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Sample records for atomic bomb casualty

  1. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission.

    PubMed

    Bowers, J Z

    1983-01-01

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations with the Japanese. The accumulation of the information presented in this paper derives from research for the preparation of the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1975, the commission was passed to Japanese leadership as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

  2. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of Japan. ABCC began in devastated, occupied Japan. Its mission had to be defined and refined. Early research revealed the urgent need for long term study. In 1946, a Directive of President Truman enjoined the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to develop the program. By 1950, ABCC staff exceeded 1,000, and clinical and genetic studies were underway. Budgetary difficulties and other problems almost forced closure in 1953. In 1955, the Francis Report led to a unified epidemiological study. Much progress was made in the next decade, but changing times required founding of a binational nonprofit organization (RERF) with equal participation by Japan and the United States. New programs have been developed and existing ones have been extended in what is the longest continuing health survey ever undertaken. PMID:9576898

  3. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal.

  4. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan.

  5. Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lindee, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study.

  6. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Luckey, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment. PMID:19088902

  7. Atomic bomb health benefits.

    PubMed

    Luckey, T D

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment.

  8. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  9. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors.

  10. Sharing the atom bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Chace, J.

    1996-01-01

    Shaken by the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and fearful that the American atomic monopoly would spark an arms race, Dean Acheson led a push in 1946 to place the bomb-indeed, all atomic energy-under international control. But as the memories of wartime collaboration faded, relations between the superpowers grew increasingly tense, and the confrontational atmosphere undid his proposal. Had Acheson succeeded, the Cold War might not have been. 2 figs.

  11. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation.

  12. Hiroshima: Perspectives on the Atomic Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy

    In this curriculum module students analyze both U.S. and Japanese perspectives of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The activities integrate Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences. The module is recommended as a supplement to textbook coverage of the war in the Pacific and of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. It can be used to support both…

  13. A long-term cohort study of the atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Mabuchi, K; Shigematsu, I

    1996-08-01

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), the predecessor of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), was established in 1947 to conduct long-term, comprehensive epidemiological and genetic studies of the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Today this study still depends upon the voluntary cooperation of several tens of thousands of survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An in-depth follow-up study of mortality in the study population of 120,000 persons, including A-bomb survivors and controls, has continued since 1950. The study of tumor incidence was initiated through record linkage with a tumor registry system in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1958. In the same year, biennial medical examinations of 20,000 individuals began. Follow-up studies also have been conducted on in-utero-exposed persons and first-generation offspring of the survivors. On the basis of these studies spanning nearly half a century, we know that the occurrence of leukemia and cancers associated with A-bomb radiation is higher than among the non-exposed. Among the A-bomb survivors, radiation cataracts, hyperparathyroidism, delayed growth and development, and chromosomal aberrations also occur more often. However, to date no evidence exists of genetic effects in the children of A-bomb survivors. It should be kept in mind that such study results could never be obtained without the cooperation of A-bomb survivors.

  14. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  15. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  16. Future population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kenichi; Mine, Mariko; Shibata, Yoshisada

    2013-01-01

    The Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivor Database, which was established in 1978 for elucidating the long-term health effects of the atomic bombing, has registered since 1970 about 120,000 atomic bomb survivors with a history of residence in Nagasaki city. Since the number of atomic bomb survivors has steadily been decreasing, prediction of future population is important for planning future epidemiologic studies, and we tried to predict the population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city from 2008 to 2030. In addition, we evaluated our estimated population comparing with the actual number from 2008 to 2011.

  17. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  18. [Cohort studies of the atomic bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation].

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-03-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been evaluating the risk of atomic bomb radiation for various diseases since the beginning of its former organization, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Cohorts of atomic-bomb survivors, in-utero survivors, and survivors' offspring have been followed up. The risk of all solid cancers at 1 Gy was estimated as ERR = 0.47 and EAR = 52/10,000 person-years for people who were exposed at 30 years of age and had reached 70 years of age, based on the cancer incidence during 1958-1998. The risk seemed to be increased in the in-utero survivors, but was rather lower than the risk for the survivors exposed at a young age. Effects on the offspring of survivors have not been shown to be significant. Continuing the research is important in order to more accurately estimate and understand radiation-induced health effects.

  19. Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K.; Failla, P.

    1981-12-01

    A brief account of the presentations and discussions at the Late Effects Workshop on Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors held in conjunction with the 29th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Reserch Society in Minneapolis, MN, on May 32, 1981 is presented. The following five papers are briefly reviewed: 1)Radiobiological significance of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki data by V.P. Bond; 2)Revised Dose Estimates at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, by W.E. Loewe; 3)Review of dosimetry for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors by G.D. Kerr; 4)Ichiban: numberoriginal studies, by J. Auxier; and 5)NCRP's involvement in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Dosimetry, by H.O. Wyckoff. (JMT)

  20. Prophylaxis for blood-borne diseases during the London 7/7 mass casualty terrorist bombing: a review and the role of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dafydd S; Barnett-Vanes, A; Narayan, N; Patel, H D L

    2016-10-01

    The suicide bombings in London on 7 July 2005 resulted in a mass casualty situation. Over 50% of casualties were treated at the Royal London Hospital where clinicians witnessed large numbers of severely injured patients. In some casualties human biological foreign material was found embedded in the soft tissue originating from the suicide bombers or other casualties. This had the potential of placing individuals at risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases. Advances in the fields of medicine and biology have led to increased survivorship in the context of trauma and mass casualty incidents. This has resulted in the emergence of ethical scenarios surrounding patient management. A systematic review of the literature of the 7/7 bombings, and suicide bombings reported globally, where biological implantation is noted, was performed to examine the medicolegal issues arising during such attack. Twelve casualties with human tissue implanted were recorded in the 7/7 bombings. While all patients at risk were given prophylaxis based on recommendations by the Health Protection Agency, several ethical considerations surfaced as a result. In this paper, we compare the sequence of events and the management process of the victims of the 7/7 bombings and the evidence-based research regarding blood-borne infection transmission. Furthermore, it explores the ethical dilemmas, experienced by the senior author on 7/7, surrounding prophylaxis for blood-borne diseases and protocols to avoid confusion over best practice in future bombing incidents.

  1. THE PHYSICIAN AND THE ATOMIC BOMB

    PubMed Central

    Bond, V. P.; Fishler, M. C.; Sullivan, W. H.

    1951-01-01

    Atomic detonations are essentially of two types: contaminating and non-contaminating. The only non-contaminating burst is the high air burst, since it does not result in the contamination of the ground with radioactive bomb residue. This type of burst results in blast, thermal and ionizing radiation injury (often combined in the same patient). The only injurious agent peculiar to atomic warfare is ionizing radiation. With a high air burst these effects are due mainly to gamma rays, and they are no longer present after the first few seconds following the explosion. Although only about 15 per cent of the deaths resulting from this type of burst are likely to be due primarily to ionizing radiations, exposure to the latter may well complicate recovery from trauma. Since there is a latent period of a number of days between the initial and later symptoms and signs of whole body radiation exposure, it does not constitute an emergency and can be treated after the initial period of the disaster has passed. With the detonation of a contaminating burst (a surface, underwater or underground burst) the radii of damage from blast and thermal radiation are considerably less than with a high air burst. Two types of radiation may result from the radioactive fog (base surge) formed after an underwater burst—transit radiation and deposit or continuing radiation. The deposit radiation includes that resulting from inhaled or ingested radioactive material as well as that deposited on clothes or skin. Bomb residue contains material which would localize in bones if it entered the body, and much of it has a long radioactive and biological half-life. It would thus bombard the radiosensitive bone marrow for long periods. Fortunately, the materials which would localize in bone are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and lungs. In general radiation injury to a person exposed to a contaminating burst should be reckoned primarily in terms of the penetrating gamma radiation to which

  2. Teaching and Learning Multiple Perspectives: The Atomic Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how historical empathy can give students a richer understanding of the past, focusing on the development of the students' historical understanding through an analysis of 18 documents on President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. (CMK)

  3. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  4. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  5. The image of the atomic bomb in Japan before Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Maika

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the roots of the image of the atomic bomb in Japan by investigating the various discourses on atomic energy and atomic weapons in Japanese literature prior to the bombing of Hiroshima in August 1945. Japan is a country that suffered an atomic attack and, at the same time, one of the countries that was engaged in atomic weapons research during the Second World War. During the war, the discourses on atomic weapons were not limited to the military or scientific communities, but included the general public, thus facilitating the creation of a shared image of the atomic bomb as an ultimate weapon. This paper examines how this image was created. This special issue deals with the comparison among different countries, but the purpose of my paper is to deepen this subject by illustrating the differences within a single country in different periods. This research aims to extend the historical perspective concerning the atomic bomb in Japan, and offers another way of looking at this both historical and contemporary issue.

  6. Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.

  7. Captives of Their Fantasies: The German Atomic Bomb Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Irving M.

    1997-02-01

    When the Nazi government collapsed in May, 1945, an Allied intelligence mission took into custody nine of the German scientists who played key roles in the German atomic bomb project. Under great secrecy these men were confined in a large country house, Farm Hall, near Cambridge (England), and their conversations were recorded surreptitiously by hidden microphones in every room. The transcripts were kept TOP SECRET for 47 years and were finally released recently. They give fascinating insights into the personalities of the guests and invaluable information on what the Germans really understood about the physics and chemistry of a nuclear reactor and an atomic bomb. The Farm Hall transcripts clearly establish that (a) the Germans on August 6, 1945 did not believe that the Allies had exploded an atomic bomb over Hiroshima that day; (b) they never succeeded in constructing a self-sustaining nuclear reactor; (c) they were confused about the differences between an atomic bomb and a reactor; (d) they did not know how to correctly calculate the critical mass of a bomb; (e) they thought that "plutonium" was probably element 91. The Farm Hall transcripts contradict the self-serving and sensationalist writings about German efforts that have appeared during the past fifty years.

  8. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public.

  9. Dose estimation for atomic bomb survivor studies: its evolution and present status.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M; Fujita, Shoichiro; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Grant, Eric J; Kerr, George D; Preston, Dale L

    2006-07-01

    In the decade after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, several large cohorts of survivors were organized for studies of radiation health effects. The U.S. Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its U.S./Japan successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have performed continuous studies since then, with extensive efforts to collect data on survivor locations and shielding and to create systems to estimate individual doses from the bombs' neutrons and gamma rays. Several successive systems have been developed by extramural working groups and collaboratively implemented by ABCC and RERF investigators. We describe the cohorts and the history and evolution of dose estimation from early efforts through the newest system, DS02, emphasizing the technical development and use of DS02. We describe procedures and data developed at RERF to implement successive systems, including revised rosters of survivors, development of methods to calculate doses for some classes of persons not fitting criteria of the basic systems, and methods to correct for bias arising from errors in calculated doses. We summarize calculated doses and illustrate their change and elaboration through the various systems for a hypothetical example case in each city. We conclude with a description of current efforts and plans for further improvements.

  10. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, T; Hayakawa, N; Hoshi, M; Sumida, M; Kurisu, K; Oki, S; Kodama, Y; Kajikawa, H; Inai, K; Kamada, N

    1999-03-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10(5) persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima.

  11. Interpreting the Atomic Age: Scientific News Coverage of the Atomic Bomb in Representative Newspapers and Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwis, Gail L.

    A study examined the coverage of the scientific aspects of the atomic bomb in four representative newspapers (New York "Times," New York "Herald Tribune," Chicago "Daily Tribune," and Boston "Daily Globe") and in 14 general mass circulation magazines in the time period immediately following the dropping of the bomb. Among the conclusions of the…

  12. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  13. By emotion, no atomic bomb and no blackhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    2011-10-01

    As to be, we glory to God and that is basic theology for christian. And I want to say that BE means just thinking. There is no clue of nature and no proposition to prove it. I just believe by feeling and emotion. I trust that it can be the physic really. As for me, I believe when there is atomic bomb, than anytime it has to blow out the world each time of we are living. So the atomic bomb we thinking is just accident and not by the atomic theory. Also when there is blackhole, than there must be the wall to block me forever and never to walk again. So there are no blackhole. And these two subject is the best two subject for the physic.

  14. Genetic effects of radiation in atomic-bomb survivors and their children: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Genetic studies in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors have been conducted since 1948 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Past studies include analysis of birth defects (untoward pregnancy outcome; namely, malformation, stillbirth, and perinatal death), chromosome aberrations, alterations of plasma and erythrocyte proteins as well as epidemiologic study on mortality (any cause) and cancer incidence (the latter study is still ongoing). There is, thus far, no indication of genetic effects in the offspring of survivors. Recently, the development of molecular biological techniques and human genome sequence databases made it possible to analyze DNA from parents and their offspring (trio-analysis). In addition, a clinical program is underway to establish the frequency of adult-onset multi-factorial diseases (diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease etc) in the offspring. The complementary kinds of data that will emerge from this three-pronged approach (clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular aspects) promise to shed light on health effects in the offspring of radiation-exposed people.

  15. Profiles of non-cancer diseases in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Fujiwara, S; Yamada, M; Kasagi, F; Shimizu, Y; Shigematsu, I

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a recent study of atomic bomb radiation and non-cancer diseases in the AHS (Adult Health Study) population by the RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation) along with a general discussion of previous studies. The association of atomic bomb radiation and CVD was examined by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis, such as MI, stroke, aortic arch calcification, isolated systolic hypertension, and pulse wave velocity, and, although the excess was small, all endpoints indicated an increase of CVD in the heavily exposed group. Because of the consistency of the results, it is almost certain that CVD is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, all CVD risk factors associated with lifestyle had not necessarily been adjusted for in studies to date, and it is difficult at present to conclude that the increase in CVD among survivors was a direct effect of radiation. Recent studies have demonstrated almost certainly that uterine myoma is more frequent among atomic bomb survivors. It cannot, at present, be concluded that uterine myoma is caused by radiation, because there are no reported studies of other exposed populations. Further analyses including the role of confounding factors as well as molecular approaches are needed to verify this radiation effect. The relationship between atomic bomb radiation exposure and hyperparathyroidism can now be said to have been established in view of the strong dose response, the agreement with results of studies of other populations, the high risk in the younger survivors, and the biological plausibility. Future studies by molecular approaches, etc., are needed to determine the pathogenic mechanism. Among other benign tumours, a dose response has been demonstrated for tumours of the thyroid, stomach and ovary. Although fewer studies have been conducted than for cancer, a clear association between radiation and various benign tumours is emerging

  16. Day After Trinity: Oppenheimer and the Atomic Bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Documentary

    2005-10-31

    On October 31st at 4:00 pm in Panofsky Auditorium SLAC’s Colloquium Series will present the exceptional Oscar-nominated documentary The Day After Trinity. The film offers invaluable insight into historic events which have forever changed the face of our world – this screening should not to be missed. After witnessing the tremendous destructive power of the atomic bomb, J. Robert Oppenheimer declared “I have become death”. Still topically relevant a quarter of a century since its release, Director Jon Else’s documentary uses interviews, archival footage, and narration to reveal the internal landscape of the man whose leadership at Los Alamos, New Mexico, defined the rise of the Manhattan Project and the beginning of the Atomic Age. The Day After Trinity traces the unexpected path of Oppenheimer’s career - from his formation of the Los Alamos colony and the first successful atomic bomb detonation at the Trinity test site in 1945, to his final years spent branded as a security risk and excluded from the atomic energy research he pioneered due to his opposition to the development of the Hydrogen bomb.

  17. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 2010 edition.

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, F. G.

    2010-01-15

    This historical document is part of a planned 3-volume series. This volume, volume 1, provides a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  18. Long-term effects of the rain exposure shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Furukawa, Kyoji; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E

    2014-12-01

    The "black rain" that fell after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been generally believed to contain radioactive materials. During 1949-1961 the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission conducted surveys that included a query about exposure to the rain that fell a short time after the bombings. This article presents the first report of those data in relation to possible adverse health outcomes. This study looked at Life Span Study subjects who were in either city at the time of bombing and had an estimated direct radiation dose from the bombs (n = 86,609). The mortality data from 1950-2005 and cancer incidence data from 1958-2005 were used. Excess relative risks (ERRs) of subjects who were exposed to rain compared to those who reported no rain exposure were calculated using a Poisson regression model. In Hiroshima 11,661 subjects (20%) reported that they were exposed to rain, while in Nagasaki only 733 subjects (2.6%) reported rain exposure. To avoid outcome dependent biases (i.e., recall of exposure after a health outcome has already occurred), the primary analyses were based on events that occurred during 1962-2005. No significant risks due to rain exposure were observed for death due to all causes, all solid cancer or leukemia in Hiroshima. In Nagasaki there was no significantly elevated rain exposure-associated risks for 1962-2005, however, for 1950-2005 there was a weak association for all-cause mortality (ERR = 0.08; 95% confidence interval 0.00006, 0.17; P = 0.05). For incidence of solid cancer and leukemia, no significantly elevated rain exposure risks were observed in either city. These results failed to show deleterious health effects from rain exposure. While these data represent the most extensive set of systematically collected data on rain exposure of the atomic bomb survivors, they are limited by substantial uncertainties regarding exposures and missing individual data, so cautious interpretation is advised.

  19. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  20. Mass-casualty victim "surge" management. Preparing for bombings and blast-related injuries with possibility of hazardous materials exposure.

    PubMed

    Severance, Harry W

    2002-01-01

    Bombings and other blast-related events place severe demands on pre-hospital and in-hospital systems. The resulting surge of victims can overwhelm the resources of any facility not prepared for such an event. The September 11 terrorist attacks underscore the urgency of our need for preparedness. The challenges become even more daunting when there is possible hazmat exposure as well; this means that adequate and rapid disposition of victims is even more critical in order to avoid contamination of hospitals systems or whole communities. Federal agencies have been designated and federal mandates have been issued to address mass casualty events, but federal or even regional systems cannot respond in time to address the massive and immediate needs generated by an explosion. Local communities must take the lead in developing incident command systems for initial management of such events. Hospital and pre-hospital providers play a key role in such planning. Ultimate management and disposition of large numbers of casualties, especially if contaminated, cannot follow standard patient management protocols; new protocols are needed. To avoid a total, overwhelming break down of in-hospital resources, hospitals need to assume a lead role in addressing such issues in their local communities.

  1. Einstein, Ethics and the Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rife, Patricia

    2005-03-01

    Einstein voiced his ethical views against war as well as fascism via venues and alliances with a variety of organizations still debated today. In 1939, he signed a letter to President Roosevelt (drafted by younger colleagues Szilard, Wigner and others) warning the U.S.government about the danger of Nazi Germany gaining control of uranium in the Belgian-controlled Congo in order to develop atomic weapons, based on the discovery of fission by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. In 1945, he became a member of the Princeton-based ``Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists'' organized by Bethe, Condon, Bacher, Urey, Szilard and Weisskopf. Rare Einstein slides will illustrate Dr.Rife's presentation on Albert Einstein's philosophic and ethical convictions about peace, and public stance against war (1914-1950).

  2. Bomb blast mass casualty incidents: initial triage and management of injuries.

    PubMed

    Goh, S H

    2009-01-01

    Bomb blast injuries are no longer confined to battlefields. With the ever present threat of terrorism, we should always be prepared for bomb blasts. Bomb blast injuries tend to affect air-containing organs more, as the blast wave tends to exert a shearing force on air-tissue interfaces. Commonly-injured organs include the tympanic membranes, the sinuses, the lungs and the bowel. Of these, blast lung injury is the most challenging to treat. The clinical picture is a mix of acute respiratory distress syndrome and air embolism, and the institution of positive pressure ventilation in the presence of low venous pressures could cause systemic arterial air embolism. The presence of a tympanic membrane perforation is not a reliable indicator of the presence of a blast injury in the other air-containing organs elsewhere. Radiological imaging of the head, chest and abdomen help with the early identification of blast lung injury, head injury, abdominal injury, eye and sinus injuries, as well as any penetration by foreign bodies. In addition, it must be borne in mind that bomb blasts could also be used to disperse radiological and chemical agents.

  3. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes.

  4. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, M; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-01-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. PMID:8781371

  6. The Last Act: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This text was to have been the script for the National Air and Space Museum's exhibition of the Enola Gay, focusing on the end of World War II and the decision of the United States to use of the atomic bomb. The Enola Gay was a B-29 aircraft that carried the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. The atomic bomb brought a…

  7. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors predicted from laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, Bruce A.; Grahn, Douglas; Hoel, David

    2003-01-01

    Exposure, pathology and mortality data for mice, dogs and humans were examined to determine whether accurate interspecies predictions of radiation-induced mortality could be achieved. The analyses revealed that (1) days of life lost per unit dose can be estimated for a species even without information on radiation effects in that species, and (2) accurate predictions of age-specific radiation-induced mortality in beagles and the atomic bomb survivors can be obtained from a dose-response model for comparably exposed mice. These findings illustrate the value of comparative mortality analyses and the relevance of animal data to the study of human health effects.

  8. Review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses results of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and ..gamma..-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Some other special studies which are now underway to complete the review will also be discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency.

  9. Ensuring the safety of surgical teams when managing casualties of a radiological dirty bomb.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael; Nocera, Antony

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to ensure their own safety when dealing with the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb is primarily determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type of event. This review article defines the associated radiological terminology with an emphasis on the personal safety of surgical team members in respect to the principles of radiological protection. The article also describes a technique for use of hand held radiation monitors and will discuss the identification and management of radiologically contaminated patients who may pose a significant danger to the surgical team.

  10. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Antoku, S; Russell, W J; Fujita, S; Pinkston, J A; Hayabuchi, N; Hoshi, M; Kodama, K

    1998-06-01

    As a follow-up to the two previous surveys of radiation therapy among the atomic bomb survivors, a large-scale survey was performed to document (1) the number of radiation therapy treatments received by the atomic bomb survivors and (2) the types of radiation treatments conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The previous two surveys covered the radiation treatments among the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study (AHS) population, which is composed of 20,000 persons. In the present survey, the population was expanded to include the Life Span Study (LSS), including 93,611 atomic bomb survivors and 26,517 Hiroshima and Nagasaki citizens who were not in the cities at the times of the bombings. The LSS population includes the AHS population. The survey was conducted from 1981 to 1984. The survey teams reviewed all the medical records for radiation treatments of 24,266 patients at 11 large hospitals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Among them, the medical records for radiation treatments of 1556 LSS members were reviewed in detail. By analyzing the data obtained in the present and previous surveys, the number of patients receiving radiation therapy was estimated to be 4501 (3.7%) in the LSS population and 1026 (5.1%) in the AHS population between 1945-1980. During 1945-1965, 98% of radiation treatments used medium-voltage X rays, and 66% of the treatments were for benign diseases. During 1966-1980, 94% of the radiation treatments were for malignant neoplasms. During this period, 60Co gamma-ray exposure apparatus and high-energy electron accelerators were the prevalent mode of treatment in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki, respectively. The mean frequency of radiation therapy among the LSS population was estimated to have been 158 courses/year during 1945-1965 and 110 courses/year during 1966-1980. The present survey revealed that 377 AHS members received radiation therapy. The number was approximately twice the total number of cases found in the previous two surveys

  11. Leukaemia in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors from 1945 through 1959*

    PubMed Central

    Tomonaga, Masanobu

    1962-01-01

    This review of the Nagasaki leukaemia experience during a period of 14 years after the detonation of the atomic bomb, together with comparisons with data from Hiroshima and from other series of post-radiation leukaemia cases, again demonstrates beyond reasonable doubt the leukaemogenic effect on man of ionizing radiation. An increased risk of leukaemia following doses probably as low as 100 rads (air-entry dose) of whole-body radiation is demonstrated on the basis of the available estimates of atomic bomb radiation doses. At doses above this level the increase in leukaemia incidence may be linearly related to the radiation dose. The data are too limited to allow of an evaluation of the risk represented by doses at the lower levels of radiation; but it seems clear that, if a threshold dose for leukaemia induction exists, it is lower than the threshold dose for the clinical expression of acute radiation syndrome. The sex and age distribution of radiation-induced leukaemia and the types of leukaemia observed are also discussed. PMID:13921808

  12. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age.

  13. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  14. Copenhagen Revisited: why the Germansdid not Achieve AN Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2002-10-01

    Michael Frayn's highly acclaimed play "Copenhagen", which reenacts the 1941 visit by Werner Heisenberg to Niels Bohr in Nazi-occupied Copenhagen, has now closed after a production in New York that won a Pulitzer Prize, and a successful tour of many cities in the US. Symposia in New York, Washington, Cambridge, Pasadena, and Raleigh have presented the science - quantum mechanics and nuclear physics - that undergirds the play, have debated its historical accuracy, and have celebrated its theatrical realization. The play, the symposia, and recently released documents have led to a new and heightened debate about old questions, among them why Heisenberg visited Bohr, what went on during their uncongenial meeting, and why the Germans did not succeed in building an atomic bomb. This in turn has resulted in a plethora of sometimes polemical articles in journals and magazines, that try to answer the questions. In this talk I will review some of the evidence, in particular about the German failure to make a bomb. While I will concentrate on the physics, the "political" factors will also be adumbrated.

  15. Mortality in the children of atomic bomb survivors and controls.

    PubMed

    Neel, J V; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1974-02-01

    A continuing study of mortality rates among children born to survivors of the atomic bombings and a suitable group of controls has been updated; the average interval between birth and verification of death or survival is 17 years. The mortality experience is now based on 18,946 children liveborn to parents one or both of whom were proximally exposed, receiving jointly an estimated dose of 117 rem; 16,516 children born to distally exposed parents receiving essentially no radiation; and 17,263 children born to parents not in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombings. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on child's survival can be demonstrated either by a contingency chi(2) type of analysis or regression analysis. On the basis of the regression data, the minimal gametic doubling dose of radiation of this type for mutations resulting in death during (on the average) the first 17 years of life among liveborn infants conceived 0-13 years after parental exposure is estimated at 46 rem for fathers and 125 rem for mothers. On the basis of experimental data, the gametic doubling dose for chronic, low-level radiation would be expected to be three to four times this value for males and as much as 1000 rem for females.

  16. The Boston Marathon Bombings Mass Casualty Incident: One Emergency Department's Information Systems Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam; Teich, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Peter; Moore, Samantha E; Theriault, Jennifer; Dorisca, Elizabeth; Harris, Sheila; Crim, Heidi; Lurie, Nicole; Goralnick, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Emergency department (ED) information systems are designed to support efficient and safe emergency care. These same systems often play a critical role in disasters to facilitate real-time situation awareness, information management, and communication. In this article, we describe one ED's experiences with ED information systems during the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. During postevent debriefings, staff shared that our ED information systems and workflow did not optimally support this incident; we found challenges with our unidentified patient naming convention, real-time situational awareness of patient location, and documentation of assessments, orders, and procedures. As a result, before our next mass gathering event, we changed our unidentified patient naming convention to more clearly distinguish multiple, simultaneous, unidentified patients. We also made changes to the disaster registration workflow and enhanced roles and responsibilities for updating electronic systems. Health systems should conduct disaster drills using their ED information systems to identify inefficiencies before an actual incident. ED information systems may require enhancements to better support disasters. Newer technologies, such as radiofrequency identification, could further improve disaster information management and communication but require careful evaluation and implementation into daily ED workflow.

  17. Relationship between cataracts and epilation in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, Kazuo; Otake, Masanori; Kodama, Kazunori

    1995-10-01

    Among 1713 atomic bomb survivors who underwent ophthalmological examinations from 1963-1964, the risk of cataract formation per unit dose of radiation was significantly greater for those who reported hair loss of 67% or more after exposure (the epilation group) than for those who reported less or no hair loss (the no-epilation group) (P,0.01). Such an epilation effect has also been associated with leukemia mortality and the frequency of chromosome aberrations. Although this might be interpreted as indicating differential sensitivity to radiation between the epilation group and the no-epilation group, it could also be explained by imprecision in dose estimates. We have calculated that a 48% random error in DS86 dose estimates could be in accordance with the dose-response relationship for the prevalence of cataracts in the epilation group or the no-epilation group. Possible mechanisms for variations in radiosensitivity are discussed. 37 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Agreement between death certificate and autopsy diagnoses among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ron, E; Carter, R; Jablon, S; Mabuchi, K

    1994-01-01

    Based on the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation series of over 5,000 autopsies, we examined death certificate accuracy for 12 disease categories and assessed the effect of potential modifying factors on agreement and accuracy. The overall percentage agreement between death certificate and autopsy diagnoses was only 52.5%. Although neoplasms had the highest detection rate, almost 25% of cancers diagnosed at autopsy were nevertheless missed on death certificates. Confirmation and detection rates were above 70% for neoplasms and external causes of death only. Confirmation rates were between 50 and 70% for infectious diseases and heart and other vascular diseases. Detection rates reached a similar level for infectious, cerebrovascular, and digestive diseases. Specificity rates were above 90% for all except the cerebrovascular disease category. Overall agreement decreased with increasing age at death and was worse for deaths occurring outside of hospital. There was some suggestion that agreement improved over time, but no indication that radiation dose, sex, city of residence, or inclusion in a biennial clinical examination program influenced agreement. Since the inaccuracy of death certificate diagnoses can have major implications for health research and planning, it is important to be aware that their accuracy is low and that it can vary widely depending on cause, age and place of death.

  19. Terrorist bombing

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Ami; Kluger, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that differ from those of conventional trauma. The clinical implications of terror bombing, in treatment dilemmas in the multidimensional injury, ancillary evaluation and handling of terror bombing mass casualty event are highlighted. All this leads to the conclusion that thorough medical preparedness to cope with this new epidemic is required, and that understanding of detonation and blast dynamics and how they correlate with the injury patterns is pivotal for revision of current mass casualty protocols. PMID:17101058

  20. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (<2 km), a distal group (≥2 km), and an early entrance group (those who entered the region <2 km from the hypocenter within 2 weeks after the explosion). Between 1996 and 2009, 631 new cases of prostate cancer were identified among approximately 18 400 male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer.

  1. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2014-12-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  2. Ionizing radiation and kidney cancer among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Hamra, Ghassan

    2010-06-01

    Understanding of the role of radiation as a cause of kidney cancer remains limited. The most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma. It has been posited that these entities differ in their degree of radiogenicity. Recent analyses of cancer incidence and mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors have examined associations between ionizing radiation and renal cell carcinoma, but these analyses have not reported results for cancer of the renal pelvis and ureters. This paper reports the results of analyses of kidney cancer incidence during the period 1958-1998 among 105,427 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to derive estimates of associations between radiation dose (in sievert, Sv) and cancer of the renal parenchyma (n = 167), and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (n = 80). Heterogeneity by cancer site was tested by joint modeling of cancer risks. Radiation dose was positively associated with cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter [excess relative rate (ERR)/Sv = 1.65; 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.37, 3.78]. The magnitude of this association was larger than the estimated association between radiation dose and cancer of the renal parenchyma (ERR/Sv = 0.27; 90% CI = -0.19, 0.98). While the association between radiation and cancer of the renal parenchyma was of greater magnitude at ages <55 years (ERR/Sv = 2.82; 90% CI = 0.45, 8.89) than at older attained ages (ERR/Sv = -0.11; 90% CI = nd, 0.53), the association between radiation and cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter varied minimally across these categories of attained age. A test of heterogeneity of type-specific risks provides modest support for the conclusion that risks vary by kidney cancer site (LRT = 2.34, 1 d.f., P = 0.13). Since some studies of radiation-exposed populations examine these sites in aggregate, results were also derived for the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal

  3. Atomic bomb: Ultimate faith of diplomacy. Research report, August 1992-April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.

    1993-04-01

    This paper examines the development and use of the atomic bombs as the means of achieving a grand strategy formulated by United States President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill as early as 1943. This grand strategy consisted of two main goals. First, if necessary, the atomic bombs would be used to end World War II as soon as they were ready. Second, the existence of the atomic bombs would be used as a diplomatic hammer to shape the political landscape of the postwar world - a direct warning to Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin not to attempt to hegemonize Eastern Europe and the Far East. Was the grand strategy successfully accomplished. Could newly sworn President Harry Truman have employed diplomatic means to quickly and successfully end World War II without resorting to the use of the atomic bombs against Japan.

  4. Mortality among atomic-bomb survivors, 1950-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Pierce, D.A.

    1997-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of cancer mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors during the period from 1950 through 1990 was recently published in Radiation Research. Work is also nearing completion on an updated analysis of data on noncancer mortality in the LSS. The new LSS mortality reports, collectively called Report 12, differ from earlier LSS reports in several general aspects. The Report includes some simple tabular, and graphical summaries of the excess risks which were developed to make it easier to comprehend the magnitude and nature of the excess risks in this cohort while highlighting uncertainties in the current LSS data. In order to overcome problems inherent in the use of summary risk estimates averaged over the current follow-up, sex- and age-at-exposure-specific lifetime risks computed for the LSS cohort are used as primary summaries of the excess risks. Throughout the new report, risk estimates were derived from models that make explicit allowance for important risk-modifying factors, such as age-at-exposure, sex, or attained age. This chapter contains a brief summary of some of the findings of the cancer mortality report and provides a preview of the latest non-cancer results.

  5. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Schull, W J; Otake, M; Neel, J V

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  6. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Negasaki. The indicators are frequency of un toward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during first postnatal week); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an electrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  7. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-09-11

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly.

  8. TU-D-204-00: The Gadget: Making of the Atomic Bomb.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    Making of the Atomic Bomb 2015 is the 70th anniversary of the detonation of the first atomic bomb. Since then, few scientific issues have aroused so much public controversy as the effects of radiation. This lecture will present the extraordinary historical genesis and the thoughts of great men and women in the development of the atomic bomb. In addition, the difficult military and political decisions will be covered such as: target selection, the debate over whether to give the Japanese government a demonstration of its power and whether to use it at all. Also, were the German and Japanese scientists developing there own bomb? Declassified top secret documents now help in answering some of these questions.

  9. TU-D-204-01: Making of the Atomic Bomb.

    PubMed

    Strubler, K

    2016-06-01

    Making of the Atomic Bomb 2015 is the 70th anniversary of the detonation of the first atomic bomb. Since then, few scientific issues have aroused so much public controversy as the effects of radiation. This lecture will present the extraordinary historical genesis and the thoughts of great men and women in the development of the atomic bomb. In addition, the difficult military and political decisions will be covered such as: target selection, the debate over whether to give the Japanese government a demonstration of its power and whether to use it at all. Also, were the German and Japanese scientists developing there own bomb? Declassified top secret documents now help in answering some of these questions.

  10. The Organization of Hospital Services for Casualties due to the Bombing of Cities, Based on Experience Gained in Barcelona—with Special Reference to the Classification of Casualties

    PubMed Central

    Trueta, J.

    1939-01-01

    (1) Difference between modern “total population” war and old-fashioned war. Difference between bombing of (a) military objectives and (b) civilian population. (a) The heavy bomb, e.g. 750 lb., with large fragments, upward throw, great destruction of buildings. (b) The light bomb with finger nail fragments, horizontal throw, great velocity.There is in addition the incendiary bomb, little used in Barcelona because the buildings are built of stone and concrete. (2) Aerial bombing of a town produces injuries needing more immediate hospitalization than most front-line wounds. At the same time it is possible in a town to organize rapid collection of patients and their immediate transfer to hospital. (3) Experience shows that it is most desirable to make this transfer of patients to hospital a primary consideration. On arrival they are “sorted” and minor injuries are given First Aid treatment and sent home, others are fully examined, classified, and dispatched to the theatres on a priority list, to nearby wards for resuscitation, to wards for rest, or sent on to plaster rooms for splintage, or to a neurosurgical centre. (4) First-aid posts in a town should be in hospitals and treat superficial injuries, &c., after primary sorting in the hospital reception room. (5) First-aid posts in outlying areas should carry out the same function for the same type of cases; all the more seriously wounded, including those with tiny penetrating wounds, should be dispatched without first aid treatment direct to hospital. (6) Hospital arrangements, for circulation of ambulances, for sorting, undressing of patients, docketing of valuables, &c. (7) Classification must be carried out by surgeons of experience and judgment. They must regard not only a standard priority list but the particular clinical picture and prognosis in each case. (8) The surgeon will furthermore draft the cases with regard to the special abilities of the surgical units available, e.g. chest, abdomen, or limbs

  11. Plutonium isotopes derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in the sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito-Kokubu, Y; Esaka, F; Yasuda, K; Magara, M; Miyamoto, Y; Sakurai, S; Usuda, S; Yamazaki, H; Yoshikawa, S; Nagaoka, S

    2007-04-01

    The source of plutonium in sediments deposited at Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki was characterized by their (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio. The average ratio was approximately 0.03, except in two layers. The main source of the plutonium was the Nagasaki atomic bomb. The plutonium continues to flow into the reservoir even now. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in two layers were higher than the average, which showed that plutonium in these layers were made of those of nuclear tests added to those of the atomic bomb.

  12. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-08-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed IN UTERO : , and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose-response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed IN UTERO : is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts.

  13. Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Toshiteru

    2012-10-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120,000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F(1)) of 77,000. The LSS and F(1) studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F(1) Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures.

  14. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  15. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2006-01-01

    In his "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that "had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine," an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy. Investigating…

  16. Characteristic expression of fukutin in gastric cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trang T B; Oue, Naohide; Yamamoto, Manabu; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi; Mukai, Shoichiro; Sakamoto, Naoya; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Yasui, Wataru

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 70 years have passed since the atomic bombs were dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. To elucidate potential biomarkers and possible mechanisms of radiation-induced cancer, the expression of FKTN, which encodes fukutin protein and causes Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy, was analyzed in gastric cancer (GC) tissue samples from atomic bomb survivors. Expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 10 was also evaluated, as it has previously been observed that positive fukutin expression was frequently noted in CD10-positive GC cases. In the first cohort from Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-Bomb Survivors Hospital (Hiroshima, Japan; n=92), 102 (53%) of the GC cases were positive for fukutin. Expression of fukutin was not associated with exposure status, but was associated with CD10 expression (P=0.0001). The second cohort was from Hiroshima University Hospital (Hiroshima, Japan; n=86), and these patients were also in the Life Span Study cohort, in which atomic bomb radiation doses were precisely estimated using the DS02 system. Expression of fukutin was detected in 58 (67%) of GC cases. GC cases positive for fukutin were observed more frequently in the low dose-exposed group than in the high dose-exposed group (P=0.0001). Further studies with a larger cohort, including precise radiation dose estimation, may aid in clarifying whether fukutin could serve as a potential biomarker to define radiation-induced GC in atomic-bomb survivors.

  17. Characteristic expression of fukutin in gastric cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Trang T.B.; Oue, Naohide; Yamamoto, Manabu; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi; Mukai, Shoichiro; Sakamoto, Naoya; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Yasui, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 70 years have passed since the atomic bombs were dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. To elucidate potential biomarkers and possible mechanisms of radiation-induced cancer, the expression of FKTN, which encodes fukutin protein and causes Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy, was analyzed in gastric cancer (GC) tissue samples from atomic bomb survivors. Expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 10 was also evaluated, as it has previously been observed that positive fukutin expression was frequently noted in CD10-positive GC cases. In the first cohort from Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-Bomb Survivors Hospital (Hiroshima, Japan; n=92), 102 (53%) of the GC cases were positive for fukutin. Expression of fukutin was not associated with exposure status, but was associated with CD10 expression (P=0.0001). The second cohort was from Hiroshima University Hospital (Hiroshima, Japan; n=86), and these patients were also in the Life Span Study cohort, in which atomic bomb radiation doses were precisely estimated using the DS02 system. Expression of fukutin was detected in 58 (67%) of GC cases. GC cases positive for fukutin were observed more frequently in the low dose-exposed group than in the high dose-exposed group (P=0.0001). Further studies with a larger cohort, including precise radiation dose estimation, may aid in clarifying whether fukutin could serve as a potential biomarker to define radiation-induced GC in atomic-bomb survivors. PMID:28356981

  18. Nuclear shadows on silvered walls: Atomic Bomb Cinema, from 1935 to 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The cinema and the atomic bomb are two of the most significant technological innovations of the past-century - their influence on culture has provoked tremendous political, academic, and popular debate. The point at which these two technologies intersect is what the author calls Atomic Bomb Cinema.' Since 1945 almost six hundred films with images of nuclear weapons have been released in the US, and they have been virtually ignored by everyone but the film going public. This study shows how Bomb films' use recurring themes and formal structures, and therefore must be treated as a coherent body of films; identifies historical, mythological, and contemporary motifs; and analyzes these films from two points of view: interdisciplinary (history, politics, economics, sociology, and aesthetics) and cross-cultural (American, Japanese, British, and Australian). The most important element of Atomic Bomb Cinema is the Apocalyptic Imagination; film makers use it to structure their narratives and explore a wide range of ideological issues. In contrast to commonly held beliefs, Atomic Bomb Cinema is undeniably part of a process that helps people to understand the threat of nuclear war. In this instance, the cinema is one cultural institution that contributes to a healthy society.

  19. Surgical considerations in the management of combined radiation blast injury casualties caused by a radiological dirty bomb.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to respond appropriately to the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb will be determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type unique terrorist event. This paper will focus on the surgical aspects of this scenario with particular emphasis on the management of combined trauma-radiological injury. The paper also describes some of the more serious explosion-contamination incidents from nuclear industrial sources, summarises learning points and parallels taken from these scenarios in relation to subject of a radiological dirty bomb and describes the likely radioactive substances involved.

  20. Atomic Bomb: Memory and its Power on Japanese Pacifism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Jesuit Priests that were also there.108 108 Hersey, John. Hiroshima. New York: Random House...the reader a look into Japanese culture. The additional perspective of theGerman Jesuit Priests complement the Japanese story for a better narrative...Harry S. Truman and the Bomb: A Documentary History. Worland: High Publishing, 1996. Ferrell, Robert H. ed. Dear Bess. New York: Norton Press, 1983

  1. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  2. Harry Truman and the Atomic Bomb: An Excursion into Character Education through Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Tony R.

    2006-01-01

    This article asserts the importance of character education through the utilization of historical storytelling in the social studies classroom. After briefly noting the value of the historical story in this regard, a specific, ready-made example is provided concerning Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb and includes a crucial set of follow-up…

  3. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered.

  4. Lessons from the atomic bomb about secondary MDS.

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko; Imanishi, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) is a hematological neoplasm defined by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplasia of hematopoietic cells, and risk of progression to acute leukemia. MDS occurs as de novo or secondary, and chemoradiotherapy for cancers is thought to increase the risk of MDS among patients. Recently, an epidemiological study for MDS among A-bomb survivors was performed, and it clearly demonstrated that the exposure to external radiation significantly increased the risk of MDS. Precise epidemiological data among survivors have revealed important clinical factors related to the risk of leukemias. In this review, by comparing data for secondary MDS and leukemia/MDS among survivors, several factors which would affect the risk of MDS, especially secondary MDS, are discussed.

  5. Non-cancer Diseases of Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors in Residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-01-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined non-cancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors. PMID:16778377

  6. Non-cancer diseases of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young-Su; Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-06-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined noncancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of noncancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors.

  7. The Office of Censorship's Attempt to Control Press Coverage of the Atomic Bomb during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Patrick S.

    The Office of Censorship's struggle to keep journalists from revealing the development of the first atomic bomb, the sites where the development was taking place, and the fact that the bomb might be available for use in the war, was desperate and in many ways heroic. Soon after it was created on December 19, 1941, the office issued a voluntary…

  8. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, N; Ohtaki, M; Ueoka, H; Matsuura, M; Munaka, M; Kurihara, M

    1989-06-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction.

  9. Why did the Germans not produce an atomic bomb?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2003-04-01

    The question has been examined and debated in books and articles by physicists and historians of science for the past half century. Since 2000,the controversy has been heightened by Michael Frayn's play Copenhagen. Was the reason for the failure that Werner Heisenberg, the leader of Germany's Uranium Project,for moral reasons, gave incomplete and misleading information to the Nazis, such as withholding the knowledge that fissionable plutonium can be produced in a uranium reactor? Was Heisenberg's science the cause, because it resulted in a critically wrong critical mass for fission of tons instead of kilograms? Did he not make the calculation at all because he was convinced, for practical reasons, that a bomb couldn't be assembled in time to be of use to anyone in World War II? And what about Hans Bethe's assertion that Walter Bothe's mistake in ruling out graphite as a moderator, which obliged the Germans to embark on the difficult, long range effort to obtain enough heavy water, doomed even Heisenberg's reactor program to failure? Can the different answers that have been given to these and other questions be reconciled? If not, which are likely to be correct and which should be abandoned? The talk will be a progress report on this investigation.

  10. Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Little, M P

    2009-06-01

    The survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a general population of all ages and sexes and, because of the wide and well characterised range of doses received, have been used by many scientific committees (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)) as the basis of population cancer risk estimates following radiation exposure. Leukaemia was the first cancer to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure, with preliminary indications of an excess among the survivors within the first five years after the bombings. An excess of solid cancers became apparent approximately ten years after radiation exposure. With increasing follow-up, excess risks of most cancer types have been observed, the major exceptions being chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancer. For most solid cancer sites a linear dose response is observed, although in the latest follow-up of the mortality data there is evidence (p = 0.10) for an upward curvature in the dose response for all solid cancers. The only cancer sites which exhibit (upward) curvature in the dose response are leukaemia, and non-melanoma skin and bone cancer. For leukaemia the dose response is very markedly upward curving, indeed largely describable as a pure quadratic dose response, particularly in the low dose (0-2 Sv) range. Even 55 years after the bombings over 40% of the Life Span Study cohort remain alive, so continued follow-up of this group is vital for completing our understanding of long-term radiation effects in people. In general, the relative risks per unit dose among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other

  11. Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    PubMed Central

    Douple, Evan B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M.; Preston, Dale L.; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200 000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

  12. Long-term radiation-related health effects in a unique human population: lessons learned from the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Douple, Evan B; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E

    2011-03-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200,000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor-participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study.

  13. Organ dose conversions from ESR measurements using tooth enamel of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversions were studied for dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors based upon electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of tooth enamel. Previously analysed data had clarified that the tooth enamel dose could be much larger than other organ doses from a low-energy photon exposure. The radiation doses to other organs or whole-body doses, however, are assumed to be near the tooth enamel dose for photon energies which are dominant in the leakage spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb assumed in DS02. In addition, the thyroid can be a candidate for a surrogate organ in cases where the tooth enamel dose is not available in organ dosimetry. This paper also suggests the application of new Japanese voxel phantoms to derive tooth enamel doses by numerical analyses.

  14. Late effect of atomic bomb radiation on myeloid disorders: leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Hideki; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2012-03-01

    Leukemia was the first malignancy linked to radiation exposure in atomic bomb survivors. Clear evidence of the dose-dependent excess risk of three major types of leukemia (acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia [AML], and chronic myeloid leukemia) was found, especially in people exposed at young ages. Such leukemia risks were at their highest in the late 1950s, and declined gradually thereafter over the past 50 years. Findings from recent risk analyses, however, suggest the persistence of AML risk even after 1990, and evidence of increased risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) due to atomic bomb radiation has recently been shown. High-risk MDS and forms involving complex chromosomal aberrations were found to be much more frequent in people exposed to higher radiation doses. These lines of epidemiological evidence suggest that the risk of radiation-induced hematological malignancies has persisted for six decades since the initial exposure.

  15. Tracking the errant cell after the atomic bombings: what went wrong?

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Keisuke S

    2003-07-01

    Epidemiological data collected after the atomic-bomb blasts of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have established a link between radiation exposure and human cancer development and are the major source of information for current radiation-induced cancer risk assessment. To determine the mechanistic basis for radiation carcinogenesis, retrospective molecular analyses of archival hepatocellular carcinoma tissues from the atomic-bomb survivors were conducted. The tumor suppressor genes p53 and M6P/IGF2r were examined. HCC cases had either p53 mutations or M6P/IGF2r mutations, but rarely both. Moreover, the frequency of cases with M6P/ IGF2r mutations actually decreased with dose, while those for p53 increased. This implies two independent selection processes leading to liver cancer and that in radiation-induced HCC tumors the spectrum of molecular changes is different from that in "background" tumors.

  16. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1985-07-01

    In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Also, we diagnosed subjects in the moderate and severe renal dysfunction groups as having CKD (n = 233; eGFR <59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking and drinking habits, we looked for an association between renal dysfunction and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and between renal dysfunction and A-bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P < 0.001) were associated with CKD (moderate/severe renal dysfunction), and hyperlipidemia and MetS were also associated with mild renal dysfunction. CKD (OR/Gy, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63, P = 0.038) and severe renal dysfunction (OR/Gy, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.63-6.25, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with radiation dose. CKD associated with radiation may have played a role in the development of CVD among A-bomb survivors.

  18. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS.

  19. Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, C.; Hamilton, H.B.; Otake, M.; Goriki, K.; Kageoka, T.; Fujita, M.; Neriishi, S.; Asakawa J.

    1980-07-01

    A total of 289,868 locus tests, based on 28 different protein phenotypes and using one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of proximally exposed parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure of 31 to 39 rem in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of distally exposed parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure.

  20. Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Neel, J V; Satoh, C; Hamilton, H B; Otake, M; Goriki, K; Kageoka, T; Fujita, M; Neriishi, S; Asakawa, J

    1980-07-01

    A total of 289,868 locus tests, based on 28 different protein phenotypes and using one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of "proximally exposed" parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure of 31 to 39 rem in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of "distally exposed" parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure.

  1. After Crossroads: The Fate of the Atomic Bomb Target Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, James P.

    2016-04-01

    The atomic tests at Bikini Atoll left a submerged archaeological legacy in the form of sixty-one shipwrecks at or near Bikini, Kwajalein, the California coast, and in two other lesser cases off Oahu and the coast of Washington State. Together they comprise a unique maritime cultural landscape of the Cold War, and the naval aspects of that conflict.

  2. Fast neutrons measured in copper from the Hiroshima atomic bomb dome.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, A A; McAninch, J E; Rugel, G; Rühm, W; Korschinek, G; Martinelli, R E; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Egbert, S D; Wallner, A; Wallner, C; Tanaka, K; Endo, S; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Fujita, S; Hasai, H; Imanaka, T; Straume, T

    2009-01-01

    The first measurements of (63)Ni produced by A-bomb fast neutrons (above approximately 1 MeV) in copper samples from Hiroshima encompassed distances from approximately 380 to 5062 m from the hypocenter (the point on the ground directly under the bomb). They included the region of interest to survivor studies (approximately 900 to 1500 m) and provided the first direct validation of fast neutrons in that range. However, a significant measurement gap remained between the hypocenter and 380 m. Measurements close to the hypocenter are important as a high-value anchor for the slope of the curve for neutron activation as a function of distance. Here we report measurements of (63)Ni in copper samples from the historic Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Dome, which is located approximately 150 m from the hypocenter. These measurements extend the range of our previously published data for (63)Ni providing a more comprehensive and consistent A-bomb activation curve. The results are also in good agreement with calculations based on the current dosimetry system (DS02) and give further experimental support to the accuracy of this system that forms the basis for radiation risk estimates worldwide.

  3. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  4. Biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Su-Young; Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2008-12-01

    In 1945, many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. This study compared the biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea with those of a representative sample of Koreans obtained during a similar period. We evaluated anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood cell counts, blood chemistry, and urinalysis of survivors (n=414) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=414) recruited from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2005. Univariate analyses revealed significantly higher systolic blood pressure, white blood cell count, and serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels (p<0.01) in the survivors. Conversely, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red blood cell count, and the proportion of positive urine occult blood (p<0.01) were lower in the survivors. Our findings suggest that biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors were adversely affected by radiation exposure.

  5. Biological Profiles of Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors in Residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Su-Young; Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2008-01-01

    In 1945, many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. This study compared the biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea with those of a representative sample of Koreans obtained during a similar period. We evaluated anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood cell counts, blood chemistry, and urinalysis of survivors (n=414) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=414) recruited from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2005. Univariate analyses revealed significantly higher systolic blood pressure, white blood cell count, and serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels (p<0.01) in the survivors. Conversely, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red blood cell count, and the proportion of positive urine occult blood (p<0.01) were lower in the survivors. Our findings suggest that biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors were adversely affected by radiation exposure. PMID:19119455

  6. Evidence supporting radiation hormesis in atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan

    2012-12-01

    A recent update on the atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data has concluded that excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancers increases linearly with dose and that zero dose is the best estimate for the threshold, apparently validating the present use of the linear no threshold (LNT) model for estimating the cancer risk from low dose radiation. A major flaw in the standard ERR formalism for estimating cancer risk from radiation (and other carcinogens) is that it ignores the potential for a large systematic bias in the measured baseline cancer mortality rate, which can have a major effect on the ERR values. Cancer rates are highly variable from year to year and between adjacent regions and so the likelihood of such a bias is high. Calculations show that a correction for such a bias can lower the ERRs in the atomic bomb survivor data to negative values for intermediate doses. This is consistent with the phenomenon of radiation hormesis, providing a rational explanation for the decreased risk of cancer observed at intermediate doses for which there is no explanation based on the LNT model. The recent atomic bomb survivor data provides additional evidence for radiation hormesis in humans.

  7. Studies of cancer and radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors. The example of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Land, C E

    1995-08-02

    A comprehensive program of medical follow-up of survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) has produced quantitative estimates of cancer risk from exposure to ionizing radiation. For breast cancer in women, in particular, the strength of the radiation dose response and the generally low level of population risk in the absence of radiation exposure have led to a clear description of excess risk and its variation by age at exposure and over time following exposure. Comparisons of RERF data with data from medically irradiated populations have yielded additional information on the influence of population and underlying breast cancer rates on radiation-related risk. Epidemiological investigations of breast cancer cases and matched controls among atomic bomb survivors have clarified the role of reproductive history as a modifier of the carcinogenic effects of radiation exposure. Finally, a pattern of radiation-related risk by attained age among the survivors exposed during childhood or adolescence suggests the possible existence of a radiation-susceptible subgroup. The hypothetical existence of such a group is lent plausibility by the results of recent family studies suggesting that heritable mutations in certain genes are associated with familial aggregations of breast cancer. The recent isolation and cloning of one such gene, BRCA1, makes it likely that the hypothesis can be tested using molecular assays of archival and other tissue obtained from atomic bomb survivor cases and controls.

  8. 11 March 2004: The terrorist bomb explosions in Madrid, Spain--an analysis of the logistics, injuries sustained and clinical management of casualties treated at the closest hospital.

    PubMed

    de Ceballos, J Peral Gutierrez; Turégano-Fuentes, F; Perez-Diaz, D; Sanz-Sanchez, M; Martin-Llorente, C; Guerrero-Sanz, J E

    2005-02-01

    At 07:39 on 11 March 2004, 10 terrorist bomb explosions occurred almost simultaneously in four commuter trains in Madrid, Spain, killing 177 people instantly and injuring more than 2000. There were 14 subsequent in-hospital deaths, bringing the ultimate death toll to 191. This report describes the organization of clinical management and patterns of injuries in casualties who were taken to the closest hospital, with an emphasis on the critically ill. A total of 312 patients were taken to the hospital and 91 patients were hospitalized, of whom 89 (28.5%) remained in hospital for longer than 24 hours. Sixty-two patients had only superficial bruises or emotional shock, but the remaining 250 patients had more severe injuries. Data on 243 of these 250 patients form the basis of this report. Tympanic perforation occurred in 41% of 243 victims with moderate-to-severe trauma, chest injuries in 40%, shrapnel wounds in 36%, fractures in 18%, first-degree or second-degree burns in 18%, eye lesions in 18%, head trauma in 12% and abdominal injuries in 5%. Between 08:00 and 17:00, 34 surgical interventions were performed in 32 patients. Twenty-nine casualties (12% of the total, or 32.5% of those hospitalized) were deemed to be in a critical condition, and two of these died within minutes of arrival. The other 27 survived to admission to intensive care units, and three of them died, bringing the critical mortality rate to 17.2% (5/29). The mean Injury Severity Score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores for critically ill patients were 34 and 23, respectively. Among these critically ill patients, soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries predominated in 85% of cases, ear blast injury was identified in 67% and blast lung injury was present in 63%. Fifty-two per cent suffered head trauma. Over-triage to the closest hospital probably occurred, and the time of the blasts proved to be crucial to the the adequacy of the medical and surgical response. The number of

  9. 11 March 2004: The terrorist bomb explosions in Madrid, Spain – an analysis of the logistics, injuries sustained and clinical management of casualties treated at the closest hospital

    PubMed Central

    de Ceballos, J Peral Gutierrez; Turégano-Fuentes, F; Perez-Diaz, D; Sanz-Sanchez, M; Martin-Llorente, C; Guerrero-Sanz, JE

    2005-01-01

    At 07:39 on 11 March 2004, 10 terrorist bomb explosions occurred almost simultaneously in four commuter trains in Madrid, Spain, killing 177 people instantly and injuring more than 2000. There were 14 subsequent in-hospital deaths, bringing the ultimate death toll to 191. This report describes the organization of clinical management and patterns of injuries in casualties who were taken to the closest hospital, with an emphasis on the critically ill. A total of 312 patients were taken to the hospital and 91 patients were hospitalized, of whom 89 (28.5%) remained in hospital for longer than 24 hours. Sixty-two patients had only superficial bruises or emotional shock, but the remaining 250 patients had more severe injuries. Data on 243 of these 250 patients form the basis of this report. Tympanic perforation occurred in 41% of 243 victims with moderate-to-severe trauma, chest injuries in 40%, shrapnel wounds in 36%, fractures in 18%, first-degree or second-degree burns in 18%, eye lesions in 18%, head trauma in 12% and abdominal injuries in 5%. Between 08:00 and 17:00, 34 surgical interventions were performed in 32 patients. Twenty-nine casualties (12% of the total, or 32.5% of those hospitalized) were deemed to be in a critical condition, and two of these died within minutes of arrival. The other 27 survived to admission to intensive care units, and three of them died, bringing the critical mortality rate to 17.2% (5/29). The mean Injury Severity Score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores for critically ill patients were 34 and 23, respectively. Among these critically ill patients, soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries predominated in 85% of cases, ear blast injury was identified in 67% and blast lung injury was present in 63%. Fifty-two per cent suffered head trauma. Over-triage to the closest hospital probably occurred, and the time of the blasts proved to be crucial to the the adequacy of the medical and surgical response. The number of

  10. Celluloid mushroom clouds: Hollywood and the atomic bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Evans-Karastamatis, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the development of the imagery associated with atomic technology found in Hollywood film produced and distributed between 1948 and 1964. Based upon a content and thematic analysis of a sample of 90 Hollywood produced films, the research examines the construction of nuclear images, their transformation throughout the fifteen year period, and the specific socio-political context and conditions of production which helped determine their selection. From the early experimentation with the issue, in searching for a profitable way to present atomic subjects, to the development of a science fiction genre which capitalized upon the public's anxiety over uncontrollable transmutational properties of nuclear energy, Hollywood filmmakers chose to perpetuate certain images and ignore others. These films provided the audience with a specific set of representations for constructing a view of atomic technology and all that it entailed. The industry's production practices and economic structure, prevailing ideologies, political pressure, and the social and cultural context helped determine what representations reached the screen. The findings illustrate how texts of popular culture are constructed, as a result of often contradictory determinants which include economic practices, signifying practices, and more general social conflict. Film content consists of texts composed on the basis of stylized conventions and codes, drawing on familiar or latent cultural myths and images. Film content can capitalize upon popular anxieties through use of metaphor and selection of genres. Hollywood selectively incorporated residual themes within the culture to exploit the fears and anxieties of audiences, and to allow a venue for questioning the wisdom of official government agenda. These potentially oppositional sentiments were defused, and governmental criticism and pressure avoided by holding the images within the margins of cold war ideology.

  11. Neutron relative biological effectiveness in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Masao S; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Nomura, Taisei

    2016-11-01

    The calculated risk of cancer in humans due to radiation exposure is based primarily on long-term follow-up studies, e.g. the life-span study (LSS) on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since A-bomb radiation consists of a mixture of γ-rays and neutrons, it is essential that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons is adequately evaluated if a study is to serve as a reference for cancer risk. However, the relatively small neutron component hampered the direct estimation of RBE in LSS data. To circumvent this problem, several strategies have been attempted, including dose-independent constant RBE, dose-dependent variable RBE, and dependence on the degrees of dominance of intermingled γ-rays. By surveying the available literature, we tested the chromosomal RBE of neutrons as the biological endpoint for its equivalence to the microdosimetric quantities obtained using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in various neutron fields. The radiation weighting factor, or quality factor, Qn, of neutrons as expressed in terms of the energy dependence of the maximum RBE, RBEm, was consistent with that predicted by the TEPC data, indicating that the chromosomally measured RBE was independent of the magnitude of coexisting γ-rays. The obtained neutron RBE, which varied with neutron dose, was confirmed to be the most adequate RBE system in terms of agreement with the cancer incidence in A-bomb survivors, using chromosome aberrations as surrogate markers. With this RBE system, the cancer risk in A-bomb survivors as expressed in unit dose of reference radiation is equally compatible with Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities, and may be potentially applicable in other cases of human radiation exposure.

  12. Neutron relative biological effectiveness in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Masao S.; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Nomura, Taisei

    2016-01-01

    The calculated risk of cancer in humans due to radiation exposure is based primarily on long-term follow-up studies, e.g. the life-span study (LSS) on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since A-bomb radiation consists of a mixture of γ-rays and neutrons, it is essential that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons is adequately evaluated if a study is to serve as a reference for cancer risk. However, the relatively small neutron component hampered the direct estimation of RBE in LSS data. To circumvent this problem, several strategies have been attempted, including dose-independent constant RBE, dose-dependent variable RBE, and dependence on the degrees of dominance of intermingled γ-rays. By surveying the available literature, we tested the chromosomal RBE of neutrons as the biological endpoint for its equivalence to the microdosimetric quantities obtained using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in various neutron fields. The radiation weighting factor, or quality factor, Qn, of neutrons as expressed in terms of the energy dependence of the maximum RBE, RBEm, was consistent with that predicted by the TEPC data, indicating that the chromosomally measured RBE was independent of the magnitude of coexisting γ-rays. The obtained neutron RBE, which varied with neutron dose, was confirmed to be the most adequate RBE system in terms of agreement with the cancer incidence in A-bomb survivors, using chromosome aberrations as surrogate markers. With this RBE system, the cancer risk in A-bomb survivors as expressed in unit dose of reference radiation is equally compatible with Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities, and may be potentially applicable in other cases of human radiation exposure. PMID:27614201

  13. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-22

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  14. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  15. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency.

  16. Heterogeneity of variation of relative risk by age at exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark P

    2009-08-01

    General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing age at exposure are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained age) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with age at exposure, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older exposure ages. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) variations of relative risk by cancer type, and statistically significant variations by cancer type in the adjustments for sex (P = 0.010) and age at exposure (P = 0.013) to the relative risk. There is no statistically significant (P > 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained age. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of age at exposure, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with age at exposure is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by age at exposure (P = 0.060).

  17. Growth and differentiation of circulating hemopoietic stem cells with atomic bomb irradiation-induced chromosome abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, T.; Honda, T.; Otake, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1988-11-01

    The effects of atomic bomb irradiation on hemopoietic stem cells were studied cytogenetically using single colonies derived from hemopoietic progenitor cells. The subjects studied were 21 healthy atomic bomb survivors (10 males and 11 females) in the high dose exposure group (100+ rad) with a known high incidence (10% or more) of radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities in their peripheral blood lymphocytes (stimulated with phytohemagglutinin), and 11 nonexposed healthy controls (5 males and 6 females). Colony formation by circulating granulocyte-macrophage (GM-CFC) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells was made by the methylcellulose method using peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chromosome specimens were prepared from single colonies by our micromethod. The total number of colonies analyzed in the exposed group was 131 for GM-CFC and 75 for BFU-E. Chromosome abnormalities were observed in 15 (11.5%) and 9 (12.0%) colonies, respectively. In the control group, the total number of colonies analyzed was 61 for GM-CFC and 41 for BFU-E. None of these colonies showed chromosome abnormalities. The difference in incidence of chromosome abnormalities was highly significant by an exact test; p = 0.003 for GM-CFC and 0.017 for BFU-E. The karyotypes of chromosome abnormalities obtained from the colonies in the exposed group were mostly translocations, but deletion and marker chromosomes were also observed. In two individuals, such karyotypic abnormalities as observed in the peripheral lymphocytes were also seen in the myeloid progenitor cells. This finding suggests that atomic bomb irradiation produced a chromosome aberration on multipotent hemopoietic stem cells common to myeloid and lymphoid lineages.

  18. Radioactivity in atomic-bomb samples from exposure to environmental neutrons.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Shizuma, K; Tanaka, K; Ishikawa, M; Rühm, W; Egbert, S D; Hoshi, M

    2007-12-01

    For about one decade, activation measurements performed on environmental samples from a distance larger than 1 km from the hypocenter of the atomic-bomb explosion over Hiroshima suggested much higher thermal neutron fluences to the survivors than predicted. This caused concern among the radiation protection community and prompted a complete re-evaluation of all aspects of survivor dosimetry. While it was shown recently that secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation and other sources have probably been the reason for the high measured concentrations of the long-lived radioisotope 36Cl in these samples, the source for high measured concentrations of the short-lived radionuclides 152Eu and 60Co has not yet been investigated in detail. In order to quantify the production of 152Eu and 60Co in environmental samples by secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, thermal neutron fluxes were measured by means of a He gas proportional counter in various buildings where these samples had been and still are being stored. Because a 252Cf neutron source has been operated occasionally close to one of the sample storage rooms, additional neutron flux measurements were carried out when the neutron source was in operation. The thermal neutron fluxes measured ranged from 0.00017 to 0.00093 n cm(-2) s(-1) and depended on the floor number of the investigated building. Based on the measured neutron fluxes, the specific activities from the reactions 151Eu(n,gamma)152Eu and 59Co(n,gamma)60Co in the atomic-bomb samples were estimated to be 7.9 mBq g(-1) Eu and 0.27 mBq g(-1) Co, respectively, in saturation. These activities are much lower than those recently measured in samples that had been exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons. It is therefore concluded that environmental and moderated 252Cf neutrons are not the source for the high activities that had been measured in these samples.

  19. Germany's Failure to Achieve an Atomic Bomb in World War II: Bad Science,Good Intentions or Neither?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2004-05-01

    This is a progress report on a project to find a definitive answer to the disputed question why the Germans did not succeed in building an atomic bomb. The most extreme answers among those that have been put forward are, on the one hand, that Werner Heisenberg did not understand the difference between a nuclear reactor and a bomb and, on the other, that German scientists dragged their feet because they wanted to deny this weapon of mass destruction to Hitler. From an examination of a number of the German scientific reports on their Uranium Project and of other sources, it seems evident that any early idea of a bomb being a run-away reactor was soon replaced by the realization that a bomb required fast neutrons and close to pure uranium 235. As for the hypothesis that the scruples of German scientists played a significant role in preventing a German atomic bomb, the available records appear to negate that explanation as well. Rather, the minuscule resources devoted to the project, the lack of German industrial capacity, the poorly organized and decentralized organization of the research, and the modus operandi of researchers, including Heisenberg, of simultaneously pursuing other interests, doomed the prospect of getting a bomb.

  20. Cancer risk among children of atomic bomb survivors. A review of RERF epidemiologic studies. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Y. )

    1990-08-01

    This article summarizes recent epidemiologic studies of cancer risk among the children of atomic bomb survivors conducted at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. These children include two groups: (1) the in utero-exposed children (ie, those born to mothers who had been pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and (2) the F1 population, which was conceived after the atomic-bombings and born to parents of whom one or both were atomic bomb survivors. Although from 1950 to 1984 only 18 cancer cases were identified among the in utero sample, cancer risk did appear to significantly increase as maternal uterine dose increased. However, since the observed cases are too few in number to allow a site-specific review, the increased cancer risk cannot be definitively attributed to atomic bomb radiation, as yet. For those members of the F1 population who were less than 20 years old between 1946 and 1982, cancer risk did not appear to increase significantly as parental gonadal dose increased. Follow-up of this population will continue to determine if the patterns of adult-onset cancer are altered.

  1. Cancer risk among children of atomic bomb survivors. A review of RERF epidemiologic studies. Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Y

    1990-08-01

    This article summarizes recent epidemiologic studies of cancer risk among the children of atomic bomb survivors conducted at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. These children include two groups: (1) the in utero-exposed children (ie, those born to mothers who had been pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and (2) the F1 population, which was conceived after the atomic-bombings and born to parents of whom one or both were atomic bomb survivors. Although from 1950 to 1984 only 18 cancer cases were identified among the in utero sample, cancer risk did appear to significantly increase as maternal uterine dose increased. However, since the observed cases are too few in number to allow a site-specific review, the increased cancer risk cannot be definitively attributed to atomic bomb radiation, as yet. For those members of the F1 population who were less than 20 years old between 1946 and 1982, cancer risk did not appear to increase significantly as parental gonadal dose increased. Follow-up of this population will continue to determine if the patterns of adult-onset cancer are altered.

  2. Did the Allies Know in 1942 About Nazi Germany's Poor Prospects for an Atomic Bomb?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2008-04-01

    According to official accounts, the U.S. knew nothing about Nazi Germany's efforts to get an atomic bomb until the end of the World War II, but had feared the worst. As it turned out, the Germans had made little progress. But did someone in the Allied camp know in 1942? In his 1986 book, The Griffin, Arnold Kramish relates how Paul Rosbaud, a spy for MI6, the British secret intelligence service, kept his handlers informed during the War about the German atomic project and reported the decision to give up on a bomb. Kramish's revelations are, understandably, thinly documented and Rosbaud's name can hardly be found independenly anywhere else. But as Samuel Goudsmit's papers in the Bohr Library show, he knew and communicated with Rosbaud from August 1945 on. In 1986, 15 letters exchanged by Goudsmit and Rosbaud were removed by the Government from the Library and eventually placed in the National Archives under classification review. Renewed interest in the Rosbaud story was engendered last year when his family sued MI6 in an English court for the release of the Rosbaud file. So far the spy agency has refused to reveal even that there is such a file. Discovering authoritatively what Rosbaud told the British and what they did with the information is clearly of historical interest.

  3. Incidence and pathology of pancreatic carcinoma among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.; Yamamoto, T.

    1986-09-01

    There is little evidence that pancreatic carcinoma is radiogenic in humans. To further investigate this possibility, all follow-up sources at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were utilized to identify 378 incident cases of pancreatic cancer which occurred between October 1, 1950 and December 31, 1982 among 91,231 members of the cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. An independent pathology review was conducted for all eligible cases, and pathology reports and slides were sought for those having a tissue diagnosis. The incidence of pancreatic carcinoma in this cohort was evaluated with respect to city, sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, radiation dose, and selected pathologic characteristics. Radiation dose effects, as well as spontaneous (background) incidence rates, were estimated using generalized Poisson regression models. Allowing for natural variations in background incidence, a significantly increased risk of pancreatic cancer was found to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure (relative risks = 1.3,95% confidence interval = 1.1-1.6). This relationship was much stronger in Nagasaki than Hiroshima, and among males than females. Age at exposure and time since exposure had little effect on radiation risk estimates. The interpretation of these findings in relation to their biologic plausibility is stressed, and the implications of using Radiation Effects Research Foundation incidence data in this regard are discussed.

  4. New approaches to evaluating the genetic effects of the atomic bombs

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.

    1995-12-01

    In the aftermath of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki fifty years ago, one of the compelling biomedical questions that arose concerned the genetic effects of this exposure. More recently, revelations of the extent of industrial or accidental exposures in the former Soviet Union and charges that employment in the Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing Plant in West Cumbria, England has resulted in a gene-mediated increase in children of plant employees have served to keep in the public mind the issue of the genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation. The study of the genetic effects of the atomic bombs has moved from the gross morphological level of congenital malformations to the examination of DNA. However, were the need for such genetic studies to arise in the foreseeable future, despite this impressive progress in DNA-oriented systems, the documentation of congenital defect, genetic disease and child survival would still be an essential component of any future study. Whatever the geneticists may think, the phenotypic well-being and survival of children are still the primary indicators on which the public, who ultimately supports these studies, will base its judgement of risk. 28 refs.

  5. Exposure to an atomic bomb explosion is a risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Y; Takeishi, K; Guntani, A; Tsujita, E; Yoshinaga, K; Matsuyama, A; Hamatake, M; Maeda, T; Tsutsui, S; Matsuda, H; Ishida, T

    2015-01-01

    Esophagectomy, one of the most invasive of all gastrointestinal operations, is associated with a high frequency of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the atomic bomb explosion at Hiroshima in 1945 might be a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients. We thus reviewed the outcomes of esophagectomy in 31 atomic bomb survivors with esophageal cancer and 96 controls (also with cancer but without atomic bomb exposure). We compared the incidences of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Of the clinicopathological features studied, mean patient age was significantly higher in atomic bomb survivors than in controls. Of the postoperative complications noted, atomic bomb survivors experienced a longer mean period of endotracheal intubation and higher incidences of severe pulmonary complications, severe anastomotic leakage, and surgical site infection. The factors associated with in-hospital mortality were exposure to the atomic bomb explosion, pulmonary comorbidities, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Multivariate analysis revealed that exposure to the atomic bomb explosion was an independent significant preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Exposure to the atomic bomb explosion is thus a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer.

  6. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34(+)Lin(-)) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34(+)Lin(-) cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels.

  7. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A.; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin− ) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34+Lin− cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34+Lin− cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34+Lin− cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels. PMID:26720799

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma among atomic bomb survivors: significant interaction of radiation with hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gerald B; Mizuno, Terumi; Cologne, John B; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Saeko; Tokuoka, Shoji; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2003-02-10

    We conducted a nested case-control study within the cohort of Japanese survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings to study the joint effects of HBV and HCV with radiation on the risk of HCC. Among subjects who received autopsies during 1954-1988, we analyzed archival tissue samples for 238 pathologically confirmed HCC cases and 894 controls who died from diseases other than liver cancer. Using logistic regression and adjusting for potential confounders and other factors, we found a statistically significant, supermultiplicative interaction between A bomb radiation and HCV in the etiology of HCC. Compared to subjects who were negative for HCV and radiation, ORs of HCC for HCV-positive subjects showed a statistically significant, greater than multiplicative increase for liver irradiation exposures in the second (>0.018-0.186 Sv, p = 0.04) and third (>0.186 Sv, p = 0.05) tertiles of non-zero radiation exposure but not for first tertile exposure (>0-0.018 Sv, p = 0.86). Limiting analysis to subjects without cirrhosis, HCV-infected subjects were at 58.0-fold (95% CI 1.99- infinity ) increased risk of HCC per Sv of radiation exposure (p = 0.017), a supermultiplicative interaction between radiation and HCV that was not found among subjects with cirrhosis (p = 0.67). We found no evidence of interaction between HBV infection and radiation exposure in the etiology of HCC, regardless of cirrhosis status (p = 0.58). We conclude that among survivors of the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, subjects who were both HCV-positive and radiation-exposed were at a significantly, supermultiplicatively increased risk of HCC without concurrent cirrhosis.

  9. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  10. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow.

    PubMed

    Ichimaru, M; Ishimaru, T; Mikami, M; Matsunaga, M

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  11. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimaged risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure.

  12. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi |; Land, C.E. |; Tokuoka, Shoji; Akiba, Suminori; Nishimori, Issei; Soda, Midori

    1994-05-01

    An incidence survey among atomic bomb survivors identified 807 breast cancer cases, and 20 second breast cancers. As in earlier surveys of the Life Span Study population, a strongly linear radiation dose response was found, with the highest dose-specific excess relative risk (ERR) among survivors under 20 years old at the time of the bombings. Sixty-eight of the cases were under 10 years old at exposure, strengthening earlier reports of a marked excess risk associated with exposure during infancy and childhood. A much lower, but marginally significant, dose response was seen among women exposed at 40 years and older. It was not possible, however to discriminate statistically between age at exposure and age at observation for risk as the more important determinant of ERR per unit dose. A 13-fold ERR at 1 Sv was found for breast cancer occurring before age 35, compared to a 2-fold excess after age 35, among survivors exposed before age 20. This a posteriori finding, based on 27 exposed, known-dose, early-onset cases, suggests the possible existence of a susceptible genetics subgroup. Further studies, involving family histories of cancer and investigations at the molecular level, are suggested to determine whether such a subgroup exists. 41 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Echoing with the Voices of Victims: Reflection on Vietnamese Lessons on the Japanese Experiences of Atomic Bombs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Hien, Do Thi; Hang, Khong Thi Diem

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the case of a Vietnamese teacher whose conception of teaching changed greatly following a short but intensive series of lessons based on the Japanese experiences with atomic bombs. The following three issues are considered: 1) what types of efforts teachers should make to increase the depth of their lessons, on the basis of…

  14. Ending the War against Japan: Science, Morality, and the Atomic Bomb. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Don

    This unit presents students with dilemmas faced by U.S. policymakers with three distinct options for U.S. policy toward Japan. Background readings provide students with information on the U.S. decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan in 1945. By exploring a spectrum of alternatives, students gain a deeper understanding of the values underlying…

  15. "A Is for Atom, B Is for Bomb": Civil Defense in American Public Education, 1948-1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, JoAnne

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of civil defense education following World War II. Examines its effects on the public as atomic bomb drills became commonplace in schools which also served as fallout shelters. Concludes that inadequate portrayal of the horrors of nuclear war produced anger, fear, and disillusionment as the postwar generation matured.…

  16. Invited commentary: missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Grant, E J; Cullings, H M; Shore, R E

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study is a long-term epidemiologic cohort study of survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. In this issue of the Journal, Richardson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):562-568) suggest that those who died in the earliest years of follow-up were more likely to have a missing dose of radiation exposure assigned, leading to a bias in the radiation risk estimates. We show that nearly all members of the cohort had shielding information recorded before the beginning of follow-up and that much of the alleged bias that Richardson et al. describe simply reflects the geographic distribution of shielding conditions for which reliable dosimetry was impossible.

  17. ESR Dosimetry for Atomic Bomb Survivors Using Shell Buttons and Tooth Enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Miyajima, Junko; Okajima, Shunzo

    1984-09-01

    Atomic bomb radiation doses to humans at Nagasaki and Hiroshima are investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) from shell buttons and tooth enamel voluntarily supplied by survivors. A shell button gives a dose of 2.1± 0.2 Gy with ESR signals at g=2.001 and g=1.997 while the signal at g=1.997 for the tooth enamel of the same person is 1.9± 0.5 Gy. Other teeth show doses from about 0.5 Gy to 3 Gy. An apparent shielding converted to a concrete thickness is given using the T65D calculated in 1965. Teeth extracted during dental treatment should be preserved for cumulative radiation dosimetry.

  18. Effects of IL-10 haplotype and atomic bomb radiation exposure on gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Ito, Reiko; Cologne, John; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Imai, Kazue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Nakachi, Kei

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the cancers that reveal increased risk of mortality and incidence in atomic bomb survivors. The incidence of gastric cancer in the Life Span Study cohort of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) increased with radiation dose (gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy = 0.28) and remains high more than 65 years after exposure. To assess a possible role of gene-environment interaction, we examined the dose response for gastric cancer incidence based on immunosuppression-related IL-10 genotype, in a cohort study with 200 cancer cases (93 intestinal, 96 diffuse and 11 other types) among 4,690 atomic bomb survivors participating in an immunological substudy. Using a single haplotype block composed of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (comprising the major haplotype allele IL-10-ATTA and the minor haplotype allele IL-10-GGCG, which are categorized by IL-10 polymorphisms at -819A>G and -592T>G, +1177T>C and +1589A>G), multiplicative and additive models for joint effects of radiation and this IL-10 haplotyping were examined. The IL-10 minor haplotype allele(s) was a risk factor for intestinal type gastric cancer but not for diffuse type gastric cancer. Radiation was not associated with intestinal type gastric cancer. In diffuse type gastric cancer, the haplotype-specific excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation was statistically significant only in the major homozygote category of IL-10 (ERR = 0.46/Gy, P = 0.037), whereas estimated ERR for radiation with the minor IL-10 homozygotes was close to 0 and nonsignificant. Thus, the minor IL-10 haplotype might act to reduce the radiation related risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. The results suggest that this IL-10 haplotyping might be involved in development of radiation-associated gastric cancer of the diffuse type, and that IL-10 haplotypes may explain individual differences in the radiation-related risk of gastric cancer.

  19. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Y; Neel, J V; Schull, W J; Kato, H; Soda, M; Eto, R; Mabuchi, K

    1990-06-01

    The risk of cancer (incidence) prior to age 20 years has been determined for children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of (1) a cohort of 31,150 live-born children one or both of whose parents received greater than 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the atomic bombings (average conjoint gonad exposure 0.43 Sv) and (2) two suitable comparison groups totaling 41,066 children. Altogether, 43 malignant tumors were ascertained in the children of exposed parents, and 49 malignant tumors were ascertained in the two control groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0-5.0% of the tumors of childhood that were observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. There is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings that Nomura found in a mouse system.

  20. Findings of a recent ORNL review of dosimery for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    More detail than previously available on the leakage spectra of neutrons from the Nagasaki and Hiroshima weapons was provided by calculations made at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1976. Several neutron-transport calculations using these data predicted significantly less neutron exposure in Hiroshima than the current radiation-exposure estimates for survivors designated as T65D (or Tentative 1965 Doses). The difference was extremely important since recent studies using the T65D estimates have predicted a very large leukemia risk for neutrons at low exposure levels in Hiroshima. Some findings are that the neutron exposures in Hiroshima were probably less than the T65D estimates by factors varying from about four at a ground distance of 1000 m to eight at 2000 m, and the gamma-ray exposures were greater than the T65D estimates starting at about 1000 m and were probably larger by a factor of about three at 2000 m. In Nagasaki, the situation was reversed with respect to gamma rays, and the T65D estimates were higher, but the differences were small (i.e., about 20% at 1000 m and 30% at 2000 m). As a result, it now appears that leukemia and other late effects at lower exposure levels in Hiroshima were due largely to gamma rays rather than neutrons. This may not be true at higher exposure levels in Hiroshima, however. Any reanalysis of data on late effects among the atomic-bomb survivors should be regarded as highly speculative until some other important issues have been investigated in more detail. These issues include the anisotropy in neutron leakage from the Hiroshima weapon, the energy yield of the Hiroshima weapon, the shielding factors for houses, and the organ-dose factors for the atomic-bomb survivors.

  1. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.; Soda, M.; Eto, R.; Mabuchi, K. )

    1990-06-01

    The risk of cancer (incidence) prior to age 20 years has been determined for children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of (1) a cohort of 31,150 live-born children one or both of whose parents received greater than 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the atomic bombings (average conjoint gonad exposure 0.43 Sv) and (2) two suitable comparison groups totaling 41,066 children. Altogether, 43 malignant tumors were ascertained in the children of exposed parents, and 49 malignant tumors were ascertained in the two control groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0-5.0% of the tumors of childhood that were observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. There is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings that Nomura found in a mouse system.

  2. Effect of radiation on age at menopause among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ritsu; Shimizu, Yukiko; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Michiko; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Hayashi, Mikiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has been thought to induce ovarian failure and premature menopause. Proximally exposed female atomic bomb survivors were reported to experience menopause immediately after the exposure more often than those who were distally exposed. However, it remains unclear whether such effects were caused by physical injury and psychological trauma or by direct effects of radiation on the ovaries. The objective of this study was to see if there are any late health effects associated with the exposure to atomic bomb radiation in terms of age at menopause in a cohort of 21,259 Life Span Study female A-bomb survivors. Excess absolute rates (EAR) of natural and artificial menopause were estimated using Poisson regression. A linear threshold model with a knot at 0.40 Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.62] was the best fit for a dose response of natural menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years = 19.4/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.4, 30.8) and a linear threshold model with a knot at 0.22 Gy (95% CI: 0.14, 0.34) was the best fit for artificial menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years for females who were exposed at age of 20 years = 14.5/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.2, 20.1). Effect modification by attained age indicated that EARs peaked around 50 years of age for both natural and artificial menopause. Although effect modification by age at exposure was not significant for natural menopause, the EAR for artificial menopause tended to be larger in females exposed at young ages. On the cumulative incidence curve of natural menopause, the median age at menopause was 0.3 years younger in females exposed to radiation of 1 Gy compared with unexposed females. The median age was 1 year younger for combined natural and artificial menopause in the same comparison. In conclusion, age at menopause was thought to decrease with increasing radiation dose for both natural and artificial menopause occurring at least 5 years after the exposure.

  3. The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors: 1950 – 2001

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Preston, Dale L.; Soda, Midori; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kimura, Akiro; Kamada, Nanao; Dohy, Hiroo; Tomonaga, Masao; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Cullings, Harry M.; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    A marked increase in leukemia risks was the first and most striking late effect of radiation exposure seen among the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. This paper presents analyses of radiation effects on leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors updated 14 years since the last comprehensive report on these malignancies. These analyses make use of tumor- and leukemia-registry-based incidence data on 113,011 cohort members with 3.6 million person-years of follow-up from late 1950 through the end of 2001. In addition to a detailed analysis of the excess risk for all leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia (neither of which appear to be radiation-related), we present results for the major hematopoietic malignancy types: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Poisson regression methods were used to characterize the shape of the radiation dose response relationship and, to the extent the data allowed, to investigate variation in the excess risks with sex, attained age, exposure age, and time since exposure. In contrast to the previous report that focused on describing excess absolute rates, we considered both excess absolute rate (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) models and found that ERR models can often provide equivalent and sometimes more parsimonious descriptions of the excess risk than EAR models. The leukemia results indicated that there was a non-linear dose response for leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia, which varied markedly with time and age at exposure, with much of the evidence for this non-linearity arising from the acute myeloid leukemia risks. Although the leukemia excess risks generally declined with attained age or time since exposure, there was evidence

  4. The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors: 1950-2001.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Preston, Dale L; Soda, Midori; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kimura, Akiro; Kamada, Nanao; Dohy, Hiroo; Tomonaga, Masao; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Cullings, Harry M; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-03-01

    A marked increase in leukemia risks was the first and most striking late effect of radiation exposure seen among the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. This article presents analyses of radiation effects on leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors updated 14 years since the last comprehensive report on these malignancies. These analyses make use of tumor- and leukemia-registry based incidence data on 113,011 cohort members with 3.6 million person-years of follow-up from late 1950 through the end of 2001. In addition to a detailed analysis of the excess risk for all leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia (neither of which appear to be radiation-related), we present results for the major hematopoietic malignancy types: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Poisson regression methods were used to characterize the shape of the radiation dose-response relationship and, to the extent the data allowed, to investigate variation in the excess risks with gender, attained age, exposure age and time since exposure. In contrast to the previous report that focused on describing excess absolute rates, we considered both excess absolute rate (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) models and found that ERR models can often provide equivalent and sometimes more parsimonious descriptions of the excess risk than EAR models. The leukemia results indicated that there was a nonlinear dose response for leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia, which varied markedly with time and age at exposure, with much of the evidence for this nonlinearity arising from the acute myeloid leukemia risks. Although the leukemia excess risks generally declined with attained age or time since exposure, there was evidence

  5. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Methods Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. Results The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Conclusions Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide a

  6. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.

  7. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  8. (41)Ca in tooth enamel. Part I: a biological signature of neutron exposure in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Wallner, A; Rühm, W; Rugel, G; Nakamura, N; Arazi, A; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Maier, H J; Korschinek, G

    2010-08-01

    The detection of (41)Ca atoms in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry is suggested as a method capable of reconstructing thermal neutron exposures from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In general, (41)Ca atoms are produced via thermal neutron capture by stable (40)Ca. Thus any (41)Ca atoms present in the tooth enamel of the survivors would be due to neutron exposure from both natural sources and radiation from the bomb. Tooth samples from five survivors in a control group with negligible neutron exposure were used to investigate the natural (41)Ca content in tooth enamel, and 16 tooth samples from 13 survivors were used to estimate bomb-related neutron exposure. The results showed that the mean (41)Ca/Ca isotope ratio was (0.17 +/- 0.05) x 10(-14) in the control samples and increased to 2 x 10(-14) for survivors who were proximally exposed to the bomb. The (41)Ca/Ca ratios showed an inverse correlation with distance from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing, similar to values that have been derived from theoretical free-in-air thermal-neutron transport calculations. Given that gamma-ray doses were determined earlier for the same tooth samples by means of electron spin resonance (ESR, or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), these results can serve to validate neutron exposures that were calculated individually for the survivors but that had to incorporate a number of assumptions (e.g. shielding conditions for the survivors).

  9. Malignant breast tumors among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-74.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, M; Norman, J E; Asano, M; Tokuoka, S; Ezaki, H; Nishimori, I; Tsuji, Y

    1979-06-01

    For 1950-74, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche.

  10. The Organization of Hospital Services for Casualties due to the Bombing of Cities, Based on Experience Gained in Barcelona-with Special Reference to the Classification of Casualties: (Section of Orthopædics).

    PubMed

    Trueta, J

    1939-11-01

    (1) Difference between modern "total population" war and old-fashioned war. Difference between bombing of (a) military objectives and (b) civilian population.(a) The heavy bomb, e.g. 750 lb., with large fragments, upward throw, great destruction of buildings.(b) The light bomb with finger nail fragments, horizontal throw, great velocity.There is in addition the incendiary bomb, little used in Barcelona because the buildings are built of stone and concrete.(2) Aerial bombing of a town produces injuries needing more immediate hospitalization than most front-line wounds. At the same time it is possible in a town to organize rapid collection of patients and their immediate transfer to hospital.(3) Experience shows that it is most desirable to make this transfer of patients to hospital a primary consideration. On arrival they are "sorted" and minor injuries are given First Aid treatment and sent home, others are fully examined, classified, and dispatched to the theatres on a priority list, to nearby wards for resuscitation, to wards for rest, or sent on to plaster rooms for splintage, or to a neurosurgical centre.(4) First-aid posts in a town should be in hospitals and treat superficial injuries, &c., after primary sorting in the hospital reception room.(5) First-aid posts in outlying areas should carry out the same function for the same type of cases; all the more seriously wounded, including those with tiny penetrating wounds, should be dispatched without first aid treatment direct to hospital.(6) Hospital arrangements, for circulation of ambulances, for sorting, undressing of patients, docketing of valuables, &c.(7) Classification must be carried out by surgeons of experience and judgment. They must regard not only a standard priority list but the particular clinical picture and prognosis in each case.(8) The surgeon will furthermore draft the cases with regard to the special abilities of the surgical units available, e.g. chest, abdomen, or limbs.(9) Review of

  11. The Organization of Hospital Services for Casualties due to the Bombing of Cities, Based on Experience Gained in Barcelona-with Special Reference to the Classification of Casualties: (Section of Orthopaedics).

    PubMed

    Trueta, J

    1939-11-01

    (1) Difference between modern "total population" war and old-fashioned war. Difference between bombing of (a) military objectives and (b) civilian population.(a) The heavy bomb, e.g. 750 lb., with large fragments, upward throw, great destruction of buildings.(b) The light bomb with finger nail fragments, horizontal throw, great velocity.There is in addition the incendiary bomb, little used in Barcelona because the buildings are built of stone and concrete.(2) Aerial bombing of a town produces injuries needing more immediate hospitalization than most front-line wounds. At the same time it is possible in a town to organize rapid collection of patients and their immediate transfer to hospital.(3) Experience shows that it is most desirable to make this transfer of patients to hospital a primary consideration. On arrival they are "sorted" and minor injuries are given First Aid treatment and sent home, others are fully examined, classified, and dispatched to the theatres on a priority list, to nearby wards for resuscitation, to wards for rest, or sent on to plaster rooms for splintage, or to a neurosurgical centre.(4) First-aid posts in a town should be in hospitals and treat superficial injuries, &c., after primary sorting in the hospital reception room.(5) First-aid posts in outlying areas should carry out the same function for the same type of cases; all the more seriously wounded, including those with tiny penetrating wounds, should be dispatched without first aid treatment direct to hospital.(6) Hospital arrangements, for circulation of ambulances, for sorting, undressing of patients, docketing of valuables, &c.(7) Classification must be carried out by surgeons of experience and judgment. They must regard not only a standard priority list but the particular clinical picture and prognosis in each case.(8) The surgeon will furthermore draft the cases with regard to the special abilities of the surgical units available, e.g. chest, abdomen, or limbs.(9) Review of

  12. Measuring fast neutrons in Hiroshima at distances relevant to atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Rugel, G; Marchetti, A A; Rühm, W; Korschinek, G; McAninch, J E; Carroll, K; Egbert, S; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Martinelli, R; Wallner, A; Wallner, C

    2003-07-31

    Data from the survivors of the atomic bombs serve as the major basis for risk calculations of radiation-induced cancer in humans. A controversy has existed for almost two decades, however, concerning the possibility that neutron doses in Hiroshima may have been much larger than estimated. This controversy was based on measurements of radioisotopes activated by thermal neutrons that suggested much higher fluences at larger distances than expected. For fast neutrons, which contributed almost all the neutron dose, clear measurement validation has so far proved impossible at the large distances (900 to 1,500 m) most relevant to survivor locations. Here, the first results are reported for the detection of 63Ni produced predominantly by fast neutrons (above about 1 MeV) in copper samples from Hiroshima. This breakthrough was made possible by the development of chemical extraction methods and major improvements in the sensitivity of accelerator mass spectrometry for detection of 63Ni atoms (refs 8-11). When results are compared with 63Ni activation predicted by neutron doses for Hiroshima survivors, good agreement is observed at the distances most relevant to survivor data. These findings provide, for the first time, clear measurement validation of the neutron doses to survivors in Hiroshima.

  13. Atomic "bomb testing": the Elitzur-Vaidman experiment violates the Leggett-Garg inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robens, Carsten; Alt, Wolfgang; Emary, Clive; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Elitzur and Vaidman have proposed a measurement scheme that, based on the quantum superposition principle, allows one to detect the presence of an object—in a dramatic scenario, a bomb—without interacting with it. It was pointed out by Ghirardi that this interaction-free measurement scheme can be put in direct relation with falsification tests of the macro-realistic worldview. Here we have implemented the "bomb test" with a single atom trapped in a spin-dependent optical lattice to show explicitly a violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality—a quantitative criterion fulfilled by macro-realistic physical theories. To perform interaction-free measurements, we have implemented a novel measurement method that correlates spin and position of the atom. This method, which quantum mechanically entangles spin and position, finds general application for spin measurements, thereby avoiding the shortcomings inherent in the widely used push-out technique. Allowing decoherence to dominate the evolution of our system causes a transition from quantum to classical behavior in fulfillment of the Leggett-Garg inequality.

  14. Britain's bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, Richard

    2012-10-01

    On the 60th anniversary of Britain's first nuclear test, Richard Corfield explores how Operation Hurricane - the British effort to develop the atomic bomb in the 1940s and 1950s - compares with states such as Iran that today wish to have such devices.

  15. Clinical features and prognosis of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes who were exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Masatoshi; Iwanaga, Masako; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Jo, Tatsuro; Horio, Kensuke; Takasaki, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Yasuhisa; Tsushima, Hideki; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Imanishi, Daisuke; Taguchi, Jun; Sawayama, Yasushi; Hata, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    There is evidence that radiation exposure is a causative factor of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, little is known about whether radiation exposure is also a prognostic factor of MDS. We investigated the impact of radiation exposure on the prognosis of MDS in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors using the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised version (IPSS-R). Subjects were 140 patients with primary MDS diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 and evaluable for IPSS, IPSS-R, and exposure distance. Of those, 31 were exposed at <1.5 km, 35 at 1.5-2.99 km, and 74 at ≥3.0 km. By the end of March 2014, 47 patients (34%) progressed to overt leukemia and 106 (75.7%) died. By comparing with patients exposed at ≥3.0 km, those exposed at <1.5 km had significantly higher frequencies of abnormal chromosome (P = 0.02), intermediate/poor IPSS, and intermediate/poor/very poor IPSS-R cytogenetic category (P = 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively). As with de novo MDS, multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that cytogenetic abnormalities, IPSS karyotype, and IPSS-R cytogenetics were significantly associated with poor survival, and cumulative incidence of leukemic transformation in MDS among atomic bomb survivors, but exposure distance was not associated with any poor outcomes. These suggest that exposure to the greater dose of atomic bomb radiation is associated with developing poor cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, which might consequently lead to overt leukemia among atomic bomb survivors.

  16. 152Eu depth profiles in granite and concrete cores exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Shizuma, K; Iwatani, K; Hasai, H; Hoshi, M; Oka, T

    1997-06-01

    Two granite and two concrete core samples were obtained within 500 m from the hypocenter of the Hiroshima atomic bomb, and the depth profile of 152Eu was measured to evaluate the incident neutron spectrum. The granite cores were obtained from a pillar of the Motoyasu Bridge located 101 m from the hypocenter and from a granite rock in the Shirakami Shrine (379 m); the concrete cores were obtained from a gate in the Gokoku Shrine (398 m) and from a pillar top of the Hiroshima bank (250 m). The profiles of the specific activities of the cores were measured to a depth of 40 cm from the surface using low background germanium (Ge) spectrometers. According to the measured depth profiles, relaxation lengths of incident neutrons were derived as 13.6 cm for Motoyasu Bridge pillar (granite), 12.2 cm for Shirakami Shrine core (granite), and 9.6 cm for concrete cores of Gokoku Shrine and Hiroshima Bank. In addition, a comparison of the granite cores in Hiroshima showed good agreement with Nagasaki data. Present results indicates that the depth profile of 152Eu reflects incident neutrons not so high but in the epithermal region.

  17. Height reduction among prenatally exposed atomic-bomb survivors: A longitudinal study of growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Eiji; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Carter, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    Using a random coefficient regression model, sex-specific longitudinal analyses of height were made on 801 (392 male and 409 female) atomic-bomb survivors exposed in utero to detect dose effects on standing height. The data set resulted from repeated measurements of standing height of adolescents (age 10-18 y). The dose effect, if any, was assumed to be linear. Gestational ages at the time of radiation exposure were divided into trimesters. Since an earlier longitudinal data analysis has demonstrated radiation effects on height, the emphasis in this paper is on the interaction between dose and gestational age at exposure and radiation effects on the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt. For males, a cubic polynomial growth-curve model applied to the data was affected significantly by radiation. The dose by trimester interaction effect was not significant. The onset of adolescent growth spurt was estimated at about 13 y at 0 Gy. There was no effect of radiation on the adolescent growth spurt For females, a quadratic polynomial growth-curve model was fitted to the data. The dose effect was significant, while the dose by trimester interaction was again not significant. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Masao S; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-05-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to (239)Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation-environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking.

  19. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Masao S.; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the ‘integrate-and-fire’ algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to 239Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation–environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking. PMID:24366315

  20. Radiation-related brain damage and growth retardation among the prenatally exposed atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Otake, M; Schull, W J

    1998-08-01

    Many studies of prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have shown that exposure to ionizing radiation during gestation has harmful effects on the developing human brain. Data on the occurrence of severe mental retardation as well as variation in intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance show significant effects on those survivors exposed 8-15 and 16-25 weeks after ovulation. Studies of seizures, especially those without a known precipitating cause, also exhibit a radiation effect in survivors exposed 8-15 weeks after ovulation. The biologic events that subtend these abnormalities are still unclear. However, magnetic resonance imaging of the brains of some mentally retarded survivors has revealed a large region of abnormally situated gray matter, suggesting an abnormality in neuronal migration. Radiation can induce small head size as well as mental retardation, and a review of the relationship between small head size and anthropometric measurements, such as height, weight, sitting height and chest circumference, shows that individuals with small head size have smaller anthropometric measurements than normocephalics. This suggests that radiation-related small head size is related to a generalized growth retardation. Finally, the issue of a threshold in the occurrence of one or more of these effects, both heuristically and from a regulatory perspective, remains uncertain. Simple inspection of the data often suggests that a threshold may exist, but little statistical support for this impression can be advanced, except in the instance of mental retardation.

  1. Papillary Microcarcinoma of the Thyroid among Atomic Bomb Survivors: Tumor Characteristics and Radiation Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuzo; Lagarde, Frederic; Tsuda, Nobuo; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Preston, Dale L.; Koyama, Kojiro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ron, Elaine; Kodama, Kazunori; Tokuoka, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Background Radiation exposure is an established cause of clinical thyroid cancer, but little is known about radiation effects on papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) of the thyroid, a relatively common subclinical thyroid malignancy. Because the incidence of these small thyroid cancers has been increasing, it is important to better understand them and their relationship to radiation. Methods PMCs were identified in a subset of 7659 members of the Life Span Study of atomic-bomb survivors who had archived autopsy or surgical materials. We conducted a pathology review of these specimens and evaluated the histological features of the tumors and the association between PMCs and thyroid radiation dose. Results From 1958 to1995, 458 PMCs were detected among 313 study subjects. The majority of cancers exhibited pathologic features of papillary thyroid cancers. Overall, 81% of the PMCs were of the sclerosing variant and 91% were nonencapsulated, psammoma bodies occurred in 13% and calcification was observed in 23%. Over 95% had papillary or papillary-follicular architecture and most displayed nuclear overlap, clear nuclei, and nuclear grooves. Several of these features increased with increasing tumor size, but no association was found with radiation dose. A significant radiation-dose response was found for the prevalence of PMCs (estimated excess odds ratio/Gy=0.57; 95% CI: 0.01-1.55), with the excess risk observed primarily among females. Conclusion Low-to-moderate doses of ionizing radiation appears to increase the risk of thyroid PMCs, even when exposure occurs during adulthood. PMID:20120034

  2. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    PubMed

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required.

  3. Prevalence of uterine myoma detected by ultrasound examination in the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Sachiko |; Kodama, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Saeko

    1997-06-01

    Benign tumors of several organs have been demonstrated to occur as late effects of atomic bomb exposure, and a recent addition to the list of affected organs in the uterus. The increased incidence of uterine myoma noted in Radiation Effects Research Foundation (REFR) Adult Health Study Report 7, however, was based on self-reported information, optional gynecological examination and patient-requested ultrasound examination. Thus the possibility of dose-related bias in case detection was a serious concern. Therefore, the relationship between the prevalence of uterine myoma and dose to the uterus was examined after excluding as much bias as possible by asking all women who had undergone biennial examinations from December 1991 through December 1993 to undergo ultrasound examinations. Among 2506 female participants in Hiroshima, the uterus was visualized by ultrasound examination in 1190, and 238 were found to have uterine nodules. Multiple logistic analysis using Dosimetry System 1986 uterine doses revealed a significant dose response for the prevalence of uterine nodules. The odds ratio at 1 Gy was 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.31). It is unlikely that the observed relationship after adjusting for bladder filling, volume of the uterus, age and menopause status was the result of dose-related bias. These results support previous findings at RERF and provide further evidence that radiation exposure is one of the factors associated with uterine myoma. 28 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-11-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors.

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen and antibody, and antigen subtypes in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, K.; Kodama, K.; Akiba, S. |

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of previous studies showing an association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and radiation exposure in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, we investigated further the active state of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by incorporating tests of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) and HBsAg subtypes into our biennial health examinations. Among 6548 A-bomb survivors for whom HBsAg was assayed between July 1979 and July 1981, 129 persons were HBsAg positive. HBeAg and anti-HBe were measured in 104 of these persons and subtypes of HBsAg in 98 persons. Among those exposed to radiation (average liver dose 0.58 Sv), the odds ratio of HBsAg positivity tended to increase with radiation dose (P for trend = 0.024). The P values for association between the prevalence of HB e antigen and radiation dose were 0.094 and 0.17, respectively. The HB antigen subtype adr was predominant over other subtypes in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but the distribution of subtypes did not seem to differ in relation to radiation dose. These results suggested that A-bomb survivors remain in active state of HBV infection and that the mechanism(s) of seroconversion may be impaired. 29 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Neutron-induced 63Ni activity and microscopic observation of copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Shinozaki, Kenji; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Fast neutron activation data for 63Ni in copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb are important in evaluating neutron doses to the survivors. Up to until now, accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting methods have been applied in 63Ni measurements and data were accumulated within 1500 m from the hypocenter. The slope of the activation curve versus distance shows reasonable agreement with the calculation result, however, data near the hypocenter are scarce. In the present work, two copper samples obtained from the Atomic bomb dome (155 m from the hypocenter) and the Bank of Japan building (392 m) were utilized in 63Ni beta-ray measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. Additionally, microscopic observation of the metal surfaces was performed for the first time. Only upper limit of 63Ni production was obtained for copper sample of the Atomic bomb dome. The result of the 63Ni measurement for Bank of Japan building show reasonable agreement with the AMS measurement and to fast neutron activation calculations based on the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) neutrons.

  7. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-03-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension {le}1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Was Nazi Germany on the Road to an Atomic Bomb after all?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2006-04-01

    The story of Germany's efforts to develop a nuclear weapon during World War II is a much written about and contentious subject. However there has been agreement on one thing: by the end of the War the Germans had not achieved and were nowhere near to building a bomb. The dispute therefore has been about why Germany did not succeed. Now, from Germany, comes a challenge to this truth, in the provocative book Hitlers Bombe by Rainer Karlsch. The bombshell in Hitler's Bombe is the assertion that German scientists developed and tested a primitive fission and fusion nuclear weapon in March 1945. Karlsch bases this claim on testimony of witnesses in 1962, previously secret Russian documents, and the results of soil tests carried out in 2004 and 2005. However the physics is very murky and it seems out of the question that Germany had enough Uranium 235 or produced any Plutonium for a bomb. Hitlers Bombe also makes other, better documented and more credible revisionist assertions. These include the claim that the Nazis did continue to try to build a bomb after 1942 and that not Werner Heisenberg, but Kurt Diebner and Walther Gerlach were then the leaders of the German Uranium project. Karlsch's book therefore deserves more attention from physicists and historians than it has received in the United States.

  9. Curvilinearity in the dose-response curve for cancer in Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed Central

    Little, M P; Muirhead, C R

    1997-01-01

    Recently released data on cancer incidence in Japanese atomic bomb survivors are analyzed using a variety of relative risk models that take account of errors in estimates of dose to assess the dose response at low doses. If a relative risk model with a threshold (the dose response is assumed linear above the threshold) is fitted to solid cancer data, a threshold of more than about 0.2 Sv is inconsistent with the data, whereas these data are consistent with there being no threshold. Among solid cancer subtypes there is strong evidence for a possible dose threshold only for nonmelanoma skin cancer. If a relative risk model with a threshold (the dose response is assumed linear above the threshold) is fitted to the leukemia data, a threshold of more than about 0.3 Sv is inconsistent with the data. In contrast to the estimates for the threshold level for solid cancer data, the best estimate for the threshold level in the leukemia data is significantly different from zero even when allowance is made for a possible quadratic term in the dose response, albeit at borderline levels of statistical significance (p = 0.04). There is little evidence for curvature in the leukemia dose response from 0.2 Sv upwards. However, possible underestimation of the errors in the estimates of the dose threshold as a result of confounding and uncertainties not taken into account in the analysis, together with the lack of biological plausibility of a threshold, makes interpretation of this finding questionable. PMID:9467073

  10. Relationship between radiation exposure and risk of second primary cancers among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Li, Christopher I; Nishi, Nobuo; McDougall, Jean A; Semmens, Erin O; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Soda, Midori; Sakata, Ritsu; Hayashi, Mikiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Davis, Scott; Kodama, Kazunori; Kopecky, Kenneth J

    2010-09-15

    Radiation exposure is related to risk of numerous types of cancer, but relatively little is known about its effect on risk of multiple primary cancers. Using follow-up data through 2002 from 77,752 Japanese atomic bomb survivors, we identified 14,048 participants diagnosed with a first primary cancer, of whom 1,088 were diagnosed with a second primary cancer. Relationships between radiation exposure and risks of first and second primary cancers were quantified using Poisson regression. There was a similar linear dose-response relationship between radiation exposure and risks of both first and second primary solid tumors [excess relative risk (ERR)/Gy = 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.57-0.74 and ERR/Gy = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33-0.80, respectively] and risk of both first and second primary leukemias (ERR/Gy = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.78-3.78 and ERR/Gy = 3.65; 95% CI, 0.96-10.70, respectively). Background incidence rates were higher for second solid cancers, compared with first solid cancers, until about age 70 years for men and 80 years for women (P < 0.0001), but radiation-related ERRs did not differ between first and second primary solid cancers (P = 0.70). Radiation dose was most strongly related to risk of solid tumors that are radiation-sensitive including second primary lung, colon, female breast, thyroid, and bladder cancers. Radiation exposure confers equally high relative risks of second primary cancers as first primary cancers. Radiation is a potent carcinogen and those with substantial exposures who are diagnosed with a first primary cancer should be carefully screened for second primary cancers, particularly for cancers that are radiation-sensitive.

  11. Missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Wing, Steve; Cole, Stephen R

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors is an important source of risk estimates used to inform radiation protection and compensation. Interviews with survivors in the 1950s and 1960s provided information needed to estimate radiation doses for survivors proximal to ground zero. Because of a lack of interview or the complexity of shielding, doses are missing for 7,058 of the 68,119 proximal survivors. Recent analyses excluded people with missing doses, and despite the protracted collection of interview information necessary to estimate some survivors' doses, defined start of follow-up as October 1, 1950, for everyone. We describe the prevalence of missing doses and its association with mortality, distance from hypocenter, city, age, and sex. Missing doses were more common among Nagasaki residents than among Hiroshima residents (prevalence ratio = 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 2.14), among people who were closer to ground zero than among those who were far from it, among people who were younger at enrollment than among those who were older, and among males than among females (prevalence ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.28). Missing dose was associated with all-cancer and leukemia mortality, particularly during the first years of follow-up (all-cancer rate ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations.

  12. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses.

  13. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1–4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3–1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0–1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  14. Missing Doses in the Life Span Study of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David B.; Wing, Steve; Cole, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    The Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors is an important source of risk estimates used to inform radiation protection and compensation. Interviews with survivors in the 1950s and 1960s provided information needed to estimate radiation doses for survivors proximal to ground zero. Because of a lack of interview or the complexity of shielding, doses are missing for 7,058 of the 68,119 proximal survivors. Recent analyses excluded people with missing doses, and despite the protracted collection of interview information necessary to estimate some survivors' doses, defined start of follow-up as October 1, 1950, for everyone. We describe the prevalence of missing doses and its association with mortality, distance from hypocenter, city, age, and sex. Missing doses were more common among Nagasaki residents than among Hiroshima residents (prevalence ratio = 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 2.14), among people who were closer to ground zero than among those who were far from it, among people who were younger at enrollment than among those who were older, and among males than among females (prevalence ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.28). Missing dose was associated with all-cancer and leukemia mortality, particularly during the first years of follow-up (all-cancer rate ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations. PMID:23429722

  15. Skin cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors from 1958 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Hiromi; Misumi, Munechika; Kishikawa, Masao; Iseki, Masachika; Yonehara, Shuji; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Soda, Midori; Tokuoka, Shoji; Shimizu, Yukiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2014-05-01

    The radiation risk of skin cancer by histological types has been evaluated in the atomic bomb survivors. We examined 80,158 of the 120,321 cohort members who had their radiation dose estimated by the latest dosimetry system (DS02). Potential skin tumors diagnosed from 1958 to 1996 were reviewed by a panel of pathologists, and radiation risk of the first primary skin cancer was analyzed by histological types using a Poisson regression model. A significant excess relative risk (ERR) of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (n = 123) was estimated at 1 Gy (0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26, 1.6) for those age 30 at exposure and age 70 at observation based on a linear-threshold model with a threshold dose of 0.63 Gy (95% CI: 0.32, 0.89) and a slope of 2.0 (95% CI: 0.69, 4.3). The estimated risks were 15, 5.7, 1.3 and 0.9 for age at exposure of 0-9, 10-19, 20-39, over 40 years, respectively, and the risk increased 11% with each one-year decrease in age at exposure. The ERR for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ (n = 64) using a linear model was estimated as 0.71 (95% CI: 0.063, 1.9). However, there were no significant dose responses for malignant melanoma (n = 10), SCC (n = 114), Paget disease (n = 10) or other skin cancers (n = 15). The significant linear radiation risk for BCC with a threshold at 0.63 Gy suggested that the basal cells of the epidermis had a threshold sensitivity to ionizing radiation, especially for young persons at the time of exposure.

  16. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Lönn, Stefan; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Egawa, Hiromi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2010-07-01

    While radiation increases the risk of lung cancer among members of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors, there are still important questions about the nature of its interaction with smoking, the predominant cause of lung cancer. Among 105,404 LSS subjects, 1,803 primary lung cancer incident cases were identified for the period 1958-1999. Individual smoking history information and the latest radiation dose estimates were used to investigate the joint effects of radiation and smoking on lung cancer rates using Poisson grouped survival regression methods. Relative to never-smokers, lung cancer risks increased with the amount and duration of smoking and decreased with time since quitting smoking at any level of radiation exposure. Models assuming generalized interactions of smoking and radiation fit markedly better than simple additive or multiplicative interaction models. The joint effect appeared to be super-multiplicative for light/moderate smokers, with a rapid increase in excess risk with smoking intensity up to about 10 cigarettes per day, but additive or sub-additive for heavy smokers smoking a pack or more per day, with little indication of any radiation-associated excess risk. The gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy of lung cancer (at age 70 after radiation exposure at 30) was estimated as 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-1.00) for nonsmokers with a female : male ratio of 3.1. About one-third of the lung cancer cases in this cohort were estimated to be attributable to smoking while about 7% were associated with radiation. The joint effect of smoking and radiation on lung cancer in the LSS is dependent on smoking intensity and is best described by the generalized interaction model rather than a simple additive or multiplicative model.

  17. Solid Cancer Incidence among the Life Span Study of Atomic Bomb Survivors: 1958-2009.

    PubMed

    Grant, Eric J; Brenner, Alina; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sakata, Ritsu; Sadakane, Atsuko; Utada, Mai; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Milder, Caitlin M; Soda, Midori; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2017-03-20

    This is the third analysis of solid cancer incidence among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, adding eleven years of follow-up data since the previously reported analysis. For this analysis, several changes and improvements were implemented, including updated dose estimates (DS02R1) and adjustment for smoking. Here, we focus on all solid cancers in aggregate. The eligible cohort included 105,444 subjects who were alive and had no known history of cancer at the start of follow-up. A total of 80,205 subjects had individual dose estimates and 25,239 were not in either city at the time of the bombings. The follow-up period was 1958-2009, providing 3,079,484 person-years of follow-up. Cases were identified by linkage with population-based Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cancer Registries. Poisson regression methods were used to elucidate the nature of the radiation-associated risks per Gy of weighted absorbed colon dose using both excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models adjusted for smoking. Risk estimates were reported for a person exposed at age 30 years with attained age of 70 years. In this study, 22,538 incident first primary solid cancer cases were identified, of which 992 were associated with radiation exposure. There were 5,918 cases (26%) that occurred in the 11 years (1999-2009) since the previously reported study. For females, the dose response was consistent with linearity with an estimated ERR of 0.64 per Gy (95% CI: 0.52 to 0.77). For males, significant upward curvature over the full dose range as well as restricted dose ranges was observed and therefore, a linear-quadratic model was used, which resulted in an ERR of 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.28) at 1 Gy and an ERR of 0.010 (95% CI: -0.0003 to 0.021) at 0.1 Gy. The shape of the ERR dose response was significantly different among males and females (P = 0.02). While there was a significant decrease in the ERR with increasing attained age, this

  18. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14-911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18-137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype-genotype analyses, the CD14-911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18-137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors.

  19. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14–911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18–137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype–genotype analyses, the CD14–911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18–137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors. PMID:27081544

  20. Age-at-exposure effects on risk estimates for non-cancer mortality in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Muirhead, Colin R; Hunter, Nezahat

    2005-12-01

    Statistically significant increases in non-cancer disease mortality with radiation dose have been observed among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The increasing trends arise particularly for diseases of the circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems. Rates for survivors exposed to a dose of 1 Sv are elevated by about 10%, a smaller relative increase than that for cancer. The aetiology of this increased risk is not yet understood. Neither animal nor human studies have found clear evidence for excess non-cancer mortality at the lower range of doses received by A-bomb survivors. In this paper, we examine the age and time patterns of excess risks in the A-bomb survivors. The results suggest that the excess relative risk of non-cancer disease mortality might be highest for exposure at ages 30-49 years, and that those exposed at ages 0-29 years might have a very low excess relative risk compared with those exposed at older ages. The differences in excess relative risk for different age-at-exposure groups imply that the dose response relationships for non-cancer disease mortality need to be modelled with adjustment for age-at-exposure.

  1. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors.

  2. RET/PTC rearrangements preferentially occurred in papillary thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors exposed to high radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Ito, Reiko; Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Taga, Masataka; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John; Soda, Midori; Arihiro, Koji; Fujihara, Megumu; Abe, Kuniko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro; Yasui, Wataru; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei

    2008-09-01

    A major early event in papillary thyroid carcinogenesis is constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway caused by alterations of a single gene, typically rearrangements of the RET and NTRK1 genes or point mutations in the BRAF and RAS genes. In childhood papillary thyroid cancer, regardless of history of radiation exposure, RET/PTC rearrangements are a major event. Conversely, in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer among the general population, the most common molecular event is BRAF(V600E) point mutation, not RET/PTC rearrangements. To clarify which gene alteration, chromosome aberration, or point mutation preferentially occurs in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer, we have performed molecular analyses on RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF(V600E) mutation in 71 papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors (including 21 cases not exposed to atomic bomb radiation), in relation to radiation dose as well as time elapsed since atomic bomb radiation exposure. RET/PTC rearrangements showed significantly increased frequency with increased radiation dose (P(trend) = 0.002). In contrast, BRAF(V600E) mutation was less frequent in cases exposed to higher radiation dose (P(trend) < 0.001). Papillary thyroid cancer subjects harboring RET/PTC rearrangements developed this cancer earlier than did cases with BRAF(V600E) mutation (P = 0.03). These findings were confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. These results suggest that RET/PTC rearrangements play an important role in radiation-associated thyroid carcinogenesis.

  3. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part III: Leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma, 1950-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.L.; Izumi, Shizue; Kusumi, Shizuyo ); Tomonaga, Masao ); Ron, E. Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima ); Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao ); Dohy, Hiroo ); Matsui, Tatsuki ); Nonaka, Hiroaki )

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data on the incidence of leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors during the period from late 1950 through the end of 1987 (93,696 survivors accounting for 2,778,000 person-years). These analyses add 9 additional years of follow-up for leukemia and 12 for myeloma to that in the last comprehensive reports on these diseases. This is the first analysis of the lymphoma incidence data in the cohort. Using both the Leukemia Registry and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, a total of 290 leukemia, 229 lymphoma and 73 myeloma cases were identified. The primary analyses were restricted to first primary tumors diagnosed among residents of the cities or surrounding areas with Dosimetry Systems 1986 dose estimates between 0 and 4 Gy kerma (231 leukemias, 208 lymphomas and 62 myelomas). Analyses focused on time-dependent models for the excess absolute risk. Separate analyses were carried out for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and adult T-cell leukemia in this population. There was strong evidence of radiation-induced risks for all subtypes except ATL, and there were significant subtype differences with respect to the effects of age at exposure and sex and in the temporal pattern of risk. The AML dose-response function was nonlinear, whereas there was no evidence against linearity for the other subtypes. When averaged over the follow-up period, the excess absolute risk (EAR) estimates (in cases per 10[sup 4] PY Sv) for the leukemia subtypes were 0.6, 1.1 and 0.9 for ALL, AML and CML, respectively. The corresponding estimated average excess relative risks at 1 Sv are 9.1, 3.3 and 6.2, respectively. There was some evidence of an increased risk of lymphoma in males (EAR = 0.6 cases per 10[sup 4] PY Sv) but no evidence of any excess in females. 64 refs., 14 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Congenital malformations, stillbirths, and early mortality among the children of atomic bomb survivors: a reanalysis.

    PubMed

    Otake, M; Schull, W J; Neel, J V

    1990-04-01

    Of all the data sets pertinent to the estimation of the genetic risks to humans following exposure to ionizing radiation, potentially the most informative is that composed of the cohort of children born to atomic bomb survivors. We present here an analysis of the relationship between parental exposure history and untoward pregnancy outcomes within this cohort, using to the fullest extent possible the recently revised estimates of the doses received by their parents, the so-called DS86 doses. Available for study are 70,073 terminations, but DS86 doses have not been or presently cannot be computed on the parents of 14,770. The frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes, defined as a pregnancy terminating in a child with a major congenital malformation, and/or stillborn, and/or dying in the first 14 days of life, increases with combined (summed) parental dose, albeit not significantly so. Under a standard linear model, when the sample of observations is restricted to those children whose parents have been assigned the newly established DS86 doses (n = 55,303), ignoring concomitant sources of variation and assuming a neutron RBE of 20, the estimated increase per sievert in the predicted frequency of untoward outcomes is 0.00354 (+/- 0.00343). After adjustment for concomitant sources of variation, the estimated increase per sievert in the proportion of such births is 0.00422 (+/- 0.00342) if the neutron RBE is assumed to be 20. A "one-hit" model with appropriate adjustments for extraneous sources of variation results in an almost identical value, namely, 0.00412 (+/- 0.00364). When the sample is extended to include parents lacking the full array of dose parameters necessary to calculate the DS86 dose, but sufficient for an empirical conversion of the previously employed T65DR dose system to its DS86 equivalent, we find under the linear model that the estimated increase per sievert in untoward pregnancy outcomes is some 31% higher than that published previously, 0

  5. Cataract in atomic bomb survivors based on a threshold model and the occurrence of severe epilation

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Masanori; Neriishi, K.; Schull, W.J.; Neriishi, Kazuo; Schull, W.J.

    1996-09-01

    This report re-examines the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of cataracts among 1742 a-bomb survivors seen in the years 1963-1964 for whom the degree of epilation and Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) doses are known. Of these, 67 had cataracts.

  6. Estimates of Radiation Effects on Cancer Risks in the Mayak Worker, Techa River and Atomic Bomb Survivor Studies.

    PubMed

    Preston, Dale L; Sokolnikov, Mikhail E; Krestinina, Lyudmila Yu; Stram, Daniel O

    2016-11-24

    For almost 50 y, the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivor studies has been the primary source of the quantitative estimates of cancer and non-cancer risks that form the basis of international radiation protection standards. However, the long-term follow-up and extensive individual dose reconstruction for the Russian Mayak worker cohort (MWC) and Techa River cohort (TRC) are providing quantitative information about radiation effects on cancer risks that complement the atomic bomb survivor-based risk estimates. The MWC, which includes ~26 000 men and women who began working at Mayak between 1948 and 1982, is the primary source for estimates of the effects of plutonium on cancer risks and also provides information on the effects of low-dose rate external gamma exposures. The TRC consists of ~30 000 men and women of all ages who received low-dose-rate, low-dose exposures as a consequence of Mayak's release of radioactive material into the Techa River. The TRC data are of interest because the exposures are broadly similar to those experienced by populations exposed as a consequence of nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl. In this presentation, it is described the strengths and limitations of these three cohorts, outline and compare recent solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates and discussed why information from the Mayak and Techa River studies might play a role in the development and refinement of the radiation risk estimates that form the basis for radiation protection standards.

  7. Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on the DS86 dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, M.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1983 (93.4%) of the 2124 atomic bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. The DS86 kerma neutron component for Hiroshima survivors is much smaller than its comparable T65DR component, but still 4.2-fold higher (0.38 Gy at 6 Gy) than that in Nagasaki (0.09 Gy at 6 Gy). Thus, if the eye is especially sensitive to neutrons, there may yet be some useful information on their effects, particularly in Hiroshima. The dose-response relationship has been evaluated as a function of the separately estimated gamma-ray and neutron doses. Among several different dose-response models without and with two thresholds, we have selected as the best model the one with the smallest x2 or the largest log likelihood value associated with the goodness of fit. The best fit is a linear gamma-linear neutron relationship which assumes different thresholds for the two types of radiation. Both gamma and neutron regression coefficients for the best fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated DS86 eye organ dose.

  8. Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on the DS86 dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Otake, M; Schull, W J

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1983 (93.4%) of the 2124 atomic bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. The DS86 kerma neutron component for Hiroshima survivors is much smaller than its comparable T65DR component, but still 4.2-fold higher (0.38 Gy at 6 Gy) than that in Nagasaki (0.09 Gy at 6 Gy). Thus, if the eye is especially sensitive to neutrons, there may yet be some useful information on their effects, particularly in Hiroshima. The dose-response relationship has been evaluated as a function of the separately estimated gamma-ray and neutron doses. Among several different dose-response models without and with two thresholds, we have selected as the best model the one with the smallest x2 or the largest log likelihood value associated with the goodness of fit. The best fit is a linear gamma-linear neutron relationship which assumes different thresholds for the two types of radiation. Both gamma and neutron regression coefficients for the best fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated DS86 eye organ dose.

  9. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  10. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  11. Why 159°?: a story about the dropping of the Hiroshima atom bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prunty, Sean L.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the evasive manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot of the Enola Gay aircraft following the dropping of the first uranium bomb. The pilot was instructed to make a 159° turn following the bomb’s release in order to acquire the greatest distance from the point at which the bomb explodes. Accordingly, the objective here is to investigate why the angle should be exactly 159°. The optimum flight-path to maximize the distance from the detonation point is analysed by considering the escape or exit angle taken by the aircraft following a turning-manoeuvre that points it directly away from the detonation site. A range of escape angles are predicted based on the requirement to exit the turning radius prior to detonation. By using information that appeared in a historical account of the event regarding the manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot following the release of the bomb, an estimate is made of the escape angle. Despite the fact that the result shows reasonable agreement with the value of 159°, some uncertainty is expressed as to the close coincidence obtained. In addition, the location of the aircraft and the time of arrival of the shock wave following detonation are also briefly discussed.

  12. Radiation-related mortality among offspring of atomic bomb survivors: a half-century of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Shizue; Suyama, Akihiko; Koyama, Kojiro

    2003-11-01

    Our objective was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic bomb radiation has led to increased cancer and/or noncancer mortality rates among the offspring. We studied 41,010 subjects born from May 1946 through December 1984 (i.e., conceived between 1 month and 38 years after the bombings) and surviving for at least 1 year. One or both parents were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombings and childbirth. We analyzed mortality data from 1946 to 1999 using the Japanese family registry system by Cox regression model and examined the effects of paternal and maternal irradiation with adjustment for city, sex, year of birth and parental age at childbirth. During follow-up, 314 cancer deaths and 1,125 noncancer disease deaths occurred. The mean age of living subjects was 45.7 years. Median doses were 143 mSv for 12,722 exposed fathers and 132 mSv for 7,726 exposed mothers. Cancer and noncancer mortality rates were no higher for subjects with exposed parents (5+ mSv or unknown dose) than for reference subjects (0-4 mSv), and mortality did not increase with increasing dose. For subjects with both parents exposed, the adjusted hazard ratios were 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.46] for noncancer and 0.96 (95% CI 0.59-1.55) for cancer. This was true of deaths occurring both before and after 20 years of age. However, because of uncertainty due to the small number of deaths and relatively young ages of subjects, we cannot rule out an increase in disease mortality at this time.

  13. Somatic cell mutations at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes of atomic bomb survivors: Implications for radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Tanabe, Kazumi; Hirai, Yuko; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Umeki, Shigeko

    1996-07-01

    To clarify the relationship between somatic cell mutations and radiation exposure, the frequency of hemizygous mutant erythrocytes at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus was measured by flow cytometry for 1,226 heterozygous atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in HIroshima and Nagasaki. For statistical analysis, both GPA mutant frequency and radiation dose were log-transformed to normalize skewed distributions of these variables. The GPA mutant frequency increased slightly but significantly with age at testing and with the number of cigarettes smoked. Also, mutant frequency was significantly higher in males than in females even with adjustment for smoking and was higher to Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. These characteristics of background GPA mutant frequency are qualitatively similar to those of background solid cancer incidence or mortality obtained from previous epidemiological studies of survivors. An analysis of the mutant frequency dose response using a descriptive model showed that the doubling dose is about 1.20 Sv [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.56], whereas the minimum dose for detecting a significant increase in mutant frequency is about 0.24 Sv (95% CI: 0.041-0.51). No significant effects of sex, city or age at the time of exposure on the dose response were detected. Interestingly, the doubling dose of the GPA mutant frequency was similar to that of solid cancer incidence in A-bomb survivors. This observation is in line with the hypothesis that radiation-induced somatic cell mutations are the major cause of excess cancer risk after radiation. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Cancer incidence in children and young adults did not increase relative to parental exposure to atomic bombs.

    PubMed

    Izumi, S; Koyama, K; Soda, M; Suyama, A

    2003-11-03

    We have examined whether parental exposure to atomic bomb radiation has led to increased cancer risks among the offspring. We studied 40,487 subjects born from May 1946 through December 1984 who were cancer-free in January 1958. One or both parents were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombing and for childbirth. Using population-based tumor registry data we analyzed cancer incidence data from 1958 to 1997 by Cox regression models, and we examined the effects of both paternal and maternal irradiation with adjustment for city, sex, birth year, and migration. During follow-up, 575 solid tumor cases and 68 hematopoietic tumor cases were diagnosed. Median age at diagnosis was 39.7 years. Median doses were 143 millisierverts for 15,992 exposed (5+ millisierverts or unknown dose) fathers and 133 millisierverts for 10,066 exposed mothers. Cancer incidence was no higher for subjects with exposed parents than for the reference subjects (0-4 millisierverts), nor did the incidence rates increase with increasing dose. For 3568 subjects with two exposed parents, the adjusted risk ratio for all cancer was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.70-1.36). Because of the small number of cases, however, we cannot exclude an increase in cancer incidence at this time.

  15. Metabolic Profile as a Potential Modifier of Long-Term Radiation Effects on Peripheral Lymphocyte Subsets in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hakoda, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomonori; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-09-01

    Immune system impairments reflected by the composition and function of circulating lymphocytes are still observed in atomic bomb survivors, and metabolic abnormalities including altered blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels have also been detected in such survivors. Based on closely related features of immune and metabolic profiles of individuals, we investigated the hypothesis that long-term effects of radiation exposure on lymphocyte subsets might be modified by metabolic profiles in 3,113 atomic bomb survivors who participated in health examinations at the Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in 2000-2002. The lymphocyte subsets analyzed involved T-, B- and NK-cell subsets, and their percentages in the lymphocyte fraction were assessed using flow cytometry. Health examinations included metabolic indicators, body mass index, serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin A1c, as well as diabetes and fatty liver diagnoses. Standard regression analyses indicated that several metabolic indicators of obesity/related disease, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, were positively associated with type-1 helper T- and B-cell percentages but were inversely associated with naïve CD4 T and NK cells. A regression analysis adjusted for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol revealed a radiation dose relationship with increasing NK-cell percentage. Additionally, an interaction effect was suggested between radiation dose and C-reactive protein on B-cell percentage with a negative coefficient of the interaction term. Collectively, these findings suggest that radiation exposure and subsequent metabolic profile changes, potentially in relationship to obesity-related inflammation, lead to such long-term alterations in lymphocyte subset composition. Because this study is based on cross-sectional and exploratory analyses, the implications regarding radiation exposure, metabolic

  16. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinogenesis in the atomic-bomb survivor population: p53 and PTCH gene alterations.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Terumi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Kishikawa, Masao; Nakashima, Eiji; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Iwamoto, Keisuke S

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that UV exposure from sunlight is the major etiology for skin cancers, both melanocytic and non-melanocytic. However, the radiation-related risk for skin cancer among atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is primarily derived from the excess risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), with no demonstrable excess in squamous cell carcinoma or melanoma. The BCCs in this cohort are therefore unusual in being potentially attributable to two types of radiation-UV and ionizing (IR). BCCs have been associated with PTCH and/or p53 tumor suppressor gene alterations. To investigate the roles of these genes in relation to IR and UV exposures, we analyzed both genes in BCC samples from atomic bomb survivors. We examined 47 tumors, of which 70% had non-silent base-substitution p53 mutations independent of IR or UV exposure. However, the distribution of mutation type depends on UV and/or IR exposure. For example, C-to-T transitions at CpG sites adjacent to pyrimidine-pyrimidine (PyPy) sequences were more prevalent in tumors from UV-exposed than UV-shielded body areas and CpG-mutations at non-PyPy sequences were more prevalent in tumors from UV-shielded body areas with high-IR (>or=1 Gy) than low-IR (<0.2 Gy) exposure. And notably, although p53 deletion-frequencies demonstrated no IR-dose associations, deletions at the PTCH locus were more frequent (79% versus 44%) in tumors with high-IR than low-IR exposure. Moreover, 60% of high-IR tumors harbored both p53 and PTCH abnormalities compared with 23% of low-IR tumors. Therefore, alteration of both genes is likely to play a role in radiation-induced basal cell carcinogenesis.

  17. Rearranged Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Gene in Adult-Onset Papillary Thyroid Cancer Amongst Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously noted that among atomic bomb survivors (ABS), the relative frequency of cases of adult papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC) was significantly greater in those with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. In contrast, the frequency of PTC cases with point mutations (mainly BRAFV600E) was significantly lower in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. We also found that among ABS, the frequency of PTC cases with no detectable gene alterations in RET, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1), BRAF, or RAS was significantly higher in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. However, in ABS with PTC, the relationship between the presence of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fused with other gene partners and radiation exposure has received little study. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the relative frequency of rearranged ALK in ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, would be greater in those having relatively higher radiation exposures. Methods The 105 subjects in the study were drawn from the Life Span Study cohort of ABS of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were diagnosed with PTC between 1956 and 1993. Seventy-nine were exposed (>0 mGy), and 26 were not exposed to A-bomb radiation. In the 25 ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, we examined archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PTC specimens for rearrangement of ALK using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′ RACE). Results We found rearranged ALK in 10 of 19 radiation-exposed PTC cases, but none among 6 patients with PTC with no radiation exposure. In addition, solid/trabecular-like architecture in PTC was closely associated with ALK

  18. Feasibility of using 236U to reconstruct close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, A; Kawai, K; Steier, P; Imanaka, T; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Zhumadilov, K; Yamamoto, M

    2010-10-15

    The first results on the feasibility of using (236)U to reconstruct the level and spatial distribution of close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima A-bomb are reported, coupled with the use of global fallout (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The results for global fallout (236)U in soil samples (0-30cm) from Ishikawa prefecture showed that the deposition density of (236)U from the global fallout can be accurately evaluated using AMS. All deposited (236)U, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu appeared to have been recovered using 30-cm cores. It was also noted from the depth profiles for (236)U/(239+240)Pu and (236)U/(137)Cs ratios that the downward behavior of (236)U in the soil was apparently similar to that of (239+240)Pu, while the (137)Cs was liable to be retained in upper layers compared with (236)U and (239+240)Pu. The accumulated levels were 1.78×10(13)atomsm(-2) for (236)U, 4340Bqm(-2) for (137)Cs and 141Bqm(-2) for (239+240)Pu. The ratios of (236)U/(137)Cs and (236)U/(239+240)Pu were (4.10±0.12)×10(9) and (1.26±0.04)×10(11)atomsBq(-1), respectively. Results of (236)U, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu measurements for the seven soil cores (0-30cm) from Hiroshima were discussed on the basis of ratios of (236)U/(137)Cs and (236)U/(239+240)Pu by comparing with those from the background area in Ishikawa, indicating that the global fallout dominates the current level of (236)U accumulation in soil in the Black-rain area around Hiroshima after the Hiroshima bomb, and the contribution of the close-in fallout (236)U produced by the Hiroshima A-bomb seems difficult to observe.

  19. (41)Ca in Tooth Enamel. Part II: A means for retrospective biological neutron dosimetry in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Wallner, A; Cullings, H; Egbert, S D; El-Faramawy, N; Faestermann, T; Kaul, D; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Nakamura, N; Roberts, J; Rugel, G

    2010-08-01

    (41)Ca is produced mainly by absorption of low-energy neutrons on stable (40)Ca. We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure (41)Ca in enamel of 16 teeth from 13 atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to the bomb within 1.2 km from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. In our accompanying paper (Wallner et al., Radiat. Res. 174, 000-000, 2010), we reported that the background-corrected (41)Ca/Ca ratio decreased from 19.5 x 10(-15) to 2.8 x 10(-15) with increasing distance from the hypocenter. Here we show that the measured ratios are in good correlation with gamma-ray doses assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the same enamel samples, and agree well with calculated ratios based on either the current Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) or more customized dose estimates where the regression slope as obtained from an errors-in-variables linear model was about 0.85. The calculated DS02 neutron dose to the survivors was about 10 to 80 mGy. The low-energy neutrons responsible for (41)Ca activation contributed variably to the total neutron dose depending on the shielding conditions. Namely, the contribution was smaller (10%) when shielding conditions were lighter (e.g., outside far away from a single house) and was larger (26%) when they were heavier (e.g., in or close to several houses) because of local moderation of neutrons by shielding materials. We conclude that AMS is useful for verifying calculated neutron doses under mixed exposure conditions with gamma rays.

  20. Isotope ratios of (235)U/(238)U and (137)Cs/(235)U in black rain streaks on plaster wall caused by fallout of the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Fujikawa, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    Radiological investigations of fallout from the atomic bomb detonated over Hiroshima city on 6 August 1945 are important to estimate doses for inhabitants. The authors have analyzed the concentrations of (137)Cs, (235)U, and (238)U in streaks of black rain caused by the atomic bomb using gamma-ray spectroscopy and the ICP-QMS method. The black rain streaks were deposited on a plaster wall of a house located 3.7 km west of the hypocenter that has been kept in the same condition as after the rainfall. Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) was detected from black streak samples. Concentration of (137)Cs in the black rain streaks is twice as high as fallout deposition on the ground in this area. A (235)U/(238)U atom ratio of 0.00887 was found, which is higher than the natural ratio, reflecting the fact that the atomic bomb "Little Boy" used enriched uranium as fuel. The ratio (137)Cs/(235)U was determined to be 0.0091, which is about eight times higher than the estimated ratio of 0.00113 based on the fission yield.

  1. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors, Report 14, 1950-2003: an overview of cancer and noncancer diseases.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Suyama, Akihiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Soda, Midori; Grant, Eric J; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Kodama, Kazunori

    2012-03-01

    This is the 14th report in a series of periodic general reports on mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation to investigate the late health effects of the radiation from the atomic bombs. During the period 1950-2003, 58% of the 86,611 LSS cohort members with DS02 dose estimates have died. The 6 years of additional follow-up since the previous report provide substantially more information at longer periods after radiation exposure (17% more cancer deaths), especially among those under age 10 at exposure (58% more deaths). Poisson regression methods were used to investigate the magnitude of the radiation-associated risks, the shape of the dose response, and effect modification by gender, age at exposure, and attained age. The risk of all causes of death was positively associated with radiation dose. Importantly, for solid cancers the additive radiation risk (i.e., excess cancer cases per 10(4) person-years per Gy) continues to increase throughout life with a linear dose-response relationship. The sex-averaged excess relative risk per Gy was 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 0.53] for all solid cancer at age 70 years after exposure at age 30 based on a linear model. The risk increased by about 29% per decade decrease in age at exposure (95% CI: 17%, 41%). The estimated lowest dose range with a significant ERR for all solid cancer was 0 to 0.20 Gy, and a formal dose-threshold analysis indicated no threshold; i.e., zero dose was the best estimate of the threshold. The risk of cancer mortality increased significantly for most major sites, including stomach, lung, liver, colon, breast, gallbladder, esophagus, bladder and ovary, whereas rectum, pancreas, uterus, prostate and kidney parenchyma did not have significantly increased risks. An increased risk of non-neoplastic diseases including the circulatory, respiratory and digestive systems was observed, but whether these are causal

  2. Effects of radiation on the longitudinal trends of total serum cholesterol levels in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Wong, F L; Yamada, M; Sasaki, H; Kodama, K; Hosoda, Y

    1999-06-01

    The effects of radiation on the long-term trends of the total serum cholesterol levels of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were examined using data collected in the Adult Health Study over a 28-year period (1958-1986). The growth-curve method was used to model the longitudinal age-dependent changes in cholesterol levels. For each sex, temporal trends of cholesterol levels were characterized with respect to age, body mass index, city and birth year. We then examined whether the temporal trends differed by radiation dose. We showed that the mean growth curve of cholesterol levels for the irradiated subjects were significantly higher than that for the unirradiated subjects, and that the increase was greater for women than for men. No difference in dose response was detected between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An increased mean level of cholesterol was evident for irradiated women in general, but a notable increase was apparent in males only for the youngest birth cohort of 1935-1945. The difference in the mean cholesterol levels between the irradiated and unirradiated subjects diminished past 70 years of age. It is not known whether this is due to natural progression or is an artifact of nonrandom variation in the rate of participation in the examinations. The maximum predicted increase at 1 Gy for women occurred at age 52 years for the 1930 cohort: 2.5 mg/dl (95% CI 1.6-3.3 mg/dl) for Hiroshima and 2.3 mg/dl (95% CI 1.5-3.1 mg/dl) for Nagasaki. The corresponding increase for men occurred at age 29 years for the 1940 cohort: 1.6 mg/dl (95% CI 0.4-2.8) for Hiroshima and 1.4 mg/dl (95% CI 0.3-2.6) for Nagasaki. Controlling for cigarette smoking did not alter the dose-response relationship. Although the difference in the mean growth curves of the irradiated and unirradiated groups was statistically significant, there was a considerable overlap in the individual growth curves of the two groups. The significant sex difference and the greater magnitude of

  3. Noncancer disease incidence in the atomic bomb survivors: 1958-1986.

    PubMed

    Wong, F L; Yamada, M; Sasaki, H; Kodama, K; Akiba, S; Shimaoka, K; Hosoda, Y

    1993-09-01

    Using the longitudinal data of the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort collected during 1958-1986, we examined for the first time the relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the incidence of 19 nonmalignant disorders in the A-bomb survivors. Affected individuals were ascertained through the three-digit codes of the International Classification of Diseases which are encoded in the AHS database subsequent to diagnoses made on the basis of general laboratory tests, physical examinations, and history-taking conducted during biennial AHS examinations. The disease onset time was estimated using the mid-point between the AHS examination data when the disease was initially reported and the previously attended disease-free examination date. Dosimetry System 86 organ doses judged to be most appropriate were used. Tests of dose effects were performed assuming a linear relative risk model with stratified background incidence. For the entire study period, significant excess risk was detected for uterine myoma (P < 0.001), chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (P = 0.006), and thyroid disease (P < 0.0001), defined broadly as the presence of one or more of certain noncancerous thyroid conditions. The incidence of myocardial infarction was shown to be increased (P = 0.03) in later years (1968-1986) among the younger heavily exposed AHS subjects, confirming the results of the recent Life Span Study (LSS) noncancer mortality report on coronary heart disease. The findings for uterine myoma may serve as additional evidence indicating benign tumor growth as a possible consequence of radiation exposure. Our results indicating the involvement of radiation in the development of liver diseases are consistent with the report of increased mortality from liver cirrhosis with radiation dose in the LSS cohort. An effect of age at exposure was detected for nonmalignant thyroid disease (P = 0.02), with an increased risk for those exposed who were under 20 years of age, but not for older

  4. Defence Science Research, Higher Education and the Australian Quest for the Atomic Bomb, 1945-60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the efforts of the Australian government to create an atomic research and development program after World War II. Describes initial cooperation with Britain and the push for the transformation of Australian higher and secondary education in service of national scientific development. Discusses effects of the end of Commonwealth…

  5. Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Eiji )

    1994-04-01

    Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  7. Long-term trend of thyroid cancer risk among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors: 60 years after exposure.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Ito, Masahiro; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Soda, Midori; Ozasa, Kotaro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-03-01

    Thyroid cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation in childhood and adolescence is a topic of public concern. To characterize the long-term temporal trend and age-at-exposure variation in the radiation-induced risk of thyroid cancer, we analyzed thyroid cancer incidence data for the period from 1958 through 2005 among 105,401 members of the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. During the follow-up period, 371 thyroid cancer cases (excluding those with microcarcinoma with a diameter <10 mm) were identified as a first primary among the eligible subjects. Using a linear dose-response model, the excess relative risk of thyroid cancer at 1 Gy of radiation exposure was estimated as 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-2.70) at age 60 after acute exposure at age 10. The risk decreased sharply with increasing age-at-exposure and there was little evidence of increased thyroid cancer rates for those exposed after age 20. About 36% of the thyroid cancer cases among those exposed before age 20 were estimated to be attributable to radiation exposure. While the magnitude of the excess risk has decreased with increasing attained age or time since exposure, the excess thyroid cancer risk associated with childhood exposure has persisted for >50 years after exposure.

  8. Long-term trend of thyroid cancer risk among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors: 60 years after exposure

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Ito, Masahiro; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Soda, Midori; Ozasa, Kotaro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation in childhood and adolescence is a topic of public concern. To characterize the long-term temporal trend and age-at-exposure variation in the radiation-induced risk of thyroid cancer, we analyzed thyroid cancer incidence data for the period from 1958 through 2005 among 105,401 members of the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. During the follow-up period, 371 thyroid cancer cases (excluding those with microcarcinoma with a diameter <10 mm) were identified as a first primary among the eligible subjects. Using a linear dose–response model, the excess relative risk of thyroid cancer at 1 Gy of radiation exposure was estimated as 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.59–2.70) at age 60 after acute exposure at age 10. The risk decreased sharply with increasing age-at-exposure and there was little evidence of increased thyroid cancer rates for those exposed after age 20. About 36% of the thyroid cancer cases among those exposed before age 20 were estimated to be attributable to radiation exposure. While the magnitude of the excess risk has decreased with increasing attained age or time since exposure, the excess thyroid cancer risk associated with childhood exposure has persisted for >50 years after exposure PMID:22847218

  9. The children of parents exposed to atomic bombs: estimates of the genetic doubling dose of radiation for humans.

    PubMed

    Neel, J V; Schull, W J; Awa, A A; Satoh, C; Kato, H; Otake, M; Yoshimoto, Y

    1990-06-01

    The data collected in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the past 40 years on the children of survivors of the atomic bombings and on the children of a suitable control population are analyzed on the basis of the newly revised estimates of radiation doses. No statistically significant effects emerge with respect to eight different indicators. Since, however, it may confidently be assumed some mutations were induced, we have taken the data at face value and calculated the minimal gametic doubling doses of acute radiation for the individual indicators at various probability levels. An effort has also been made to calculate the most probable doubling dose for the indicators combined. The latter value is between 1.7 and 2.2 Sv. It is suggested the appropriate figure for chronic radiation would be between 3.4 and 4.5 Sv. These estimates suggest humans are less sensitive to the genetic effects of radiation than has been assumed on the basis of past extrapolations from experiments with mice.

  10. The children of parents exposed to atomic bombs: Estimates of the genetic doubling dose of radiation for humans

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Awa, A.A.; Satoh, C.; Kato, H.; Otake, M.; Yoshimoto, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    The data collected in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the past 40 years on the children of survivors of the atomic bombings and on the children of a suitable control population are analyzed on the basis of the newly revised estimates of radiation doses. No statistically significant effects emerge with respect to eight different indicators. Since, however, it may confidently be assumed some mutations were induced, we have taken the data at face value and calculated the minimal gametic doubling doses of acute radiation for the individual indicators at various probability levels. An effort has also been made to calculate the most probable doubling dose for the indicators combined. The latter value is between 1.7 and 2.2 Sv. It is suggested the appropriate figure for chronic radiation would be between 3.4 and 4.5 Sv. These estimates suggest humans are less sensitive to the genetic effects of radiation than has been assumed on the basis of past extrapolations from experiments with mice.

  11. The children of parents exposed to atomic bombs: estimates of the genetic doubling dose of radiation for humans.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, J V; Schull, W J; Awa, A A; Satoh, C; Kato, H; Otake, M; Yoshimoto, Y

    1990-01-01

    The data collected in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the past 40 years on the children of survivors of the atomic bombings and on the children of a suitable control population are analyzed on the basis of the newly revised estimates of radiation doses. No statistically significant effects emerge with respect to eight different indicators. Since, however, it may confidently be assumed some mutations were induced, we have taken the data at face value and calculated the minimal gametic doubling doses of acute radiation for the individual indicators at various probability levels. An effort has also been made to calculate the most probable doubling dose for the indicators combined. The latter value is between 1.7 and 2.2 Sv. It is suggested the appropriate figure for chronic radiation would be between 3.4 and 4.5 Sv. These estimates suggest humans are less sensitive to the genetic effects of radiation than has been assumed on the basis of past extrapolations from experiments with mice. PMID:2339701

  12. Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, J.N.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-08-01

    Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period.

  13. Estimation of beta-ray skin dose from exposure to fission fallout from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2012-03-01

    Beta-ray skin dose due to the fission fallout from the Hiroshima atomic bomb is potentially related to the epilation in the black rain area. The absorbed dose to the skin from beta-rays emitted by fission fallout has been estimated for an initial ¹³⁷Cs deposition of 1 kBq m⁻² on the ground at 0.5 h after the explosion. The estimated skin dose takes into account both external exposure from fission fallout radionuclides uniformly distributed in 1 mm of soil on the surface of the ground and from a 26 μm thickness of contaminated soil on the skin, using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4C. The cumulative skin dose for 1 month after the explosion is taken as the representative value. The estimated skin dose for an initial ¹³⁷Cs deposition of 1 kBq m⁻² was determined to be about 500 mSv.

  14. Long term effects of radiation exposure on telomere lengths of leukocytes and its associated biomarkers among atomic-bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Ana; Shterev, Ivo; Geyer, Susan; Shi, Alvin; Hu, Yiqun; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Maki, Mayumi; Hayashi, Ikue; Furukawa, Kyoji; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-ping; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a major source of cellular damage and the immediate cellular response to IR has been well characterized. But the long-term impact of IR on cell function and its relationship with aging are not known. Here, we examined the IR effects on telomere length and other biomarkers 50 to 68 years post-exposure (two time points per person) in survivors of the atomic bombing at Hiroshima during WWII. We found that telomere length of leukocytes was inversely correlated with the dose of IR (p=0.008), and this effect was primarily found in survivors who were exposed at younger ages; specifically those <12 years old (p=0.0004). Although a dose-related retardation of telomere shortening with age was observed in the cross-sectional data, longitudinal follow-up after 11 years did not show IR exposure-related alteration of the rate of telomere shortening with age. In addition, IR diminished the associations between telomere length and selected aging biomarkers that were observed in survivors with no dose. These included uric acid metabolism, cytokines, and blood T cell counts. These findings showed long-lasting detrimental effects of IR on telomere length of leukocytes in both dose- and age-at-exposure dependent manner, and on alterations of biomarkers with aging. PMID:27102155

  15. Serum TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroidal disorders in atomic bomb survivors exposed in youth: 30-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, I.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Sato, K.; Hamilton, H.B.; Kawamoto, S.; Izumi, M.; Nagataki, S.

    1987-07-01

    Follow-up examinations to determine the frequency of thyroidal disorders were conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were less than 20 yr of age at the time of exposure to the atomic bomb. Concentrations of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), and anti-TG antibody 30 yr after exposure were also determined. Nontoxic uninodular goiter was found in 13 cases of the 100 + rad exposed group (n = 477) and in three cases of the nonexposed group (n = 501). The prevalence in the 100+ rad exposed group was significantly higher (chi-squared = 6.584, p less than 0.01). Thyroid cancer was found in eight exposed cases, all of whom were in the 100+ rad group, and the prevalence was significantly greater (chi-squared = 7.919, p less than 0.01). Regardless of the presence or absence of thyroid disorders, serum TSH and TG levels were not statistically different between the 100 rad + exposed and nonexposed groups. Although hypothyroidism was found in 23 of the total cases, there was no correlation between its development and exposure to ionizing irradiation.

  16. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children, October 1950 - May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Delongchamp, R.R.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1997-03-01

    Cancer mortality for the period from October 1950 through May 1992 was analyzed in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Risk estimates for this group were also compared to those for survivors who were less than 6 years old at the time of exposure. The cohorts studied include 807 in utero survivors and 5,545 persons exposed during childhood with all members of both groups having estimated doses of at least 0.01 Sv. The comparison group includes 10,453 persons with little (<0.01 Sv) or no exposure. Analyses were limited mainly to cancer deaths occurring between the ages of 17 and 46. Only 10 cancer deaths were observed among persons exposed in utero. However, there is a significant dose response with an estimate of excess relative risk per sievert (ERR/Sv) of 2.1 (90% confidence interval of 0.2 to 6.0). This estimate does not differ significantly from that for survivors exposed during the first 5 years of life. The cancer deaths among those exposed during the first 5 years of life. 23 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  17. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    DOE PAGES

    Nakashima, Eiji; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-01-01

    For youngmore » atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total) effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), α 1 globulin, and α 2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α 2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.« less

  18. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data.

    PubMed

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-05-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure.

  19. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure.

  20. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-ping; Young, Lauren F.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34 + Lin−) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. PMID:27169377

  1. Dose-responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Schöllnberger, H; Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Walsh, L

    2012-05-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose-response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the model description of the data. Instead of applying the usual approach of identifying one preferred model for each data set, a set of plausible models was applied, and a sub-set of non-nested models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. Subsequently, this sub-set of non-nested models was used to perform multi-model inference (MMI), an innovative method of mathematically combining different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. This procedure thereby produces more reliable risk estimates based on a more comprehensive appraisal of model uncertainties. For CVD, MMI yielded a weak dose-response (with a risk estimate of about one-third of the LNT model) below a step at 0.6 Gy and a stronger dose-response at higher doses. The calculated risk estimates are consistent with zero risk below this threshold-dose. For mortalities related to cardiovascular diseases, an LNT-type dose-response was found with risk estimates consistent with zero risk below 2.2 Gy based on 90% confidence intervals. The MMI approach described here resolves a dilemma in practical radiation protection when one is forced to select between models with profoundly different dose-responses for risk estimates.

  2. Issues in the comparison of risk estimates for the population in the Techa River region and atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kossenko, M M; Degteva, M O; Vyushkova, O V; Preston, D L; Mabuchi, K; Kozheurov, V P

    1997-07-01

    Plutonium production in the former Soviet Union began in 1949 at the Mayak Production Association located between the cities of Chelyabinsk and Ekaterinbourg in the southern Ural mountains about 1200 km east to Moscow. During the first few years of Mayak's operation, almost 30,000 people living on the banks of the Techa River received significant internal and external exposures as a consequence of the release of large quantities of radioactive materials from Mayak. Studies of levels of radioactive contamination and health effects in this population began in the early 1950s. A systematic follow-up of a fixed cohort that includes all people who were living in Techa River villages in 1949 was begun about 30 years ago. In this paper we describe the Techa River cohort, outline the nature of the exposures and discuss the status of follow-up for the period from 1950 through 1989. While noting the limitations of the current epidemiological follow-up data, we also compare the demographic and mortality structure of the Techa River cohort with the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. It is seen that, despite a number of limitations, the current data suggest that the risks of mortality from leukemia and other cancers increase with increasing radiation dose in the Techa River cohort. This finding suggests that, with continued improvements in the quality of the follow-up and dosimetry, the Techa River cohort has the potential to provide quantitative estimates of the risks of chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposures for an unselected general population that will be an important complement to the estimates based on the Life Span Study that are used as the primary basis for numerical assessments of radiation risk.

  3. Search for mutations altering protein charge and/or function in children of atomic bomb survivors: final report.

    PubMed

    Neel, J V; Satoh, C; Goriki, K; Asakawa, J; Fujita, M; Takahashi, N; Kageoka, T; Hazama, R

    1988-05-01

    A sample of (1) children whose parents had been proximally exposed (i.e., less than 2,000 m from the hypocenter) at the time of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and (2) a suitable comparison group have been examined for the occurrence of mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility or activity of a series of 30 proteins. The examination of the equivalent of 667,404 locus products in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded three mutations altering electrophoretic mobility; the corresponding figure for the comparison group was three mutations in 466,881 tests. The examination of a subset of 60,529 locus products for loss of enzyme activity in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded one mutation; no mutations were encountered in 61,741 determinations on the children of the comparison group. When these two series are compared, the mutation rate observed in the children of proximally exposed persons is thus 0.60 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% confidence intervals between 0.2 and 1.5 x 10(-5), and that in the comparison children is 0.64 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% intervals between 0.1 and 1.9 x 10(-5). The average conjoint gonad doses for the proximally exposed parents are estimated to be 0.437 Gy of gamma radiation and 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation. If a relative biological effectiveness of 20 is assigned to the neutron radiation, the combined total gonad dose for the parents becomes 0.477 Sv. (Organ absorbed doses are expressed in gray [1 Gy = 100 rad]; where dose is a mixture of gamma and neutron radiation, it is necessary because of the differing relative biological effectiveness of gamma and neutron radiation to express the combined gamma-neutron gonad exposures in sieverts [1 Sv = 100 rem]).

  4. Search for mutations altering protein charge and/or function in children of atomic bomb survivors: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, C.; Goriki, K.; Asakawa, J.; Fujita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kageoka, T.; Hazama, R.

    1988-05-01

    A sample of (1) children whose parents had been proximally exposed (i.e., less than 2000 m from the hypocenter) at the time of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and (2) a suitable comparison group have been examined for the occurrence of mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility or activity of a series of 30 proteins. The examination of the equivalent of 667,404 locus products in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded three mutations altering electrophoretic mobility; the corresponding figure for the comparison group was three mutations in 466,881 tests. The examination of a subset of 60,529 locus products for loss of enzyme activity in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded one mutation; no mutations were encountered in 61,741 determinations on the children of the comparison group. When these two series are compared, the mutation rate observed in the children of proximally exposed persons is thus 0.60 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% confidence intervals between 0.2 and 1.5 x 10(-5), and that in the comparison children is 0.64 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% intervals between 0.1 and 1.9 x 10(-5). The average conjoint gonad doses for the proximally exposed parents are estimated to be 0.437 Gy of gamma radiation and 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation. If a relative biological effectiveness of 20 is assigned to the neutron radiation, the combined total gonad dose for the parents becomes 0.477 Sv. (Organ absorbed doses are expressed in gray (1 Gy = 100 rad); where dose is a mixture of gamma and neutron radiation, it is necessary because of the differing relative biological effectiveness of gamma and neutron radiation to express the combined gamma-neutron gonad exposures in sieverts (1 Sv = 100 rem)).

  5. Analysis of the incidence of solid cancer among atomic bomb survivors using a two-stage model of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kai, M; Luebeck, E G; Moolgavkar, S H

    1997-10-01

    A two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis was used to analyze the incidence of cancer of the lung, stomach and colon in the cohort of atomic bomb survivors. We fitted the model assuming that acute exposure to radiation results in the creation of initiated cells that are added to the pool of spontaneously initiated cells. In the cancers analyzed, with the exception of lung cancer in females, we found no evidence that radiation-induced initiation was dependent upon age at exposure. In contrast, we found that spontaneous initiation was dependent upon age at exposure in the cancers analyzed except stomach cancer among males. Because exposure to radiation in this cohort occurred at the same time for all members of the cohort, age at exposure is exactly correlated with birth cohort, and the dependence of spontaneous initiation on age at exposure is a reflection of the cohort effects seen in these cancers in Japan. Even without a dependence of radiation-induced initiation on age at exposure, the two-stage model can explain the temporal behavior of the excess relative risk with age at exposure and time since exposure. In particular, the model predicts that excess relative risk is highest among those exposed as children. Moreover, since radiation-induced initiation is not higher among those exposed as children, the excess relative risk in this group is not due to an inherently higher sensitivity to radiation. Our biologically based approach provides another perspective on the temporal behavior of risk after acute exposure to ionizing radiation.

  6. Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the Hiroshima atomic bomb at distances of 1.27 to 1.46 kilometers from the hypocenter.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Y; Nagatomo, T; Hoshi, M; Kondo, S

    1987-04-01

    Sixteen ornamental tile samples were collected from 1982 to 1983 from the rooftops of two buildings at Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan. Quartz grains 50-150 microns in size extracted from the samples were analyzed for their thermoluminescence (TL) intensities. Conversion of TL intensity to 60Co gamma exposure resulted in the following estimates: 40.5 to 27.6 mC kg-1 (157 to 107 R) for five samples (one each) collected from five sites at distances of 1.27 to 1.34 km from the hypocenter of the atomic bomb detonated in 1945; 23.7 +/- 1.4 mC kg-1 (92 +/- 5 R) for three samples from one site at a distance of 1.39 km; 21.4 to 17.0 mC kg-1 (83 to 66 R) for three samples (one sample per site) from three sites at distances of 1.40 to 1.43 km; 19.8 +/- 1.3 mC kg-1 (77 +/- 5 R) for four samples from one site at a distance of 1.45 km; and 13.2 mC kg-1 (51 R) for one sample at a distance of 1.46 km. At face value, these estimates are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than previous estimates based on the tentative 1965 radiation dose estimates for atomic bomb survivors (a tentative dosimetry model proposed in 1965), but agree within +32% to -13% (+15% on the average) with recent estimates using modern computational techniques using an improved model of the atomic bomb explosion.

  7. Lung, Laryngeal and Other Respiratory Cancer Incidence among Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors: An Updated Analysis from 1958 through 2009.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Preston, Dale L; Pierce, Donald A; Grant, Eric; Brenner, Alina V; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Utada, Mai; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2017-03-21

    The Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors is comprised of a large, population-based cohort offering one of the best opportunities to study the relationship between exposure to radiation and incidence of respiratory cancers. Risks of lung, laryngeal and other cancers of the respiratory system were evaluated among 105,444 LSS subjects followed from 1958 to 2009. During this period, we identified 2,446 lung, 180 laryngeal and 115 other respiratory (trachea, mediastinum and other ill-defined sites) first primary incident cancer cases. With the addition of ten years in follow-up, radiation dose estimates were improved, smoking data was revised and migration information was updated. Based on this more updated follow-up period, we investigated the joint effects of radiation and smoking using Poisson regression methods. For nonsmokers, the sex-averaged excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) for lung cancer (at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) was estimated as 0.81 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.18) with a female-to-male ratio of 2.83. There was no evidence of curvature in the radiation dose-response relationship overall or by sex. Lung cancer risks increased with pack-years of smoking and decreased with time since quitting smoking at any level of radiation exposure. Similar to the previous reported study, which followed cohort members through 1999, the ERR/Gy for lung cancer was significantly higher for low-to-moderate smokers than for heavy smokers, with little evidence of any radiation-associated excess risk in heavy smokers. Of 2,446 lung cancer cases, 113 (5%) could be attributed to radiation exposure. Of the 1,165 lung cancer cases occurring among smokers, 886 (76%) could be attributed to smoking. While there was little evidence of a radiation effect for laryngeal cancer, a nonsignificantly elevated risk of other respiratory cancers was observed. However, significant smoking effects were observed for both laryngeal (ERR per 50 pack-years = 23.57; 95% CI: 8

  8. Benchmark test of neutron transport calculations: Indium, nickel, gold, europium, and cobalt activation with and without energy moderated fission neutrons by iron simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hiraoka, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Oka, Takamitsu

    1994-10-01

    A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a bare- and energy-moderated {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source which was obtained by transmission through 10-cm-thick iron. An iron plate was used to simulate the effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing. This test includes the activation of indium and nickel for fast neutrons and gold, europium, and cobalt for thermal and epithermal neutrons, which were inserted in the moderators. The latter two activations are also to validate {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co activity data obtained from the atomic bomb-exposed specimens collected at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The neutron moderators used were Lucite and Nylon 6 and the total thickness of each moderator was 60 cm or 65 cm. Measured activity data (reaction yield) of the neutron-irradiated detectors in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which corresponds to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For all of the indium, nickel, and gold activity data, the measured and calculated values agreed within 25%, and the corresponding values for europium and cobalt were within 40%. From this study, the MCNP code was found to be accurate enough for the bare- and energy-moderated {sup 252}Cf neutron activation calculations of these elements using moderators containing hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. 18 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Benchmark test of neutron transport calculations: indium, nickel, gold, europium, and cobalt activation with and without energy moderated fission neutrons by iron simulating the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing.

    PubMed

    Iwatani, K; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Hiraoka, M; Hayakawa, N; Oka, T; Hasai, H

    1994-10-01

    A benchmark test of the Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code system (MCNP) was performed using a bare- and energy-moderated 252Cf fission neutron source which was obtained by transmission through 10-cm-thick iron. An iron plate was used to simulate the effect of the Hiroshima atomic bomb casing. This test includes the activation of indium and nickel for fast neutrons and gold, europium, and cobalt for thermal and epithermal neutrons, which were inserted in the moderators. The latter two activations are also to validate 152Eu and 60Co activity data obtained from the atomic bomb-exposed specimens collected at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The neutron moderators used were Lucite and Nylon 6 and the total thickness of each moderator was 60 cm or 65 cm. Measured activity data (reaction yield) of the neutron-irradiated detectors in these moderators decreased to about 1/1,000th or 1/10,000th, which corresponds to about 1,500 m ground distance from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. For all of the indium, nickel, and gold activity data, the measured and calculated values agreed within 25%, and the corresponding values for europium and cobalt were within 40%. From this study, the MCNP code was found to be accurate enough for the bare- and energy-moderated 252Cf neutron activation calculations of these elements using moderators containing hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.

  10. A man, a plan, a bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki justified? Was it necessary? Were there other - better - options available, either to the scientists who built the bombs or the generals who ordered them dropped? Nearly 70 years later, there are still no settled answers to these questions, and Tom Morton-Smith's new play Oppenheimer wisely avoids dwelling on the "what ifs" of atomic history.

  11. Effects of radiation and lifestyle factors on risks of urothelial carcinoma in the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Preston, D L; Suyama, A; Shimizu, Y; Sakata, R; Sugiyama, H; Pham, T-M; Cologne, J; Yamada, M; De Roos, A J; Kopecky, K J; Porter, M P; Seixas, N; Davis, S

    2012-07-01

    Among the Life Span Study (LSS) of Atomic-bomb survivors, recent estimates showed that unspecified bladder cancer had high radiation sensitivity with a notably high female-to-male excess relative risk (ERR) per radiation dose ratio and were the only sites for which the ERR did not decrease with attained age. These findings, however, did not consider lifestyle factors, which could potentially confound or modify the risk estimates. This study estimated the radiation risks of the most prevalent subtype of urinary tract cancer, urothelial carcinoma, while accounting for smoking, consumption of fruit, vegetables, alcohol and level of education (a surrogate for socioeconomic status). Eligible study subjects included 105,402 (males = 42,890) LSS members who were cancer-free in 1958 and had estimated radiation doses. Members were censored due to loss of follow-up, incident cancer of another type, death, or the end of calendar year 2001. Surveys (by mail or clinical interview) gathered lifestyle data periodically for 1963-1991. There were 63,827 participants in one or more survey. Five hundred seventy-three incident urothelial carcinoma cases occurred, of which 364 occurred after lifestyle information was available. Analyses were performed using Poisson regression methods. The excess relative risk per weighted gray unit (the gamma component plus 10 times the neutron component, Gy(w)) was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.43-1.78) but the risks were not dependent upon age at exposure or attained age. Lifestyle factors other than smoking were not associated with urothelial carcinoma risk. Neither the magnitude of the radiation ERR estimate (1.00 compared to 0.96), nor the female-to-male (F:M) ERR/Gy(w) ratio (3.2 compared to 3.4) were greatly changed after accounting for all lifestyle factors. A multiplicative model of gender-specific radiation and smoking effects was the most revealing though there was no evidence of significant departures from either the additive or multiplicative joint

  12. Lung cancer susceptibility among atomic bomb survivors in relation to CA repeat number polymorphism of epidermal growth factor receptor gene and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakachi, Kei; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John B; Niwa, Yasuharu; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Prevention could be improved by identifying susceptible individuals as well as improving understanding of interactions between genes and etiological environmental agents, including radiation exposure. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signaling pathway, regulating cellular radiation sensitivity, is an oncogenic cascade involved in lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. The cytosine adenine (CA) repeat number polymorphism in the first intron of EGFR has been shown to be inversely correlated with EGFR production. It is hypothesized that CA repeat number may modulate individual susceptibility to lung cancer. Thus, we carried out a case-cohort study within the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor cohort to evaluate a possible association of CA repeat polymorphism with lung cancer risk in radiation-exposed or negligibly exposed (<5 mGy) A-bomb survivors. First, by dividing study subjects into Short and Long genotypes, defined as the summed CA repeat number of two alleles < or = 37 and > or = 38, respectively, we found that the Short genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, specifically adenocarcinoma, among negligibly exposed subjects. Next, we found that prior radiation exposure significantly enhanced lung cancer risk of survivors with the Long genotype, whereas the risk for the Short genotype did not show any significant increase with radiation dose, resulting in indistinguishable risks between these genotypes at a high radiation dose. Our findings imply that the EGFR pathway plays a crucial role in assessing individual susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma in relation to radiation exposure.

  13. Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Masanori; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Schull, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  15. Bombs and Bomb Threats in the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, David J.; Starkey, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Bombs and the threat of bombing can leave school personnel faced by an explosive hazard without knowledge of what to do. Therefore, a preplanned response is necessary. Discusses four major stages of dealing with bombs and bomb threats. (Author/RK)

  16. United States History Simulations, 1925-1964: The Scopes Trial, Dropping the Atomic Bomb on Japan, United States versus Alger Hiss, Mississippi--Summer 1964. ETC Simulations Number Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostrop, Richard W.

    This booklet provides instructions for simulation and role play of historical events in U.S. history from 1925-1964. Included for student research and participation are: the Scopes trial in Tennessee involving supporters of the teaching of evolution in the schools and of creationism; the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan ending World War…

  17. Long-Term Effects of Radiation Exposure and Metabolic Status on Telomere Length of Peripheral Blood T Cells in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Misumi, Munechika; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ohishi, Waka; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-10-01

    In a series of studies of atomic bomb survivors, radiation-dose-dependent alterations in peripheral T-cell populations have been reported. For example, reduced size in naïve T-cell pools and impaired proliferation ability of T cells were observed. Because these alterations are also generally observed with human aging, we hypothesized that radiation exposure may accelerate the aging process of the T-cell immune system. To further test this hypothesis, we conducted cross-sectional analyses of telomere length, a hallmark of cellular aging, of naïve and memory CD4 T cells and total CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood of 620 atomic bomb survivors as it relates to age and radiation dose, using fluorescence in situ hybridization with flow cytometry. Since telomere shortening has been recently demonstrated in obesity-related metabolic abnormalities and diseases, the modifying effects of metabolic status were also examined. Our results indicated nonlinear relationships between T-cell telomere length and prior radiation exposure, i.e., longer telomeres with lower dose exposure and a decreasing trend of telomere length with individuals exposed to doses higher than 0.5 Gy. There were associations between shorter T-cell telomeres and higher hemoglobin Alc levels or fatty liver development. In naïve and memory CD4 T cells, radiation dose and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were found to positively interact with telomere length, suggesting that the decreasing trend of telomere length from a higher radiation dose was less conspicuous in individuals with a higher HDL cholesterol. It is therefore likely that radiation exposure perturbs T-cell homeostasis involving telomere length maintenance by multiple biological mechanisms, depending on dose, and that long-term-radiation-induced effects on the maintenance of T-cell telomeres may be modified by the subsequent metabolic conditions of individuals.

  18. Radiation dose response estimation with emphasis on low dose range using restricted cubic splines: application to all solid cancer mortality data, 1950-2003, in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    Using the all solid cancer mortality data set of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort from 1950 to 2003 (LSS Report 14) data among atomic bomb survivors, excess relative risk (ERR) statistical analyses were performed using the second degree polynomial and the threshold and restricted cubic spline (RCS) dose response models. For the RCS models with 3 to 7 knots of equally spaced percentiles with margins in the dose range greater than 50 mGy, the dose response was assumed to be linear at less than 70 to 90 mGy. Due to the skewed dose distribution of atomic bomb survivors, the current knot system for the RCS analysis results in a detailed depiction of the dose response as less than approximately 0.5 Gy. The 6 knot RCS models for the all-solid cancer mortality dose response of the whole dose or less than 2 Gy were selected with the AIC model selection criterion and fit significantly better (p < 0.05) than the linear (L) model. The usual RCS includes the L-global model but not the quadratic (Q) nor linear-quadratic (LQ) global models. The authors extended the RCS to include L or LQ global models by putting L or LQ constraints on the cubic spline in the lower and upper tails, and the best RCS model selected with AIC criterion was the usual RCS with L-constraints in both the lower and upper tails. The selected RCS had a linear dose-response model in the lower dose range (i.e., < 0.2-0.3 Gy) and was compatible with the linear no-threshold (LNT) model in this dose range. The proposed method is also useful in describing the dose response of a specific cancer or non-cancer disease incidence/mortality.

  19. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003.

    PubMed

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Agbovon, Césaire; Laurier, Dominique; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-08-01

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10(-4) person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10(-4) person-years/Gy(2)) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards.

  20. DS02R1: Improvements to Atomic Bomb Survivors' Input Data and Implementation of Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) and Resulting Changes in Estimated Doses.

    PubMed

    Cullings, H M; Grant, E J; Egbert, S D; Watanabe, T; Oda, T; Nakamura, F; Yamashita, T; Fuchi, H; Funamoto, S; Marumo, K; Sakata, R; Kodama, Y; Ozasa, K; Kodama, K

    2017-01-01

    Individual dose estimates calculated by Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) for the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors are based on input data that specify location and shielding at the time of the bombing (ATB). A multi-year effort to improve information on survivors' locations ATB has recently been completed, along with comprehensive improvements in their terrain shielding input data and several improvements to computational algorithms used in combination with DS02 at RERF. Improvements began with a thorough review and prioritization of original questionnaire data on location and shielding that were taken from survivors or their proxies in the period 1949-1963. Related source documents varied in level of detail, from relatively simple lists to carefully-constructed technical drawings of structural and other shielding and surrounding neighborhoods. Systematic errors were reduced in this work by restoring the original precision of map coordinates that had been truncated due to limitations in early data processing equipment and by correcting distortions in the old (WWII-era) maps originally used to specify survivors' positions, among other improvements. Distortion errors were corrected by aligning the old maps and neighborhood drawings to orthophotographic mosaics of the cities that were newly constructed from pre-bombing aerial photographs. Random errors that were reduced included simple transcription errors and mistakes in identifying survivors' locations on the old maps. Terrain shielding input data that had been originally estimated for limited groups of survivors using older methods and data sources were completely re-estimated for all survivors using new digital terrain elevation data. Improvements to algorithms included a fix to an error in the DS02 code for coupling house and terrain shielding, a correction for elevation at the survivor's location in calculating angles to the horizon used for terrain shielding input, an improved method for truncating

  1. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  2. Vannevar Bush backs the bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, G.P.

    1992-12-01

    This article deals with Vannevar Bush's role in controlling America's secret research on the atomic bomb from 1939 to 1942, concentrating on administrative/political/military aspects. This is one of a series of articles in this magazine commemorating the 50th anniversary of the first controlled chain reaction.

  3. Blast injury with particular reference to recent terrorist bombing incidents.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The aetiology of primary blast lung is discussed with reference to the biodynamics of blast injury, and the clinical and pathological features of the condition are described. An analysis of casualties from bomb blast incidents occurring in Northern Ireland leads to the following conclusions concerning the injuries found in persons exposed to explosions: (1) there is a predominance of head and neck trauma, including fractures, lacerations, burns, and eye and ear injuries; (2) fractures and traumatic amputations are common and often multiple; (3) penetrating trunk wounds carry a grave prognosis; and (4) primary blast lung is rare. A comparison of four bombing incidents in England in 1973 and 1974 shows how the type and severity of injury are related to the place in which the explosion occurs. The administrative and clinical aspects of the management of casualties resulting from terrorist bombing activities are discussed. PMID:369445

  4. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Cullings, H M

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy(-1) (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection.

  5. Male Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Risk in the Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors – Differences in Excess Relative and Absolute Risk from Female Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Little, Mark P.; McElvenny, Damien M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are well-known associations of ionizing radiation with female breast cancer, and emerging evidence also for male breast cancer. In the United Kingdom, female breast cancer following occupational radiation exposure is among that set of cancers eligible for state compensation and consideration is currently being given to an extension to include male breast cancer. Objectives: We compare radiation-associated excess relative and absolute risks of male and female breast cancers. Methods: Breast cancer incidence and mortality data in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors were analyzed using relative and absolute risk models via Poisson regression. Results: We observed significant (p ≤ 0.01) dose-related excess risk for male breast cancer incidence and mortality. For incidence and mortality data, there are elevations by factors of approximately 15 and 5, respectively, of relative risk for male compared with female breast cancer incidence, the former borderline significant (p = 0.050). In contrast, for incidence and mortality data, there are elevations by factors of approximately 20 and 10, respectively, of female absolute risk compared with male, both statistically significant (p < 0.001). There are no indications of differences between the sexes in age/time-since-exposure/age-at-exposure modifications to the relative or absolute excess risk. The probability of causation of male breast cancer following radiation exposure exceeds by at least a factor of 5 that of many other malignancies. Conclusions: There is evidence of much higher radiation-associated relative risk for male than for female breast cancer, although absolute excess risks for males are much less than for females. However, the small number of male cases and deaths suggests a degree of caution in interpretation of this finding. Citation: Little MP, McElvenny DM. 2017. Male breast cancer incidence and mortality risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors – differences in excess relative and

  6. Electromagnetic pulse bombs' defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Yongbin; Li, Juan; Wang, Jianzhong

    2007-11-01

    With the high power microwave devices development, the high power microwave electromagnetic pulse bombs (E-bombs) have become practical abroad. The development of conventional E-bombs devices allows their use in nonnuclear confrontations. E-bombs are powerful enough to damage communication, radar, navigation and computer systems. This paper discusses effects of EMP on electrical system and how to defend the EMP.

  7. Effects of atomic bomb radiation on the differentiation of B lymphocytes and on the function of concanavalin A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Neriishi, S; Ishimaru, T; Shimba, N; Hamilton, H B; Ohgushi, Y; Koyanagi, M; Ichimaru, M

    1985-02-01

    The differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-producing cells (Ig-PC) by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and the function of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor T lymphocytes were examined to elucidate the late effects of atomic bomb radiation. A total of 140 individuals, 70 with an exposure dose of 100 rad or more and an equal number with an exposure dose of 0 rad matched by sex and age, were selected from the Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) sample. Both the differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes into Ig-PC by PWM and the function of Con A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes tended to be more depressed in the exposed group than in the control group, but a statistically significant difference could not be observed between the two groups. The function of Con A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes tended to decrease with age, but a statistical significance was detected only for percentage suppression against IgM-PC.

  8. Threshold and other departures from linear-quadratic curvature in the non-cancer mortality dose-response curve in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark P

    2004-07-01

    Recently released data on non-cancer mortality in Japanese atomic bomb survivors are analysed using a variety of generalised relative risk models that take account of errors in estimates of dose to assess the dose-response at low doses. If linear-threshold, quadratic-threshold or linear-quadratic-threshold relative risk models (the dose-response is assumed to be linear, quadratic or linear-quadratic above the threshold, respectively) are fitted to the non-cancer data there are no statistically significant ( p>0.10) indications of threshold departures from linearity, quadratic curvature or linear-quadratic curvature. These findings are true irrespective of the assumed magnitude of dosimetric error, between 25%-45% geometric standard deviations. In general, increasing the assumed magnitude of dosimetric error had little effect on the central estimates of the threshold, but somewhat widened the associated confidence intervals. If a power of dose model is fitted, there is little evidence ( p>0.10) that the power of dose in the dose-response is statistically significantly different from 1, again irrespective of the assumed magnitude of dosimetric errors in the range 25%-45%. Again, increasing the size of the errors resulted in wider confidence intervals on the power of dose, without marked effect on the central estimates. In general these findings remain true for various non-cancer disease subtypes.

  9. Gamma-ray and neutron dosimetry by EPR and AMS, using tooth enamel from atomic-bomb survivors: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori; Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki

    2012-03-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, or electron spin resonance) method was used to measure CO₂⁻· radicals recorded in tooth enamel by exposure to atomic-bomb gamma rays. The EPR-estimated doses (i.e. ⁶⁰Co gamma-ray equivalent dose) were generally in good correlation with cytogenetic data of the same survivors, whereas plots of EPR-estimated dose or cytogenetically estimated dose against DS02 doses turned out to scatter more widely. Because those survivors whose EPR doses were higher (or lower) than DS02 doses tended to show also higher (or lower) responses for cytogenetic responses, the apparent variation appears primarily due to problems in individual DS02 doses rather than the measurement errors associated with the EPR or cytogenetic technique. A part of the enamel samples were also used for evaluation of neutron doses by measuring ⁴¹Ca/⁴⁰Ca ratios using the accelerator mass spectrometry technique. The results for the measured ratios were on average ~85 % of the calculated ratios by DS02 (but within the 95 % confidence bounds of the simulated results), which lends support to DS02-derived neutron doses to the survivors.

  10. Dark sun, the making of the hydrogen bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, R.

    1995-10-01

    This book traces the history of the making of the hydrogen bomb, starting with the history of the Soviet atomic bomb from its beginning and the American project after the end of World War II, the stories of the atomic spies, and history of the cold war. Details are extensive and presented in a comprehensive and logical fashion.

  11. The 1986 terrorist bombing experience in Paris.

    PubMed Central

    Rignault, D P; Deligny, M C

    1989-01-01

    Between December 7, 1985 and September 17, 1986, eleven terrorist bomb explosions took place in Paris. Thirteen people died immediately, 255 others were injured. Forty were treated on-site and were not hospitalized, 205 were subjected to triage and stabilization and were then hospitalized. These latter 205 patients are analyzed in this study. None of them died during transportation, and seven eventually died in hospitals. Forty-seven per cent of all victims suffered from multiple injuries. All deaths except one occurred in the polytraumatized group. The policy of subjecting victims of terrorist bomb explosions to triage and stabilization before hospitalization is compared to the so-called "scoop and run" technique, more generally applied in mass casualty situations. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:2647053

  12. Italian Bombs & Fuzes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-06-01

    withdrawal of the safety pin . The bomb 20.1., on account of its special method of suspension, has a recess cut in the tail, about half way along...Indication of arming :- safety pin and caps missing. To defuze these bombs. Lay the bombs carefully on their sides. Unscrew...bomb can be regarded as ALLWAYS action. (a) If the safety pin hole in the fuze spindle is visible 2 cm above the head of the fuze, the

  13. Reviews Equipment: Vibration detector Equipment: SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Equipment: Pelton wheel water turbine Book: Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book: Outliers: The Story of Success Book: T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Equipment: Fridge Rover Equipment: Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Vibration detector SEP equipment measures minor tremors in the classroom SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Datalogger is easy to use and has lots of added possibilities Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book is crammed with the latest on the atom bomb T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Graphic novel depicts the politics as well as the science Fridge Rover Toy car can teach magnetics and energy, and is great fun Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Professional standard equipment for the classroom WORTH A LOOK Pelton wheel water turbine Classroom-sized version of the classic has advantages Outliers: The Story of Success Study of why maths is unpopular is relevant to physics teaching WEB WATCH IOP webcasts are improving but are still not as impressive as Jodrell Bank's Chromoscope website

  14. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I infection, antibody titers and cause-specific mortality among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, K; Soda, M; Akahoshi, M; Matsuo, T; Nakashima, E; Tomonaga, M; Saito, H

    1998-08-01

    There have been few longitudinal studies on the long-term health effects of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection. The authors performed a cohort study of HTLV-I infection and cause-specific mortality in 3,090 atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, Japan, who were followed from 1985-1987 to 1995. The prevalence of HTLV-I seropositivity in men and women was 99/1,196 (8.3%) and 171/1,894 (9.0%), respectively. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 448 deaths occurred. There was one nonfatal case of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (incidence rate = 0.46 cases/1,000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-2.6). After adjustment for sex, age and other potential confounders, significantly increased risk among HTLV-I carriers was observed for deaths from all causes (rate ratio [RR] = 1.41), all cancers (RR = 1.64), liver cancer (RR = 3.04), and heart diseases (RR = 2.22). The association of anti-HTLV-I seropositivity with mortality from all non-neoplastic diseases (RR = 1.40) and chronic liver diseases (RR = 5.03) was of borderline significance. Possible confounding by blood transfusions and hepatitis C/B (HCV/HBV) viral infections could not be precluded in this study. However, even after liver cancer and chronic liver diseases were excluded, mortality rate was still increased among HTLV-I carriers (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.99-1.78), especially among those with high antibody titers (RR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.99-2.46, P for trend = 0.04). These findings may support the idea that HTLV-I infection exerts adverse effects on mortality from causes other than adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Further studies on confounding by HCV/HBV infections and the interaction between HCV/HBV and HTLV-I may be required to analyze the increased mortality from liver cancer and chronic liver diseases.

  15. Bomb-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Karmy-Jones, R; Kissinger, D; Golocovsky, M; Jordan, M; Champion, H R

    1994-07-01

    Between 1980 and 1990 there were 12,216 bombing incidents in the United States, the majority involving pipe-bomb type devices. Victims of such devices may suffer a combination of blast, penetrating, and thermal injuries requiring special surgical approaches. A series of cases is presented which illustrates the management dilemmas faced in such situations. Given the nationwide incidence of bombings, both local emergency medical systems and trauma surgeons should be prepared to deal with blast injuries, be aware of their regional incidence of bombings, and have a planned response that is coordinated with law enforcement agencies.

  16. Where Do We Stand On the A-Bomb?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that most history textbooks support the traditional view that dropping the atom bomb on Hiroshima (Japan) was necessary to end World War II and save U.S. lives. Briefly articulates the revisionist view that the bombing's main purpose was to intimidate the Soviet Union. Reviews six textbooks. (MJP)

  17. Immune responses to epstein-barr virus in atomic bomb survivors: Study of precursor frequency of cytotoxic lymphocytes and titer levels of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Saito, Mayumi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Hirai, Yuko; Akiyama, Mitoshi ); Fukuda, Yasuko Children's Hospital Medical Center of Northern California, Oakland, CA ); Huang, Hua Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI )

    1994-04-01

    Precursor frequencies of cytotoxic lymphocytes to autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells and serum titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies were measured in 68 atomic bomb survivors to clarify the immune mechanism controlling Epstein-Barr virus infection. The precursor frequency was negatively correlated with the titer of anti-early antigen lgG, which is probably produced at the stage of viral reactivation. A positive correlation between the precursor frequency and titer of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen antibody was also observed, indicating that the precursor frequency reflects the degree of in vivo destruction by T cells of the virus-infected cells. These results suggest that T-cell memory specific to Epstein-Barr virus keeps the virus under control and that the precursor frequency assay is useful for the evaluation of immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus. However, no significant effect of atomic bomb radiation on the precursor frequency was observed in the present study, probably due to the limited number of participants. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Tsunami Casualty Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  19. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities: comment.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Walter

    2012-05-01

    The recent claim made in this journal that nuclear bomb tests and the Chernobyl disaster caused distortions in the secondary sex ratio is shown to be a likely artifact of data mining, misused statistics, and misreading of the evidence. In particular, the concept of statistical "significance" and its limitations do not seem to be fully understood, and important confounding factors have not been accounted for.

  20. Terrorist bombings. Lessons learned from Belfast to Beirut.

    PubMed Central

    Frykberg, E R; Tepas, J J

    1988-01-01

    Experience in the management of mass casualties following a disaster is relatively sparse. The terrorist bombing serves as a timely and effective model for the analysis of patterns of injury and mortality and the determination of the factors influencing casualty survival in the wake of certain forms of disaster. For this purpose, a review of the published experience with terrorist bombings was carried out, providing a study population of 3357 casualties from 220 incidents worldwide. There were 2934 immediate survivors of these incidents (87%), of whom 881 (30%) were hospitalized. Forty deaths ultimately occurred among these survivors (1.4%), 39 of whom were among those hospitalized (4.4%). Injury severity was determined from available data for 1339 surviving casualties, 251 of whom were critically injured (18.7%). Of this population evaluable for injury severity, there were 31 late deaths, all of which occurred among those critically injured, accounting for an overall "critical mortality" rate of 12.4%. Overall triage efficiency was characterized by a mean overtriage rate (noncritically injured among those hospitalized or evacuated) of 59%, and a mean undertriage rate (critically injured among those not hospitalized or evacuated) of .05%. Multiple linear regression analysis of all major bombing incidents demonstrated a direct linear relationship between overtriage and critical mortality (r2 = .845), and an inversely proportional relationship between triage discrimination and critical mortality (r2 = 0.855). Although head injuries predominated in both immediate (71%) and late (52%) fatalities, injury to the abdomen carried the highest specific mortality rate (19%) of any single body system injury among immediate survivors. These data clearly document the importance of accurate triage as a survival determinant for critically injured casualties of these disasters. Furthermore, the data suggest that explosive force, time interval from injury to treatment, and anatomic

  1. Radiation-associated lung cancer: a comparison of the histology of lung cancers in uranium miners and survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Land, C E; Shimosato, Y; Saccomanno, G; Tokuoka, S; Auerbach, O; Tateishi, R; Greenberg, S D; Nambu, S; Carter, D; Akiba, S

    1993-05-01

    A binational panel of Japanese and American pulmonary pathologists reviewed tissue slides of lung cancer cases diagnosed among Japanese A-bomb survivors and American uranium miners and classified the cases according to histological subtype. Blind reviews were completed on slides from 92 uranium miners and 108 A-bomb survivors, without knowledge of population, sex, age, smoking history, or level of radiation exposure. Consensus diagnoses were obtained with respect to principal subtype, including squamous-cell cancer, small-cell cancer, adenocarcinoma, and less frequent subtypes. The results were analyzed in terms of population, radiation dose, and smoking history. As expected, the proportion of squamous-cell cancer was positively related to smoking history in both populations. The relative frequencies of small-cell cancer and adenocarcinoma were very different in the two populations, but this difference was accounted for adequately by differences in radiation dose or, more specifically, dose-based relative risk estimates based on published data. Radiation-induced cancers appeared more likely to be of the small-cell subtype, and less likely to be adenocarcinomas, in both populations. The data appeared to require no additional explanation in terms of radiation quality (alpha particles vs gamma rays), uniform or local irradiation, inhaled vs external radiation source, or other population difference.

  2. Radiation-associated lung cancer: A comparison of the histology of lung cancers in uranium miners and survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.; Shimosato, Y.; Saccomanno, G.; Tokuoka, S.; Auerbach, O.; Tateishi, R.; Greenberg, S.D.; Nambu, S.; Carter, D.; Akiba, S. )

    1993-05-01

    A binational panel of Japanese and American pulmonary pathologists reviewed tissue slides of lung cancer cases diagnosed among Japanese A-bomb survivors and American uranium miners and classified the cases according to histological subtype. Blind reviews were completed on slides from 92 uranium miners and 108 A-bomb survivors, without knowledge of population, sex, age, smoking history, or level of radiation exposure. Consensus diagnoses were obtained with respect to principal subtype, including squamous-cell cancer, small-cell cancer, adenocarcinoma, and less frequent subtypes. The results were analyzed in terms of population, radiation dose, and smoking history. As expected, the proportion of squamous-cell cancer was positively related to smoking history in both populations. The relative frequencies of small-cell cancer and adenocarcinoma were very different in the two populations, but this difference was accounted for adequately by differences in radiation dose or, more specifically, dose-based relative risk estimates based on published data. Radiation-induced cancers appeared more likely to be of the small-cell subtype, and less likely to be adenocarcinomas, in both populations. The data appeared to require no additional explanation in terms of radiation quality (alpha particles vs gamma rays), uniform or local irradiation, inhaled vs external radiation source, or other population difference.

  3. Blood and bombs: the demand and use of blood following the London Bombings of 7 July 2005--a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, S M; Allard, S; Doughty, H; Spreadborough, P; Watkins, E

    2012-08-01

    Mass casualty events (MCE) present health systems with a sudden demand on key services. The overall objective of this study was to describe the experience of the National Blood Service (NBS) following the largest UK MCE in recent times. Data was collated from the NBS database and directly from the hospitals involved. All data was collected immediately following the event and included: all blood components requested, issued and transfused in relation to the bombings, blood stock levels at the time and the injury profiles of the casualties transfused. The total NBS order from hospitals for the event was 1455 units of blood components. All requests were fulfilled, this included: 978 units of red cells (RC), 36 doses of platelets, 141 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 300 doses of cryoprecipitate. The amount of blood ordered was three times that initially used and the total number of RC transfused in treating all victims from admission to discharge was approximately 440 units. The greatest use of blood components was for those casualties who had sustained traumatic amputations amongst their injury profile. Published data with which to compare these results is lacking, although the RC use was similar to the initial mean individual usage described in previous military and civilian bombings. The overall implication for any blood service remains, there is now likely to be a far greater demand for plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate in any future incidents involving victims suffering major haemorrhage.

  4. Are IRIS Bombs Connected to Ellerman Bombs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hui; Xu, Zhi; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas (˜2-8 × 104 K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified 10 IBs. We find that 3 are unambiguously and 3 others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended {{{H}}}α wings without leaving an obvious signature in the {{{H}}}α core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) the O iv 1401.156 Å and 1399.774 Å lines are absent or very weak; (2) the Mn i 2795.640 Å line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg ii k line wing; (3) the Mg ii k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) chromospheric absorption lines such as Ni ii 1393.330 Å and 1335.203 Å are very strong; and (5) the 1700 Å images obtained with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal intense and compact brightenings. These properties support the formation of these bombs in the photosphere, demonstrating that EBs can be heated much more efficiently than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the Mg ii k and h lines can be used to investigate EBs similarly to {{{H}}}α , which opens a promising new window for EB studies. The remaining four IBs obviously have no connection to EBs and they do not have the properties mentioned above, suggesting a higher formation layer, possibly in the chromosphere.

  5. The radiological management of bomb blast injury.

    PubMed

    Hare, S S; Goddard, I; Ward, P; Naraghi, A; Dick, E A

    2007-01-01

    A need to understand the nature and patterns of bomb blast injury, particularly in confined spaces, has come to the fore with the current worldwide threat from terrorism. The purpose of this review article is to familiarize the radiologist with the imaging they might expect to see in a mass casualty terrorist event, illustrated by examples from two of the main institutions receiving patients from the London Underground tube blasts of 7 July 2005. We present examples of injuries that are typical in blast victims, as well as highlighting some blast sequelae that might also be found in other causes of multiple trauma. This should enable the radiologist to seek out typical injuries, including those that may not be initially clinically apparent. Terror-related injuries are often more severe than those seen in other trauma cases, and multi-system trauma at distant anatomical sites should be anticipated. We highlight the value of using a standardized imaging protocol to find clinically undetected traumatic effects and include a discussion on management of multiple human and non-human flying fragments. This review also discusses the role of radiology in the management and planning for a mass casualty terrorist incident and the optimal deployment of radiographic services during such an event.

  6. DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

  7. Medical Effects of Atomic Bombs. The Report of the Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan; Volume 2. Section 4H. Materials and Methods (Hiroshima. Section 4N. Materials and Methods (Nagasaki). Section 5H. Clinical Observations in Hiroshima. Section 5N. Clinical Observations in Nagasaki

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-04-19

    multiple lacerations. Leg held in semi fixed position on account of d IL --. Fig. 6 (5H)--Telephone pole at Meiji bridge. 1300 meters. Shadow of...side of face. Bomb to left and anteriorly of Patient. I Deep chocolate brown mask of pigmentation. Sharp v-line of neck. Burns . over left deltoid...scorched. Typical prof i le burn with deep chocolate -brown pigmentation. Very sharp outline. Protection of upper portjon of neck by mandibular shading

  8. [Mass casualty events].

    PubMed

    Guła, Przemysław; Hładki, Waldemar; Brongel, Leszek

    2006-01-01

    Authors present problems concerning mass--casualty accidents, specificity of action rescue-system on different levels of co-operation, kind of segregation of victims and efficiency of the medical rescue system in Poland. Attention has been paid to the continuous instructions and education of life-saving services, preferably by simulation of events without earlier information of the interested. It is necessary to establish and abide official dependence by the rules of co-operation of components of life-saving system. A separate problem is the implementation of rescue--activities in special situations: nuclear, biological and chemical contamination, and with very important safety measures for people taking part in rescue action.

  9. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2009-01-01

    Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the unexpected liberation of Korea from the 35-year Japanese occupation. Koreans therefore had a very favorable and positive image of the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy from the beginning. The image of the nuclear bomb as "savior" was strengthened during the Korean War when the United States openly mentioned the possible use of the nuclear bomb against North Korean and Chinese military. After the end of the Korean War in July 1953 South Koreans strongly supported the development of the nuclear bomb in order to deter another North Korean invasion. When the US government provided South Korea with a research nuclear reactor in the late 1950s, most South Koreans hailed it as the first step to developing their own nuclear bomb. This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s.

  10. A prospective follow-up study of the association of radiation exposure with fatal and non-fatal stroke among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1980–2003)

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Robert D; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Kodama, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2012-01-01

    Objective Use of medical radiotherapy has increased markedly in recent decades. Whether the consequence includes an increased risk of cardiovascular disease remains to be determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between radiation exposure and the incidence of stroke among Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Design A prospective follow-up study. Setting and participants Radiation exposure from the atomic bombing was assessed in 9515 subjects (34.8% men) with 24-year follow-up from 1980. Subjects were free of prevalent stroke when follow-up began. Outcome measures Stroke events and the underlying cause of death were reviewed to confirm the first-ever stroke. Subtypes (ischaemic and haemorrhagic events) were categorised based on established criteria according to the definitions of typical/atypical stroke symptoms. Results Overall mean radiation dose (±SD) in units of gray (Gy) was 0.38±0.58 (range: 0–3.5). During the study period, 235 haemorrhagic and 607 ischaemic events were identified. For men, after adjusting for age and concomitant risk factors, the risk of haemorrhagic stroke rose consistently from 11.6 to 29.1 per 10 000 person-years as doses increased from <0.05 to ≥2 Gy (p=0.009). Incidence also rose within the dose range <1 Gy (p=0.004) with no dose threshold. In women, the risk of haemorrhagic stroke rose with increasing radiation exposure but not until doses reached a threshold of 1.3 Gy (95% CI 0.5 to 2.3). Among women, for doses <1.3 Gy, differences in stroke risk were modest (13.5 per 10 000 person-years), while it increased to 20.3 per 10 000 person-years for doses that ranged from 1.3 to <2.2 Gy and to 48.6 per 10 000 person-years for doses that were higher (p=0.002). In both sexes, dose was unrelated to ischaemic stroke. Conclusion While the risk of haemorrhagic stroke increases with rising radiation exposure for both sexes, effects in women are less apparent until doses exceed a threshold at 1.3

  11. Dealing with "The Bomb"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Every superintendent eventually has to deal with "The Bomb." This refers to a loaded question from a board member dropped at an inopportune moment in a public meeting when the superintendent has been given no time to prepare an informed response. The superintendent's typical reactions include the "deer in the headlights" look, a big gulp or even a…

  12. The Freezing Bomb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron "bomb" and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation…

  13. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2010-04-15

    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events.

  14. Effects of NKG2D haplotypes on the cell-surface expression of NKG2D protein on natural killer and CD8 T cells of peripheral blood among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazue; Hayashi, Tomonori; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-06-01

    NKG2D is a primary activating receptor that triggers cell-mediated cytotoxicity in NK cells against tumor and virus-infected cells. We previously identified the NKG2D haplotypes in the natural killer gene complex region on chromosome 12p. Two major haplotype alleles, LNK1 and HNK1, were closely related to low and high natural cytotoxic activity phenotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the haplotype of HNK1/HNK1 has revealed a decreased risk of cancer compared with LNK1/LNK1. In the present study, using flow cytometry, we evaluated the functional effects of NKG2D haplotypes and five htSNPs in terms of the cell-surface expression of NKG2D protein on NK and CD8 T cells of peripheral blood among 732 atomic-bomb survivors. NKG2D expression on NK cells showed significant increases, in the order of LNK1/LNK1, LNK1/HNK1 and HNK1/HNK1 haplotypes (p for trend=0.003), or with major homozygous, heterozygous, and minor homozygous genotypes for individual htSNPs (p for trend=0.02-0.003). The same trend was observed for NKG2D expression on CD8 T cells. Our findings indicate that the NKG2D haplotypes are associated with the expression levels of NKG2D protein on NK and CD8 T cells, resulting in inter-individual variations in human cytotoxic response.

  15. A novel RET rearrangement (ACBD5/RET) by pericentric inversion, inv(10)(p12.1;q11.2), in papillary thyroid cancer from an atomic bomb survivor exposed to high-dose radiation.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Koyama, Kazuaki; Mukai, Mayumi; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-11-01

    During analysis of RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) among atomic bomb survivors, a cDNA fragment of a novel type of RET rearrangement was identified in a PTC patient exposed to a high radiation dose using the improved 5' RACE method. This gene resulted from the fusion of the 3' portion of RET containing tyrosine kinase domain to the 5' portion of the acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing 5 (ACBD5) gene, by pericentric inversion inv(10)(p12.1;q11.2); expression of the fusion gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. ACBD5 gene is ubiquitously expressed in various human normal tissues including thyroid. Full-length cDNA of the ACBD5-RET gene was constructed and then examined for tumorigenicity. Enhanced phosphorylation of ERK proteins in the MAPK pathway was observed in NIH3T3 cells transfected with expression vector encoding the full-length ACBD5/RET cDNA, while this was not observed in the cells transfected with empty expression vector. Stable NIH3T3 transfectants with ACBD5-RET cDNA induced tumor formation after their injection into nude mice. These findings suggest that the ACBD5-RET rearrangement is causatively involved in the development of PTC.

  16. BOMB STABILIZING STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, J.L.; Runyan, C.E.

    1963-12-10

    A stabilizinig structure capable of minimizing deviations of a falling body such as a bomb from desired trajectory is described. The structure comprises a fin or shroud arrangement of double-wedge configuration, the feeding portion being of narrow wedge shape and the after portion being of a wider wedge shape. The structure provides a force component for keeping the body on essentially desired trajectory throughout its fall. (AEC)

  17. New bomb, no mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, G.

    1997-05-01

    The cold war may be over, but the nuclear arms race has not quite ended. The United States is fielding a new nuclear weapon-a bomb that was used to threaten Libya, a non-nuclear nation, even before it was deployed. The B61 {open_quotes}mod-11{close_quotes} gravity bomb is the first nuclear capability added to the US arsenal since 1989. It was developed and deployed secretly, without public or congressional debate, and in apparent contradiction to official domestic and international assurances that no new nuclear weapons were being developed in the United States. The B61-11`s unique earth-penetrating characteristic and wide range of yields allow it to threaten otherwide indestructible targets from the air-or, in Pentagonese, to hold such targets {open_quotes}at risk.{close_quotes} That makes the B61-11 a uniquely useful warfighting tool. The 1,200-pound B61-11 replaces the B53, a 8,900-pound, nine-megaton bomb that was developed as a {open_quotes}city buster{close_quotes} and was later designated as a substitute for an earth-penetrating weapon. The B53 was deliverable only by vulnerable B-52s; in contrast, the smaller and lighter B61-11 can be delivered the the stealthier B-2A bomber, or even by F16 fighters.

  18. Deconstructing The Bomb: Confessions of a Nuclear Archeologist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster-Mullen, John

    2017-01-01

    I am the author of the groundbreaking book Atom Bombs: The Top Secret Inside Story of Little Boy and Fat Man. I will be sharing some of my quarter century of research and methodology that has allowed me to be the first researcher ever to unravel with an unprecedented level of accuracy, the most closely-guarded secrets of the first two Atomic Bombs (``Little Boy'' and ``Fat Man'') created by the Manhattan Project that were used to end WWII. I refer to this methodology as ``Nuclear Archeology'' and will demonstrate that this was done using entirely ``Open Sources'' of information.

  19. Suicide bombing: a psychodynamic view.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Uday; Olsson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The horror and macabre images of suicide bombings appear regularly on television news programs around the world. A focused literature review of psychiatric interview and demographic data about suicide bombers is presented. Of particular clinical interest are the findings from the study of potential suicide bombers who were apprehended before they could act on their suicide bombing plans. The authors offer psychodynamic and social self-psychological theories explaining the phenomenon of suicide bombing behavior.

  20. Friendly Combat Casualties and Operational Narratives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-21

    ABSTRACT A complex relationship exists between friendly combat casualties and public support, in the context of 21st century limited wars. A myth persists...conceptualizing the way that tactical actions must link to strategy to support a war narrative. Using operational narrative and a modified form of risk management...TERMS Combat casualties; casualty sensitivity; casualty aversion; limited wars; war narratives; operational narratives; risk management; strategic

  1. A Confusion of Signals: James Franck, the Chicago Scientists and Early Efforts to Stop the Bomb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Brian Loring

    1975-01-01

    If the scientists working on the Manhattan Project had realized the consequences of the atomic bomb earlier, formulated their recommendations more precisely, and approached the statesmen in time, American policy on use and control of the bomb might well have been different. (Author/BT)

  2. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  3. Accelerator mass spectrometry of 63Ni at the Munich Tandem Laboratory for estimating fast neutron fluences from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Knie, K; Rugel, G; Marchetti, A A; Faestermann, T; Wallner, C; McAninch, J E; Straume, T; Korschinek, G

    2000-10-01

    After the release of the present dosimetry system DS86 in 1987, measurements have shown that DS86 may substantially underestimate thermal neutron fluences at large distances (>1,000 m) from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. This discrepancy casts doubts on the DS86 neutron source term and, consequently, the survivors' estimated neutron doses. However, the doses were caused mainly by fast neutrons. To determine retrospectively fast neutron fluences in Hiroshima, the reaction 63Cu(n, p)63Ni can be used, if adequate copper samples can be found. Measuring 63Ni (half life 100 y) in Hiroshima samples requires a very sensitive technique, such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), because of the relatively small amounts of 63Ni expected (approximately 10(5)-10(6) atoms per gram of copper). Experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have demonstrated in 1996 that AMS can be used to measure 63Ni in Hiroshima copper samples. Subsequently, a collaboration was established with the Technical University of Munich in view of its potential to perform more sensitive measurements of 63Ni than the Livermore facility and in the interest of interlaboratory validation. This paper presents the progress made at the Munich facility in the measurement of 63Ni by AMS. The Munich accelerator mass spectrometry facility is a combination of a high energy tandem accelerator and a detection system featuring a gas-filled magnet. It is designed for high sensitivity measurements of long-lived radioisotopes. Optimization of the ion source setup has further improved the sensitivity for 63Ni by reducing the background level of the 63Cu isobar interference by about two orders of magnitude. Current background levels correspond to a ratio of 63Ni/Ni<2x10(-14) and suggest that, with adequate copper samples, the assessment of fast neutron fluences in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is possible for ground distances of up to 1500 m, and--under favorable conditions--even beyond. To demonstrate this

  4. A Constant Pressure Bomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, F W

    1924-01-01

    This report describes a new optical method of unusual simplicity and of good accuracy suitable to study the kinetics of gaseous reactions. The device is the complement of the spherical bomb of constant volume, and extends the applicability of the relationship, pv=rt for gaseous equilibrium conditions, to the use of both factors p and v. The method substitutes for the mechanical complications of a manometer placed at some distance from the seat of reaction the possibility of allowing the radiant effects of reaction to record themselves directly upon a sensitive film. It is possible the device may be of use in the study of the photoelectric effects of radiation. The method makes possible a greater precision in the measurement of normal flame velocities than was previously possible. An approximate analysis shows that the increase of pressure and density ahead of the flame is negligible until the velocity of the flame approaches that of sound.

  5. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  6. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  7. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  8. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  9. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  10. Human Casualties in Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritzner, C.

    1997-10-01

    It is widespread error to believe that people were never killed by meteorites. It was concluded that there no human casualties due to meteorite falls because there were no reports about such incidents, but there are reports of these rare events. The statement of no one ever being killed by a meteorite may intend that the danger even of asteroid and comet impacts onto the Earth is only fiction, but the danger is real. It is a low-probability-high-consequence event for large impactors (more than 1 km). Even from meteorites, however, people were reported struck to death. This article gives a survey over reports of human casualties from 616 A.D. well to our century.

  11. No blackhole and no atomic bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    2011-11-01

    Title: c=c(1+1=2) The light speed 1+1=2. So we count the number by step by step for one point. When we count the number by one point, we use the number written on the paper. This means this is not number, but the graph and line. The light speed is the truth in physics. I can prove it by number. 10%=0.1 As %=kg So 10kg=0.1 kg=1/10 x 1/10 kg=1/100 And 100%=1 So kg=100%/100 kg=% So 1kg=1%=1/100 E=mc^2 So cx kgx m^2/sec^2= 1kgx cx m^2/sec^2 cx 1/100x m^2/sec^2= 1/100x cx m^2/sec^2 So c/100=c/100 So c=c And c is the truth never changed. Title: By faith, no blackhole As to be, we glory to God and that is basic theology for christian. And I want to say that BE means just thinking. There is no clue of nature and no proposition to prove it. I just believe by feeling and emotion. I trust that it can be the physic really. There are only human beings and there is no idol that is different existence from human beings, that is true to be. So the nature we see is zero and we, human beings make the zero nature as from no start and no ending. No alpha and omega mean we are idol and that there is no blackhole. Blackhole means the block is existing in the nothing(as we are no alpha and no omega). So the block cannot be existence. So if there is blackhole, then there must be the wall to block me and never walk again. The big bang and evolution mean they are no alpha and no omega and existing by themselves. So they could be existence, but big bang and evolution are just logical fact to be. We need faith as God give us the direction into our spirit.

  12. The Dropping of Atomic Bombs on Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In an age when international terrorism poses a threat to peace and stability, the use of not only nuclear, but also biological and chemical weapons are important topics for classroom discussion. In this article, the author explores four approaches to teaching this topic. Examining a controversial topic involves the evaluation of values, the use of…

  13. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  14. NEW APPROACHES: Quantum bombing reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Steve

    1998-11-01

    The ideas of quantum mechanics are challenging for students. The quantum bomb thought experiment described here shows how the existence of other possible worlds can affect outcomes in the real world as a result of quantum interference.

  15. Atomic rivals

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a memoir of rivalries among the Allies over the bomb, by a participant and observer. Nuclear proliferation began in the uneasy wartime collaboration of the United States, England, Canada, and Free France to produce the atom bomb. Through the changes of history, a young French chemist had a role in almost every act of this international drama. This memoir is based on Goldschmidt's own recollections, interviews with other leading figures, and 3,000 pages of newly declassified documents in Allied archives. From his own start as Marie Curie's lab assistant, Goldschmidt's career was closely intertwined with Frances complicated rise to membership in the nuclear club. As a refugee from the Nazis, he became part of the wartime nuclear energy project in Canada and found himself the only French scientist to work (although briefly) on the American atom bomb project.

  16. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... be, at the time of the casualty; and (3) That it was totally destroyed and there is no probability of... the time of casualty, stating: (1) The time, place, and nature of such casualty; (2) That...

  17. Bomb pulse biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine; Buchholz, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the 14C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric 14C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 μg of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  18. Bomb Pulse Biology.

    PubMed

    Sarachine Falso, Miranda J; Buchholz, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the (14)C bomb-pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960's used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric (14)C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 micrograms of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  19. Managing mass casualties and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Chilcott, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    Careful planning and regular exercising of capabilities is the key to implementing an effective response following the release of hazardous materials, although ad hoc changes may be inevitable. Critical actions which require immediate implementation at an incident are evacuation, followed by disrobing (removal of clothes) and decontamination. The latter can be achieved through bespoke response facilities or various interim methods which may utilise water or readily available (dry, absorbent) materials. Following transfer to a safe holding area, each casualty's personal details should be recorded to facilitate a health surveillance programme, should it become apparent that the original contaminant has chronic health effects.

  20. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40 Section 146.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related...

  1. Human casualties in earthquakes: modelling and mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, R.J.S.; So, E.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake risk modelling is needed for the planning of post-event emergency operations, for the development of insurance schemes, for the planning of mitigation measures in the existing building stock, and for the development of appropriate building regulations; in all of these applications estimates of casualty numbers are essential. But there are many questions about casualty estimation which are still poorly understood. These questions relate to the causes and nature of the injuries and deaths, and the extent to which they can be quantified. This paper looks at the evidence on these questions from recent studies. It then reviews casualty estimation models available, and finally compares the performance of some casualty models in making rapid post-event casualty estimates in recent earthquakes.

  2. Radiation risks and dirty bombs.

    PubMed

    Ring, Joseph P

    2004-02-01

    For many, the thought of terrorists detonating a dirty bomb--a radiological dispersal device--is frightening. However, the radiation health risks from such an occurrence are small. For most people directly involved, the exposure would have an estimated lifetime health risk that is comparable to the health risk from smoking five packages of cigarettes or the accident risk from taking a hike. The actual impact of a dirty bomb would be economic and social (NCRP 2001). There would be an economic cost for clean-up as well as a decrease in economic activity in the affected area due to radiation fear. If such a bomb were detonated, those exposed as well as those not exposed would have great concern about potential health effects while seeking medical attention and avoiding the impacted area. This paper discusses the health risks from radiation exposure and compares them to risks from various activities of daily life and to exposure to hazardous chemicals.

  3. Particle Detectors Subatomic Bomb Squad

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-29

    The manner in which particle physicists investigate collisions in particle accelerators is a puzzling process. Using vaguely-defined “detectors,” scientists are able to somehow reconstruct the collisions and convert that information into physics measurements. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln sheds light on this mysterious technique. In a surprising analogy, he draws a parallel between experimental particle physics and bomb squad investigators and uses an explosive example to illustrate his points. Be sure to watch this video… it’s totally the bomb.

  4. Particle Detectors Subatomic Bomb Squad

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The manner in which particle physicists investigate collisions in particle accelerators is a puzzling process. Using vaguely-defined “detectors,” scientists are able to somehow reconstruct the collisions and convert that information into physics measurements. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln sheds light on this mysterious technique. In a surprising analogy, he draws a parallel between experimental particle physics and bomb squad investigators and uses an explosive example to illustrate his points. Be sure to watch this video… it’s totally the bomb.

  5. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  6. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  7. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  8. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  9. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty....

  10. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty....

  11. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  12. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty....

  13. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty....

  14. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  15. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  16. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  17. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty....

  18. Predicting casualties implied by TIPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Wyss, M.; Wyss, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    When an earthquake is predicted, forecast, or expected with a higher than normal probability, losses are implied. We estimated the casualties (fatalities plus injured) that should be expected if earthquakes in TIPs (locations of Temporarily Increased Probability of earthquakes) defined by Kossobokov et al. (2009) should occur. We classified the predictions of losses into the categories red (more than 400 fatalities or more than 1,000 injured), yellow (between 100 and 400 fatalities), green (fewer than 100 fatalities), and gray (undetermined). TIPs in Central Chile, the Philippines, Papua, and Taiwan are in the red class, TIPs in Southern Sumatra, Nicaragua, Vanatu, and Honshu in the yellow class, and TIPs in Tonga, Loyalty Islands, Vanatu, S. Sandwich Islands, Banda Sea, and the Kuriles, are classified as green. TIPs where the losses depend moderately on the assumed point of major energy release were classified as yellow; TIPs such as in the Talaud Islands and in Tonga, where the losses depend very strongly on the location of the epicenter, were classified as gray. The accuracy of loss estimates after earthquakes with known hypocenter and magnitude are affected by uncertainties in transmission and soil properties, the composition of the building stock, the population present, and the method by which the numbers of casualties are calculated. In the case of TIPs, uncertainties in magnitude and location are added, thus we calculate losses for a range of these two parameters. Therefore, our calculations can only be considered order of magnitude estimates. Nevertheless, our predictions can come to within a factor of two of the observed numbers, as in the case of the M7.6 earthquake of October 2005 in Pakistan that resulted in 85,000 fatalities (Wyss, 2005). In subduction zones, the geometrical relationship between the earthquake source capable of a great earthquake and the population is clear because there is only one major fault plane available, thus the epicentral

  19. Joseph Rotblat, the bomb and anomalies from his archive.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Martin C

    2013-06-01

    Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat made significant contributions to nuclear physics and worked on the development of the atomic bomb. He walked out of the Manhattan Project after working there for less than a year, the only scientist to do so. Rotblat gave a comprehensive account of his time at Los Alamos. His Archive is now becoming available and papers contained therein are inconsistent with some aspects of his account. The reasons as to how such anomalies and contradictions could occur are considered.

  20. Fallout from atmospheric bomb tests and releases from nuclear installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkle, H.; Murith, C.; Surbeck, H.

    This work presents the radioactivity monitoring programme in Switzerland. Environmental radioactivity measurements for atomic bomb test fallout are discussed together with the radiation doses to the public caused by fallout. In the second part the monitoring programme around nuclear power stations is presented. The radioactivity releases to the environment, the results of the monitoring programme and the radiation doses to the public in the vicinity of the plants are discussed.

  1. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  2. Radiologic diagnosis of explosion casualties.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, Brian J; Blackbourne, Lorne; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    The threat of terrorist events on domestic soil remains an ever-present risk. Despite the notoriety of unconventional weapons, the mainstay in the armament of the terrorist organization is the conventional explosive. Conventional explosives are easily weaponized and readily obtainable, and the recipes are widely available over the Internet. According to the US Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, over one half of the global terrorist events involve explosions, averaging two explosive events per day worldwide in 2005 (Terrorism Research Center. Available at www.terrorism.com. Accessed April 1, 2007). The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads, published by the Institute of Medicine, states that explosions were the most common cause of injuries associated with terrorism (Institute of Medicine Report: The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads. Washington DC: National Academic Press, 2007). Explosive events have the potential to inflict numerous casualties with multiple injuries. The complexity of this scenario is exacerbated by the fact that few providers or medical facilities have experience with mass casualty events in which human and material resources can be rapidly overwhelmed. Care of explosive-related injury is based on same principles as that of standard trauma management paradigms. The basic difference between explosion-related injury and other injury mechanisms are the number of patients and multiplicity of injuries, which require a higher allocation of resources. With this caveat, the appropriate utilization of radiology resources has the potential to impact in-hospital diagnosis and triage and is an essential element in optimizing the management of the explosive-injured patients.

  3. Dr. Lytle Adams' incendiary "bat bomb" of World War II.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2004-11-01

    On December 7, 1941, a 60-year old dentist from Irwin, Pennsylvania, Dr. Lytle S. Adams, was driving home from a vacation at Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. Hours earlier, he had been gripped with amazement as he witnessed millions of bats exiting the caves of Carlsbad. Listening to his car radio on his return trip, he was shocked to hear that Japan had just attacked Pearl Harbor. Dr. Adams, outraged over this travesty, began to mentally construct a plan for U.S. retaliation. As his thoughts returned to the countless bats that had awed him, he formed a tentative plan: millions of these small, flying mammals could be connected to tiny, time-fused incendiary bombs, and then released to land on the flimsily constructed structures which dotted the cities of Japan. Within a few minutes, the bombs would explode and enflame the entire urban areas. He postulated that these immeasurable numbers of fires, spreading their devastation over such vast areas within Japanese cities would result in the enemy's speedy surrender. This article documents the futile efforts of Dr. Adams, his team and the U.S. government to develop and employ an effective, incendiary bat bomb. The recently developed atom bomb, a far more deadly weapon was used in its place.

  4. Evaluation of a CT triage protocol for mass casualty incidents: results from two large-scale exercises.

    PubMed

    Körner, Markus; Krötz, Michael M; Wirth, Stefan; Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Boehm, Holger F; Reiser, Maximilian; Linsenmaier, Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, stability, and reproducibility of a dedicated CT protocol for the triage of patients in two separate large-scale exercises that simulated a mass casualty incident (MCI). In both exercises, a bomb explosion at the local soccer stadium that had caused about 100 casualties was simulated. Seven casualties who were rated "critical" by on-site field triage were admitted to the emergency department and underwent whole-body CT. The CT workflow was simulated with phantoms. The history of the casualties was matched to existing CT examinations that were used for evaluation of image reading under MCI conditions. The times needed for transfer and preparation of patients, examination, image reconstruction, total time in the CT examination room, image transfer to PACS, and image reading were recorded, and mean capacities were calculated and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. We found no significant time differences in transfer and preparation of patients, duration of CT data acquisition, image reconstruction, total time in the CT room, and reading of the images. The calculated capacities per hour were 9.4 vs. 9.8 for examinations completed, and 8.2 vs. 7.2 for reports completed. In conclusion, CT triage is feasible and produced constant results with this dedicated and fast protocol.

  5. United States military casualty comparison during the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp, J C

    1994-06-01

    The United States undertook an extensive mobilization of military forces in Southwest Asia after the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in August 1990. With this massive buildup and the short duration of the Persian Gulf War, an epidemiological comparison of military casualties was of interest. Information extracted from the Worldwide Casualty System maintained by the Department of Defense was used to describe the casualties. Of the 219 (212 men and 7 women) US casualties, 154 were killed in battle and 65 died from nonbattle causes. Thirty-five of the battle deaths were a result of friendly fire. Eighty-three percent of all casualties were white and the mean age at death for all casualties was 26.9 years. The Army had the highest proportion of both battle (58%) and nonbattle (71%) casualties and the Marine Corps had the highest battle casualty rate (0.52 per 1000 personnel) and nonbattle casualty rate (0.31).

  6. Medical aspects of terrorist bombings - a focus on DCS and DCR.

    PubMed

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, Georgi I; Kjossev, Kirien C

    2014-01-01

    Although terrorist bombings have tormented the world for a long time, currently they have reached unprecedented levels and become a continuous threat without borders, race or age. Almost all of them are caused by improvised explosive devices. The unpredictability of the terrorist bombings, leading to simultaneous generation of a large number of casualties and severe "multidimensional" blast trauma require a constant vigilance and preparedness of every hospital worldwide. Approximately 1-2.6% of all trauma patients and 7% of the combat casualties require a massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is presented in 65% of them with mortality exceeding 50%. Damage control resuscitation is a novel approach, developed in the military practice for treatment of this subgroup of trauma patients. The comparison with the conventional approach revealed mortality reduction with 40-74%, lower frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (8% vs. 16%), sepsis (9% vs. 20%), multiorgan failure (16% vs. 37%) and a significant reduction of resuscitation volumes, both crystalloids and blood products. DCS and DCR are promising new approaches, contributing for the mortality reduction among the most severely wounded patients. Despite the lack of consensus about the optimal ratio of the blood products and the possible influence of the survival bias, we think that DCR carries survival benefit and recommend it in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

  7. Radiation exposure and disease questionnaires of early entrants after the Hiroshima bombing.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Endo, Satoru; Kawano, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    It is popularly known that people who entered into the ground-zero area shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered from various syndromes similar to acute radiation effects. External exposures from neutron-induced radionuclides in soil have recently been reassessed based on DS02 calculations as functions of both distance from the hypocentres and elapsed time after the explosions. Significant exposure due to induced radiation can be determined for those who entered the area within 1000 m from the hypocentres shortly after the bombing. Although it was impossible to track the action of each of the survivors over the days or weeks following the bombings in order to make reliable dose estimates for their exposures to soil activation or fallout, four individuals among those early entrants were investigated here to describe useful information of what happened shortly after the bombing.

  8. Bigeye Bomb: Unresolved Development Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-11

    Program Evaluation and Methodology Division B-21 1376 D IC August 11, 1989 ,, , The Honorable Dante B. Fascell - Chairman, Committee on Foreign...lliotoxic- ity is a method of measuring the lethality of the generated agent. Page 3 GAO/PEMD-89-27 Bigeye Bomb: Unresolved Developmental Issues B-211376...Physical Systems roram Evaluation eas, (202) 275-3092 and Methodology James If. Solomon, Assistant Director Division, Washington Kwai Cheng-Chan

  9. FDR and Truman. Continuity and Context in the A-Bomb Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which forced the sur­ render of Japan and the end of World War II, has occa­ sioned...employ the atomic bomb against Japan . Context has often been neglected in the enormous outpouring of commentary on the rationale behind Truman’s...suffering of the Chinese people at the hands of the Japanese military, FDR thought that in the event of war with Japan , it would be most important

  10. Modelling vapour transport in Surtseyan bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, Mark J.; Greenbank, Emma; Schipper, C. Ian

    2016-05-01

    We address questions that arise if a slurry containing liquid water is enclosed in a ball of hot viscous vesicular magma ejected as a bomb in the context of a Surtseyan eruption. We derive a mathematical model for transient changes in temperature and pressure due to flashing of liquid water to vapour inside the bomb. The magnitude of the transient pressure changes that are typically generated are calculated together with their dependence on material properties. A single criterion to determine whether the bomb will fragment as a result of the pressure changes is derived. Timescales for ejection of water vapour from a bomb that remains intact are also revealed.

  11. Earthquakes induced by deep penetrating bombing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balassanian, Serguei Y.

    2005-11-01

    The data of M≥5 earthquakes occurred in one year before and after 4 deep penetrating bombs in the region within 500 km and 1 000 km from the shooting site are presented. The 4 bombs are those happened in 1999 Kosovo of Yugoslavia, the 1991 Baghdad of Iraq, the 2001 Tora Bora of Afghanistan, and the 2003 Kirkuk of Iraq, respectively. The data indicate that the deep penetrating bombs may have remotely triggered some earthquakes. The deep penetrating bombs in seismically active regions should be forbidden.

  12. 46 CFR 308.410 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.410 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.410 Reporting casualties and filing claims. Casualties... Subsidy and Insurance, Washington, DC 20590....

  13. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  14. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.202 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after addressing...

  15. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  16. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.202 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after addressing...

  17. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  18. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  19. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.202 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after addressing...

  20. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.202 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after addressing...

  1. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  2. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  3. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  4. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  5. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  6. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  7. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.202 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after addressing...

  8. The International Atomic Energy Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    The dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II inaugurated a new era in world history, the atomic age. After the war, the Soviet Union, eager to develop the same military capabilities as those demonstrated by the United States, soon rivaled the U.S. as an atomic and nuclear superpower. Faced by the possibility of…

  9. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    PubMed

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb.

  10. Infrared signatures from bomb detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orson, Jay A.; Bagby, William F.; Perram, Glen P.

    2003-04-01

    Remote observations of the temporal and spectral characteristics of the infrared emissions from bomb detonations have been correlated with explosion conditions. A Fourier transform interferometer was used to record spectra in the 1.6-20 μm range at spectral resolutions of 4-16 cm -1 and temporal resolutions of 0.047-0.123 s. Field observations of 56 detonation events included a set of aircraft delivered ordinance and a series of static ground detonations for a variety of bomb sizes, types and environmental conditions. The emission is well represented by a gray body with continuously decreasing temperature and characteristic decay times of 1-4 s, providing only limited variability with detonation conditions. However, the fireball size times the emissivity as a function of time can be determined from the spectra without imaging and provides a more sensitive signature. The degree of temporal overlap as a function of frequency for a pair of detonation events provides a very sensitive discriminator for explosion conditions. The temporal overlap decreases with increasing emission frequency for all the observed events, indicating more information content at higher frequencies.

  11. Triage of casualties after nuclear attack.

    PubMed

    Pledger, H G

    1986-09-20

    Casualties from a nuclear attack on the United Kingdom would overwhelm the health services, and health workers would be faced with many more people seeking help than could be offered treatment. Discussion is needed to determine which methods of medical and non-medical triage would be acceptable and feasible.

  12. Military Medical Revolution: Prehospital Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Military medical revolution: Prehospital combat casualty care Lorne H. Blackbourne, MD, David G. Baer, PhD, Brian J. Eastridge, MD, Bijan Kheirabadi...sur- vival for patients with combat-related traumatic injuries. J Trauma. 2009;66(suppl 4):S69 S76. 33. Eastridge BJ, Hardin M, Cantrell J, Oetjen

  13. Distribution of bomb tritium in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.; Ostlund, G.

    1986-12-15

    A global picture of the water column inventories of bomb-produced tritium is constructed from the GEOSECS data set. This picture is compared with that obtained by combining the bomb tritium input function of Weiss and Roether (1980) with the bomb radiocarbon calibrate lateral redistribution model of Broecker et al. (1985). While differences between the calculated and observed distribution exist, they are surprisingly small. Tritium distributions calculated using the lateral redistribution model provide predictions of the changes to be expected in the next few decades. Such predictions are essential to the design of sound strategies for continued monitoring of the tritium transient.

  14. Time Variation of the Distance Separating Bomb and Dive Bomber Subsequent to Bomb Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Charles W.

    1952-01-01

    A study has been made of the variation of the distance separating bomb and aircraft with time after release as applied to dive-bombing operations, Separation distances determined from this study are presented in terms of two variables only, dive angle and maximum airplane accelerometer reading; the values of separation distance include the effects of delay in initiation of the pull-out and lag in attainment of the maximum normal acceleration.Contains analysis and calculations of the separation distances between bomb and dive bomber following bomb release, Separation distances as determined by the dive angle and the maximum airplane accelerometer reading are presented in a single chart.

  15. 46 CFR 4.40-15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine Casualty... under the Act of any major marine casualty or any casualty involving public and non-public vessels... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board....

  16. The Tower of London bomb explosion.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, K; Lettin, A

    1975-01-01

    After the detonation of a bomb in the Tower of London 37 people were brought to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. The explosion caused numerous severe injuries of a type rarely seen in peacetime. PMID:1148778

  17. Westinghouse GOCO conduct of casualty drills

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, C.P.

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to provide Westinghouse Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) Facilities with information that can be used to implement or improve drill programs. Elements of this guide are highly recommended for use when implementing a new drill program or when assessing an existing program. Casualty drills focus on response to abnormal conditions presenting a hazard to personnel, environment, or equipment; they are distinct from Emergency Response Exercises in which the training emphasis is on site, field office, and emergency management team interaction. The DOE documents which require team training and conducting drills in nuclear facilities and should be used as guidance in non-nuclear facilities are: DOE 5480.19 (Chapter 1 of Attachment I) and DOE 5480.20 (Chapter 1, paragraphs 7 a. and d. of continuing training). Casualty drills should be an integral part of the qualification and training program at every DOE facility.

  18. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients.

  19. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    jet fuel, to complex and hard-to-deploy weapons such as biologic and chemical agents’ (3). The purpose of this article is to review recent experience ...1994 Pope Air Force Base (AFB) aircraft crash from an anaesthesiology perspective (14). Those authors noted critical shortages of laryngoscopes...responses of nearby hospitals have been described (18–20). In addition, Yurt and colleagues reviewed their experi - ence with casualties from that disaster who

  20. Bombs, flyin' high. In-flight dynamics of volcanic bombs from Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddeucci, Jacopo; Alatorre, Miguel; Cruz Vázquez, Omar; Del Bello, Elisabetta; Ricci, Tullio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Palladino, Danilo

    2016-04-01

    Bomb-sized (larger than 64 mm) pyroclasts are a common product of explosive eruptions and a considerable source of hazard, both from directly impacting on people and properties and from wildfires associated with their landing in vegetated areas. The dispersal of bombs is mostly modeled as purely ballistic trajectories controlled by gravity and drag forces associated with still air, and only recently other effects, such as the influence of eruption dynamics, the gas expansion, and in-flight collisions, are starting to be quantified both numerically and observationally. By using high-speed imaging of explosive volcanic eruptions here we attempt to calculate the drag coefficient of free-flying volcanic bombs during an eruption and at the same time we document a wide range of in-flight processes affecting bomb trajectories and introducing deviations from purely ballistic emplacement. High-speed (500 frames per second) videos of explosions at Stromboli and Etna (Italy), Fuego (Gatemala), Sakurajima (Japan), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Batu Tara (Indonesia) volcanoes provide a large assortment of free-flying bombs spanning Strombolian to Vulcanian source eruptions, basaltic to andesitic composition, centimeters to meters in size, and 10 to 300 m/s in fly velocity. By tracking the bombs during their flying trajectories we were able to: 1) measure their size, shape, and vertical component of velocity and related changes over time; and 2) measure the different interactions with the atmosphere and with other bombs. Quantitatively, these data allow us to provide the first direct measurement of the aerodynamic behavior and drag coefficient of volcanic bombs while settling, also including the effect of bomb rotation and changes in bomb shape and frontal section. We also show how our observations have the potential to parameterize a number of previously hypothesized and /or described but yet unquantified processes, including in-flight rotation, deformation, fragmentation, agglutination

  1. Photometric analysis of Ellerman bombs .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlicki, A.; Heinzel, P.; Avrett, E. H.

    Observations of Ellerman bombs (EBs) show them as short-lived, compact, and spatially localized emissions that are well observable in the wings of the Halpha hydrogen line. The Halpha line profiles of EBs are characterized by deep absorption at the line center and enhanced emission in the wings with maximum around ± 1 Å from the line center, fading beyond ± 5 Å. EBs may also be observed in the chromospheric Ca II lines and in the UV as bright points often located within active regions. Previous work suggests that EBs may be considered as micro-flares and may contribute significantly to the heating of the lower chromosphere in newly emerging magnetic flux regions. However, it is still not clear at what height in the solar atmosphere the emission of EBs originates. In our analysis we used observations of EBs obtained in the Halpha line with the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) and in the UV range with the TRACE 1600 Å channel. These one-hour long simultaneous sequences obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution were used to analyze the relation between the emission in the Halpha line and at 1600 Å. The observations show fast variations of EB emission in both channels. Comparison between the observed emission in Halpha and at 1600 Å and theoretical calculations allowed us to draw conclusions about the vertical structure of EBs.

  2. Casualty modeling for real-time medical training.

    PubMed

    Chi, D M; Clarke, J R; Webber, B L; Badler, N I

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for simulating casualties in virtual environments for real-time medical training. It allows a user to choose diagnostic and therapeutic actions to carry out on a simulated casualty who will manifest appropriate physiological, behavioral, and physical responses. Currently, the user or a "stealth instructor" can specify one or more injuries that the casualty has sustained. The model responds by continuously determining the state of the casualty, responding appropriately to medical assessment and treatment procedures. So far, we have modeled four medical conditions and over 20 procedures. The model has been designed to handle the addition of other injuries and medical procedures.

  3. Truth was an early casualty

    SciTech Connect

    Sich, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    At a May 1986 press conference in Moscow-held just 11 days after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station-the cult of high technology was unabashedly preached to an auditorium full of shocked news correspondents and invited guests. When questioned as to the number of fatalities the accident had caused and the impact of the accident on Soviet society and the Soviet nuclear industry, A.M. Petrosyants (then chairman of the Soviet State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy) responded: {open_quotes}Science requires victims.{close_quotes} The Soviet system numbered its victims in the millions. In a sense, the Chernobyl accident was just one of the many misfortunes misrepresented by the Soviet government over the decades in its continuing effort to shape public perceptions of domestic disasters, natural and manmade. And yet, the international character of the Chernobyl accident, the fact that radioactive fallout knows no national boundaries, made it a watershed event. The accident exposed glaring weaknesses in the Soviet system: its backward technology, its sloppy safety standards, its inability to admit failure. And it brought to the surface many of the injustices, inefficiencies, and secrets that the Soviet government had tried to keep hidden. With the world`s spotlight focused on Chernobyl, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev was left with little choice other than to prove to the West his dedication to reform by more fully implementing his recently announced policy of glasnost or `openness.` In turn, glasnost was a major factor that led to the demise of the Soviet Union, which embodied a system that was fundamentally at odds with freedom of expression and accessibile information. Unfortunately, old habits die hard. Ten years after the accident, many nuclear bureaucrats in the former Soviet Union, partiularly in Russia, are still too secretive and too much given to obfuscation.

  4. The hematologist and radiation casualties.

    PubMed

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Waselenko, Jamie K; Armitage, James O; MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Since the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, preparation by the health care system for an act of terrorism has been mandated by leaders of governments. Scenarios for terrorist acts involving radioactive material have been identified, and approaches to management (based on past experience from atomic weapons detonations and radiation accidents) have been developed. Because of their experience in managing patients with profound cytopenia and/or marrow aplasia, hematologists will be asked to play a significant role in evaluating and treating victims of mass accidental or deliberate exposure to radiation. This review provides a framework for understanding how radiation levels are quantified, how radiation alters the function of hematopoietic (and nonhematopoietic) cells and tissues, and how victims receiving a significant radiation dose can be identified and managed. In Section I, Dr. Nicholas Dainiak reviews four components of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: the hematopoietic, neurovascular, gastrointestinal and cutaneous subsyndromes. Clinical signs and symptoms are discussed for exposed individuals at the time of initial presentation (the prodromal phase) and during their course of disease (the manifest illness). In Section II, he presents clinical and laboratory methods to assess radiation doses, including time to onset and severity of vomiting, rate of decline in absolute blood lymphocyte count and the appearance of chromosome aberrations such as dicentrics and ring forms. Potential scenarios of a radiation terrorist event are reviewed, and methods for initial clinical assessment, triage, and early management of the acute radiation syndrome and its component subsyndromes are summarized. In Section III, Dr. Jamie Waselenko reviews the hematopoietic syndrome, and presents guidelines for the use of cytokine therapy, antibiotics, and supportive care that have been developed by the Strategic National Pharmaceutical Stockpile Working Group. Results of preclinical and

  5. The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kotz, D.

    1995-08-01

    In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

  6. Bonebrake Theological Seminary - Most Secret A-Bomb Project Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopka, Katherine R.; Sopka, Elisabeth M.

    2004-05-01

    In late 1943, a small number of nuclear scientists was urgently assembled in Dayton, Ohio by the U.S. Army Manhattan District Engineers and Monsanto Chemical Company Research Division to set up a top secret research project essential to counteract the German atomic bomb threat. The site chosen was an old stone building built in 1879 by the United Brethren Church in a residential area known locally as the Bonebrake Seminary. Centered on a sizeable open plot, the austere three story building was surrounded by a tall cyclone fence with a narrow gate and a minimal guard post - nothing revealed the site's intense research activity then or even in the post-WWII Cold War period. Bonebrake scientists would produce the highly radioactive polonium sources for the plutonium (Pu-239) bomb igniter used in August over Nagasaki just before the end of WWII against Japan. The existence of Bonebrake and its research/production work remained classified top secret throughout the Cold War. Only in recent times can any reference be found even to the existence of this project (unlike , for example, Los Alamos or Oak Ridge) and few, if any details, have ever been published. The primary source of information for this paper is Dr. John J. Sopka who was recruited from Princeton University by the Manhattan District in 1943 as physicist for this project.

  7. 33 CFR 146.30 - Notice of casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as soon as possible after a casualty occurs, and by the most rapid means available, of each casualty involving the facility which results in: (1) Death; or (2) Injury to 5 or more persons in a single incident... primary lifesaving or firefighting equipment; (2) Injury causing any person to be incapacitated for...

  8. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, as soon as possible after a diving casualty occurs, if the casualty involves any of the following: (1) Loss of life. (2) Diving-related injury to any person causing incapacitation for more than 72 hours. (3) Diving-related injury to any person requiring hospitalization for...

  9. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involved in a marine casualty shall give notice as soon as possible to the nearest Coast Guard Marine... generating equipment, Coast Guard approved equipment or bilge pumping systems; (4) Loss of life; (5) Injury... of the casualty, nature and extent of injury to persons, and the damage to property. (c) In...

  10. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  11. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  12. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  13. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  14. The Casualty Actuarial Society: Helping Universities Train Future Actuaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boa, J. Michael; Gorvett, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) believes that the most effective way to advance the actuarial profession is to work in partnership with universities. The CAS stands ready to assist universities in creating or enhancing courses and curricula associated with property/casualty actuarial science. CAS resources for university actuarial science…

  15. 46 CFR 308.105 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.105 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.105 Reporting casualties and filing claims. All casualties occurring after insurance under a binder has attached shall be reported promptly to...

  16. 46 CFR 308.205 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.205 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.205 Reporting casualties and filing claims. All casualties occurring after insurance under a binder has attached shall be reported promptly to, and all...

  17. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... where damage by casualty has occurred to a building and ornamental or fruit trees used in a trade or business, the decrease in value shall be measured by taking the building and trees into account separately... building and trees. (ii) In determining a casualty loss involving real property and improvements...

  18. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  19. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  20. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  1. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  2. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.35 Written report of casualty... written report which: (1) Identifies the facility involved, its owner, operator, and person in charge;...

  3. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.35 Written report of casualty... written report which: (1) Identifies the facility involved, its owner, operator, and person in charge;...

  4. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.35 Written report of casualty... written report which: (1) Identifies the facility involved, its owner, operator, and person in charge;...

  5. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  6. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  7. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  8. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  9. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  10. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety or Marine Inspection Office, whenever the casualty involves any of the following: (1) Each... creates a hazard to navigation, the environment or the safety of the vessel; (2) Loss of main propulsion..., agent, master, or other person in charge of any vessel involved in a marine casualty shall retain...

  11. UV Spectra, Bombs, and the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Philip G.

    2015-08-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reports plasma “bombs” with temperatures near 8 × 104 K within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, first because most bomb plasma pressures p (the largest reported case exceeds 103 dyn cm-2) fall well below photospheric pressures (\\gt 7× {10}3), and second, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the IRIS data is independently analyzed. I find that the bombs arise from plasma originally at pressures between ≤ 80 and 800 dyne cm-2 before explosion, i.e., between ≥ 850 and 550 km above {τ }500=1. This places the phenomenon’s origin in the low-mid chromosphere or above. I suggest that bomb spectra are more compatible with Alfvénic turbulence than with bi-directional reconnection jets.

  12. Review of Injuries from Terrorist Bombings and Earthquakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-31

    11 3.12 Oklahoma City , Oklahoma, United States, 1995 ............................................................12 3.13 Khobar...20 5.1 Mexico City , Mexico, 1985... City bombing .................................. 12 Table 3-13 Types of injuries sustained in the Khobar Towers bombing

  13. 24. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMBS AND CRATES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMBS AND CRATES. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 26. BOMBS IN CRATE IN BUILDING 1607. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BOMBS IN CRATE IN BUILDING 1607. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. Forensic Seismology: constraints on terrorist bombings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, T. C.; Koper, K. D.

    2002-05-01

    Seismology has long been used as a tool to monitor and investigate explosions, both accidental and intentional. Seismic records can be used to provide a precise chronology of events, estimate the energy release in explosions and produce constraints to test various scenarios for the explosions. Truck bombs are a popular tool of terrorists, and at least two such attacks have been recorded seismically. On August 7, 1998 a truck bomb was detonated near the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. The bomb seriously damaging a dozen buildings, injuring more than 4000 people and causing 220 fatalities. The explosion was recorded on a short-period seismometer located north of the blast site; the blast seismogram contained body waves, Rayleigh waves and vibrations associated with the air blast. Modeling of the body and surfaces wave allowed an estimate of the origin time of the bombing, which it turn could be used as a constraint the timing of the air blasts. The speed of the air waves from an explosion depend on the air temperature and the size, or yield, of the explosion. In an effort to fully utilize the seismic recordings from such attacks, we analyzed the seismic records from a series of controlled truck bomb explosions carried out at White Sand Missile Range in New Mexico. We developed a new set of scaling laws that relate seismic and acoustic observations directly to the explosive mass (yield). These relationships give a yield of approximately 3000 kg of TNT equivalent for the Nairobi bomb. The terrorist bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 was also recorded on seismometers. One of these records showed 2 discrete surface wavetrains separated by approximately 10 seconds. Some groups seized on the seismic recordings as evidence that there were 2 explosions, and that the US government was actually behind the bombing. However, the USGS monitored the demolition of the remainder of the Murrah Building and showed that the collapse also produced 2 surface

  16. Ultrasonic Device Would Open Pipe Bombs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, Michael S.; Adams, Marc A.; Zwissler, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer, energized by frequency generator and power supply, vibrates shell of pipe bomb while hardly disturbing explosive inner material. Frequency-control circuitry senses resonance in shell and holds generator at that frequency to induce fatigue cracking in threads of end cap. In addition to disarming bombs, ultrasonically induced fatigue may have other applications. In manufacturing, replaces some machining and cutting operations. In repair of equipment, cleanly and quickly disassembles corroded parts. In demolition of buildings used to dismember steel framework safely and controllably.

  17. Biomarkers of radiosensitivity in a-bomb survivors pregnant at the time of bombings in hiroshima and nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Miles, Edward F; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kamada, Naoko; Nakashima, Eiji; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Seed, Thomas; Kusonoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Neriishi, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results/Conclusions. Data on approximately 250 women were available to assess dose-response rates for serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum hemoglobin, and on approximately 85 women for stable chromosome aberrations, glycophorin A locus mutations, and naïve CD4 T-cell counts. Although there is no statistically significant evidence of increased radiosensitivity in pregnant women, the increased slope of the linear trend line in the third trimester with respect to stable chromosome aberrations is suggestive of an increased radiosensitivity.

  18. Biomarkers of Radiosensitivity in A-Bomb Survivors Pregnant at the Time of Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    DOE PAGES

    Miles, Edward F.; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; ...

    2011-01-01

    Purpose . There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods . We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results/Conclusions . Data on approximately 250 women were available to assess dose-response rates for serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum hemoglobin, and onmore » approximately 85 women for stable chromosome aberrations, glycophorin A locus mutations, and naïve CD4 T-cell counts. Although there is no statistically significant evidence of increased radiosensitivity in pregnant women, the increased slope of the linear trend line in the third trimester with respect to stable chromosome aberrations is suggestive of an increased radiosensitivity.« less

  19. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  3. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  4. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    PubMed

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  5. Atomic arias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.

  6. ’Are We Beasts?’ Churchill and the Moral Question of World War II ’Area Bombing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    in Alamogordo, New Mexico , raised to those who had died at Hiroshima, and he asked, did "the Americans have a bad con- science because the atom bomb...Command, was the cultivation of Soviet Russia. Once "Operation Barbaros - sa" thrust Nazi annies into broad swaths of the U.S.S.R. inJune 1941, the

  7. The father of Soviet Hydrogen Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Yu. A.

    1990-08-01

    The creation of Soviet Hydrogen bomb has been described.The main participants to the Physical and Computational parts of the projects were shown. The "Sloika " part of the Project, concerned to neutrons kinetic has been discussed. The contribution by A.D. Sakharov to main achievements has been ponted out.

  8. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  9. 46 CFR 4.40-15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 4.40-15... MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine Casualty Investigations § 4.40-15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an...

  10. 46 CFR 122.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty. 122... OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.220 Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty. The owner, agent, master, or person in charge of any vessel involved in a marine casualty for which...

  11. Clinical review: The role of the intensive care physician in mass casualty incidents: planning, organisation, and leadership

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Peter J; Mandersloot, Gerlinde

    2008-01-01

    There is a long-standing, broad assumption that hospitals will ably receive and efficiently provide comprehensive care to victims following a mass casualty event. Unfortunately, the majority of medical major incident plans are insufficiently focused on strategies and procedures that extend beyond the pre-hospital and early-hospital phases of care. Recent events underscore two important lessons: (a) the role of intensive care specialists extends well beyond the intensive care unit during such events, and (b) non-intensive care hospital personnel must have the ability to provide basic critical care. The bombing of the London transport network, while highlighting some good practices in our major incident planning, also exposed weaknesses already described by others. Whilst this paper uses the events of the 7 July 2005 as its point of reference, the lessons learned and the changes incorporated in our planning have generic applications to mass casualty events. In the UK, the Department of Health convened an expert symposium in June 2007 to identify lessons learned from 7 July 2005 and disseminate them for the benefit of the wider medical community. The experiences of clinicians from critical care units in London made a large contribution to this process and are discussed in this paper. PMID:18492221

  12. Redefining Technical Rescue and Casualty Care for SOF: Part 1.

    PubMed

    McKay, S D; Johnston, J; Callaway, D W

    2012-01-01

    Trauma care in the tactical environment is complex; it requires a unique blend of situational awareness, foresight, medical skill, multitasking, and physical strength. Rescue is a critical, but often over-looked, component of nearly all tactical trauma casualty management. Successful full spectrum casualty management requires proficiency in four areas: casualty access, assessment, stabilization, and extraction. When complex rescue situations arise (casualty removal from roof tops, mountain terrain, collapsed structures, wells, or a karez), casualty care often becomes further complicated. Special Operations units have historically looked to civilian technical rescue techniques and equipment to fill this ?rescue gap.? Similar to the evolution of pre-hospital military medicine from civilian guidelines (e.g. Advanced Trauma Life Support) (ATLS)) to an evidence-based, tactical-specific guideline (Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC)), an evolution is required within the rescue paradigm. This shift from civilian-based technical rescue guidelines towards an Operational Rescue? capability allows tactical variables such as minimal equipment, low light/night vision goggles (NVG) considerations, enemy threats, and variable evacuation times to permeate through the individual rescue skill set. Just as with TCCC, in which the principles of casualty care remain consistent, the practices must be adapted to end-users environment, so it is with rescue.

  13. The Tactical Combat Casualty Care Casualty Card TCCC Guidelines - Proposed Change 13-01

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-30

    2007. These new interventions include TXA, the CRoC , ketamine, and others. Although the previous TCCC casualty card was designated as an approved Army...an eye shield - Provides a space for documentation of combat pill pack usage - Provides a space for documentation of hypothermia prevention equipment...improve that care. “You can’t improve what you can’t measure , and you can’t measure without data.” (Eastridge 2011) Since 87% of combat fatalities occur

  14. Recurrent Education: "Apple Pie" ...or..."Atomic Bomb"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, William L.

    The author conceptualizes recurrent education as organized, structured, institutionally sponsored learning activities with intentional outcomes, which are distributed over the life span of the individual in a recurring way. Some problems to which recurrent education proposes solutions include: alienation at the inter-generational level,…

  15. The Impact of the Atomic Bomb on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbond, Florence

    1974-01-01

    The teachers of social studies must take on the responsibilities of generating a world consciouness, of continuing the search for a world order of government which are not currently transmitted through textbooks. (Author/RM)

  16. Statistical Analysis of the Medical Effects of the Atomic Bombs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-02-28

    form t o record the presence or past history of gingivit is and pharyn- g i t i s , but other oropharyngeal symptom such as t o n s i l i t i s...and sore throat were frequently written in. oropharyngeal lesions. Where necrotic gingivit is has been entered on the form, it has been recorded in...but* the incidence in r ing 1 me not very high as compared with other symptoms. The incidence of necrotic gingivit is in ring 1 WBB lO.3

  17. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Describes the casualty, including the date and time; (3) Describes the nature and extent of injury to.... (7) Includes information relating to alcohol or drug involvement as specified in the vessel...

  18. Some considerations for mass casualty management in radiation emergencies.

    PubMed

    Hopmeier, Michael; Abrahams, Jonathan; Carr, Zhanat

    2010-06-01

    Radiation emergencies are rather new to humankind, as compared to other types of emergencies such as earthquakes, floods, or hurricanes. Fortunately, they are rare, but because of that, planning for response to large-scale radiation emergencies is least understood. Along with the specific technical aspects of response to radiation emergencies, there are some general guiding principles of responding to mass casualty events of any nature, as identified by the World Health Organization in its 2007 manual for mass casualty management systems. The paper brings forward such general considerations as applicable to radiation mass casualty events, including (1) clear lines of communication; (2) scalability of approach; (3) whole-of-health approach; (4) knowledge based approach; and (5) multisectoral approach. Additionally, some key considerations of planning for mass casualty management systems are discussed, namely, health systems surge capacity and networking, risk and resources mapping, and others.

  19. Family support and victim identification in mass casualty terrorist attacks: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Gagin, Roni; Cohen, Miri; Peled-Avram, Maya

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist bombing attacks in Israel between 2000 and 2004 caused mass casualties. After each attack in the north of Israel, Rambam Medical Center, the largest hospital in the region, absorbs the majority of injured, especially the more severely injured and unidentified victims. Immediately with the media reports of a terrorist attack, tens of relatives come to the hospital, looking for missing family members. This paper describes an assistance unit for families of unidentified victims. It is staffed by the hospital's social work department, and its tasks are to identify the unidentified victims, help relatives find and be united with them, and assist other relatives in the identification of bodies of deceased family members. The process involves gathering information from relatives and cross-checking it with data and pictures from the hospitals' emergency and operating rooms; and providing crisis intervention and psychological first aid to victims' relatives. The family assistance unit works with several other professional units in the hospital and in the community, and always adjusts its operations to the features of each event. Clearer guidelines for dynamic training of social workers and research-based interventions to prevent compassion fatigue among the workers must be further developed.

  20. Lessons From the Boston Marathon Bombing: An Orthopaedic Perspective on Preparing for High-Volume Trauma in an Urban Academic Center.

    PubMed

    Tobert, Daniel; von Keudell, Arvind; Rodriguez, Edward K

    2015-10-01

    The 2013 Boston Marathon bombing resulted in a mass casualty event that tested the limits of Boston-area trauma centers. The explosions, 12 seconds apart, led to the rapid influx of 124 patients with primarily lower extremity injuries in 5 different adult level 1 trauma centers. This study aimed to examine the existing hospital systems in place for disaster scenarios at the time of the event and identify areas for improvement. Preparation before the Boston Marathon bombing included coordinating the delivery of patients to area facilities and creating a framework for response at an institutional level. These simulations, coupled with the fact that the explosions occurred at a nexus of medical facilities, helped provide impactful care preventing any fatalities in patients who arrived at a Boston hospital that day. The experience at our institution led to the implementation of a more robust communication infrastructure and reinforced the value of preparatory drills. Within the Orthopaedic Surgery Department, we developed a more robust organizational hierarchy for mass casualty events and implemented a multitrauma follow-up clinic. We believe that it is the responsibility of every hospital to have systems in place to handle the rapid arrival of patients with multiple-trauma, and we hope that others can learn from our experience.

  1. Innovations in the En Route Care of Combat Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    constant innovation to ensure appropriate nursing care for combat casualties. Building on experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan, there have been tremendous...innovation to ensure appropriate nursing care for combat casualties. Building on experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan, there have been tremendous...pain in the ERC system from various disciplines and begin to understand the AE patient’s pain experience , innovative nonpharmacological means to

  2. Preliminary Design of a Combat Casualty Medical Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-20

    encoded tag worn by the individual could supply basic V2 demographic data as well as blood type and allerny information. Partable terminals could he used...to identify the casualty and establish a casualty care record. This included the marine’s name, social security number, unit, allergies, blood type , and...casting and immobilization are relevant. More extensive diagnostic pro- dedures such as complete blood counts, urinalyses, blood type and crossmatch

  3. Challenges to Improving Combat Casualty Survivability on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    divi- sion of responsibility may at first glance seem reasonable, the net negative effect of line commanders lacking expertise and medical leaders...DOW nor the case fatality rate quantifies the effect of medical care on survival, nor do they provide insight into where specific improvements in...combat casualty care can be made. Another statistic that distorts the overall effectiveness of combat casualty care is the hospital survival rate

  4. Resuscitation of combat casualties: unique challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Marshall, William B

    2010-01-01

    Resuscitation and trauma anesthesia of combat casualties is very similar to trauma care in any US hospital--except for the setting. Using case examples, this article describes the principles of trauma anesthesia and resuscitation and the lessons learned regarding the modifications required when caring for a combat casualty. Examples of a massive trauma resuscitation (>10 units of packed red blood cells in 24 hours) and burn resuscitation are presented.

  5. Casualties, Public Opinion, and Presidential Policy during the Vietnam War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    of his charts, reproduced here as Fig. 6, plotted the rising casualty levels in Korea against the declin- ing public support for the Korean war. Ball...relationship between U.S. casualties and public support for U.S. military int-rvention in Korea and Vietnam, and concludeb that a strong inverse...Contingencies," investigated possible configurations for a firepower projection force to be employed in the defense of Third World allies. One of the

  6. Insensitive Munitions Development for General Purpose Bombs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    combat readiness. There has been a concerted effort by industry and A i r Force explosive development teams t o provide an energetic material w h...Insensitive Munitions Development for General Purpose Bombs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...house efforts, the Air Force has stimulated commercial industry involvement i n explosives research and development . output from this ef for t has

  7. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

  8. Work of the Tamm-Sakharov group on the first hydrogen bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritus, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    This review is an extended version of a report delivered at a session of the Department of Physical Sciences, the Department of Energetics, Mechanical Engineering, Mechanics, and Control Processes, and the Coordination Council on Technical Sciences of the RAS devoted to the 60th anniversary of the first hydrogen bomb test. The significant physical ideas suggested by A D Sakharov and V L Ginzburg underlying our first hydrogen bomb, RDS-6s, and numerous concrete problems and difficulties that had to be solved and overcome in designing thermonuclear weapons are presented. The understanding of the country's leaders and the Atomic Project managers of the exceptional role of fundamental science in the appearance and implementation of our scientists' concrete ideas and suggestions is emphasized.

  9. Ground Forces Battle Casualty Rate Patterns: Uses in Casualty Estimation and Simulation Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    disintegrated front is marked by both the collapse of the defender force with a heavy-to-near-total force battle casualty rate and a low-to- negligible battle...totality of collapsing Defender cohesion — which long term air-inflicted attrition may certainly help prepare, but which is neither necessarily (much less...H ■ H u. O IU > tt 3 <J Of O > 5 tt 3 vt CD 6 u«mJ^«*JOVJ^i«d Warn MS 󈧧 •23 2« ^ Median WTC (Unrfscottnted) 687 -L

  10. Sticky bomb detection with other implications for vehicle security.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Vetrone, J.; Warner, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    A 'sticky bomb' is a type of improvised explosive device (IED) placed on a motor vehicle by (for example) a terrorist. The bomb is typically attached with adhesive ('duct') tape, or with magnets. This paper reports some preliminary results for a very rudimentary demonstration of two techniques for detecting the placement of a sticky bomb on a motor vehicle. The two techniques are tire pressure and magnetic measurements. There are other possible security applications for these techniques as well.

  11. Automatic Behavior Sensing for a Bomb-Detecting Dog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Automatic behavior sensing for a bomb-detecting dog Hoa G. Nguyen*, Adam Nans, Kurt Talke, Paul Candela, H.R. Everett Space and Naval Warfare...Systems Center Pacific San Diego, CA 92152 ABSTRACT Bomb-detecting dogs are trained to detect explosives through their sense of smell and often perform...a specific behavior to indicate a possible bomb detection. This behavior is noticed by the dog handler, who confirms the probable explosives

  12. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote.

  13. Childhood casualties during civil war: Syrian experience.

    PubMed

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Kararslan, Bekir; Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem

    2015-08-01

    In war areas a lot of children die as well as adults. According to UNICEF, almost 2 million children have died in the wars took place in the last 10 years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate demographical data and injury characteristics of Syrian children who were wounded in Syria Civil War and died while being treated in Turkey. Postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 985 forensic deaths from Hatay -a Syrian neighborhood city of Turkey-between January 2012 and August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 763 Syrian people who were wounded in the war and died while being treated in Turkey, 140 cases (18.3%) who were younger than 18 years of age were taken into the scope of this study. Among those cases 77.9% (n = 109) were male and 22.1% were female. Median ages of female cases are 14 (min-max: 2-18) and median age of female cases are 9 (min-max: 1-18). Frequency distribution is highest between 13 and 18 years of age (n: 71, 50.7%). In 70% (n: 98) of cases, cause of death is bombing and shrapnel injuries, 13.6% (19) of them were killed by gunshot wounds. According to injury sites most of the injuries were reported to be on multiple body parts (54.3%, n: 76) and only head and neck injuries (%30). Cause of death was intracranial bleeding and cerebral parenchymal injury in most of the cases (n: 66, %47.1) followed by vascular damage with external bleeding (n: 15, %10.7) and internal organ damage with internal bleeding (n: 15, %10.7). The cases had very high level Abbreviated Injury Scales and Injury Severity Sores. In conclusion, a lot of children have died in the Civil War of Syria. Their average abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score values reported very high. Children that we evaluated were mostly died of head and neck injuries predominantly caused by bombing attacks and Autopsies of them revealed fatal intracranial hemorrhages and parenchymal injuries.

  14. Bomb Fuzes - Electric Bomb Fuzes, EX 200 Mod 3 and BSX-5 Boostering Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-03-04

    Ex 200"Mod 3 änd •; BSX-5 Boostering Tests of ’ , ft, DESCRIPTION OF TEST EQUIPMENT: - a* Five Rochelle salt velocity gages. b. Two Tourmaline ...radius k5° from the beam spray of the detonation„ with the nearest gage at 50? from the bomb. b. Two Tourmaline gages were-mounted edge’ on to the

  15. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  16. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity.

  17. Modelling mass casualty decontamination systems informed by field exercise data.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joseph R; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-10-16

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  18. Decontamination of mass casualties--re-evaluating existing dogma.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Howard W; Siegelson, Henry J; Dickinson, Stanley; Halpern, Pinchas; Haraguchi, Yoshikura; Nocera, Anthony; Turineck, David

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 became the catalyst for many to shift their disaster preparedness efforts towards mass-casualty incidents. Emergency responders, healthcare workers, emergency managers, and public health officials worldwide are being tasked to improve their readiness by acquiring equipment, providing training and implementing policy, especially in the area of mass-casualty decontamination. Accomplishing each of these tasks requires good information, which is lacking. Management of the incident scene and the approach to victim care varies throughout the world and is based more on dogma than scientific data. In order to plan effectively for and to manage a chemical, mass-casualty event, we must critically assess the criteria upon which we base our response. This paper reviews current standards surrounding the response to a release of hazardous materials that results in massive numbers of exposed human survivors. In addition, a significant effort is made to prepare an international perspective on this response. Preparations for the 24-hour threat of exposure of a community to hazardous material are a community responsibility for first-responders and the hospital. Preparations for a mass-casualty event related to a terrorist attack are a governmental responsibility. Reshaping response protocols and decontamination needs on the differences between vapor and liquid chemical threats can enable local responders to effectively manage a chemical attack resulting in mass casualties. Ensuring that hospitals have adequate resources and training to mount an effective decontamination response in a rapid manner is essential.

  19. Model uniform core criteria for mass casualty triage.

    PubMed

    2011-06-01

    There is a need for model uniform core criteria for mass casualty triage because disasters frequently cross jurisdictional lines and involve responders from multiple agencies who may be using different triage tools. These criteria (Tables 1-4) reflect the available science, but it is acknowledged that there are significant research gaps. When no science was available, decisions were formed by expert consensus derived from the available triage systems. The intent is to ensure that providers at a mass-casualty incident use triage methodologies that incorporate these core principles in an effort to promote interoperability and standardization. At a minimum, each triage system must incorporate the criteria that are listed below. Mass casualty triage systems in use can be modified using these criteria to ensure interoperability. The criteria include general considerations, global sorting, lifesaving interventions, and assignment of triage categories. The criteria apply only to providers who are organizing multiple victims in a discrete geographic location or locations, regardless of the size of the incident. They are classified by whether they were derived through available direct scientific evidence, indirect scientific evidence, expert consensus, and/or are used in multiple existing triage systems. These criteria address only primary triage and do not consider secondary triage. For the purposes of this document the term triage refers to mass-casualty triage and provider refers to any person who assigns primary triage categories to victims of a mass-casualty incident.

  20. Temporal indiscriminateness: the case of cluster bombs.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, T A

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the current stock of anti-personnel cluster bombs are temporally indiscriminate, and, therefore, unjust weapons. The paper introduces and explains the idea of temporal indiscriminateness. It argues that to honor non-combatant immunity-in addition to not targeting civilians-one must adequately target combatants. Due to their high dud rate, cluster submunitions fail to target combatants with sufficient temporal accuracy, and, thereby, result in avoidable serious harm to non-combatants. The paper concludes that non-combatant immunity and the principle of discrimination require a moratorium on the use of current cluster munitions.

  1. 75 FR 60865 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Allegheny Casualty Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-- Allegheny Casualty Company... INFORMATION: The underwriting limitation for Allegheny Casualty Company (NAIC 13285), which was listed in...

  2. 1. EAST SIDE OF OVERHEAD BOMB TRANSPORT RACK, WITH BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST SIDE OF OVERHEAD BOMB TRANSPORT RACK, WITH BUILDING 343 AT LEFT AND BUILDING 328 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Overhead Bomb Transport Rack, 1580 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 860 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. Quality improvement program for the B83 bomb hand truck

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, M.B.; Buck, S.A.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes the problems, issues, and history of the H1347 bomb hand truck for the B83 bomb after the bomb was put into stockpile in the mid-1980s. Major issues that were reported in Unsatisfactory Reports (URs) were cracking problems on stacking fixture welds, cracked welds on the caster bracket receptacles on the cradle, cracked caster mounting brackets, casters unlocking from the swivel lock position, and caster tires rubbing and binding on the stacking frame. Resolution of these and other problems is described. The introduction of the H695B storage-only bomb hand truck to alleviate a shortage of bomb hand trucks in the mid-1990s is described. The development and qualification of the H1347A bomb hand truck as a replacement for the H695 B is covered. The results from load test evaluations on the stacking fixture, cradle, and casters for the H1347 are described along with towing results on one and two-high stack configurations of B83 bombs in bomb hand trucks. New towing and truck/trailer transport procedures are described. Development, evaluation, and production recommendations for a stronger caster mounting bracket are described.

  4. Calculation of Per Parcel Probability for Dud Bombs in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli Sabour, S. M.; Agarius, J.; Sadidi, J.

    2014-10-01

    Unexploded aerial Bombs, also known as duds or unfused bombs, of the bombardments in the past wars remain explosive for decades after the war under the earth's surface threatening the civil activities especially if dredging works are involved. Interpretation of the aerial photos taken shortly after bombardments has been proven to be useful for finding the duds. Unfortunately, the reliability of this method is limited by some factors. The chance of finding a dud on an aerial photo depends strongly on the photography system, the size of the bomb and the landcover. On the other hand, exploded bombs are considerably better detectable on aerial photos and confidently represent the extent and density of a bombardment. Considering an empirical quota of unfused bombs, the expected number of duds can be calculated by the number of exploded bombs. This can help to have a better calculation of cost-risk ratio and to classify the areas for clearance. This article is about a method for calculation of a per parcel probability of dud bombs according to the distribution and density of exploded bombs. No similar work has been reported in this field by other authors.

  5. 25. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMB CRATES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMB CRATES AND SCALE. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. Hepatitis B outbreak following a mass-casualty incident, Australia.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Claire M; Speers, David J; Chidlow, Glenys R; Dowse, Gary K; Robertson, Andrew G; Flexman, James P

    2011-08-01

    On 16 April 2009, a boat carrying 47 Afghan asylum seekers and 2 Indonesian crew exploded in Australian waters, resulting in mass casualties. Of these casualties, 23 persons who suffered significant burns were transferred to Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia. One patient was subsequently shown to be a hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier at the time of the explosion. Over the following months, 3 other patients received a diagnosis of acute hepatitis B, and an additional 4 patients showed serological evidence of recent HBV infection, including 1 patient who was transferred to another Australian city. Molecular typing determined that the strains from the HBV carrier and the acute and recent case patients formed a closely related cluster, and the investigation suggested that transmission occurred at or around the time of the boat explosion. This is the first report of confirmed transmission of HBV following a disaster, and it reinforces the importance of postexposure prophylaxis for HBV in mass casualty situations.

  7. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R. J.; Hibbard, W. J.

    2016-05-04

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  8. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R.; Hibbard, W.

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  9. Casualty management: scud missile attack, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J C

    1999-05-01

    On the evening of February 25, 1991, an Iraqi scud missile plunged into a "barracks/warehouse" used to house U.S. Army soldiers assigned to the 475th Quartermaster Group in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. As a consequence of this scud attack, 28 soldiers died, 110 were hospitalized, and 150 experienced minor physical injuries and/or subsequent mental health problems. This one scud's impact accounted for more than one-third of all U.S. soldiers killed during the war. Fortunately, there were very few "models" of mass casualty experiences during the Persian Gulf War to evaluate the critical clinical outcomes to the soldiers. An analysis of this event has important implications for future military operations that feature a multinational medical force structure. This article summarizes the medical preparations before the war, the key, chronological events, and the medical outcomes of the mass casualty event. Lessons learned in casualty management for future Army contingency medical planners are identified.

  10. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up. PMID:25886231

  11. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up.

  12. Evacuation Priorities in Mass Casualty Terror-Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Sharon; Feigenberg, Zvi; Weissman, Charles; Zaichik, Daniel; Caspi, Guy; Kotler, Doron; Freund, Herbert R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess evacuation priorities during terror-related mass casualty incidents (MCIs) and their implications for hospital organization/contingency planning. Summary Background Data: Trauma guidelines recommend evacuation of critically injured patients to Level I trauma centers. The recent MCIs in Israel offered an opportunity to study the impositions placed on a prehospital emergency medical service (EMS) regarding evacuation priorities in these circumstances. Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical evacuations from MCIs (29.9.2000–31.9.2002) performed by the Israeli National EMS rescue teams. Results: Thirty-three MCIs yielded data on 1156 casualties. Only 57% (506) of the 1123 available and mobilized ambulances were needed to provide 612 evacuations. Rescue teams arrived on scene within <5 minutes and evacuated the last urgent casualty within 15–20 minutes. The majority of non-urgent and urgent patients were transported to medical centers close to the event. Less than half of the urgent casualties were evacuated to more distant trauma centers. Independent variables predicting evacuation to a trauma center were its being the hospital closest to the event (OR 249.2, P < 0.001), evacuation within <10 minutes of the event (OR 9.3, P = 0.003), and having an urgent patient on the ambulance (OR 5.6, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Hospitals nearby terror-induced MCIs play a major role in trauma patient care. Thus, all hospitals should be included in contingency plans for MCIs. Further research into the implications of evacuation of the most severely injured casualties to the nearest hospital while evacuating all other casualties to various hospitals in the area is needed. The challenges posed by terror-induced MCIs require consideration of a paradigm shift in trauma care. PMID:15075645

  13. Hα features with hot onsets. I. Ellerman bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer lines that uniquely mark reconnection in the solar photosphere. They are also bright in strong Ca ii and ultraviolet lines and in ultraviolet continua, but they are not visible in the optical continuum and the Na i D and Mg i b lines. These discordant visibilities invalidate all published Ellerman bomb modeling. I argue that the assumption of Saha-Boltzmann lower-level populations is informative to estimate bomb-onset opacities for these diverse diagnostics, even and especially for Hα, and employ such estimates to gauge the visibilities of Ellerman bomb onsets in all of them. They constrain Ellerman bomb formation to temperatures 10 000-20 000 K and hydrogen densities around 1015 cm-3. Similar arguments likely hold for Hα visibility in other transient phenomena with hot and dense onsets.

  14. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-03-15

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  15. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an investigation under...

  16. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  17. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an investigation under...

  18. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  19. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  20. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  1. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  2. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine casualty reporting and... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.61 Marine casualty reporting and record retention. When a vessel is involved in a marine casualty as defined in...

  3. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  4. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  5. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an investigation under...

  6. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  7. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine casualty reporting and... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.61 Marine casualty reporting and record retention. When a vessel is involved in a marine casualty as defined in...

  8. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine casualty reporting and... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.61 Marine casualty reporting and record retention. When a vessel is involved in a marine casualty as defined in...

  9. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  10. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  11. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  12. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  13. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  14. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  15. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  16. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  17. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  18. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  19. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  20. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  1. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  2. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  3. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  4. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  5. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  6. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an investigation under...

  7. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an investigation under...

  8. Long Range Transport of War-Related Burn Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    ted to the Army’s burn center between March 2003 and February 2007. Data in- cluded total body surface area (TBSA) burn, ventilatory status... total body surface area (range, ə%–95%) with a mean Injury Severity Score of 12.2 13.7. One hundred eight-one (33.5%) casualties required venti...Long Range Transport of War-Related Burn Casualties 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  9. A model function of the global bomb tritium distribution in precipitation, 1960-1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, Scott C.; Glover, David M.; Jenkins, William J.

    1992-04-01

    The paper presents a model function for predicting the annual mean concentration of the decay-corrected bomb tritium in precipitation over the time period 1960-1986. The model was developed using the World Meteorological Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency data for tritium precipitation. The resulting tritium function is global in scope and includes both marine and continental data. Estimates were obtained of the seasonal cycle of tritium in precipitation, which may be useful for studying atmospheric transport and oceanic processes, such as convection and subduction that occur on seasonal timescales.

  10. The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation effects and leukemia mortality among A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, K.; Stram, D.O.; Vaeth, M.; Mizuno, S.; Akiba, S. )

    1991-02-01

    In an analysis of a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of an estimated dose response between ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (P less than 0.002), by a factor of 2.4, among those who reported epilation within 60 days of the bombings, compared to those who did not experience this sign of acute radiation exposure. The strength of this empirical finding as evidence of biological association in individual radiosensitivity for these two end points is studied here. The major factor complicating the interpretation of this finding as evidence of such an association is the degree of imprecision of the radiation dosimetry system used in assignment of radiation doses to the A-bomb survivors. Using models recently suggested for dealing with dosimetry errors in epidemiological analysis of the A-bomb survivor data, the sensitivity of the apparent association between leukemia mortality and severe epilation to the assumed level of dosimetry error is investigated.

  11. The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation effects and leukemia mortality among A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Neriishi, K; Stram, D O; Vaeth, M; Mizuno, S; Akiba, S

    1991-02-01

    In an analysis of a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of an estimated dose response between ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (P less than 0.002), by a factor of 2.4, among those who reported epilation within 60 days of the bombings, compared to those who did not experience this sign of acute radiation exposure. The strength of this empirical finding as evidence of biological association in individual radiosensitivity for these two end points is studied here. The major factor complicating the interpretation of this finding as evidence of such an association is the degree of imprecision of the radiation dosimetry system used in assignment of radiation doses to the A-bomb survivors. Using models recently suggested for dealing with dosimetry errors in epidemiological analysis of the A-bomb survivor data, the sensitivity of the apparent association between leukemia mortality and severe epilation to the assumed level of dosimetry error is investigated.

  12. Red China’s Capitalist Bomb: Inside the Chinese Neutron Bomb Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    developed an enhanced radiation weapon (ERW) but did not deploy it. ERWs, better known as “neutron bombs,” are specialized nuclear weapons with...reduced blast effects and enhanced radiation , making them ideal tactical and antiperson- nel weapons. Declassified U.S. intelligence and Chinese press...current discussions. 4 China Strategic Perspectives, No. 8 Key Leaders and Personnel in China’s Enhanced Radiation Warfare Program Deng Xiaoping (邓小平

  13. Precision Guided Munitions: Constructing a Bomb More Potent Than the A-Bomb

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    use in the early months of the Korean War. Although development and testing of a second vertical bomb, the VB- 13 Tarzon, trailed Razon , it too had...would instruct additional aircrews of this group to use Razon . However, 41Ibid., 13 . 42Research and Development Board, "Presentation of Strategic...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Unlimited distribution In Accordance With AFI 35-205/AFIT Sup 1 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13

  14. Planning for a Mass Casualty Incident in Arkansas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Harry; Liggin, Rebecca; Shirm, Steve; Nation, Brian; Dick, Rhonda

    2005-01-01

    School preparedness includes the possibility of a natural disaster, but recent events also confirm a need for preparedness and prevention efforts for intentional mass casualty incidents (MCIs). This survey examined the preparedness for the prevention and response for MCIs at public schools in Arkansas. This survey demonstrated that most school…

  15. Tactical Combat Casualty Care 2007: Evolving Concepts and Battlefield Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    or thoracic) hemorrhage: no IV fluid resuscitation Head wound patient: Hespan at minimal flow to maintain infusion unless there is concurrent...airway obstruction: chin lift or jaw thrust, nasopharyngeal airway, place casualty in recovery position Surgical cricothyroidotomy (with lidocaine ...laryngeal mask airway /ILMA or Combitube or endotracheal intubation or surgical cricothyroidotomy (with lidocaine if conscious) Spinal immobilization is

  16. Medical Management of Radiological Casualties. Online Third Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    toxicities will occur and significantly complicate management . Consequent to the radiation exposure, lymphopenia, bone marrow atrophy, pancytopenia...Skeletal and renal deposition of uranium occurs from implanted DU fragments. The toxic level for long-term chronic exposure to internal uranium metal is...MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF RADIOLOGICAL CASUALTIES Online Third Edition June 2010 Military Medical Operations

  17. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 185.202 Section 185.202 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... excluded from the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5) and (a)(6) of this section with respect to the death...

  18. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 185.202 Section 185.202 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... excluded from the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5) and (a)(6) of this section with respect to the death...

  19. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 185.202 Section 185.202 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... excluded from the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5) and (a)(6) of this section with respect to the death...

  20. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 185.202 Section 185.202 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... excluded from the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5) and (a)(6) of this section with respect to the death...