities in SE Asia. Besides, LABS is also one of the supersites during the 2010-2013 spring campaigns of the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) for studying the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate over Southeast Asian region. Results of source (northern Thailand

  10. Phase B-final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL). A spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Progress in the development of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is outlined. The fluid subsystem, aerosol generator, expansion chamber, optical system, control systems, and software are included.

  11. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) task flow is shown. Current progress is identified. The requirements generated in task 1 have been used to formulate an initial ACPL baseline design concept. ACPL design/functional features are illustrated. A timetable is presented of the routines for ACPL integration with the spacelab system.

  12. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  13. Relationships among Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Students' Motivation, Atmosphere, and Satisfaction in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yi-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationships among teachers' self-efficacy, and students' learning motivation, learning atmosphere, and learning satisfaction in senior high school physical education (PE). A sample of 462 PE teachers and 2681 students was drawn using stratified random sampling and cluster sampling from high…

  14. Modification of the continuous flow diffusion chamber for use in zero-gravity. [atmospheric cloud physics lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, G.

    1978-01-01

    The design philosophy and performance characteristics of the continuous flow diffusion chamber developed for use in ground-based simulation of some of the experiments planned for the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory during the first Spacelab flight are discussed. Topics covered include principle of operation, thermal control, temperature measurement, tem-powered heat exchangers, wettable metal surfaces, sample injection system, and control electronics.

  15. Physics and applications of atmospheric non-thermal air plasma with reference to environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marode, E.; Djermoune, D.; Dessante, P.; Deniset, C.; Ségur, P.; Bastien, F.; Bourdon, A.; Laux, C.

    2009-12-01

    Since air is a natural part of our environment, special attention is given to the study of plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure and their applications. This fact promoted the study of electrical conduction in air-like mixtures, i.e. mixtures containing an electronegative gas component. If the ionization growth is not limited its temporal evolution leads to spark formation, i.e. a thermal plasma of several thousand kelvins in a quasi-local thermodynamic equilibrium state. But before reaching such a thermal state, a plasma sets up where the electrons increase their energy characterized by an electron temperature Te much higher than that of heavy species T or T+ for the ions. Since the plasma is no longer characterized by only one temperature T, it is said to be in a non-thermal plasma (NTP) state. Practical ways are listed to prevent electron ionization from going beyond the NTP states. Much understanding of such NTP may be gathered from the study of the simple paradigmatic case of a discharge induced between a sharp positively stressed point electrode facing a grounded negative plane electrode. Some physical properties will be gathered from such configurations and links underlined between these properties and some associated applications, mostly environmental. Aerosol filtration and electrostatic precipitators, pollution control by removal of hazardous species contained in flue gas exhaust, sterilization applications for medical purposes and triggering fuel combustion in vehicle motors are among such applications nowadays.

  16. Sea Spray Physics in Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Models for Hurricane Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, J.; Fairall, C. W.; Bianco, L.; Michelson, S. A.; Ginis, I.; Hara, T.; Thomas, B.

    2010-12-01

    Although it is widely recognized that sea spray under hurricane-strength winds is omnipresent in the marine surface boundary layer (MSBL), how to parameterize sea spray physics in coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean models for hurricane prediction still remains a subject of research. This paper focuses on how the effects of sea spray on the momentum and enthalpy fluxes are parameterized in an air-sea coupled modeling system using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In this scheme, the effects of sea spray can be considered as an additional modification to the stratification of the near surface profiles of wind, temperature and moisture in the MSBL. The overall impact of sea-spray droplets on the mean profiles of wind, temperature and moisture depends on the surface stress, wave state and sea surface temperature. As the wind speed increases, the droplet size increases, rendering an increase in the spray-mediated total enthalpy flux from the sea to the air and leveling off of the surface drag. When the wind is below 35 m/s, the droplets are small in size and tend to evaporate substantially and thus cool the spray-filled layer. When the wind is above 50 m/s, the size of droplets is so big that they do not have enough time to evaporate that much before falling back into the sea. Results from preliminary testing of the scheme in the coupled GFDL hurricane model are presented along our perspective of future direction for research on the subject.

  17. Space and Atmospheric Physics Education and Research at North Carolina A&T State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, J. R.; Smith, G.; Kebede, A.

    2006-11-01

    gutaye@ncat.edu In this communication we discuss the new undergraduate and graduate space and atmospheric physics program at NC A&T State University. The program is designed to train future generation space scientists to meet the workforce needs of NASA, aerospace industries and academic institutions. In order to fortify this effort, we have initiated collaboration with US Air Force, GSFC and University of Michigan. We plan to contribute to the current scientific issues associated with TEC variations, scintillations and disturbances, and the morphology/manifestations of Ionospheric Spread F phenomena, and their variations with locations, specifically over low and mid-latitudes. In order to facilitate research we plan to install a magnetometer, a coherent beacon receiver and GPS receivers. In the long run the space science research community and K12 students and teachers will use of these facilities. We will discuss our recent experience during the IHY-SCINDA 2006 workshop, in Sal Cape Verde, as well as the plans of the upcoming IHY-Africa workshop, November 5-9, 2007 Addis Ababa Ethiopia.

  18. Coupling submesoscale physics to seabirds behaviour at the ocean-atmosphere interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Monte, S.; Cotté, C.; d'Ovidio, F.; Lévy, M.; Le Corre, M.; Weimerskirch, H.

    2012-04-01

    During their journeys, seabirds are faced to environmental heterogeneity of the scale of tens of Kms in extension and of days in duration, that are induced in the open ocean by mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence. We combine tracking of frigatebirds in the Mozambique channel - available for the first time with 3-D resolution - and multisatellite-based nonlinear diagnostics to inquire how birds respond to the coupled ocean-atmosphere physics. Birds behaviour along their flight trajectory are categorized in 5 classes of vertical displacement, e.g. slow or fast descents, and are superimposed with the submesoscale structures obtained by a Lagrangian reanalysis or remote-sensing measures. We show that frigatebirds modify their behaviour at such scale over and outside transport and thermal fronts. We suggest that birds colocalization with structures generated by horizontal transport is a consequence of their quest for food (preferentially located on thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. Our multidisciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data and contribute to elucidate the response of marine ecosystems to environmental change.

  19. A Study of Physical-Chemical Effects on the Atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere During Forbush Decrease Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugal, W.; Pacini, A. A.; Echer, E.; Echer, M. P. D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present here a study about some possible physical-chemical changes on the Southern hemisphere atmosphere, in Brazil, due to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) flux decreases (Forbush Decreases). Galactic Cosmic Rays are energetic particles that come from interstellar medium and arrive on the Earth isotropically and continuously. These particles interact with atmosphere constituents and induce the ionization of the neutral atmosphere. It is known that the presence of ions on the troposphere can change the vapor condensation patterns, since some ions can behave like cloud condensation nuclei. So, there is a work hypothesis, that the GCR flux decrease can cause some change on the physical-chemical of the atmosphere. We have investigated this possible effect, using three periods of Forbush Decrease effects (Nov/01, Oct/03 e Jul/12) with different magnitudes, on three different latitudinal range of Brazilian sector, Porto Alegre (30.08o S , YY O); Brasília (15.75o S , YY O) and Belém (1.46o S , YY O). The atmospheric effects are assessed by analysis of the temperature, pressure, humidity and aerossol data profiles, since the surface up to stratosphere. We have also studied, for comparison, high latitude atmosphere by atmospheric data from Jokioinen - Filand (60.8o N , 23.5o E) for the same three FDs. Then, our aim with this study is to investigate possible GCR decreases effects in the lower atmosphere at high, medium and low latitudes. The results obtained in this study will be compared with previous published works.

  20. The physical theory of one dimensional galactic cosmic-ray propagation in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, K.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical theory of atmospheric cosmic-ray propagation is developed based on a phenomenological model of hadron-nucleus collisions. This model correctly predicts the sea level cosmic-ray nucleon, pion and muon spectra, the cosmic-ray ionization profile in the atmosphere, and neutron flux and density profiles in the atmosphere. It is concluded that the large scale properties of atmospheric cosmic-rays can be accurately predicted on the basis of a nucleonic cascade with all secondaries mediated by pion production. Implications for energy independence of cross sections, the recent 70 GeV results from Serpukhov, and nucleonic relaxation rates in the atmosphere are discussed.

  1. Far-extreme UV novel coatings for applications in heliophysics, astrophysics, and atmosphere physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larruquert, Juan; Rodriguez-de Marcos, Luis; Mendez, Jose Antonio; Aznarez, Jose Antonio; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; Malvezzi, A. Marco; Giglia, Angelo; Miotti, Paolo; Frassetto, Fabio; Massone, Giuseppe

    Observations in the far UV (FUV, here 100-200 nm) and the extreme UV (EUV, here 10-100 nm) for heliophysics, and also for astrophysics and atmosphere physics, can benefit from the development of more efficient coatings. Among the difficulties for this, radiation absorption of most materials in these ranges result in limited optical performance and little design flexibility of coatings. Research at GOLD has been devoted to the development of novel coatings with improved performance mostly in the 50-200 nm spectral range. One research line has pursued the search and characterization of promising uncommon materials. A second research line has followed the development of novel multilayer coatings with improved performance over the available ones. Hence multilayer coatings have been developed for various targets, such as broadband mirrors, narrowband reflective/ transmissive filters, and polarizers. Attention has been focused on coatings for two fundamental wavelengths for physics of the solar corona, Lyman alpha (121.6 nm) and beta (102.6 nm) H spectral lines, along with other important lines such as O VI’s 103.2 and 103.8 nm. Little experience was available on filters for imaging at 102.6 nm with the requirement of a strong rejection of the often much more intense 121.6-nm line. At GOLD we have developed reflective multilayers based on Al, LiF, and SiC that provide a reflectance of 40-45% at 102.6 nm, with a 102.6/121.6-nm reflectance ratio of the order of 100 for samples aged in desiccators. As a continuation of this research, the present design may be adjusted to tune the multilayer coating to shift it to also cover the O VI lines. New coatings are also necessary for FUV polarimetry, which is a powerful technique to interpret the role of the coronal plasma in the energy-transfer processes from the inner parts of the Sun to the outer space. Hence it is necessary to develop efficient polarizers for the above wavelengths. A collaboration is underway for the

  2. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system

    PubMed Central

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system—System 4—has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981–2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  3. Physical design correlates of efficiency and safety in emergency departments: a qualitative examination.

    PubMed

    Pati, Debajyoti; Harvey, Thomas E; Pati, Sipra

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and identify physical design correlates of safety and efficiency in emergency department (ED) operations. This study adopted an exploratory, multimeasure approach to (1) examine the interactions between ED operations and physical design at 4 sites and (2) identify domains of physical design decision-making that potentially influence efficiency and safety. Multidisciplinary gaming and semistructured interviews were conducted with stakeholders at each site. Study data suggest that 16 domains of physical design decisions influence safety, efficiency, or both. These include (1) entrance and patient waiting, (2) traffic management, (3) subwaiting or internal waiting areas, (4) triage, (5) examination/treatment area configuration, (6) examination/treatment area centralization versus decentralization, (7) examination/treatment room standardization, (8) adequate space, (9) nurse work space, (10) physician work space, (11) adjacencies and access, (12) equipment room, (13) psych room, (14) staff de-stressing room, (15) hallway width, and (16) results waiting area. Safety and efficiency from a physical environment perspective in ED design are mutually reinforcing concepts--enhancing efficiency bears positive implications for safety. Furthermore, safety and security emerged as correlated concepts, with security issues bearing implications for safety, thereby suggesting important associations between safety, security, and efficiency.

  4. Scientific Method in Teaching Physics in Languages and Social Sciences Department of High—Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagl, Mirko G.; Obadović, Dušanka Ž.; Stojanović, Maja M.

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of scientific materials in the last few decades, demands that the contemporary educational system should select and develop methods of effective learning in the process of acquiring skills and knowledge usable and feasible for a longer period of time. Grammar schools as general educational institutions possess all that is necessary for the development of new teaching methods and fitting into contemporary social tendencies. In the languages and social sciences department in of grammar schools physics is the only natural sciences subject present during all four years. The classical approach to teaching is tiring as such and creates aversion towards learning physic when it deals with pupils oriented towards social sciences. The introduction of scientific methods raises the motivation to a substantial level and when applied both the teacher and pupils forget when the class starts or ends. The assignment has shown the analysis of initial knowledge of physics of the pupils attending the first grade of languages and social sciences department of of grammar schools as a preparation for the introduction of the scientific method, the analysis of the initial test with the topic of gravitation, as well as the analysis of the final test after applying the scientific method through the topic of gravitation. The introduction of the scientific method has duly justified the expectations and resulted in increasing the level of achievement among the pupils in the experimental class.

  5. Influence of atmospheric states in semi-arid areas on hospital admission in cardio-surgical department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Aizenberg, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the changes in atmospheric state, typical for areas close to big deserts, on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was analyzed. Under test was the group of 3256 patients (77 % males, 23 % females), hospitalized in the Cardio-Surgical Department of Soroka Medical Center at Ben-Gurion University (BGU, Israel) during 2000-2008. To explore the relationship between atmospheric parameters and AMI, multivariate regression analysis has been performed. AMI was most frequent in winter to spring and least in summer. The highest number of cases was recorded in December and the lowest in September. Hospital admissions showed a higher prevalence in men than in women; the ratio is 3.3/1.0. About 60 % of males were aged between 45 and 65 years old with maximum ˜55 (21 %), whereas 60 % of women hospital admissions were aged between 65 and 80 years old with maximum ˜72 (24 %). The result suggested that the monthly mean relative humidity at daytime and its overall daily differences, wind speed, and respirable fraction of particulate concentration are associated with the admission for AMI. The results of the study confirm the importance of atmospheric state variability for cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Biological and physical controls in the Southern Ocean on past millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Lippold, Jörg; Vogel, Hendrik; Frank, Norbert; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial period and deglaciation were accompanied by rapid changes in atmospheric CO2 that remain unexplained. While the role of the Southern Ocean as a 'control valve' on ocean–atmosphere CO2 exchange has been emphasized, the exact nature of this role, in particular the relative contributions of physical (for example, ocean dynamics and air–sea gas exchange) versus biological processes (for example, export productivity), remains poorly constrained. Here we combine reconstructions of bottom-water [O2], export production and 14C ventilation ages in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic, and show that atmospheric CO2 pulses during the last glacial- and deglacial periods were consistently accompanied by decreases in the biological export of carbon and increases in deep-ocean ventilation via southern-sourced water masses. These findings demonstrate how the Southern Ocean's 'organic carbon pump' has exerted a tight control on atmospheric CO2, and thus global climate, specifically via a synergy of both physical and biological processes. PMID:27187527

  7. Biological and physical controls in the Southern Ocean on past millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Lippold, Jörg; Vogel, Hendrik; Frank, Norbert; Jaccard, Samuel L; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial period and deglaciation were accompanied by rapid changes in atmospheric CO2 that remain unexplained. While the role of the Southern Ocean as a 'control valve' on ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange has been emphasized, the exact nature of this role, in particular the relative contributions of physical (for example, ocean dynamics and air-sea gas exchange) versus biological processes (for example, export productivity), remains poorly constrained. Here we combine reconstructions of bottom-water [O2], export production and (14)C ventilation ages in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic, and show that atmospheric CO2 pulses during the last glacial- and deglacial periods were consistently accompanied by decreases in the biological export of carbon and increases in deep-ocean ventilation via southern-sourced water masses. These findings demonstrate how the Southern Ocean's 'organic carbon pump' has exerted a tight control on atmospheric CO2, and thus global climate, specifically via a synergy of both physical and biological processes. PMID:27187527

  8. Biological and physical controls in the Southern Ocean on past millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Lippold, Jörg; Vogel, Hendrik; Frank, Norbert; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial period and deglaciation were accompanied by rapid changes in atmospheric CO2 that remain unexplained. While the role of the Southern Ocean as a 'control valve' on ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange has been emphasized, the exact nature of this role, in particular the relative contributions of physical (for example, ocean dynamics and air-sea gas exchange) versus biological processes (for example, export productivity), remains poorly constrained. Here we combine reconstructions of bottom-water [O2], export production and 14C ventilation ages in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic, and show that atmospheric CO2 pulses during the last glacial- and deglacial periods were consistently accompanied by decreases in the biological export of carbon and increases in deep-ocean ventilation via southern-sourced water masses. These findings demonstrate how the Southern Ocean's 'organic carbon pump' has exerted a tight control on atmospheric CO2, and thus global climate, specifically via a synergy of both physical and biological processes.

  9. Phase B: Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL), a spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary identification of the Supporting Research and Technology (SR&T) necessary during the planned evolution of atmospheric cloud physics is discussed. All requirements are for subsequent flights over its expected ten year lifetime. Those components identified as requiring some SR&T work prior to inclusion are listed. A data sheet is included for each item, briefly justifying the need, giving general objectives for the proposed development effort and identifying approximate schedule requirements on the program.

  10. Department of Energy nuclear material physical protection program in the Republic of Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Eras, A.; Berry, R.B.; Case, R.S.

    1997-09-01

    As part of the joint U.S. and Republic of Kazakstan nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC{ampersand}A) program, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is providing assistance at four nuclear facilities in Kazakstan. These facilities are the Ulba Metallurgical Plant, the National Nuclear Center (NNC) Institute of Atomic Energy at Kurchatov (IAE-K), the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (BN-350) Reactor, and the NNC Institute of Atomic Energy at Almaty (IAE-A). This paper describes the DOE MPC{ampersand}A physical protection program at each of the facilities.

  11. Discharge Physics and Chemistry in Atmospheric Pressure RF Glow-like Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Selwyn, G. S.; Henins, Ivars; Jeong, J. Y.

    1998-10-01

    Steady-state, homogeneous discharges at atmospheric pressure have been produced using radio frequency (RF) electric fields. The discharges operate in a capacitively coupled configuration with several gas mixture, such as pure helium, helium with oxygen, and a mixture of helium, oxygen and carbon tetrafluoride. At the fundamental frequency of the RF electric field, the I-V characteristic of the discharge closely resembles a low pressure DC glow discharge. With increasing RF power, the discharge becomes unstable and a transition to an arc occurs. A 1-D, 2 moment fluid model using 'local field approximation' has been developed to study the discharge physics. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental results and code outputs. The code predicts that the pure helium discharge produces 0.2-2x10^11 cm-3 electrons, with an average energy of 2 -3 eV in a volume of 16 cm^3 for input powers between 50 W and 400 W. Introduction of a small fraction of oxygen, up to 3 percent, improves the stability of the discharge and also generates a large flux of reactive species. With an input power of 300 watts and O2 fraction of 1absolute concentration of ozone is 1-10x10^15 cm-3 and the second molecular oxygen metastable state (O2 b^1Σ ^+_g) is 0.5-2x10^12 cm-3, as measured both inside and outside of the discharge region using optical emission and absorption spectroscopy. In addition, the presence of the long-lived first molecular oxygen metastable state (O2 a^1Δ _g) was also observed and its concentration is expected to be comparable to that of ozone. From these measurements, the concentration of atomic oxygen was estimated to be 0.5-5x10^15 cm-3 inside the discharge volume. The abundant concentration of these reactive species helps to explain the observed etch rate of Kapton^TM polyimide film of 0.5 μ m/min inside the discharge region over areas of about 100 cm^2 and of 5 μ m/min for material exposed to the plasma effluent over areas of 1 cm^2.

  12. Discharge Physics and Chemistry in Atmospheric Pressure RF Glow-like Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Selwyn, G. S.; Henins, Ivars; Jeong, J. Y.

    1998-11-01

    Steady-state, homogeneous discharges at atmospheric pressure have been produced using radio frequency (RF) electric fields. The discharges operate in a capacitively coupled configuration with several gas mixture, such as pure helium, helium with oxygen, and a mixture of helium, oxygen and carbon tetrafluoride. At the fundamental frequency of the RF electric field, the I-V characteristic of the discharge closely resembles a low pressure DC glow discharge. With increasing RF power, the discharge becomes unstable and a transition to an arc occurs. A 1-D, 2 moment fluid model using 'local field approximation' has been developed to study the discharge physics. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental results and code outputs. The code predicts that the pure helium discharge produces 0.2-2x10^11 cm-3 electrons, with an average energy of 2 -3 eV in a volume of 16 cm^3 for input powers between 50 W and 400 W. In addition, the code predicts the bifurcation of the plasma solution akin to a transition to an arc observed in the experiments. Introduction of a small fraction of oxygen, up to 3 percent, improves the stability of the discharge and also generates a large flux of reactive species. With an input power of 300 watts and O2 fraction of 1concentration of ozone is 1-10x10^15 cm-3 and the second molecular oxygen metastable state (O2 b^1Σ ^+_g) is 0.5-2x10^12 cm-3, as measured both inside and outside of the discharge region using optical emission and absorption spectroscopy. In addition, the presence of the long-lived first molecular oxygen metastable state (O2 a^1Δ _g) was also observed and its concentration is expected to be comparable to that of ozone. From these measurements, the concentration of atomic oxygen was estimated to be 0.5-5x10^15 cm-3 inside the discharge volume. The abundant concentration of these reactive species helps to explain the observed etch rate of Kapton^TM polyimide film of 0.5 μ m/min inside the discharge region over areas of about

  13. A simple-physics global circulation model for Venus: Sensitivity assessments of atmospheric superrotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Young, R. E.; Schubert, G.; Covey, C.; Grossman, A. S.

    2007-03-01

    A 3D global circulation model is adapted to the atmosphere of Venus to explore the nature of the planet's atmospheric superrotation. The model employs the full meteorological primitive equations and simplified forms for diabatic and other nonconservative forcings. It is therefore economical for performing very long simulations. To assess circulation equilibration and the occurrence of atmospheric superrotation, the climate model is run for 10,000-20,000 day integrations at 4° × 5° latitude-longitude horizontal resolution, and 56 vertical levels (denoted L56). The sensitivity of these simulations to imposed Venus-like diabatic heating rates, momentum dissipation rates, and various other key parameters (e.g., near-surface momentum drag), in addition to model configuration (e.g., low versus high vertical domain and number of atmospheric levels), is examined. We find equatorial superrotation in several of our numerical experiments, but the magnitude of superrotation is often less than observed. Further, the meridional structure of the mean zonal overturning (i.e., Hadley circulation) can consist of numerous cells which are symmetric about the equator and whose depth scale appears sensitive to the number of vertical layers imposed in the model atmosphere. We find that when realistic diabatic heating is imposed in the lowest several scales heights, only extremely weak atmospheric superrotation results.

  14. Forum: What Has Actually Changed in Physics Departments in the Situation for Women, Graduate Students and Other People?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Ivie, Rachel; Campbell, David; Murnane, Margaret; Kirby, Kate; Catlla, Anne

    2006-03-01

    The decade of the 90's was a period of intense scrutiny of climate issues in physics departments, e.g. the status of women, the job situation for new Ph.D.'s and postdocs, and the preparation of physicists for careers inside and outside of physics. There were many conference sessions on these topics, and both APS members and leadership instigated important efforts to focus on specific areas. These efforts included the program of visiting committees to departments to examine the situation for women by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics, the AIP's various studies of a statistical nature, and the creation by the APS of a Committee on Careers and the Forum on Graduate Student Affairs, as well as the recent APS-AAPT task force on graduate education. This forum patterned after similar sessions 10 years ago - will examine how physics departments have changed as a result of such efforts. It will begin with short (12-minute) talks by a panel of experts to describe what has happened in key areas. The greater part of the session will be a period of observations, questions, and discussion from the audience and the panel together. The purpose is to have an interchange on these interrelated topics from which we can all learn. THE TOPICS TO BE INTRODUCED IN THE SHORT TALKS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SESSION ARE: 1) changes in graduate enrollment, composition, and subsequent jobs (Patrick Mulvey); 2) women in physics and astronomy departments 2005 (Rachel Ivie); 3) changes in graduate curricula and environment (David Campbell); 4) CSWP site visits to physics departments what’s been accomplished and learned (Margaret Murnane); 5) survey of ethical issues in physics departments and the physics profession: results and reactions (Kate Kirby); and (6) physics departments from the point of view of younger physicists (Anne Catlla). The bulk of the session will be a public forum, on these and related issues, among the audience and the panel.

  15. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  16. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1980. Atmospheric physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Contained are twenty-six abstracts of on-going research programs at Argonne National Laboratory concerning the modeling of environmental air pollutants concentration and transport for January-December 1980. Studies on pollutant transport modeling, fluid flow models, and atmospheric precipitations chemistry are included. (DLS)

  17. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1982. Atmospheric physics. Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The first article in this report, although dealing with simple terrain, summarizes an effort to obtain measures of parameters important in transport and diffusion in the lower atmosphere solely by use of a Doppler acoustic sounding system. The second article describes participation in a multiagency experiment (Shoreline Environment Atmospheric Dispersion Experiment, SEADEX) to study the fate of materials released over a surface with notable surface nonuniformities, specifically at a coastal nuclear power plant during onshore flow conditions. The third and fourth articles in this report address research on the local behavior of pollutants emitted from diesel engines in urban areas. Most effort was directed toward field studies on circulation patterns in street canyons, exchange rates with the atmosphere above rooftops, and characterization of particles in outdoor urban microclimates. The remainder of the report is quite diverse and contains multiple articles on perhaps only one or two types of research. One is numerical modeling of the behavior of atmospheric pollutants, especially gaseous and particulate substances associated with acid deposition. The modeling and theoretical capabilities have been developed in part to consider potential nonlinear relationships between anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and the distant deposition of resulting acidifying substances. On the experimental side, field phases of research designed to compare methods of analyses of precipitation samples and to study local urban effects on precipitation chemistry were completed. Each report is indexed separately.

  18. Atmospheric aerosols: A literature summary of their physical characteristics and chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains a summary of 199 recent references on the characterization of atmospheric aerosols with respect to their composition, sources, size distribution, and time changes, and with particular reference to the chemical elements measured by modern techniques, especially activation analysis.

  19. Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator In The Department Of Physics And Nuclear Engineering At West Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Don; Shannon, Mike; Kovanen, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; Bright, Kevin; Edwards, Ronald; Danon, Yaron; Moretti, Brian; Musk, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. The NSERC has created an experimental pyroelectric crystal accelerator program to enhance undergraduate education at USMA in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering. This program provides cadets with hands-on experience in designing their own experiments using an inexpensive tabletop accelerator. This device uses pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate gas ions to energies of ˜100 keV. Within the next year, cadets and faculty at USMA will use this device to create neutrons through the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion process, effectively creating a compact, portable neutron generator. The double crystal pyroelectric accelerator will also be used by students to investigate neutron, x-ray, and ion spectroscopy.

  20. Summary of the NASA/MSFC FY-79 Severe Storm and Local Weather research review. [cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics reserach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Significant acomplishments, current focus of work, plans for FY-80, and recommendations for new research are outlined for 36 research projects proposed for technical monitoring by the Atmospheric Sciences Division at Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of the investigations, which were reviewed at a two-day meeting, relate to cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics.

  1. Physical Properties of Dust in the Martian Atmosphere: Analysis of Contradictions and Possible Ways of Their Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugach, Zh. M.; Korablev, O. I.; Morozhenko, A. V.; Moroz, V. I.; Petrova, E. V.; Rodin, A. V.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in forming the Martian climate. However, the basic physical properties of the Martian aerosols are still poorly known; there are many contradictions in their estimates. We present an analytical overview of the published results and potentialities of various methods. We consider mineral dust. Zonally averaged data obtained from mapping IR instruments (TES and IRTM) give the optical thickness of mineral aerosols τ9 = 0.05-0.1 in the 9-μm band for quite atmospheric conditions. There is a problem of comparing these estimates with those obtained in the visible spectral range. We suggest that the commonly used ratio τvis/τ9 >2 depends on the interpretation and it may actually be smaller. The ratio τvis/τ9 ~ 1 is in better agreement with the IRIS data (materials like montmorillonite). If we assume that τvis/τ9 = 1 and take into account the nonspherical particle shape, then the interpretation of ground-based integrated polarimetric observations (τ < 0.04) can be reconciled with IR measurements from the orbit. However, for thin layers, the sensitivity of both methods to the optical thickness is poorly understood: on the one hand, polarimetry depends on the cloud cover and, on the other hand, the interpretation of IR measurements requires that the atmospheric temperature profile and the surface temperature and emissivity be precisely known. For quite atmospheric conditions, the local optical-thickness estimates obtained by the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer method and from the sky brightness measured from Viking 1 and 2 and Mars Pathfinder landers are much larger: τ = 0.3-0.6. Estimates of the contrasts in images from the Viking orbiters yield the same values. Thus, there is still a factor of 3 to 10 difference between different groups of optical-thickness estimates for the quiet atmosphere. This difference is probably explained by the contribution of condensation clouds and/or by local/time variations.

  2. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a Spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas related to the final definition and preliminary design study of the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) were covered: (1) proposal organization, personnel, schedule, and project management, (2) proposed configurations, (3) study objectives, (4) ACPL experiment program listing and description, (5) mission/flight flexibility and modularity/commonality, (6) study plan, and (7) description of following tasks: requirement analysis and definition task flow, systems analysis and trade studies, subsystem analysis and trade studies, specifications and interface control documents, preliminary design task flow, work breakdown structure, programmatic analysis and planning, and project costs. Finally, an overview of the scientific requirements was presented.

  3. Science on Spacelab. [astronomy, high energy astrophysics, life sciences, and solar, atmospheric and space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Spacelab was developed by the European Space Agency for the conduction of scientific and technological experiments in space. Spacelab can be taken into earth orbit by the Space Shuttle and returned to earth after a period of 1-3 weeks. The Spacelab modular system of pallets, pressurized modules, and racks can contain large payloads with high power and telemetry requirements. A working group has defined the 'Atmospheres, Magnetospheres, and Plasmas-in-Space' project. The project objectives include the absolute measurement of solar flux in a number of carefully selected bands at the same time at which atmospheric measurements are made. NASA is committed to the concept that the scientist is to play a key role in its scientific programs.

  4. Optical holography applications for the zero-g Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A complete description of holography is provided, both for the time-dependent case of moving scene holography and for the time-independent case of stationary holography. Further, a specific holographic arrangement for application to the detection of particle size distribution in an atmospheric simulation cloud chamber. In this chamber particle growth rate is investigated; therefore, the proposed holographic system must capture continuous particle motion in real time. Such a system is described.

  5. Observed variations of methane on Mars unexplained by known atmospheric chemistry and physics.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Franck; Forget, François

    2009-08-01

    The detection of methane on Mars has revived the possibility of past or extant life on this planet, despite the fact that an abiogenic origin is thought to be equally plausible. An intriguing aspect of the recent observations of methane on Mars is that methane concentrations appear to be locally enhanced and change with the seasons. However, methane has a photochemical lifetime of several centuries, and is therefore expected to have a spatially uniform distribution on the planet. Here we use a global climate model of Mars with coupled chemistry to examine the implications of the recently observed variations of Martian methane for our understanding of the chemistry of methane. We find that photochemistry as currently understood does not produce measurable variations in methane concentrations, even in the case of a current, local and episodic methane release. In contrast, we find that the condensation-sublimation cycle of Mars' carbon dioxide atmosphere can generate large-scale methane variations differing from those observed. In order to reproduce local methane enhancements similar to those recently reported, we show that an atmospheric lifetime of less than 200 days is necessary, even if a local source of methane is only active around the time of the observation itself. This implies an unidentified methane loss process that is 600 times faster than predicted by standard photochemistry. The existence of such a fast loss in the Martian atmosphere is difficult to reconcile with the observed distribution of other trace gas species. In the case of a destruction mechanism only active at the surface of Mars, destruction of methane must occur with an even shorter timescale of the order of approximately 1 hour to explain the observations. If recent observations of spatial and temporal variations of methane are confirmed, this would suggest an extraordinarily harsh environment for the survival of organics on the planet.

  6. Analysis of Physical Properties of Dust Suspended in the Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Kelly; McKay, Chris; Cantwell, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Methods for iteratively determining the infrared optical constants for dust suspended in the Mars atmosphere are described. High quality spectra for wavenumbers from 200 to 2000 1/cm were obtained over a wide range of view angles by the Mariner 9 spacecraft, when it observed a global Martian dust storm in 1971-2. In this research, theoretical spectra of the emergent intensity from Martian dust clouds are generated using a 2-stream source-function radiative transfer code. The code computes the radiation field in a plane-parallel, vertically homogeneous, multiply scattering atmosphere. Calculated intensity spectra are compared with the actual spacecraft data to iteratively retrieve the optical properties and opacity of the dust, as well as the surface temperature of Mars at the time and location of each measurement. Many different particle size distributions a-re investigated to determine the best fit to the data. The particles are assumed spherical and the temperature profile was obtained from the CO2 band shape. Given a reasonable initial guess for the indices of refraction, the searches converge in a well-behaved fashion, producing a fit with error of less than 1.2 K (rms) to the observed brightness spectra. The particle size distribution corresponding to the best fit was a lognormal distribution with a mean particle radius, r(sub m) 0.66 pm, and variance, omega(sup 2) = 0.412 (r(sub eff) = 1.85 microns, v(sub eff) =.51), in close agreement with the size distribution found to be the best fit in the visible wavelengths in recent studies. The optical properties and the associated single scattering properties are shown to be a significant improvement over those used in existing models by demonstrating the effects of the new properties both on heating rates of the Mars atmosphere and in example spectral retrieval of surface characteristics from emission spectra.

  7. Investigation of Annealing Atmospheres on Physical Properties of Cigs Films Grown by Electrodeposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, Chihi; Fethi, Boujmil Mohamed; Brahim, Bessais

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of different annealing conditions (influence of the annealing temperature and atmosphere) on structural, microstructure, optical and electrical properties of electrodeposited CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibited all the samples have grown preferentially in the [112] crystal orientation with the chalcopyrite structure and without unwanted secondary CIGS phases. With the increase of annealing temperature, energy band gap of the CIGS film decrease from 1.32 to 1.12eV. The electrical properties of the films distinctly upgraded after annealing in nitrogen+ Se vapor, and worsened when annealed in vacuum.

  8. Accessing Solar Irradiance Data via LISIRD, the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratz, C. K.; Wilson, A.; Snow, M. A.; Lindholm, D. M.; Woods, T. N.; Traver, T.; Woodraska, D.

    2015-12-01

    The LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter, LISIRD, http://lasp.colorado.edu/lisird, allows the science community and the public to explore and access solar irradiance and related data sets using convenient, interactive or scriptable, standards-based interfaces. LISIRD's interactive plotting allows users to investigate and download irradiance data sets from a variety of sources, including space missions, ground observatories, and modeling efforts. LISIRD's programmatic interfaces allow software-level data retrievals and facilitate automation. This presentation will describe the current state of LISIRD, provide details of the data sets it serves, outline data access methods, identify key technologies in-use, and address other related aspects of serving spectral and other time series data. We continue to improve LISIRD by integrating new data sets, and also by advancing its data management and presentation capabilities to meet evolving best practices and community needs. LISIRD is hosted and operated by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, LASP, which has been a leader in Atmospheric and Heliophysics science for over 60 years. LASP makes a variety of space-based measurements of solar irradiance, which provide crucial input for research and modeling in solar-terrestrial interactions, space physics, planetary, atmospheric, and climate sciences. These data sets consist of fundamental measurements, composite data sets, solar indices, space weather products, and models. Current data sets available through LISIRD originate from the SORCE, SDO (EVE), UARS (SOLSTICE), TIMED (SEE), and SME space missions, as well as several other space and ground-based projects. LISIRD leverages several technologies to provide flexible and standards-based access to the data holdings available through LISIRD. This includes internet-accessible interfaces that permit data access in a variety of formats, data subsetting, as well as program-level access from data analysis

  9. Design of physical cloud seeding experiments for the Arizona atmospheric modification research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Super, A. B.; Medina, J. G.; McPartland, J. T.

    1991-02-01

    Cloud seeding experiments were designed by the Bureau of Reclamation for winter orographic cloud systems over the Mogollon Rim of Arizona. The experiments are intended to test whether key physical processes proceed as hypothesized during both ground based and aircraft seeding with silver iodide. The experiments are also intended to document each significant link in the chain of physical events following release of seeding material up to, and including, snowfall at the ground at a small research area about 60 km south-southeast of Flagstaff. The physical experimentation should lead to a substantially improved understanding of winter seeding potential in clouds over Arizonia's higher terrain. Such understanding and documentation are a logical prelude to any future experimentation intended to determine seeding impacts over a large area during several winters. Several analysis approaches are suggested to evaluate the physical experiments which range from detailed case study examination to exploratory statistical analysis of experiments pooled into similar classes. Experimental coordination and organization are addressed, and budgets are presented for a five year program.

  10. Simultaneous physical retrieval of atmospheric and surface state from Martian spectra: the phi MARS algorithm and application to TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Mancarella, F.; Fonti, S.; Roush, T.

    The problem of fully simultaneous retrieval of surface and atmosphere has been satisfactorily addressed as far as Earth is concerned in many works \\citep{masACP09,carENSO05}, especially for high-resolution instruments. However, such retrieval know-how has been not completely implemented in other planetary contexts. In this perspective, we present a new methodology for the simultaneous retrieval of surface and atmospheric parameters of Mars. The methodology, fully explained in \\cite{liuzzi2015} is based on a non-linear, iterative optimal estimation scheme, supported by a statistical retrieval procedure used to initialize the physical retrieval algorithm with a reliable first guess of the atmospheric parameters. The forward module \\cite{liuzzi2014} is fully integrated with the inverse one, and it is a monochromatic radiative transfer model with the capability to calculate genuine analytical Jacobians of any desired geophysical parameter. We describe both the mathematical framework of the methodology and, as a proof of concept, its application to a large sample of data acquired by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). Results are drawn for the case of surface temperature and emissivity, atmospheric temperature profile, water vapour, dust and ice mixing ratios. Some work has also been done for revisiting the claims of methane detection with TES data \\citep{fon10,fonti2015}. Comparison with climate models and other TES data analyses show a very good agreement and consistency. Moreover, we will show how the methodology can be applied to other instruments looking at Mars, simply customizing part of the forward and reverse modules.

  11. Aerosol and nucleation research in support of NASA cloud physics experiments in space. [ice nuclei generator for the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory on Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.; Rogers, D.; Gordon, G.; Saunders, C. P. R.; Reischel, M.; Black, R.

    1978-01-01

    Tasks performed in the development of an ice nucleus generator which, within the facility concept of the ACPL, would provide a test aerosol suitable for a large number and variety of potential experiments are described. The impact of Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory scientific functional requirements on ice nuclei generation and characterization subsystems was established. Potential aerosol generating systems were evaluated with special emphasis on reliability, repeatability and general suitability for application in Spacelab. Possible contamination problems associated with aerosol generation techniques were examined. The ice nucleating abilities of candidate test aerosols were examined and the possible impact of impurities on the nucleating abilities of those aerosols were assessed as well as the relative merits of various methods of aerosol size and number density measurements.

  12. Atmospheric Physics and Earth Observations: Observations of Lyman-agr Emissions of Hydrogen and Deuterium.

    PubMed

    Bertaux, J L; Goutail, F; Kockarts, G

    1984-07-13

    A spectrophotometer was flown on Spacelab 1 to study various mechanisms of Lyman-alpha emission in the upper atmosphere. The use of absorption cells filled with H(2) and D(2) gases allowed us to discriminate a number of weak Lyman-alpha emissions heretofore masked by the strong H geocoronal emission due to resonance scattering of solar photons. Preliminary results are presented on three topics: the first optical detection of the deuterium Lyman-alpha emission at 110 kilometers, with an intensity of 330 rayleighs indicating an eddy diffusion coefficient of 1.3 x 10(6) square centimeters per second; auroral proton precipitations seen on both the night and the day side; and an emission located above 250 kilometers of altitude, interpreted as the result of charge exchange of magnetospheric protons with geocoronal atoms. PMID:17837930

  13. The Composition and Physical Structure of the Io Torus and Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Generally speaking the goal of the research was to provide detailed spectral analysis of a Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope EUV/FUV spectrum of the Io plasma torus. The specific research tasks outlined to achieve this goal were: Line identifications and brightnesses. Verify line identifications with independent data sets. Simple physical modeling to derive ne, ni, Te. Determine neutral source rates. Determine implications of minor species abundances for Io processes. Determine spatial structure from HUT data.

  14. Verochka Zingan or recollections from the Physics Department of the Moscow University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    The author recollects his studentship during 70-th years at the Physics Department of the Moscow University. He was graduated from the theoretical Physics Department in 1977. The Rectors of the University that times were I.G. Petrovskii, R.V. Khokhlov and A.A. Logunov. The dean of the Physics Department was V.S. Fursov. As a particular event a meet with the former prime-minister of the USSR A.N. Kosygin is reported. Between professors mentioned throughout the recollections are A.I.Kitaigorodskii, Ya. B. Zel'dovich, D.D. Ivanenko, A.A. Sokolov, A.A. Vlasov, V.B. Braginsky, I.M. Ternov, L.A. Artsimovich, E.P. Velikhov and other, including that which became University professors later. A great number of colleagues from the Physics, Chemistry, Phylological and Historical Departments of the Moscow University are mentioned. Particularly, the students which entered the group 113 in 1971 and finished the group 601 in 1977 are listed. The recollections include 5 parts. Persons cited throughout the paper: A.N. Kosygin, A.S. Golovin, V. Kostyukevich, I.M. Ternov, E.G. Pozdnyak, A. N. Matveev, V.P. Elyutin, V.V. Kerzhentsev, 113 academic group (1971), V. Topala, E.A. Marinchuk, P.Paduraru, A.I. Kitaygorodski, A. Leahu, S. Berzan, B. Ursu, I. Coanda (Koade), M. Stefanovici, O. Bulgaru, A. Iurie-Apostol, A.S. Davydov, M.I. Kaganov, I.M. Lifshitz, Ya. B. Zel'dovich, A.Zhukov, A.I. Buzdin, N.S. Perov, V. Dolgov, P. Vabishchevich, A.A. Samarskii, V. Makarov, Irina Kamenskih, A.A. Arsen'ev, L.A. Artsimovich, A.A. Tyapkin, B.M. Pontecorvo, D.I. Blokhintsev, I.G. Petrovskii, R.V. Khokhlov, V.N. Rudenko, A.A. Sokolov, D.D. Ivanenko (Iwanenko), A.A. Vlasov, V.N. Ponomarev, N.N. Bogolyubov, N.N. Bogolyubov (Jr), V.Ch. Zhukovskii, Tamara Tarasova, Zarina Radzhabova (Malovekova), V.Malovekov, Tatiana Shmeleva, Alexandra C.Nicolescu, Tatiana Nicolescu, Rano Mahkamova, Miriam Yandieva, Natalia Germaniuk (Grigor'eva), E. Grigor'ev, A. Putro, Elena Nikiforova, B. Kostrykin, Galia Laufer, K

  15. Verochka Zingan or recollections from the Physics Department of the Moscow University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    The author recollects his studentship during 70-th years at the Physics Department of the Moscow University. He was graduated from the theoretical Physics Department in 1977. The Rectors of the University that times were I.G. Petrovskii, R.V. Khokhlov and A.A. Logunov. The dean of the Physics Department was V.S. Fursov. As a particular event a meet with the former prime-minister of the USSR A.N. Kosygin is reported. Between professors mentioned throughout the recollections are A.I.Kitaigorodskii, Ya. B. Zel'dovich, D.D. Ivanenko, A.A. Sokolov, A.A. Vlasov, V.B. Braginsky, I.M. Ternov, L.A. Artsimovich, E.P. Velikhov and other, including that which became University professors later. A great number of colleagues from the Physics, Chemistry, Phylological and Historical Departments of the Moscow University are mentioned. Particularly, the students which entered the group 113 in 1971 and finished the group 601 in 1977 are listed. The recollections include 5 parts. Persons cited throughout the paper: A.N. Kosygin, A.S. Golovin, V. Kostyukevich, I.M. Ternov, E.G. Pozdnyak, A. N. Matveev, V.P. Elyutin, V.V. Kerzhentsev, 113 academic group (1971), V. Topala, E.A. Marinchuk, P.Paduraru, A.I. Kitaygorodski, A. Leahu, S. Berzan, B. Ursu, I. Coanda (Koade), M. Stefanovici, O. Bulgaru, A. Iurie-Apostol, A.S. Davydov, M.I. Kaganov, I.M. Lifshitz, Ya. B. Zel'dovich, A.Zhukov, A.I. Buzdin, N.S. Perov, V. Dolgov, P. Vabishchevich, A.A. Samarskii, V. Makarov, Irina Kamenskih, A.A. Arsen'ev, L.A. Artsimovich, A.A. Tyapkin, B.M. Pontecorvo, D.I. Blokhintsev, I.G. Petrovskii, R.V. Khokhlov, V.N. Rudenko, A.A. Sokolov, D.D. Ivanenko (Iwanenko), A.A. Vlasov, V.N. Ponomarev, N.N. Bogolyubov, N.N. Bogolyubov (Jr), V.Ch. Zhukovskii, Tamara Tarasova, Zarina Radzhabova (Malovekova), V.Malovekov, Tatiana Shmeleva, Alexandra C.Nicolescu, Tatiana Nicolescu, Rano Mahkamova, Miriam Yandieva, Natalia Germaniuk (Grigor'eva), E. Grigor'ev, A. Putro, Elena Nikiforova, B. Kostrykin, Galia Laufer, K

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Spectro-microscopic Characterization of Physical Properties and Phase Separations in Individual Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OBrien, R. E.; Wang, B.; Neu, A.; Kelly, S. T.; Lundt, N.; Epstein, S. A.; MacMillan, A.; You, Y.; Laskin, A.; Nizkorodov, S.; Bertram, A. K.; Moffet, R.; Gilles, M.

    2013-12-01

    The phase state and liquid-liquid phase separations of ambient and laboratory generated aerosol particles were investigated using (1) scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) coupled to a relative humidity (RH) controlled in-situ chamber and (2) environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The phase states of the particles were determined from measurements of their size and optical density. A comparison is made between the observed phase states of ambient samples and of laboratory generated aerosols to determine how well laboratory samples represent the phase of ambient samples. In addition, liquid-liquid phase separations in laboratory generated particles were investigated. Preliminary results showing that liquid-liquid phase separations occur at RH's between the deliquescence and efflorescence points and that the organic phase surrounds the inorganic phase will be presented. The STXM/NEXAFS technique provides insight into the degree of mixing at the deliquescence point and the degree of phase separation for particles of atmospherically relevant sizes.

  18. Fly in Atmosphere by Drag Force - Easy Thrust Generation Aircraft Engine Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Celestin, Mwizerwa

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to present to the science community another way to fly in atmosphere, a way which is much more cheaper, efficient, safe and easy. Over the years scientists have been trying to find a way to built the vertically taking off vehicles but there have been no satisfactory success(what have been found was very expensive), Even aircrafts we know now need very sophisticated and expensive engines and not efficient enough. This way of flying may help our governments to spend less money on technologies and will help people to travel at very low prices so that, it may be a solution to the crisis which the world faces nowadays. In other words, it is my proposal to the next generation technologies we was looking for for years because everything can fly from the car to the trucks, the spaceships and even the hotels maybe constructed and fly as we construct the ships which sail in the oceans. My way of flying will have many applications in all the aspect of travel as it is going to be explained.

  19. Development of an Atmospheric Climate Model with Self-Adapting Grid and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Joyce E.

    2013-08-10

    This project was targeting the development of a computational approach that would allow resolving cloud processes on small-scales within the framework of the most recent version of the NASA/NCAR Finite-Volume Community Atmospheric Model (FVCAM). The FVCAM is based on the multidimensional Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian (FFSL) dynamical core and uses a ?vertically Lagrangian? finite-volume (FV) representation of the model equations with a mass-conserving re-mapping algorithm. The Lagrangian coordinate requires a remapping of the Lagrangian volume back to Eulerian coordinates to restore the original resolution and keep the mesh from developing distortions such as layers with overlapping interfaces. The main objectives of the project were, first, to develop the 3D library which allows refinement and coarsening of the model domain in spherical coordinates, and second, to develop a non-hydrostatic code for calculation of the model variables within the refined areas that could be seamlessly incorporated with the hydrostatic finite volume dynamical core when higher resolution is wanted. We also updated the aerosol simulation model in CAM in order to ready the model for the treatment of aerosol/cloud interactions.

  20. Generation and transfer of polarized radiation in the solar atmosphere: Physical mechanisms and magnetic-field diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deglinnocenti, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The main physical mechanisms responsible for the generation and transfer of polarized radiation in the solar atmosphere can be classified in a suitable bidimensional diagram with an indicator of the magnetic field strength on its vertical axis and an indicator of the radiation field anisotropy on its horizontal axis. The various polarimetric observations performed on solar spectral lines are interpreted with different theoretical schemes according to their classification in the diagram and to the optical depths involved. These theoretical schemes, and the associated diagnostic tools for inferring the magnetic field vector from observations are reviewed. In particular, the role of magneto-optical effects in determining the direction of the observed linear polarization in active regions is discussed in some detail.

  1. The atmospheric component of the Mediterranean Sea water budget in a WRF multi-physics ensemble and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luca, Alejandro; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Drobinski, Philippe; Brossier, Cindy Lebeaupin

    2014-11-01

    The use of high resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled regional climate models to study possible future climate changes in the Mediterranean Sea requires an accurate simulation of the atmospheric component of the water budget (i.e., evaporation, precipitation and runoff). A specific configuration of the version 3.1 of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) regional climate model was shown to systematically overestimate the Mediterranean Sea water budget mainly due to an excess of evaporation (~1,450 mm yr-1) compared with observed estimations (~1,150 mm yr-1). In this article, a 70-member multi-physics ensemble is used to try to understand the relative importance of various sub-grid scale processes in the Mediterranean Sea water budget and to evaluate its representation by comparing simulated results with observed-based estimates. The physics ensemble was constructed by performing 70 1-year long simulations using version 3.3 of the WRF model by combining six cumulus, four surface/planetary boundary layer and three radiation schemes. Results show that evaporation variability across the multi-physics ensemble (˜10 % of the mean evaporation) is dominated by the choice of the surface layer scheme that explains more than ˜70 % of the total variance and that the overestimation of evaporation in WRF simulations is generally related with an overestimation of surface exchange coefficients due to too large values of the surface roughness parameter and/or the simulation of too unstable surface conditions. Although the influence of radiation schemes on evaporation variability is small (˜13 % of the total variance), radiation schemes strongly influence exchange coefficients and vertical humidity gradients near the surface due to modifications of temperature lapse rates. The precipitation variability across the physics ensemble (˜35 % of the mean precipitation) is dominated by the choice of both cumulus (˜55 % of the total variance) and planetary boundary layer (˜32 % of

  2. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    New calculations of the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone have been performed. The treatment of convective turbulence in the sun and solar-like stars, in particular, the precise nature of the turbulent power spectrum has been recognized as one of the most important issues in the wave generation problem. Several different functional forms for spatial and temporal spectra have been considered in the literature and differences between the energy fluxes obtained for different forms often exceed two orders of magnitude. The basic criterion for choosing the appropriate spectrum was the maximal efficiency of the wave generation. We have used a different approach based on physical and empirical arguments as well as on some results from numerical simulation of turbulent convection.

  3. Physical Processes Governing Atmospheric Trace Constituents Measured from an Aircraft on PEM-Tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E.; Hoell, James M., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Before the mission, the PI (principal investigator) was instrumental in securing real-time use of the new 51-level ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) meteorological data. During the mission, he provided flight planning and execution guidance as meteorologist for the P-3B. Mr. Yong Zhu computed and plotted meteorological forecast maps using the ECMWF data and transmitted them to the field from MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Dr. John Cho was in the field for the Christmas Island portion to extract data from the on-site NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) radars for local wind profiles that were used at the flight planning meetings. When the power supply for the VHF radar failed, he assisted the NOAA engineer in its repair. After the mission, Mr. Zhu produced meteorological data memos, which were made available to the PEM (Pacific Exploratory Mission)-Tropics B science team on request. An undergraduate student, Ms. Danielle Morse, wrote memos annotating the cloud conditions seen on the aircraft external monitor video tapes. Dr. Cho and the PI circulated a memo regarding the status (and associated problems) of the meteorological measurement systems on the DC-8 and P-3B to the relevant people on the science team. Several papers by members of our project were completed and accepted by JGR (Journal of Geophysical Research) for the first special section on PEM-Tropics B. These papers included coverage of the following topics: 1) examination of boundary layer data; 2) water vapor transport; 3) tropospheric trace constituent layers; 4) summarizations of the meteorological background and events during PEM-Tropics B; 5) concomitant lidar measurements of ozone, water vapor, and aerosol.

  4. Quantitative Physical and Spectroscopic Properties of Condensed Nitriles in Titan's Atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Christine Marie

    1990-01-01

    Complex photochemistry in the stratosphere of Titan's north pole produces a large number of hydrocarbons and nitriles which condense as aerosal clouds at or near the tropopause. The Voyager I IRIS spectrum of Titan's north limb contains a few peaks which may be due to the condensed phases of four nitriles: HCN (hydrogen cyanide) at 828 cm^{-1}, HC _3N (cyanoacetylene) at 505 cm^ {-1}, C_4N _2 (dicyanoacetylene) at 478 cm^ {-1} and H_3C _4N (cyanopropyne) at 504 cm^ {-1}. Infrared spectra of thin crystalline films of the materials were recorded and the absorption intensities, alpha, and complex refractive indices, n and k (where n^{*} = n + ik), were determined using a Kramers-Kronig analysis. These help astrophysical modelers calculate the abundances of these compounds in Titan's atmosphere. In order to make these radiative transfer models internally consistent, it is also necessary to know the vapor pressures of the nitriles at low temperatures. Two methods were used to determine them. The first was the direct measurement of the vapor pressure of the sample with a capacitance manometer while the sample was immersed in a low temperature slush bath. This method measures pressures from 10 ^{-3} to 100 Torr. For pressures below this, a new method was developed; the thin film infrared method (TFIR) uses infrared spectroscopy to measure the disappearance rate of a thin film of the sample at a particular temperature. This rate is then related to the vapor pressure and was used to measure pressures from 10^ {-8} to 10^{-6} Torr. These values differed by as much as two orders of magnitude from the values obtained by extrapolating existing high temperature data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

  5. Physical activity in postdeployment Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs services.

    PubMed

    Buis, Lorraine R; Kotagal, Lindsey V; Porcari, Carole E; Rauch, Sheila A M; Krein, Sarah L; Richardson, Caroline R

    2011-01-01

    Veteran activity levels may decrease between Active Duty and postdeployment. We examined attitudes and changes in self-reported activities between the two in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) services. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey (June-August 2008) of postdeployment OIF/OEF veterans registered with the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Descriptive statistics summarized demographic data and attitudes, while regression analyses compared physical activities during Active Duty with physical activities postdeployment. Participants (n = 319, 15.6% response rate) reported that they believe staying physically fit is important, they worry about gaining weight, and they believe exercise will keep them healthy (77%, 72%, and 90% agree or strongly agree, respectively). Running (30.0%), Exercise with Gym Equipment (21.5%), Occupational Activities (14.9%), and Walking (13.0%) were the most frequently reported Active Duty physical activities. The most frequently reported postdeployment physical activities included Walking (21.1%), Running (18.5%), and Exercise with Gym Equipment (17.9%). Health problems (39%) and chronic pain (52%) were common barriers to physical activity. Postdeployment OIF/OEF veterans using the VA believe physical activity is beneficial, yet many report health problems and/or chronic pain that makes exercise difficult. Physical activity promotes health, and strategies are needed to facilitate physical activity in this population. PMID:22068369

  6. The contributions of Lewis Fry Richardson to drainage theory, soil physics, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, John; Raats, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The EGU Division on Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics awards the Lewis Fry Richardson Medal. Richardson's significance is highlighted in http://www.egu.eu/awards-medals/portrait-lewis-fry-richardson/, but his contributions to soil physics and to numerical solutions of heat and diffusion equations are not mentioned. We would like to draw attention to those little known contributions. Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) made important contributions to many fields including numerical weather prediction, finite difference solutions of partial differential equations, turbulent flow and diffusion, fractals, quantitative psychology and studies of conflict. He invented numerical weather prediction during World War I, although his methods were not successfully applied until 1950, after the invention of fast digital computers. In 1922 he published the book `Numerical weather prediction', of which few copies were sold and even fewer were read until the 1950s. To model heat and mass transfer in the atmosphere, he did much original work on turbulent flow and defined what is now known as the Richardson number. His technique for improving the convergence of a finite difference calculation is known as Richardson extrapolation, and was used by John Philip in his 1957 semi-analytical solution of the Richards equation for water movement in unsaturated soil. Richardson's first papers in 1908 concerned the numerical solution of the free surface problem of unconfined flow of water in saturated soil, arising in the design of drain spacing in peat. Later, for the lower boundary of his atmospheric model he needed to understand the movement of heat, liquid water and water vapor in what is now called the vadose zone and the soil plant atmosphere system, and to model coupled transfer of heat and flow of water in unsaturated soil. Finding little previous work, he formulated partial differential equations for transient, vertical flow of liquid water and for transfer of heat and water vapor. He

  7. Influence of Inert and Oxidizing Atmospheres on the Physical and Optical Properties of Luminescent Carbon Dots Prepared through Pyrolysis of a Model Molecule.

    PubMed

    Machado, Cláudia Emanuele; Tartuci, Letícia Gazola; de Fátima Gorgulho, Honória; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Bettini, Jefferson; Pereira dos Santos, Daniela; Ferrari, Jefferson Luis; Schiavon, Marco Antônio

    2016-03-18

    This work used L-tartaric acid as a model molecule to evaluate how the use of inert and oxidizing atmospheres during pyrolysis affected the physical and optical properties of the resulting carbon dots (CDs). Pyrolysis revealed to be a simple procedure that afforded CDs in a single step, dismissed the addition of organic solvents, and involved only one extraction stage that employed water. By X-ray diffraction a dependency between the structure of the CDs and the atmosphere (oxidizing or inert) used during the pyrolysis was found. Potentiometric titration demonstrated that the CDs were largely soluble in water; it also aided characterization of the various groups that contained sp(3) -hybridized carbon atoms on the surface of the dots. Raman spectroscopy suggested that different amounts of sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms emerged on the CDs depending on the pyrolysis atmosphere. In conclusion, the pyrolysis atmosphere influenced the physical properties, such as the composition and the final structure.

  8. Integrated systems with applications to the multi-phases of the ephemerides, physics and methematics of the upper atmosphere. Final report, June 1983-February 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, J.N.; Bhavnani, K.H.; Bonito, N.A.; Bryant, C.M.; McNEil, W.J.

    1987-02-27

    This contract provided research, analysis and development support for integrated systems with applications to ephemerides, physics, and mathematics of the upper atmosphere. Investigations were supported in various aspects of neutral atmospheric density, ionospheric scintillation, magnetic field models, magnetospherically trapped particles and auroral-particle precipitation. Software systems have been developed for processing and analyzing data pertaining to these research areas, and for interactive targeting of the space shuttle, ephemeris computation during double thrust, and processing of celestial aspect sensor data.

  9. Viability and DNA damage of halobacteria under physical stress conditions, including a simulated Martian atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidler, G.; Leuko, S.; Radax, C.; Stan-Lotter, H.

    2003-04-01

    Several viable halobacteria were isolated from Alpine rock salt of Permo-Triassic age and described as novel species (1, 2). They have apparently survived in the salt sediments over extremely long periods of time. Halobacteria could therefore be suitable model organisms for exploring the possibility of long-term survival of microorganisms on other planets. In addition, the discovery of extraterrestrial halite makes it plausible to consider a specific search for halophiles, perhaps in the planned sample return missions to Mars. We are developing experimental procedures to test the viability of halobacteria under Martian conditions. Cells of two species of haloarchaea were used: 1. Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, whose whole genome sequence is already known; 2. Halococcus dombrowskii, a novel isolate from Austrian Permo-Triassic rock salt (2). Cells were grown in complex medium, containing up to 4 M NaCl, and were kept at minus 70riptsizeraisebox{1.5ex{o}}C for up to seven days, or freeze-dried in a lyophilizer. In addition, exposure experiments of halobacterial cells in a liquid nitrogen cooled Martian simulation chamber, at the Austrian Academy of Sceinces, were begun, where temperatures from about plus 5 to minus 100riptsizeraisebox{1.5ex{o}}C, pressures of 6-8 mbar, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere (or other gas mixtures) can be produced. Survival of cells was evaluated by determination of colony-forming units, microscopic examination of cellular morphology, and examination of potential strand breaks in DNA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results showed a reduction of viable cells, following deep freezing, or lyophilization, respectively, by a factor of about 10 to 100, depending somewhat on the presence of cations, glycerol and other protective substances. Data will be presented on the DNA from stressed halobacterial cells, following digestion by restriction enzymes and separation by PFGE. 1) Stan-Lotter H, McGenity TJ, Legat A, Denner EBM, Glaser K

  10. Physical-Biogeochemical Interactions that Alter the Uptake of Atmospheric CO2 in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, S. R.; Hakkinen, S. M.; McClain, C. R.

    2009-04-01

    The Barents Sea is characterized by significant calcification rates during summer promoted by intense coccolithophore blooms that peak during August. Coccolithophores, among which Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi) is the most abundant and widespread species, are considered to be the most productive calcifying organisms on Earth. They inhabit the surface layer (MLD 20m) in highly stratified waters where light intensity is high. E. huxleyi often forms massive blooms in temperate and sub-polar oceans. Coupling of the coccolithophore organic carbon and carbonate pumps interact to consume (photosynthesis) and produce (calcification) CO2. The so-called Rain Ratio, defined as the ratio of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) to particulate organic carbon (POC) in exported biogenic matter, determines the relative strength of the two biological carbon pumps and influences the flux of CO2 across the surface ocean - atmosphere interface. Here we use a combination of satellite ocean color algorithms, coupled ice-ocean model products, an SST-dependent pCO2 algorithm, and gas exchange parameterization to describe the seasonal and decadal variability of the air-sea CO2 flux in the Barents Sea. Model-derived SST and SSS (1955-2008) are used in conjunction with the pCO2 algorithm and carbonate chemistry to derive decadal trends of sea-air CO2 flux, pH and calcite saturation state. Phytoplankton and calcite production have strong spatial variability. Nutrient supply, biomass and calcite concentrations are modulated by light and MLD seasonal cycle. The size, intensity, and location of coccolithophore blooms vary from year to year, but the peak bloom is always in June in the Central Basin of the sub-polar North Atlantic (45oW - 10oW, 50oN - 65oN) and August in the Barents Sea. Calcification rates range from 5% to 27% of net primary production. The Barents Sea PIC production is about twice that of the Central Basin. Predicted freshening and warming of polar seas may increase stratification

  11. The Physical Study of Atmospheric Luminous Anomalies and the SETV Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2002-04-01

    On the basis of statistical calculations on galactic migration which bring the necessity of insertion of a new parameter inside the Drake formula, the work-hypothesis named SETV predicts that exogenous vehicles and/or probes may have reached the Solar System too, including Earth. The technology which is now available is able to allow sensing operations both in the extreme borders of the solar system and on our own planet. The possible presence of probes of possible extraterrestrial origin on our planet may be ascertained by using a network of sensing stations which are placed in critical areas. One of them is the norwegian area of Hessdalen, where the two scientific explorative missions of `Project EMBLA' have carried out measurements which demonstrate the existence of all the anomalies of the luminous phenomenon which is present there. At present nothing proves scientifically that our planet is being visited by alien intelligences, nevertheless the remarkable peculiarity which was learnt in some areas of recurrence demonstrate that the verified phenomenology, of extreme importance for fundamental physics, presents characteristics which deserve a further investigation with highly sophisticated instrumentation.

  12. Putting Physics First: Three Case Studies of High School Science Department and Course Sequence Reorganization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Douglas B.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the process of shifting to a "Physics First" sequence in science course offerings in three school districts in the United States. This curricular sequence reverses the more common U.S. high school sequence of biology/chemistry/physics, and has gained substantial support in the physics education community over the…

  13. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics. [Indiana Univ. Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C J; Macfarlane, M H; Matsui, T; Serot, B D

    1993-01-01

    A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e[prime]p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus[endash]nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark[endash]gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon[endash]nucleon force.

  14. Characterization of the physical, chemical, and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles in New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, John Frederick

    Tropospheric aerosol particles directly affect the radiative budget of the Earth, and degrade visibility, by scattering and absorbing short-wavelength solar radiation. However, the radiative effect of aerosols is highly uncertain due to the non-uniform spatial distribution of the particles over Earth, their heterogeneous chemical composition, and their variable size. This dissertation quantifies some of the physical, chemical, and optical (radiative) properties of aerosols at different locations within New Hampshire (NH) from spring 2000 to fall 2001. During spring 2000, a 1-month study conducted at a mountaintop location adjacent to the White Mountain National Forest in northern NH showed that synoptic-scale air mass transport heavily influenced aerosol properties, and hence regional visibility. During W/SW flow, aerosol parameters and haziness were generally twice as high as times of N/NE flow. Similar transport dependent results were observed in October 2000 during a regional pollution event. Pollutants built-up in concentration during 22--28 October, culminated on 28 October, and then dropped 10-fold to background levels within a 6-hour period. Synoptic weather conditions during the transition from high to low pollutant levels indicated that an intense frontal boundary traversed the region, serving as a divide between a warm, humid, and polluted air mass from the W/SW, and a cold, dry, and clean air mass advancing out of Canada. Further work connecting air mass transport and aerosol variability in southern NH revealed that maximum aerosol optical depth (AOD) occurred in summer and was primarily associated with W/SW flow. Minimum AOD occurred in winter and was generally associated with N/NE flow. Mass scattering and absorption efficiencies of PM2.5 did not vary significantly between times of transport from different source regions and were very close to theoretical values. Maximum positive values of aerosol direct radiative forcing occurred in winter and maximum

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of marine atmospheric aerosols over the North and South Pacific Oceans using single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, H.; Jung, J.; Miura, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of marine atmospheric aerosols were characterized and compared over the North and South Pacific Ocean during two trans-Pacific cruises (from Japan to Chile and Australia to Japan) during the period of January-June 2009, which cover broad region of Pacific Ocean from 40°N to 55°S and 140°E to 70°W. The measured parameters of aerosol properties were single particle size-resolved chemical composition (D = 100 ~ 1500 nm), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and condensation nuclei (CN) concentrations, size distribution from 10 nm to 5 μm, total aerosol nitrate and sulfate concentrations, and filter-based chemical composition. Trace gas concentrations of O3 and CO were also measured to aid air parcel categorization during the cruises. Reflecting larger anthropogenic emission in the Northern Hemisphere, pronounced concentration gradient between the North and South Pacific Ocean was observed for aerosol nitrate, CO, and O3. Aerosol sulfate also showed a similar concentration drop in the equatorial region, relatively higher sulfate concentration was observed in 30°S-40°S and 55°S regions, which was associated with increased aerosol methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration but little increase in local marine chlorophyll concentration, suggesting contribution of long-range transported marine biogenic sulfur from the high primary production area over the South Pacific high latitude region. Aerosol chemical classification by single particle chemical analysis revealed that certain aerosol types, such as biomass burning, elemental carbon, and elemental/organic carbon mixed type, were mainly observed in the North Pacific region, while several specific organic aerosol types with abundant aged organic and disulfur composition were identified in the South Pacific region. Further comparison of aerosol properties, aerosol sources, and atmospheric aerosol processing in the North and South Pacific Oceans will be discussed.

  16. Use of high-volume outdoor smog chamber photo-reactors for studying physical and chemical atmospheric aerosol formation and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric particulate matter has a large impact on climate, biosphere behaviour and human health. Its study is complex because of large number of species are present at low concentrations and the continuous time evolution, being not easily separable from meteorology, and transport processes. Closed systems have been proposed by isolating specific reactions, pollutants or products and controlling the oxidizing environment. High volume simulation chambers, such as EUropean PHOtoREactor (EUPHORE), are an essential tool used to simulate atmospheric photochemical reactions. This communication describes the last results about the reactivity of prominent atmospheric pollutants and the subsequent particulate matter formation. Specific experiments focused on organic aerosols have been developed at the EUPHORE photo-reactor. The use of on-line instrumentation, supported by off-line techniques, has provided well-defined reaction profiles, physical properties, and up to 300 different species are determined in particulate matter. The application fields include the degradation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollutants, and pesticides under several atmospheric conditions, studying their contribution on the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The studies performed at the EUPHORE have improved the mechanistic studies of atmospheric degradation processes and the knowledge about the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric particulate matter formed during these processes.

  17. Phase B: Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL): A spacelab mission payload. Final review (DR-MA-03)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, O. W.

    1976-01-01

    Systems design for an initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory to study microphysical processes in zero gravity is presented. Included are descriptions of the fluid, thermal, mechanical, control and data, and electrical distribution interfaces with Spacelab. Schedule and cost analysis are discussed.

  18. Fine-Structure Measurements of Oxygen A Band Absorbance for Estimating the Thermodynamic Average Temperature of the Earth's Atmosphere: An Experiment in Physical and Environmental Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Daniele; Colavita, Paula

    2006-01-01

    The experiment describe the measures of the A band transitions of atmospheric oxygen, a rich series of rotation-electronic absorption lines falling in the deep red portion of the optical spectrum and clearly visible owing to attenuation of solar radiation. It combines pure physical chemistry with analytical and environmental science and provides a…

  19. Final Report DE-FG02-00ER54583: "Physics of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharges" and "Nanoparticle Nucleation and Dynamics in Low-Pressure Plasmas"

    SciTech Connect

    Uwe Kortshagen; Joachim Heberlein; Steven L. Girshick

    2009-06-01

    This project was funded over two periods of three years each, with an additional year of no-cost extension. Research in the first funding period focused on the physics of uniform atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the second funding period was devoted to the study of the dynamics of nanometer-sized particles in plasmas.

  20. MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M. (Editor); Haberle, Robert M. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The workshop was held to discuss a variety of questions related to the detection and cycling of atmospheric water. Among the questions addressed were: what factors govern the storage and exchange of water between planetary surfaces and atmospheres; what instruments are best suited for the measurement and mapping of atmospheric water; do regolith sources and sinks of water have uniquely identifiable column abundance signatures; what degree of time and spatial resolution in column abundance data is necessary to determine dynamic behavior. Of special importance is the question, does the understanding of how atmospheric water is cycled on Earth provide any insights for the interpretation of Mars atmospheric data.

  1. Practical Experiences of Links between a Hospital Physics Department and Local Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, C. B.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are links between hospitals and local schools. Some aspects of the links, such as a medical physics convention, collaboration with teachers, work experience for students, and experimental projects are described. (YP)

  2. Quantum Information in Non-physics Departments at Liberal Arts Colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmoreland, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Quantum information and quantum computing have changed our thinking about the basic concepts of quantum physics. These fields have also introduced exciting new applications of quantum mechanics such as quantum cryptography and non-interactive measurement. It is standard to teach such topics only to advanced physics majors who have completed coursework in quantum mechanics. Recent encounters with teaching quantum cryptography to non-majors and a bout of textbook-writing suggest strategies for teaching this interesting material to those without the standard quantum mechanics background. This talk will share some of those strategies.

  3. Research in experimental elementary particle physics. A proposal to the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew P. White; Kaushik De; Paul A. Draper; Ransom Stephens

    1995-04-13

    We report on the activities of the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Texas at Arlington for the period 1994-95. We propose the continuation of the research program for 1996-98 with strong participation in the detector upgrade and physics analysis work for the D0 Experiment at Fermilab, prototyping and pre-production studies for the muon and calorimeter systems for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN, and detector development and simulation studies for the PP2PP Experiment at Brookhaven.

  4. On the physical processes ruling an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevosto, L.; Kelly, H.; Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E.

    2015-02-01

    Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage-current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm2, both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium.

  5. Multi-scale Drivers of Variations in Atmospheric Evaporative Demand Based on Observations and Physically-based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, L.; Sheffield, J.; Li, D.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key link between the availability of water resources and climate change and climate variability. Variability of ET has important environmental and socioeconomic implications for managing hydrological hazards, food and energy production. Although there have been many observational and modeling studies of ET, how ET has varied and the drivers of the variations at different temporal scales remain elusive. Much of the uncertainty comes from the atmospheric evaporative demand (AED), which is the combined effect of radiative and aerodynamic controls. The inconsistencies among modeled AED estimates and the limited observational data may originate from multiple sources including the limited time span and uncertainties in the data. To fully investigate and untangle the intertwined drivers of AED, we present a spectrum analysis to identify key controls of AED across multiple temporal scales. We use long-term records of observed pan evaporation for 1961-2006 from 317 weather stations across China and physically-based model estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET). The model estimates are based on surface meteorology and radiation derived from reanalysis, satellite retrievals and station data. Our analyses show that temperature plays a dominant role in regulating variability of AED at the inter-annual scale. At the monthly and seasonal scales, the primary control of AED shifts from radiation in humid regions to humidity in dry regions. Unlike many studies focusing on the spatial pattern of ET drivers based on a traditional supply and demand framework, this study underlines the importance of temporal scales when discussing controls of ET variations.

  6. On the physical processes ruling an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime

    SciTech Connect

    Prevosto, L. Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E.; Kelly, H.

    2015-02-15

    Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm{sup 2}, both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium.

  7. DOE Closeout Report from SUNY Albany High Energy Physics to Department of Energy Office of Science.

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Jesse; Jain, Vivek

    2014-08-15

    A report from the SUNY Albany Particle Physics Group summarizing our activities on the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. We summarize our work: on data analysis projects, on efforts to improve detector performance, and on service work to the experiment.

  8. Research supported by the department of energy Task C: Experimental high energy physics. 1995 Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, J.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes work of the University of Oregon high-energy physics group related to the Stanford Linear Detector, LEP`s OPAL detector, the NuTeV experiment at Fermilab, the SSC`s GEM detector, and top-quark studies at the Next Linear Collider. 160 refs., 53 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Measurements of the impact of atmospheric aging on physical and optical properties of ambient black carbon particles in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasowsky, Trevor S.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Wang, Dongbin; Sioutas, Constantinos; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding how physical and optical properties of atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles vary in time and space is critical for reducing uncertainty in climate forcing estimates from ambient BC. In this study, ambient BC was measured in Rubidoux, California, approximately 90 km (55 miles) downwind of downtown Los Angeles. Collocated NOx and NOy measurements were used to estimate the photochemical age of the sampled air. Sampling was conducted throughout entire days between February 3, 2015 and March 12, 2015 to capture diurnal and daily variations in ambient BC. Both ambient and thermally-denuded air was sampled in 15-min cycles to compare the physical and optical properties of coated versus uncoated BC particles. Physical properties of individual BC particles including mass and coating thickness were measured using a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and BC optical properties were measured using a Photoacoustic Extinctiometer (PAX) at 870 nm. The mean BC mass concentration (±standard deviation) for the campaign was 0.12 ± 0.08 μg m-3. BC mass concentrations were higher on weekdays than weekends, though only differences between 11:00 and 17:00 h were statistically distinguishable. The fraction of total BC particles that were thickly-coated (f) was found to be relatively low, with a mean of 0.05 ± 0.02 over the campaign. Values for f peaked in the afternoon when photochemical pollutant concentrations are also generally at a maximum. Further, f at 15:00-16:00 h was found to be statistically higher on weekends than weekdays, potentially due to a higher relative amount of ambient SOA to BC on weekends versus weekdays, which would enhance SOA coating of primary BC particles as they age during transport from the western Los Angeles basin to our sampling site on weekends. Differences at other hours during the photochemically active period of the day (10:00-14:00 h) were not statistically different although the weekend values were systematically higher

  10. The U.C. Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory and Department of Physics Submillimeter Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, D. T.; Genzel, R.

    1986-01-01

    The UCB submm heterodyne receiver is a complete system for high-resolution astronomical spectroscopy in the 350-micron and 450-micron atmospheric windows. This compact system mounts directly at the Cassegrain focus of large optical and IR telescopes. It consists of a laser local oscillator, open structure mixer, quasi-optical coupling system, a broad-band IF system, and an acoustooptical spectrometer. The local oscillator is a 1-m-long submm laser optically pumped by a CO2 laser. The mixer is a quasi-optical corner-cube antenna structure and Schottky diode. The mixer is currently operated at room temperature, and its performance at 77 K is being evaluated. The system noise temperature is less than 7000 K SSB during observations.

  11. The value of purpose built mental health facilities: Use of the Ward Atmosphere Scale to gauge the link between milieu and physical environment.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Daniel; Kidd, Kevin; Threader, Jennifer; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated changes in the 'atmosphere' of an acute adult mental health setting following relocation to a new purpose-built facility. The Ward Atmosphere Scale (WAS) was designed and validated for specific use in hospital-based psychiatric facilities, and measures several dimensions of an environment. In this study, the WAS was administered to consumers and staff at periods before and also after their relocation to a new purpose-built acute adult mental health facility. There were significant improvements in the physical atmosphere of the new facility, when compared with the old facility. In terms of ward atmosphere, however, improvements were seen to occur in only a small number of measures and there were minor differences between consumers' and staff perspectives on some indicators. Interestingly, it was found that consumers noted less 'staff control' in the new setting, raising the question of the differences in understanding of control. For staff only, there was a perception of greater levels of consumer 'involvement' in the new facility. Despite the minor differences in perception, the study does confirm that architecture is an important influence on the 'atmosphere' of a health facility, for both staff and consumers.

  12. A Physical Experiment to determine the Impact of Atmospheric Condensation of Water Vapour on Surface Air Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyard, Peter

    2014-05-01

    A physical experiment, in which atmospheric air is enclosed in two interconnecting 4.8-metre high insulated PVC columns, consistently gives results showing that the condensation of water vapor, precipitated by means of refrigeration coils, gives rise to detectable air movements, with air speeds of up to 0.1 m/s. Once the compressor, sited well away from the two columns, is shut down, heavy drops of precipitated water are obtained which funnel into a flask for collection and measurement. The results in kg.m-2 (mm) from the 20 m3 volume of enclosed air accord well (>90%) with the physical calculations based on water vapour as an ideal gas. Air flow, resulting from the highly localized condensation, is measured through the movement of light-weight gauzes and an anemometer. It has a circulation time of some two minutes, such that both columns show cooling and a significant reduction in specific humidity from 0.01 to 0.005 (kg water vapour to kg dry air, r) with a drop in relative humidity of up to 40 per cent. Air flow is minimal during the control, non-refrigeration period of the experiment but becomes substantial within a minute of the compressor being switched on. The negative partial pressure change peaks at as much as 0.4 Pa/s during the first 30 minutes but reduces to approx.0.08 Pa/s during the latter part of the 110 minute-long experiment. Airflow displays an inverse relationship to the partial pressure change, initially rising rapidly and then reducing before returning to zero once refrigeration has been switched off. Inverse correlations of up to 0.8 or higher between the partial pressure reduction and the airflow are obtained routinely. Semi-aquatic vegetation from the nearby marshland enhances precipitation, suggesting that evapotranspiration adds significantly to humidity. Without vegetation the condensation rate is 0.06 to 0.07 millimol.m-3.s-1 on average compared with 0.11 when vegetation is present. Cooling, by some 2°C, combined with a reduction in

  13. A Physical Experiment to determine the Impact of Atmospheric Condensation of Water Vapor on Surface Air Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyard, P. P.; Nechev, P.

    2013-12-01

    A physical experiment, in which atmospheric air is enclosed in two interconnecting 4.8-metre high insulated PVC columns, consistently gives results showing that the condensation of water vapor, precipitated by means of refrigeration coils, gives rise to detectable air movements, with air speeds of up to 0.1 m/s. Once the compressor, sited well away from the two columns, is shut down, heavy drops of precipitated water are obtained which funnel into a flask for collection and measurement. The results in kg.m-2 (mm) from the 20 m3 volume of enclosed air accord well (>90%) with the physical calculations based on water vapor as an ideal gas. Air flow, resulting from the highly localized condensation, is measured through the movement of light-weight gauzes and an anemometer. It has a circulation time of some two minutes, such that both columns show cooling and a significant reduction in specific humidity from 0.01 to 0.005 (kg water vapor to kg dry air, r) with a drop in relative humidity of up to 40 per cent. Air flow is minimal during the control, non-refrigeration period of the experiment but becomes substantial within a minute of the compressor being switched on. The negative partial pressure change peaks at as much as 0.4 Pa/s during the first 30 minutes but reduces to approx. 0.08 Pa/s during the latter part of the 110 minute- long experiment. Airflow displays an inverse relationship to the partial pressure change, initially rising rapidly and then reducing before returning to zero once refrigeration has been switched off. Inverse correlations of up to 0.8 or higher between the partial pressure reduction and the airflow are obtained routinely. Semi-aquatic vegetation from the nearby marshland enhances precipitation, suggesting that evapotranspiration adds significantly to humidity. Without vegetation the condensation rate is 0.06 to 0.07 millimol.m-3.s-1 on average compared with 0.11 when vegetation is present. Cooling, by some 2°C, combined with a reduction in

  14. Atmospheric coupling of Tsunami: observations from Tohoku and impact on tsunami physical properties and phase/group velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Kherani, E. A.; Coisson, P.; Astafyeva, E.; Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L. M.; Yahagi, T.; Khelfi, K.; Sladen, A.; Hebert, H.; Makela, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunamis, through a dynamic coupling between the ocean and atmosphere, are generating atmospheric waves, detected in the ionosphere for tsunamis with amplitudes as much as 1 cm in the open ocean. Signals associated to the Tohoku tsunami have therefore been observed with huge signal to noise ratio, not only over Japan, but all over the Pacific, up to Chili. These signals have been moreover modelled, not only for the Total Electronic Contents perturbation signals, but also of the airglow detected for the first time over Hawaii and for the magnetic perturbations detected in Japan. We present in this paper the two sides of this coupling. The first side resumes the different observations and modelling of the Tohoku ionospheric signals observed by GEONET, by the GSI magnetic network and by Airglow cameras in Hawaii and Chili. Comparison between data and modelling are shown. The second side present the effects of the atmospheric coupling on the tsunami properties, i.e. amplitudes, phase/group velocities and excitation coefficients. By taking into account the coupling of tsunami with both the solid Earth and atmosphere, we show that specific resonances between the ocean and the atmosphere exist, enabling to understand the large and peaked signal spectrum. Local Time and geographical variations of this coupling is studied, as well as its dependence with the ocean depth. The impacts of atmospheric coupling on the propagation travel time of tsunamis is finally presented and discussed.

  15. Efficient and physically accurate modeling and simulation of anisoplanatic imaging through the atmosphere: a space-variant volumetric image blur method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Colin N.; Ritcey, James A.

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel method for efficient and physically-accurate modeling & simulation of anisoplanatic imaging through the atmosphere; in particular we present a new space-variant volumetric image blur algorithm. The method is based on the use of physical atmospheric meteorology models, such as vertical turbulence profiles and aerosol/molecular profiles which can be in general fully spatially-varying in 3 dimensions and also evolving in time. The space-variant modeling method relies on the metadata provided by 3D computer graphics modeling and rendering systems to decompose the image into a set of slices which can be treated in an independent but physically consistent manner to achieve simulated image blur effects which are more accurate and realistic than the homogeneous and stationary blurring methods which are commonly used today. We also present a simple illustrative example of the application of our algorithm, and show its results and performance are in agreement with the expected relative trends and behavior of the prescribed turbulence profile physical model used to define the initial spatially-varying environmental scenario conditions. We present the details of an efficient Fourier-transform-domain formulation of the SV volumetric blur algorithm and detailed algorithm pseudocode description of the method implementation and clarification of some nonobvious technical details.

  16. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  17. Influence of the micro-physical properties of the aerosol on the atmospheric correction of OLI data acquired over desert area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Bassani, Cristiana

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of surface reflectance obtained by different atmospheric correction algorithms of the Landsat 8 OLI data considering or not the micro-physical properties of the aerosol when images are acquired in desert area located in South-West of Nile delta. The atmospheric correction of remote sensing data was shown to be sensitive to the aerosol micro-physical properties, as reported in Bassani et al., 2012. In particular, the role of the aerosol micro-physical properties on the accuracy of the atmospheric correction of remote sensing data was investigated [Bassani et al., 2015; Tirelli et al., 2015]. In this work, the OLI surface reflectance was retrieved by the developed OLI@CRI (OLI ATmospherically Corrected Reflectance Imagery) physically-based atmospheric correction which considers the aerosol micro-physical properties available from the two AERONET stations [Holben et al., 1998] close to the study area (El_Farafra and Cairo_EMA_2). The OLI@CRI algorithm is based on 6SV radiative transfer model, last generation of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code [Kotchenova et al., 2007; Vermote et al., 1997], specifically developed for Landsat 8 OLI data. The OLI reflectance obtained by the OLI@CRI was compared with reflectance obtained by other atmospheric correction algorithms which do not consider micro-physical properties of aerosol (DOS) or take on aerosol standard models (FLAASH, implemented in ENVI software). The accuracy of the surface reflectance retrieved by different algorithms were calculated by comparing the spatially resampled OLI images with the MODIS surface reflectance products. Finally, specific image processing was applied to the OLI reflectance images in order to compare remote sensing products obtained for same scene. The results highlight the influence of the physical characterization of aerosol on the OLI data improving the retrieved atmospherically corrected

  18. Commemoration of the centenary of the birth of Academician S N Vernov(Joint scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Department of Physics of M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, 16 June 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    On 16 June 2010, a joint scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Joint Physical Society of the Russian Federation, Scientific Council of the Department of Physics of Moscow State University (MSU), Scientific Council of the MSU SINP, RAS Council on Space Research, Coordination Scientific and Technical Council of the Federal Space Agency, RAS Scientific Council on the Integrated Problem of Cosmic Rays and RAS Scientific Council on Physics of Solar-Terrestrial Relations took place at the R V Khokhlov central physics auditorium of the MSU Department of Physics. The session was devoted to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician Sergei Nikolaevich Vernov.The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports:Ryazhskaya O G (RAS Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow) "Opening address"; (1) Matveev V A (RAS Physical Sciences Division, Moscow) "A few words about S N Vernov" (2) Sadovnichy V A (M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "S N Vernov as a scientist at Moscow State University"; (3) Trukhin V I (M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "S N Vernov as a professor in the MSU Department of Physics"; (4) Panasyuk M I (D V Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "Cosmic ray astrophysics before and after 1957"; (5) Dergachev V A (RAS A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg) "S N Vernov and space physics: Apatity-Leningrad, 1968-1983"; (6) Stozhkov Yu I ( P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "S N Vernov and ground-breaking studies of cosmic rays in the stratosphere"; (7) Berezhko E G, Krymsky G F (Yu G Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of the SB RAS Yakutsk Scientific Center, Yakutsk) "S N Vernov and cosmic ray research in Yakutia".Texts of the articles based on the reports presented are printed below. • Opening address, O

  19. The Atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. E. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Topics considered at the conference included the dynamics, structure, chemistry, and evolution of the Venus atmosphere, as well as cloud physics and motion. Infrared, ultraviolet, and radio occultation methods of analysis are discussed, and atmospheric models are described.

  20. Physical inversion of the full IASI spectra: Assessment of atmospheric parameters retrievals, consistency of spectroscopy and forward modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Venafra, S.; Camy-Peyret, C.

    2016-10-01

    Spectra observed by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) have been used to assess both retrievals and the spectral quality and consistency of current forward models and spectroscopic databases for atmospheric gas line and continuum absorption. The analysis has been performed with thousands of observed spectra over sea surface in the Pacific Ocean close to the Mauna Loa (Hawaii) validation station. A simultaneous retrieval for surface temperature, atmospheric temperature, H2O, HDO, O3 profiles and gas average column abundance of CO2, CO, CH4, SO2, N2O, HNO3, NH3, OCS and CF4 has been performed and compared to in situ observations. The retrieval system considers the full IASI spectrum (all 8461 spectral channels on the range 645-2760 cm-1). We have found that the average column amount of atmospheric greenhouse gases can be retrieved with a precision better than 1% in most cases. The analysis of spectral residuals shows that, after inversion, they are generally reduced to within the IASI radiometric noise. However, larger residuals still appear for many of the most abundant gases, namely H2O, CH4 and CO2. The H2O ν2 spectral region is in general warmer (higher radiance) than observations. The CO2ν2 and N2O/CO2ν3 spectral regions now show a consistent behavior for channels, which are probing the troposphere. Updates in CH4 spectroscopy do not seem to improve the residuals. The effect of isotopic fractionation of HDO is evident in the 2500-2760 cm-1 region and in the atmospheric window around 1200 cm-1.

  1. Public emergency department: the psychosocial impact on the physical domain of quality of life of nursing professionals

    PubMed Central

    Kogien, Moisés; Cedaro, José Juliano

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the psychosocial factors of work related to harm caused in the physical domain of the quality of life of nursing professionals working in a public emergency department. Method cross-sectional, descriptive study addressing 189 nursing professionals. The Job Stress Scale and the short version of an instrument from the World Health Organization to assess quality of life were used to collect data. Robert Karasek's Demand-Control Model was the reference for the analysis of the psychosocial configuration. The risk for damage was computed with a confidence interval of 95%. Results In regard to the psychosocial environment, the largest proportion of workers reported low psychological demands (66.1%) and low social support (52.4%), while 60.9% of the professionals experienced work situations with a greater potential for harm: high demand job (22.8%) and passive work (38.1%). Conclusions low intellectual discernment, low social support and experiencing a high demand job or a passive job were the main risk factors for damage in the physical domain of quality of life. PMID:24553703

  2. Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Norman Robert

    2013-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. The Propositions of Science: 1. The subject matter of science; 2. The nature of laws; 3. The nature of laws (contd); 4. The discovery and proof of laws; 5. The explanation of laws; 6. Theories; 7. Chance and probability; 8. The meaning of science; 9. Science and philosophy; Part II. Measurement: 10. Fundamental measurement; 11. Physical number; 12. Fractional and negative magnitudes; 13. Numerical laws and derived magnitudes; 14. Units and dimensions; 15. The uses of dimensions; 16. Errors of measurement; methodical errors; 17. Errors of measurement; errors of consistency and the adjustment of observations; 18. Mathematical physics; Appendix; Index.

  3. Atmospheric chemistry and physical fate of HCFCS and HFCS and their degradation products. Interim report, September 1990-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Edney, E.O.

    1992-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the fate of the proposed CFC substitutes HCFC-22, HCFC- 123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The program consisted of photochemical oxidation experiments to identify stable oxidation products and measure their yields; deposition studies to measure the extent oxidation products are absorbed into aqueous media; and experiments to determine the fate of hydrolysis products during droplet evaporation. Model results, obtained using laboratory derived lower limits estimates for aqueous deposition velocities and assuming a well mixed atmosphere, suggest the uptakes rates to cloudwater and oceans are sufficiently fast such that significant buildup of gas phase products is unlikely. The laboratory studies suggest that product accumulation in aqueous media could be affected by losses during evaporation. Direct loss by evaporation of halogenated acids and/or production of volatile compounds after further reactions of the dissolved acids could return halogenated compounds to the atmosphere.

  4. Simulations of atmospheric TGFs and related physical processes: detection from space and side effects on MXGS/ASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-González, Javier; Blay, Pere; Espinós, Hector; Reglero, Víctor; Connell, Paul; Eyles, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) is an ESA mission which will be attached to the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The main goal of the ASIM mission is to characterize the optical and high-energy emission related to severe thunderstorms. We are setting up a set of simulations in order to analyse the expected detections from ASIM and in particular from the Modular X-ray and Gamma-ray Sensor (MXGS) imager. On the one hand we have developed a mass model of the instrument for its use in Geant4 applications. We plan to characterize the response of the instrument to the incident high-energy radiation, and the effects of background from backscattered photons from the Columbus module. On the other hand we are developing a set of atmospheric models to set up Geant4 simulations of electron avalanche and gamma-ray propagation, with emphasis on: a) the possible residual optical emission due to interaction with atmospheric components, and b) the expected spectral and timing properties of the resulting high-energy emission towards space. We plan to include comparisons with other software toolkits like CORSIKA or LEPTRACK (under developed at the University of Valencia).

  5. Physic-mathematical modeling of atmospheric tides influence on background circulation and background temperature of lower Earth thermosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, Anatoliy; Kapitsa, Andrey

    Nonstationary semiempirical model of: 1) atmospheric thermal tides (ATT) in middle Earth atmosphere conditional on ozone and water vapor absorption; 2) tidal disturbances (TD) gen-erated by global ozone anomalies. Geophysical phenomenon -distant wave action (teleconnec-tion) of Antarctic ozone anomaly on thermal tidal wind structure, background circulation and background temperature in middle-latitude and polar lower thermosphere of northern hemi-sphere, which was not known earlier, and which was found by means of numerical experiments on constructed model and confirmed by observations, is described. Mean zonal numerical cor-recting models of background circulation and background temperature in lower thermosphere due to semidiurnal and diurnal ATT dissipation at these heights are given. It is noted that background temperature corrections reach maximum value of 40-50 degrees in polar lower ther-mosphere of both hemispheres at 110-metricconverterProductID120 km120 km height due to "heating" caused by semidiurnal ATT, both during equinox and solstice.

  6. Analysis of vegetation by the application of a physically-based atmospheric correction algorithm to OLI data: a case study of Leonessa Municipality, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Petracchini, Francesco; Bassani, Cristiana

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques allow to estimate vegetation parameters related to large areas for forest health evaluation and biomass estimation. Moreover, the parametrization of specific indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) allows to study biogeochemical cycles and radiative energy transfer processes between soil/vegetation and atmosphere. This paper focuses on the evaluation of vegetation cover analysis in Leonessa Municipality, Latium Region (Italy) by the use of 2015 Landsat 8 applying the OLI@CRI (OLI ATmospherically Corrected Reflectance Imagery) algorithm developed following the procedure described in Bassani et al. 2015. The OLI@CRI is based on 6SV radiative transfer model (Kotchenova et al., 2006) ables to simulate the radiative field in the atmosphere-earth coupled system. NDVI was derived from the OLI corrected image. This index, widely used for biomass estimation and vegetation analysis cover, considers the sensor channels falling in the near infrared and red spectral regions which are sensitive to chlorophyll absorption and cell structure. The retrieved product was then spatially resampled at MODIS image resolution and then validated by the NDVI of MODIS considered as reference. The physically-based OLI@CRI algorithm also provides the incident solar radiation at ground at the acquisition time by 6SV simulation. Thus, the OLI@CRI algorithm completes the remote sensing dataset required for a comprehensive analysis of the sub-regional biomass production by using data of the new generation remote sensing sensor and an atmospheric radiative transfer model. If the OLI@CRI algorithm is applied to a temporal series of OLI data, the influence of the solar radiation on the above-ground vegetation can be analysed as well as vegetation index variation.

  7. Public Outreach of the South Texas Health Physic Society and Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R. O.

    2003-02-24

    In a cooperative effort of the members of the South Texas Chapter of the Heath Physics Society (STC-HPS) and the Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department, great efforts have been made to reach out and provide educational opportunities to members of the general public, school age children, and specifically teachers. These efforts have taken the form of Science Teacher Workshops (STW), visits to schools all over the state of Texas, public forums, and many other educational arenas. A major motivational factor for these most recent efforts can be directly tied to the attempt of the State of Texas to site a low-level radioactive waste facility near Sierra Blanca in West Texas. When the State of Texas first proposed to site a low level radioactive waste site after the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 was passed, many years of political struggle ensued. Finally, a site at Sierra Blanca in far West Texas was selected for study and characterization for a disposal site for waste generated in the Texas Compact states of Maine, Vermont and Texas. During this process, the outreach to and education of the local public became a paramount issue.

  8. Physics.

    PubMed

    Bromley, D A

    1980-07-01

    From massive quarks deep in the hearts of atomic nuclei to the catastrophic collapse of giant stars in the farthest reaches of the universe, from the partial realization of Einstein's dream of a unified theory of the forces of nature to the most practical applications in technology, medicine, and throughout contemporary society, physics continues to have a profound impact on man's view of the universe and on the quality of life. The author argues that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, new insight-and the new questions-have been among the most productive in the history of the field and puts into context his selection of some of the most important new developments in this fundamental science.

  9. Final Progress Report to the Department of Energy's Office of Science on the Committee on Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Board on Physics and Astronomy

    2001-01-01

    The Committee on Nuclear Physics (CNP), under the National Research Council's Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), conducted an assessment of the field as part of the BPA's survey of physics in the last decade, titled ''Physics in a New Era.'' The CNP report was published by the National Academy Press in early 1999 under the title ''Nuclear Physics: The Core of Matter, The Fuel of Stars.''

  10. Physical and statistical modeling of attenuation due to atmospheric hydrometeors on free-space optical links at 850 and 1550 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabner, Martin; Kvicera, Vaclav

    2012-10-01

    Atmospheric hydrometeors such as rain and fog may cause attenuation of an optical signal and degrade the performance of free-space optical (FSO) systems. For efficient design of the FSO links, attenuation characteristics must be predicted by sufficiently reliable models that have been tested on experimental data. A long term experiment on the FSO links operating at 850 and 1550 nm wavelengths is conducted in Prague. The path lengths are 100 and 853 m. Received power fluctuations on the FSO links and relevant meteorological quantities such as rain intensity and liquid water content of fog are measured simultaneously. The relationships between the physical parameters of hydrometeors and path attenuation are analyzed and compared with theoretical relations derived using the Mie scattering theory together with some natural assumptions about the physical properties of scattering particles such as droplet size distribution of different types of hydrometeors. Long term statistics of attenuation are obtained and availability performance of the experimental FSO links is assessed. The method for predicting attenuation statistics based on physical and statistical models is introduced and the errors of the proposed models with respect to measured data are analyzed. The models are compared with the existing empirical relationships derived from other FSO experiments and differences are discussed.

  11. The Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC): Showcasing Mathematical and Computational Physics in a Critical Atmospheric Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.; Cahalan, R. F.

    2001-05-01

    The Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC) is an on-going initiative involving an international group of over 30 researchers engaged in the numerical modeling of three-dimensional radiative transfer as applied to clouds. Because of their strong variability and extreme opacity, clouds are indeed a major source of uncertainty in the Earth's local radiation budget (at GCM grid scales). Also 3D effects (at satellite pixel scales) invalidate the standard plane-parallel assumption made in the routine of cloud-property remote sensing at NASA and NOAA. Accordingly, the test-cases used in I3RC are based on inputs and outputs which relate to cloud effects in atmospheric heating rates and in real-world remote sensing geometries. The main objectives of I3RC are to (1) enable participants to improve their models, (2) publish results as a community, (3) archive source code, and (4) educate. We will survey the status of I3RC and its plans for the near future with a special emphasis on the mathematical models and computational approaches. We will also describe some of the prime applications of I3RC's efforts in climate models, cloud-resolving models, and remote-sensing observations of clouds, or that of the surface in their presence. In all these application areas, computational efficiency is the main concern and not accuracy. One of I3RC's main goals is to document the performance of as wide a variety as possible of three-dimensional radiative transfer models for a small but representative number of ``cases.'' However, it is dominated by modelers working at the level of linear transport theory (i.e., they solve the radiative transfer equation) and an overwhelming majority of these participants use slow-but-robust Monte Carlo techniques. This means that only a small portion of the efficiency vs. accuracy vs. flexibility domain is currently populated by I3RC participants. To balance this natural clustering the present authors have organized a systematic outreach towards

  12. Missed connections: A case study of the social networks of physics doctoral students in a single department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaub, Alexis Victoria

    Gender disparity is an issue among the many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Although many previous studies examine gender issues in STEM as an aggregate discipline, there are unique issues to each of the fields that are considered STEM fields. Some fields, such as physics, have fewer women graduating with degrees than other fields. This suggests that women's experiences vary by STEM field. The majority of previous research also examines gender and other disparities at either the nationwide or individual level. This project entailed social network analysis through survey and interview data to examine a single physics department's doctoral students in order to provide a comprehensive look at student social experiences. In addition to examining gender, other demographic variables were studied to see if the results are truly associated with gender; these variables include race/ethnicity, year in program, student type, relationship status, research type, undergraduate institute, and subfield. Data were examined to determine if there are relationships to social connections and outcome variables such as persistence in completing the degree and the time to degree. Data collected on faculty were used to rank faculty members; data such as h-indices and number of students graduate over the past 5 years were collected. Fifty-five (55) of 110 possible participants completed the survey; forty-three are male, and twelve are female. Twenty-eight of the fifty-five survey participants were interview; twenty-three are male, and five are female. Findings for peer networks include that peer networks are established during the first year and do not change drastically as one progresses in the program. Geographic location within the campus affects socializing with peers. Connections to fellow students are not necessarily reciprocated; the maximum percentage of reciprocated connections is 60%. The number of connections one has varies by network purpose

  13. African Americans & Hispanics among Physics & Astronomy Faculty: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics & Astronomy Degree-Granting Departments. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Anderson, Garrett; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The United States is becoming more and more diverse, but the representation of some minority groups in physics and astronomy lags behind. Although 13% of the US population is African American or black, and 17% is Hispanic (US Census), the representation of these two groups in physics and astronomy is much lower. For this reason, African Americans…

  14. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  15. A Year-Long Research Experience Program in Solar and Atmospheric Physics at the Queensborough Community College of the City University of New York (CUNY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damas, M. C.; Cheung, T. D.; Ngwira, C.; Mohamed, A.; Knipp, D. J.; Johnson, L. P.; Zheng, Y.; Paglione, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Queensborough Community College (QCC) of the City University of New York (CUNY), a Hispanic and minority-serving institution, is the recipient of a 2-year NSF EAGER (Early Concept Grants for Exploratory Research) grant to design and implement a high-impact practice integrated research and education program in solar and atmospheric physics. Through a strong collaboration with CUNY/City College of New York and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), the project engages underrepresented community college students in geosciences-related STEM fields through a year-long research experience with two components: 1) during the academic year, students are enrolled in a course-based introductory research (CURE) where they conduct research on real-world problems; and 2) during the summer, students are placed in research internships at partner institutions. We will present the results of the first year-long research experience, including successes and challenges.

  16. Mercury in the Arctic spring: a tracer for physical and chemical processes linking the atmosphere to the land and sea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.; Steffen, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Arctic mercury story is an intriguing one: gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is oxidized to reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during early spring atmospheric mercury deposition events. The RGM produced is readily deposited to snow and ice surfaces. Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) are associated with mercury concentrations in surface snow and sea ice that are routinely above 100 ng/L. The GEM to RGM oxidation is driven by sunlight, halogen oxide radicals and the presence of snow and ice crystal surfaces. The most likely source of halogens (and the halogen oxides) is likely newly formed sea ice or the open water on which sea ice grows. The complex relationships between sea ice, leads, open sea water and the lower atmosphere is not well understood. However, mercury is a tracer linking atmospheric chemical and physical processes, sea ice conditions, the snow pack, and arctic ecosystems. Previous work has shown that interactions between snow and ice crystal surfaces and RGM likely drive the scavenging and deposition of RGM to the snow pack. This yields insight into how mercury (and potentially other contaminants and chemical compounds) are adsorbed onto or otherwise associated with snow and ice crystals. Some of the RGM deposited to the snow pack is subsequently reduced to GEM that evades from the snow pack. This is evident during the onset of spring snow melt when GEM values increase well above ambient background values of 1.6 ng per cubic meter. However, some of the deposited RGM remains in the snow pack and becomes part of the spring melt runoff event. We have been measuring mercury in the atmosphere, in snow, in snow melt runoff and in soils near Barrow, Alaska for the past 5 years. During the Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice-Snow (OASIS) campaign in the spring of 2009 we collected snow, frost flowers and brine on the sea ice. Our results show that mercury is readily scavenged by frost flowers and snow on the sea ice. We also collected snow and melt during the

  17. Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health Annual Report to the Michigan Department of Public Health, December 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Council on Physical Fitness & Health.

    The projects which the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health undertook in 1978 are reported and described here. The projects and activities include: a school physical fitness program that provided assistance to public, private, and parochial schools in monitoring the physical fitness levels of all students in grades kindergarten through…

  18. What Should We Be Teaching about the Atmosphere?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Because study of climatology in most college and university geography departments is descriptive, it gives no fundamental insights into geophysical processes. In order to achieve a quantified understanding of atmospheric processes, geographers must have expertise in mathematics, physics, and instrumentation. For journal availability, see 506 593.…

  19. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of

  20. Women in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Laura M.; O'Fallon, Nancy M.

    This booklet presents information about career opportunities for women in physics. Included are summaries of research areas in physics (optical physics, solid-state physics, materials science, nuclear physics, high-energy physics, astrophysics, cryogenics, plasma physics, biophysics, atmospheric physics) and differences between theory and…

  1. SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group

    ScienceCinema

    Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.

    2016-07-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory, Atmospheric Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.

  2. Research in Physical Chemistry and Chemical Education: Part A--Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized Atmospheric Compounds Part B--The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, Marta Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a combination of two research areas, experimental physical chemistry, Chapters I to V, and chemical education, Chapters VI to VII. Chapters I to V describe research on the water-mediated chemistry of oxidized atmospheric molecules and the impact that water has on the spectra of these environmental systems. The role of water…

  3. Physical bases of the generation of short-term earthquake precursors: A complex model of ionization-induced geophysical processes in the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulinets, S. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.; Karelin, A. V.; Davidenko, D. V.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the current understanding of the interaction between geospheres from a complex set of physical and chemical processes under the influence of ionization. The sources of ionization involve the Earth's natural radioactivity and its intensification before earthquakes in seismically active regions, anthropogenic radioactivity caused by nuclear weapon testing and accidents in nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage, the impact of galactic and solar cosmic rays, and active geophysical experiments using artificial ionization equipment. This approach treats the environment as an open complex system with dissipation, where inherent processes can be considered in the framework of the synergistic approach. We demonstrate the synergy between the evolution of thermal and electromagnetic anomalies in the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. This makes it possible to determine the direction of the interaction process, which is especially important in applications related to short-term earthquake prediction. That is why the emphasis in this study is on the processes proceeding the final stage of earthquake preparation; the effects of other ionization sources are used to demonstrate that the model is versatile and broadly applicable in geophysics.

  4. Physical Characterization and Effect of Effective Surface Area on the Sensing Properties of Tin Dioxide Thin Solid Films in a Propane Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; González-Vidal, José Luis; Torres, Gonzalo Alberto; de la Luz Olvera, María; Castañeda, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The physical properties and the effect of effective surface area (ESA) on the sensing properties of tin dioxide [SnO2] thin films in air and propane [C3H8] atmosphere as a function of operating temperature and gas concentration have been studied in this paper. SnO2 thin films with different estimated thicknesses (50, 100 and 200 nm) were deposited on glass substrates by the chemical spray technique. Besides, they were prepared at two different deposition temperatures (400 and 475 °C). Tin chloride [SnCl4 · 5H2O] with 0.2 M concentration value and ethanol [C2H6O] were used as tin precursor and solvent, respectively. The morphological, and structural properties of the as-prepared films were analyzed by AFM and XRD, respectively. Gas sensing characteristics of SnO2 thin solid films were measured at operating temperatures of 22, 100, 200, and 300 °C, and at propane concentration levels (0, 5, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm). ESA values were calculated for each sample. It was found that the ESA increased with the increasing thickness of the films. The results demonstrated the importance of the achieving of a large effective surface area for improving gas sensing performance. SnO2 thin films deposited by spray chemical were chosen to study the ESA effect on gas sensing properties because their very rough surfaces were appropriate for this application. PMID:24379046

  5. Measurement of atmospheric hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides in Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympic Games: Chemical and physical factors influencing their concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S. Z.; Chen, Z. M.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, D. M.; Zhao, J. N.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zeng, L. M.

    2010-09-01

    For the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games full-scale control (FSC) of atmospheric pollution was implemented to improve the air quality from 20 July to 20 September 2008, resulting in a significant decrease in the emission of pollutants in urban Beijing, especially vehicular emissions. The combination of reduced emissions and weather condition changes provided us with a unique opportunity to investigate urban atmospheric chemistry. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxides play significant roles in atmospheric processes, such as the cycling of HOx radicals and the formation of secondary sulfate aerosols and secondary organic aerosols. We measured atmospheric H2O2 and organic peroxides in urban Beijing, at the Peking University campus, from 12 July to 30 September, before and during the FSC. The major peroxides observed were H2O2, methyl hydroperoxide (MHP), and peroxyacetic acid (PAA), having maximal mixing ratios of 2.34, 0.95, and 0.17 ppbv (parts per billion by volume), respectively. Other organic peroxides were detected occasionally, such as bis-hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, ethyl hydroperoxide, and 1-hydroxyethyl hydroperoxide. On sunny days the concentrations of H2O2, MHP, and PAA exhibited pronounced diurnal variations, with a peak in the afternoon (1500-1900) and, occasionally, a second peak in the evening (2000-0200). The night peaks can be attributed to local night production from the ozonolysis of alkenes, coupled with the reaction between NO3 radicals and organic compounds. Sunny-day weather dominated during 16-26 July, and we found that the concentrations of H2O2, MHP, and PAA increased strikingly on 22-26 July, compared with the concentrations during 16-19 July. This effect was mainly attributed to the NOx (NO and NO2) decline because of the FSC, due to (i) the suppressing effect of NO and NO2 on the production of peroxides and (ii) the indirect effect of reduced NOx on the concentration of peroxides via O3 production in the

  6. Site/Systems Operations, Maintenance and Facilities Management of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Susan

    2005-08-01

    This contract covered the site/systems operations, maintenance, and facilities management of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site.

  7. The AIP Career Pathways Project: Learning the Effective Practices of Physics Departments Preparing Graduates with the Bachelor's Degree for STEM Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Thomas; Redmond, Kendra; Czujko, Roman

    2012-10-01

    Forty percent of students graduating with the bachelor's degree in physics seek employment immediately upon graduation. The AIP Career Pathways Project, funded by NSF, seeks to learn by site visits the effective practices of departments in preparing these students to successfully secure positions in STEM and to make these practices known by presentations, publications, and workshops. This talk will review AIP Statistical Resources data on the careers of physicists with the bachelor's degree, provide preliminary insights from the site visits, provide some advice for graduates seeking employment, and describe the upcoming workshops.

  8. Community Atmosphere Model

    2004-10-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is an atmospheric general circulation model that solves equations for atmospheric dynamics and physics. CAM is an outgrowth of the Community Climate Model at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and was developed as a joint collaborative effort between NCAR and several DOE laboratories, including LLNL. CAM contains several alternative approaches for advancing the atmospheric dynamics. One of these approaches uses a finite-volume method originally developed by personnel atmore » NASNGSFC, We have developed a scalable version of the finite-volume solver for massively parallel computing systems. FV-CAM is meant to be used in conjunction with the Community Atmosphere Model. It is not stand-alone.« less

  9. Phase B - final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL): A spacelab mission payload. Work breakdown structure for phase C/D DR-MA-06 (preliminary issue)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and Dictionary (DR-MA-06) for initial and subsequent flights of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) is presented. An attempt is made to identify specific equipment and components in each of the eleven subsystems; they are listed under the appropriate subdivisions of the WBS. The reader is cautioned that some of these components are likely to change substantially during the course of the study, and the list provided should only be considered representative.

  10. Dessler, Jimenez, Klein, and Nenes Receive 2012 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Andrew E. Dessler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2013-11-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the four Ascent Awards to Professor Andrew E. Dessler of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Texas A&M University for fundamental contributions to the understanding of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange processes and the physics of ozone depletion and for attempts to unravel water vapor and cloud feedbacks in the climate system. In addition, he is commended for his ceaseless work in communicating the science of climate change to the public.

  11. Department of Physics' Involvement of the Impact Testing Project of the High Speed Civil Transport Program (HSCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonMeerwall, Ernst D.

    1994-01-01

    The project involved the impact testing of a kevlar-like woven polymer material, PBO. The purpose was to determine whether this material showed any promise as a lightweight replacement material for jet engine fan containment. The currently used metal fan containment designs carry a high drag penalty due to their weight. Projectiles were fired at samples of PBO by means of a 0.5 inch diameter Helium powered gun. The Initial plan was to encase the samples inside a purpose-built steel "hot box" for heating and ricochet containment. The research associate's responsibility was to develop the data acquisition programs and techniques necessary to determine accurately the impacting projectile's velocity. Beyond this, the Research Associate's duties include any physical computations, experimental design, and data analysis necessary.

  12. Insights and implications for health departments from the evaluation of New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in child care centers.

    PubMed

    Nonas, Cathy; Silver, Lynn D; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    In 2006, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, seeking to address the epidemic of childhood obesity, issued new regulations on beverages, physical activity, and screen time in group child care centers. An evaluation was conducted to identify characteristics of New York City child care centers that have implemented these regulations and to examine how varying degrees of implementation affected children's behaviors. This article discusses results of this evaluation and how findings can be useful for other public health agencies. Knowing the characteristics of centers that are more likely to comply can help other jurisdictions identify centers that may need additional support and training. Results indicated that compliance may improve when rules established by governing agencies, national standards, and local regulatory bodies are complementary or additive. Therefore, the establishment of clear standards for obesity prevention for child care providers can be a significant public health achievement.

  13. Optimisation of the usage of LHC and local computing resources in a multidisciplinary physics department hosting a WLCG Tier-2 centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberis, Stefano; Carminati, Leonardo; Leveraro, Franco; Mazza, Simone Michele; Perini, Laura; Perlz, Francesco; Rebatto, David; Tura, Ruggero; Vaccarossa, Luca; Villaplana, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    We present the approach of the University of Milan Physics Department and the local unit of INFN to allow and encourage the sharing among different research areas of computing, storage and networking resources (the largest ones being those composing the Milan WLCG Tier-2 centre and tailored to the needs of the ATLAS experiment). Computing resources are organised as independent HTCondor pools, with a global master in charge of monitoring them and optimising their usage. The configuration has to provide satisfactory throughput for both serial and parallel (multicore, MPI) jobs. A combination of local, remote and cloud storage options are available. The experience of users from different research areas operating on this shared infrastructure is discussed. The promising direction of improving scientific computing throughput by federating access to distributed computing and storage also seems to fit very well with the objectives listed in the European Horizon 2020 framework for research and development.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 4: Physical Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Toburen, L.H.; Stults, B.R.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains 20 papers. Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report of 1989 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category and each Field Task proposal/agreement is introduced by an abstract that describes the projects reported in that section. These reports only briefly indicate progress made during 1989. 74 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Atmospheric breakup of meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dasher, Bassem; Swift, Damian; Remington, Bruce; Mulford, Roberta; Milathianaki, Despina; Chen, Laura; Eakins, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    When meteoroids enter a planetary atmosphere, breakup is governed by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, mitigated by the strength of the meteoritic material. Particle sizes in the breakup cascade depend on the perturbation length scales exhibiting growth. The physics of meteoroid entry is thus related closely to experiments where strength at high pressure is inferred from the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of perturbations. There are significant discrepancies between predicted and observed breakup altitudes of meteoroids, which in turn reduce the accuracy of assessments of the impact threat from asteroids. Simulations, validated by laboratory experiments of instability growth, can play a role in understanding the breakup of meteoroids and thus the threat from asteroids. Continuum dynamics simulations provide more rigorous stress distribution than are usually used in breakup analyses, and can be used to calibrate compact expressions describing the breakup conditions. We have measured the strength of samples from Fe-rich meteorites using indentation and shock-loading experiments, and found them to be significantly stronger than was previously realized. This, together with the more accurate stress analysis, removes the altitude discrepancy for Fe-rich meteorites. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Atmospheric Mixing of CO2 above Carbon Storage Sites: Coupling Physics Based Models within a CO2 Sequestration System Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, P. H.; Olsen, S. C.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Dubey, M. K.; Guthrie, G. D.; Pawar, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is studying the injection of CO2 into geologic repositories. We are formulating the problem as science based decision framework that can address issues of risk, cost, and technical requirements at all stages of the sequestration process. The framework, called CO2-PENS , is implemented in a system model that is capable of performing stochastic simulations to address uncertainty in different geologic sequestration scenarios. In this talk we examine the changes atmospheric concentrations directly above a potential repository caused by diffuse CO2 leakage that migrates to the atmosphere from the repository. We present an atmospheric mixing model that accounts for local surface effects, local climate data, and daily variations in the mixing layer thickness. We compare model results to field data collected at a controlled flux tower experiment. We next show how the atmospheric mixing model can provide estimates of uncertainty when used from within the CO2- PENS framework. Finally, we discuss data needs and future work needed to make the atmospheric component more flexible so that it can quickly be applied to any potential repository.

  17. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  18. Atmospheric mercury—An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, William H.; Munthe, John

    This paper presents a broad overview and synthesis of current knowledge and understanding pertaining to all major aspects of mercury in the atmosphere. The significant physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of this element and its environmentally relebant species encountered in the atmosphere are examined. Atmospheric pathways and processes considered herein include anthropogenic as well as natural sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere, aerial transport and dispersion (including spatial and temporal variability), atmospheric transformations (both physical and chemical types), wet and dry removal/deposition processes to Earth's surface. In addition, inter-compartmental (air-water/soil/vegetation) transfer and biogeochemical cycling of mercury are considered and discussed. The section on numerical modelling deals with atmospheric transport models as well as process-oriented models. Important gaps in our current knowledge of mercury in the atmospheric environment are identified, and suggestions for future areas of research are offered.

  19. A change in the electro-physical properties of narrow-band CdHgTe solid solutions acted upon by a volume discharge induced by an avalanche electron beam in the air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Korotaev, A. G.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of a nanosecond volume discharge forming in an inhomogeneous electrical field at atmospheric pressure on the CdHgTe (MCT) epitaxial films of the p-type conduction with the hole concentration 2·1016 cm3 and mobility 500 cm2·V-1·s-1 is studied. The measurement of the electrophysical parameters of the MCT specimens upon irradiation shows that a layer exhibiting the n-type conduction is formed in the near-surface region of the epitaxial films. After 600 pulses and more, the thickness and the parameters of the layer are such that the measured field dependence of the Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of the n-type conduction. Analysis of the preliminary results reveals that the foregoing nanosecond volume discharge in the air at atmospheric pressure is promising for modification of electro-physical MCT properties.

  20. 77 FR 15358 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice and..., National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. BILLING......

  1. The NASA program on upper atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Program is to develop a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere with emphasis on the stratosphere.

  2. The Third Pole Environment Programme (TPE): A new base for the processes study of atmospheric physics and environment over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, with the most prominent and complicated terrain on the globe and an elevation of more than 4000 m on average above sea leave (msl), is often called the "Third Pole" due to its significance parallel with Antarctica and the Arctic. The exchange of energy, water vapor and some greenhouse gases between land surface and atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding regions play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and some international organizations, a Third Pole Environment (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) is now implementing over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding region. The background of the establishment of the TPEP, the establishing and monitoring plan of long-term scale (5-10 years) of the TPEP will be shown firstly. Then the preliminary observational analysis results, such as the characteristics of land surface heat fluxes, CO2 flux and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning (diurnal variation, inter-monthly variation and vertical variation etc), aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas, the characteristics of atmospheric and soil variables, the structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and the turbulent characteristics have also been shown in this study.

  3. DOE research on atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.E.

    1995-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

  4. Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs to the Ocean and their Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jickells, Tim D.

    2016-04-01

    , even with the increased transport across shelf to the open ocean from low latitude fluvial systems identified. 1. School of Environmental Science University of East Anglia UK 2. Energy Research Centre University of Cape Town SA 3. Department of Biological Sciences University of S California USA 4. Departments of Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences Texas A&M University USA 5. JRC Ispra Italy 6. Department of Oceanography Dalhousie University Canada 7. Department of Environmental Sciences U. Virginia USA 8. Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Greece 9. Department of Biology Dalhousie University, Canada 10. School of Environmental Science and Engineering Pohang University S Korea. 11. Faculty of Geosciences University of Utrecht Netherlands 12. Department of Earth System Science University of California at Irvine USA 13. WMO Geneva 14. Department of Geography University of California USA 15. GEOMAR Keil Germany 16. Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, USA 17. Geosciences Division at Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India 18. Department of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria, Canada 19. School of Environmentak Sciences, U Liverpool UK 20. Center for International Collaboration, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo Japan 21. Oak Ridge Associated Universities USA

  5. Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Strobel, D. F.; Moses, J. I.; Waite, J. H.; Crovisier, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Roble, R. G.

    This paper summarizes the understanding of aeronomy of neutral atmospheres in the solar system, discussing most planets as well as Saturn's moon Titan and comets. The thermal structure and energy balance is compared, highlighting the principal reasons for discrepancies amongst the atmospheres, a combination of atmospheric composition, heliocentric distance and other external energy sources not common to all. The composition of atmospheres is discussed in terms of vertical structure, chemistry and evolution. The final section compares dynamics in the upper atmospheres of most planets and highlights the importance of vertical dynamical coupling as well as magnetospheric forcing in auroral regions, where present. It is shown that a first order understanding of neutral atmospheres has emerged over the past decades, thanks to the combined effects of spacecraft and Earth-based observations as well as advances in theoretical modeling capabilities. Key gaps in our understanding are highlighted which ultimately call for a more comprehensive programme of observation and laboratory measurements.

  6. Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Strobel, D. F.; Moses, J. I.; Waite, J. H.; Crovisier, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Roble, R. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper summarizes the understanding of aeronomy of neutral atmospheres in the solar system, discussing most planets as well as Saturn’s moon Titan and comets. The thermal structure and energy balance is compared, highlighting the principal reasons for discrepancies amongst the atmospheres, a combination of atmospheric composition, heliocentric distance and other external energy sources not common to all. The composition of atmospheres is discussed in terms of vertical structure, chemistry and evolution. The final section compares dynamics in the upper atmospheres of most planets and highlights the importance of vertical dynamical coupling as well as magnetospheric forcing in auroral regions, where present. It is shown that a first order understanding of neutral atmospheres has emerged over the past decades, thanks to the combined effects of spacecraft and Earth-based observations as well as advances in theoretical modeling capabilities. Key gaps in our understanding are highlighted which ultimately call for a more comprehensive programme of observation and laboratory measurements.

  7. Atmospheric neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korff, S. A.; Mendell, R. B.; Merker, M.; Light, E. S.; Verschell, H. J.; Sandie, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    Contributions to fast neutron measurements in the atmosphere are outlined. The results of a calculation to determine the production, distribution and final disappearance of atmospheric neutrons over the entire spectrum are presented. An attempt is made to answer questions that relate to processes such as neutron escape from the atmosphere and C-14 production. In addition, since variations of secondary neutrons can be related to variations in the primary radiation, comment on the modulation of both radiation components is made.

  8. Prediction of Mobility Limitations after Hospitalization in Older Medical Patients by Simple Measures of Physical Performance Obtained at Admission to the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard; Petersen, Janne; Beyer, Nina; Andersen, Ove; Jørgensen, Lillian Mørch; Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Bandholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mobility limitations relate to dependency in older adults. Identification of older patients with mobility limitations after hospital discharge may help stratify treatment and could potentially counteract dependency seen in older adults after hospitalization. We investigated the ability of four physical performance measures administered at hospital admission to identify older medical patients who manifest mobility limitations 30 days after discharge. Design Prospective cohort study of patients (≥65 years) admitted to the emergency department for acute medical illness. During the first 24 hours, we assessed: handgrip strength, 4-meter gait speed, the ability to rise from a chair (chair-stand), and the Cumulated Ambulation Score. The mobility level 30 days after discharge was evaluated using the de Morton Mobility Index. Results A total of 369 patients (77.9 years, 62% women) were included. Of those, 128 (40%) patients had mobility limitations at follow-up. Univariate analyzes showed that each of the physical performance measures was strongly associated with mobility limitations at follow-up (handgrip strength(women), OR 0.86 (0.81–0.91), handgrip strength(men), OR 0.90 (0.86–0.95), gait speed, OR 0.35 (0.26–0.46), chair-stand, OR 0.04 (0.02–0.08) and Cumulated Ambulation Score OR 0.49 (0.38–0.64). Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the results and the associations were not modified by any of the covariates: age, gender, cognitive status, the severity of the acute medical illness, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Based on prespecified cut-offs the prognostic accuracy of the four measures for mobility limitation at follow-up was calculated. The sensitivity and specificity were: handgrip strength(women), 56.8 (45.8–67.3), 75.7 (66.8–83.2), handgrip strength(men), 50.0 (33.8–66.2), 80.8 (69.9–89.1), gait speed, 68.4 (58.2–77.4), 81.4 (75.0–86.8), chair-stand 67.8 (58.6–76.1), 91.8 (86.8–95.3), and Cumulated

  9. Hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of waiting areas: the role of patient characteristics on atmospherics in one academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Wang, Mu-Chia; Liao, Wei-Tsen; Lu, Jui-Heng; Sun, Pi-hung; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Breen, Gerald-Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background This study examines hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of the outpatient waiting areas in one medical center. The relationship of patient characteristics and their perceptions and needs for the outpatient waiting areas are also examined. Method The examined medical center consists of five main buildings which house seventeen primary waiting areas for the outpatient clinics of nine medical specialties: 1) Internal Medicine; 2) Surgery; 3) Ophthalmology; 4) Obstetrics-Gynecology and Pediatrics; 5) Chinese Medicine; 6) Otolaryngology; 7) Orthopedics; 8) Family Medicine; and 9) Dermatology. A 15-item structured questionnaire was developed to rate patient satisfaction covering the four dimensions of the physical environments of the outpatient waiting areas: 1) visual environment; 2) hearing environment; 3) body contact environment; and 4) cleanliness. The survey was conducted between November 28, 2005 and December 8, 2005. A total of 680 outpatients responded. Descriptive, univariate, and multiple regression analyses were applied in this study. Results All of the 15 items were ranked as relatively high with a range from 3.362 to 4.010, with a neutral score of 3. Using a principal component analysis' summated scores of four constructed dimensions of patient satisfaction with the physical environments (i.e. visual environment, hearing environment, body contact environment, and cleanliness), multiple regression analyses revealed that patient satisfaction with the physical environment of outpatient waiting areas was associated with gender, age, visiting frequency, and visiting time. Conclusion Patients' socio-demographics and context backgrounds demonstrated to have effects on their satisfaction with the physical environment of outpatient waiting areas. In addition to noticing the overall rankings for less satisfactory items, what should receive further attention is the consideration of the patients' personal characteristics when

  10. Isotopes and soil physic analysis as a tool to meet answers related to soil-plant-atmosphere behavior of Amazon forest during droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borma, L. D. S.; Oliveira, R. S.; Silva, R. D.; Chaparro Saaveedra, O. F.; Barros, F. V.; Bittencourt, P.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts and floods are part of the Amazon weather pattern, but in face of climate change, it has been expected an increase in their intensity and duration. Forests are important regulators of climate. However, it is still unknown how they respond to an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme droughts. Additionally, there are great uncertainties related with the forest behavior in an enriched CO2 environment. For the Amazon rainforest, some authors report forest growth in a drier climate, while others report forest mortality in these same conditions. The crucial factor in this process seem the linkage between atmospheric demand from water and its provision by soil moisture, intermediated by the plants. In theory, in regions where soil moisture is high, even in the absence of rainfall conditions, water exists in enough quantity to meet the atmospheric demand, and majority of plants behave as an evergreen forest. This is the case, for example, for some research sites of equatorial regions of the Amazon forest, which tend to increase evapotranspiration rates in dry season, when the atmospheric demand is higher. However, the extent to which soil moisture decreases, the plant is no longer able to meet the atmospheric demand, limiting evapotranspiration and possibly, entering in a dormant state. To understand the forest response to droughts, in terms of its potential to maintain or reduce evapotranspiration rates, it is necessary to know water dynamics in soil and soil layers where plants are able to extract water. It's a challenge, considering the great variability of soils and plants that forms the huge biodiversity of the Amazon forest. Here, we present an experiment design based on isotopic analyzes in a small watershed in Amazon basin. In order to understand the dynamics of the water used by the plant during the evaporation process, isotope analysis were carried out in soil water collected from shallow and deep groundwater, in the water collected on the bark

  11. Convective storms in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The atmospheres of the planets in the Solar System have different physical properties that in some cases can be considered as extreme when compared with our own planet's more familiar atmosphere. From the tenuous and cold atmosphere of Mars to the dense and warm atmosphere of Venus in the case of the terrestrial planets, to the gigantic atmospheres of the outer planets, or the nitrogen and methane atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan, we can find a large variety of physical environments. The comparative study of these atmospheres provides a better understanding of the physics of a geophysical fluid. In many of these worlds convective storms of different intensity appear. They are analogous to terrestrial atmospheres fed by the release of latent heat when one of the gases in the atmosphere condenses and they are therefore called moist convective storms. In many of these planets they can produce severe meteorological phenomena and by studying them in a comparative way we can aspire to get a further insight in the dynamics of these atmospheres even beyond the scope of moist convection. A classical example is the structure of the complex systems of winds in the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. These winds are zonal and alternate in latitude but their deep structure is not accessible to direct observation. However the behaviour of large--scale convective storms vertically extending over the "weather layer" allows to study the buried roots of these winds. Another interesting atmosphere with a rather different structure of convection is Titan, a world where methane is close to its triple point in the atmosphere and can condense in bright clouds with large precipitation fluxes that may model part of the orography of the surface making Titan a world with a methane cycle similar to the hydrological cycle of Earth's atmosphere.

  12. Atmospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sloane, C.S. ); Tesche, T.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the predictive strength of atmospheric models. The book covers all of the major important atmospheric areas, including large scale models for ozone depletion and global warming, regional scale models for urban smog (ozone and visibility impairment) and acid rain, as well as accompanying models of cloud processes and biofeedbacks.

  13. The Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1983-01-01

    The composition and dynamics of the earth's atmosphere are discussed, considering the atmosphere's role in distributing the energy of solar radiation received by the earth. Models of this activity which help to explain climates of the past and predict those of the future are also considered. (JN)

  14. Secondary organic aerosol formation by irradiation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene-NOx-H2O in a new reaction chamber for atmospheric chemistry and physics.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Dwane; Dommen, Josef; Kalberer, Markus; Prévôt, André S H; Richter, René; Sax, Mirjam; Steinbacher, Martin; Weingartner, Ernest; Baltensperger, Urs

    2005-04-15

    A new environmental reaction smog chamber was built to simulate particle formation and growth similar to that expected in the atmosphere. The organic material is formed from nucleation of photooxidized organic compounds. The chamber is a 27 m3 fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) bag suspended in a temperature-controlled enclosure. Four xenon arc lamps (16 kW total) are used to irradiate primary gas components for experiments lasting up to 24 h. Experiments using irradiations of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene-NOx-H2O at similar input concentrations without seed particles were used to determine particle number and volume concentration wall loss rates of 0.209+/-0.018 and 0.139+/-0.070 h(-1), respectively. The particle formation was compared with and without propene.

  15. Multi-physics modelling contributions to investigate the atmospheric cosmic rays on the single event upset sensitivity along the scaling trend of CMOS technologies.

    PubMed

    Hubert, G; Regis, D; Cheminet, A; Gatti, M; Lacoste, V

    2014-10-01

    Particles originating from primary cosmic radiation, which hit the Earth's atmosphere give rise to a complex field of secondary particles. These particles include neutrons, protons, muons, pions, etc. Since the 1980s it has been known that terrestrial cosmic rays can penetrate the natural shielding of buildings, equipment and circuit package and induce soft errors in integrated circuits. Recently, research has shown that commercial static random access memories are now so small and sufficiently sensitive that single event upsets (SEUs) may be induced from the electronic stopping of a proton. With continued advancements in process size, this downward trend in sensitivity is expected to continue. Then, muon soft errors have been predicted for nano-electronics. This paper describes the effects in the specific cases such as neutron-, proton- and muon-induced SEU observed in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. The results will allow investigating the technology node sensitivity along the scaling trend.

  16. Multi-physics modelling contributions to investigate the atmospheric cosmic rays on the single event upset sensitivity along the scaling trend of CMOS technologies.

    PubMed

    Hubert, G; Regis, D; Cheminet, A; Gatti, M; Lacoste, V

    2014-10-01

    Particles originating from primary cosmic radiation, which hit the Earth's atmosphere give rise to a complex field of secondary particles. These particles include neutrons, protons, muons, pions, etc. Since the 1980s it has been known that terrestrial cosmic rays can penetrate the natural shielding of buildings, equipment and circuit package and induce soft errors in integrated circuits. Recently, research has shown that commercial static random access memories are now so small and sufficiently sensitive that single event upsets (SEUs) may be induced from the electronic stopping of a proton. With continued advancements in process size, this downward trend in sensitivity is expected to continue. Then, muon soft errors have been predicted for nano-electronics. This paper describes the effects in the specific cases such as neutron-, proton- and muon-induced SEU observed in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. The results will allow investigating the technology node sensitivity along the scaling trend. PMID:24500239

  17. Recent studies of buried charges of single, multiple, and plate explosives, with details of atmospheric propagation effects, applied to human and physical impact

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristics of blast waves from explosions in simple geometries and containment media have been well defined by hydrodynamic models and verified by experiment. A large class of useful explosions, those only partially contained by the close surrounding medium, are less adequately understood. This report addresses the problem of airblast emitted into the atmosphere from explosions buried in the ground at less than containment depth. Examples of such explosions have arisen in cratering excavation, mining and quarrying, ordnance disposal, and military High Explosives Simulation Tests (HEST). Some recent HEST data have been assembled here to help define an empirical approach to airblast predictions, for operational safety as well as for controlling environmental impact on neighboring communities.

  18. A study of the interaction of physical and numerical parameterizations with regard to moisture forecasting in a regional model of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halberstam, Isadore M.; Tung, S.-L.; Knowlton, L.; Zolotusky, G.

    1990-07-01

    This is the final report produced under contract F19628-88-C-0072. It summarizes the research performed with STX's Relocatable Limited-Area Model (RLAM) in assessing the necessary ingredients for forecasting moisture. The report describes the experiments involving lateral boundary treatment and physical parameterizations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and convective systems. It also explains how these interact with the numerical schemes that are available in RLAM and what effects these have on moisture forecasts.

  19. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2010-03-19

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere?

  20. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2010-03-19

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere? PMID:20299587

  1. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

  2. Roster of Physics Departments with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2014: Results from the 2014 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Physics bachelor's degree production has more than doubled since the recent low in 1999 and total enrollments in US undergraduate physics programs continue to increase. The all-time high of 7,526 bachelor's degrees in the class of 2014 represents the 15th consecutive year that the number of physics bachelor's conferred has increased. First-year…

  3. Atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    The earth's atmosphere is made up of a number of gases in different relative amounts. Near sea level and up to about 90 km, the amount of these atmospheric gases in clean, relatively dry air is practically constant. Four of these gases, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, make up 99.99 percent by volume of the atmosphere. Two gases, ozone and water vapor, change in relative amounts, but the total amount of these two is very small compared to the amount of the other gases. The atmospheric composition shown in a table can be considered valid up to 90 km geometric altitude. Above 90 km, mainly because of molecular dissociation and diffusive separation, the composition changes.

  4. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  5. Surface physical-morphological and chemical changes leading to performance enhancement of atmospheric pressure plasma treated polyester fabrics for inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Kuanjun; Zhang, Chunming

    2009-06-01

    Without any preprocessing, polyester fabric has lower ability to hold on water due to the smooth morphology and chemistry property of polyester fibers. Therefore, patterns directly printed with pigment inks have poor color yields and easily bleed. In this paper, atmospheric pressure plasma was used to pretreat polyester fabric in order to provide an active surface for the inkjet printing. The results showed that surface-modified polyester fabrics could obtain the effects of features with enhanced color yields and excellent pattern sharpness. SEM images indicated that the rough surface of plasma treated fibers could provide more capacities for the fabric to capture inks and also facilitate the penetration of colorant particles into the polyester fabric. XPS analysis revealed that air + 50%Ar plasma introduced more oxygen-containing groups onto the fabric surface than air plasma. Although AFM images indicated that etching effects generated by air plasma treatments were more evident, the air/Ar plasma treated sample has higher K/ S value and better color performance. These studies have also shown that the chemical modification of plasma appears to be relatively more significant for improving the effect of inkjet printing.

  6. Dimethylsulfide/cloud condensation nuclei/climate system - Relevant size-resolved measurements of the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, P. K.; Covert, D. S.; Bates, T. S.; Kapustin, V. N.; Ramsey-Bell, D. C.; Mcinnes, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    The mass and number relationships occurring within the atmospheric dimethylsulfide/cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)/climate system, using simultaneous measurements of particulate phase mass size distributions of nss SO4(2-), methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and NH4(+); number size distributions of particles having diameters between 0.02 and 9.6 microns; CCN concentrations at a supersaturation of 0.3 percent; relative humidity; and temperature, obtained for the northeastern Pacific Ocean in April and May 1991. Based on these measurements, particulate nss SO4(2-), MSA, and NH4(+) mass appeared to be correlated with both particle effective surface area and number in the accumulation mode size range (0.16 to 0.5 micron). No correlations were found in the size range below 0.16 micron. A correlation was also found between nss SO4(2-) mass and the CCN number concentration, such that a doubling of the SO4(2-) mass corresponded to a 40 percent increase in the CCN number concentration. However, no correlation was found between MSA mass and CCN concentration.

  7. Research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A: Water Mediated Chemistry of Oxidized Atmospheric Compounds Part B: The Development of Surveying Tools to Determine How Effective Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Student Conceptual Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maron, Marta Katarzyna

    This dissertation is a combination of two research areas, experimental physical chemistry, Chapters I to V, and chemical education, Chapters VI to VII. Chapters I to V describe research on the water-mediated chemistry of oxidized atmospheric molecules and the impact that water has on the spectra of these environmental systems. The role of water in the Earth's atmosphere has been of considerable interest due to its ability to impact chemistry and climate. Oxidized atmospheric molecules in the presence of water have the ability to form hydrogen bonded water complexes. The spectroscopic investigation of nitric acid-water complexes, outlined in Chapter III, was undertaken to characterize intermolecular hydrogen bonds in a water-restricted environment at ambient temperatures. Additionally, this characterization of nitric acid-water complexes allowed for the comparison of calculated overtone OH-stretching vibrational band frequencies, intensities, and anharmonicities of intermolecular hydrogen-bonded water complexes with experimental observations. Oxidized organic molecules, such as aldehydes and ketones, in addition to forming hydrogen-bonded water complexes can undergo a hydration reaction of the carbonyl group and form germinal diols in the presence of water. This chemistry has been studied extensively in bulk aqueous media, however little is known about this process in the gas-phase at low water concentrations. The focus of the studies outlined in Chapters IV and V is motivated by the ability of pyruvic acid and formaldehyde to form germinal diols and water complexes in water-restricted environment. This water-mediated chemistry changes the physical and chemical properties of these organic molecules, therefore, impacting the partitioning between gas and particle phase, as well as the chemistry and photochemistry of oxidized organic molecules in the Earth's atmosphere. The results presented in this dissertation may help resolve the significant discrepancy between

  8. Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric profiles, land-surface temperature, and surface emissivity from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer thermal infrared data: extension of a two-step physical algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xia L; Wan, Zhengming; Moeller, Christopher C; Menzel, W Paul; Gumley, Liam E

    2002-02-10

    An extension to the two-step physical retrieval algorithm was developed. Combined clear-sky multitemporal and multispectral observations were used to retrieve the atmospheric temperature-humidity profile, land-surface temperature, and surface emissivities in the midwave (3-5 microns) and long-wave (8-14.5 microns) regions. The extended algorithm was tested with both simulated and real data from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator. A sensitivity study and error analysis demonstrate that retrieval performance is improved by the extended algorithm. The extended algorithm is relatively insensitive to the uncertainties simulated for the real observations. The extended algorithm was also applied to real MODIS daytime and nighttime observations and showed that it is capable of retrieving medium-scale atmospheric temperature water vapor and retrieving surface temperature emissivity with retrieval accuracy similar to that achieved by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) but at a spatial resolution higher than that of GOES. PMID:11908219

  9. The role of physical and chemical properties of Pd nanostructured materials immobilized on inorganic carriers on ion formation in atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Koch, Marcus; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2014-06-01

    Fundamental parameters influencing the ion-producing efficiency of palladium nanostructures (nanoparticles [Pd-NP], nanoflowers, nanofilms) during laser irradiation were studied in this paper. The nanostructures were immobilized on the surface of different solid inorganic carrier materials (porous and mono-crystalline silicon, anodic porous aluminum oxide, glass and polished steel) by using classical galvanic deposition, electroless local deposition and sputtering. It was the goal of this study to investigate the influence of both the nanoparticular layer as well as the carrier material on ion production for selected analyte molecules. Our experiments demonstrated that the dimensions of the synthesized nanostructures, the thickness of the active layers, surface disorders, thermal conductivity and physically or chemically adsorbed water influenced signal intensities of analyte ions during surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) while no effects such as plasmon resonance, photoelectric effect or catalytic activity were expected to occur. Excellent LDI abilities were seen for Pd-NPs immobilized on steel, while Pd nanoflowers on porous silicon exhibited several disadvantages; viz, strong memory effects, dependency of the analytical signal on amount of physically and chemically adsorbed water inside porous carrier, reduced SALDI activity from unstable connections between Pd and semiconductor material, decrease of the melting point of pure silicon after Pd immobilization and resulting strong laser ablation of metal/semiconductor complex, as well as significantly changed surface morphology after laser irradiation. The analytical performance of Pd-NP/steel was further improved by applying a hydrophobic coating to the steel surface before galvanic deposition. This procedure increased the distance between Pd-NPs, thus reducing thermal stress upon LDI; it simultaneously decreased spot sizes of deposited sample solutions.

  10. The role of physical and chemical properties of Pd nanostructured materials immobilized on inorganic carriers on ion formation in atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Koch, Marcus; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2014-06-01

    Fundamental parameters influencing the ion-producing efficiency of palladium nanostructures (nanoparticles [Pd-NP], nanoflowers, nanofilms) during laser irradiation were studied in this paper. The nanostructures were immobilized on the surface of different solid inorganic carrier materials (porous and mono-crystalline silicon, anodic porous aluminum oxide, glass and polished steel) by using classical galvanic deposition, electroless local deposition and sputtering. It was the goal of this study to investigate the influence of both the nanoparticular layer as well as the carrier material on ion production for selected analyte molecules. Our experiments demonstrated that the dimensions of the synthesized nanostructures, the thickness of the active layers, surface disorders, thermal conductivity and physically or chemically adsorbed water influenced signal intensities of analyte ions during surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) while no effects such as plasmon resonance, photoelectric effect or catalytic activity were expected to occur. Excellent LDI abilities were seen for Pd-NPs immobilized on steel, while Pd nanoflowers on porous silicon exhibited several disadvantages; viz, strong memory effects, dependency of the analytical signal on amount of physically and chemically adsorbed water inside porous carrier, reduced SALDI activity from unstable connections between Pd and semiconductor material, decrease of the melting point of pure silicon after Pd immobilization and resulting strong laser ablation of metal/semiconductor complex, as well as significantly changed surface morphology after laser irradiation. The analytical performance of Pd-NP/steel was further improved by applying a hydrophobic coating to the steel surface before galvanic deposition. This procedure increased the distance between Pd-NPs, thus reducing thermal stress upon LDI; it simultaneously decreased spot sizes of deposited sample solutions. PMID:24913399

  11. Optical and physical characteristics of Bay of Bengal aerosols during W-ICARB: Spatial and vertical heterogeneities in the marine atmospheric boundary layer and in the vertical column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, K. Krishna; Beegum, S. Naseema; Babu, S. Suresh; Smirnov, Alexander; John, Sherine Rachel; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Narasimhulu, K.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Nair, Vijayakumar S.

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of the continuous and collocated measurements of columnar spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) and mass size distributions in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the Bay of Bengal (BoB), carried out from 27 December 2008 to 29 January 2009 during the Winter Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (W-ICARB), revealed distinct regional features in the spatial variations of the aerosol properties in the MABL and column. In general, AODs were high over the northern and northwestern parts of the BoB, with pockets of very high values, within which the AODs were as high as ˜0.8 while the smallest values (˜0.1) were observed over the northeastern BoB, off the Myanmar and Bangladesh coasts. Interestingly, though, this region had the highest Angstrom wavelength exponent α (˜1.5), notwithstanding the generally high values that prevailed over the eastern as well as northern coastal regions of India. Back trajectory analyses revealed the significant role of the advected aerosols in the observed spatial pattern. Within the MABL, high accumulation mode mass concentrations (MA) prevailed over the entire BoB with the accumulation fraction ranging from 0.6 to 0.95, whereas very high fine-mode (r < 0.1 μm) aerosol mass fractions (˜0.8) were observed over the northeastern and western coastal BoB adjoining the Indian mainland (where α was high to very high). The vertical distributions, inferred from the columnar and MABL properties as well as from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations data, revealed better homogeneity in the northeastern and eastern BoB, whereas significant heterogeneity was seen over other regions.

  12. Atmospheric Laser Communication.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer(, Kenneth W.; Witiw, Michael R.; Baars+, Jeffrey A.; Oke, T. R.

    2004-05-01

    Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly through the atmosphere via laser beams over paths from a few meters to 4 km or longer. FSL uses lasers in the near-infrared spectrum, typically at wavelengths of 850 or 1550 nm. Given these wavelengths, atmospheric attenuation must be considered, and an adequate margin of optical power (dB) must exist to support high system availability (the percentage of time that an FSL link is in operation, typically 99.9%). A visual range of 100 m can attenuate a laser beam at a rate of nearly 130 dB km-1. For short links (< 1200 m), fog and low clouds are the primary concerns. For longer links, scintillation, heavy rain, and snow frequently become issues. To address these issues, long-term climate data are analyzed to determine the frequency of occurrence of low visibilities and low-cloud ceilings. To estimate availability at a site of interest, adjustments to airport climate data are made to accommodate differences in altitude, geography, and the effects of the urban heat island. In sum, communication via FSL is a feasible alternative to fiber optic cable when atmospheric conditions are considered and properly analyzed.(Current affiliation: The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington+Current affiliation: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

  13. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2006-02-01

    This textbook fills a gap in the literature for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation. It covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the book applies to planetary atmosphere. The authors are physicists and teach at the largest meteorology department of the US at Penn State. Craig T. Bohren has taught the atmospheric radiation course there for the past 20 years with no book. Eugene Clothiaux has taken over and added to the course notes. Problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents. The design of the figures especially for this book is meant to ease comprehension. Discussions have a graded approach with a thorough treatment of subjects, such as single scattering by particles, at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the multiple scattering theory begins with piles of plates. This simple theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, i.e. optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter. The more complicated theory, the two-stream theory, then takes the reader beyond the pile-of-plates theory. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.

  14. Solar Atmosphere Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    This contribution honoring Kees de Jager's 80th birthday is a review of "one-dimensional" solar atmosphere modeling that followed on the initial "Utrecht Reference Photosphere" of Heintze, Hubenet & de Jager (1964). My starting point is the Bilderberg conference, convened by de Jager in 1967 at the time when NLTE radiative transfer theory became mature. The resulting Bilderberg model was quickly superseded by the HSRA and later by the VAL-FAL sequence of increasingly sophisticated NLTE continuum-fitting models from Harvard. They became the "standard models" of solar atmosphere physics, but Holweger's relatively simple LTE line-fitting model still persists as a favorite of solar abundance determiners. After a brief model inventory I discuss subsequent work on the major modeling issues (coherency, NLTE, dynamics) listed as to-do items by de Jager in 1968. The present conclusion is that one-dimensional modeling recovers Schwarzschild's (1906) finding that the lower solar atmosphere is grosso modo in radiative equilibrium. This is a boon for applications regarding the solar atmosphere as one-dimensional stellar example - but the real sun, including all the intricate phenomena that now constitute the mainstay of solar physics, is vastly more interesting.

  15. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  16. Roster of Physics Departments with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2010: Results from the 2010 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Academic year 2009-10 produced more physics bachelor's and more physics PhDs than in any other year in US history. The 6,017 physics bachelor's degrees earned in the class of 2010 represent a 65% increase from the class of 1999 eleven years earlier. The 1,558 PhDs in the class of 2010 is up 43% from a recent low 6 years earlier. Non-US citizens…

  17. Roster of Physics Departments with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2011: Results from the 2011 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Academic year 2010-11 produced 2 new all-time highs for physics bachelor's and physics PhDs conferred in the U.S. The 6,296 physics bachelor's degrees earned in the class of 2011 represent a 73% increase from a recent low in the class of 1999 twelve years earlier. The 1,688 PhDs in the class of 2011 is up 55% from a recent low 7 years earlier.…

  18. Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar atmosphere by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the physical parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental physical processes in solar atmosphere which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the physical process for the Sun-Earth connections.

  19. Atmospheric radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Harshvardhan, M.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Studies of atmospheric radiative processes are summarized for the period 1987-1990. Topics discussed include radiation modeling; clouds and radiation; radiative effects in dynamics and climate; radiation budget and aerosol effects; and gaseous absorption, particulate scattering and surface reflection. It is concluded that the key developments of the period are a defining of the radiative forcing to the climate system by trace gases and clouds, the recognition that cloud microphysics and morphology need to be incorporated not only into radiation models but also climate models, and the isolation of a few important unsolved theoretical problems in atmospheric radiation.

  20. Reply to "comment on 'falsification of the Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within the Frame of Physics' by Joshua B. Halpern, Christopher M. Colose, Chris Ho-Stuart Joel D. Shore, Arthur P. Smith, JÖRG Zimmermann"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Gerhard; Tscheuschner, Ralf D.

    It is shown that the notorious claim by Halpern et al. recently repeated in their comment that the method, logic, and conclusions of our "Falsification Of The CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics" would be in error has no foundation. Since Halpern et al. communicate our arguments incorrectly, their comment is scientifically vacuous. In particular, it is not true that we are "trying to apply the Clausius statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to only one side of a heat transfer process rather than the entire process" and that we are "systematically ignoring most non-radiative heat flows applicable to Earth's surface and atmosphere". Rather, our falsification paper discusses the violation of fundamental physical and mathematical principles in 14 examples of common pseudo-derivations of fictitious greenhouse effects that are all based on simplistic pictures of radiative transfer and their obscure relation to thermodynamics, including but not limited to those descriptions (a) that define a "Perpetuum Mobile Of The 2nd Kind", (b) that rely on incorrectly calculated averages of global temperatures, (c) that refer to incorrectly normalized spectra of electromagnetic radiation. Halpern et al. completely missed an exceptional chance to formulate a scientifically well-founded antithesis. They do not even define a greenhouse effect that they wish to defend. We take the opportunity to clarify some misunderstandings, which are communicated in the current discussion on the non-measurable, i.e., physically non-existing influence of the trace gas CO2 on the climates of the Earth.

  1. Atmospheric Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    With its Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), half of the Ralph instrument, New Horizons captured several pictures of mesoscale gravity waves in Jupiter's equatorial atmosphere. Buoyancy waves of this type are seen frequently on Earth - for example, they can be caused when air flows over a mountain and a regular cloud pattern forms downstream. In Jupiter's case there are no mountains, but if conditions in the atmosphere are just right, it is possible to form long trains of these small waves. The source of the wave excitation seems to lie deep in Jupiter's atmosphere, below the visible cloud layers at depths corresponding to pressures 10 times that at Earth's surface. The New Horizons measurements showed that the waves move about 100 meters per second faster than surrounding clouds; this is about 25% of the speed of sound on Earth and is much greater than current models of these waves predict. Scientists can 'read' the speed and patterns these waves to learn more about activity and stability in the atmospheric layers below.

  2. Atmospheric humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's atmosphere. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...

  3. Atmospheres around Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Benz, Willy

    1994-12-01

    Interest in the behavior of atmospheres around neutron stars has grown astronomically in the past few years. Some of this interest arrived in the wake of the explosion of Supernova 1987A and its elusive remnant; spawning renewed interest in a method to insure material ``fall-back'' onto the adolescent neutron star in an effort to transform it into a silent black hole. However, the bulk of the activity with atmospheres around neutron stars is concentrated in stellar models with neutron star, rather than white dwarf, cores; otherwise known as Thorne-Zytkow objects. First a mere seed in the imagination of theorists, Thorne-Zytkow objects have grown into an observational reality with an ever-increasing list of formation scenarios and observational prospects. Unfortunately, the analytic work of Chevalier on supernova fall-back implies that, except for a few cases, the stellar simulations of Thorne-Zytkow objects are missing an important aspect of physics: neutrinos. Neutrino cooling removes the pressure support of these atmospheres, allowing accretion beyond the canonical Eddington rate for these objects. We present here the results of detailed hydrodynamical simulations in one and two dimensions with the additional physical effects of neutrinos, advanced equations of state, and relativity over a range of parameters for our atmosphere including entropy and chemical composition as well as a range in the neutron star size. In agreement with Chevalier, we find, under the current list of formation scenarios, that the creature envisioned by Thorne and Zytkow will not survive the enormous appetite of a neutron star. However, neutrino heating (a physical effect not considered in Chevalier's analysis) can play an important role in creating instabilities in some formation schemes, leading to an expulsion of matter rather than rapid accretion. By placing scrutiny upon the formation methods, we can determine the observational prospects for each.

  4. Lithosphere-Atmosphere coupling: Spectral element modeling of the evolution of acoustic waves in the atmosphere from an underground source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, Gil; Price, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Lithosphere-Atmosphere coupling: Spectral element modeling of the evolution of acoustic waves in the atmosphere from an underground source. G. Averbuch, C. Price Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Israel Infrasound is one of the four Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty technologies for monitoring nuclear explosions. This technology measures the acoustic waves generated by the explosions followed by their propagation through the atmosphere. There are also natural phenomena that can act as an infrasound sources like sprites, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The infrasound waves generated from theses phenomena can also be detected by the infrasound arrays. In order to study the behavior of these waves, i.e. the physics of wave propagation in the atmosphere, their evolution and their trajectories, numerical methods are required. This presentation will deal with the evolution of acoustic waves generated by underground sources (earthquakes and underground explosions). A 2D Spectral elements formulation for lithosphere-atmosphere coupling will be presented. The formulation includes the elastic wave equation for the seismic waves and the momentum, mass and state equations for the acoustic waves in a moving stratified atmosphere. The coupling of the two media is made by boundary conditions that ensures the continuity of traction and velocity (displacement) in the normal component to the interface. This work has several objectives. The first is to study the evolution of acoustic waves in the atmosphere from an underground source. The second is to derive transmission coefficients for the energy flux with respect to the seismic magnitude and earth density. The third will be the generation of seismic waves from acoustic waves in the atmosphere. Is it possible?

  5. Roster of Physics Departments with Enrollment and Degree Data, 2012: Results from the 2012 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The number of physics degrees earned in the U.S. continues to rise, with bachelor's and PhDs yet again reaching all-time highs. The 6,776 physics bachelor's degrees awarded in the 2011-2012 academic year represent an 8% increase over the previous year and an 86% increase from a recent low in 1999. Similarly, the number of PhDs (1,762) in…

  6. Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, John

    2004-12-01

    In his book, John Green presents a unique personal insight into the fundamentals of fluid mechanics and atmospheric dynamics. Generations of students have benefited from his lectures, and this book, many years in the making, is the result of his wide teaching and research experience. The theory of fluid flow has developed to such an extent that very complex mathematics and models are currently used to describe it, but many of the fundamental results follow from relatively simple considerations: these classic principles are derived here in a novel, distinctive, and at times even idiosyncratic, way. The book is an introduction to fluid mechanics in the atmosphere for students and researchers that are already familiar with the subject, but who wish to extend their knowledge and philosophy beyond the currently popular development of conventional undergraduate instruction.

  7. New atmospheric sensor analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. G.

    1989-01-01

    The functional capabilities of the ESAD Research Computing Facility are discussed. The system is used in processing atmospheric measurements which are used in the evaluation of sensor performance, conducting design-concept simulation studies, and also in modeling the physical and dynamical nature of atmospheric processes. The results may then be evaluated to furnish inputs into the final design specifications for new space sensors intended for future Spacelab, Space Station, and free-flying missions. In addition, data gathered from these missions may subsequently be analyzed to provide better understanding of requirements for numerical modeling of atmospheric phenomena.

  8. Studies of Tenuous Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, Michael R.

    1997-01-01

    In order to understand the physical and chemical processes which produce the dust comae in comets and various tenuous planetary and planetary satellite (upper) atmospheres through interactions with their particle, field, and radiation environs, it is necessary analyze remotely observed and spacecraft data with physically meaningful models. With this in mind, we have undertaken a coupled program of theoretical modeling and complementary data analysis regarding the distribution of dust in comets, and the global distributions of neutral and ionized gases in, and escape from, tenuous planetary atmospheres. The nature of the atmospheres and ionospheres of Jupiter's natural satellites Io and Europa and their interactions with their surrounding radiation, and particles and fields environments is a very active and timely field of study. Various kinds of work, depending on different regime-dependent approaches have been adopted in recent years, with the hope of understanding the basic global structure of the atmospheres, and their interactions with solar radiation and with the Jovian plasma torus environment. Io's interaction with Jupiter's corotating plasma torus has been studied for over 25 years. Io has a neutral atmosphere which is probably locally thick but rather uneven across its surface. (See Lellouch 1996 for an excellent review of pre-1996 literature.) The ultimate source for atmospheric gases appears to be the numerous active volcanoes on the surface, moderated by condensation and sublimation from the surface. The energetic particle environment near Io is responsible for the balance of the plasma heating, Joule heating, ionization, and surface d responsible I an atmospheric sputtering, and in some form drives the escape of the neutral atmosphere. The tenuous atmosphere portion of our work involves developing and applying coupled three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and fully kinetic ion and neutral Direct Simulation Monte Carlo models to describe the upper

  9. Atmospheric science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas; Clarke, Antony; Goodman, Jindra; Levin, Zev; Tomasko, Martin; Toon, O. Brian; Whitten, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The following types of experiments for a proposed Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility are described: (1) growth of liquid water drop populations; (2) coalescence; (3) drop breakup; (4) breakup of freezing drops; (5) ice nucleation for large aerosols or bacteria; (6) scavenging of gases, for example, SO2 oxidation; (7) phoretic forces, i.e., thermophoresis versus diffusiophoresis; (8) Rayleigh bursting of drops; (9) charge separation due to collisions of rimed and unrimed ice; (10) charged drop dynamics; (11) growth of particles in other planetary atmospheres; and (12) freezing and liquid-liquid evaporation. The required capabilities and desired hardware for the facility are detailed.

  10. The Social Tasks of Learning to Become a Physical Education Teacher: Considering the HPE Subject Department as a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirna, Karen; Tinning, Richard; Rossi, Toni

    2008-01-01

    Initial teacher education (ITE) students participate in various workplaces within schools and in doing so, form understandings about the numerous, and at times competing, expectations of teachers' work. Through these experiences they form understandings about themselves as health and physical education (HPE) teachers. This paper examines the ways…

  11. Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical Department. Attachment 10. PT/OT QPCB Task Sort for Physical and Occupational Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.

    This publication is Attachment 10 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties in physical and occupational therapy. (BT)

  12. Self-Efficacy Expectations in Teacher Trainees and the Perceived Role of Schools and Their Physical Education Department in the Educational Treatment of Overweight Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Lopez, Emilio; Zagalaz Sanchez, Maria; Ramos Alvarez, Manuel; de la Torre Cruz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the relation between self-efficacy expectations and the attitude towards child and youth obesity, as well as the role of the school in this matter. A questionnaire was given to a sample of 436 trainee physical education teachers from eight universities in Andalusia (Spain). The questionnaire was a version of "Teaching…

  13. Development of local atmospheric model for estimating solar irradiance in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeap, E. C.; Lau, A. M. S.; Busu, I.; Kanniah, K. D.; Rasib, A. W.; Kadir, W. H. W.

    2014-02-01

    Incoming solar irradiance covers a wide range of wavelengths with different intensities which drives almost every biological and physical cycle on earth at a selective wavelength. Estimation of the intensities of each wavelength for the solar irradiance on the earth surface provides a better way to understand and predict the radiance energy. It requires that the atmospheric and geometric input and the availability of atmospheric parameter is always the main concern in estimating solar irradiance. In this study, a local static atmospheric model for Peninsular Malaysia was built to provide the atmospheric parameters in the estimation of solar irradiance. Ten years of monthly Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) average data (water vapor, temperature, humidity and pressure profile) of the Peninsular Malaysia was used for the building of the atmospheric model and the atmospheric model were assessed based on the measured meteorological data with RMSE of 4.7% and 0.7k for both humidity and temperature respectively. The atmospheric model were applied on a well-established radiative transfer model namely SMARTS2. Some modifications are required in order to include the atmospheric model into the radiative transfer model. The solar irradiance results were then assessed with measured irradiance data and the results show that both the radiative transfer model and atmospheric model were reliable with RMSE value of 0.5 Wm-2. The atmospheric model was further validated based on the measured meteorological data (temperature and humidity) provided by the Department of Meteorology, Malaysia and high coefficient of determination with R2 value of 0.99 (RMSE value = 4.7%) and 0.90 (RMSE value = 0.7k) were found for both temperature and humidity respectively.

  14. Solar flare model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Fisher, George H.

    1993-01-01

    Solar flare model atmospheres computed under the assumption of energetic equilibrium in the chromosphere are presented. The models use a static, one-dimensional plane parallel geometry and are designed within a physically self-consistent coronal loop. Assumed flare heating mechanisms include collisions from a flux of non-thermal electrons and x-ray heating of the chromosphere by the corona. The heating by energetic electrons accounts explicitly for variations of the ionized fraction with depth in the atmosphere. X-ray heating of the chromosphere by the corona incorporates a flare loop geometry by approximating distant portions of the loop with a series of point sources, while treating the loop leg closest to the chromospheric footpoint in the plane-parallel approximation. Coronal flare heating leads to increased heat conduction, chromospheric evaporation and subsequent changes in coronal pressure; these effects are included self-consistently in the models. Cooling in the chromosphere is computed in detail for the important optically thick HI, CaII and MgII transitions using the non-LTE prescription in the program MULTI. Hydrogen ionization rates from x-ray photo-ionization and collisional ionization by non-thermal electrons are included explicitly in the rate equations. The models are computed in the 'impulsive' and 'equilibrium' limits, and in a set of intermediate 'evolving' states. The impulsive atmospheres have the density distribution frozen in pre-flare configuration, while the equilibrium models assume the entire atmosphere is in hydrostatic and energetic equilibrium. The evolving atmospheres represent intermediate stages where hydrostatic equilibrium has been established in the chromosphere and corona, but the corona is not yet in energetic equilibrium with the flare heating source. Thus, for example, chromospheric evaporation is still in the process of occurring.

  15. Reference atmospheres: VIRA II -Venus International Reference Atmosphere update.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasova, Ludmila

    2012-07-01

    VIRA I was started in 1982 (30 years ago) and published in1985 (ASR,v5,n11, 1985) by G. Keating, A. Kliore, and V. Moroz. The purpose was to produce a concise, descriptive model summarizing the physical properties of the atmosphere of Venus, which by then had been extensively observed by instruments on board the Venera and Pioneer space probes. VIRA was used by many scientists and engineers in their studies as referent standard of atmospheric data. Afterwards several missions have obtained new data. In particular the experiments on late Veneras and Venus Express. Experiments on board of VEX, working on the orbit for 6 years, provide new high quality data on atmospheric structure, clouds properties, dynamics, composition of the atmosphere, thermal balance, ionosphere. These new data will be used for VIRA update. Original data consists of 7 Chapters.(1 ) Models of the structure of the atmosphere of Venus from the surface to 100 km altitude, (2) Circulation of the atmosphere from surface to 100 km, (3) Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere, (4) Models of Venus neutral upper atmosphere: structure and composition, (5) Composition of the atmosphere below 100 km altitude, (6) Solar and thermal radiation in the Venus atmosphere, (7) The Venus ionosphere. By 2002 Gerry Keating collected materials to update VIRA. But only two chapter were published: (1 ) Models of the structure of the atmosphere of Venus from the surface to 100 km altitude (Zasova et al, 2006, Cosmic Research, 44, N4), (5) Composition of the atmosphere below 100 km altitude (De Bergh et al. 2006, PSS). Both these chapters were based on the data, obtained before VEX. At the moment the structure of the original VIRA looks acceptable for VIRA II also, however, new Chapters may be added. At COSPAR 2014 in Moscow the session on Reference atmospheres (RAPS), may be proposed to continue discussion on VIRA, and start working on MIRA, and complete VIRA and publish (including CD) after COSPAR 2016 (or may be even

  16. Bitz, Ginoux, Jacobson, Nizkorodov, and Yang Receive 2013 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Ping Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2014-07-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the five Ascent Awards to Professor Ping Yang of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Texas A&M University for significant contributions to atmospheric scattering, radiative transfer, and remote sensing.

  17. Atmospheric Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embleton, Tony F. W.; Daigle, Gilles A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviewed here is the current state of knowledge with respect to each basic mechanism of sound propagation in the atmosphere and how each mechanism changes the spectral or temporal characteristics of the sound received at a distance from the source. Some of the basic processes affecting sound wave propagation which are present in any situation are discussed. They are geometrical spreading, molecular absorption, and turbulent scattering. In geometrical spreading, sound levels decrease with increasing distance from the source; there is no frequency dependence. In molecular absorption, sound energy is converted into heat as the sound wave propagates through the air; there is a strong dependence on frequency. In turbulent scattering, local variations in wind velocity and temperature induce fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the sound waves as they propagate through an inhomogeneous medium; there is a moderate dependence on frequency.

  18. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, R. G. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    GLOBMET (the Global Meteor Observation System) was first proposed by the Soviet Geophysical Committee and was accepted by the Middle Atmosphere Program Steering Committee in 1982. While the atmospheric dynamics data from the system are of primary interest to MAP, GLOBMET also encompasses the astronomical radio and optical observations of meteoroids, and the physics of their interaction with the Earth's atmosphere. These astronomical observations and interactional physics with the Earth's atmosphere are discussed in detail.

  19. Middle atmosphere program. Handbook for MAP, volume 25

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    GLOBMET (the Global Meteor Observation System) was first proposed by the Soviet Geophysical Committee and was accepted by the Middle Atmosphere Program Steering Committee in 1982. While the atmospheric dynamics data from the system are of primary interest to MAP, GLOBMET also encompasses the astronomical radio and optical observations of meteoroids, and the physics of their interaction with the Earth's atmosphere. These astronomical observations and interactional physics with the Earth's atmosphere are discussed in detail.

  20. Titan's surface and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alexander G.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Ádámkovics, Máté

    2016-05-01

    Since its arrival in late 2004, the NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn has revealed Titan to be a world that is both strange and familiar. Titan is the only extraterrestrial body known to support standing bodies of stable liquid on its surface and, along with Earth and early Mars, is one of three places in the Solar System known to have had an active hydrologic cycle. With atmospheric pressures of 1.5 bar and temperatures of 90-95 K at the surface, methane and ethane condense out of Titan's nitrogen-dominated atmosphere and flow as liquids on the surface. Despite vast differences in environmental conditions and materials from Earth, Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle drives climatic and geologic processes which generate landforms that are strikingly similar to their terrestrial counterparts, including vast equatorial dunes, well-organized channel networks that route material through erosional and depositional landscapes, and lakes and seas of liquid hydrocarbons. These similarities make Titan a natural laboratory for studying the processes that shape terrestrial landscapes and drive climates, probing extreme conditions impossible to recreate in earthbound laboratories. Titan's exotic environment ensures that even rudimentary measurements of atmospheric/surface interactions, such as wind-wave generation or aeolian dune development, provide valuable data to anchor physical models.

  1. Measurement of Casimir force with magnetic materials Alexandr Banishev, Chia-Cheng Chang, Umar Mohideen Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banishev, Alexandr; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Mohideen, Umar

    2012-02-01

    The Casimir effect is important in various fields from atomic physics to nanotechnology. According to the Lifshitz theory of the Casimir force, the interaction between two objects depends both on their dielectric permittivity and magenetic permeability. Thus the role of magnetic properties on the Casimir force is interesting particularly due to the possibility of a reduction the Casimir force. In this report we will present the results of a Casimir force measurement between a magnetic material such as nickel coated on SiO2 plate and a Au-coated sphere.

  2. Solar Atmosphere Simulation - AGU Dec. 9, 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows a numerical simulation of a small area of the solar atmosphere at ~10,000K. Numerical models bridge the gap between IRIS observations and the physical mechanisms driving solar even...

  3. Cometary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Rosa, N.

    Comets are icy leftovers from the formation of the solar system about 4.5 billion years ago. Because they have been stored at cold temperatures and their interiors have been protected by an overburden of insulating layers, comets contain the most unaltered remnants from the birth of our solar system. For this reason, determining their chemical composition and physical proper-ties as well as how the composition and structure of the nucleus changes with time are fundamental problems in planetary science. This information provides clues as to how material in our solar system formed and evolved.

  4. An Atmospheric Pressure Ping-Pong "Ballometer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazachkov, Alexander; Kryuchkov, Dmitriy; Willis, Courtney; Moore, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom experiments on atmospheric pressure focus largely on demonstrating its existence, often in a most impressive way. A series of amusing physics demonstrations is widely known and practiced by educators teaching the topic. However, measuring the value of atmospheric pressure(P[subscript atm]) is generally done in a rather mundane way,…

  5. Atmosphere, Science (Experimental): 5343.08.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Sandra Kay

    This unit of instruction deals with a study of the general atmosphere by layers with an emphasis on physical characteristics. The formation of layers in the atmosphere and the energy relationships that exist between them are also discussed. No requisites for prior course work, experience, or courses to be taken concurrently are required for…

  6. Working model of the atmosphere and near planetary space of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroz, V. I. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Basic physical characteristics of Jupiter, its gravitational field, atmosphere, electromagnetic radiation, magnetosphere, meteorite situation and satellites are presented in tables, graphs and figures. Means of observation of the atmosphere and three models of the atmosphere are presented and analyzed.

  7. Medical Physics Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guèye, Paul; Avery, Steven; Baird, Richard; Soares, Christopher; Amols, Howard; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Drew

    2006-03-01

    The panel discussion will explore opportunities and vistas in medical physics research and practice, medical imaging, teaching medical physics to undergraduates, and medical physics curricula as a recruiting tool for physics departments. Panel members consist of representatives from NSBP (Paul Guèye and Steven Avery), NIH/NIBIB (Richard Baird), NIST (Christopher Soares), AAPM (Howard Amols), ASTRO (Prabhakar Tripuraneni), and Jefferson Lab (Stan Majewski and Drew Weisenberger). Medical Physicists are part of Departments of Radiation Oncology at hospitals and medical centers. The field of medical physics includes radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. It also ranges from basic researcher (at college institutions, industries, and laboratories) to applications in clinical environments.

  8. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative

  9. Atmospheric electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In the last three years the focus was on the information contained in the lightning measurement, which is independent of other meteorological measurements that can be made from space. The characteristics of lightning activity in mesoscale convective systems were quantified. A strong relationship was found between lightning activity and surface rainfall. It is shown that lightning provides a precursor signature for wet microbursts (the strong downdrafts that produce windshears hazardous to aircraft) and that the lightning signature is a direct consequence of storm evolution. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) collaborated with NASA scientists in the preliminary analysis and scientific justification for the design and deployment of an optical instrument which can detect lightning from geostationary orbit. Science proposals for the NASA mesoscale science program and for the Tethered Satellite System were reviewed. The weather forecasting research and unmanned space vehicles. Software was written to ingest and analyze the lightning ground strike data on the MSFC McIDAS system. The capabilities which were developed have a wide application to a number of problems associated with the operational impacts of electrical discharge within the atmosphere.

  10. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  11. Investigation of Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chlorine Chemistry: Modeling and Environmental Chamber Studies Authors: Cameron B. Faxon, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, and David Allen University of Texas at Austin, McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faxon, C. B.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Allen, D.

    2013-12-01

    Previous work has shown that gas phase atomic chlorine radicals (Cl*) can influence tropospheric photochemistry, including concentrations of volatile organic compound (VOC) and ozone. These radicals are produced through both gas phase and heterogeneous pathways. This work presents computational and experimental investigation into the heterogeneous reactions of chloride aerosols. An overview of a sensitivity analysis of the physical parameters involved in the heterogeneous production of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) (R1-R5) will comprise the computational work presented. NO2(g) + NO3(g) ↔ N2O5(g) (R1) N2O5(aq) ↔ N2O5(aq) (R2) N2O5(aq) ↔ NO2+(aq) + NO3-(aq) (R3) NO2+(aq) + H2O(aq) → H3O+(aq) + HNO3(aq) (R4a) NO2+(aq) + Cl- → ClNO2 + H2O(aq) (R4b) NO3-(aq) + H+ ↔ HNO3+(aq) (R5) Relative parameters include the reactive uptake coefficient, ClNO2 yield, particle surface area, and gas phase concentrations of VOCs and NOx. The sensitivity analysis results were generated through photochemical box modeling and focus on the production of ClNO2 and impacts to ozone production. Results were compared to a base case scenario in which all heterogeneous reactions were absent. Parameter values reaching the upper limits reported in the literature were tested, and results indicate that ClNO2 chemistry can potentially change peak O3 concentrations by -10.5% to 27%. NOx availability was also found to play an important role. Experimental results of the heterogeneous reaction between OH* and particulate chloride (R6-R7) will also be discussed. The mechanism is shown below, and OH***Cl- represents an intermediate species forming at the particle surface. OH(g) + Cl-(aq) → OH***Cl-(aq) (R6) 2OH***Cl-(aq) → Cl2,g + 2OH-(aq) (R7) Environmental chamber experiments involving the exposure of NaCl aerosol particles to typical atmospheric conditions (HOx, NOx, O3 and UV radiation) were performed. A 10 cubic meter teflon reaction chamber equipped with UV lights was used to contain the

  12. A needle in a haystack: the use of routinely collected emergency department injury surveillance data to help identify physical child abuse.

    PubMed

    Scott, Debbie; Walker, Sue; Fraser, Jennifer A; Valmuur, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective, descriptive analysis of a sample of children under 18 years presenting to a hospital emergency department (ED) for treatment of an injury was conducted. The aim was to explore characteristics and identify differences between children assigned abuse codes and children assigned unintentional injury codes using an injury surveillance database. Only 0.1% of children had been assigned the abuse code and 3.9% a code indicating possible abuse. Children between 2 and 5 years formed the largest proportion of those coded to abuse. Superficial injury and bruising were the most common types of injury seen in children in the abuse group and the possible abuse group (26.9% and 18.8%, respectively), whereas those with unintentional injury were most likely to present with open wounds (18.4%). This study demonstrates that routinely collected injury surveillance data can be a useful source of information for describing injury characteristics in children assigned abuse codes compared to those assigned no abuse codes. PMID:23768210

  13. The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we examine what can be learned about extrasolar planet atmospheres by concentrating on a class of planets that transit their parent stars. As discussed in the previous chapter, one way of detecting an extrasolar planet is by observing the drop in stellar intensity as the planet passes in front of the star. A transit represents a special case in which the geometry of the planetary system is such that the planet s orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. As we will explore, the transiting planets provide opportunities for detailed follow-up observations that allow physical characterization of extrasolar planets, probing their bulk compositions and atmospheres.

  14. Atmospheric neutrinos: Status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation studies at atmospheric neutrino experiments. While the current data gives some tantalising hints regarding the neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of θ23 and δCP, the hints are not statistically significant. We summarise the sensitivity to these sub-dominant three-generation effects from the next-generation proposed atmospheric neutrino experiments. We next present the prospects of new physics searches such as non-standard interactions, sterile neutrinos and CPT violation studies at these experiments.

  15. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program UARP and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1994 - 1996. Report to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Rose (Compiler); Wolfe, Kathy (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Science Division in the Office of Mission to Planet Earth at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort are also provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aeronautics. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper atmosphere and their effect on the distribution of chemical species in the stratosphere, such as ozone; understand the relationship of the trace constituent composition of the lower stratosphere and the lower troposphere to the radiative balance and temperature distribution of the Earth's atmosphere; and accurately assess possible perturbations of the upper atmosphere caused by human activities as well as by natural phenomena. In compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Law 101-549, NASA has prepared a report on the state of our knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere, and on the progress of UARP and ACMAP. The report for the year 1996 is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA UARP and ACMAP in a document entitled, Research Summary 1994-1996. Part 2 is entitled Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere

  16. The Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael (Editor); Travis, Larry D. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A conference on the atmosphere of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, atmospheric structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, atmospheric dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the atmosphere of Saturn was discussed in several papers.

  17. Lidar investigations of atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philbrick, C. Russell; Hallen, Hans D.

    2015-09-01

    Ground based lidar techniques using Raleigh and Raman scattering, differential absorption (DIAL), and supercontinuum sources are capable of providing unique signatures to study dynamical processes in the lower atmosphere. The most useful profile signatures of dynamics in the lower atmosphere are available in profiles of time sequences of water vapor and aerosol optical extinction obtained with Raman and DIAL lidars. Water vapor profiles are used to study the scales and motions of daytime convection cells, residual layer bursts into the planetary boundary layer (PBL), variations in height of the PBL layer, cloud formation and dissipation, scale sizes of gravity waves, turbulent eddies, as well as to study the seldom observed phenomena of Brunt-Väisälä oscillations and undular bore waves. Aerosol optical extinction profiles from Raman lidar provide another tracer of dynamics and motion using sequential profiles atmospheric aerosol extinction, where the aerosol distribution is controlled by dynamic, thermodynamic, and photochemical processes. Raman lidar profiles of temperature describe the stability of the lower atmosphere and measure structure features. Rayleigh lidar can provide backscatter profiles of aerosols in the troposphere, and temperature profiles in the stratosphere and mesosphere, where large gravity waves, stratospheric clouds, and noctilucent clouds are observed. Examples of several dynamical features are selected to illustrate interesting processes observed with Raman lidar. Lidar experiments add to our understanding of physical processes that modify atmospheric structure, initiate turbulence and waves, and describe the relationships between energy sources, atmospheric stability parameters, and the observed dynamics.

  18. Physics in Police Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Described are several techniques and pieces of equipment developed by the Police Scientific Department Branch in its application of physics to police problems. Topics discussed include fingerprints, documents, and photographs. (Author/DS)

  19. The atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1993-01-01

    The atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune are discussed in the light of the Voyager 2 flybys of these planets. A basic overview of their atmospheres is presented, with emphasis on thermal structure, composition, energy and opacity sources, cloud structure, and the horizontal structure of the atmospheres. The nature and implications of the different internal heat flows on the two planets, and the implications of the deuterium and helium abundances for the origin and evolution of these ice giants, as distinct from Jupiter and Saturn, are discussed. Selected chemical and physical processes in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune are illustrated.

  20. Optical models of the molecular atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuev, V. E.; Makushkin, Y. S.; Mitsel, A. A.; Ponomarev, Y. N.; Rudenko, V. P.; Firsov, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of optical and laser methods for performing atmospheric investigations has stimulated the development of the optical models of the atmosphere. The principles of constructing the optical models of molecular atmosphere for radiation with different spectral composition (wideband, narrowband, and monochromatic) are considered in the case of linear and nonlinear absorptions. The example of the development of a system which provides for the modeling of the processes of optical-wave energy transfer in the atmosphere is presented. Its physical foundations, structure, programming software, and functioning were considered.

  1. Sports biomechanics in the research of the Department of Biomechanics of University School of Physical Education in Poznań. Part 1. Biomechanics of rowing: tests on rowing ergometers, reconstruction and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Lechosław B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the early phase of scientific research conducted at the Department of Biomechanics of the University School of Physical Education in Poznan, particularly the work on biomechanics of rowing, conducted as part of the Ministerial Project PR 105, entitled "The effectiveness of training and competition as well as regeneration in sports". Three kinds of research have been described, carried out with the use of the rowing ergometers. The first was the research on neuromuscular coordination in the rowing cycle, the second was the research on kinematic and dynamic characteristics of rowing on the Universal Rowing Ergometer UEW - 1, while the last one concerned determination of maximum forces generated by functional muscle groups in two characteristic rowing positions within the closed biochain of the torso and the limbs.

  2. Work on Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Atmosphere Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A summary final report of work accomplished is presented. Work was performed in the following areas: (1) Galileo Probe science analysis, (2) Galileo probe Atmosphere Structure Instrument, (3) Mars Pathfinder Atmosphere Structure/Meteorology instrument, (4) Mars Pathfinder data analysis, (5) Science Definition for future Mars missions, (6) Viking Lander data analysis, (7) winds in Mars atmosphere Venus atmospheric dynamics, (8) Pioneer Venus Probe data analysis, (9) Pioneer Venus anomaly analysis, (10) Discovery Venus Probe Titan probe instrument design, and (11) laboratory studies of Titan probe impact phenomena. The work has resulted in more than 10 articles published in archive journals, 2 encyclopedia articles, and many working papers. This final report is organized around the four planets on which there was activity, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Titan, with a closing section on Miscellaneous Activities. A major objective was to complete the fabrication, test, and evaluation of the atmosphere structure experiment on the Galileo probe, and to receive, analyze and interpret data received from the spacecraft. The instrument was launched on April 14, 1989. Calibration data were taken for all experiment sensors. The data were analyzed, fitted with algorithms, and summarized in a calibration report for use in analyzing and interpreting data returned from Jupiter's atmosphere. The sensors included were the primary science pressure, temperature and acceleration sensors, and the supporting engineering temperature sensors. Computer programs were written to decode the Experiment Data Record and convert the digital numbers to physical quantities, i.e., temperatures, pressures, and accelerations. The project office agreed to obtain telemetry of checkout data from the probe. Work to extend programs written for use on the Pioneer Venus project included: (1) massive heat shield ablation leading to important mass loss during entry; and (2) rapid planet rotation, which introduced

  3. Promoting Interests in Atmospheric Science at a Liberal Arts Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussev, S.; Sherengos, P. M.; Limpasuvan, V.; Xue, M.

    2007-12-01

    Coastal Carolina University (CCU) students in Computer Science participated in a project to set up an operational weather forecast for the local community. The project involved the construction of two computing clusters and the automation of daily forecasting. Funded by NSF-MRI, two high-performance clusters were successfully established to run the University of Oklahoma's Advance Regional Prediction System (ARPS). Daily weather predictions are made over South Carolina and North Carolina at 3-km horizontal resolution (roughly 1.9 miles) using initial and boundary condition data provided by UNIDATA. At this high resolution, the model is cloud- resolving, thus providing detailed picture of heavy thunderstorms and precipitation. Forecast results are displayed on CCU's website (https://marc.coastal.edu/HPC) to complement observations at the National Weather Service in Wilmington N.C. Present efforts include providing forecasts at 1-km resolution (or finer), comparisons with other models like Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the examination of local phenomena (like water spouts and tornadoes). Through these activities the students learn about shell scripting, cluster operating systems, and web design. More importantly, students are introduced to Atmospheric Science, the processes involved in making weather forecasts, and the interpretation of their forecasts. Simulations generated by the forecasts will be integrated into the contents of CCU's course like Fluid Dynamics, Atmospheric Sciences, Atmospheric Physics, and Remote Sensing. Operated jointly between the departments of Applied Physics and Computer Science, the clusters are expected to be used by CCU faculty and students for future research and inquiry-based projects in Computer Science, Applied Physics, and Marine Science.

  4. The atmosphere as particle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, T.

    1990-03-01

    The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

  5. The atmosphere as particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Stanev, T. )

    1990-03-15

    The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV {gamma}-ray detector on the Moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the Moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the Moon.

  6. The atmosphere as particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, Todor

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

  7. Atmospheric black carbon concentrations in North America, ~1100 to 2005. Liaquat Husain and Tanveer Ahmed Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY, 12201-0509, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, L.

    2013-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols in the atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and cause heating of the atmosphere, may alter Earth's cloud cover, and impact precipitation cycle. The best estimate for radiative forcing from BC with 90% certainty is + 1.1 Wm-2 ( + 0.17 to 2.1 Wm-2), second only to that of CO2. A major uncertainty in the estimation is a lack of atmospheric BC data. Models are used to estimate BC emissions into the atmosphere. They have not been validated by field data. We report measurements of BC in the atmosphere, over a period of several centuries using lake sediments. Retrieval of such records provides an invaluable source for understanding changes in the atmosphere with time. Numerous studies have been conducted with such an objective. Owing to a lack of knowledge of deposition rates of atmospheric aerosols into the lake sediments, a major shortcoming of these studies have been an inability to convert the measurements of chemical species in lake sediments into the atmosphere. We have developed a technique to overcome this shortcoming by measuring black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, and in lake sediment cores. The concentrations of BC were determined in daily filters collected at Whiteface Mountain, NY, from 1978 to 2005. Cores from two lakes around Whiteface Mountain, NY, were collected. Cores were (1) sectioned in thin slices, (2) freeze dried, (3) dated using the 210Pb technique, (4) BC chemically separated, and (5) concentrations measured using the thermal-optical method. By The deposition rate of BC from the atmosphere to the lakes was determined by comparing the BC concentration in air and the sediments for the 1978 -2005 period. The deposition rate so determined was used to concert the BC in the sediment into the atmosphere for the ~1978 to ~1100 period. The BC concentrations for the industrial period, ~1850 was low but rapidly increased from ~1900, peaked ~1925, decreased very slowly ~ 1980, followed by a sharp decrease. Concentrations has

  8. Physics Academic Workforce Report, 2000. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Stowe, Katie; Czujko, Roman

    This report discusses trends in the physics academic workforce and the implications of these trends for the future academic job market. In March 2000, a survey was sent to 766 U.S. physics departments that grant at least a bachelor's degree in physics, and 725 responses were received, a response rate of 95%. Degree-granting physics departments in…

  9. Atmosphere in a Test Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudi, R.; Pace, E.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Piccioni, G.; Billi, D.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Coccola, L.; Erculiani, M. S.; Fedel, M.; Galletta, G.; Giro, E.; La Rocca, N.; Morosinotto, T.; Poletto, L.; Schierano, D.; Stefani, S.

    The ancestor philosophers' dream of thousand of new world is finally realised: more than 1800 extrasolar planets have been discovered in the neighborhood of our Sun. Most of them are very different from those we used to know in our Solar System. Others orbit the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Space missions, as JWST and the very recently proposed ARIEL, or ground based instruments, like SPHERE@VLT, GPI@GEMINI and EPICS@ELT, have been proposed and built to measure the atmospheric transmission, reflection and emission spectra over a wide wavelength range of these new worlds. In order to interpret the spectra coming out by this new instrumentation, it is important to know in detail the optical characteristics of gases in the typical physical conditions of the planetary atmospheres and how those characteristics could be affected by radiation driven photochemical and bio-chemical reaction. Insights in this direction can be achieved from laboratory studies of simulated planetary atmosphere of different pressure and temperature conditions under the effects of radiation sources, used as proxies of different bands of the stellar emission. ''Atmosphere in a Test Tube'' is a collaboration among several Italian astronomical, biological and engineering institutes in order to share their experiencece in performing laboratory experiments on several items concerning extrasolar planet atmospheres.

  10. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Division's goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various Laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  11. The earth's atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Editor); Devries, L. L.

    1972-01-01

    Topics discussed include the effects of solar radiation on the heat balance of the earth and its atmosphere, the physicomathematical models of the atmosphere and the computational schemes used in numerical investigations of the general circulation of the atmosphere, the effects of atmospheric turbulence on aeronautical systems, te chemistry of different regions of the atmosphere, the use of hot-filament and cold-cathode vacuum gauges to measure upper-atmosphere densities, methods of determining the air density at heights near a satellite's perigee by analyzing changes in its orbit, and an evaluation of various atmospheric models in the 100- to 1000-km altitude range.

  12. Physical Development: Thinking Physically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Children grow and develop physically according to their own experiences, characteristics, and abilities. Physical development is so important and the environment should allow each child to find her space in the sunshine. This can be done by: (1) creating the right outdoor environment; (2) allowing children time to use it; (3) encouraging movement…

  13. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  14. Satellite Atmosphere and Io Torus Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.

    2000-01-01

    Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system, and it is embedded deep within the strongest magnetosphere of any planet. This combination of circumstances leads to a host of scientifically compelling phenomena, including (1) an atmosphere out of proportion with such a small object, (2) a correspondingly large atmospheric escape rate, (3) a ring of dense plasma locked in a feedback loop with the atmosphere, and (4) a host of Io-induced emissions from radio bursts to UV auroral spots on Jupiter. This proposal seeks to continue our investigation into the physics connecting these phenomena, with emphasis on Io's atmosphere and plasma torus. The physical processes are clearly of interest for Io, and also other places in the solar system where they are important but not readily observable.

  15. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  16. Volatile processes in Triton's atmosphere and surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    A basic model for latitudinal transport of nitrogen is reviewed focusing on its limitations and some complications associated with surface and atmospheric physics. Data obtained by 1989 Voyager encounter with the Neptune system revealed the complexity in the pure nitrogen transport which is caused by the nonuniform albedo of the frosts. It is concluded that Triton is similar to Mars in terms of the complexity of volatile transport and to understand Triton's surface-atmosphere system, Mars may be a very good analog.

  17. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  18. Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Feng

    Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early

  19. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    campaigns such as Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A), Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI-92), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Since those large international efforts, satellites have matured enough to enable quantifiable measurements of regional land surface, atmosphere, and ocean. In addition, global and chemical transport models have also been advanced to incorporate various data. Thus, the timing of the workshop was right for a full-fledged re-assessment of the chemistry, physics, and socio-economical impacts caused by pollution in the region, including a characterization of sources, deposition, and feedbacks with climate change.

  20. Radiosondes for Characterizing the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, D. M.; Dorney, D. J.; McGrath, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) releases approximately 75,000 radiosondes each year to measure pressure, altitude, temperature, relative humidity, wind and cosmic radiation [1]. The data obtained from these measurements have led to a more thorough understanding of the Earth s lower atmosphere. On the contrary, there have been only six fully successful landings on Mars, and there is much less known about the variations in winds, density, etc., in the mid-regions of the Martian atmosphere (see Fig. 1). This data is vital to understanding Martian weather and the development of Mars landers for larger payloads [2,3,4]. Mars has too much atmosphere to land like is done on the moon, and too little atmosphere to land like is done on Earth. It is suggested that radiosondes could be added as secondary payloads on Mars missions and used to map physical properties in the different regions of the Martian atmosphere.

  1. Direct observations of atmospheric aerosol nucleation.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, Markku; Kontkanen, Jenni; Junninen, Heikki; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Manninen, Hanna E; Nieminen, Tuomo; Petäjä, Tuukka; Sipilä, Mikko; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Rantala, Pekka; Franchin, Alessandro; Jokinen, Tuija; Järvinen, Emma; Äijälä, Mikko; Kangasluoma, Juha; Hakala, Jani; Aalto, Pasi P; Paasonen, Pauli; Mikkilä, Jyri; Vanhanen, Joonas; Aalto, Juho; Hakola, Hannele; Makkonen, Ulla; Ruuskanen, Taina; Mauldin, Roy L; Duplissy, Jonathan; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Bäck, Jaana; Kortelainen, Aki; Riipinen, Ilona; Kurtén, Theo; Johnston, Murray V; Smith, James N; Ehn, Mikael; Mentel, Thomas F; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Laaksonen, Ari; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2013-02-22

    Atmospheric nucleation is the dominant source of aerosol particles in the global atmosphere and an important player in aerosol climatic effects. The key steps of this process occur in the sub-2-nanometer (nm) size range, in which direct size-segregated observations have not been possible until very recently. Here, we present detailed observations of atmospheric nanoparticles and clusters down to 1-nm mobility diameter. We identified three separate size regimes below 2-nm diameter that build up a physically, chemically, and dynamically consistent framework on atmospheric nucleation--more specifically, aerosol formation via neutral pathways. Our findings emphasize the important role of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosol formation, subsequent aerosol growth, radiative forcing and associated feedbacks between biogenic emissions, clouds, and climate.

  2. Laser Doppler systems in atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, S. S. R.

    1976-01-01

    The loss of heterodyne signal power for the Marshall Space Flight Center laser Doppler system due to the random changes in the atmospheric index of refraction is investigated. The current status in the physics of low energy laser propagation through turbulent atmosphere is presented. The analysis and approximate evaluation of the loss of the heterodyne signal power due to the atmospheric absorption, scattering, and turbulence are estimated for the conditions of the January 1973 flight tests. Theoretical and experimental signal to noise values are compared. Maximum and minimum values of the atmospheric attenuation over a two way path of 20 km range are calculated as a function of altitude using models of atmosphere, aerosol concentration, and turbulence.

  3. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…

  4. Homogeneous processes of atmospheric interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, M. J.; Barker, J. R.; Golden, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Upper atmospheric research programs in the department of chemical kinetics are reported. Topics discussed include: (1) third-order rate constants of atmospheric importance; (2) a computational study of the HO2 + HO2 and DO2 + DO2 reactions; (3) measurement and estimation of rate constants for modeling reactive systems; (4) kinetics and thermodynamics of ion-molecule association reactions; (5) entropy barriers in ion-molecule reactions; (6) reaction rate constant for OH + HOONO2 yields products over the temperature range 246 to 324 K; (7) very low-pressure photolysis of tert-bytyl nitrite at 248 nm; (8) summary of preliminary data for the photolysis of C1ONO2 and N2O5 at 285 nm; and (9) heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 and H2O.

  5. Radiation in the atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitry V.; Bullock, Mark A.; Crisp, David; Renno, Nilton O.; Taylor, Fredric W.; Zasova, Ljudmilla V.

    This chapter reviews the observations of the radiative fluxes inside and outside the Venusian atmosphere, along with the available data about the planetary energy balance and the distribution of sources and sinks of radiative energy. We also briefly address the role of the heat budget on the atmospheric temperature structure, global circulation, thermodynamics, climate and evolution. We compare the main features of radiative balance on the terrestrial planets, and provide a general description of the radiative-convective equilibrium models used to study their atmospheres. We describe the physics of the greenhouse effect as it applies to the evolution of the Venusian climate, concluding with a summary of outstanding open issues.

  6. 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, H. J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings from the 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE 99), held June 7-11, 1999. This conference was attended by scientists and researchers from around the world. The subjects covered included natural and artificially initiated lightning, lightning in the middle and upper atmosphere (sprites and jets), lightning protection and safety, lightning detection techniques (ground, airborne, and space-based), storm physics, electric fields near and within thunderstorms, storm electrification, atmospheric ions and chemistry, shumann resonances, satellite observations of lightning, global electrical processes, fair weather electricity, and instrumentation.

  7. OCCIMA: Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Steve; Tsintikidis, Dimitri; deGrassie, John; Reinhardt, Colin; McBryde, Kevin; Hallenborg, Eric; Wayne, David; Gibson, Kristofor; Cauble, Galen; Ascencio, Ana; Rudiger, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    The Navy is actively developing diverse optical application areas, including high-energy laser weapons and free- space optical communications, which depend on an accurate and timely knowledge of the state of the atmospheric channel. The Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres (OCCIMA) project is a comprehensive program to coalesce and extend the current capability to characterize the maritime atmosphere for all optical and infrared wavelengths. The program goal is the development of a unified and validated analysis toolbox. The foundational design for this program coordinates the development of sensors, measurement protocols, analytical models, and basic physics necessary to fulfill this goal.

  8. Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an STS-66 mission onboard photo of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis showing the payload of the third Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission. During the ATLAS missions, international teams of scientists representing many disciplines combined their expertise to seek answers to complex questions about the atmospheric and solar conditions that sustain life on Earth. The ATLAS program specifically investigated how Earth's middle and upper atmospheres and climate are affected by by the sun and by products of industrial and agricultural activities on Earth. Thirteen ATLAS instruments supported experiments in atmospheric sciences, solar physics, space plasma physics, and astronomy. The instruments were mounted on two Spacelab pallets in the Space Shuttle payload bay. The ATLAS-3 mission continued a variety of atmospheric and solar studies to improve understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and its energy input from the sun. A key scientific objective was to refine existing data on variations in the fragile ozone layer of the atmosphere. The Orbiter Atlantis was launched on November 3, 1994 for the ATLAS-3 mission (STS-66).

  9. Positron production within our atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Positrons are commonly produced within our atmosphere by cosmic rays and the decay radioactive isotopes. Energetic positrons are also produced by pair production from the gamma rays generated by relativistic runaway electrons. Indeed, such positrons have been detected in Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs) in the inner magnetosphere by Fermi/GBM. In addition, positrons play an important role in relativistic feedback discharges (also known as dark lightning). Relativistic feedback models suggest that these discharges may be responsible for Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) and some gamma-ray glows. When producing TGFs, relativistic feedback discharges may generate large, lightning-like currents with current moments reaching hundreds of kA-km. In addition, relativistic feedback discharges also may limit the electric field that is possible in our atmosphere, affecting other mechanisms for generating runaway electrons. It is interesting that positrons, often thought of as exotic particles, may play an important role in thunderstorm processes. In this presentation, the role of positrons in high-energy atmospheric physics will be discussed. The unusual observation of positron clouds inside a thunderstorm by the ADELE instrument on an NCAR/NSF Gulfstream V aircraft will also be described. These observations illustrate that we still have much to learn about positron production within our atmosphere.

  10. Formation of spectral lines in planetary atmospheres. I - Theory for cloudy atmospheres: Application to Venus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of the formation of spectral lines in a cloudy planetary atmosphere is studied in detail. It is shown that models based upon homogeneous, isotropically scattering atmospheres cannot be used to reproduce observed spectroscopic features of phase effect and the shape of spectral lines for weak and strong bands. The theory must, therefore, be developed using an inhomogeneous (gravitational) model of a planetary atmosphere, accurately incorporating all the physical processes of radiative transfer. Such a model of the lower Venus atmosphere, consistent with our present knowledge, is constructed. The results discussed in this article demonstrate the effects of the parameters that describe the atmospheric model on the spectroscopic features of spectral line profile and phase effect, at visible and near infrared wavelengths. This information enables us to develop a comprehensive theory of line formation in a Venus atmosphere.

  11. Stellar atmospheric structural patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamics of stellar atmospheres is discussed. Particular attention is given to the relation between theoretical modeling and empirical evidence. The characteristics of distinctive atmospheric regions and their radical structures are discussed.

  12. Our shared atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our atmosphere is a precious and fascinating resource, providing air to breath, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV), and maintaining a comfortable climate. Since the industrial revolution, people have significantly altered the composition of the atmosphere throu...

  13. The atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is essentially a pure carbon dioxide atmosphere that contains a small and seasonably varying amount of water vapor. A number of minor constituents which arise from the interactions of solar radiation with water vapor and carbon dioxide include carbon monoxide, atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, ozone, and atomic hydrogen. At the surface of Mars the atmospheric pressure is less than one hundredth of the pressure at the surface of the earth. Extensive cloud systems appear on Mars. The structure of the lower Martian atmosphere is discussed together with variations in the lower atmosphere and the characteristics of the upper atmosphere. Reactions of photochemistry are considered along with the atmospheric escape and interactions between the atmosphere and the polar caps.

  14. Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K. U.; Sokolsky, Pierre; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence. The nitrogen fluorescence yield from air shower electrons depends on the atmospheric composition. We will discuss the uncertainties in the fluorescence yield form electrons in the real atmosphere and describe a concept for a small balloon payload to measure the atmospheric fluorescence yield as a function of attitude.

  15. Computational Physics at Haverford College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Peter

    2009-03-01

    We will describe two new physics courses at Haverford College: Physics/CS 304, Computational Physics, an upper level elective for Physics, CS and Math Majors, and Physics 412, Research in Theoretical and Computational Physics. These courses are designed to extend students experience of physics using computation. They are also part of an interdisciplinary Concentration in Computational Science mounted jointly by the departments of Computer Science, Economics, Biology Chemistry and Mathematics. These courses make extensive use of Python, Scipy , Numpy and Visual Python, and include extensive independent projects. We will describe some results obtained and lessons learned.

  16. Current issues in atmospheric change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In response to questions about the effects of long-term, global-scale changes in the atmosphere raised in congressional hearings, a group of leading experts held a two-day workshop to survey the state of current knowledge about atmospheric changes and their implications. The review focuses on the sources, concentrations, and changes of those gases most directly linked to human activities, i.e., carbon dioxide, ozone, and the chlorofluorocarbons; the direct physical effects of rising concentrations of trace gases. The review discusses the uncertainties associated with the knowledge of current trends and possible future changes, including ozone trends and the Antarctic ozone hole, and the impacts of rising concentrations of trace gases.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3: Atmospheric and climate research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the Environmental Sciences Division of OHER, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program continues DOE`s long-term commitment to understanding the local, regional, and global effects of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and analytical studies in the Atmospheric Chemistry Program emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, photochemically produced oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The atmospheric studies in Complex Terrain Program applies basic research on atmospheric boundary layer structure and evolution over inhomogeneous terrain to DOE`s site-specific and generic mission needs in site safety, air quality, and climate change. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements, the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics, and Quantitative Links program to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The description of ongoing atmospheric and climate research at PNL is organized in two broad research areas: atmospheric research; and climate research. This report describes the progress in fiscal year 1993 in each of these areas. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  18. Modeling Atmospheric Energy Deposition (by energetic ions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, C. D.; Brain, D. A.; Lillis, R. J.; Liemohn, M. W.; Bougher, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    The structure, dynamics, chemistry, and evolution of planetary upper atmospheres are in large part determined by the available sources of energy. In addition to the solar EUV flux, the solar wind and solar energetic particle (SEP) events are also important sources. Both of these particle populations can significantly affect an atmosphere, causing atmospheric loss and driving chemical reactions. Attention has been paid to these sources from the standpoint of the radiation environment for humans and electronics, but little work has been done to evaluate their impact on planetary atmospheres. At unmagnetized planets or those with crustal field anomalies, in particular, the solar wind and SEPs of all energies have direct access to the atmosphere and so provide a more substantial energy source than at planets having protective global magnetic fields. Additionally, solar wind and energetic particle fluxes should be more significant for planets orbiting more active stars, such as is the case in the early history of the solar system for paleo-Venus and Mars. Therefore quantification of the atmospheric energy input from the solar wind and SEP events is an important component of our understanding of the processes that control their state and evolution. Such modeling has been previously done for Earth, Mars and Jupiter using a guiding center precipitation model with extensive collisional physics. Currently, this code is only valid for particles with small gyroradii in strong uniform magnetic fields. There is a clear necessity for a Lorentz formulation that can perform calculations for cases where there is only a weak or nonexistent magnetic field that includes detailed physical interaction with the atmosphere (i.e. collisional physics). We show initial efforts to apply a full Lorentz motion particle transport model to study the effects of particle precipitation in the upper atmospheres of Venus, Mars, and Titan. A systematic study of the ionization, excitation, and energy

  19. Soil Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, T. J.; Holmes, J. W.; Rose, C. W.

    1996-06-01

    Now in its third edition, this textbook gives a comprehensive account of soil physics with emphasis on field applications for students and research workers engaged in water resources studies, soil sciences, and plant sciences. The authors have added chapters on soil erosion, conservation, and the role of soil in affecting water quality to this new edition. The book gives an account of how water influences the structure and strength of soil; how plants absorb water from soils; how water from rain and irrigation enters the soil and flows through it to contribute to stream flow and flow in artificial drains; how soluble salts and chemical pollutants are transported; how soils are eroded by water and wind; and how the evaporation rate from the land surface is influenced by soil water supply, the nature of the plant cover and the evaporative power of the atmosphere. This book will be useful to students and research workers in environmental sciences, hydrology, agriculture, soil science, and civil engineering.

  20. Simulating super earth atmospheres in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudi, R.; Erculiani, M. S.; Galletta, G.; Billi, D.; Pace, E.; Schierano, D.; Giro, E.; D'Alessandro, M.

    2016-01-01

    Several space missions, such as JWST, TESS and the very recently proposed ARIEL, or ground-based experiments, as SPHERE and GPI, have been proposed to measure the atmospheric transmission, reflection and emission spectra of extrasolar planets. The planet atmosphere characteristics and possible biosignatures will be inferred by studying planetary spectra in order to identify the emission/absorption lines/bands from atmospheric molecules such as water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), etc. In particular, it is important to know in detail the optical characteristics of gases in the typical physical conditions of the planetary atmospheres and how these characteristics could be affected by radiation driven photochemical and biochemical reaction. The main aim of the project `Atmosphere in a Test Tube' is to provide insights on exoplanet atmosphere modification due to biological intervention. This can be achieved simulating planetary atmosphere at different pressure and temperature conditions under the effects of radiation sources, used as proxies of different bands of the stellar emission. We are tackling the characterization of extrasolar planet atmospheres by mean of innovative laboratory experiments described in this paper. The experiments are intended to reproduce the conditions on warm earths and super earths hosted by low-mass M dwarfs primaries with the aim to understand if a cyanobacteria population hosted on a Earth-like planet orbiting an M0 star is able to maintain its photosynthetic activity and produce traceable signatures.

  1. Modeling Callisto's Ionosphere: Insight Into Callisto's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartkorn, O. A.; Saur, J.; Strobel, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    We develop a kinetic model of the ionosphere of Jupiter's moon Callisto within a prescribed neutral atmosphere composed of O2 and CO2. We calculate the electron energy distribution as a function of space by solving the Boltzmann equation and assuming a stationary balance between local sources and sinks of electrons and electron energy. Electron transport within the ionosphere is neglected, whereas we approximate the electron transport out of the ionosphere into the Jovian magnetosphere. Photoionization is believed to be the major electron source within Callisto's atmosphere. Therefore, we calculate the energy dependent photoelectron spectrum as source term of the Boltzmann equation. The resulting Boltzmann equation is solved rigorously delivering electron distribution functions at every point of Callisto's atmosphere. From these distribution functions, we calculate electron densities and electron impact generated UV emissions from Callisto's atmosphere. The calculated electron densities and UV emissions are compared with observations of the Galileo spacecraft [Kliore et al., 2002] and the Hubble Space Telescope [Cunningham et al., 2015]. Based on these comparisons, we test a physically motivated atmosphere model including asymmetries that depend on Callisto's orbital phase, similar to Europa's atmosphere [Plainaki et al., 2013]. As a result, we gain knowledge about Callisto's atmospheric density and its atmospheric asymmetries.

  2. Nonisothermal Pluto atmosphere models

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.; Yelle, R.V.; Lunine, J.I. )

    1990-03-01

    The present thermal profile calculation for a Pluto atmosphere model characterized by a high number fraction of CH4 molecules encompasses atmospheric heating by solar UV flux absorption and conductive transport cooling to the surface of Pluto. The stellar occultation curve predicted for an atmosphere of several-microbar surface pressures (which entail the existence of a substantial temperature gradient close to the surface) agrees with observations and implies that the normal and tangential optical depth of the atmosphere is almost negligible. The minimum period for atmospheric methane depletion is calculated to be 30 years. 29 refs.

  3. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  4. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    higher education'. One point, among others, is to publish 'descriptions of successful and original student projects, experimental, theoretical or computational'. This comes close to the tasks and student work carried out in physics competitions. Physics educators at university level are usually aware of the existence of such competitions, but the majority, with the few exceptions of those involved in these competitions, lack knowledge of what is actually going on, and how high levelled the performances are. Therefore, it is not obvious to them that these competitions could be useful for university teaching, and could be sources of interesting and novel examples for labs and theoretical exercises. Each physics department wants to attract good students or, in other words, wants talented students to choose physics as their first subject of study. Experience has shown that physics competitions can assist in meeting this demand. Not only do students involved in the competitions beoome more inclined to study physics, their experimental and theoretical knowledge is far beyond that of typical students. Therefore it would be of mutual interest to intensify the bonds between physics competitions and universities. The publication of tasks and solutions to problems from physics competitions may serve several purposes: Competitions and especially their high quality can be communicated to a very broad audience of physicists. University teachers could be encouraged to implement these problems in their lectures, exercises and labs, mainly at the undergraduate level, theoretically as well as experimentally. The previous point is even more important for the education of physics teachers. Ongoing physics teachers should know in detail the different competitions and their specific goals and problems. The winners of the competitions get greater publicity, which in turn could create additional attraction to future participants. As an example of the second point, the successful application of

  5. The impact of space electric field research on atmospheric studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Space measurements of electric fields have provided instrumentation for measuring atmospheric parameters and a better basis for understanding the electrical coupling between the magnetosphere and the atmosphere. Applications of an incoherent scatter radar (developed for ionospheric electric field research) to the measurement of atmospheric winds and turbulence and of Langmuir double probes (also developed for space research) for measurement of atmospheric electric fields are described. The increased knowledge of magnetospheric electric fields has focused attention on the electrical coupling between the magnetosphere and the atmosphere with conclusions that should considerably modify previous physical concepts in both domains.

  6. Work on Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Atmosphere Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A summary final report of work accomplished is presented. Work was performed in the following areas: (1) Galileo Probe science analysis, (2) Galileo probe Atmosphere Structure Instrument, (3) Mars Pathfinder Atmosphere Structure/Meteorology instrument, (4) Mars Pathfinder data analysis, (5) Science Definition for future Mars missions, (6) Viking Lander data analysis, (7) winds in Mars atmosphere Venus atmospheric dynamics, (8) Pioneer Venus Probe data analysis, (9) Pioneer Venus anomaly analysis, (10) Discovery Venus Probe Titan probe instrument design, and (11) laboratory studies of Titan probe impact phenomena. The work has resulted in more than 10 articles published in archive journals, 2 encyclopedia articles, and many working papers. This final report is organized around the four planets on which there was activity, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Titan, with a closing section on Miscellaneous Activities. A major objective was to complete the fabrication, test, and evaluation of the atmosphere structure experiment on the Galileo probe, and to receive, analyze and interpret data received from the spacecraft. The instrument was launched on April 14, 1989. Calibration data were taken for all experiment sensors. The data were analyzed, fitted with algorithms, and summarized in a calibration report for use in analyzing and interpreting data returned from Jupiter's atmosphere. The sensors included were the primary science pressure, temperature and acceleration sensors, and the supporting engineering temperature sensors. Computer programs were written to decode the Experiment Data Record and convert the digital numbers to physical quantities, i.e., temperatures, pressures, and accelerations. The project office agreed to obtain telemetry of checkout data from the probe. Work to extend programs written for use on the Pioneer Venus project included: (1) massive heat shield ablation leading to important mass loss during entry; and (2) rapid planet rotation, which introduced

  7. Atmosphere to Electrons: Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmosphere to Electrons research initiative is focused on improving the performance and reliability of wind plants by establishing an unprecedented understanding of how the Earth’s atmosphere interacts with the wind plants and developing innovative technologies to maximize energy extraction from the wind.

  8. Catalog of ionospheric and atmospheric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    Available data from planetary atmospheres and ionospheric physics (aeronomy) are announced. Most of the data sets identified result from individual experiments carried on board various spacecraft. A spacecraft Automated Internal Management File and a Nonsatellite Data File are utilized to maintain information on these data. Photoreduced reports produced by these information files are presented. A variety of user oriented indexes are included.

  9. Static Atmospheres in a Rotating Space Habitat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses O'Neill's proposal for the colonization of space as it offers new problems in pure physics. Addresses specifically the distribution of the atmosphere in O'Neill's habitat and whether there will be enough air at the axis of rotation to allow human-powered flight, with particular reference to the habitat's "artificial gravity." (CS)

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis of Io's Atmosphere and Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Nicholas M.

    1999-01-01

    This final report describes the results of our NASA/Planetary Atmospheres program studying the atmosphere of Jupiter's moon Io and the plasma torus which it creates. Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system, and it is embedded deep within the strongest magnetosphere of any planet. This combination of circumstances leads to a host of scientifically compelling phenomena, including (1) an atmosphere out of proportion with such a small object, (2) a correspondingly large atmospheric escape rate, (3) a ring of dense plasma locked in a feedback loop with the atmosphere, and (4) a host of Io-induced emissions from radio bursts to UV auroral spots on Jupiter. This proposal seeks to continue our investigation into the physics connecting these phenomena, with emphasis on Io's atmosphere and plasma torus. The physical processes are clearly of interest for Io, and also other places in the solar system where they are important but not so readily observable.

  11. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations.

  12. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations. PMID:20431258

  13. Model atmospheres, predicted spectra, and colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical models of stellar atmospheres and the process of forming a spectrum are reviewed with particular reference to the spectra of B stars. In the case of classical models the stellar atmosphere is though to consist of plane parallel layers of gas in which radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium exists. No radiative energy is lost or gained in the model atmosphere, but the detailed shape of the spectrum is changed as a result of the interactions with the ionized gas. Predicted line spectra using statistical equilibrium local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and non-LTE physics are compared and the determination of abundances is discussed. The limitations of classical modeling are examined. Models developed to demonstrate what motions in the upper atmosphere will do to the spectrum and to explore the effects of using geometries different from plane parallel layer are reviewed. In particular the problem of radiative transfer is addressed.

  14. Atmospheric Electricity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, G.; Farrell, W.

    2011-10-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is one compelling example in our solar system that should possess active electrical processes, where dust storms are known to occur on local, regional, and global scales. Laboratory experiments and simulations all indicate that these events are expected to generate substantial quasi-static electric fields via triboelectric (i.e., frictional) charging, perhaps up to the breakdown potential of the Martian atmosphere. However current observations of potential electrical activity on Mars from both ground-based and orbital platforms have yielded conflicting results. If present, significant atmospheric electricity could be an important source of atmospheric chemistry on Mars, and thus impact our understanding of the evolution of the atmosphere and its past or present astrobiological potential. Here we review the current state of understanding regarding atmospheric electricity on Mars, and discuss its implications pending the results of future measurements.

  15. Pluto's atmosphere near perihelion

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.M. )

    1989-11-01

    A recent stellar occultation has confirmed predictions that Pluto has an atmosphere which is sufficiently thick to uniformly envelope the planet and to extend far above the surface. Pluto's atmosphere consists of methane and perhaps other volatile gases at temperatures below their freezing points; it should regulate the surface temperature of its volatile ices to a globally uniform value. As Pluto approaches and passes through perihelion, a seasonal maximum in the atmospheric bulk and a corresponding minimum in the exposed volatile ice abundance is expected to occur. The lag in maximum atmospheric bulk relative to perihelion will be diagnostic of the surface thermal properties. An estimate of Pluto's atmospheric bulk may result if a global darkening (resulting from the disappearance of the seasonally deposited frosts) occurs before the time of maximum atmospheric bulk. The ice deposited shortly after perihelion may be diagnostic of the composition of Pluto's volatile reservoir.

  16. Lightning Physics and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orville, Richard E.

    2004-03-01

    Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

  17. Elemental Mercury Sources and Its Diurnal Variation in the Fort Worth, Texas Atmosphere - Robert Talbot, Xin Lan, Barry Lefer, and James Flynn Institute for Multidimensional Air Quality Studies Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 Email: rtalbot@uh.edu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Lan, X.; Lefer, B. L.; Flynn, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    Elemental mercury (Hg(0)) was measured with two and a half minute time resolution during the month of June 2011 in an area located to the northwest of Fort Worth, Texas. Time series data showed four distinct multiday periods with characteristically different average mixing ratios. From 27 May to 01 June Hg(0) averaged ~135 ppqv, over the period of 01 June to 12 June Hg(0) was 170 ppqv, from 13 June to 21 June Hg(0) was ~130 ppqv, and finally from 24 June to 30 June Hg(0) was ~125 ppqv. A short interval occurring from 21 June to 24 June showed elevated Hg(0) of ~160 ppqv. There was a distinct diurnal variation in Hg(0) during the entire study period that reached its highest levels at night with a characteristic peak-to-peak difference of 50-60 ppqv. The daily Hg(0) increases and decreases appeared to follow directly the rise and collapse of the mixed layer, as determined with Ceilometer measurements. On some nights there were sharp spikes in Hg(0) which lasted an hour or more, with the largest one reaching 750 ppqv or about a 5-fold enhancement over the running mean value of ~150 ppqv. Backward trajectories indicated that the airflow during nighttime was from southerly directions, more specifically from the Houston area. The sharp spikes likely originated from more local natural gas compressor stations scattered throughout the upwind area, or from a natural gas power station located in the area as well. We will utilize the suite of chemical and meteorological measurements conducted during the campaign to facilitate source identification on specific nights. These data should provide new information on as yet unexplored sources of atmospheric mercury.

  18. Oscillations in stellar atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A. E.; Fontenla, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized.

  19. Sources of atmospheric ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Michaels, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The information available on factors that influence emissions from the principal societal sources of ammonia to the atmosphere, namely combustion processes, volatilization of farm animal wastes, and volatilization of fertilizers, is reviewed. Emission factors are established for each major source of atmospheric ammonia. The factors are then multiplied by appropriate source characterization descriptors to obtain calculated fluxes of ammonia to the atmosphere on a state-by-state basis for the United States.

  20. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  1. Atmospheres from Within

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Thomas; Abshire, James; Clancy, Todd; Fry, Ghee; Gustafson, Bo; Hecht, Michael; Kostiuk, Theodor; Rall, Jonathan; Reuter, Dennis; Sheldon, Robert

    1996-01-01

    In this review of atmospheric investigations from planetary surfaces, a wide variety of measurement and instrument techniques relevant to atmospheric studies from future planetary lander missions are discussed. The diversity of planetary surface environments within the solar system precludes complete or highly specific coverage, but lander investigations for Mars and cometary missions are presented as specific cases that represent the broad range of atmospheric-surface boundaries and that also correspond to high priority goals for future national and international lander missions.

  2. Atmospheric Downscaling using Genetic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerenner, Tanja; Venema, Victor; Simmer, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    Coupling models for the different components of the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-System requires up-and downscaling procedures. Subject of our work is the downscaling scheme used to derive high resolution forcing data for land-surface and subsurface models from coarser atmospheric model output. The current downscaling scheme [Schomburg et. al. 2010, 2012] combines a bi-quadratic spline interpolation, deterministic rules and autoregressive noise. For the development of the scheme, training and validation data sets have been created by carrying out high-resolution runs of the atmospheric model. The deterministic rules in this scheme are partly based on known physical relations and partly determined by an automated search for linear relationships between the high resolution fields of the atmospheric model output and high resolution data on surface characteristics. Up to now deterministic rules are available for downscaling surface pressure and partially, depending on the prevailing weather conditions, for near surface temperature and radiation. Aim of our work is to improve those rules and to find deterministic rules for the remaining variables, which require downscaling, e.g. precipitation or near surface specifc humidity. To accomplish that, we broaden the search by allowing for interdependencies between different atmospheric parameters, non-linear relations, non-local and time-lagged relations. To cope with the vast number of possible solutions, we use genetic programming, a method from machine learning, which is based on the principles of natural evolution. We are currently working with GPLAB, a Genetic Programming toolbox for Matlab. At first we have tested the GP system to retrieve the known physical rule for downscaling surface pressure, i.e. the hydrostatic equation, from our training data. We have found this to be a simple task to the GP system. Furthermore we have improved accuracy and efficiency of the GP solution by implementing constant variation and

  3. MULTIRESOLUTION FEATURE ANALYSIS AND OTHER TECHNIQUES FOR UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING TURBULENCE IN STABLE ATMOSPHERES Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Street; F. L. Ludwig; Y. Chen

    2005-04-11

    Our DOE project is one of the efforts comprising the Vertical Transport and Mixing Program of the Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in Department of Energy. We used ARPS to simulate flow in the Salt Lake Valley. We simulated the physical processes more accurately so that we can better understand the physics of flow in complex terrain and its effects at larger scales. The simulations provided evidence that atmospheric forcing interacts with the Jordan Narrows, the Traverse Range and other complex mountain terrain at the south end of the Salt Lake Valley to produce lee rotors, hydraulic jumps and other effects. While we have successfully used ARPS to simulate VTMX 2000 flows, we have also used observed data to test the model and identify some of its weaknesses. Those are being addressed in a continuation project supported by DOE.

  4. Measuring the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime

    2010-11-01

    The new CRISP filter at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope provides opportunities for observing the solar atmosphere with unprecedented spatial resolution and cadence. In order to benefit from the high quality of observational data from this instrument, we have developed methods for calibrating and restoring polarized Stokes images, obtained at optical and near infrared wavelengths, taking into account field-of-view variations of the filter properties. In order to facilitate velocity measurements, a time series from a 3D hydrodynamical granulation simulation is used to compute quiet Sun spectral line profiles at different heliocentric angles. The synthetic line profiles, with their convective blueshifts, can be used as absolute references for line-of-sight velocities. Observations of the Ca II 8542 Å line are used to study magnetic fields in chromospheric fibrils. The line wings show the granulation pattern at mid-photospheric heights whereas the overlying chromosphere is seen in the core of the line. Using full Stokes data, we have attempted to observationally verify the alignment of chromospheric fibrils with the magnetic field. Our results suggest that in most cases fibrils are aligned along the magnetic field direction, but we also find examples where this is not the case. Detailed interpretation of Stokes data from spectral lines formed in the chromospheric data can be made using non-LTE inversion codes. For the first time, we use a realistic 3D MHD chromospheric simulation of the quiet Sun to assess how well NLTE inversions recover physical quantities from spectropolarimetric observations of Ca II 8542 Å. We demonstrate that inversions provide realistic estimates of depth-averaged quantities in the chromosphere, although high spectral resolution and high sensitivity are needed to measure quiet Sun chromospheric magnetic fields.

  5. MARCS model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plez, B.

    2008-12-01

    In this review presented at the Symposium A Stellar Journey in Uppsala, June 2008, I give an account of the historical development of the MARCS code, and its premises from the first version published in 1975 to the 2008 grid. The primary driver for the development team who constantly strive to include the best possible physical data, is the science that can be done with the models. A few preliminary comparisons of M star model spectra to spectrophotometric observations are presented. Particular results related to opacity effects are discussed. The size of errors in spectral energy distribution (SED) and model thermal stratification is estimated for different densities of wavelength sampling. The number of points used in the MARCS 2008 grid (108 000) is large enough to ensure errors of only a few K in all models of the grid, except the optically very thin layers of metal-poor stars. Errors in SEDs may reach about 10% locally in the UV. The published sampled SEDs are thus adequate to compute synthetic broadband photometry, but higher resolution spectra will be computed in the near future and published as well on the MARCS site (marcs.astro.uu.se). Test model calculations with TiO line opacity accounted for in scattering show significant cooling of the upper atmospheric layers of red giants. Rough estimates of radiative and collisional time scales for electronic transitions of TiO indicate that scattering may well be the dominant mechanism in these lines. However, models constructed with this hypothesis are incompatible with optical observations of TiO (Arcturus) or IR observations of OH (Betelgeuse), although they may succeed in explaining H2O line observations. More work is needed in that direction.

  6. Surface Ocean—Lower Atmosphere Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Saltzman, Eric S.

    The focus of Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Processes is biogeochemical interactions between the surface ocean and the lower atmosphere. This volume is an outgrowth of the Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) Summer School. The volume is designed to provide graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and researchers from a wide range of academic backgrounds with a basis for understanding the nature of ocean-atmosphere interactions and the current research issues in this area. The volume highlights include the following: • Background material on ocean and atmosphere structure, circulation, and chemistry and on marine ecosystems • Integrative chapters on the global carbon cycle and ocean biogeochemistry • Issue-oriented chapters on the iron cycle and dimethylsulfide • Tool-oriented chapters on biogeochemical modeling and remote sensing • A framework of underlying physical/chemical/biological principles, as well as perspectives on current research issues in the field. The readership for this book will include graduate students and/or advanced undergraduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and researchers in the fields of oceanography and atmospheric science. It will also be useful for experienced researchers in specific other disciplines who wish to broaden their perspectives on the complex biogeochemical coupling between ocean and atmosphere and the importance of this coupling to understanding global change.

  7. Work on the Super and the Study of Atmospheric Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Mcallister

    2001-03-01

    By 1951, the group of young faculty (Bob Gluckstern and me), post doctoral fellows and graduate students, was comfortably established in Sloane Laboratory, and as "The Breit Group", in the department of physics at Yale. We didn't consciously separate ourselves from others in the department, and no one seemed to put us apart, but the association with Breit gave us a special "aura"--sometimes as objects of pity. Any project that involved the group as a whole, or a significant part of it, was discussed with Bob and me, and sometime in 1951 Breit called us in to consider a request that we look at the possibility of atmospheric ignition by a "Super" - as we still called it then, after Edward Teller. At the end of my stay at Los Alamos, in the summer of 1946, we youngsters had many bull sessions about that "Super", and the possibility of controlled fusion energy. We were confident that the former would be working in perhaps five years, and the latter within ten. After all, Han Bethe had shown us how the sun made its energy, and all that was needed to do was to replace a couple of his slow beta decays with something faster. As I write, some fifty-four years later, we still haven't got fusion energy for power. Our crystal balls were cloudier than Vicky Weisskopf's were to be! But I knew some of the lingo, and had worked out the way radiation penetrates the atmosphere (for understanding the Bikini tests), so in 1951, initially drew the task of looking at opacity, a key question in the bomb itself, and in the possibility of atmospheric ignition. Most of our limited work on the bomb was checking calculations that had been done by others as the Teller-Ulam design was being put together. At least some work on atmospheric ignition had already been done as well, but Teller wanted the "most careful physicist he knew" to do the definitive calculations, so Breit got the call. I do not recall all the members of the group who worked on the project and for that I apologize - no private

  8. Solar Physics at Evergreen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zita, E. J.; Bogdan, T. J.; Carlsson, M.; Judge, P.; Heller, N.; Johnson, M.; Petty, S.

    2004-05-01

    We have recently established a solar physics research program at The Evergreen State College. Famed for its cloudy skies, the Pacific Northwest is an ideal location for solar physics research activities that do not require local observations. Collaborators from the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research have shared solar data from satellite-borne instruments such as TRACE and SUMER. HAO colleagues also share data from computer simulations of magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) in the chromosphere, generated by the Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics (ITA) at the University of Oslo. Evergreen students and faculty learned to analyze data from satellites and simulations, in Boulder and Oslo, and established an infrastructure for continuing our analyses in Olympia. We are investigating the role of magnetic waves in heating the solar atmosphere. Comparing data from satellites and simulations shows that acoustic oscillations from the photosphere cannot effectively propagate into the chromosphere, but that magnetic waves can carry energy up toward the hot, thin corona. We find that acoustic waves can change into magnetic waves, especially near the magnetic "canopy," a region where the sound speed is comparable to magnetic wave speeds. Understanding MHD wave transformations and their role in energy transport can help answer outstanding questions about the anomalous heating of the solar atmosphere. Ref: Waves in the magnetized solar atmosphere II: Waves from localized sources in magnetic flux concentrations. Bogdan et al., 2003, ApJ 597

  9. Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, Mission 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul D. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The first Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission, planned for late 1990, includes experiments in four areas: Atmospheric Science, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, and Astronomy. The atmospheric science investigations will study the composition of the atmosphere in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The solar physics investigations will measure the total energy output of the sun. The space plasma physics investigations will study the charged particle and plasma environment of the earth. The astronomy investigation will study astronomical sources of radiation in the ultraviolet wavelengths that are inaccessible to observers on earth. Most of the experimental equipment has been flown before on one of the Spacelab missions. Brief descriptions of the experiments are given.

  10. A New Computational Framework for Atmospheric and Surface Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timucin, Dogan A.

    2004-01-01

    A Bayesian data-analysis framework is described for atmospheric and surface retrievals from remotely-sensed hyper-spectral data. Some computational techniques are high- lighted for improved accuracy in the forward physics model.

  11. Atmosphere, Ocean, Land, and Solar Irradiance Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James; Ahmad, Suraiya

    2003-01-01

    The report present the atmosphere, ocean color, land and solar irradiation data sets. The data presented: total ozone, aerosol, cloud optical and physical parameters, temperature and humidity profiles, radiances, rain fall, drop size distribution.

  12. Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Hulth, P. O.; Botner, O.; Carlson, P.; Ohlsson, T.

    2006-03-01

    J. N. Bahcall (1934-2005) -- Preface -- List of participants -- Committees -- Nobel symposium on neutrino physics - program -- The history of neutrino oscillations / S. M. Bilenky -- Super-Kamiokande results on neutrino oscillations / Y. Suzuki -- Sudbury neutrino observatory results / A. B. McDonald -- Results from KamLAND reactor neutrino detection / A. Suzuki -- New opportunities for surprise / J. Conrad -- Solar models and solar neutrinos / J. N. Bahcall -- Atmospheric neutrino fluxes / T. K. Gaisser -- The MSW effect and matter effects in neutrino oscillations / A. Yu. Smirnov -- Three-flavour effects and CP- and T-violation in neutrino oscillations / E. Kh. Akhmedov -- Global analysis of neutrino data / M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia -- Future precision neutrino oscillation experiments and theoretical implications / M. Lindner -- Experimental prospects of neutrinoless double beta decay / E. Fiorini -- Theoretical prospects of neutrinoless double beta decay / S. T. Petcov -- Supernova neutrino oscillations / G. G. Raffelt -- High-energy neutrino astronomy / F. Halzen -- Neutrino astrophysics in the cold: Amanda, Baikal and IceCube / C. Spiering -- Status of radio and acoustic detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos and a proposal on reporting results / D. Saltzberg -- Detection of neutrino-induced air showers / A. A. Watson -- Prospect for relic neutrino searches / G. B. Gelmini -- Leptogenesis in the early universe / T. Yanagida -- Neutrinos and big bang nucleosynthesis / G. Steigman -- Extra galactic sources of high energy neutrinos / E. Waxman -- Cosmological neutrino bounds for non-cosmologists / M. Tegmark -- Neutrino intrinsic properties: the neutrino-antineutrino relation / B. Kayser -- NuTeV and neutrino properties / M. H. Shaevitz -- Absolute masses of neutrinos - experimental results and future possibilities / C. Weinheimer -- Flavor theories and neutrino masses / P. Ramond -- Neutrino mass models and leptogenesis / S. F. King -- Neutrino mass and

  13. A photography course for physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, P.; Higinbotham, J.

    1990-11-01

    This article is based upon a paper presented at the Asian Pacific Education Network (ASPEN) Conference on the Teaching of Optics. It seeks to encourage Physics Departments to seriously consider the teaching of Photography in Physics Courses.

  14. A Basic Manual for Physical Plant Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, George O., Ed.; Fincham, Michael W., Ed.

    This book provides practical advice on problems of institutional plant management to physical plant administrators. Areas covered include the role, organization, and facilities of the physical plant department; personnel administration; financial administration; buildings maintenance and operation; custodial services; utilities distribution…

  15. RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, Edward

    2013-07-12

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

  16. Possibility of growth of airborne microbes in outer planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimmick, R. L.; Chatigny, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that airborne bacteria can maintain metabolic functions in a suitable atmosphere. It is theorized that particles in the Jovian atmosphere would have physical half-lives of 10 to 1500 years, depending upon which of two turbulent models is chosen.

  17. Atmospherics: A Look at the Earth's Airy Shell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byalko, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes differences in the composition, pressure, and temperature at distinct altitudes of the Earth's atmosphere from the point of view of physical laws. Discusses the genesis and importance of ozone, thermal radiation and the "layer cake" arrangement of the atmosphere, and solar energy in connection with thermal equilibrium. (JJK)

  18. Computational space physics in the undergraduate physics curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. F.

    2006-12-01

    Computational physics education is a significant aspect of the undergraduate physics curriculum at a growing number of colleges and universities as exhibited, for example, by special sessions on this topic at recent APS (March 2004) and AAPT (Summer 2006) conferences. Since computational space physics has been a forefront research area for decades, it is only natural that examples from our discipline have a presence in this educational trend. The Illinois State University physics department has integrated computing throughout its physics curriculum and has developed a targeted undergraduate major sequence in computational physics. Several examples from magnetospheric physics have been integrated as computational projects in courses such as electromagnetism, advanced computational physics, nonlinear dynamics, and a capstone research course. I will discuss the movement toward more computer simulation in the undergraduate curriculum and give some specific examples of space physics course projects.

  19. Line Coupling in Atmospheric Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipping, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical modeling of atmospheric spectra is important for a number of different applications: for instance, in the determination of minor atmospheric constituents such as ozone, carbon dioxide, CFC's etc.; in monitoring the temperature profile for climate studies; and in measuring the incoming and outgoing radiation to input into global climate models. In order to accomplish the above mentioned goal, one needs to know the spectral parameters characterizing the individual spectral lines (frequency, width, strength, and shape) as well as the physical parameters of the atmosphere (temperature, abundances, and pressure). When all these parameters are known, it is usually assumed that the resultant spectra and concomitant absorption coefficient can then be calculated by a superposition of individual profiles of appropriate frequency, strength and shape. However, this is not true if the lines are 'coupled'. Line coupling is a subtle effect that takes place when lines of a particular molecule overlap in frequency. In this case when the initial states and the final states of two transitions are connected by collisions, there is a quantum interference resulting in perturbed shapes. In general, this results in the narrowing of Q-branches (those in which the rotational quantum number does not change), and vibration-rotational R- and P branches (those in which the rotational quantum number changes by +/- 1), and in the spectral region beyond band heads (regions where the spectral lines pile up due to centrifugal distortion). Because these features and spectral regions are often those of interest in the determination of the abundances and pressure-temperature profiles, one must take this effect into account in atmospheric models.

  20. The 26th AFOSR chemical and atmospheric sciences program review FY81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, W. G.; Myers, L. E.; Stallings, S. A.

    1982-03-01

    A review is presented of research efforts sponsored by the Directorate of Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences which have completed their period of support. Illustrated accounts resulting from the basic research programs in the Atmospheric and Chemical Sciences are highlighted. The Atmospheric Sciences is concerned with meteorology and upper atmospheric structure and dynamics. The meteorology focuses on mesoscale meteorology, cloud physics, and atmospheric dynamics. The Chemical Sciences deal with Chemical Techniques, Chemical Structures, Surface Chemistry, Chemical Dynamics, and Synthesis and properties of Materials.

  1. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice cyrstals suspended in the air. The study of clouds touches on many facets of armospheric science. The chemistry of clouds is tied to the chemistry of the surrounding atmosphere.

  2. Evolution of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Theories on the origin of the Earth atmosphere and chemical composition are presented. The role of oxygenic photosynthesis on the determination of the Earth's origin is discussed. The research suggests that further analysis of the geologic record is needed to more accurately estimate the history of atmospheric oxygen.

  3. MODIS Atmospheric Data Handler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Fitzpatrick, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Atmosphere Data Handler software converts the HDF data to ASCII format, and outputs: (1) atmospheric profiles of temperature and dew point and (2) total precipitable water. Quality-control data are also considered in the export procedure.

  4. Physics Manpower, 1973, Education and Employment Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    Discussed in this document are the changes within the physics profession, their causes and effect. Detailed statistical data are supplied concerning physics enrollments, the institutions where physics is taught, the faculty in physics departments, and the nonacademic employment of physicists. Other topics include employment, education, minority…

  5. Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Kimberly A.; Hatch, Courtney D.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-07-01

    Aerosols represent an important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Because aerosols are composed of solid and liquid particles of varying chemical complexity, size, and phase, large challenges exist in understanding how they impact climate, health, and the chemistry of the atmosphere. Only through the integration of field, laboratory, and modeling analysis can we begin to unravel the roles atmospheric aerosols play in these global processes. In this article, we provide a brief review of the current state of the science in the analysis of atmospheric aerosols and some important challenges that need to be overcome before they can become fully integrated. It is clear that only when these areas are effectively bridged can we fully understand the impact that atmospheric aerosols have on our environment and the Earth's system at the level of scientific certainty necessary to design and implement sound environmental policies.

  6. The atmosphere below. (Videotape)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    In this educational `Liftoff to Learning` video series, astronauts from the STS-45 Space Shuttle Mission (Kathy Sullivan, Byron Lichtenberg, Brian Duffy, Mike Foale, David Leestma, Charlie Bolden, and Dirk Frimont) explain and discuss the Earths atmosphere, its needs, the changes occurring within it, the importance of ozone, and some of the reasons behind the ozone depletion in the Earths atmosphere. The questions of: (1) what is ozone; (2) what has happened to the ozone layer in the atmosphere; and (3) what exactly does ozone do in the atmosphere, are answered. Different chemicals and their reactions with ozone are discussed. Computer animation and graphics show how these chemical reactions affect the atmosphere and how the ozone hole looks and develops at the south pole during its winter season appearance.

  7. Atmospheric Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric fluorescence from these showers. Accurate knowledge of the conversion from atmospheric fluorescence to energy loss by ionizing particles in the atmosphere is key to this technique. In this paper we discuss a small balloon-borne instrument to make the first in situ measurements versus altitude of the atmospheric fluorescence yield. The instrument can also be used in the lab to investigate the dependence of the fluorescence yield in air on temperature, pressure and the concentrations of other gases that present in the atmosphere. The results can be used to explore environmental effects on and improve the accuracy of cosmic ray energy measurements for existing ground-based experiments and future space-based experiments.

  8. The atmosphere below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    In this educational 'Liftoff to Learning' video series, astronauts from the STS-45 Space Shuttle Mission (Kathy Sullivan, Byron Lichtenberg, Brian Duffy, Mike Foale, David Leestma, Charlie Bolden, and Dirk Frimont) explain and discuss the Earths atmosphere, its needs, the changes occurring within it, the importance of ozone, and some of the reasons behind the ozone depletion in the Earths atmosphere. The questions of: (1) what is ozone; (2) what has happened to the ozone layer in the atmosphere; and (3) what exactly does ozone do in the atmosphere, are answered. Different chemicals and their reactions with ozone are discussed. Computer animation and graphics show how these chemical reactions affect the atmosphere and how the ozone hole looks and develops at the south pole during its winter season appearance.

  9. Radon in atmospheric studies: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, M.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of the isotopes of radon in space and time, their physical characteristics, and their behavior in the dynamics of the atmosphere have presented challenges for many decades. /sup 220/Rn, /sup 222/Rn and their daughters furnish a unique set of tracers for the study of transport and mixing processes in the atmosphere. Appropriate applications of turbulent diffusion theory yield general agreement with measured profiles. Diurnal and seasonal variations follow patterns set by consideration of atmospheric stability. /sup 222/Rn has been used successfully in recent studies of nocturnal drainage winds and cumulus convection. Good results have been obtained using /sup 222/Rn and its long-lived /sup 210/Pb daughter as tracers in the study of continent-to-ocean and ocean-to-continent air mass trajectories, /sup 220/Rn (thoron) because of its short half-life of only 55 seconds has been used to measure turbulent diffusion within the first few meters of the earth's surface and to study the influence of meteorological variables on the rate of exhalation from the ground. Radon daughters attach readily to atmospheric particulate matter which makes it possible to study these aerosols with respect to size spectra, attachment characteristics, removal by gravitation and precipitation, and residence times in the troposphere. The importance of ionization by radon and its daughters in the lower atmosphere and its effect on atmospheric electrical parameters is well known. Knowledge of the mobility and other characteristics of radon daughter ions has led to applications in the study of atmospheric electrical environments under fair weather and thunderstorm conditions and in the formation of condensation nuclei. The availability of increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and atmospheric measurement systems can be expected to add much to our understanding of radon and its daughters as trace components of the atmospheric environment in the years ahead.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  11. Geochemical cycles of atmospheric gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. C. G.; Drever, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The processes that control the atmosphere and atmospheric changes are reviewed. The geochemical cycles of water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and minor atmospheric constituents are examined. Changes in atmospheric chemistry with time are discussed using evidence from the rock record and analysis of the present atmosphere. The role of biological evolution in the history of the atmosphere and projected changes in the future atmosphere are considered.

  12. Environmental Physics, Second Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeker, Egbert; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2000-05-01

    Environmental Physics provides a comprehensive introduction to this increasingly important area of applied physics. Covering both atmospheric and soil physics, the reader is introduced to the physics that is needed to understand, analyse and prevent environmental problems. Whilst the rigor and methodology has been maintained in the Second Edition there has been a greater integration of physics with the natural environment throughout the text. More student exercises have been added to each chapter and more information has been provided to help the reader solve them. Some of the more challenging mathematics has been removed, and greater emphasis has been placed on the interpretation of spectra. FEATURES Carefully structured, topics are gradually introduced within each chapter, each of which conclude with student exercises and references. Thoroughly updated throughout, with more modern examples and applications, and less abstract mathematicsMore student exercises along with increased help for solving them. Greater emphasis on the interpretation of spectra. CONTENTS: |Introduction: The Essentials of Environmental Physics; Elementary Spectroscopy; The Global Climate; Energy for Human Use; Transport of Pollutants; Noise; Environmental Spectroscopy: Some Examples; The Context of Society; Gauss, Delta and Error Functions; Vector Differentiations; Physical and Numerical Constants.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) operates at non-permanent sites selected by the ARM Program. Sometimes these sites can become permanent ARM sites, as was the case with Graciosa Island in the Azores. It is now known as the Eastern North Atlantic permanent site. In January 2006 the AMF deployed to Niamey, Niger, West Africa, at the Niger Meteorological Office at Niamey International Airport. This deployment was timed to coincide with the field phases and Special Observing Periods of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). The ARM Program participated in this international effort as a field campaign called "Radiative Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST).The primary purpose of the Niger deployment was to combine an extended series of measurements from the AMF with those from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) Instrument on the Meteosat operational geostationary satellite in order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and thermal radiation across the atmosphere. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Niamey are available via a link from ARM's Niamey, Niger site information page. Other data can be found at the related websites mentioned above and in the ARM Archive. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Final Report for Cloud-Aerosol Physics in Super-Parameterized Atmospheric Regional Climate Simulations (CAP-SPARCS)(DE-SC0002003) for 8/15/2009 through 8/14/2012

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Lynn M; Somerville, Richard C.J.

    2012-11-05

    Improving the representation of local and non-local aerosol interactions in state-of-the-science regional climate models is a priority for the coming decade (Zhang, 2008). With this aim in mind, we have combined two new technologies that have a useful synergy: (1) an aerosol-enabled regional climate model (Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry WRF-Chem), whose primary weakness is a lack of high quality boundary conditions and (2) an aerosol-enabled multiscale modeling framework (PNNL Multiscale Aerosol Climate Model (MACM)), which is global but captures aerosol-convection-cloud feedbacks, and thus an ideal source of boundary conditions. Combining these two approaches has resulted in an aerosol-enabled modeling framework that not only resolves high resolution details in a particular region, but crucially does so within a global context that is similarly faithful to multi-scale aerosol-climate interactions. We have applied and improved the representation of aerosol interactions by evaluating model performance over multiple domains, with (1) an extensive evaluation of mid-continent precipitation representation by multiscale modeling, (2) two focused comparisons to transport of aerosol plumes to the eastern United States for comparison with observations made as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT), with the first being idealized and the second being linked to an extensive wildfire plume, and (3) the extension of these ideas to the development of a new approach to evaluating aerosol indirect effects with limited-duration model runs by nudging to observations. This research supported the work of one postdoc (Zhan Zhao) for two years and contributed to the training and research of two graduate students. Four peer-reviewed publications have resulted from this work, and ground work for a follow-on project was completed.

  15. Reconciling Satellite-Derived Atmospheric Properties with Fine-Resolution Land Imagery: Insights for Atmospheric Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E; Grainger, Roy G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent satellite measurements of atmospheric properties can be reconciled with fine-resolution land imagery, in order to improve the estimates of surface reflectance through physically based atmospheric correction. The analysis deals with mountainous area (Landsat scene of Peruvian Amazon/Andes, 72 E and 13 S), where the atmosphere is highly variable. Data from satellite sensors were used for characterization of the key atmospheric constituents: total water vapor (TWV), aerosol optical depth (AOD), and total ozone. Constituent time series revealed the season-dependent mean state of the atmosphere and its variability. Discrepancies between AOD from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) highlighted substantial uncertainty of atmospheric aerosol properties. The distribution of TWV and AOD over a Landsat scene was found to be exponentially related to ground elevation (mean R(sup 2) of 0.82 and 0.29, respectively). In consequence, the atmosphere-induced and seasonally varying bias of the top-of-atmosphere signal was also elevation dependent (e.g., mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index bias at 500 m was 0.06 and at 4000 m was 0.01). We demonstrate that satellite measurements of key atmospheric constituents can be downscaled and gap filled with the proposed "background + anomalies" approach, to allow for a better compatibility with fine-resolution land surface imagery. Older images (i.e., predating the MODIS/ATSR era), without coincident atmospheric data, can be corrected using climatologies derived from time series of satellite retrievals. Averaging such climatologies over space compromises the quality of correction result to a much greater degree than averaging them over time. We conclude that the quality of both recent and older fine-resolution land surface imagery can be improved with satellite-based atmospheric data acquired to date.

  16. New atmospheric model of Epsilon Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieytes, Mariela; Fontenla, Juan; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    We present a new semi-empirical model of the atmosphere of the widely studied K-dwarf Epsilon Eridani (HD 22049). The model is build to reproduce the visible spectral observations from 3800 to 6800 Angstrom and the h and k Mg II lines profiles. The computations were carried out using the Solar-Stellar Radiation Physical Modeling (SSRPM) tools, which calculate non-LTE population for the most important species in the stellar atmosphere. We show a comparison between the synthetic and observed spectrum, obtaining a good agreement in all the studied spectral range.

  17. A First Course in Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilson, Phillip

    2009-08-01

    It is not uncommon to find textbooks that have been written with the intention of catering to a broad spectrum of readers. Often, though not always, the result is a book appropriate for neither advanced nor beginning students. However, Grant Petty had a very specific target audience in mind when he wrote A First Course in Atmospheric Thermodynamics. The book is clearly gauged for atmospheric science and meteorology students who have had introductory courses in physics and calculus but who have not necessarily established a firm foundation in analytic problem solving.

  18. Triton's surface-atmosphere energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, John A.; Yelle, Roger V.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Mcewen, Alfred S.

    1992-01-01

    A model encompassing the turbulent transfer of sensible heat as well as insolation, reradiation, and latent heat transport is presently used to investigate the energetics of the surface-atmosphere system of Triton. Under the assumption of a physically plausible range of heat transfer coefficients, the atmospheric temperature 1 km above the surface is found to be 1-3 K hotter than the Triton surface. The observed N2 frosts must have an emissivity lower than unity in order to match a frost temperature at the surface of about 38 K.

  19. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program: Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program -- Final Report. Part 1: The lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tooman, T.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents work done between FY91 and FY95 for the lower atmospheric portion of the joint Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program (ARSAP) within the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The work focused on (1) developing new measurement capabilities and (2) measuring atmospheric heating in a well-defined layer and then relating it to cloud properties an water vapor content. Seven new instruments were develop3ed for use with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs) as the host platform for flux, radiance, cloud, and water vapor measurements. Four major field campaigns were undertaken to use these new as well as existing instruments to make critically needed atmospheric measurements. Scientific results include the profiling of clear sky fluxes from near surface to 14 km and the strong indication of cloudy atmosphere absorption of solar radiation considerably greater than predicted by extant models.

  20. Cyberinfrastructure for Atmospheric Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmson, R.; Moore, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    Each year across the United States, floods, tornadoes, hail, strong winds, lightning, hurricanes, and winter storms cause hundreds of deaths, routinely disrupt transportation and commerce, and result in billions of dollars in annual economic losses . MEAD and LEAD are two recent efforts aimed at developing the cyberinfrastructure for studying and forecasting these events through collection, integration, and analysis of observational data coupled with numerical simulation, data mining, and visualization. MEAD (Modeling Environment for Atmospheric Discovery) has been funded for two years as an NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Alliance Expedition. The goal of this expedition has been the development/adaptation of cyberinfrastructure that will enable research simulations, datamining, machine learning and visualization of hurricanes and storms utilizing the high performance computing environments including the TeraGrid. Portal grid and web infrastructure are being tested that will enable launching of hundreds of individual WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) simulations. In a similar way, multiple Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) or WRF/ROMS simulations can be carried out. Metadata and the resulting large volumes of data will then be made available for further study and for educational purposes using analysis, mining, and visualization services. Initial coupling of the ROMS and WRF codes has been completed and parallel I/O is being implemented for these models. Management of these activities (services) are being enabled through Grid workflow technologies (e.g. OGCE). LEAD (Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery) is a recently funded 5-year, large NSF ITR grant that involves 9 institutions who are developing a comprehensive national cyberinfrastructure in mesoscale meteorology, particularly one that can interoperate with others being developed. LEAD is addressing the fundamental information technology (IT) research challenges needed

  1. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  2. Use of physical sciences in support of environmental management.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhen-Gang

    2004-08-01

    Offshore drilling for oil and gas has been conducted since the early 1900s. Oil and gas under the seabed continue to be an important part of the energy resources of the United States. The need to balance the value of these resources against the potential for environmental damage is an important concern. This article explains why and how the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the US Department of the Interior uses research in physical sciences to help fulfill its environmental goals, and it provides background information on the role of physical sciences in decision-making for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil, gas, and other minerals development. Established in the 1970s, the MMS' Environmental Studies Program is a highly focused marine research program designed to provide the environmental information necessary for OCS energy and nonenergy minerals planning and development activities. The physical sciences research supported by MMS includes physical oceanography, oil-spill risk analyses, atmospheric sciences, and sand and gravel studies. Instead of giving a comprehensive review on physical sciences research in MMS, this article presents sample MMS studies and illustrates how these studies are utilized to support decision-making in environmental management.

  3. Use of physical sciences in support of environmental management.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhen-Gang

    2004-08-01

    Offshore drilling for oil and gas has been conducted since the early 1900s. Oil and gas under the seabed continue to be an important part of the energy resources of the United States. The need to balance the value of these resources against the potential for environmental damage is an important concern. This article explains why and how the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the US Department of the Interior uses research in physical sciences to help fulfill its environmental goals, and it provides background information on the role of physical sciences in decision-making for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil, gas, and other minerals development. Established in the 1970s, the MMS' Environmental Studies Program is a highly focused marine research program designed to provide the environmental information necessary for OCS energy and nonenergy minerals planning and development activities. The physical sciences research supported by MMS includes physical oceanography, oil-spill risk analyses, atmospheric sciences, and sand and gravel studies. Instead of giving a comprehensive review on physical sciences research in MMS, this article presents sample MMS studies and illustrates how these studies are utilized to support decision-making in environmental management. PMID:15559941

  4. Why Preschoolers Need Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    NAEYC, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, and the US Department of Health and Human Services all recommend that preschool programs offer physical education. There are many reasons why. First, young children form healthy habits early in life. Before entering elementary school they learn to brush their teeth, bathe…

  5. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  6. Triton's surface-atmosphere energy balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stansberry, J.A.; Yelle, R.V.; Lunine, J.I.; McEwen, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    We explore the energetics of Triton's surface-atmosphere system using a model that includes the turbulent transfer of sensible heat as well as insolation, reradiation, and latent heat transport. The model relies on a 1?? by 1?? resolution hemispheric bolometric albedo map of Triton for determining the atmospheric temperature, the N2 frost emissivity, and the temperatures of unfrosted portions of the surface consistent with a frost temperature of ???38 K. For a physically plausible range of heat transfer coefficients, we find that the atmospheric temperature roughly 1 km above the surface is approximately 1 to 3 K hotter than the surface. Atmospheric temperatures of 48 K suggested by early analysis of radio occultation data cannot be obtained for plausible values of the heat transfer coefficients. Our calculations indicate that Triton's N2 frosts must have an emissivity well below unity in order to have a temperature of ???38 K, consistent with previous results. We also find that convection over small hot spots does not significantly cool them off, so they may be able to act as continous sources of buoyancy for convective plumes, but have not explored whether the convection is vigorous enough to entrain particulate matter thereby forming a dust devil. Our elevated atmospheric temperatures make geyser driven plumes with initial upward velocities ???10 m s-1 stagnate in the lower atmosphere. These "wimpy" plumes provide a possible explanation for Triton's "wind streaks.". ?? 1992.

  7. Orographic disturbances in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Anatoly I.; Shefov, Nikolay N.; Medvedeva, Irina V.

    2012-12-01

    Interaction of atmospheric non-stationary stream with obstacles on the Earth's terrestrial surface causes disturbances which are a source of various wave processes. A study of such processes and their influence on the upper atmosphere temperature regime was carried out at Kislovodsk high-mountainous scientific station of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) by measuring the mesopause temperature in the northern leeward area of the Caucasian ridge. Using the data of the spectrophotometric measurements of the upper atmosphere hydroxyl emission characteristics over almost two decades, information about the orographic disturbances at the mesopause altitudes were obtained and features of their generation in the surface atmosphere were studied. It was found that the atmospheric temperature at altitudes around 90 km in the lee of mountains increased by 10 K (the mean value is about 200 K) at a distance of about 150 km from the ridge. The 300-km width of the observed airglow disturbances is from the observations near the Ural and Caucasian mountains.The sources of wave disturbances are shown to be concentrated near the mountainous irregularities of the Caucasian ridge. These sources appear in the troposphere at altitudes of about 4 km. The process of generating waves with periods from 7 to 20 min were believed to be caused by wind gusts. The spatial distribution of energy flow in the lee of the mountains was calculated and amounts to about 3 erg cm-2 s-1.

  8. Spectrally Invariant Approximation within Atmospheric Radiative Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Chiu, J. C.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Certain algebraic combinations of single scattering albedo and solar radiation reflected from, or transmitted through, vegetation canopies do not vary with wavelength. These spectrally invariant relationships are the consequence of wavelength independence of the extinction coefficient and scattering phase function in vegetation. In general, this wavelength independence does not hold in the atmosphere, but in cloud-dominated atmospheres the total extinction and total scattering phase function vary only weakly with wavelength. This paper identifies the atmospheric conditions under which the spectrally invariant approximation can accurately describe the extinction and scattering properties of cloudy atmospheres. The validity of the assumptions and the accuracy of the approximation are tested with 1D radiative transfer calculations using publicly available radiative transfer models: Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (DISORT) and Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART). It is shown for cloudy atmospheres with cloud optical depth above 3, and for spectral intervals that exclude strong water vapor absorption, that the spectrally invariant relationships found in vegetation canopy radiative transfer are valid to better than 5%. The physics behind this phenomenon, its mathematical basis, and possible applications to remote sensing and climate are discussed.

  9. An implementation plan for priorities in solar-system space physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Athay, R. Grant; Baker, Daniel; Fisk, Lennard A.; Fredricks, Robert W.; Harvey, John W.; Jokipii, Jack R.; Kivelson, Margaret; Mendillo, Michael; Nagy, Andrew F.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific objectives and implementation plans and priorities of the Space Science Board in areas of solar physics, heliospheric physics, magnetospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, solar-terrestrial coupling, and comparative planetary studies are discussed and recommended programs are summarized. Accomplishments of Skylab, Solar Maximum Mission, Nimbus-7, and 11 other programs are highlighted. Detailed mission plans in areas of solar and heliospheric physics, plasma physics, and upper atmospheric physics are also described.

  10. Atmospheric refraction: a history.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Waldemar H; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-20

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  11. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  12. Triton's distorted atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Elliot, J L; Stansberry, J A; Olkin, C B; Agner, M A; Davies, M E

    1997-10-17

    A stellar-occultation light curve for Triton shows asymmetry that can be understood if Triton's middle atmosphere is distorted from spherical symmetry. Although a globally oblate model can explain the data, the inferred atmospheric flattening is so large that it could be caused only by an unrealistic internal mass distribution or highly supersonic zonal winds. Cyclostrophic winds confined to a jet near Triton's northern or southern limbs (or both) could also be responsible for the details of the light curve, but such winds are required to be slightly supersonic. Hazes and clouds in the atmosphere are unlikely to have caused the asymmetry in the light curve.

  13. Ensemble Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    2002-06-24

    Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, result in differences in the resulting plumes. Even dispersion models using the same wind fields may produce substantially different plumes. This talk will address how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave.

  14. Evolution of Atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, B.

    1993-02-12

    An atmosphere is the dynamic gaseous boundary layer between a planet and space. Many complex interactions affect the composition and time evolution of an atmosphere and control the environment - or climate - at a planet's surface. These include both reactions within the atmosphere as well as exchange of energy, gases, and dust with the planet below and the solar system above; for Earth today, interactions with the biosphere and oceans are paramount. In view of the large changes in inputs of energy and gases that have occurred since planets began to form and the complexity of the chemistry, it is not surprising that planetary climates have changed greatly and are continuing to change.

  15. Triton's Distorted Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Stansberry, J. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Agner, M. A.; Davies, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    A stellar-occultation light curve for Triton shows asymmetry that can be understood if Triton's middle atmosphere is distorted from spherical symmetry. Although a globally oblate model can explain the data, the inferred atmospheric flattening is so large that it could be caused only by an unrealistic internal mass distribution or highly supersonic zonal winds. Cyclostrophic winds confined to a jet near Triton's northern or southern limbs (or both) could also be responsible for the details of the light curve, but such winds are required to be slightly supersonic. Hazes and clouds in the atmosphere are unlikely to have caused the asymmetry in the light curve.

  16. Free from the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    /07 ESO PR Photo 27e/07 Active Galaxy NGC 4945 (NACO-LGS/VLT) Still closer to home, the LGS system can also be applied to solar system objects, such as asteroids or satellites, but also to the study of particular regions of spatially extended bodies like the polar regions of giant planets, where aurora activity is concentrated. During their science verification, the scientists turned the SINFONI instrument with the LGS to a Trans-Neptunian Object, 2003 EL 61. The high image contrast and sensitivity obtained with the use of the LGS mode permit the detection of the two faint satellites known to orbit the TNO. "From such observations one can study the chemical composition of the surface material of the TNO and its satellites (mainly crystalline water ice), estimate their surface properties and constrain their internal structure," explains Christophe Dumas, from ESO. The VLT Laser Guide System is the result of a collaborative work by a team of scientists and engineers from ESO and the Max Planck Institutes for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching and for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. NACO was built by a Consortium of French and German institutes and ESO. SINFONI was built by a Consortium of German and Dutch Institutes and ESO. More Information Normally, the achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. This drawback can be surmounted with adaptive optics, allowing the telescope to produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. This means that finer details in astronomical objects can be studied, and also that fainter objects can be observed. In order to work, adaptive optics needs a nearby reference star that has to be relatively bright, thereby limiting the area of the sky that can be surveyed to a few percent only. To overcome this limitation, astronomers use a powerful laser that creates an artificial star, where and when they need it. The laser beam takes advantage of the layer of sodium atoms

  17. Remote sensing of the atmosphere by resonance Raman LIDAR

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, A.J.; Harder, D.; Leung, K.P.; Zuhoski, P.B. Jr.; Burr, D.; Chen, C.L.

    1994-12-01

    When in resonance, Raman scattering exhibits strong enhancement ranging from four to six orders of magnitude. This physical phenomenon has been applied to remote sensing of the Earth`s atmosphere. With a 16 inch Cassegrain telescope and spectrometer/ CCD-detector system, 70-150 ppm-m of SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere has been detected at a distance of 0.5 kilometer. This system can be used to detect/monitor chemical effluence in the atmosphere by their unique Raman fingerprints. Experimental result together with detailed resonance Raman and atmospheric laser propagation effects will be discussed.

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on high energy particles and atmospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Yair, Yoav

    2015-10-01

    The letters published in the ‘Focus issue on high energy particles and atmospheric processes’ serve to broaden the discussion about the influence of high energy particles on the atmosphere beyond their possible effects on clouds and climate. These letters link climate and meteorological processes with atmospheric electricity, atmospheric chemistry, high energy physics and aerosol science from the smallest molecular cluster ions through to liquid droplets. Progress in such a disparate and complex topic is very likely to benefit from continued interdisciplinary interactions between traditionally distinct science areas.

  19. Atmospheric Profiling Snthetic observation System(APSOS) - a system for whole atmosphere, purpose and preliminary observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Daren; Pan, Weilin; Wang, Yinan

    2016-07-01

    To understand the vertical coupling processes between the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere with high vertical resolution and temporal resolution, an observation system consisted of multi-lidars, a W-band Doppler radar, and a THz spectrometer has been developing starting from 2012. This system is developed to observer the multiple atmospheric parameters, include high clouds, aerosols, CO2, SO2, NO2, water vapor, ozone, atmospheric temperature and wind, sodium atomic layer, in different height ranges, with vertical resolution of tens to hundreds meters and temporal resolution of several to tens minutes. In addition, the simultaneous observation with high cloud radar will enhance the ability of quantitative retrieval of middle and upper atmospheric observation with combined retrieval of cloud micro-physical characteristics and other atmospheric parameters above the cloud layer. As the cirrus cloud occupied about 50% of earth coverage, this ability will increase the whole atmosphere observation ability obviously. During last 5 years. We have finished each unit of the system and have revealed their targets separately. Temperature profile has been observed from 30 to 110 km, ozone up to 50 km, etc. In spring of 2016, we will have preliminary integrated observation in Eastern China, the Huainan Observatory of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS. In the end of 2016, the system will be implemented at Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory, CAS, near Lasa, Tibetan Plateau. Some preliminary results from Huainan observation will be presented in this presentation. This project is founded by NSFC.

  20. VII International Congress of Engineering Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the fortieth anniversary celebration of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana and the Physics Engineering career, the Division of Basic Science and Engineering and its Departments organized the "VII International Congress of Physics Engineering". The Congress was held from 24 to 28 November 2014 in Mexico City, Mexico. This congress is the first of its type in Latin America, and because of its international character, it gathers experts on physics engineering from Mexico and all over the globe. Since 1999, this event has shown research, articles, projects, technological developments and vanguard scientists. These activities aim to spread, promote, and share the knowledge of Physics Engineering. The topics of the Congress were: • Renewable energies engineering • Materials technology • Nanotechnology • Medical physics • Educational physics engineering • Nuclear engineering • High precision instrumentation • Atmospheric physics • Optical engineering • Physics history • Acoustics This event integrates lectures on top trending topics with pre-congress workshops, which are given by recognized scientists with an outstanding academic record. The lectures and workshops allow the exchange of experiences, and create and strengthen research networks. The Congress also encourages professional mobility among all universities and research centres from all countries. CIIF2014 Organizing and Editorial Committee Dr. Ernesto Rodrigo Vázquez Cerón Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco ervc@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Luis Enrique Noreña Franco Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco lnf@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Alberto Rubio Ponce Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco arp@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Óscar Olvera Neria Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco oon@correo.azc.uam.mx Professor Jaime Granados Samaniego Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco jgs@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Roberto Tito Hern

  1. IN MY OPINION: The how of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Bob

    2000-03-01

    if development days have lost the plot somewhat. How often are such days devoted to generic, whole school issues and how often do they focus on teachers and teaching? As a teacher I found it a rare luxury to find a forum, both the time and the place, to talk about teaching. Occasionally the ASE local section meetings or the ASE annual meeting provided space for professional reflection, and I often returned from such events with ideas to try out and to share with colleagues. Perhaps better use might be made of subject departments as agents for change. A modest investment in training middle managers as teacher-mentors and leaders might result in change that would be managed from within schools. Teachers helping teachers. I'll end this editorial with a plea to head teachers, advisers, department heads and the physics teaching community. Resurrect the HOW of physics teaching. Let's create space and time for teachers to share, reflect and explore their trade, to observe others teaching, to articulate their strategies for lesson planning and motivating learners and to be brave enough to step out from the stifling atmosphere of their classroom boxes and breathe again.

  2. Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics (LEP) performs experimental and theoretical research on the heliosphere, the interstellar medium, and the magnetospheres and upper atmospheres of the planets, including Earth. LEP space scientists investigate the structure and dynamics of the magnetospheres of the planets including Earth. Their research programs encompass the magnetic fields intrinsic to many planetary bodies as well as their charged-particle environments and plasma-wave emissions. The LEP also conducts research into the nature of planetary ionospheres and their coupling to both the upper atmospheres and their magnetospheres. Finally, the LEP carries out a broad-based research program in heliospheric physics covering the origins of the solar wind, its propagation outward through the solar system all the way to its termination where it encounters the local interstellar medium. Special emphasis is placed on the study of solar coronal mass ejections (CME's), shock waves, and the structure and properties of the fast and slow solar wind. LEP planetary scientists study the chemistry and physics of planetary stratospheres and tropospheres and of solar system bodies including meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets. The LEP conducts a focused program in astronomy, particularly in the infrared and in short as well as very long radio wavelengths. We also perform an extensive program of laboratory research, including spectroscopy and physical chemistry related to astronomical objects. The Laboratory proposes, develops, fabricates, and integrates experiments on Earth-orbiting, planetary, and heliospheric spacecraft to measure the characteristics of planetary atmospheres and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic fields and plasmas in space. We design and develop spectrometric instrumentation for continuum and spectral line observations in the x-ray, gamma-ray, infrared, and radio regimes; these are flown on spacecraft to study

  3. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  4. Endothermic atmosphere economics

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of atmospheres for hardening of steel was presented in the March 1995 edition of Heat Treating Progress. This article expands on the information presented there by focusing on key current and future issues that impact the economics of endothermic atmospheres for heat treating. Many companies have developed their own methods of cost analysis. However, these schemes often do not account for ``intangible`` and market factors that impact the total cost of an endothermic atmosphere system. Many of these factors are discussed. A ``Cost Analysis Worksheet`` also is included for readers who want to perform a more detailed comparison. Changing technology, and environmental, energy, and market issues must also be considered when comparing the total costs of conventional generators and nitrogen/methanol-based heat treating atmospheres.

  5. Condensates in Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermochemical equilibrium theory which starts with temperature/pressure profiles, compositional information and thermodynamic data for condensable species in the jovian planet atmospheres predicts layers of condensate clouds in the upper troposphere.

  6. Thermal atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hollis Ralph

    1987-01-01

    The static thermal atmosphere is described and its predictions are compared to observations both to test the validity of the classic assumptions and to distinguish and describe those spectral features with diagnostic value.

  7. Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  8. The invention of atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Martin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The word "atmosphere" was a neologism Willebrord Snellius created for his Latin translation of Simon Stevin's cosmographical writings. Astronomers and mathematical practitioners, such as Snellius and Christoph Scheiner, applying the techniques of Ibn Mu'ādh and Witelo, were the first to use the term in their calculations of the height of vapors that cause twilight. Their understandings of the atmosphere diverged from Aristotelian divisions of the aerial region. From the early years of the seventeenth century, the term was often associated with atomism or corpuscular matter theory. The concept of the atmosphere changed dramatically with the advent of pneumatic experiments in the middle of the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi, Walter Charleton, and Robert Boyle transformed the atmosphere of the mathematicians giving it the characteristics of weight, specific gravity, and fluidity, while disputes about its extent and border remained unresolved. PMID:26193787

  9. Our Changing Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about two major variables involved in certain types of chemical pollution that seem to be changing the structure of the Earth's atmosphere. Discusses the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer. (TW)

  10. The invention of atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Martin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The word "atmosphere" was a neologism Willebrord Snellius created for his Latin translation of Simon Stevin's cosmographical writings. Astronomers and mathematical practitioners, such as Snellius and Christoph Scheiner, applying the techniques of Ibn Mu'ādh and Witelo, were the first to use the term in their calculations of the height of vapors that cause twilight. Their understandings of the atmosphere diverged from Aristotelian divisions of the aerial region. From the early years of the seventeenth century, the term was often associated with atomism or corpuscular matter theory. The concept of the atmosphere changed dramatically with the advent of pneumatic experiments in the middle of the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi, Walter Charleton, and Robert Boyle transformed the atmosphere of the mathematicians giving it the characteristics of weight, specific gravity, and fluidity, while disputes about its extent and border remained unresolved.

  11. Middle atmospheric electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the advances made during the last few years with respect to the study of the electrodynamics in the earth's middle atmosphere. In a report of the experimental work conducted, attention is given to large middle atmospheric electric fields, the downward coupling of high altitude processes into the middle atmosphere, and upward coupling of tropospheric processes into the middle atmosphere. It is pointed out that new developments in tethered balloons and superpressure balloons should greatly increase the measurement duration of earth-ionospheric potential measurements and of stratospheric electric field measurements in the next few years. Theoretical work considered provides an excellent starting point for study of upward coupling of transient and dc electric fields. Hays and Roble (1979) were the first to construct a model which included orographic features as well as the classical thunderstorm generator.

  12. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  13. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  14. Pioneer 10 Jupiter atmospheric definition results: A summary. [Jupiter atmosphere composition measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J.; Kliore, A.

    1974-01-01

    The various entry probes for measuring outer planetary atmospheric compositions are discussed. Considered are chemical components and physical accumulation processes observable by spectroscopic studies, as well as pressure gauges, temperature gauges, accelerometers, nephelometers, and visible and infrared sensors for determining abundances.

  15. PREFACE: First International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benova, Evgenia; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Atanassov, Vladimir

    2006-07-01

    The First International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'05) organized by The Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia and the Foundation `Theoretical and Computational Physics and Astrophysics' was dedicated to the World Year of Physics 2005 and held in Kiten, Bulgaria, on the Black Sea Coast, from 8--12 June 2005. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists from various branches of plasma physics in order to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations. Another important task was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for the further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 31 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion research, kinetics and transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, MHD waves and instabilities in the solar atmosphere, dc and microwave discharge modelling, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are Masters or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will stimulate readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee. We greatly appreciate the financial support from the sponsors: the Department for Language Teaching and International Students at Sofia University, Dr Ivan Bogorov Publishing house, and Artgraph2 Publishing house. We would like to express our gratitude to the invited lecturers who were willing to pay the participation fee. In this way, in addition to the intellectual support they provided by means of their excellent lectures, they also supported the school

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    SciTech Connect

    Schrempf, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE`s long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program.

  17. Physics Teacher Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Andrew; Bixler, David

    2010-03-01

    Physics Teacher Quality at Angelo State University (ASU) and Education Service Center Region XV is funded through a US Department of Education grant. In this program secondary science teachers from local and rural districts within Region XV learn and practice physics and principles of technology concepts emphasized in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), improve practice of 5E model of guided inquiry, and complete activity-based laboratories and field investigations. Investigations include field and laboratory safety, environmental responsibility, ethical practices, application of scientific methods to open-ended problems encountered in the physical sciences, and critical thinking and problem solving. Teachers are assessed through pre- and post- testing, lab practicum, and classroom observation over a two-year cycle. Assessment data from 2004 through 2008 indicates Physics Teacher Quality is changing teaching behavior in the secondary classroom.

  18. Reviews on atmospheric selenium: Emissions, speciation and fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanjie; Carignan, Jean

    The atmosphere is an important transient reservoir of selenium (Se). According to recent evaluations of the global Se budget, approximately 13,000-19,000 tons of Se is cycled through the troposphere annually. Most studies suggest that atmospheric deposition is an important source of Se contamination and it is therefore critical to evaluate the source emissions and fate of Se in the atmosphere. This paper presents a broad overview of current state of knowledge and understanding of major aspects of atmospheric Se and its natural and anthropogenic sources. The significant physical and chemical species encountered in the atmosphere are examined and special attention is paid to atmospheric speciation and its atmospheric pathways and processes. In addition, thermodynamic and kinetic data for atmospheric Se speciation are provided, which aid our understanding and the modelling of Se behaviour in the atmospheric environment. We also document how Se isotopes might be useful for tracing atmospheric sources and pathways. Important gaps in our current knowledge of Se in the atmospheric environment are identified, and suggestions for future research are offered.

  19. The physics of lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.; Uman, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most familiar and widely recognized natural phenomena, lightning remains relatively poorly understood. Even the most basic questions of how lightning is initiated inside thunderclouds and how it then propagates for many tens of kilometers have only begun to be addressed. In the past, progress was hampered by the unpredictable and transient nature of lightning and the difficulties in making direct measurements inside thunderstorms, but advances in instrumentation, remote sensing methods, and rocket-triggered lightning experiments are now providing new insights into the physics of lightning. Furthermore, the recent discoveries of intense bursts of X-rays and gamma-rays associated with thunderstorms and lightning illustrate that new and interesting physics is still being discovered in our atmosphere. The study of lightning and related phenomena involves the synthesis of many branches of physics, from atmospheric physics to plasma physics to quantum electrodynamics, and provides a plethora of challenging unsolved problems. In this review, we provide an introduction to the physics of lightning with the goal of providing interested researchers a useful resource for starting work in this fascinating field. By what physical mechanism or mechanisms is lightning initiated in the thundercloud? What is the maximum cloud electric field magnitude and over what volume of the cloud? What, if any, high energy processes (runaway electrons, X-rays, gamma rays) are involved in lightning initiation and how? What is the role of various forms of ice and water in lightning initiation? What physical mechanisms govern the propagation of the different types of lightning leaders (negative stepped, first positive, negative dart, negative dart-stepped, negative dart-chaotic) between cloud and ground and the leaders inside the cloud? What is the physical mechanism of leader attachment to elevated objects on the ground and to the flat ground? What are the characteristics

  20. Atmospheric Chemistry Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This presentation poster covers data products from the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) of the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer products (TOMS) introduced in the presentation include TOMS Version 8 as well as Aura, which provides 25 years of TOMS and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) data. The presentation lists a number of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics data sets at DAAC.

  1. Atmospheric Circulation and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.; Rengel, Miriam

    The deep atmosphere of Venus ( ˜ 180 km including the thermosphere) presents both observational and modeling challenges. Its thick, nearly uniform global cloud cover makes it difficult to fathom the vertical structure of the global circulation through available techniques that are applied to Earth's atmosphere. Further, the slow rotation of the planet and the consequential prevailing cyclostrophic balance restricts easy inferences about the meridional flow and circulation (Gierasch et al. 1997, Read 1986, Schubert et al. 2007).

  2. Work on Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Atmosphere Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiff, Alvin; Lester, Peter

    1999-01-01

    instrument performance, although performed greater than 5 years prior to Jupiter encounter. Capability of decoding the science data from the Experiment Data Record to be provided at encounter was developed and exercised using the tape recording of the first Cruise Checkout data. A team effort was organized to program the selection and combination of data words defining pressure, temperature, acceleration, turbulence, and engineering quantities; to apply decalibration algorithms to convert readings from digital numbers to physical quantities; and to organize the data into a suitable printout. A paper on the Galileo Atmosphere Structure Instrument was written and submitted for publication in a special issue of Space Science Reviews. At the Journal editor's request, the grantee reviewed other Probe instrument papers submitted for this special issue. Calibration data were carefully taken for all experiment sensors and accumulated over a period of 10 years. The data were analyzed, fitted with algorithms, and summarized in a calibration report for use in analyzing and interpreting data returned from Jupiter's atmosphere. The sensors included were the primary science pressure, temperature, and acceleration sensors, and the supporting engineering temperature sensors. This report was distributed to experiment coinvestigators and the Probe Project Office.

  3. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Seventeen experiments in physics are described to demonstrate various physical phenomena. These include the areas of velocity of sound, damped oscillations, plastic deformation of wires, materials, testing, air resistance, spectrum optical filtering, and some new improvised apparatus. (PS)

  4. Physical Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical stimulus. Physical stimuli include the following: Cold Sunlight Heat or other stimuli that cause sweating (such ... a foreign substance and attacks it. Sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity) is an example. Ultraviolet light changes proteins ...

  5. Physics Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are 13 physics experiments/demonstrations applicable to introductory physics courses. Activities include: improved current balance, division circuits, liquid pressure, convection, siphons, oscillators and modulation, electrical resistance, soap films, Helmholtz coils, radioactive decay, and springs. (SL)

  6. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents nine physics notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) speed of sound in a steel rod; (2) physics extracts-part four (1978); and (3) a graphical approach to acceleration. (HM)

  7. Mars Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere is dynamically similar to the Earth's. Its spin-axis rotation rate is only minutes longer than Earth's so the Coriolois force is nearly identical to Earth's. The inclination of its spin axis is also similar to Earth's giving it similarity in seasonal change. And the Martian atmosphere is nearly transparent to solar radiation (except during dust periods) such that it is heated primarily by upwelling infrared radiation from the surface. These characteristics make Mars an ideal laboratory for studying the dynamics of rapidly rotating differentially heated atmospheres. This talk reviews what we have learned about Mars atmospheric dynamics and how if compares with Earth. The source of information to make such a comparison comes from observations and models. The former are sparse and that the latter have played a major role in shaping our thinking about the general circulation on Mars. However, the models need validation. Fortunately, the first two orbiters in NASA's Mars Surveyor Program have instrumentation to address many of the issues related to the general circulation and climate of Mars. The first, Mars Global Surveyor, is already at Mars gathering data. The second, the Mars 98 Orbiter to be launched later this year, carries a dedicated atmospheric sounder. Thus, much will be learned about Mars' atmosphere in the next few years.

  8. Venus upper atmosphere structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Lake, L. R.

    1980-12-01

    Atmospheric densities of Venus were measured from the orbital decay of the Pioneer Venus from Dec. 9, 1978 to Aug. 7, 1979 near the 16 deg latitude between 140 and 190 km during the entire day. Comparative atmospheric densities on earth at 150 km are higher by a factor of 3.5 with only a 1% diurnal variation; an atmospheric composition, temperature, and density model based on the orbiter atmospheric drag (OAD) vertical structure is presented. The model shows that atomic oxygen is the major component in the Venus atmosphere above 145 km at night and above 160 km during the day with mixing ratios over 0.1 near 140 km; drag measurements indicate O concentrations from 1 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in daytime to 3 x 10 to the 7th/cu cm at night. It is concluded that the neutral upper atmosphere of Venus is surprisingly insensitive to solar extreme UV variations and changes in the solar wind.

  9. Atmospheric Models for Aerocapture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta L.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2004-01-01

    There are eight destinations in the solar System with sufficient atmosphere for aerocapture to be a viable aeroassist option - Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and its moon Titan, Uranus, and Neptune. Engineering-level atmospheric models for four of these targets (Earth, Mars, Titan, and Neptune) have been developed for NASA to support systems analysis studies of potential future aerocapture missions. Development of a similar atmospheric model for Venus has recently commenced. An important capability of all of these models is their ability to simulate quasi-random density perturbations for Monte Carlo analyses in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithm, and for thermal systems design. Similarities and differences among these atmospheric models are presented, with emphasis on the recently developed Neptune model and on planned characteristics of the Venus model. Example applications for aerocapture are also presented and illustrated. Recent updates to the Titan atmospheric model are discussed, in anticipation of applications for trajectory and atmospheric reconstruct of Huygens Probe entry at Titan.

  10. Differences Between Physics in Industry and Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, David E.

    1982-01-01

    Compares and contrasts industrial and university physics departments, focusing on the group dynamics and work environment of a corporate physics (General Motors). A major difference between these departments lies in the motivation for and evaluation of research, not in the selection of research topics. (Author/JN)

  11. The photochemistry of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational investigations of photochemical processes in the atmospheres of the planets and their satellites are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the CO2-dominated atmospheres of Mars and Venus, the hydrogen-dominated atmospheres of the Jovian planets, the SO2 atmosphere of Io, and the massive atmospheres of Titan and Triton. The principal reaction paths involved are listed and briefly characterized, and numerical data on atmospheric compositions are given in tables.

  12. Interior and its implications for the atmosphere. [effects of Titan interior structure on its atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The bulk composition and interior structure of Titan required to explain the presence of a substantial methane atmosphere are shown to imply the presence of solid CH4 - 7H2O in Titan's primitive material. Consideration of the possible composition and structure of the present atmosphere shows plausible grounds for considering models with total atmospheric pressures ranging from approximately 20 mb up to approximately 1 kb. Expectations regarding the physical state of the surface and its chemical composition are strongly conditioned by the mass of atmosphere believed to be present. A surface of solid CH4, liquid CH4 solid, CH4 hydrate, H2O ice, aqueous NH3 solution, or even a non-surface of supercritical H2O-NH3-CH4 fluid could be rationalized.

  13. MAVEN Imaging UV Spectrograph Results on the Mars Atmosphere and Atmospheric Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Michael; Schneider, Nick; McClintock, Bill; Stewart, Ian; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Clarke, John; Holsclaw, Greg; Montmessin, Franck; Lefevre, Franck; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Stiepen, Arnaud; Crismani, Matteo; Mayyasi, Majd; Evans, Scott; Stevens, Mike; Yelle, Roger; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    physics probed by IUVS is hardly unique to Mars, having broad implications throughout the Solar System and beyond for all planets with CO2-dominated atmospheres.

  14. Atmospheric millimeter wave propagation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebe, H. J.

    1983-12-01

    The neutral atmosphere is characterized for the frequency range from 1 to 300 GHz as nonturbulent propagation medium. Attenuation and propagation delay effects are predicated from meteorological data sets: pressure, temperature, humidity, suspended particle concentration, and rain rate. The physical data base of the propagation model consists of four terms: (1) resonance information for 30 water vapor and 48 oxygen absorption lines in the form of intensity coefficients and center frequency for each line; (2) a composite (oxygen, water vapor, and nitrogen) continum spectrum; (3) a hydrosol attenuation term for haze, fog, and cloud conditions; and (4) a rain attenuation model. Oxygen lines extend into the mesosphere, where they behave in a complicated manner due to the Zeeman effect.

  15. VERITAS: An Atmospheric Imaging Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2006-10-27

    VERITAS is one of a new generation of imaging air Cerenkov telescope arrays built to study astrophysical sources emitting gamma rays in the GeV to TeV energy range. The catalog of objects that can be studied by these ground-based instruments is expanding rapidly. The observations now possible make a critical contribution to understanding some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. The imaging Cerenkov technique makes use of atmospheric calorimetry. The types of objects studied and the optical nature of ground-based gamma-ray telescopes places them solidly within the field of astronomy. However, the strong connections to particle processes, the electronic instrumentation, and reconstruction methods are those familiar to high energy particle physics. The advances in instrumentation that have brought about the current success of the field are reviewed and prospects for future improvements discussed.

  16. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... stronger athlete. previous continue When & Where Should I Go for a Sports Physical? Some people go to their own doctor for a sports physical; ... one at school. During school physicals, you may go to half a dozen or so "stations" set ...

  17. The Association of Pre-storm Ground Wetness with Inland Penetration of Monsoon Depressions : A Study Using Self Organizing Maps (SOM) C.M. Kishtawal Meteorology and Oceanography Group, Space Applications Center, Ahmedabad, INDIA Dev Niyogi2 Department of Agronomy, and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishtawal, C. M.; Niyogi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Monsoon depressions (MDs)are probably the most important rain bearing systems that occur during the Indian summer monsoon season. The unique topography of Indian peninsula and Indo-china region favor the formation and development of MDs in the warm and moist air over the Bay of Bengal. After formation the MDs move in a north-northwest track along the monsoon trough to the warmer and drier heat low regions of Northwest India and Pakistan. The dynamic structure of MDs is largely maintained by convergence of atmospheric water vapor flux coupled with the lower tropospheric divergent circulation (Chen et al., 2005), and they weaken rapidly after landfall due to the lack of surface moisture fluxes (Dastoor and Krishnamurti, 1991). In the present study we explored the association between pre-storm wetness conditions and the post-landfall situation of MDs using 54-year long observations (1951-2004) of 183 MDs and daily surface rainfall. Our analysis suggests that the MD’s post-landfall behavior is most sensitive to mean inland rainfall between To-1 to To-8 days (the pre-storm rainfall), where To is the day of formation of MD in the Bay of Bengal. Further, pre-storm rainfall over a broad region along the monsoon trough is found to exhibit the maximum association with the MDs inland lifespan. We further carried out the unsupervised classification of pre-storm rainfall patterns using Self Organizing Map(SOM), a topology preserving map that maps data from higher dimensions onto a two dimensional grid(Kohenen, 1990). The SOM patterns of rainfall indicate that pre-storm wetness is strongly associated with the inland penetration length of MDs with wetter conditions supporting MDs to survive longer after the landfall. Although the pre-storm inland wetness has not been found to be associated with the formation of MDs and a number of MDs form during relatively dry inland conditions during the early (June) and late (September) phases of monsoon, the inland-penetration and post

  18. Cloud Computing with iPlant Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    McKay, Sheldon J; Skidmore, Edwin J; LaRose, Christopher J; Mercer, Andre W; Noutsos, Christos

    2013-10-15

    Cloud Computing refers to distributed computing platforms that use virtualization software to provide easy access to physical computing infrastructure and data storage, typically administered through a Web interface. Cloud-based computing provides access to powerful servers, with specific software and virtual hardware configurations, while eliminating the initial capital cost of expensive computers and reducing the ongoing operating costs of system administration, maintenance contracts, power consumption, and cooling. This eliminates a significant barrier to entry into bioinformatics and high-performance computing for many researchers. This is especially true of free or modestly priced cloud computing services. The iPlant Collaborative offers a free cloud computing service, Atmosphere, which allows users to easily create and use instances on virtual servers preconfigured for their analytical needs. Atmosphere is a self-service, on-demand platform for scientific computing. This unit demonstrates how to set up, access and use cloud computing in Atmosphere.

  19. Discovery of Haze in Pluto's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft made the first reconnaissance of the Pluto-Charon system on Jul 14, 2015. The Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on New Horizons obtained images of Pluto and Charon on approach, near closest approach, and on departure. The departure images, obtained at high solar phase angles, unexpectedly revealed that Pluto's atmosphere is hazy. The haze in Pluto's atmosphere was detected in each of five images obtained in two separate observations on Jul 14 and on Jul 16, at solar phase angles of 167° and 165° respectively. The haze extends to altitudes of 150 km above Pluto's surface, with evidence for layering and/or gravity waves. We will present the haze observations and discuss derived physical properties and implications for the atmosphere and its interactions with the surface.

  20. Atmospheric Modeling And Sensor Simulation (AMASS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. G.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities of the atmospheric modeling and sensor simulation (AMASS) system were studied in order to enhance them. This system is used in processing atmospheric measurements which are utilized in the evaluation of sensor performance, conducting design-concept simulation studies, and also in the modeling of the physical and dynamical nature of atmospheric processes. The study tasks proposed in order to both enhance the AMASS system utilization and to integrate the AMASS system with other existing equipment to facilitate the analysis of data for modeling and image processing are enumerated. The following array processors were evaluated for anticipated effectiveness and/or improvements in throughput by attachment of the device to the P-e: (1) Floating Point Systems AP-120B; (2) Floating Point Systems 5000; (3) CSP, Inc. MAP-400; (4) Analogic AP500; (5) Numerix MARS-432; and (6) Star Technologies, Inc. ST-100.

  1. A contaminant monitor for submarine atmospheres.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruecker, M. R.

    1973-01-01

    A requirement for monitoring selected atmospheric constituents on board nuclear powered submarines has been met by the development of the Central Atmosphere Monitoring System, Mark I. This system employs a mass spectrometer to monitor H2, H2O, N2, O2, CO2, Freon 11, Freon 12, and Freon 114, in addition to an infrared sensor for CO. The CAMS MKI development is discussed, including background, operating fundamentals, principal requirements, functional and physical descriptions, and summarized test results. Each of two prototype units has successfully completed over 9000 hr of operational sea trails, providing the necessary ground work for the manufacture of production units. At the same time, these units, which have benefited extensively from NASA hardware experience, may in turn provide useful data for the development of a new class of maintainable atmospheric monitoring instrumentation for manned spacecraft.

  2. We reside in the sun's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Y

    2005-10-01

    The Sun is the origin of all activities of the Earth, including its solid, liquid and gas states, as well as life on the Earth surface. Life was created on this planet and was further evolved after long physical/chemical processes, so that life here matches with what this planet requires. This paper contends that the Earth is located within the solar atmosphere, but we do not feel it in a daily life because of the blocking effects of the Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere, preventing the entry of the solar atmosphere directly into the Earth's domain. This paper emphasizes that we should not attempt to change the quality of the natural environment that delicate interactions between the Sun and the Earth have established for us by taking a long time. PMID:16275476

  3. Composition, Chemistry, and Climate of the Atmosphere. 2: Mean properties of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B. (Editor); Salstein, David A.

    1994-01-01

    The atmosphere can be defined as the relatively thin gaseous envelope surrounding the entire planet Earth. It possesses a number of properties related to its physical state and chemical composition, and it undergoes a variety of internal processes and external interactions that can either maintain or alter these properties. Whereas descriptions of the atmosphere's chemical properties form much of the remaining chapters of this book, the present chapter will highlight the atmosphere's gases, and these define its temperature structure. In contrast, the larger-scale motions comprise the winds, the global organization of which is often referred to as the general circulation. The framework of the dynamical and thermodynamical laws, including the three principles of conversation of mass, momentum, and energy, are fundamental in describing both the internal processes of the atmosphere and its external interactions. The atmosphere is not a closed system, because it exchanges all three of these internally conservative quantities across the atmosphere's boundary below and receives input from regions outside it. Thus surface fluxes of moisture, momentum, and heat occur to and from the underlying ocean and land. The atmosphere exchanges very little mass and momentum with space, though it absorbs directly a portion of the solar radiational energy received from above.

  4. Retrieval of atmospheric properties from hyper and multispectral imagery with the FLAASH atmospheric correction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Timothy; Adler-Golden, Steven; Matthew, Michael; Berk, Alexander; Anderson, Gail; Gardner, James; Felde, Gerald

    2005-10-01

    Atmospheric Correction Algorithms (ACAs) are used in applications of remotely sensed Hyperspectral and Multispectral Imagery (HSI/MSI) to correct for atmospheric effects on measurements acquired by air and space-borne systems. The Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) algorithm is a forward-model based ACA created for HSI and MSI instruments which operate in the visible through shortwave infrared (Vis-SWIR) spectral regime. Designed as a general-purpose, physics-based code for inverting at-sensor radiance measurements into surface reflectance, FLAASH provides a collection of spectral analysis and atmospheric retrieval methods including: a per-pixel vertical water vapor column estimate, determination of aerosol optical depth, estimation of scattering for compensation of adjacency effects, detection/characterization of clouds, and smoothing of spectral structure resulting from an imperfect atmospheric correction. To further improve the accuracy of the atmospheric correction process, FLAASH will also detect and compensate for sensor-introduced artifacts such as optical smile and wavelength mis-calibration. FLAASH relies on the MODTRANTM radiative transfer (RT) code as the physical basis behind its mathematical formulation, and has been developed in parallel with upgrades to MODTRAN in order to take advantage of the latest improvements in speed and accuracy. For example, the rapid, high fidelity multiple scattering (MS) option available in MODTRAN4 can greatly improve the accuracy of atmospheric retrievals over the 2-stream approximation. In this paper, advanced features available in FLAASH are described, including the principles and methods used to derive atmospheric parameters from HSI and MSI data. Results are presented from processing of Hyperion, AVIRIS, and LANDSAT data.

  5. Comparative Research Productivity Measures for Economic Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettner, David A.; Clark, William

    1997-01-01

    Develops a simple theoretical model to evaluate interdisciplinary differences in research productivity between economics departments and related subjects. Compares the research publishing statistics of economics, finance, psychology, geology, physics, oceanography, chemistry, and geophysics. Considers a number of factors including journal…

  6. U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Part 1 gives the basis for computation of the main tables of atmospheric properties, including values of physical constants, conversion factors, and definitions of derived properties, including values of physical constants, conversion factors, and definitions of derived properties. Part 2 describes the model and data used up to 85 km, in the first section; and the model and data used above 85 km in the second section. The theoretical basis of the high altitude model is given in an appendix. Part 3 contains information on minor constituents in the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere. The main tables of atmospheric properties to 1000 km are given in Part 4. The international system of metric units is used.

  7. Parameter Estimation in Atmospheric Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenig, Mark; Colarco, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this study the structure tensor technique is used to estimate dynamical parameters in atmospheric data sets. The structure tensor is a common tool for estimating motion in image sequences. This technique can be extended to estimate other dynamical parameters such as diffusion constants or exponential decay rates. A general mathematical framework was developed for the direct estimation of the physical parameters that govern the underlying processes from image sequences. This estimation technique can be adapted to the specific physical problem under investigation, so it can be used in a variety of applications in trace gas, aerosol, and cloud remote sensing. As a test scenario this technique will be applied to modeled dust data. In this case vertically integrated dust concentrations were used to derive wind information. Those results can be compared to the wind vector fields which served as input to the model. Based on this analysis, a method to compute atmospheric data parameter fields will be presented. .

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  9. Physics Buildings Today. A Supplement to Modern Physics Buildings: Design and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    This supplement to "Modern Physics Buildings: Design and Function" is intended as an aid to physics department faculties, administrators, and architects responsible for designing new science buildings. It provides descriptions of 26 new physics buildings and science buildings with physics facilities. Presented are (1) floor plans, (2) photographs,…

  10. The realist interpretation of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anduaga, Aitor

    The discovery of a clearly stratified structure of layers in the upper atmosphere has been--and still is--invoked too often as the great paradigm of atmospheric sciences in the 20th century. Behind this vision, an emphasis--or better, an overstatement--on the reality of the concept of layer lies. One of the few historians of physics who have not ignored this phenomenon of reification, C. Stewart Gillmor, attributed it to--somewhat ambiguous-- cultural (or perhaps, more generally, contextual) factors, though he never specified their nature. In this essay, I aim to demonstrate that, in the interwar years, most radiophysicists and some atomic physicists, for reasons principally related to extrinsic influences and to a lesser extent to internal developments of their own science, fervidly embraced a realist interpretation of the ionosphere. We will focus on the historical circumstances in which a specific social and commercial environment came to exert a strong influence on upper atmospheric physicists, and in which realism as a product validating the "truth" of certain practices and beliefs arose. This realist commitment I attribute to the mutual reinforcement of atmospheric physics and commercial and imperial interests in long-distance communications.

  11. Tipping point analysis of atmospheric oxygen concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Livina, V. N.; Forbes, A. B.; Vaz Martins, T. M.

    2015-03-15

    We apply tipping point analysis to nine observational oxygen concentration records around the globe, analyse their dynamics and perform projections under possible future scenarios, leading to oxygen deficiency in the atmosphere. The analysis is based on statistical physics framework with stochastic modelling, where we represent the observed data as a composition of deterministic and stochastic components estimated from the observed data using Bayesian and wavelet techniques.

  12. Cosmic neutrino pevatrons: A brand new pathway to astronomy, astrophysics, and particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Barger, Vernon; Cholis, Ilias; Goldberg, Haim; Hooper, Dan; Kusenko, Alexander; Learned, John G.; Marfatia, Danny; Pakvasa, Sandip; Paul, Thomas C.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2014-05-01

    The announcement by the IceCube Collaboration of the observation of 28 cosmic neutrino candidates has been greeted with a great deal of justified excitement. The data reported so far depart by 4.3σ from the expected atmospheric neutrino background, which raises the obvious question: “Where in the Cosmos are these neutrinos coming from?” We review the many possibilities which have been explored in the literature to address this question, including origins at either Galactic or extragalactic celestial objects. For completeness, we also briefly discuss new physical processes which may either explain or be constrained by IceCube data.

  13. The middle Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of scattered light above the planetary limb from 116 Viking Orbiter images are used to constrain the temporal and spatial behavior of aerosols suspended in the Martian atmosphere. The data cover a wide range of seasons, locations, and viewing geometry, providing information about the aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution. The typical atmospheric column contains one or more discrete, optically thin, ice-like haze layers between 30 and 90 km elevation whose composition is inferred to be water ice. Below the detached hazes, a continuous haze, interpreted to have a large dust component, extends from as much as 50 km to the surface. The haze distribution exhibits an annual variation that reflects a seasonally driven circulation in the middle atmosphere. The potential role of stationary gravity waves in modifying the middle atmosphere circulation is explored using a linear theory applied to a realistic Martian environment. Martian topography derived from radar observations is decomposed into Fourier harmonics and used to linearly superpose gravity waves arising from each component. The larger amplitude topography on Mars combined with the absence of extended regions of smooth topography like oceans generates larger wave amplitudes than on the Earth. The circulation of the middle atmosphere is examined using a two-dimensional, linearized, axisymmetric model successfully employed in the study of the terrestrial mesosphere. Illustrations of temperature and wind speeds are presented for the southern summer solstice and southern spring equinox.

  14. LIMITS ON QUAOAR'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, J. J.; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W.; Gimeno, German

    2013-09-10

    Here we present high cadence photometry taken by the Acquisition Camera on Gemini South, of a close passage by the {approx}540 km radius Kuiper belt object, (50000) Quaoar, of a r' = 20.2 background star. Observations before and after the event show that the apparent impact parameter of the event was 0.''019 {+-} 0.''004, corresponding to a close approach of 580 {+-} 120 km to the center of Quaoar. No signatures of occultation by either Quaoar's limb or its potential atmosphere are detectable in the relative photometry of Quaoar and the target star, which were unresolved during closest approach. From this photometry we are able to put constraints on any potential atmosphere Quaoar might have. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo and likelihood approach, we place pressure upper limits on sublimation supported, isothermal atmospheres of pure N{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4}. For N{sub 2} and CO, the upper limit surface pressures are 1 and 0.7 {mu}bar, respectively. The surface temperature required for such low sublimation pressures is {approx}33 K, much lower than Quaoar's mean temperature of {approx}44 K measured by others. We conclude that Quaoar cannot have an isothermal N{sub 2} or CO atmosphere. We cannot eliminate the possibility of a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, but place upper surface pressure and mean temperature limits of {approx}138 nbar and {approx}44 K, respectively.

  15. THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert E.

    2010-06-20

    Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

  16. Applications of atmospheric plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Christopher John

    Surface modification techniques using plasmas have historically been completed in a low pressure environment due to Pd (pressure x gap distance) considerations influencing the behavior of plasma generation. Generally, plasmas produced in a low pressure environment are of a non-thermal or cold nature. The basic feature of non-thermal plasmas is the majority of electrical energy used to generate the plasma is primarily used to produce energetic electrons for generating chemical species. Low pressure plasmas serve many purposes for materials processing. Since the plasma environment is contained within a closed vessel, the plasma can be controlled very easily. Low pressure plasmas have been used in many industries but the complexity associated with the large pumping stations and limitation to batch processing has motivated new work in the area of atmospheric plasmas. Atmospheric plasmas offer both economic and technical justification for use over low pressure plasmas. Since atmospheric plasmas can be operated at ambient conditions, lower costs associated with continuous processing and a decrease in the complexity of equipment validate atmospheric plasma processing as a next generation plasma-aided manufacturing process. In an effort to advance acceptance of atmospheric plasma processing into industry, a process was developed, the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), in order to generate a homogeneous and non-thermal plasma discharge at ambient conditions. The discharge was applied to the reduction of known food borne pathogens, deposition of thin film materials, and modification of lignocellulosic biomass.

  17. Therapeutic potential of atmospheric neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Voyant, Cyril; Roustit, Rudy; Tatje, Jennifer; Biffi, Katia; Leschi, Delphine; Briançon, Jérome; Marcovici, Céline Lantieri

    2010-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in humans. It has a very poor prognosis despite multi-modality treatments consisting of open craniotomy with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Recently, a new treatment has been proposed – Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) – which exploits the interaction between Boron-10 atoms (introduced by vector molecules) and low energy neutrons produced by giant accelerators or nuclear reactors. Methods The objective of the present study is to compute the deposited dose using a natural source of neutrons (atmospheric neutrons). For this purpose, Monte Carlo computer simulations were carried out to estimate the dosimetric effects of a natural source of neutrons in the matter, to establish if atmospheric neutrons interact with vector molecules containing Boron-10. Results The doses produced (an average of 1 μGy in a 1 g tumour) are not sufficient for therapeutic treatment of in situ tumours. However, the non-localised yet specific dosimetric properties of 10B vector molecules could prove interesting for the treatment of micro-metastases or as (neo)adjuvant treatment. On a cellular scale, the deposited dose is approximately 0.5 Gy/neutron impact. Conclusion It has been shown that BNCT may be used with a natural source of neutrons, and may potentially be useful for the treatment of micro-metastases. The atmospheric neutron flux is much lower than that utilized during standard NBCT. However the purpose of the proposed study is not to replace the ordinary NBCT but to test if naturally occurring atmospheric neutrons, considered to be an ionizing pollution at the Earth's surface, can be used in the treatment of a disease such as cancer. To finalize this study, it is necessary to quantify the biological effects of the physically deposited dose, taking into account the characteristics of the incident particles (alpha particle and Lithium

  18. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1991 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division Is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and Implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and quantitative links programs to form DOEs contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. Climate research in the ESD has the common goal of improving our understanding of the physical, chemical, biological, and social processes that influence the Earth system so that national and international policymaking relating to natural and human-induced changes in the Earth system can be given a firm scientific basis. This report describes the progress In FY 1991 in each of these areas.

  20. Determining solar effects in Neptune's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Aplin, K L; Harrison, R G

    2016-01-01

    Long-duration observations of Neptune's brightness at two visible wavelengths provide a disk-averaged estimate of its atmospheric aerosol. Brightness variations were previously associated with the 11-year solar cycle, through solar-modulated mechanisms linked with either ultraviolet or galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects on atmospheric particles. Here, we use a recently extended brightness data set (1972-2014), with physically realistic modelling to show, rather than alternatives, ultraviolet and GCR are likely to be modulating Neptune's atmosphere in combination. The importance of GCR is further supported by the response of Neptune's atmosphere to an intermittent 1.5- to 1.9-year periodicity, which occurred preferentially in GCR (not ultraviolet) during the mid-1980s. This periodicity was detected both at Earth, and in GCR measured by Voyager 2, then near Neptune. A similar coincident variability in Neptune's brightness suggests nucleation onto GCR ions. Both GCR and ultraviolet mechanisms may occur more rapidly than the subsequent atmospheric particle transport. PMID:27417301

  1. Determining solar effects in Neptune's atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.

    2016-01-01

    Long-duration observations of Neptune's brightness at two visible wavelengths provide a disk-averaged estimate of its atmospheric aerosol. Brightness variations were previously associated with the 11-year solar cycle, through solar-modulated mechanisms linked with either ultraviolet or galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects on atmospheric particles. Here, we use a recently extended brightness data set (1972–2014), with physically realistic modelling to show, rather than alternatives, ultraviolet and GCR are likely to be modulating Neptune's atmosphere in combination. The importance of GCR is further supported by the response of Neptune's atmosphere to an intermittent 1.5- to 1.9-year periodicity, which occurred preferentially in GCR (not ultraviolet) during the mid-1980s. This periodicity was detected both at Earth, and in GCR measured by Voyager 2, then near Neptune. A similar coincident variability in Neptune's brightness suggests nucleation onto GCR ions. Both GCR and ultraviolet mechanisms may occur more rapidly than the subsequent atmospheric particle transport. PMID:27417301

  2. Atmospheric dynamics on strongly irradiated Jovian planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langton, Jonathan

    In this dissertation, I examine the response of a Jovian atmosphere to time- dependent, spatially varying radiative forcing. Particular attention is give to those irradiation regimes appropriate to known extrasolar planets, with an emphasis on observationally verifiable predictions based upon known parameters, rather than exploration of a wide range of parameter space, of which only a small portion may be physically relevant. To this end, I have developed a two-dimensional radiative-hydrodynamic model appropriate to the simulation of the infrared photosphere of a strongly irradiated giant planet. The choice of a two-dimensional model is motivated by the fact that the infrared photosphere on these planets is expected to lie in the radiative zone, so that vertical flow is negligible. My model traces the evolution of atmospheric flow, temperature distribution, and emitted thermal radiation in response to the incident stellar radiation, and provides both the capability to produce photorealistic visualizations of extrasolar planets and the opportunity to compare predicted infrared emissions to those observed using space-based infrared telescopes. Despite the utility of a well-formed two-dimensional atmospheric model, a three-dimensional treatment is eventually necessary to obtain a full understanding of the behavior of exoplanetary atmospheres. While the full deployment of such a model is beyond the scope of this thesis, I partially develop the computational framework necessary for the treatment of irradiation in a three-dimensional atmosphere.

  3. Optical remote sensing of atmospheric compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Gabriel J.

    1996-02-01

    Human activities are altering the earth system at the local, regional, and global scales. It is therefore of the utmost importance to track the workings of mother earth in order to detect any changes at their early stages so that appropriate actions are taken to understand, assess, control or prevent the adverse effects. A number of deleterious effects to the environment can, at least in part, be ascribed to air pollution, namely, the thinning of the ozone layer, the related increase in the occurrence of skin cancer, the warming of the earth system, photochemical smog, acid rain/fog, acidification of soils and waters, forest decline, etc. It is therefore necessary to monitor the most relevant processes of the earth's atmosphere, namely, the energy input, the dynamics and the chemistry. In this contribution I mainly focus on the latter, specifically, on the measurement/monitoring of atmospheric compounds. To understand atmospheric chemistry and air pollution it is necessary to have reliable and accurate values of the mixing ratios of the numerous atmospheric gases and of their diurnal/seasonal variations and long-term trends. In this contribution I present an overview of the most relevant optical remote sensing techniques that are rapidly becoming the methods of choice to probe the chemical composition and physical state of the atmosphere, especially when high selectivity, sensitivity and fast-time response are required.

  4. Determining solar effects in Neptune's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.

    2016-07-01

    Long-duration observations of Neptune's brightness at two visible wavelengths provide a disk-averaged estimate of its atmospheric aerosol. Brightness variations were previously associated with the 11-year solar cycle, through solar-modulated mechanisms linked with either ultraviolet or galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects on atmospheric particles. Here, we use a recently extended brightness data set (1972-2014), with physically realistic modelling to show, rather than alternatives, ultraviolet and GCR are likely to be modulating Neptune's atmosphere in combination. The importance of GCR is further supported by the response of Neptune's atmosphere to an intermittent 1.5- to 1.9-year periodicity, which occurred preferentially in GCR (not ultraviolet) during the mid-1980s. This periodicity was detected both at Earth, and in GCR measured by Voyager 2, then near Neptune. A similar coincident variability in Neptune's brightness suggests nucleation onto GCR ions. Both GCR and ultraviolet mechanisms may occur more rapidly than the subsequent atmospheric particle transport.

  5. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.

    2015-10-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics and circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress, while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  6. Atmospheric Pseudohalogen Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lary, David John

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is not usually considered in atmospheric chemical models. The paper presents three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. Firstly, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. Secondly, it is also likely that lightning is producing HCN, and as HCN is sparingly soluble it could be a useful long-lived "smoking gun" marker of lightning activity. Thirdly, the chemical decomposition of HCN leads to the production of small amounts of the cyanide (CN) and NCO radicals. The NCO radical can be photolyzed in the visible portion of the spectrum yielding nitrogen atoms (N). The production of nitrogen atoms is significant as it leads to the titration of total nitrogen from the atmosphere via N+N->N2, where N2 is molecular nitrogen.

  7. Atmospheric engineering of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Averner, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of creating a breathable atmosphere on Mars was studied. Assuming that indigenous life is absent, and that human habitation will prove economically justifiable, several methods of introducing oxygen were considered. On the basis of energy requirements, photosynthetic oxygen production appears to be reasonable, assuming that the amounts of water, carbon dioxide, and mineral nutrients available on the Martian surface would be adequate for the growth of photosynthetic microorganisms. However, optimum rates of O2 formation could occur only after a significant increase in average temperature and in atmospheric mass. The generation of a runaway greenhouse/advective effect was considered. However, neither the energy requirement nor the time constant for initiation could be calculated. There appear to be no insuperable obstacles to the conversion of the Martian atmosphere to one containing oxygen, but the conversion would require many thousands of years.

  8. Atmospheric refraction: a history.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Waldemar H; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-20

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect). PMID:16201423

  9. Coupling approaches used in atmospheric entry models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    While a planet orbits the Sun, it is subject to impact by smaller objects, ranging from tiny dust particles and space debris to much larger asteroids and comets. Such collisions have taken place frequently over geological time and played an important role in the evolution of planets and the development of life on the Earth. Though the search for near-Earth objects addresses one of the main points of the Asteroid and Comet Hazard, one should not underestimate the useful information to be gleaned from smaller atmospheric encounters, known as meteors or fireballs. Not only do these events help determine the linkages between meteorites and their parent bodies; due to their relative regularity they provide a good statistical basis for analysis. For successful cases with found meteorites, the detailed atmospheric path record is an excellent tool to test and improve existing entry models assuring the robustness of their implementation. There are many more important scientific questions meteoroids help us to answer, among them: Where do these objects come from, what are their origins, physical properties and chemical composition? What are the shapes and bulk densities of the space objects which fully ablate in an atmosphere and do not reach the planetary surface? Which values are directly measured and which are initially assumed as input to various models? How to couple both fragmentation and ablation effects in the model, taking real size distribution of fragments into account? How to specify and speed up the recovery of a recently fallen meteorites, not letting weathering to affect samples too much? How big is the pre-atmospheric projectile to terminal body ratio in terms of their mass/volume? Which exact parameters beside initial mass define this ratio? More generally, how entering object affects Earth's atmosphere and (if applicable) Earth's surface? How to predict these impact consequences based on atmospheric trajectory data? How to describe atmospheric entry

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site is a permanent site providing data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic. Centered at Barrow and extending to the south (to the vicinity of Atqasuk), west (to the vicinity of Wainwright), and east (towards Oliktok), the NSA site has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research activity on the North Slope. Approximately 300,000 NSA data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  11. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    Radiative transfer retrievals have become the standard in modelling of exoplanetary transmission and emission spectra. Analysing currently available observations of exoplanetary atmospheres often invoke large and correlated parameter spaces that can be difficult to map or constrain.To address these issues, we have developed the Tau-REx (tau-retrieval of exoplanets) retrieval and the RobERt spectral recognition algorithms. Tau-REx is a bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework using Nested Sampling and cluster computing to fully map these large correlated parameter spaces. Nonetheless, data volumes can become prohibitively large and we must often select a subset of potential molecular/atomic absorbers in an atmosphere.In the era of open-source, automated and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, such manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is build to address these issues. RobERt is a deep belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognise molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles and compositions. Using these deep neural networks, we work towards retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.In this talk I will discuss how neural networks and Bayesian Nested Sampling can be used to solve highly degenerate spectral retrieval problems and what 'dreaming' neural networks can tell us about atmospheric characteristics.

  12. Photochemistry of Pluto's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    This work include studies of two problems: (1) Modeling thermal balance, structure. and escape processes in Pluto's upper atmosphere. This study has been completed in full. A new method, of analytic solution for the equation of hydrodynamic flow from in atmosphere been developed. It was found that the ultraviolet absorption by methane which was previously ignored is even more important in Pluto's thermal balance than the extreme ultraviolet absorption by nitrogen. Two basic models of the lower atmosphere have been suggested, with a tropopause and a planetary surface at the bottom of the stellar occultation lightcurve, respectively, Vertical profiles, of temperature, density, gas velocity, and the CH4 mixing ratio have been calculated for these two models at low, mean, and high solar activity (six models). We prove that Pluto' " s atmosphere is restricted to 3060-4500 km, which makes possible a close flyby of future spacecraft. Implication for Pluto's evolution have also been discussed. and (2) Modeling of Pluto's photochemistry. Based on the results of (1), we have made some changes in the basic continuity equation and in the boundary conditions which reflect a unique can of hydrodynamic escape and therefore have not been used in modeling of other planetary atmospheres. We model photochemistry of 44 neutral and 23 ion species. This work required solution of a set of 67 second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Two models have been developed. Each model consists of the vertical profiles for 67 species, their escape and precipitation rates. These models predict the chemical structure and basic chemical processes in the current atmosphere and possible implication of these processes for evolution. This study has also been completed in full.

  13. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  14. Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodrum, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    GRAM series of four-dimensional atmospheric model validated by years of data. GRAM program, still available. More current are Gram 86, which includes atmospheric data from 1986 and runs on DEC VAX, and GRAM 88, which runs on IBM 3084. Program generates altitude profiles of atmospheric parameters along any simulated trajectory through atmosphere, and also useful for global circulation and diffusion studies.

  15. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-05-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate.

  16. Comets, meteorites and atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Owen, T; Bar-Nun, A

    1996-01-01

    The relatively low value of Xe/Kr in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars seems to rule out meteorites as the major carriers of noble gases to the inner planets. Laboratory experiments on the trapping of gases in ice forming at low temperatures suggest that comets may be a better choice. It is then possible to develop a model for the origin of inner planet atmospheres based on volatiles delivered by comets added to volatiles originally trapped in planetary rocks. The model will be tested by results from the Galileo Entry Probe.

  17. Global atmospheric changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation. PMID:1820255

  18. Global atmospheric changes.

    PubMed

    Piver, W T

    1991-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation.

  19. Searching for Charon's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, J.; Stern, A.; Young, L. A.; Olkin, C.; Ennico Smith, K.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Gladstone, R.; Parker, J. W.; Steffl, A.; Schindhelm, E.; Greathouse, T. K.; Retherford, K. D.; Versteeg, M. H.; Summers, M. E.; Strobel, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    There has been no compelling evidence to date for an atmosphere around Charon. However, New Horizons' successful flyby of the Pluto-Charon system provides orders of magnitude more sensitivity to detection of even a very tenuous Charon atmosphere. In particular, the Alice ultraviolet spectrograph acquired measurements of both reflected sunlight from Charon on approach of the system, as well as observing an occultation of the sun during departure through Charon's shadow. We will present the results from Alice and our analysis of these Charon observations.

  20. Comets, meteorites and atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Bar-Nun, A.

    1996-01-01

    The relatively low value of Xe/Kr in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars seems to rule out meteorites as the major carriers of noble gases to the inner planets. Laboratory experiments on the trapping of gases in ice forming at low temperatures suggest that comets may be a better choice. It is then possible to develop a model for the origin of inner planet atmospheres based on volatiles delivered by comets added to volatiles originally trapped in planetary rocks. The model will be tested by results from the Galileo Entry Probe.