High-temperature atomic superfluidity in lattice Bose-Fermi mixtures.
Illuminati, Fabrizio; Albus, Alexander
2004-08-27
We consider atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices and study the superfluidity of fermionic atoms due to s-wave pairing induced by boson-fermion interactions. We prove that the induced fermion-fermion coupling is always attractive if the boson-boson on-site interaction is repulsive, and predict the existence of an enhanced BEC-BCS crossover as the strength of the lattice potential is varied. We show that for direct on-site fermion-fermion repulsion, the induced attraction can give rise to superfluidity via s-wave pairing at striking variance with the case of pure systems of fermionic atoms with direct repulsive interactions.
Superfluidity and BCS-BEC crossover of ultracold atomic Fermi gases in mixed dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Leifeng; Chen, Qijin
Atomic Fermi gases have been under active investigation in the past decade. Here we study the superfluid and pairing phenomena of a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas in the presence of mixed dimensionality, in which one component is confined on a 1D optical lattice whereas the other is free in the 3D continuum. We assume a short-range pairing interaction and determine the superfluid transition temperature Tc and the phase diagram for the entire BCS-BEC crossover, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite momentum pairs. We find that, as the lattice depth increases and the lattice spacing decreases, the behavior of Tc becomes very similar to that of a population imbalance Fermi gas in a simple 3D continuum. There is no superfluidity even at T = 0 below certain threshold of pairing strength in the BCS regime. Nonmonotonic Tc behavior and intermediate temperature superfluidity emerge, and for deep enough lattice, the Tc curve will split into two parts. Implications for experiment will be discussed. References: 1. Q.J. Chen, Ioan Kosztin, B. Janko, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 59, 7083 (1999). 2. Chih-Chun Chien, Qijin Chen, Yan He, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 090402(2006). Work supported by NSF of China and the National Basic Research Program of China.
High-temperature atomic superfluidity in lattice Bose-Fermi mixtures.
Illuminati, Fabrizio; Albus, Alexander
2004-08-27
We consider atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices and study the superfluidity of fermionic atoms due to s-wave pairing induced by boson-fermion interactions. We prove that the induced fermion-fermion coupling is always attractive if the boson-boson on-site interaction is repulsive, and predict the existence of an enhanced BEC-BCS crossover as the strength of the lattice potential is varied. We show that for direct on-site fermion-fermion repulsion, the induced attraction can give rise to superfluidity via s-wave pairing at striking variance with the case of pure systems of fermionic atoms with direct repulsive interactions. PMID:15447082
Two-band description of resonant superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases
He, Lianyi; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji
2015-02-23
Fermionic superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases across a Feshbach resonance is normally described by the atom-molecule theory, which treats the closed channel as a noninteracting point boson. In this work we present a theoretical description of the resonant superfluidity in analogy to the two-band superconductors. We employ the underlying two-channel scattering model of Feshbach resonance where the closed channel is treated as a composite boson with binding energy ε_{0} and the resonance is triggered by the microscopic interchannel coupling U_{12}. The binding energy ε_{0} naturally serves as an energy scale of the system, which has been sent to infinity in the atom-molecule theory. We show that the atom-molecule theory can be viewed as a leading-order low-energy effective theory of the underlying fermionic theory in the limit ε_{0}→∞ and U_{12}→0, while keeping the phenomenological atom-molecule coupling finite. The resulting two-band description of the superfluid state is in analogy to the BCS theory of two-band superconductors. In the dilute limit ε_{0}→∞, the two-band description recovers precisely the atom-molecule theory. The two-band theory provides a natural approach to study the corrections because of a finite binding energy ε_{0} in realistic experimental systems. For broad and moderate resonances, the correction is not important for current experimental densities. However, for extremely narrow resonance, we find that the correction becomes significant. Lastly, the finite binding energy correction could be important for the stability of homogeneous polarized superfluid against phase separation in imbalanced Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance.
Two-band description of resonant superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases
He, Lianyi; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji
2015-02-23
Fermionic superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases across a Feshbach resonance is normally described by the atom-molecule theory, which treats the closed channel as a noninteracting point boson. In this work we present a theoretical description of the resonant superfluidity in analogy to the two-band superconductors. We employ the underlying two-channel scattering model of Feshbach resonance where the closed channel is treated as a composite boson with binding energy ε0 and the resonance is triggered by the microscopic interchannel coupling U12. The binding energy ε0 naturally serves as an energy scale of the system, which has been sent to infinity inmore » the atom-molecule theory. We show that the atom-molecule theory can be viewed as a leading-order low-energy effective theory of the underlying fermionic theory in the limit ε0→∞ and U12→0, while keeping the phenomenological atom-molecule coupling finite. The resulting two-band description of the superfluid state is in analogy to the BCS theory of two-band superconductors. In the dilute limit ε0→∞, the two-band description recovers precisely the atom-molecule theory. The two-band theory provides a natural approach to study the corrections because of a finite binding energy ε0 in realistic experimental systems. For broad and moderate resonances, the correction is not important for current experimental densities. However, for extremely narrow resonance, we find that the correction becomes significant. Lastly, the finite binding energy correction could be important for the stability of homogeneous polarized superfluid against phase separation in imbalanced Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance.« less
Determination of the Superfluid Gap in Atomic Fermi Gases by Quasiparticle Spectroscopy
Schirotzek, Andre; Shin, Yong-il; Schunck, Christian H.; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2008-10-03
We present majority and minority radio frequency spectra of strongly interacting imbalanced Fermi gases of {sup 6}Li. We observed a smooth evolution in the nature of pairing correlations from pairing in the superfluid region to polaron binding in the highly polarized normal region. The imbalance induces quasiparticles in the superfluid region even at very low temperature. This leads to a local bimodal spectral response, which allowed us to determine the superfluid gap {delta} and the Hartree energy U.
Probing and Manipulating Ultracold Fermi Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Lei
Ultracold Fermi gas is an exciting field benefiting from atomic physics, optical physics and condensed matter physics. It covers many aspects of quantum mechanics. Here I introduce some of my work during my graduate study. We proposed an optical spectroscopic method based on electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) as a generic probing tool that provides valuable insights into the nature of Fermi paring in ultracold Fermi gases of two hyperfine states. This technique has the capability of allowing spectroscopic response to be determined in a nearly non-destructive manner and the whole spectrum may be obtained by scanning the probe laser frequency faster than the lifetime of the sample without re-preparing the atomic sample repeatedly. Both quasiparticle picture and pseudogap picture are constructed to facilitate the physical explanation of the pairing signature in the EIT spectra. Motivated by the prospect of realizing a Fermi gas of 40K atoms with a synthetic non-Abelian gauge field, we investigated theoretically BEC-HCS crossover physics in the presence of a Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a system of two-component Fermi gas with and without a Zeeman field that breaks the population balance. A new bound state (Rashba pair) emerges because of the spin-orbit interaction. We studied the properties of Rashba pairs using a standard pair fluctuation theory. As the two-fold spin degeneracy is lifted by spin-orbit interaction, bound pairs with mixed singlet and triplet pairings (referred to as rashbons) emerge, leading to an anisotropic superfluid. We discussed in detail the experimental signatures for observing the condensation of Rashba pairs by calculating various physical observables which characterize the properties of the system and can be measured in experiment. The role of impurities as experimental probes in the detection of quantum material properties is well appreciated. Here we studied the effect of a single classical impurity in trapped ultracold Fermi
Weyl superfluidity in a three-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas.
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Yin, Lan; Liu, W Vincent
2015-01-30
Weyl superconductivity or superfluidity, a fascinating topological state of matter, features novel phenomena such as emergent Weyl fermionic excitations and anomalies. Here we report that an anisotropic Weyl superfluid state can arise as a low temperature stable phase in a 3D dipolar Fermi gas. A crucial ingredient of our model is a direction-dependent two-body effective attraction generated by a rotating external field. Experimental signatures are predicted for cold gases in radio-frequency spectroscopy. The finite temperature phase diagram of this system is studied and the transition temperature of the Weyl superfluidity is found to be within the experimental scope for atomic dipolar Fermi gases. PMID:25679898
Study of superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurent, Sebastien; Delehaye, Marion; Jin, Shuwei; Pierce, Matthieu; Yefsah, Tarik; Chevy, Frederic; Salomon, Christophe
2016-05-01
Using fermionic and bosonic isotopes of lithium we produce and study ultracold Bose-Fermi mixtures. First in a low temperature counterflow experiment, we measure the critical velocity of the system in the BEC-BCS crossover. Around unitarity, we observe a remarkably high superfluid critical velocity which reaches the sound velocity of the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Second, when we increase the temperature of the system slightly above the superfluid transitions we observe an unexpected phase locking of the oscillations of the clouds induced by dissipation. Finally, as suggested in, we explore the nature of the superfluid phase when we impose a spin polarization in the situation where the mean field potential created by the bosons on the fermions tends to cancel out the trapping potential of the latter.
Dark solitons in a superfluid Fermi gas
Antezza, Mauro; Dalfovo, Franco; Stringari, Sandro; Pitaevskii, Lev P.
2007-10-15
We investigate the behavior of dark solitons in a superfluid Fermi gas along the BCS-BEC crossover by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and looking for real and odd solutions for the order parameter. We show that in the resonance unitary region, where the scattering length is large, the density profile of the soliton has a deep minimum, differently from what happens in the BCS regime. The superfluid gap is found to be significantly quenched by the presence of the soliton due to the occurrence of Andreev fermionic bound states localized near the nodal plane of the order parameter.
Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases
Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim
2011-04-15
Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.
Particle correlations in a Fermi superfluid
Lamacraft, A.
2006-01-15
We discuss the correlations between particles of different momentum in a superfluid Fermi gas, accessible through noise measurements of the absorption images of the expanded gas. We include two elements missing from the simplest treatment, based on the BCS wavefunction: the explicit use of a conserving approximation satisfying particle number conservation and the inclusion of the contribution from Cooper pairs at finite momentum. We expect the latter to be a significant issue in the strongly correlated state emerging in the BCS-Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover.
Tkachenko modes in a superfluid Fermi gas at unitarity
Watanabe, Gentaro |; Cozzini, Marco |; Stringari, Sandro
2008-02-15
We calculate the frequencies of the Tkachenko oscillations of a vortex lattice in a harmonically trapped superfluid Fermi gas. We use the elastohydrodynamic theory and properly account for the elastic constants, the Thomas-Fermi density profile of the atomic cloud, and the boundary conditions. Thanks to the Fermi pressure, which is responsible for larger cloud radii with respect to the case of dilute Bose-Einstein condensed gases, large vortex lattices are achievable in the unitary limit of infinite scattering length, even at relatively small angular velocities. This opens the possibility of experimentally observing vortex oscillations in the regime where the dispersion relation approaches the Tkachenko law for incompressible fluids and the mode frequency is almost comparable to the trapping frequencies.
Induced interactions in a superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinnunen, J. J.; Bruun, G. M.
2015-04-01
We analyze a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) mixed with a superfluid two-component Fermi gas in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Using a quasiparticle random-phase approximation combined with Beliaev theory to describe the Fermi superfluid and the BEC, respectively, we show that the single-particle and collective excitations of the Fermi gas give rise to an induced interaction between the bosons, which varies strongly with momentum and frequency. It diverges at the sound mode of the Fermi superfluid, resulting in a sharp avoided crossing feature and a corresponding sign change of the interaction energy shift in the excitation spectrum of the BEC. In addition, the excitation of quasiparticles in the Fermi superfluid leads to damping of the excitations in the BEC. Besides studying induced interactions themselves, we can use these prominent effects to systematically probe the strongly interacting Fermi gas.
Topological Fulde-Ferrell superfluids of a spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-12-01
Topological Fermi superfluids have played the central role in various fields of physics. However, all previous studies focus on the cases where Cooper pairs have zero center-of-mass momenta (i.e., normal superfluids). The topology of Fulde-Ferrell (FF) superfluids with nonzero momentum pairings have never been explored until recent findings that FF superfluids in a spin-orbit (SO) coupled Fermi gas can accommodate Majorana fermions in real space in low dimensions and Weyl fermions in momentum space in three dimension. In this review, we first discuss the mechanism of pairings in SO coupled Fermi gases in optical lattices subject to Zeeman fields, showing that SO coupling as well as Zeeman fields enhance FF states while suppress Larkin-Ovchinnikov states. We then present the low temperature phase diagram including both FF superfluids and topological FF superfluids phases in both two dimension and three dimension. In one dimension, Majorana fermions as well as phase dependent order parameter are visualized. In three dimension, we show the properties of Weyl fermions in momentum space such as anisotropic linear dispersion, Fermi arch, and gaplessness away from k⊥ = 0. Finally, we discuss some possible methods to probe FF superfluids and topological FF superfluids in cold atom systems.
Dipole Polarizability of a Trapped Superfluid Fermi Gas
Recati, A.; Carusotto, I.; Lobo, C.; Stringari, S.
2006-11-10
The polarization produced by the relative displacement of the potentials trapping two spin species of a dilute Fermi gas with N{sub {up_arrow}}=N{sub {down_arrow}} is calculated at unitarity by assuming phase separation between the superfluid and a polarized phase at zero temperature. Because of the energy cost associated with pair breaking, the dipole polarizability is strongly quenched and exhibits important deviations from the ideal gas behavior even for nonlinear displacements of the order of the size of the atomic cloud. The behavior in the presence of different trapping frequencies (monopole polarization) for the two spin species is also discussed. Our results suggest new experimental perspectives to explore the quantum phases of interacting Fermi gases.
Propagation of second sound in a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitary limit
Arahata, Emiko; Nikuni, Tetsuro
2009-10-15
We study sound propagation in a uniform superfluid gas of Fermi atoms in the unitary limit. The existence of normal and superfluid components leads to appearance of two sound modes in the collisional regime, referred to as first and second sounds. The second sound is of particular interest as it is a clear signal of a superfluid component. Using Landau's two-fluid hydrodynamic theory, we calculate hydrodynamic sound velocities and these weights in the density response function. The latter is used to calculate the response to a sudden modification of the external potential generating pulse propagation. The amplitude of a pulse which is proportional to the weight in the response function is calculated, the basis of the approach of Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink for the BCS-BEC. We show that, in a superfluid Fermi gas at unitarity, the second-sound pulse is excited with an appreciate amplitude by density perturbations.
Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases
Giorgini, Stefano; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro
2008-10-15
The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.
Superfluid transition in a rotating fermi gas with resonant interactions.
Veillette, Martin Y; Sheehy, Daniel E; Radzihovsky, Leo; Gurarie, Victor
2006-12-22
We study a rotating atomic Fermi gas near a narrow s-wave Feshbach resonance in a uniaxial trap with frequencies Omega perpendicular, Omega z. We predict the upper-critical angular velocity, omega c2(delta,T), as a function of temperature T and detuning delta across the BEC-BCS crossover. The suppression of superfluidity at omega c2 is distinct in the BCS and BEC regimes, with the former controlled by depairing and the latter by the dilution of bosonic molecules. At low T and Omega z < Omega perpendicular, in the BCS and crossover regimes of 0 less similar delta less similar delta c, omega c2 is implicitly given by [formula: see text], vanishing as omega c2 approximately Omega perpendicular(1 - delta/delta c)(1/2) near [formula: see text] (with Delta the BCS gap and gamma the resonance width), and extending the bulk result variant Planck's over 2pi omega c2 approximately 2Delta2/epsilonF to a trap. In the BEC regime of delta < 0 we find omega c2-->Omega perpendicular-, where molecular superfluidity is destroyed only by large quantum fluctuations associated with comparable boson and vortex densities. PMID:17280330
Superfluid Transition in a Rotating Fermi Gas with Resonant Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veillette, Martin Y.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo; Gurarie, Victor
2006-12-01
We study a rotating atomic Fermi gas near a narrow s-wave Feshbach resonance in a uniaxial trap with frequencies Ω⊥, Ωz. We predict the upper-critical angular velocity, ωc2(δ,T), as a function of temperature T and detuning δ across the BEC-BCS crossover. The suppression of superfluidity at ωc2 is distinct in the BCS and BEC regimes, with the former controlled by depairing and the latter by the dilution of bosonic molecules. At low T and Ωz≪Ω⊥, in the BCS and crossover regimes of 0≲δ≲δc, ωc2 is implicitly given by ℏωc22+Ω⊥2≈2ΔℏΩ⊥/γF, vanishing as ωc2˜Ω⊥(1-δ/δc)1/2 near δc≈2γF+(γ)/(2)γFln(γF/ℏΩ⊥) (with Δ the BCS gap and γ the resonance width), and extending the bulk result ℏωc2≈2Δ2/γF to a trap. In the BEC regime of δ<0 we find ωc2→Ω⊥-, where molecular superfluidity is destroyed only by large quantum fluctuations associated with comparable boson and vortex densities.
Exciting Quantized Vortex Rings in a Superfluid Unitary Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulgac, Aurel
2014-03-01
In a recent article, Yefsah et al., Nature 499, 426 (2013) report the observation of an unusual quantum excitation mode in an elongated harmonically trapped unitary Fermi gas. After phase imprinting a domain wall, they observe collective oscillations of the superfluid atomic cloud with a period almost an order of magnitude larger than that predicted by any theory of domain walls, which they interpret as a possible new quantum phenomenon dubbed ``a heavy soliton'' with an inertial mass some 50 times larger than one expected for a domain wall. We present compelling evidence that this ``heavy soliton'' is instead a quantized vortex ring by showing that the main aspects of the experiment can be naturally explained within an extension of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to superfluid systems. The numerical simulations required the solution of some 260,000 nonlinear coupled time-dependent 3-dimensional partial differential equations and was implemented on 2048 GPUs on the Cray XK7 supercomputer Titan of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility.
Superfluidity and collective modes in Rashba spin–orbit coupled Fermi gases
He, Lianyi; Huang, Xu-Guang
2013-10-15
We present a theoretical study of the superfluidity and the corresponding collective modes in two-component atomic Fermi gases with s-wave attraction and synthetic Rashba spin–orbit coupling. The general effective action for the collective modes is derived from the functional path integral formalism. By tuning the spin–orbit coupling from weak to strong, the system undergoes a crossover from an ordinary BCS/BEC superfluid to a Bose–Einstein condensate of rashbons. We show that the properties of the superfluid density and the Anderson–Bogoliubov mode manifest this crossover. At large spin–orbit coupling, the superfluid density and the sound velocity become independent of the strength of the s-wave attraction. The two-body interaction among the rashbons is also determined. When a Zeeman field is turned on, the system undergoes quantum phase transitions to some exotic superfluid phases which are topologically nontrivial. For the two-dimensional system, the nonanalyticities of the thermodynamic functions and the sound velocity across the phase transition are related to the bulk gapless fermionic excitation which causes infrared singularities. The superfluid density and the sound velocity behave nonmonotonically: they are suppressed by the Zeeman field in the normal superfluid phase, but get enhanced in the topological superfluid phase. The three-dimensional system is also studied. -- Highlights: •The general effective action for Rashba spin–orbit coupled Fermi superfluids is derived. •The evolution of the collective modes manifests the BCS/BEC-rashbon crossover. •The superfluid properties are universal at large spin–orbit coupling. •The sound velocity behaves nonanalytically across the quantum phase transition.
Second sound and the superfluid fraction in a Fermi gas with resonant interactions.
Sidorenkov, Leonid A; Tey, Meng Khoon; Grimm, Rudolf; Hou, Yan-Hua; Pitaevskii, Lev; Stringari, Sandro
2013-06-01
Superfluidity is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon occurring in systems as diverse as liquid helium and neutron stars. It occurs below a critical temperature and leads to peculiar behaviour such as frictionless flow, the formation of quantized vortices and quenching of the moment of inertia. Ultracold atomic gases offer control of interactions and external confinement, providing unique opportunities to explore superfluid phenomena. Many such (finite-temperature) phenomena can be explained in terms of a two-fluid mixture comprising a normal component, which behaves like an ordinary fluid, and a superfluid component with zero viscosity and zero entropy. The two-component nature of a superfluid is manifest in 'second sound', an entropy wave in which the superfluid and the non-superfluid components oscillate with opposite phases (as opposed to ordinary 'first sound', where they oscillate in phase). Here we report the observation of second sound in an ultracold Fermi gas with resonant interactions. The speed of second sound depends explicitly on the value of the superfluid fraction, a quantity that is sensitive to the spectrum of elementary excitations. Our measurements allow us to extract the temperature dependence of the superfluid fraction, a previously inaccessible quantity that will provide a benchmark for theories of strongly interacting quantum gases. PMID:23676679
Salasnich, Luca
2010-12-15
We investigate the low-temperature thermodynamics of the unitary Fermi gas by introducing a model based on the zero-temperature spectra of both bosonic collective modes and fermonic single-particle excitations. We calculate the Helmholtz free energy and from it we obtain the entropy, the internal energy, and the chemical potential as a function of the temperature. By using these quantities and the Landau's expression for the superfluid density we determine analytically the superfluid fraction, the critical temperature, the first sound velocity, and the second sound velocity. We compare our analytical results with other theoretical predictions and experimental data of ultracold atoms and dilute neutron matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inotani, Daisuke; Ohashi, Yoji
2015-12-01
We investigate the superfluid properties of a one-component Fermi gas with a uniaxially anisotropic p -wave pairing interaction, Ux>Uy=Uz [where Ui(i =x ,y ,z ) is a pi-wave pairing interaction]. This type of interaction is considered to be realized in a 40K Fermi gas. Including pairing fluctuations within a strong-coupling T -matrix theory, we determine the px-wave superfluid phase transition temperature Tcpx, as well as the other phase transition temperature Tcpx+i py(
Superfluidity of heated Fermi systems in the static fluctuation approximation
Khamzin, A. A.; Nikitin, A. S.; Sitdikov, A. S.
2015-10-15
Superfluidity properties of heated finite Fermi systems are studied in the static fluctuation approximation, which is an original method. This method relies on a single and controlled approximation, which permits taking correctly into account quasiparticle correlations and thereby going beyond the independent-quasiparticle model. A closed self-consistent set of equations for calculating correlation functions at finite temperature is obtained for a finite Fermi system described by the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer Hamiltonian. An equation for the energy gap is found with allowance for fluctuation effects. It is shown that the phase transition to the supefluid state is smeared upon the inclusion of fluctuations.
Observation of Coupled Vortex Lattices in a Mass-Imbalance Bose and Fermi Superfluid Mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Xing-Can; Chen, Hao-Ze; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qiong; Jiang, Xiao; Deng, Youjin; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-09-01
Quantized vortices play an essential role in diverse superfluid phenomena. In a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture, especially of two mass-imbalance species, such macroscopic quantum phenomena are particularly rich due to the interplay between the Bose and Fermi superfluidity. However, generating a Bose-Fermi two-species superfluid, producing coupled vortex lattices within, and further probing interspecies interaction effects remain challenging. Here, we experimentally realize a two-species superfluid with dilute gases of lithium-6 and potassium-41, having a mass ratio of about seven. By rotating the superfluid mixture, we simultaneously produce coupled vortex lattices of the two species and thus present a definitive visual evidence for the double superfluidity. Moreover, we report several unconventional behaviors, due to the Bose-Fermi interaction, on the formation and decay of two-species vortices.
Destroying Superfluidity by Rotating a Fermi Gas at Unitarity
Bausmerth, I.; Recati, A.; Stringari, S.
2008-02-22
We study the effect of the rotation on a harmonically trapped Fermi gas at zero temperature under the assumption that vortices are not formed. We show that at unitarity the rotation produces a phase separation between a nonrotating superfluid (S) core and a rigidly rotating normal (N) gas. The interface between the two phases is characterized by a density discontinuity n{sub N}/n{sub S}=0.85, independent of the angular velocity. The depletion of the superfluid and the angular momentum of the rotating configuration are calculated as a function of the angular velocity. The conditions of stability are also discussed and the critical angular velocity for the onset of a spontaneous quadrupole deformation of the interface is evaluated.
Critical Zeeman splitting of a unitary Fermi superfluid
He Lianyi; Zhuang Pengfei
2011-05-01
We determine the critical Zeeman energy splitting of a homogeneous Fermi superfluid at unitary in terms of the Fermi energy {epsilon}{sub F} according to recent experimental results in Laboratoire Kastler Brossel (LKB)-Lhomond. Based on the universal equations of state for the superfluid and normal phases, we show that there exist two critical fields H{sub c1} and H{sub c2}, between which a superfluid-normal mixed phase is energetically favored. Universal formulas for the critical fields and the critical population imbalance P{sub c} are derived. We have found a universal relation between the critical fields and the critical imbalances: H{sub c1}={gamma}{xi}{epsilon}{sub F} and H{sub c2}=(1+{gamma}P{sub c}){sup 2/3}H{sub c1}, where {xi} is the universal constant and {gamma} is the critical value of the chemical potential imbalance in the grand canonical ensemble. Since {xi}, {gamma}, and P{sub c} have been measured in the experiments, we can determine the critical Zeeman fields without the detailed information of the equation of state for the polarized normal phase. Using the experimental data from LKB-Lhomond, we have found H{sub c1{approx_equal}}0.37{epsilon}{sub F} and H{sub c2{approx_equal}}0.44{epsilon}{sub F}. Our result of the polarization P as a function of the Zeeman field H/{epsilon}{sub F} is in good agreement with the data extracted from the experiments. We also give an estimation of the critical magnetic field for dilute neutron matter at which the matter gets spin polarized, assuming the properties of the dilute neutron matter are close to those of the unitary Fermi gas.
Sound Modes of a Bose-Fermi Mixture Superfluid at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ono, Yosuke; Sakamoto, Ryohei; Mori, Hiroyuki; Arahata, Emiko
2016-06-01
We study the sound modes of a Bose-Fermi mixture superfluid at finite temperatures in the collisional hydrodynamic regime. We extend Landau's hydrodynamic theory to deal with a Bose-Fermi mixture superfluid and show the existence of three sound modes. We calculate the hydrodynamic sound velocities numerically using the Nozières and Schmitt-Rink theory at unitarity. The three-sound-modes hybrid in Bose-Fermi mixture superfluids contrasts with the two sound modes exhibited by 3He and 4He superfluids.
Observing the drop of resistance in the flow of a superfluid Fermi gas.
Stadler, David; Krinner, Sebastian; Meineke, Jakob; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman
2012-11-29
The ability of particles to flow with very low resistance is characteristic of superfluid and superconducting states, leading to their discovery in the past century. Although measuring the particle flow in liquid helium or superconducting materials is essential to identify superfluidity or superconductivity, no analogous measurement has been performed for superfluids based on ultracold Fermi gases. Here we report direct measurements of the conduction properties of strongly interacting fermions, observing the well-known drop in resistance that is associated with the onset of superfluidity. By varying the depth of the trapping potential in a narrow channel connecting two atomic reservoirs, we observed variations of the atomic current over several orders of magnitude. We related the intrinsic conduction properties to the thermodynamic functions in a model-independent way, by making use of high-resolution in situ imaging in combination with current measurements. Our results show that, as in solid-state systems, current and resistance measurements in quantum gases provide a sensitive probe with which to explore many-body physics. Our method is closely analogous to the operation of a solid-state field-effect transistor and could be applied as a probe for optical lattices and disordered systems, paving the way for modelling complex superconducting devices. PMID:23192151
Large- N expansion for unitary superfluid Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veillette, Martin Y.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2007-04-01
We analyze strongly interacting Fermi gases in the unitary regime by considering the generalization to an arbitrary number N of spin- 1/2 fermion flavors with Sp(2N) symmetry. For N→∞ this problem is exactly solved by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensate mean-field theory, with corrections small in the parameter 1/N . The large- N expansion provides a systematic way to determine corrections to mean-field predictions, allowing the calculation of a variety of thermodynamic quantities at (and in proximity to) unitarity, including the energy, the pairing gap, and the upper-critical polarization (in the case of a polarized gas) for the normal to superfluid instability. For the physical case of N=1 , among other quantities, we predict in the unitarity regime, the energy of the gas to be ξ=0.28 times that for the noninteracting gas and the pairing gap to be 0.52 times the Fermi energy.
Observation of a strongly interacting degenerate Fermi gas of atoms.
O'Hara, K M; Hemmer, S L; Gehm, M E; Granade, S R; Thomas, J E
2002-12-13
We report on the observation of a highly degenerate, strongly interacting Fermi gas of atoms. Fermionic lithium-6 atoms in an optical trap are evaporatively cooled to degeneracy using a magnetic field to induce strong, resonant interactions. Upon abruptly releasing the cloud from the trap, the gas is observed to expand rapidly in the transverse direction while remaining nearly stationary in the axial direction. We interpret the expansion dynamics in terms of collisionless superfluid and collisional hydrodynamics. For the data taken at the longest evaporation times, we find that collisional hydrodynamics does not provide a satisfactory explanation, whereas superfluidity is plausible.
Exotic superfluid of trapped Fermi gases with spin–orbit coupling in dimensional crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jing; Shi, Cheng; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Wen, Lin; Chen, Peng; Li, Deng-Feng
2016-06-01
We investigate the ground state properties of Fermi gases in a planar array of one-dimensional potential tubes with spin–orbit coupling where the motion of atoms is free in the \\hat{{x}}-direction and the tunneling between nearest tubes in the \\hat{{y}}-direction is permitted. By using the mean-field method, the phase diagrams of the system at the dimensional crossover from quasi-one dimension to quasi-two dimensions is obtained. We find the existence of the topological state and Majorana mode in the weak tunneling case, and a rich phase diagram including two kinds of nodal superfluid phase and gapped superfluid phase, in the opposite case. The results show that topological pairing is favored in quasi-one dimension while nodal pairing state is favored in quasi-two dimensions.
Shear viscosity of a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitarity limit
Rupak, Gautam; Schaefer, Thomas
2007-11-15
We compute the shear viscosity of a superfluid atomic Fermi gas in the unitarity limit. The unitarity limit is characterized by a divergent scattering length between the atoms, and it has been argued that this will result in a very small viscosity. We show that in the low temperature T limit the shear viscosity scales as {xi}{sup 5}/T{sup 5}, where the universal parameter {xi} relates the chemical potential and the Fermi energy, {mu}={xi}{epsilon}{sub F}. Combined with the high temperature expansions of the viscosity our results suggest that the viscosity has a minimum near the critical temperature T{sub c}. A naieve extrapolation indicates that the minimum value of the ratio of viscosity over entropy density is within a factor of {approx}5 of the proposed bound {eta}/s{>=}({Dirac_h}/2{pi})/(4{pi}k{sub B})
Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermi Gases and Solitons in Fermionic Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheuk, Lawrence
2014-03-01
The coupling of the spin of electrons to their motional state lies at the heart of topological phases of matter. We have created and detected spin-orbit coupling in an atomic Fermi gas via spin-injection spectroscopy, which characterizes the energy-momentum dispersion and spin composition of the quantum states. For energies within the spin-orbit gap, the system acts as a spin diode. To fully inhibit transport, we open an additional spin gap with radio-frequency coupling, thereby creating a spin-orbit coupled lattice whose spinful band structure we probe. In the presence of s-wave interactions, spin-orbit coupled fermion systems should display induced p-wave pairing and consequently topological superfluidity. Such systems can be described by a relativistic Dirac theory with a mass term that can be made to vary spatially. Topologically protected edge states are expected to occur whenever the mass term changes sign. A system that similarly supports edges states is the strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance. Topological excitations, such as vortices - line defects - or solitons - planar defects - have been described theoretically for decades in many different physical contexts. In superconductivity and superfluidity they represent a defect in the order parameter and give rise to localized bound states. We have created and directly observed solitons in a fermionic superfluid. These are found to be stable for many seconds, allowing us to track their oscillatory motion in the trapped superfluid. Their trapping period increases dramatically as the interactions are tuned from the BEC to the BCS regime. At the Feshbach resonance, their period is an order of magnitude larger than expected from mean-field Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory, signaling strong effects of quantum fluctuations and possible filling of Andreev bound states. Our work paves the way towards the experimental study and control of fermionic edge states in ultracold gases.
Bogoliubov-de Gennes soliton dynamics in unconventional Fermi superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Daisuke A.
2016-01-01
Exact self-consistent soliton dynamics based on the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) formalism in unconventional Fermi superfluids/superconductors possessing an SU(d ) -symmetric two-body interaction is presented. The derivation is based on the ansatz having the similar form as the Gelfand-Levitan-Marchenko equation in the inverse scattering theory. Our solutions can be regarded as a multicomponent generalization of the solutions recently derived by Dunne and Thies [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 121602 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.121602]. We also propose superpositions of occupation states, which make it possible to realize various filling rates even in one-flavor systems, and include Dirac and Majorana fermions. The soliton solutions in the d =2 systems, which describe the mixture of singlet s -wave and triplet p -wave superfluids, exhibit a variety of phenomena such as rotating polar phases by soliton spins, SU(2)-DHN breathers, Majorana triplet states, s -p mixed dynamics, and so on. These solutions are illustrated by animations, where order parameters are visualized by spherical harmonic functions. The full formulation of the BdG theory is also supported, and the double-counting problem of BdG eigenstates and N -flavor generalization are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corro, I.; Martin, A. M.
2016-08-01
We develop a simple numerical method that allows us to calculate the BCS superfluid transition temperature Tc precisely for any interaction potential. We apply it to a polarized, ultracold Fermi gas with long-range, anisotropic, dipolar interactions and include the effects of anisotropic exchange interactions. We pay particular attention to the short-range behavior of dipolar gases and reexamine current renormalization methods. In particular, we find that dimerization of both atoms and molecules significantly hampers the formation of a superfluid. The end result is that at high density or interaction strengths, we find Tc is orders of magnitude lower than previous calculations.
Spin-orbit Coupled Fermi Gases and Heavy Solitons in Fermionic Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheuk, Lawrence
2013-05-01
The coupling of the spin of electrons to their motional state lies at the heart of topological phases of matter. We have created and detected spin-orbit coupling in an atomic Fermi gas via spin-injection spectroscopy, which characterizes the energy-momentum dispersion and spin composition of the quantum states. For energies within the spin-orbit gap, the system acts as a spin diode. To fully inhibit transport, we open an additional spin gap with radio-frequency coupling, thereby creating a spin-orbit coupled lattice whose spinful band structure we probe. In the presence of s-wave interactions, spin-orbit coupled fermion systems should display induced p-wave pairing and consequently topological superfluidity. Such systems can be described by a relativistic Dirac theory with a mass term that can be made to vary spatially. Topologically protected edge states are expected to occur whenever the mass term changes sign. A system that similarly supports edges states is the strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance. Topological excitations, such as vortices - line defects - or solitons - planar defects - have been described theoretically for decades in many different physical contexts. In superconductivity and superfluidity they represent a defect in the order parameter and give rise to localized bound states. We have created and directly observed solitons in a fermionic superfluid by imprinting a phase step into the superfluid wavefunction. These are found to be stable for many seconds, allowing us to track their oscillatory motion in the trapped superfluid. Their trapping period increases dramatically as the interactions are tuned from the BEC to the BCS regime. At the Feshbach resonance, their period is an order of magnitude larger than expectations from mean-field Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory, signaling strong effects of bosonic quantum fluctuations and possible filling of Andreev bound states. Our work opens the study of fermionic edge states in
Superfluid state of repulsively interacting three-component fermionic atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suga, Sei-Ichiro; Inaba, Kensuke
2013-03-01
We investigate the superfluid state of repulsively interacting three-component (color) fermionic atoms in optical lattices using Feynman diagrammatic approaches and the dynamical mean field theory. When the anisotropy of the three repulsive interactions is strong, atoms of two of the three colors form Cooper pairs and atoms of the third color remain a Fermi liquid. This superfluid emerges close to half filling at which the Mott insulating state characteristic of the three-component repulsive fermions appears. An effective attractive interaction is induced by density fluctuations of the third-color atoms. The superfluid state is stable against the phase separation that occurs in the strongly repulsive region. We determine the phase diagrams in terms of temperature, filling, and the anisotropy of the repulsive interactions. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 23540467) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ku, Mark J. H.; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W.
2016-01-01
We follow the time evolution of a superfluid Fermi gas of resonantly interacting 6 atoms after a phase imprint. Via tomographic imaging, we observe the formation of a planar dark soliton, its subsequent snaking, and its decay into a vortex ring, which, in turn, breaks to finally leave behind a single solitonic vortex. In intermediate stages, we find evidence for an exotic structure resembling the Φ soliton, a combination of a vortex ring and a vortex line. Direct imaging of the nodal surface reveals its undulation dynamics and its decay via the puncture of the initial soliton plane. The observed evolution of the nodal surface represents dynamics beyond superfluid hydrodynamics, calling for a microscopic description of unitary fermionic superfluids out of equilibrium.
Dynamics of shock waves in a superfluid unitary Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Wen; Shui, Tiankun; Shan, Yafei; Zhu, Changping
2015-09-01
We study the formation and dynamics of shock waves initiated by a repulsive potential in a superfluid unitary Fermi gas by using the order-parameter equation. In the theoretical framework, the regularization process of shock waves mediated by the quantum pressure term is purely dispersive. Our results show good agreement with the experiment of Joseph et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 150401). We reveal that the boxlike-shaped density peak observed in the experiment consists of many vortex rings due to the transverse instability of the dispersive shock wave. In addition, we study the transition from a sound wave to subsonic shock waves as the strength of the repulsive potential increases and show a strong qualitative change in the propagation speed of the wavefronts. For a relatively small strength of the repulsive potential, the propagation speed decreases below the sound speed with the increase of the strength as a scaling behavior. For a large strength where the shock waves are formed by colliding two spatially separated clouds, the speed is still smaller than the sound speed, but remains almost unchanged as the strength increases, which can be interpreted as the same expansion speed of the proliferation of the vortex rings originated from the transverse instability.
Superfluid Transitions in Bosonic Atom-Molecule Mixtures near a Feshbach Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzihovsky, Leo; Park, Jae; Weichman, Peter B.
2004-04-01
We study bosonic atoms near a Feshbach resonance and predict that, in addition to standard normal and atomic superfluid phases, this system generically exhibits a distinct phase of matter: a molecular superfluid, where molecules are superfluid while atoms are not. We explore zero- and finite-temperature properties of the molecular superfluid (a bosonic, strong-coupling analog of a BCS superconductor), and study quantum and classical phase transitions between the normal, molecular superfluid, and atomic superfluid states.
Superfluid transitions in bosonic atom-molecule mixtures near a Feshbach resonance.
Radzihovsky, Leo; Park, Jae; Weichman, Peter B
2004-04-23
We study bosonic atoms near a Feshbach resonance and predict that, in addition to standard normal and atomic superfluid phases, this system generically exhibits a distinct phase of matter: a molecular superfluid, where molecules are superfluid while atoms are not. We explore zero- and finite-temperature properties of the molecular superfluid (a bosonic, strong-coupling analog of a BCS superconductor), and study quantum and classical phase transitions between the normal, molecular superfluid, and atomic superfluid states. PMID:15169205
Phonon contribution to the shear viscosity of a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitarity limit
Mannarelli, Massimo; Manuel, Cristina; Tolos, Laura
2013-09-15
We present a detailed analysis of the contribution of small-angle Nambu–Goldstone boson (phonon) collisions to the shear viscosity, η, in a superfluid atomic Fermi gas close to the unitarity limit. We show that the experimental values of the shear viscosity coefficient to entropy ratio, η/s, obtained at the lowest reached temperature can be reproduced assuming that phonons give the leading contribution to η. The phonon contribution is evaluated considering 1↔2 processes and taking into account the finite size of the experimental system. In particular, for very low temperatures, T≲0.1T{sub F}, we find that phonons are ballistic and the contribution of phonons to the shear viscosity is determined by the processes that take place at the interface between the superfluid and the normal phase. This result is independent of the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law and leads to two testable predictions: the shear viscosity should correlate with the size of the optical trap and it should decrease with decreasing temperature. For higher temperatures the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law becomes relevant and, within our model, we find that the experimental data for η/s can be reproduced assuming that phonons have an anomalous dispersion law. -- Highlights: •We study the contribution of phonons to shear viscosity of a cold Fermi gas at unitary. •The shear viscosity to entropy ratio (η/s) is reproduced for T<∼0.1T{sub F}. •For very low temperatures η/s correlates with the size of the optical trap. •We explain η/s for T>∼0.1T{sub F} assuming an anomalous dispersion law for phonons.
Structure of a Quantized Vortex in Fermi Atom Gas
Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio
2006-09-07
In atomic Fermi gases, the pairing character changes from BCS-like to BEC-like when one decreases the threshold energy of the Feshbach resonance. With this crossover, the system enters the strong-coupling regime through the population enhancement of diatom molecules, and the vortex structure becomes much different from well-known core structures in BCS superfluid since the superfluid order parameter is given by a sum of BCS pairs and BEC molecular condensates. In this paper, we study the structure of a vortex by numerically solving the generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation derived from the fermion-boson model and clarify how the vortex structure changes with the threshold energy of the Feshbach resonance. We find that the diatom boson condensate enhances the matter density depletion inside the vortex core and the discreteness of localized quasi-particle spectrum.
Coordinate-Space Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov Solvers for Superfluid Fermi Systems in Large Boxes
Pei, J. C.; Fann, George I; Harrison, Robert J; Nazarewicz, W.; Hill, Judith C; Galindo, Diego A; Jia, Jun
2012-01-01
The self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov problem in large boxes can be solved accurately in the coordinate space with the recently developed solvers HFB-AX (2D) and MADNESS-HFB (3D). This is essential for the description of superfluid Fermi systems with complicated topologies and significant spatial extend, such as fissioning nuclei, weakly-bound nuclei, nuclear matter in the neutron star rust, and ultracold Fermi atoms in elongated traps. The HFB-AX solver based on B-spline techniques uses a hybrid MPI and OpenMP programming model for parallel computation for distributed parallel computation, within a node multi-threaded LAPACK and BLAS libraries are used to further enable parallel calculations of large eigensystems. The MADNESS-HFB solver uses a novel multi-resolution analysis based adaptive pseudo-spectral techniques to enable fully parallel 3D calculations of very large systems. In this work we present benchmark results for HFB-AX and MADNESS-HFB on ultracold trapped fermions.
Superfluidity of Bose—Einstein condensates in ultracold atomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Qi-Zhong; Wu, Biao
2015-05-01
Liquid helium 4 had been the only bosonic superfluid available in experiments for a long time. This situation was changed in 1995, when a new superfluid was born with the realization of the Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold atomic gases. The liquid helium 4 is strongly interacting and has no spin; there is almost no way to change its parameters, such as interaction strength and density. The new superfluid, Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), offers various advantages over liquid helium. On the one hand, BEC is weakly interacting and has spin degrees of freedom. On the other hand, it is convenient to tune almost all the parameters of a BEC, for example, the kinetic energy by spin-orbit coupling, the density by the external potential, and the interaction by Feshbach resonance. Great efforts have been devoted to studying these new aspects, and the results have greatly enriched our understanding of superfluidity. Here we review these developments by focusing on the stability and critical velocity of various superfluids. The BEC systems considered include a uniform superfluid in free space, a superfluid with its density periodically modulated, a superfluid with artificially engineered spin-orbit coupling, and a superfluid of pure spin current. Due to the weak interaction, these BEC systems can be well described by the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii theory and their superfluidity, in particular critical velocities, can be examined with the aid of Bogoliubov excitations. Experimental proposals to observe these new aspects of superfluidity are discussed. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB921903 and 2012CB921300) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274024, 11334001, and 11429402).
Topological superfluid in a trapped two-dimensional polarized Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling
Zhou Jing; Yi Wei; Zhang Wei
2011-12-15
We study the stability region of the topological superfluid phase in a trapped two-dimensional polarized Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling and across a BCS-BEC crossover. Due to the competition between polarization, pairing interaction, and spin-orbit coupling, the Fermi gas typically phase-separates in the trap. Employing a mean-field approach that guarantees the ground-state solution, we systematically study the structure of the phase separation and investigate in detail the optimal parameter region for the preparation of the topologically nontrivial superfluid phase. We then calculate the momentum space density distribution of the topological superfluid state and demonstrate that the existence of the phase leaves a unique signature in the trap integrated momentum space density distribution which can survive the time-of-flight imaging process.
Antiferromagnetism and superfluidity of a dipolar Fermi gas in a two-dimensional optical lattice
Liu Bo; Yin Lan
2011-10-15
In a dipolar Fermi gas, the dipole-dipole interaction between fermions can be turned into a dipolar Ising interaction between pseudospins in the presence of an ac electric field. When trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice, this dipolar Fermi gas has a very rich phase diagram at zero temperature, due to the competition between antiferromagnetism and superfluidity. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic state is the favored ground state. The superfluid state appears as the ground state at a smaller filling factor. In between there is a phase-separated region. The order parameter of the superfluid state can display different symmetries depending on the filling factor and interaction strength, including the d-wave (d), the extended s-wave (xs), or their linear combination (xs+id). Implications for the current experiment are discussed.
Structure and dynamics of a rotating superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Linghua; Li, Jinghong
2014-11-01
We investigate the structure and dynamics of a rotating superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture (SBFM) made of superfluid bosons and two-component (spin-up and -down) superfluid fermions. A ground-state phase diagram for the nonrotating case of a SBFM with specific parameters is given, where the ground-state configuration of a nonrotating SBFM is mainly determined by the boson-fermion interaction. For the rotating case of a SBFM with a sufficiently large rotation frequency, we show that the system supports a mixed phase and three typical layer-separated phases. In particular, the visible vortex formation in the fermionic superfluid exhibits a remarkable hysteresis effect during the dynamical evolution of a rotating SBFM, which is evidently different from the case of rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.
FFLO Superfluids in 2D Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermi Gases
Zheng, Zhen; Gong, Ming; Zhang, Yichao; Zou, Xubo; Zhang, Chuanwei; Guo, Guangcan
2014-01-01
We show that the combination of spin-orbit coupling and in-plane Zeeman field in a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas can lead to a larger parameter region for Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phases than that using spin-imbalanced Fermi gases. The resulting FFLO superfluids are also more stable due to the enhanced energy difference between FFLO and conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) excited states. We clarify the crucial role of the symmetry of Fermi surface on the formation of finite momentum pairing. The phase diagram for FFLO superfluids is obtained in the BCS-BEC crossover region and possible experimental observations of FFLO phases are discussed. PMID:25288379
Direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in ultracold Fermi gases.
Zwierlein, Martin W; Schunck, Christian H; Schirotzek, André; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2006-07-01
Phase transitions are dramatic phenomena: water freezes into ice, atomic spins spontaneously align in a magnet, and liquid helium becomes superfluid. Sometimes, such a drastic change in behaviour is accompanied by a visible change in appearance. The hallmark of Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in trapped, weakly interacting Bose gases is the sudden formation of a dense central core inside a thermal cloud. However, in strongly interacting gases--such as the recently observed fermionic superfluids--there is no longer a clear separation between the superfluid and the normal parts of the cloud. The detection of fermion pair condensates has required magnetic field sweeps into the weakly interacting regime, and the quantitative description of these sweeps presents a major theoretical challenge. Here we report the direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in a strongly interacting gas of 6Li fermions, through sudden changes in the shape of the clouds--in complete analogy to the case of weakly interacting Bose gases. By preparing unequal mixtures of the two spin components involved in the pairing, we greatly enhance the contrast between the superfluid core and the normal component. Furthermore, the distribution of non-interacting excess atoms serves as a direct and reliable thermometer. Even in the normal state, strong interactions significantly deform the density profile of the majority spin component. We show that it is these interactions that drive the normal-to-superfluid transition at the critical population imbalance of 70 +/- 5 per cent (ref. 12).
Pitaevskii, L.P.; Stringari, S.; Orso, G.
2005-05-15
We develop the hydrodynamic theory of Fermi superfluids in the presence of a periodic potential. The relevant parameters governing the propagation of sound (compressibility and effective mass) are calculated in the weakly interacting BCS limit. The conditions of stability of the superfluid motion with respect to creation of elementary excitations are discussed. We also evaluate the frequency of the center-of-mass oscillation when the superfluid gas is additionally confined by a harmonic trap.
Multiple period states of the superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Sukjin; Dalfovo, Franco; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Watanabe, Gentaro
2016-02-01
We study multiple period states of a two-component unpolarized superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice along the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover. The existence of states whose period is a multiple of the lattice spacing is a direct consequence of the nonlinear behavior of the gas, which is due to the presence of the order parameter associated with superfluidity. By solving Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for a superfluid flow with finite quasimomentum, we find that, in the BCS side of the crossover, the multiple period states can be energetically favorable compared to the normal Bloch states and their survival time against dynamical instability drastically increases, suggesting that these states can be accessible in current experiments, in sharp contrast to the situation in BECs.
Superfluidity versus Bloch oscillations in confined atomic gases.
Büchler, H P; Geshkenbein, V B; Blatter, G
2001-09-01
We study the superfluid properties of (quasi) one-dimensional bosonic atom gases/liquids in traps with finite geometries in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. Driving the condensate with a moving defect we find the nucleation rate for phase slips using instanton techniques. While phase slips are quenched in a ring resulting in a superfluid response, they proliferate in a tube geometry where we find Bloch oscillations in the chemical potential. These Bloch oscillations describe the individual tunneling of atoms through the defect and thus are a consequence of particle quantization.
Large N expansion for superfluid Fermi gases at unitarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veillette, Martin Y.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2007-03-01
We study an s-wave resonant Fermi gas near the unitarity point. We treat this problem by generalizing the Fermi gas to a model with 2N hyperfine states (with Sp(2N) symmetry). We show that for N=∞, the model can be solved exactly by the BEC-BCS mean field solution. In order to address the physically relevant problem (N=1), we perform a systematic 1/N loop expansion around the BEC-BCS solution. For N=1, we obtain a variety of thermodynamic quantities, including the energy, the pairing gap, and the upper critical polarization. We compare our results to experimental data and other theoretical approaches.
Thermal conductivity and sound attenuation in dilute atomic Fermi gases
Braby, Matt; Chao Jingyi; Schaefer, Thomas
2010-09-15
We compute the thermal conductivity and sound attenuation length of a dilute atomic Fermi gas in the framework of kinetic theory. Above the critical temperature for superfluidity, T{sub c}, the quasiparticles are fermions, whereas below T{sub c}, the dominant excitations are phonons. We calculate the thermal conductivity in both cases. We find that at unitarity the thermal conductivity {kappa} in the normal phase scales as {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 3/2}. In the superfluid phase we find {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 2}. At high temperature the Prandtl number, the ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusion constants, is 2/3. The ratio increases as the temperature is lowered. As a consequence we expect sound attenuation in the normal phase just above T{sub c} to be dominated by shear viscosity. We comment on the possibility of extracting the shear viscosity of the dilute Fermi gas at unitarity using measurements of the sound absorption length.
Vortex line of spin-orbit coupled Fermi superfluid through BCS to BEC Crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Juan; Zhang, Shizhong
Superfluid Fermi gases with spin-orbit interaction provides a unique opportunity to investigate possible effects of strong interaction in a topological superfluid. It has been suggested that with addition of Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling, a two-component Fermi gas with strong s-wave interaction can become a topological superfluid with zero-energy bound state at the core of the vortex. In this talk, I discuss the evolution of vortex structure in a spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas through the BCS-BEC crossover within Bogoliubov-de Genne formalism. We find that the largest critical current occurs in the BEC side of the resonance, in contradiction to the usual crossover without spin-orbit coupling where it occurs at unitarity. Furthermore, we discuss the core structure of the vortex by calculating the spin and density distribution around the vortex. Department of Physics and Centre of Theoretical and Computational Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
Kain, Ben; Ling, Hong Y.
2011-06-15
We consider a mixture of two-component Fermi and (one-component) dipolar Bose gases in which both dipolar interaction and s-wave scattering between fermions of opposite spins are tunable. We show that in the long-wavelength limit, the anisotropy in the Fermi-Fermi interaction induced by phonons of the dipolar condensate can strongly enhance the scattering in the triplet channel. We investigate in detail the conditions for achieving optimal critical temperature at which the triplet superfluid begins to compete with the singlet superfluid.
Gradient corrections to the local-density approximation for trapped superfluid Fermi gases
Csordas, Andras; Almasy, Orsolya; Szepfalusy, Peter
2010-12-15
Two species superfluid Fermi gas is investigated on the BCS side up to the Feshbach resonance. Using the Greens's function technique gradient corrections are calculated to the generalized Thomas-Fermi theory including Cooper pairing. Their relative magnitude is found to be measured by the small parameter (d/R{sub TF}){sup 4}, where d is the oscillator length of the trap potential and R{sub TF} is the radial extension of the density n in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. In particular, at the Feshbach resonance the universal corrections to the local density approximation are calculated and a universal prefactor {kappa}{sub W}=7/27 is derived for the von Weizsaecker-type correction {kappa}{sub W}(({h_bar}/2{pi}){sup 2}/2m)({nabla}{sup 2}n{sup 1/2}/n{sup 1/2}).
Propagation of sound and supersonic bright solitons in superfluid Fermi gases in BCS-BEC crossover
Wen Wen; Shen Shunqing; Huang Guoxiang
2010-01-01
We investigate the linear and nonlinear sound propagations in a cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gas with a large particle number. We first solve analytically the eigenvalue problem of linear collective excitations and provide explicit expressions of all eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, which are valid for all superfluid regimes in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensation (BCS-BEC) crossover. The linear sound speed obtained agrees well with that of a recent experimental measurement. We then consider a weak nonlinear excitation and show that the time evolution of the excitation obeys a Korteweg de Vries equation. Different from the result obtained in quasi-one-dimensional case studied previously, where subsonic dark solitons are obtained via the balance between quantum pressure and nonlinear effect, we demonstrate that bright solitons with supersonic propagating velocity can be generated in the present three-dimensional system through the balance between a waveguidelike dispersion and the interparticle interaction. The supersonic bright solitons obtained display different physical properties in different superfluid regimes and hence can be used to characterize superfluid features of the BCS-BEC crossover.
Multiple Period States of the Superfluid Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Gentaro; Yoon, Sukjin; Dalfovo, Franco; Nakatsukasa, Takashi
2016-09-01
We study multiple period states (i.e., states whose period is a multiple of the lattice constant) of a two-component unpolarized superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice along the crossover between the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) states. By solving Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for a superfluid flow with finite quasimomentum, we find that, in the BCS side of the crossover, the multiple period states can be energetically favorable compared to the normal Bloch states and their survival time against dynamical instability drastically increases, suggesting that these states can be accessible in current experiments. This is in sharp contrast to the situation in BECs.
Fermionic superfluidity with imbalanced spin populations.
Zwierlein, Martin W; Schirotzek, André; Schunck, Christian H; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2006-01-27
We established superfluidity in a two-state mixture of ultracold fermionic atoms with imbalanced state populations. This study relates to the long-standing debate about the nature of the superfluid state in Fermi systems. Indicators for superfluidity were condensates of fermion pairs and vortices in rotating clouds. For strong interactions, near a Feshbach resonance, superfluidity was observed for a broad range of population imbalances. We mapped out the superfluid regime as a function of interaction strength and population imbalance and characterized the quantum phase transition to the normal state, known as the Pauli limit of superfluidity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Brandon M.; Wu, Chien-Te; Boyack, Rufus; Levin, K.
2015-10-01
We investigate the effects of topological order on the transition temperature, Tc, and response functions in spin-orbit-coupled fermionic superfluids with a transverse Zeeman field in three dimensions. Our calculations include fluctuation effects beyond mean-field theory and are compatible with f -sum rules. In the topological phase we find that Tc can be as large as 10 % of the Fermi temperature, which should be experimentally accessible in cold-gas experiments. At higher temperatures, above Tc, the spin and density response functions provide signatures of topological phases via the recombination or amplification of frequency-dependent peaks.
Induced Interactions and the Superfluid Transition Temperature in a Three-Component Fermi Gas
Martikainen, J.-P.; Kinnunen, J. J.; Toermae, P.; Pethick, C. J.
2009-12-31
We study many-body contributions to the effective interaction between fermions in a three-component Fermi mixture. We find that effective interactions induced by the third component can lead to a phase diagram different from that predicted if interactions with the third component are neglected. As a result, in a confining potential a superfluid shell structure can arise even for equal populations of the components. We also find a critical temperature for the BCS transition in a {sup 6}Li mixture which can deviate strongly from the one in a weakly interacting two-component system.
Shear Viscosity of a Unitary Fermi Gas Near the Superfluid Phase Transition.
Joseph, J A; Elliott, E; Thomas, J E
2015-07-10
We measure the shear viscosity for a resonantly interacting Fermi gas as a function of temperature from nearly the ground state through the superfluid phase transition into the high temperature regime. Further, we demonstrate an iterative method to estimate the local shear viscosity coefficient α(S)(θ) versus reduced temperature θ from the cloud-averaged measurements ⟨α(S)⟩, and compare α(S) to several microscopic theories. We find that α(S) reveals features that were previously hidden in ⟨α(S)⟩.
Self-localization of a small number of Bose particles in a superfluid Fermi system
Targonska, Katarzyna; Sacha, Krzysztof
2010-09-15
We consider self-localization of a small number of Bose particles immersed in a large homogeneous superfluid mixture of fermions in three- and one-dimensional space. Bosons distort the density of surrounding fermions and create a potential well where they can form a bound state analogous to a small polaron state. In the three-dimensional volume, we observe the self-localization for repulsive interactions between bosons and fermions. In the one-dimensional case, bosons self-localize as well for attractive interactions, thereby forming, together with a pair of fermions at the bottom of the Fermi sea, a vector soliton. We analyze also thermal effects and show that small nonzero temperature affects the pairing function of the Fermi subsystem and has little influence on the self-localization phenomena.
Spontaneous quantum Hall effect in an atomic spinor Bose-Fermi mixture.
Xu, Zhi-Fang; Li, Xiaopeng; Zoller, Peter; Liu, W Vincent
2015-03-27
We study a mixture of spin-1 bosonic and spin-1/2 fermionic cold atoms, e.g., ^{87}Rb and ^{6}Li, confined in a triangular optical lattice. With fermions at 3/4 filling, Fermi surface nesting leads to spontaneous formation of various spin textures of bosons in the ground state, such as collinear, coplanar, and even noncoplanar spin orders. The phase diagram is mapped out with varying boson tunneling and Bose-Fermi interactions. Most significantly, in one noncoplanar state the mixture is found to exhibit a spontaneous quantum Hall effect in fermions and crystalline superfluidity in bosons, both driven by interaction.
Atomic Fermi gases in optical lattices
Modugno, G.; De Mirandes, E.; Ferlando, F.; Ott, H.; Roati, G.; Inguscio, M.
2005-05-05
We report on the first experiments with atomic Fermi gases in optical lattices. We have studied the properties of non interacting fermions and of an interacting boson-fermion mixture in a 1D lattice in presence of additional linear or harmonic potentials. These systems have allowed to study for the first time the fundamental quantum transport properties of a perfect crystal and to confirm the role of interactions in real crystals. We have found that the combination of Fermi gases and optical lattices can also have important applications, such as high-resolution force sensing.
Fermi Superfluids with Engineered Dispersion: A Consistent Treatment of Fluctuation Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Brandon; Wu, Chien-Te; Boyack, Rufus; Levin, Kathyrn
2015-03-01
Recent experimental advances in cold atoms allows for the possibility of engineered dispersion that give rise to novel physics. For example, in systems with either spin-orbit coupling (SOC) or shaken optical lattices, momentum fluctuations can have energy cost that is quartic instead of quadratic at small momenta. The resulting density of states (DOS) will then more accurately resemble a system with lower dimension, leading to, e.g., enhanced depletion of Bose condensates or enhanced binding energy of Fermions. We consider the effects of the reduced DOS on the stability of fermionic superfluids in the presence of SOC or optical lattice shaking. We establish and characterize fluctuations associated with the standard mean field equations of the superfluid instability. This introduces bosonic degrees of freedom at a level beyond Gaussian fluctuations. Moreover, these bosons must necessarily condense in order for the fermionic superfluid to be stable. This is a non-trivial constraint for fermions, as seen from the observation that, e.g., Rashba SOC destroys a condensate of non-interacting (true) bosons. On this basis we present a phase diagram establishing the regions of fluctuation-stable fermionic superfluidity as a function of scattering length and temperature.
Variational approach to cold fermionic atom superfluidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parish, Meera; Mihaila, Bogdan; Blagoev, Krastan; Gaudio, Sergio; Timmermans, Eddy; Szymanska, Marzena; Littlewood, Peter
2004-03-01
We study a system of ultra-cold, dilute, fermionic atoms close to a Feshbach resonance. By using a variational approach, we avoid making the approximation of preformed molecular pairs. This enables us to follow the crossover from BCS to Blatt-Schafroth pairs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate the uniform spin susceptibility χ in the superfluid phase of an ultracold Fermi gas in the region of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein-condensate (BCS-BEC) crossover. In our previous paper [H. Tajima et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 033617 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.033617], including pairing fluctuations within an extended T -matrix approximation (ETMA), we showed that strong pairing fluctuations cause the so-called spin-gap phenomenon, where χ is anomalously suppressed even in the normal state near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc. In this paper, we extend this work to the superfluid phase below Tc, to clarify how this many-body phenomenon is affected by the superfluid order. From the comparison of the ETMA χ with the Yosida function describing the spin susceptibility in a weak-coupling BCS superfluid, we identify the region where pairing fluctuations crucially affect this magnetic quantity below Tc in the phase diagram with respect to the strength of a pairing interaction and the temperature. This spin-gap regime is found to be consistent with the previous pseudogap regime determined from the pseudogapped density of states. We also compare our results with a recent experiment on a 6Li Fermi gas. Since the spin susceptibility is sensitive to the formation of spin-singlet preformed pairs, our results would be useful for the study of pseudogap physics in an ultracold Fermi gas on the viewpoint of the spin degrees of freedom.
Zhou Yu; Wen Wen; Huang Guoxiang
2008-03-01
We investigate the dynamical behavior of large-amplitude collective modes in a superfluid Fermi gas in the crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) based on a hydrodynamic approach. We first solve the superfluid hydrodynamic equations that describe the time evolution of fermionic condensates in the BCS-BEC crossover and calculate explicitly the frequency shifts of the collective modes induced by nonlinear effects using the Lindstedt-Poincare method. The result shows that the frequency shifts display different features in different superfluid regimes. We then study the second-harmonic generation of the collective modes under a phase-matching condition, which can be fulfilled by choosing appropriate parameters of the system. The analytical results obtained are checked by numerical simulations and good agreement is found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yong-Jun; Liu, Xian-Feng; Han, Jiu-Rong
2009-12-01
This paper studies the superfluidity of ultracold spin-2 Bose atoms with weak interactions in optical lattices by calculating the excitation energy spectrum using the Bogoliubov approach. The energy spectra exhibit the characteristics of the superfluid-phase explicitly and it finds the nonvanishing critical speeds of superfluid. The obtained results display that the critical speeds of superfluid are different for five spin components and can be controlled by adjusting the lattice parameters in experiments. Finally it discusses the feasibilities of implementing and measuring superfluid.
Quantum shock waves and domain walls in the real-time dynamics of a superfluid unitary Fermi gas.
Bulgac, Aurel; Luo, Yuan-Lung; Roche, Kenneth J
2012-04-13
We show that in the collision of two superfluid fermionic atomic clouds one observes the formation of quantum shock waves as discontinuities in the number density and collective flow velocity. Domain walls, which are topological excitations of the superfluid order parameter, are also generated and exhibit abrupt phase changes by π and slower motion than the shock waves. The domain walls are distinct from the gray soliton train or number density ripples formed in the wake of the shock waves and observed in the collisions of superfluid bosonic atomic clouds. Domain walls with opposite phase jumps appear to collide elastically.
p-Wave superfluidity by spin-nematic Fermi surface deformation.
Gukelberger, Jan; Kozik, Evgeny; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Sigrist, Manfred; Svistunov, Boris; Troyer, Matthias
2014-11-01
We study attractively interacting fermions on a square lattice with dispersion relations exhibiting strong spin-dependent anisotropy. The resulting Fermi surface mismatch suppresses the s-wave BCS-type instability, clearing the way for unconventional types of order. Unbiased sampling of the Feynman diagrammatic series using diagrammatic Monte Carlo methods reveals a rich phase diagram in the regime of intermediate coupling strength. Instead of a proposed Cooper-pair Bose metal phase [A. E. Feiguin and M. P. A. Fisher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 025303 (2009)], we find an incommensurate density wave at strong anisotropy and two different p-wave superfluid states with unconventional symmetry at intermediate anisotropy. PMID:25415910
Adhikari, S. K.; Lu Hong; Pu Han
2009-12-15
We derive a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii density-functional equation appropriate to study the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of dimers formed of singlet spin-half Fermi pairs in the BEC-unitarity crossover while the dimer-dimer scattering length a changes from 0 to infinity. Using an effective one-dimensional form of this equation, we study the phenomenon of dynamical self-trapping of a cigar-shaped Fermi superfluid in the entire BEC-unitarity crossover in a double-well potential. A simple two-mode model is constructed to provide analytical insights. We also discuss the consequence of our study on the self-trapping of an atomic BEC in a double-well potential.
Majorana modes and s-wave topological superfluids in ultracold fermionic atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ya-Jie; Li, Ning; Zhou, Jiang; Kou, Su-Peng; Yu, Jing
2016-09-01
We present another topological superfluid with s-wave pairing for ultracold fermionic atoms in addition to the chiral topological superfluid proposed by Sato et al (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 020401), of which edge dislocations host Majorana zero modes that may be utilized as decoherence-free qubits, and quantized vortices trap zero energy modes. The quantum phase fluctuations for topological superfluids and Berezinsky–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition are also discussed.
Acoustic Attenuation Probe for Fermion Superfluidity in Ultracold-Atom Gases
Gaudio, Sergio; Mihaila, Bogdan; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Timmermans, Eddy; Bedell, Kevin S.
2007-03-16
Dilute gas Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC's), currently used to cool fermionic atoms in atom traps, can also probe the superfluidity of these fermions. The damping rate of BEC-acoustic excitations (phonon modes), measured in the middle of the trap as a function of the phonon momentum, yields an unambiguous signature of BCS-like superfluidity, provides a measurement of the superfluid gap parameter, and gives an estimate of the size of the Cooper pairs in the BEC-BCS crossover regime. We also predict kinks in the momentum dependence of the damping rate which can reveal detailed information about the fermion quasiparticle dispersion relation.
Hysteresis of noninteracting and spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gases with relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metcalf, Mekena; Lai, Chen-Yen; Chien, Chih-Chun
2016-05-01
Hysteresis can be found in driven many-body systems such as magnets and superfluids. Rate-dependent hysteresis arises when a system is driven periodically while relaxing towards equilibrium. A two-state paramagnet driven by an oscillating magnetic field in the relaxation approximation clearly demonstrates rate-dependent hysteresis. A noninteracting atomic Fermi gas in an optical ring potential, when driven by a periodic artificial gauge field and subjected to dissipation, is shown to exhibit hysteresis loops of atomic current due to a competition of the driving time and the relaxation time. This is in contrast to electronic systems exhibiting equilibrium persistent current driven by magnetic flux due to rapid relaxation. Universal behavior of the dissipated energy in one hysteresis loop is observed in both magnetic and atomic systems, showing linear and inverse-linear dependence on the relaxation time in the strong and weak dissipation regimes. While interactions in general invalidate the framework for rate-dependent hysteresis, an atomic Fermi gas with artificial spin-orbit coupling can exhibit hysteresis loops of atomic currents. Cold atoms in ring-shape potentials are thus promising for demonstrating rate-dependent hysteresis and its associated phenomena.
From cosmology to cold atoms: observation of Sakharov oscillations in a quenched atomic superfluid.
Hung, Chen-Lung; Gurarie, Victor; Chin, Cheng
2013-09-13
Predicting the dynamics of many-body systems far from equilibrium is a challenging theoretical problem. A long-predicted phenomenon in hydrodynamic nonequilibrium systems is the occurrence of Sakharov oscillations, which manifest in the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale correlations of galaxies. Here, we report the observation of Sakharov oscillations in the density fluctuations of a quenched atomic superfluid through a systematic study in both space and time domains and with tunable interaction strengths. Our work suggests a different approach to the study of nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body systems and the exploration of their analogs in cosmology and astrophysics.
Theory of dark matter superfluidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin
2015-11-01
We propose a novel theory of dark matter (DM) superfluidity that matches the successes of the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) model on cosmological scales while simultaneously reproducing the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) phenomenology on galactic scales. The DM and MOND components have a common origin, representing different phases of a single underlying substance. DM consists of axionlike particles with mass of order eV and strong self-interactions. The condensate has a polytropic equation of state P ˜ρ3 giving rise to a superfluid core within galaxies. Instead of behaving as individual collisionless particles, the DM superfluid is more aptly described as collective excitations. Superfluid phonons, in particular, are assumed to be governed by a MOND-like effective action and mediate a MONDian acceleration between baryonic matter particles. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful) and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not); due to the higher velocity dispersion in clusters, and correspondingly higher temperature, the DM in clusters is either in a mixture of superfluid and the normal phase or fully in the normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of observational signatures: an array of low-density vortices in galaxies; merger dynamics that depend on the infall velocity vs phonon sound speed; distinct mass peaks in bulletlike cluster mergers, corresponding to superfluid and normal components; and interference patters in supercritical mergers. Remarkably, the superfluid phonon effective theory is strikingly similar to that of the unitary Fermi gas, which has attracted much excitement in the cold atom community in recent years. The critical temperature for DM superfluidity is of order mK, comparable to known cold atom Bose-Einstein condensates. Identifying a precise cold atom analog would give important insights on the microphysical interactions underlying DM superfluidity
Pseudogap Pairing in Ultracold Fermi Atoms
Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D.; Dong Hui
2010-06-18
The Bose-Einstein condensate to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer crossover in ultracold Fermi gases creates an ideal environment to enrich our knowledge of many-body systems. It is relevant to a wide range of fields from condensed matter to astrophysics. The nature of pairing in strongly interacting Fermi gases can be readily studied. This aids our understanding of related problems in high-T{sub c} superconductors, whose mechanism is still under debate due to the large interaction parameter. Here, we calculate the dynamical properties of a normal, trapped strongly correlated Fermi gas, by developing a quantum cluster expansion. Our calculations for the single-particle spectral function agree with recent rf spectroscopy measurements, and clearly demonstrate pseudogap pairing in the strongly interacting regime.
Kohn-Sham approach to Fermi gas superfluidity: The bilayer of fermionic polar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ancilotto, Francesco
2016-05-01
By using a well-established "ab initio" theoretical approach developed in the past to quantitatively study the superconductivity of condensed matter systems, based on the Kohn-Sham density functional theory, I study the superfluid properties and the BCS-BEC crossover of two parallel bi-dimensional layers of fermionic dipolar molecules, where the pairing mechanism leading to superfluidity is provided by the interlayer coupling between dipoles. The finite temperature superfluid properties of both the homogeneous system and one where the fermions in each layer are confined by a square optical lattice are studied at half filling conditions, and for different values of the strength of the confining optical potential. The T = 0 results for the homogeneous system are found to be in excellent agreement with diffusion Monte Carlo results. The superfluid transition temperature in the BCS region is found to increase, for a given interlayer coupling, with the strength of the confining optical potential. A transition occurs at sufficiently small interlayer distances, where the fermions becomes localized within the optical lattice sites in a square geometry with an increased effective lattice constant, forming a system of localized composite bosons. This transition should be signaled by a sudden drop in the superfluid fraction of the system.
Generic equilibration dynamics of planar defects in trapped atomic superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherpelz, Peter; Padavić, Karmela; Murray, Andy; Glatz, Andreas; Aranson, Igor S.; Levin, K.
2015-03-01
We investigate equilibration processes shortly after sudden perturbations are applied to ultracold trapped superfluids. We show the similarity of phase imprinting and localized density depletion perturbations, both of which initially are found to produce "phase walls." These planar defects are associated with a sharp gradient in the phase. Importantly they relax following a quite general sequence. Our studies, based on simulations of the complex time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation, address the challenge posed by these experiments: how a superfluid eventually eliminates a spatially extended planar defect. The processes involved are necessarily more complex than equilibration involving simpler line vortices. An essential mechanism for relaxation involves repeated formation and loss of vortex rings near the trap edge.
Zou Peng; Kuhnle, Eva D.; Vale, Chris J.; Hu Hui
2010-12-15
Theoretical predictions for the dynamic structure factor of a harmonically trapped Fermi superfluid near the Bose-Einstein condensate-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BEC-BCS) crossover are compared with recent Bragg spectroscopy measurements at large transferred momenta. The calculations are based on a random-phase (or time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Gorkov) approximation generalized to the strongly interacting regime. Excellent agreement with experimental spectra at low temperatures is obtained, with no free parameters. Theoretical predictions for zero-temperature static structure factor are also found to agree well with the experimental results and independent theoretical calculations based on the exact Tan relations. The temperature dependence of the structure factors at unitarity is predicted.
Probing Non-Abelian Statistics of Majorana Fermions in Ultracold Atomic Superfluid
Zhu Shiliang; Shao, L.-B.; Wang, Z. D.; Duan, L.-M.
2011-03-11
We propose an experiment to directly probe the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana fermions by braiding them in an s-wave superfluid of ultracold atoms. We show that different orders of braiding operations give orthogonal output states that can be distinguished through Raman spectroscopy. Realization of Majorana states in an s-wave superfluid requires strong spin-orbital coupling and a controllable Zeeman field in the perpendicular direction. We present a simple laser configuration to generate the artificial spin-orbital coupling and the required Zeeman field in the dark-state subspace.
p{sub x}+ip{sub y} Superfluid from s-Wave Interactions of Fermionic Cold Atoms
Zhang Chuanwei; Tewari, Sumanta; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Das Sarma, S.
2008-10-17
Two-dimensional (p{sub x}+ip{sub y}) superfluids or superconductors offer a playground for studying intriguing physics such as quantum teleportation, non-Abelian statistics, and topological quantum computation. Creating such a superfluid in cold fermionic atom optical traps using p-wave Feshbach resonance is turning out to be challenging. Here we propose a method to create a p{sub x}+ip{sub y} superfluid directly from an s-wave interaction making use of a topological Berry phase, which can be artificially generated. We discuss ways to detect the spontaneous Hall mass current, which acts as a diagnostic for the chiral p-wave superfluid.
Spectroscopic method to measure the superfluid fraction of an ultracold atomic gas
John, S. T.; Hadzibabic, Z.; Cooper, N. R.
2011-02-15
We perform detailed analytical and numerical studies of a recently proposed method for a spectroscopic measurement of the superfluid fraction of an ultracold atomic gas [N. R. Cooper and Z. Hadzibabic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 030401 (2010)]. Previous theoretical work is extended by explicitly including the effects of nonzero temperature and interactions, and assessing the quantitative accuracy of the proposed measurement for a one-component Bose gas. We show that for suitably chosen experimental parameters the method yields an experimentally detectable signal and a sufficiently accurate measurement. This is illustrated by explicitly considering two key examples: First, for a weakly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas it reproduces the expected result that below the critical temperature the superfluid fraction closely follows the condensate fraction. Second, it allows a clear quantitative differentiation of the superfluid and the condensate density in a strongly interacting Bose gas.
Rashba Spin-Orbit-Coupled Atomic Fermi Gases in a Two-Dimensional Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael
2015-11-01
The collective-mode excitation energy of a population-imbalanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice at zero temperature is calculated within the Gaussian approximation, and from the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the generalized random-phase approximation assuming the existence of a Sarma superfluid state. It is found that the Gaussian approximation overestimates the speed of sound of the Goldstone mode. More interestingly, the Gaussian approximation fails to reproduce the roton-like structure of the collective-mode dispersion which appears after the linear part of the dispersion in the Bethe-Salpeter approach. We investigate the speed of sound of a balanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas near the boundary of the topological phase transition driven by an out-of-plane Zeeman field. It is shown that the minimum of the speed of sound is located at the topological phase transition boundary, and this fact can be used to confirm the existence of a topological phase transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xia-Ji
2013-03-01
A strongly correlated Fermi system plays a fundamental role in very different areas of physics, from neutron stars, quark-gluon plasmas, to high temperature superconductors. Despite the broad applicability, it is notoriously difficult to be understood theoretically because of the absence of a small interaction parameter. Recent achievements of ultracold trapped Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance have ushered in enormous changes. The unprecedented control of interaction, geometry and purity in these novel systems has led to many exciting experimental results, which are to be urgently understood at both low and finite temperatures. Here we review the latest developments of virial expansion for a strongly correlated Fermi gas and their applications on ultracold trapped Fermi atoms. We show remarkable, quantitative agreements between virial predictions and various recent experimental measurements at about the Fermi degenerate temperature. For equations of state, we discuss a practical way of determining high-order virial coefficients and use it to calculate accurately the long-sought third-order virial coefficient, which is now verified firmly in experiments at ENS and MIT. We discuss also virial expansion of a new many-body parameter-Tan’s contact. We then turn to less widely discussed issues of dynamical properties. For dynamic structure factors, the virial prediction agrees well with the measurement at the Swinburne University of Technology. For single-particle spectral functions, we show that the expansion up to the second order accounts for the main feature of momentum-resolved rf-spectroscopy for a resonantly interacting Fermi gas, as recently reported by JILA. In the near future, more practical applications with virial expansion are possible, owing to the ever-growing power in computation.
Superfluidity in ultracold gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Gretchen
2016-05-01
The study of superfluidity has a long and rich history. In Bose-Einstein condensate, superfluidity gives rise to a number of interesting effects, including quantized vortices and persistent currents. In this seminar I will give an introduction to superfluidity in ultracold atoms, including a discussion of the critical velocity and the spectrum of elementary excitations in superfluid systems.
Maria Goeppert Mayer Prize Talk: Superfluid Atom Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Gretchen
2016-05-01
We have performed a series of experiments with ring-shaped Bose-Einstein Condensates, with and without the addition of a ``weak link'' barrier. Weak connections between superconductors or superfluids can differ from classical links due to quantum coherence, which allows for flow without resistance. The properties of a weak link are characterized by a single function, the current-phase relationship. In recent experiments, we have developed a technique to directly measure the current-phase relationship of the weak link. The weak link is created using a laser beam that acts as a barrier across one side of the ring condensate. By rotating the barrier, we can control the current around the ring. When the weak link is rotated at at low rotation rates, we observe phase slips between well-defined, quantized current states, and have demonstrated that the system exhibits hysteresis. At higher rotation rates we have directly measured the onset of resistive flow across the weak link. Such measurements may open new avenues of research in quantum transport. More recently, we have studied the behavior of the ring BEC when the radius is expanded at supersonic rates. Because information can propagate only at the speed of sound, the supersonic expansion creates causally disconnected regions, whose phases evolve at different rates. Such experiments may allow us to study cosmic inflation at laboratory scales.
Abnormal superfluid fraction of harmonically trapped few-fermion systems.
Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D
2014-06-13
Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this Letter determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia I(q). Analogous abnormal behavior of I(q) has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments.
Pressure profiles of nonuniform two-dimensional atomic Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martiyanov, Kirill; Barmashova, Tatiana; Makhalov, Vasiliy; Turlapov, Andrey
2016-06-01
Spatial profiles of the pressure have been measured in atomic Fermi gases with primarily two-dimensional (2D) kinematics. The in-plane motion of the particles is confined by a Gaussian-shape potential. The two-component deeply degenerate Fermi gases are prepared at different values of the s -wave attraction. The pressure profile is found using the force-balance equation, from the measured density profile and the trapping potential. The pressure is compared to zero-temperature models within the local density approximation. In the weakly interacting regime, the pressure lies above a Landau Fermi-liquid theory and below the ideal-Fermi-gas model, whose prediction coincides with that of the Cooper-pair mean-field theory. The values closest to the data are provided by the approach where the mean field of Cooper pairs is supplemented with fluctuations. In the regime of strong interactions, in response to the increasing attraction, the pressure shifts below this model reaching lower values calculated within Monte Carlo methods. Comparison to models shows that interaction-induced departure from 2D kinematics is either small or absent. In particular, comparison with a lattice Monte Carlo suggests that kinematics is two dimensional in the strongly interacting regime.
Degenerate Bose-Fermi Mixture of Metastable Atoms
McNamara, J. M.; Jeltes, T.; Tychkov, A. S.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.
2006-08-25
We report the observation of simultaneous quantum degeneracy in a dilute gaseous Bose-Fermi mixture of metastable atoms. Sympathetic cooling of helium-3 (fermion) by helium-4 (boson), both in the lowest triplet state, allows us to produce ensembles containing more than 10{sup 6} atoms of each isotope at temperatures below 1 {mu}K, and achieve a fermionic degeneracy parameter of T/T{sub F}=0.45. Because of their high internal energy, the detection of individual metastable atoms with subnanosecond time resolution is possible, permitting the study of bosonic and fermionic quantum gases with unprecedented precision. This may lead to metastable helium becoming the mainstay of quantum atom optics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imamura, Kei; Furukawa, Takeshi; Yang, Xiaofei; Fujita, Tomomi; Wakui, Takashi; Mitsuya, Yousuke; Hayasaka, Miki; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Hatakeyama, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Odashima, Hitoshi; Ueno, Hideki; Matsuo, Yukari; Orochi Collaboration
2014-09-01
We have developed a new nuclear laser spectroscopy technique that is called OROCHI (Optical RI-atoms Observation in Condensed Helium as Ioncatcher). In OROCHI, highly energetic ion beam is injected into superfluid helium (He II) and is trapped as atoms. Hyperfine structure (HFS) and Zeeman splitting of trapped atoms is measured using laser-microwave (MW)/radiofrequency (RF) double resonance method. We deduce nuclear moments and spin values from the measured splittings, respectively So far, we measured Zeeman splitting of 84-87Rb atoms To evaluate the validity of the OROCHI method, it is necessary to investigate the following two points not only for Zeeman but also for HFS splitings. (i) What is the accuracy in frequency in our measurement? (ii) How high beam intensity is necessary to observe resonance spectra? For this purpose we conducted online experiment using 87Rb beam and measured the HFS splitting of injected 87Rb atoms in He II.
Fundamental Constraints on Linear Response Theories of Fermi Superfluids above and Below Tc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Hao; Chien, Chih-Chun; He, Yan; Levin, K.
2013-06-01
We present fundamental constraints required for a consistent linear response theory of fermionic superfluids and address temperatures both above and below the transition temperature Tc. We emphasize two independent constraints, one associated with gauge invariance (and the related Ward identity) and another associated with the compressibility sum rule, both of which are satisfied in strict BCS theory. However, we point out that it is the rare many body theory which satisfies both of these. Indeed, well studied quantum Hall systems and random-phase approximations to the electron gas are found to have difficulties with meeting these constraints. We summarize two distinct theoretical approaches which are, however, demonstrably compatible with gauge invariance and the compressibility sum rule. The first of these involves an extension of BCS theory to a mean field description of the BCS-Bose Einstein condensation crossover. The second is the simplest Nozieres Schmitt-Rink (NSR) treatment of pairing correlations in the normal state. As a point of comparison we focus on the compressibility κ of each and contrast the predictions above Tc. We note here that despite the compliance with sum rules, this NSR based scheme leads to an unphysical divergence in κ at the transition. Because of the delicacy of the various consistency requirements, the results of this paper suggest that avoiding this divergence may repair one problem while at the same time introducing others.
Haberfehlner, Georg; Thaler, Philipp; Knez, Daniel; Volk, Alexander; Hofer, Ferdinand; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Kothleitner, Gerald
2015-01-01
Structure, shape and composition are the basic parameters responsible for properties of nanoscale materials, distinguishing them from their bulk counterparts. To reveal these in three dimensions at the nanoscale, electron tomography is a powerful tool. Advancing electron tomography to atomic resolution in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope remains challenging and has been demonstrated only a few times using strong constraints or extensive filtering. Here we demonstrate atomic resolution electron tomography on silver/gold core/shell nanoclusters grown in superfluid helium nanodroplets. We reveal morphology and composition of a cluster identifying gold- and silver-rich regions in three dimensions and we estimate atomic positions without using any prior information and with minimal filtering. The ability to get full three-dimensional information down to the atomic scale allows understanding the growth and deposition process of the nanoclusters and demonstrates an approach that may be generally applicable to all types of nanoscale materials. PMID:26508471
Superfluid and Insulating Phases of Fermion Mixtures in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iskin, M.; de Melo, C. A. R. Sá
2007-08-01
The ground state phase diagram of fermion mixtures in optical lattices is analyzed as a function of interaction strength, fermion filling factor, and tunneling parameters. In addition to standard superfluid, phase-separated or coexisting superfluid excess-fermion phases found in homogeneous or harmonically trapped systems, fermions in optical lattices have several insulating phases, including a molecular Bose-Mott insulator (BMI), a Fermi-Pauli (band) insulator (FPI), a phase-separated BMI-FPI mixture or a Bose-Fermi checkerboard (BFC). The molecular BMI phase is the fermion mixture counterpart of the atomic BMI found in atomic Bose systems, the BFC or BMI-FPI phases exist in Bose-Fermi mixtures, and lastly the FPI phase is particular to the Fermi nature of the constituent atoms of the mixture.
Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices.
Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F
2004-11-01
We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices.
Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices.
Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F
2004-11-01
We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:15600816
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Ming; Duan, Wen-Shan; Dou, Fu-Quan; Gou, Xue-Qiang; Zhang, Heng
2014-08-01
We study the tunneling dynamics of superfluid Fermi gases in an optical lattice from BEC to unitarity regime. Four different cases are found, namely Josephson oscillations (JO), oscillating-phase-type self-trapping (OST), running-phase-type self-trapping (RST) and self-trapping (ST). We find that the s-wave scattering length has a crucial role on the tunneling dynamics. Periodic modulation can also affect the tunneling phenomena, for example, in the high frequency modulation, the optical lattice is splitted at the zero points of the zeroth order Bessel function J 0 and strong suppression of tunneling by the modulation is observed at these points.
Resonantly paired fermionic superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurarie, V.; Radzihovsky, L.
2007-01-01
We present a theory of a degenerate atomic Fermi gas, interacting through a narrow Feshbach resonance, whose position and therefore strength can be tuned experimentally, as demonstrated recently in ultracold trapped atomic gases. The distinguishing feature of the theory is that its accuracy is controlled by a dimensionless parameter proportional to the ratio of the width of the resonance to Fermi energy. The theory is therefore quantitatively accurate for a narrow Feshbach resonance. In the case of a narrow s-wave resonance, our analysis leads to a quantitative description of the crossover between a weakly paired BCS superconductor of overlapping Cooper pairs and a strongly paired molecular Bose-Einstein condensate of diatomic molecules. In the case of pairing via a p-wave resonance, that we show is always narrow for a sufficiently low density, we predict a detuning-temperature phase diagram, that in the course of a BCS-BEC crossover can exhibit a host of thermodynamically distinct phases separated by quantum and classical phase transitions. For an intermediate strength of the dipolar anisotropy, the system exhibits a px + i py paired superfluidity that undergoes a topological phase transition between a weakly coupled gapless ground state at large positive detuning and a strongly paired fully gapped molecular superfluid for a negative detuning. In two dimensions the former state is characterized by a Pfaffian ground state exhibiting topological order and non-Abelian vortex excitations familiar from fractional quantum Hall systems.
Bell's Inequality and Universal Quantum Gates in a Cold-Atom Chiral Fermionic p-Wave Superfluid
Zhang Chuanwei; Tewari, Sumanta; Das Sarma, S.
2007-11-30
We propose and analyze a probabilistic scheme to entangle two spatially separated topological qubits in a p{sub x}+ip{sub y} superfluid using controlled collisions between atoms in movable dipole traps and unpaired atoms inside vortex cores in the superfluid. We discuss how to test the violation of Bell's inequality with the generated entanglement. A set of universal quantum gates is shown to be implementable deterministically using the entanglement despite the fact that the entangled states can be created only probabilistically.
Observation of Fermi surface deformation in a dipolar quantum gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aikawa, K.; Baier, S.; Frisch, A.; Mark, M.; Ravensbergen, C.; Ferlaino, F.
2014-09-01
In the presence of isotropic interactions, the Fermi surface of an ultracold Fermi gas is spherical. Introducing anisotropic interactions can deform the Fermi surface, but the effect is subtle and challenging to observe experimentally. Here, we report on the observation of a Fermi surface deformation in a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. The deformation is caused by the interplay between strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and the Pauli exclusion principle. We demonstrate the many-body nature of the effect and its tunability with the Fermi energy. Our observation provides a basis for future studies on anisotropic many-body phenomena in normal and superfluid phases.
Kato, Shinya; Inaba, Kensuke; Sugawa, Seiji; Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Yamashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-01-01
A system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice has been regarded as an ideal quantum simulator for a Hubbard model with extremely high controllability of the system parameters. While making use of the controllability, a comprehensive measurement across the weakly to strongly interacting regimes in the Hubbard model to discuss the quantum many-body state is still limited. Here we observe a great change in the excitation energy spectra across the two regimes in an atomic Bose–Hubbard system by using a spectroscopic technique, which can resolve the site occupancy in the lattice. By quantitatively comparing the observed spectra and numerical simulations based on sum rule relations and a binary fluid treatment under a finite temperature Gutzwiller approximation, we show that the spectra reflect the coexistence of a delocalized superfluid state and a localized insulating state across the two regimes. PMID:27094083
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Shinya; Inaba, Kensuke; Sugawa, Seiji; Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Yamashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-04-01
A system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice has been regarded as an ideal quantum simulator for a Hubbard model with extremely high controllability of the system parameters. While making use of the controllability, a comprehensive measurement across the weakly to strongly interacting regimes in the Hubbard model to discuss the quantum many-body state is still limited. Here we observe a great change in the excitation energy spectra across the two regimes in an atomic Bose-Hubbard system by using a spectroscopic technique, which can resolve the site occupancy in the lattice. By quantitatively comparing the observed spectra and numerical simulations based on sum rule relations and a binary fluid treatment under a finite temperature Gutzwiller approximation, we show that the spectra reflect the coexistence of a delocalized superfluid state and a localized insulating state across the two regimes.
Kato, Shinya; Inaba, Kensuke; Sugawa, Seiji; Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Yamashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-04-20
A system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice has been regarded as an ideal quantum simulator for a Hubbard model with extremely high controllability of the system parameters. While making use of the controllability, a comprehensive measurement across the weakly to strongly interacting regimes in the Hubbard model to discuss the quantum many-body state is still limited. Here we observe a great change in the excitation energy spectra across the two regimes in an atomic Bose-Hubbard system by using a spectroscopic technique, which can resolve the site occupancy in the lattice. By quantitatively comparing the observed spectra and numerical simulations based on sum rule relations and a binary fluid treatment under a finite temperature Gutzwiller approximation, we show that the spectra reflect the coexistence of a delocalized superfluid state and a localized insulating state across the two regimes.
Metastability in spin-polarized Fermi gases.
Liao, Y A; Revelle, M; Paprotta, T; Rittner, A S C; Li, Wenhui; Partridge, G B; Hulet, R G
2011-09-30
We study the role of particle transport and evaporation on the phase separation of an ultracold, spin-polarized atomic Fermi gas. We show that the previously observed deformation of the superfluid paired core is a result of evaporative depolarization of the superfluid due to a combination of enhanced evaporation at the center of the trap and the inhibition of spin transport at the normal-superfluid phase boundary. These factors contribute to a nonequilibrium jump in the chemical potentials at the phase boundary. Once formed, the deformed state is highly metastable, persisting for times of up to 2 s. PMID:22107209
Three-component Fulde-Ferrell superfluids in a two-dimensional Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Fang; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-08-01
We investigate the pairing physics of a three-component spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas in two spatial dimensions. The three atomic hyperfine states of the system are coupled by the recently realized synthetic spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which mixes different hyperfine states into helicity branches in a momentum-dependent manner. As a consequence, the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and the hyperfine-state-dependent interactions leads to the emergence of Fulde-Ferrell (FF) pairing states with finite center-of-mass momenta even in the absence of the Fermi-surface asymmetry that is usually mandatory to stabilize an SOC-induced FF state. We show that, for different combinations of spin-dependent interactions, the ground state of the system can either be the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing state with zero center-of-mass momentum or be the FF pairing states. Of particular interest here is the existence of a three-component FF pairing state in which every two out of the three components form FF pairing. We map out the phase diagram of the system and characterize the properties of the three-component FF state, such as the order parameters, the gapless contours, and the momentum distributions. Based on these results, we discuss possible experimental detection schemes for the interesting pairing states in the system.
Three-component Fulde-Ferrell superfluids in a two-dimensional Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Fang; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Wei Yi's Team Team; Wei Zhang's Team Collaboration
2016-05-01
We investigate the pairing physics of a three-component spin-orbit coupled (SOC) Fermi gas in two spatial dimensions. The three atomic hyperfine states of the system are coupled by the recently realized synthetic SOC, which mixes different hyperfine states into helicity branches in a momentum-dependent manner. As a consequence, the interplay of SOC and the hyperfine-state dependent interactions leads to the emergence of Fulde-Ferrell (FF) pairing states with finite center-of-mass (COM) momenta even in the absence of the Fermi-surface asymmetry that is usually mandatory to stabilize an SOC-induced FF state. We show that, for different combinations of spin-dependent interactions, the ground state of the system can either be the conventional BCS pairing state with zero COM momentum or be the FF pairing states. Of particular interest here is the existence of a three-component FF pairing state in which every two out of the three components form FF pairing. We map out the phase diagram of the system and characterize the properties of the three-component FF state, such as the order parameters, the gapless contours and the momentum distributions. Based on these results, we discuss possible experimental detection schemes for the interesting pairing states in the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Lianyi
2016-10-01
We present a standard field theoretical derivation of the dynamic density and spin linear response functions of a dilute superfluid Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover in both three and two dimensions. The derivation of the response functions is based on the elegant functional path integral approach which allows us to calculate the density-density and spin-spin correlation functions by introducing the external sources for the density and the spin density. Since the generating functional cannot be evaluated exactly, we consider two gapless approximations which ensure a gapless collective mode (Goldstone mode) in the superfluid state: the BCS-Leggett mean-field theory and the Gaussian-pair-fluctuation (GPF) theory. In the mean-field theory, our results of the response functions agree with the known results from the random phase approximation. We further consider the pair fluctuation effects and establish a theoretical framework for the dynamic responses within the GPF theory. We show that the GPF response theory naturally recovers three kinds of famous diagrammatic contributions: the Self-Energy contribution, the Aslamazov-Lakin contribution, and the Maki-Thompson contribution. We also show that unlike the equilibrium state, in evaluating the response functions, the linear (first-order) terms in the external sources as well as the induced order parameter perturbations should be treated carefully. In the superfluid state, there is an additional order parameter contribution which ensures that in the static and long wavelength limit, the density response function recovers the result of the compressibility (compressibility sum rule). We expect that the f-sum rule is manifested by the full number equation which includes the contribution from the Gaussian pair fluctuations. The dynamic density and spin response functions in the normal phase (above the superfluid critical temperature) are also derived within the Nozières-Schmitt-Rink (NSR) theory.
Krutitsky, K V; Graham, R
2003-12-12
The superfluid-Mott insulator phase transition in a Bose-Einstein condensate of neutral atoms with doubly degenerate internal ground states in an optical lattice is theoretically investigated. The optical lattice is created by two counterpropagating linearly polarized laser beams with the angle theta between the polarization vectors (lin-angle-lin configuration). The phase diagram of the system and the critical values of the parameters are worked out. It is shown that the sign of the detuning plays an important role and that there is a strong suppression of the Mott transition in the case of blue detuning. Varying the laser intensity and/or the angle theta one can manipulate the Mott insulator to superfluid quantum phase transition as well as prepare the condensate in physically distinguishable "ferromagnetic" and "antiferromagnetic" superfluid states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qijin
2016-05-01
BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories.
Chen, Qijin
2016-01-01
BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories. PMID:27183875
Chen, Qijin
2016-01-01
BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor'kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories.
Critical velocity for superfluid flow across the BEC-BCS crossover.
Miller, D E; Chin, J K; Stan, C A; Liu, Y; Setiawan, W; Sanner, C; Ketterle, W
2007-08-17
Critical velocities have been observed in an ultracold superfluid Fermi gas throughout the BEC-BCS crossover. A pronounced peak of the critical velocity at unitarity demonstrates that superfluidity is most robust for resonant atomic interactions. Critical velocities were determined from the abrupt onset of dissipation when the velocity of a moving one-dimensional optical lattice was varied. The dependence of the critical velocity on lattice depth and on the inhomogeneous density profile was studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capponi, S.; Lecheminant, P.; Totsuka, K.
2016-04-01
Alkaline-earth and ytterbium cold atomic gases make it possible to simulate SU(N)-symmetric fermionic systems in a very controlled fashion. Such a high symmetry is expected to give rise to a variety of novel phenomena ranging from molecular Luttinger liquids to (symmetry-protected) topological phases. We review some of the phases that can be stabilized in a one dimensional lattice. The physics of this multi-component Fermi gas turns out to be much richer and more exotic than in the standard SU(2) case. For N > 2, the phase diagram is quite rich already in the case of the single-band model, including a molecular Luttinger liquid (with dominant superfluid instability in the N-particle channel) for incommensurate fillings, as well as various Mott-insulating phases occurring at commensurate fillings. Particular attention will be paid to the cases with additional orbital degree of freedom (which is accessible experimentally either by taking into account two atomic states or by putting atoms in the p-band levels). We introduce two microscopic models which are relevant for these cases and discuss their symmetries and strong coupling limits. More intriguing phase diagrams are then presented including, for instance, symmetry protected topological phases characterized by non-trivial edge states.
75 FR 20867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1
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2010-04-21
... COMMISSION DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... Plant Unit 1, (Fermi-1) located in Monroe County, Michigan. Environmental Assessment Identification of... historic sites. It does not affect nonradiological plant effluents and has no other environmental...
Mazzarella, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.
2006-01-15
For systems of interacting, ultracold spin-zero neutral bosonic atoms, harmonically trapped and subject to an optical lattice potential, we derive an Extended Bose Hubbard (EBH) model by developing a systematic expansion for the Hamiltonian of the system in powers of the lattice parameters and of a scale parameter, the lattice attenuation factor. We identify the dominant terms that need to be retained in realistic experimental conditions, up to nearest-neighbor interactions and nearest-neighbor hoppings conditioned by the on-site occupation numbers. In the mean field approximation, we determine the free energy of the system and study the phase diagram both at zero and at finite temperature. At variance with the standard on site Bose Hubbard model, the zero-temperature phase diagram of the EBH model possesses a dual structure in the Mott insulating regime. Namely, for specific ranges of the lattice parameters, a density wave phase characterizes the system at integer fillings, with domains of alternating mean occupation numbers that are the atomic counterparts of the domains of staggered magnetizations in an antiferromagnetic phase. We show as well that in the EBH model, a zero-temperature quantum phase transition to pair superfluidity is, in principle, possible, but completely suppressed at the lowest order in the lattice attenuation factor. Finally, we determine the possible occurrence of the different phases as a function of the experimentally controllable lattice parameters.
Atom optics and space physics: A summary of an 'Enrico Fermi' summer school
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arimondo, Ennio; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.
2008-03-01
We describe the scientific content of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' on atom optics and space physics, organized by the Italian Physical Society in Varenna at Lake Como, Italy, 2-13 July 2007.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Glen; McAuslan, David; Sheridan, Eoin; Bowen, Warwick
2014-03-01
The field of quantum optomechanics has seen great progress over the last decade with many exciting theoretical proposals and impressive experimental achievements. Among the most successful optomechanical systems are the collective modes of ultra cold atoms where ponderomotive squeezing and quantization of collective atomic motion have been observed. In this context the collective motion of superfluid helium-4 appears to be a promising candidate given its zero viscosity flow; potentially leading to the simple preparation of macroscopic mechanical oscillators with ultra-high quality factors. Here we present the first observation of Brownian motion in superfluid helium-4 thin films. The superfluid film is formed around an optical whispering gallery mode resonator enabling high sensitivity readout. Furthermore, exceedingly strong dynamical backaction heating and cooling is observed with optomechanical instabilities arising from only 40nW of injected optical power. While there are still many open questions regarding the superfluid hydrodynamics we believe this to be a promising system to study macroscopic non-classical mechanical states.
Quantum gases. Observation of Fermi surface deformation in a dipolar quantum gas.
Aikawa, K; Baier, S; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Ravensbergen, C; Ferlaino, F
2014-09-19
In the presence of isotropic interactions, the Fermi surface of an ultracold Fermi gas is spherical. Introducing anisotropic interactions can deform the Fermi surface, but the effect is subtle and challenging to observe experimentally. Here, we report on the observation of a Fermi surface deformation in a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. The deformation is caused by the interplay between strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and the Pauli exclusion principle. We demonstrate the many-body nature of the effect and its tunability with the Fermi energy. Our observation provides a basis for future studies on anisotropic many-body phenomena in normal and superfluid phases. PMID:25237096
Trap- and population-imbalanced two-component Fermi gas in the Bose-Einstein-condensate limit
Silotri, S. A.
2010-01-15
We study equal mass population imbalanced two-component atomic Fermi gas with unequal trap frequencies (omega{sub a}rrow upnot =omega{sub a}rrow down) at zero temperature using the local density approximation (LDA). We consider the strongly attracting Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) limit where polarized (gapless) superfluid is stable. The system exhibits shell structure: unpolarized superfluid->polarized superfluid->normal state. Compared to the trap symmetric case, when the majority component is tightly confined the gapless superfluid shell grows in size leading to reduced threshold polarization to form a polarized (gapless) superfluid core. In contrast, when the minority component is tightly confined, we find that the superfluid phase is dominated by the unpolarized superfluid phase with the gapless phase forming a narrow shell. The shell radii for various phases as a function of polarization at different values of trap asymmetry are presented and the features are explained using the phase diagram.
Ferromagnetism in a repulsive atomic Fermi gas with correlated disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, S.; Fratini, E.
2016-05-01
We investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas in the presence of a correlated random field that represents an optical speckle pattern. The density is tuned so that the (noninteracting) Fermi energy is close to the mobility edge of the Anderson localization transition. We employ quantum Monte Carlo simulations to determine various ground-state properties, including the equation of state, the magnetic susceptibility, and the energy of an impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi gas (repulsive polaron). In the weakly interacting limit, the magnetic susceptibility is found to be suppressed by disorder. However, it rapidly increases with the interaction strength, and it diverges at a much weaker interaction strength compared to the clean gas. Both the transition from the paramagnetic phase to the partially ferromagnetic phase, and the one from the partially to the fully ferromagnetic phase, are strongly favored by disorder, indicating a case of order induced by disorder.
Radio-Frequency Spectroscopy of strongly interacting Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schirotzek, Andre; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Sommer, Ariel; Zwierlein, Martin
2009-05-01
Strongly interacting Fermi gases exhibit a rich phase diagram in the BEC-BCS crossover. In recent experiments we have used radio frequency spectroscopy to probe two physically very different regimes: 1.) We have observed Spin-Polarons in a highly imbalanced Fermi mixture. A single spin down atom immersed in a spin up Fermi sea dresses itself with a cloud of majority atoms, thus forming a Spin-Polaron. rf spectroscopy can directly reveal the polaron and allows for an experimental measure of the quasiparticle residue Z and the chemical potential μ of this Fermi liquid. At a critical interaction strength, the transition to two-particle molecular binding is observed. 2.) rf spectroscopy of quasiparticles in a polarized superfluid allowed us to determine the superfluid gap δ and has demonstrated the importance of the Hartree energy U in rf spectra [1]. [1] Andre Schirotzek, Yong-il Shin, Christian H. Schunck and Wolfgang Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 140403 (2008)
Thomas-Fermi theory for atomic nuclei revisited
Centelles, M. . E-mail: mario@ecm.ub.es; Schuck, P.; Vinas, X.
2007-02-15
The recently developed semiclassical variational Wigner-Kirkwood (VWK) approach is applied to finite nuclei using external potentials and self-consistent mean fields derived from Skyrme interactions and from relativistic mean field theory. VWK consists of the Thomas-Fermi part plus a pure, perturbative h {sup 2} correction. In external potentials, VWK passes through the average of the quantal values of the accumulated level density and total energy as a function of the Fermi energy. However, there is a problem of overbinding when the energy per particle is displayed as a function of the particle number. The situation is analyzed comparing spherical and deformed harmonic oscillator potentials. In the self-consistent case, we show for Skyrme forces that VWK binding energies are very close to those obtained from extended Thomas-Fermi functionals of h {sup 4} order, pointing to the rapid convergence of the VWK theory. This satisfying result, however, does not cure the overbinding problem, i.e., the semiclassical energies show more binding than they should. This feature is more pronounced in the case of Skyrme forces than with the relativistic mean field approach. However, even in the latter case the shell correction energy for e.g., {sup 208}Pb turns out to be only {approx}-6 MeV what is about a factor two or three off the generally accepted value. As an ad hoc remedy, increasing the kinetic energy by 2.5%, leads to shell correction energies well acceptable throughout the periodic table. The general importance of the present studies for other finite Fermi systems, self-bound or in external potentials, is pointed out.
Trimers, Molecules, and Polarons in Mass-Imbalanced Atomic Fermi Gases
Mathy, Charles J. M.; Parish, Meera M.; Huse, David A.
2011-04-22
We consider the ground state of a single ''spin-down'' impurity atom interacting attractively with a ''spin-up'' atomic Fermi gas. By constructing variational wave functions for polarons, molecules, and trimers, we perform a detailed study of the transitions between these dressed bound states as a function of mass ratio r=m{sub {up_arrow}}/m{sub {down_arrow}} and interaction strength. Crucially, we find that the presence of a Fermi sea enhances the stability of the p-wave trimer, which can be viewed as a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov molecule that has bound an additional majority atom. For sufficiently large r, we find that the transitions lie outside the region of phase separation of the imbalanced Fermi gas and should thus be observable in experiment, unlike the well-studied equal-mass case.
Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids.
Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D'Errico, Chiara
2016-01-01
Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips.
Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids.
Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D'Errico, Chiara
2016-01-01
Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips. PMID:27188334
Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids
Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D’Errico, Chiara
2016-01-01
Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips. PMID:27188334
Natural orbits of atomic Cooper pairs in a nonuniform Fermi gas
Pong, Y. H.; Law, C. K.
2006-07-15
We examine the basic mode structure of atomic Cooper pairs in an inhomogeneous Fermi gas. Based on the properties of Bogoliubov quasiparticle vacuum, the single particle density matrix and the anomalous density matrix share the same set of eigenfunctions. These eigenfunctions correspond to natural pairing orbits associated with the BCS ground state. We investigate these orbits for a Fermi gas in a spherical harmonic trap and construct the wave function of a Cooper pair in the form of Schmidt decomposition. The issue of spatial quantum entanglement between constituent atoms in a pair is addressed.
Reaching fermi degeneracy in two-species optical dipole traps.
Onofrio, Roberto; Presilla, Carlo
2002-09-01
We propose the use of a combined optical dipole trap to achieve Fermi degeneracy by sympathetic cooling with a different bosonic species. Two far-detuned pairs of laser beams focused on the atomic clouds are used to confine the two atomic species with different trapping strengths. We show that a deep Fermi degeneracy regime can be potentially achieved earlier than Bose-Einstein condensation, as discussed in the favorable situation of a 6Li-23Na mixture. This opens up the possibility of experimentally investigating a mixture of superfluid Fermi and normal Bose gases.
Rashba spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gases
Jiang Lei; Pu Han; Liu Xiaji; Hu Hui
2011-12-15
We investigate theoretically BEC-BCS crossover physics in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a system of a two-component Fermi gas with and without a Zeeman field that breaks the population balance between the two components. A bound state (Rashba pair) emerges because of the spin-orbit interaction. We study the properties of Rashba pairs using standard pair fluctuation theory. At zero temperature, the Rashba pairs condense into a macroscopic mixed-spin state. We discuss in detail the experimental signatures for observing the condensation of Rashba pairs by calculating various physical observables which characterize the properties of the system and can be measured in experiment.
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Polaronic atom-trimer continuity in three-component Fermi gases.
Nishida, Yusuke
2015-03-20
Recently it has been proposed that three-component Fermi gases may exhibit a new type of crossover physics in which an unpaired Fermi sea of atoms smoothly evolves into that of trimers in addition to the ordinary BCS-BEC crossover of condensed pairs. Here we study its corresponding polaron problem in which a single impurity atom of one component interacts with condensed pairs of the other two components with equal populations. By developing a variational approach in the vicinity of a narrow Feshbach resonance, we show that the impurity atom smoothly changes its character from atom to trimer with increasing the attraction and eventually there is a sharp transition to dimer. The emergent polaronic atom-trimer continuity can be probed in ultracold atoms experiments by measuring the impurity spectral function. Our novel crossover wave function properly incorporating the polaronic atom-trimer continuity will provide a useful basis to further investigate the phase diagram of three-component Fermi gases in more general situations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iskin, M.
2016-07-01
We first show that the many-body Hamiltonian governing the physical properties of an alkaline-earth 173Yb Fermi gas across the recently realized orbital Feshbach resonance is exactly analogous to that of two-band s -wave superconductors with contact interactions; i.e., even though the free-particle bands have a tunable energy offset in between and are coupled by a Josephson-type attractive interband pair scattering, the intraband interactions have exactly the same strength. We then introduce two intraband order parameters within the BCS mean-field approximation and investigate the competition between their in-phase and out-of-phase (i.e., the so-called π -phase) solutions in the entire BCS-BEC evolution at zero temperature.
Cao, Ye; Liu, Xia -Ji; He, Lianyi; Long, Gui -Lu; Hu, Hui
2015-02-09
We theoretically investigate the superfluid density and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition of a two-dimensional Rashba spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas with both in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. It was recently predicted that, by tuning the two Zeeman fields, the system may exhibit different exotic Fulde-Ferrell (FF) superfluid phases, including the gapped FF, gapless FF, gapless topological FF, and gapped topological FF states. Due to the FF paring, we show that the superfluid density (tensor) of the system becomes anisotropic. When an in-plane Zeeman field is applied along the x direction, the tensor component along the y direction n_{s},yy is generally larger than n_{s},xx in most parameter space. At zero temperature, there is always a discontinuity jump in n_{s},xx as the system evolves from a gapped FF into a gapless FF state. With increasing temperature, such a jump is gradually washed out. The critical BKT temperature has been calculated as functions of the spin-orbit-coupling strength, interatomic interaction strength, and in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. We predict that the novel FF superfluid phases have a significant critical BKT temperature, typically at the order of 0.1T_{F}, where T_{F} is the Fermi degenerate temperature. Furthermore, their observation is within the reach of current experimental techniques in cold-atom laboratories.
Cao, Ye; Liu, Xia -Ji; He, Lianyi; Long, Gui -Lu; Hu, Hui
2015-02-09
We theoretically investigate the superfluid density and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition of a two-dimensional Rashba spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas with both in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. It was recently predicted that, by tuning the two Zeeman fields, the system may exhibit different exotic Fulde-Ferrell (FF) superfluid phases, including the gapped FF, gapless FF, gapless topological FF, and gapped topological FF states. Due to the FF paring, we show that the superfluid density (tensor) of the system becomes anisotropic. When an in-plane Zeeman field is applied along the x direction, the tensor component along the y direction ns,yy is generally larger thanmore » ns,xx in most parameter space. At zero temperature, there is always a discontinuity jump in ns,xx as the system evolves from a gapped FF into a gapless FF state. With increasing temperature, such a jump is gradually washed out. The critical BKT temperature has been calculated as functions of the spin-orbit-coupling strength, interatomic interaction strength, and in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. We predict that the novel FF superfluid phases have a significant critical BKT temperature, typically at the order of 0.1TF, where TF is the Fermi degenerate temperature. Furthermore, their observation is within the reach of current experimental techniques in cold-atom laboratories.« less
Causality problems for Fermi's two-atom system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegerfeldt, Gerhard C.
1994-01-01
Let A and B be two atoms or, more generally, a 'source' and a 'detector' separated by some distance R. At t = 0 A is in an excited state, B in its ground state, and no photons are present. A theorem is proved that in contrast to Einstein causality and finite signal velocity the excitation probability of B is nonzero immediately after t = 0. Implications are discussed.
Interaction of ions, atoms, and small molecules with quantized vortex lines in superfluid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mateo, David; Eloranta, Jussi; Williams, Gary A.
2015-02-01
The interaction of a number of impurities (H2, Ag, Cu, Ag2, Cu2, Li, He3 + , He* (3S), He2∗ (3Σu), and e-) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid 4He is calculated by using the Orsay-Trento density functional theory (DFT) method at 0 K. The Donnelly-Parks (DP) potential function binding ions to the vortex is combined with DFT data, yielding the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The vortex core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or through the DP potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with the value obtained from re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significantly higher binding energies to vortex lines below 1 K than the available thermal energy, where the thermally assisted escape process becomes exponentially negligible. Even at higher temperatures 1.5-2.0 K, the trapping times for larger metal clusters are sufficiently long that the previously observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or to allow thermally assisted escape. Finally, a new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He*.
Interaction of Ions, Atoms and Small Molecules with Quantized Vortex Lines in Superfluid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eloranta, Jussi; Matteo, David; Williams, Gary
2015-03-01
The interaction of a number of impurities (H2, Ag, Cu, Ag2, Cu2, Li, He3+,He* (3 S), He2*(3Σu) and e-) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid 4He is calculated using density functional methods at 0 K. The technique yields the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or from the trapping potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with a re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significant binding energies to the vortex lines below 1 K where the thermally assisted escape process becomes very inefficient. Even at higher temperatures the trapping times, especially for larger clusters, are sufficiently long that the observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or thermally assisted escape. A new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He*. Work supported by the NSF, Grants CHE-1262306 and DMR-1205734, and the Interdisciplinary Research Institute for the Sciences.
RF Spectroscopy on a Homogeneous Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhenjie; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Patel, Parth; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Over the last two decades RF spectroscopy has been established as an indispensable tool to probe a large variety of fundamental properties of strongly interacting Fermi gases. This ranges from measurement of the pairing gap over tan's contact to the quasi-particle weight of Fermi polarons. So far, most RF spectroscopy experiments have been performed in harmonic traps, resulting in an averaged response over different densities. We have realized an optical uniform potential for ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms, which allows us to avoid the usual problems connected to inhomogeneous systems. Here we present recent results on RF spectroscopy of these homogeneous samples with a high signal to noise ratio. In addition, we report progress on measuring the contact of a unitary Fermi gas across the normal to superfluid transition.
Thomas-Fermi approach to density functional theory: binding energy for atomic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Rocco, H. O.; Lanzini, F.; Aguiar, J. C.
2016-11-01
In this work, we re-examine the Thomas-Fermi formalism as an approach to the calculation of atomic binding energies. We focus on the concept of electron density as the central magnitude, and the way in which the different contributions to the total energy can be evaluated from it. Total energies of simple atoms (Z = 2 to 10) are calculated using three different analytical approximations for the electronic density, and the results are compared with those obtained within the Hartree-Fock model.
New light on the intriguing history of superfluidity in liquid (4)He.
Griffin, Allan
2009-04-22
Surprisingly, it was 30 years after the first liquefaction of (4)He in 1908 that the discovery that liquid (4)He is not just a 'cold' liquid was made. Below T = 2.18 K, it is a 'quantum' liquid which exhibits spectacular macroscopic quantum behaviour that can be seen with the naked eye. Since the observation of superfluidity in liquid (4)He is one of the greatest discoveries in modern physics, we present a day-to-day chronology of the tangled events which preceded the seminal discovery of zero viscosity in 1938 by Kapitza in Moscow and by Allen and Misener in Cambridge. On the theory side, London argued in 1938 that the microscopic basis for this new superfluid phase was the forgotten phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) first suggested by Einstein in 1925. In 1941, Landau developed a very successful theory of superfluid (4)He, but it was not anchored in a microscopic theory of interacting atoms. It took another 20 years for theorists to unify the two seemingly different theories of Landau and London. Experiments on trapped superfluid atomic gases since 1995 have shone new light on superfluid (4)He. In the mid-1930s, London had emphasized that superconductivity in metals and superfluidity in liquid (4)He were similar. Experiments on trapped two-component Fermi gases in the last five years have shown that a Bose condensate is indeed the basis of both of these superfluid phases. This confirms the now famous Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-BEC crossover scenario developed for superfluidity by Leggett and Nozières in the early 1980s but largely ignored until a few years ago. The study of superfluid (4)He will increasingly overlap with strongly interacting dilute quantum gases, perhaps opening up a new era of research on this most amazing liquid.
New light on the intriguing history of superfluidity in liquid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffin, Allan
2009-04-01
Surprisingly, it was 30 years after the first liquefaction of 4He in 1908 that the discovery that liquid 4He is not just a 'cold' liquid was made. Below T = 2.18 K, it is a 'quantum' liquid which exhibits spectacular macroscopic quantum behaviour that can be seen with the naked eye. Since the observation of superfluidity in liquid 4He is one of the greatest discoveries in modern physics, we present a day-to-day chronology of the tangled events which preceded the seminal discovery of zero viscosity in 1938 by Kapitza in Moscow and by Allen and Misener in Cambridge. On the theory side, London argued in 1938 that the microscopic basis for this new superfluid phase was the forgotten phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) first suggested by Einstein in 1925. In 1941, Landau developed a very successful theory of superfluid 4He, but it was not anchored in a microscopic theory of interacting atoms. It took another 20 years for theorists to unify the two seemingly different theories of Landau and London. Experiments on trapped superfluid atomic gases since 1995 have shone new light on superfluid 4He. In the mid-1930s, London had emphasized that superconductivity in metals and superfluidity in liquid 4He were similar. Experiments on trapped two-component Fermi gases in the last five years have shown that a Bose condensate is indeed the basis of both of these superfluid phases. This confirms the now famous Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-BEC crossover scenario developed for superfluidity by Leggett and Nozières in the early 1980s but largely ignored until a few years ago. The study of superfluid 4He will increasingly overlap with strongly interacting dilute quantum gases, perhaps opening up a new era of research on this most amazing liquid.
Interaction of ions, atoms, and small molecules with quantized vortex lines in superfluid {sup 4}He
Mateo, David; Eloranta, Jussi; Williams, Gary A.
2015-02-14
The interaction of a number of impurities (H{sub 2}, Ag, Cu, Ag{sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}, Li, He{sub 3}{sup +}, He{sup *} ({sup 3}S), He{sub 2}{sup ∗} ({sup 3}Σ{sub u}), and e{sup −}) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid {sup 4}He is calculated by using the Orsay-Trento density functional theory (DFT) method at 0 K. The Donnelly-Parks (DP) potential function binding ions to the vortex is combined with DFT data, yielding the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The vortex core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or through the DP potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with the value obtained from re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significantly higher binding energies to vortex lines below 1 K than the available thermal energy, where the thermally assisted escape process becomes exponentially negligible. Even at higher temperatures 1.5-2.0 K, the trapping times for larger metal clusters are sufficiently long that the previously observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or to allow thermally assisted escape. Finally, a new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He{sup *}.
Universal impurity-induced bound state in topological superfluids.
Hu, Hui; Jiang, Lei; Pu, Han; Chen, Yan; Liu, Xia-Ji
2013-01-11
We predict a universal midgap bound state in topological superfluids, induced by either nonmagnetic or magnetic impurities in the strong scattering limit. This universal state is similar to the lowest-energy Caroli-de Gennes-Martricon bound state in a vortex core, but is bound to localized impurities. We argue that the observation of such a universal bound state can be a clear signature for identifying topological superfluids. We theoretically examine our argument for a spin-orbit coupled ultracold atomic Fermi gas trapped in a two-dimensional harmonic potential by performing extensive self-consistent calculations within the mean-field Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. A realistic scenario for observing a universal bound state in ultracold 40K atoms is proposed.
Description of atomic burials in compact globular proteins by Fermi-Dirac probability distributions.
Gomes, Antonio L C; de Rezende, Júlia R; Pereira de Araújo, Antônio F; Shakhnovich, Eugene I
2007-02-01
We perform a statistical analysis of atomic distributions as a function of the distance R from the molecular geometrical center in a nonredundant set of compact globular proteins. The number of atoms increases quadratically for small R, indicating a constant average density inside the core, reaches a maximum at a size-dependent distance R(max), and falls rapidly for larger R. The empirical curves turn out to be consistent with the volume increase of spherical concentric solid shells and a Fermi-Dirac distribution in which the distance R plays the role of an effective atomic energy epsilon(R) = R. The effective chemical potential mu governing the distribution increases with the number of residues, reflecting the size of the protein globule, while the temperature parameter beta decreases. Interestingly, betamu is not as strongly dependent on protein size and appears to be tuned to maintain approximately half of the atoms in the high density interior and the other half in the exterior region of rapidly decreasing density. A normalized size-independent distribution was obtained for the atomic probability as a function of the reduced distance, r = R/R(g), where R(g) is the radius of gyration. The global normalized Fermi distribution, F(r), can be reasonably decomposed in Fermi-like subdistributions for different atomic types tau, F(tau)(r), with Sigma(tau)F(tau)(r) = F(r), which depend on two additional parameters mu(tau) and h(tau). The chemical potential mu(tau) affects a scaling prefactor and depends on the overall frequency of the corresponding atomic type, while the maximum position of the subdistribution is determined by h(tau), which appears in a type-dependent atomic effective energy, epsilon(tau)(r) = h(tau)r, and is strongly correlated to available hydrophobicity scales. Better adjustments are obtained when the effective energy is not assumed to be necessarily linear, or epsilon(tau)*(r) = h(tau)*r(alpha,), in which case a correlation with hydrophobicity
Roberts, David C
2008-01-01
The article considers the dramatic phenomenon of seemingly frictionless flow of slow-moving superfluids. Specifically the question of whether an object in a superfluid flow experiences any drag force is addressed. A brief account is given of the history of this problem and it is argued that recent advances in ultracold atomic physics can shed much new light on this problem. The article presents the commonly held notion that sufficiently slow-moving superfluids can flow without drag and also discusses research suggesting that scattering quantum fluctuations might cause drag in a superfluid moving at any speed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furukawa, Takeshi
2014-09-01
We have been developing a new laser spectroscopy technique named as OROCHI (Optical RI-atom Observation in Condensed Helium as Ion-catcher) for measurements of nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of low yield exotic radioisotopes (RIs). In this technique, we use superfluid helium (He II) liquid as a stopping material of RI beam in which in-situ laser spectroscopy of the RI atoms stopped in He II is carried out. The characteristic features of He II, i.e. high trapping efficiency of He II liquid for accelerated ion beams and the characteristics of atomic spectra in He II, enables us to measure the nuclear spins and moments of the extremely low yield RIs. So far, we have demonstrated the feasibility of our method to deduce the nuclear spins and moments with stable Rb, Cs, Ag and Au isotopes supplied into He II by laser sputtering technique. In addition, we have also succeeded in observing laser-radiowave/microwave double resonance signals of 84-87Rb atoms injected into He II as energetic ion beam. In these on-line experiment, the 84-87Rb isotope beams (intensity: up to 105 particles/s) were provided with RIPS beamline in RIKEN, and introduced into He II filled in a cryostat. Special care was taken in controlling the stopping position of injected Rb isotopes. Aluminum energy degraders of varied thickness from 0 to 0.8 mm were placed upstream of the beam injection window of the He II cryostat for optimizing the stopping position The 84-87Rb atoms stopped and then neutralized in He II were optically pumped and polarized with circularly polarized pumping laser light whose wavelength were tuned to 780 nm, D1 absorption line of Rb atoms in He II. The polarized atoms were subjected to irradiation of radiowave or microwave, and then we demonstrated the double resonance spectroscopy for observing the Zeeman transition of 84-87Rb atoms and the hyperfine transition of 87Rb, respectively In this presentation we will show the details of OROCHI technique and the present
Decay of a superfluid current of ultracold atoms in a toroidal trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathey, Amy C.; Clark, Charles W.; Mathey, L.
2014-08-01
Using a numerical implementation of the truncated Wigner approximation, we simulate the experiment reported by Ramanathan et al. in Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 130401 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.130401, in which a Bose-Einstein condensate is created in a toroidal trap and set into rotation via a phase imprinting technique. A potential barrier is then placed in the trap to study the decay of the superflow. We find that the current decays via thermally activated phase slips, which can also be visualized as vortices crossing the barrier region in the radial direction. Adopting the notion of critical velocity used in the experiment, we determine it to be lower than the local speed of sound at the barrier, in contradiction to the predictions of the zero-temperature Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We map out the superfluid decay rate and critical velocity as a function of temperature and observe a strong dependence. Thermal fluctuations offer a partial explanation of the experimentally observed reduction of the critical velocity from the phonon velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilchynskyy, S. I.; Yakimenko, A. I.; Isaieva, K. O.; Chumachenko, A. V.
2013-09-01
We present a brief overview of crucial historical stages in creation of superfluidity theory and of the current state of the microscopic theory of superfluid 4He. We pay special attention to the role of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in understanding of physical mechanisms of superfluidity and identification of quantum mechanical structure of 4He superfluid component below λ-point, in particular—the possibility that at least two types of condensates may appear and coexist simultaneously in superfluid 4He. In this context we discuss the properties of the binary mixtures of BECs and types of excitations, which may appear due to intercomponent interaction in such binary mixtures of condensates. We also discuss current status of investigations of persistent currents in toroidal optical traps and present an outlook of our recent findings on this subject.
Cold asymmetrical fermion superfluids
Caldas, Heron
2003-12-19
The recent experimental advances in cold atomic traps have induced a great amount of interest in fields from condensed matter to particle physics, including approaches and prospects from the theoretical point of view. In this work we investigate the general properties and the ground state of an asymmetrical dilute gas of cold fermionic atoms, formed by two particle species having different densities. We have show in a recent paper, that a mixed phase composed of normal and superfluid components is the energetically favored ground state of such a cold fermionic system. Here we extend the analysis and verify that in fact, the mixed phase is the preferred ground state of an asymmetrical superfluid in various situations. We predict that the mixed phase can serve as a way of detecting superfluidity and estimating the magnitude of the gap parameter in asymmetrical fermionic systems.
Pederson, Mark R.
2015-02-14
A recent modification of the Perdew-Zunger self-interaction-correction to the density-functional formalism has provided a framework for explicitly restoring unitary invariance to the expression for the total energy. The formalism depends upon construction of Löwdin orthonormalized Fermi-orbitals which parametrically depend on variational quasi-classical electronic positions. Derivatives of these quasi-classical electronic positions, required for efficient minimization of the self-interaction corrected energy, are derived and tested, here, on atoms. Total energies and ionization energies in closed-shell singlet atoms, where correlation is less important, using the Perdew-Wang 1992 Local Density Approximation (PW92) functional, are in good agreement with experiment and non-relativistic quantum-Monte-Carlo results albeit slightly too low.
Spontaneous light emission by atomic hydrogen: Fermi's golden rule without cheating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debierre, V.; Durt, T.; Nicolet, A.; Zolla, F.
2015-10-01
Focusing on the 2 p- 1 s transition in atomic hydrogen, we investigate through first order perturbation theory the time evolution of the survival probability of an electron initially taken to be in the excited (2 p) state. We examine both the results yielded by the standard dipole approximation for the coupling between the atom and the electromagnetic field - for which we propose a cutoff-independent regularisation - and those yielded by the exact coupling function. In both cases, Fermi's golden rule is shown to be an excellent approximation for the system at hand: we found its maximal deviation from the exact behaviour of the system to be of order 10-8 /10-7. Our treatment also yields a rigorous prescription for the choice of the optimal cutoff frequency in the dipole approximation. With our cutoff, the predictions of the dipole approximation are almost indistinguishable at all times from the exact dynamics of the system.
Unconventional states and geometric effects in mesoscopic systems of ultra-cold atomic Fermi gases
Bolech, C. J.
2014-10-15
During the last decade, experiments all over the world started to test the superconducting state of matter using a newly developed mesoscopic tunable system: trapped ultra-cold atomic gases. Theorists and experimentalists hand-in-hand are now able to advance our understanding of the superconducting state by asking new questions that probe further into the physical mechanisms underlying the phenomenon and the door is open to the exploration of exotic unconventional superconducting states. In particular, a series of experiments on systems of trapped cold atomic gases were aimed at studying the effects of polarization on superconducting pairing. Two different experimental groups encountered surprising qualitative and quantitative discrepancies which seemed to be a function of the confining geometry and the cooling protocol. Our numerical studies demonstrate a tendency towards metastability and suggest an explanation for the observed discrepancy. From our calculations, the most likely solution which is consistent with the experiments supports a state strikingly similar to the so called FFLO state (after Ferrell, Fulde, Larkin and Ovchinnikov), which had been theorized long ago but eluded detection so far. Moreover, the three-dimensional scenario described above is reminiscent of predictions for one-dimensional systems of dilute polarized attractive gases and another set of ultra-cold-atom experiments incorporates optical lattices to study this reduced-dimensionality setting. The measurements are in quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations (using a wide array of numerical and analytic techniques) in which a partially polarized phase is found to be the one-dimensional analogue of the FFLO state. Moreover, exploring the dimensional-crossover regime, our latest findings indicate that the mesoscopic nature of these quasi-one-dimensional systems favors the appearance of a new type of Mott phase transition involving an emergent pair-superfluid of equal
Reentrant BCS-BEC crossover and a superfluid-insulator transition in optical lattices.
Shen, Zhaochuan; Radzihovsky, L; Gurarie, V
2012-12-14
We study the thermodynamics of a two-species Feshbach-resonant atomic Fermi gas in a periodic potential, focusing in a deep optical potential where a tight binding model is applicable. We show that for a more than half-filled band the gas exhibits a reentrant crossover with decreased detuning (increased attractive interaction), from a paired BCS superfluid to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of molecules of holes, back to the BCS superfluid, and finally to a conventional BEC of diatomic molecules. This behavior is associated with the nonmonotonic dependence of the chemical potential on detuning and the concomitant Cooper-pair or molecular size, larger in the BCS and smaller in the BEC regimes. For a single filled band we find a quantum phase transition from a band insulator to a BCS-BEC superfluid, and map out the corresponding phase diagram. PMID:23368340
Reentrant BCS-BEC Crossover and a Superfluid-Insulator Transition in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Zhaochuan; Radzihovsky, L.; Gurarie, V.
2012-12-01
We study the thermodynamics of a two-species Feshbach-resonant atomic Fermi gas in a periodic potential, focusing in a deep optical potential where a tight binding model is applicable. We show that for a more than half-filled band the gas exhibits a reentrant crossover with decreased detuning (increased attractive interaction), from a paired BCS superfluid to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of molecules of holes, back to the BCS superfluid, and finally to a conventional BEC of diatomic molecules. This behavior is associated with the nonmonotonic dependence of the chemical potential on detuning and the concomitant Cooper-pair or molecular size, larger in the BCS and smaller in the BEC regimes. For a single filled band we find a quantum phase transition from a band insulator to a BCS-BEC superfluid, and map out the corresponding phase diagram.
Polarized superfluidity in the attractive hubbard model with population imbalance.
Dao, Tung-Lam; Ferrero, Michel; Georges, Antoine; Capone, Massimo; Parcollet, Olivier
2008-12-01
We study a two-component Fermi system with attractive interactions and different populations of the two species in a cubic lattice. For an intermediate coupling, we find a uniformly polarized superfluid which is stable down to very low temperatures. The momentum distribution of this phase closely resembles that of the Sarma phase, characterized by two Fermi surfaces. This phase is shown to be stabilized by a potential energy gain, as in a BCS superfluid, in contrast with the unpolarized Bose-Einstein condensate which is stabilized by kinetic energy. We present general arguments suggesting that preformed pairs in the unpolarized superfluid favor the stabilization of a polarized superfluid phase.
Short-range correlations in dilute atomic Fermi gases with spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zhenhua
2012-04-01
We study the short-range correlation strength of three-dimensional spin-half dilute atomic Fermi gases with spin-orbit coupling. The interatomic interaction is modeled by the contact pseudopotential. In the high-temperature limit, we derive the expression for the second-order virial expansion of the thermodynamic potential via the ladder diagrams. We further evaluate the second-order virial expansion in the limit that the spin-orbit coupling constants are small and find that the correlation strength between the fermions increases as the fourth power of the spin-orbit coupling constants. At zero temperature, we consider the cases in which there are symmetric spin-orbit couplings in two or three directions. In such cases, there is always a two-body bound state of zero net momentum. In the limit that the average interparticle distance is much larger than the dimension of the two-body bound state, the system primarily consists of condensed bosonic molecules that fermions pair to form; we find that the correlation strength also becomes bigger compared to that in the absence of spin-orbit coupling. Our results indicate that generic spin-orbit coupling enhances the short-range correlations of the Fermi gases. Measurement of such enhancement by photoassociation experiment is also discussed.
Josephson relation for the superfluid density in the BCS-BEC crossover
Taylor, Edward
2008-04-01
The Josephson relation for the superfluid density is derived for a Fermi superfluid in the BCS-BEC crossover. This identity extends the original Josephson relation for Bose superfluids. It gives a simple exact relation between the superfluid density {rho}{sub s} and the broken-symmetry Cooper pair order parameter {delta}{sub 0} in terms of the infrared limit of the pair fluctuation propagator. The same expression holds through the entire BCS-BEC crossover, describing the superfluid density of a weak-coupling BCS superfluid as well as the superfluid density of a Bose condensate of dimer molecules.
New Display-type Analyzer for Three-dimensional Fermi Surface Mapping and Atomic Orbital Analysis
Takahashi, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Shigenai, Shin; Hirama, Yoshiteru; Matsui, Fumihiko; Hamada, Yoji; Nakanishi, Koji; Namba, Hidetoshi; Kitamura, Toshiro; Soejima, Hiroyoshi; Daimon, Hiroshi
2007-01-19
We have developed and installed a new Display-type ANAlyzer (DIANA) at Ritsumeikan SR center BL-7. We measured the angle-integrated energy distribution curve of poly-crystal gold and the photoelectron intensity angular distribution (PIAD) of HOPG to estimate the total energy resolution and to check the condition of the analyzer. The total energy resolution ({delta}E/E) is up to 0.78%, which is much higher than the old type. The PIAD of HOPG we obtained was the ring pattern as expected. Therefore, a detailed three-dimensional Fermi surface mapping and an analysis of the atomic orbitals constituting the electron energy bands are possible by combining them with a linearly polarized synchrotron radiation.
New Display-type Analyzer for Three-dimensional Fermi Surface Mapping and Atomic Orbital Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Nobuaki; Matsui, Fumihiko; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Shigenai, Shin; Hirama, Yoshiteru; Hamada, Yoji; Nakanishi, Koji; Namba, Hidetoshi; Kitamura, Toshiro; Soejima, Hiroyoshi; Daimon, Hiroshi
2007-01-01
We have developed and installed a new Display-type ANAlyzer (DIANA) at Ritsumeikan SR center BL-7. We measured the angle-integrated energy distribution curve of poly-crystal gold and the photoelectron intensity angular distribution (PIAD) of HOPG to estimate the total energy resolution and to check the condition of the analyzer. The total energy resolution (ΔE/E) is up to 0.78%, which is much higher than the old type. The PIAD of HOPG we obtained was the ring pattern as expected. Therefore, a detailed three-dimensional Fermi surface mapping and an analysis of the atomic orbitals constituting the electron energy bands are possible by combining them with a linearly polarized synchrotron radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Lu; Tan, Xin-Zhou; Xiong, Hong-Wei; Lu, Bao-Long
2009-08-01
We study the phase coherence property of Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by a standing-wave laser field. The lattice depth is determined using a method of Kapitza-Dirac scattering between a condensate and a short pulse lattice potential. Condensates are then adiabatically loaded into the optical lattice. The phase coherence property of the confined condensates is reflected by the interference patterns of the expanded atomic cloud released from the optical lattice. For weak lattice, nearly all of the atoms stay in a superfluid state. However, as the lattice depth is increased, the phase coherence of the whole condensate sample is gradually lost, which confirms that the sub-condensates in each lattice well have evolved into number-squeezed states.
BEC-BCS crossover in "magnetized" Feshbach-resonantly paired superfluids.
Sheehy, Daniel E; Radzihovsky, Leo
2006-02-17
We map out the detuning-magnetization phase diagram for a magnetized (unequal number of atoms in two pairing hyperfine states) gas of fermionic atoms interacting via an s-wave Feshbach resonance (FR). The phase diagram is dominated by the coexistence of a magnetized normal gas and a singlet-paired superfluid with the latter exhibiting a BCS-Bose Einstein condensate crossover with reduced FR detuning. On the BCS side of strongly overlapping Cooper pairs, a sliver of finite-momentum paired Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov magnetized phase intervenes between the phase-separated and normal states. In contrast, for large negative detuning a uniform, polarized superfluid, that is, a coherent mixture of singlet Bose-Einstein-condensed molecules and fully magnetized single-species Fermi sea, is a stable ground state. PMID:16605966
BEC-BCS Crossover in ``Magnetized'' Feshbach-Resonantly Paired Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2006-02-01
We map out the detuning-magnetization phase diagram for a magnetized (unequal number of atoms in two pairing hyperfine states) gas of fermionic atoms interacting via an s-wave Feshbach resonance (FR). The phase diagram is dominated by the coexistence of a magnetized normal gas and a singlet-paired superfluid with the latter exhibiting a BCS-Bose Einstein condensate crossover with reduced FR detuning. On the BCS side of strongly overlapping Cooper pairs, a sliver of finite-momentum paired Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov magnetized phase intervenes between the phase-separated and normal states. In contrast, for large negative detuning a uniform, polarized superfluid, that is, a coherent mixture of singlet Bose-Einstein-condensed molecules and fully magnetized single-species Fermi sea, is a stable ground state.
Thermodynamics of interacting cold atomic Fermi gases with spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Scott; Alhassid, Yoram; Gilbreth, Christopher
New physics is suggested with the prediction of novel phases in cold atom systems when a synthetic spin-orbit coupling is introduced. In particular, recent studies show that a new type of Bose-Einstein condensate, termed Rashbon-BEC, is formed when a generalized Rashba spin-orbit term is present. The Rashbon-BEC phase can be obtained by tuning the spin-orbit coupling strength even in the case of finite negative scattering length. This stands in contrast to the BCS-BEC crossover in the absence of spin-orbit coupling where a negative scattering length is associated with BCS physics, and its divergence signals the crossover. In our work we apply finite-temperature quantum Monte Carlo methods to a spherical Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-species Fermi gas with contact s-wave interaction in three dimensions. We will discuss the phase diagram for this system, and its crossover behavior from BCS to Rashbon-BEC. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG-0291-ER-40608.
Majorana modes in single channel cold atomic gases with short-ranged attractive interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sau, Jay; Li, Xiaopeng
2015-03-01
Majorana modes have been predicted to exist in topological superfluids that generated by a combination of spin-orbit coupling and short-ranged attractive interactions. One dimensional superfluids with intrinsic interactions, however, present a precarious competition between phase fluctuations and topological superfluidity. Previously, it has been argued that the Majorana nature survives with some modification in multi-channel and proximity-induced superfluidity in systems of ultra-cold atoms. This discussion is more subtle in the single channel case because the universal properties of one dimensional fermions with attractive interactions are known to be described by a simple Luttinger liquid in the low-energy limit. In this talk, we will discuss the properties of Galilean invariant one dimensional fermi gases with attractive interactions and show how they display properties consistent with both being a topological (or non-topological) superfluid and a Luttinger liquid. Condensed Matter Theory Center and Joint Quantum Institute at the University of Maryland.
BEC BCS crossover, phase transitions and phase separation in polarized resonantly-paired superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2007-08-01
We study resonantly-paired s-wave superfluidity in a degenerate gas of two species (hyperfine states labeled by ↑, ↓) of fermionic atoms when the numbers N↑ and N↓ of the two species are unequal, i.e., the system is "polarized." We find that the continuous crossover from the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) limit of tightly-bound diatomic molecules to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) limit of weakly correlated Cooper pairs, studied extensively at equal populations, is interrupted by a variety of distinct phenomena under an imposed population difference Δ N ≡ N↑ - N↓. Our findings are summarized by a "polarization" (Δ N) versus Feshbach-resonance detuning ( δ) zero-temperature phase diagram, which exhibits regions of phase separation, a periodic FFLO superfluid, a polarized normal Fermi gas and a polarized molecular superfluid consisting of a molecular condensate and a fully polarized Fermi gas. We describe numerous experimental signatures of such phases and the transitions between them, in particular focusing on their spatial structure in the inhomogeneous environment of an atomic trap.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzihovsky, Leo
2011-08-01
Motivated by a realization of imbalanced Feshbach-resonant atomic Fermi gases, we formulate a low-energy theory of the Fulde-Ferrell and the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) states and use it to analyze fluctuations, stability, and phase transitions in these enigmatic finite momentum-paired superfluids. Focusing on the unidirectional LO pair-density-wave state, which spontaneously breaks the continuous rotational and translational symmetries, we show that it is characterized by two Goldstone modes, corresponding to a superfluid phase and a smectic phonon. Because of the liquid-crystalline “softness” of the latter, at finite temperature the three-dimensional state is characterized by a vanishing LO order parameter, quasi-Bragg peaks in the structure and momentum distribution functions, and a “charge”-4, paired-Cooper-pairs, off-diagonal long-range order, with a superfluid-stiffness anisotropy that diverges near a transition into a nonsuperfluid state. In addition to conventional integer vortices and dislocations, the LO superfluid smectic exhibits composite half-integer vortex-dislocation defects. A proliferation of defects leads to a rich variety of descendant states, such as the charge-4 superfluid and Fermi-liquid nematics and topologically ordered nonsuperfluid states, that generically intervene between the LO state and the conventional superfluid and the polarized Fermi liquid at low and high imbalance, respectively. The fermionic sector of the LO gapless superconductor is also quite unique, exhibiting a Fermi surface of Bogoliubov quasiparticles associated with the Andreev band of states, localized on the array of the LO domain walls.
Radzihovsky, Leo
2011-08-15
Motivated by a realization of imbalanced Feshbach-resonant atomic Fermi gases, we formulate a low-energy theory of the Fulde-Ferrell and the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) states and use it to analyze fluctuations, stability, and phase transitions in these enigmatic finite momentum-paired superfluids. Focusing on the unidirectional LO pair-density-wave state, which spontaneously breaks the continuous rotational and translational symmetries, we show that it is characterized by two Goldstone modes, corresponding to a superfluid phase and a smectic phonon. Because of the liquid-crystalline ''softness'' of the latter, at finite temperature the three-dimensional state is characterized by a vanishing LO order parameter, quasi-Bragg peaks in the structure and momentum distribution functions, and a ''charge''-4, paired-Cooper-pairs, off-diagonal long-range order, with a superfluid-stiffness anisotropy that diverges near a transition into a nonsuperfluid state. In addition to conventional integer vortices and dislocations, the LO superfluid smectic exhibits composite half-integer vortex-dislocation defects. A proliferation of defects leads to a rich variety of descendant states, such as the charge-4 superfluid and Fermi-liquid nematics and topologically ordered nonsuperfluid states, that generically intervene between the LO state and the conventional superfluid and the polarized Fermi liquid at low and high imbalance, respectively. The fermionic sector of the LO gapless superconductor is also quite unique, exhibiting a Fermi surface of Bogoliubov quasiparticles associated with the Andreev band of states, localized on the array of the LO domain walls.
Low temperatures shear viscosity of a two-component dipolar Fermi gas with unequal population
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darsheshdar, E.; Yavari, H.; Zangeneh, Z.
2016-07-01
By using the Green's functions method and linear response theory we calculate the shear viscosity of a two-component dipolar Fermi gas with population imbalance (spin polarized) in the low temperatures limit. In the strong-coupling Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) region where a Feshbach resonance gives rise to tightly bound dimer molecules, a spin-polarized Fermi superfluid reduces to a simple Bose-Fermi mixture of Bose-condensed dimers and the leftover unpaired fermions (atoms). The interactions between dimer-atom, dimer-dimer, and atom-atom take into account to the viscous relaxation time (τη) . By evaluating the self-energies in the ladder approximation we determine the relaxation times due to dimer-atom (τDA) , dimer-dimer (τcDD ,τdDD) , and atom-atom (τAA) interactions. We will show that relaxation rates due to these interactions τDA-1 ,τcDD-1, τdDD-1, and τAA-1 have T2, T4, e - E /kB T (E is the spectrum of the dimer atoms), and T 3 / 2 behavior respectively in the low temperature limit (T → 0) and consequently, the atom-atom interaction plays the dominant role in the shear viscosity in this rang of temperatures. For small polarization (τDA ,τAA ≫τcDD ,τdDD), the low temperatures shear viscosity is determined by contact interaction between dimers and the shear viscosity varies as T-5 which has the same behavior as the viscosity of other superfluid systems such as superfluid neutron stars, and liquid helium.
Liu, Xia-Ji Hu, Hui
2014-11-15
We calculate the frequency of collective modes of a one-dimensional repulsively interacting Fermi gas with high-spin symmetry confined in harmonic traps at zero temperature. This is a system realizable with fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms such as {sup 173}Yb, which displays an exact SU(κ) spin symmetry with κ⩾2 and behaves like a spinless interacting Bose gas in the limit of infinite spin components κ→∞, namely high-spin bosonization. We solve the homogeneous equation of state of the high-spin Fermi system by using Bethe ansatz technique and obtain the density distribution in harmonic traps based on local density approximation. The frequency of collective modes is calculated by exactly solving the zero-temperature hydrodynamic equation. In the limit of large number of spin-components, we show that the mode frequency of the system approaches that of a one-dimensional spinless interacting Bose gas, as a result of high-spin bosonization. Our prediction of collective modes is in excellent agreement with a very recent measurement for a Fermi gas of {sup 173}Yb atoms with tunable spin confined in a two-dimensional tight optical lattice.
Superfluids of Fermions in spin-orbit coupled systems and photons inside a cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yi-Xiang
This dissertation introduces some new properties of both superfluid phases of fermions with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and superradiant phases of photons in an optical cavity. The effects of SOC on the phase transition between normal and superfluid phase are revealed; an unconventional crossover driven by SOC from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state to the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) state is verified in three different systems; and two kinds of excitations, a Goldstone mode and a Higgs mode, are demonstrated to occur in a quantum optical system. We investigate the BCS superfluid state of two-component atomic Fermi gases in the presence of three kinds of SOCs. We find that SOC drives a class of BCS to BEC crossover that is different from the conventional one without SOC. Here, we extend the concepts of the coherence length and Cooper-pair size in the absence of SOC to Fermi systems with SOC. We study the dependence of chemical potential, coherence length, and Cooper-pair size on the SOC strength and the scattering length in three dimensions (3D) (or the two-body binding energy in two dimensions (2D)) for three attractively interacting Fermi gases with 3D Rashba, 3D Weyl, and 2D Rashba SOC respectively. By adding a population imbalance to a Fermi gas with Rashba-type SOC, we also map out the finite-temperature phase diagram. Due to a competition between SOC and population imbalance, the finite-temperature phase diagram reveals a large variety of new features, including the expanding of the superfluid state regime and the shrinking of both the phase separation and the normal regimes. We find that the tricritical point moves toward a regime of low temperature, high magnetic field, and high polarization as the SOC strength increases. Besides Fermi fluids, this dissertation also gives a new angle of view on the superradiant phase in the Dicke model. Here, we demonstrate that Goldstone and Higgs modes can be observed in an optical system with only a few atoms
Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component.
Eltsov, Vladimir; Hänninen, Risto; Krusius, Matti
2014-03-25
In Fermi superfluids, such as superfluid (3)He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction, which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction, the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared with the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. As a result profound changes in superfluid dynamics are observed: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures. PMID:24704879
Superfluid Turbulence in Neutron Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Link, Bennett
Project Summary: Superfluid Turbulence in Neutron Stars The purpose of this proposal is to use recent progress in condensed matter physics and nuclear physics to advance our understanding of the inner workings of neutron stars and the associated observable phenomena. We will focus on determination of the observable consequences of superfluid turbulence in neutron stars. In particular, we will address these questions: 1) What is the signature of superfluid turbulence in the spin glitches seen in magnetars and pulsars? Observed post-glitch recovery in magnetars occurs more quickly than current theory predicts. We will explore if glitch recovery observed in magnetars can be explained by turbulent flow of the superfluid. 2) Are observed stochastic spin variations related to turbulence? Superfluid turbulence will exert a stochastic torque on the neutron star crust. We will calculate the response of the crust to compare with the observed power spectra of spin fluctuations. 3) Can superfluid turbulence produce observed spin glitches? We will study if transient effects arising from non-linearities in turbulent flow can produce observed glitches. We will predict the spin-up timescale to compare with existing and future data, and investigate if the basic features of the observed glitch distribution can be explained. Significant progress on these issues is now possible with modern models of the neutron star interior, in conjunction with laboratory observations of superfluid turbulence and the development of powerful new techniques for modeling superfluid turbulence. This project will be a synthesis of theoretical study of fundamental physical processes and testable predictions that will constrain the physics. Our goal is to develop theoretical background and realistic physical models with which to explain and interpret existing and future data of spin glitches in magnetars from RXTE, Fermi, Swift, Chandra, Suzaku, and XMM-Newton. This work addresses the ATP goal to explain
Lin, Meng-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hao; Su, Chen-Fung; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Si-Chen; Lin, Shih-Yen
2014-01-13
We investigate the electronic properties of p-type graphene transistors on silicon dioxide with dual-cut channels that were scraped using atomic force microscope tips. In these devices, the current is forced to squeeze into the path between the two cuts rather than flow directly through the graphene sheet. We observe that the gate voltages with minimum current shift toward zero bias as the sizes of the dual-cut regions increase. These phenomena suggest that the Fermi levels in the dual-cut regions are shifted toward the Dirac points after the mechanical scraping process.
Bose-Fermi mixtures in an optical lattice
Sengupta, K.; Majumdar, P.
2007-06-15
We study an atomic Bose-Fermi mixture with unpolarized fermions in an optical lattice. We obtain the Mott ground states of such a system in the limit of the deep optical lattice and discuss the effect of quantum fluctuations on these states. We also study the superfluid-insulator transitions of bosons and metal-insulator transition of fermions in such a mixture within a slave-rotor mean-field approximation, and obtain the corresponding phase diagram. We discuss experimental implications of our results.
Optomechanics with superfluid He4 thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, Christopher; Harris, Glen; McAuslan, David; Sachkou, Yauhen; He, Xin; Sheridan, Eoin; Bowen, Warwick
Cavity optomechanics focuses on the interaction between confined light and a mechanical degree of freedom. Vibrational modes of superfluid helium-4 have recently been identified as an attractive mechanical element for cavity optomechanics, thanks to their ultra-low dissipation arising from superfluid's viscosity free flow. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach to superfluid optomechanics based on femtogram thin films of superfluid helium condensed on the surface of a microscale microtoroid optical whispering gallery mode resonator. Excitations within the film, known as third sound, manifest as surface waves with a restoring force provided by the van der Waals interaction. We experimentally probe the thermodynamics of these superfluid excitations in real-time, and demonstrate both laser cooling and amplification of the thermal motion. In addition, we propose and demonstrate an entirely new approach to optical forcing based on the atomic recoil of superfluid helium-4. This technique utilizes the thermomechanical effect of superfluids, whereby frictionless fluid flow is generated in response to a local heat source. Using this technique, we achieve superfluid forces on a microtoroid mechanical mode an order of magnitude greater than the equivalent radiation pressure force.
Andreev-Majorana bound states in superfluids
Silaev, M. A. Volovik, G. E.
2014-12-15
We consider Andreev-Majorana (AM) bound states with zero energy on surfaces, interfaces, and vortices in different phases of the p-wave superfluids. We discuss the chiral superfluid {sup 3}He-A and time reversal invariant phases: superfluid {sup 3}He-B, planar and polar phases. The AM zero modes are determined by topology in the bulk and disappear at the quantum phase transition from the topological to nontopological state of the superfluid. The topology demonstrates the interplay of dimensions. In particular, the zero-dimensional Weyl points in chiral superfluids (the Berry phase monopoles in momentum space) give rise to the one-dimensional Fermi arc of AM bound states on the surface and to the one-dimensional flat band of AM modes in the vortex core. The one-dimensional nodal line in the polar phase produces a two-dimensional flat band of AM modes on the surface. The interplay of dimensions also connects the AM states in superfluids with different dimensions. For example, the topological properties of the spectrum of bound states in three-dimensional {sup 3}He-B are connected to the properties of the spectrum in the two-dimensional planar phase (thin film)
Lieb, E H; Liberman, D A
1982-04-01
The Thomas-Fermi (TF) and Thomas-Fermi-von Weizsacker (TFW) theories of atoms and molecules with electron-electron repulsion are reviewed briefly. The main difference between the energies, E/sup TFW/ - E/sup TF/ (for large z), is a term D/sup TFW/z/sup 2/. (It is also believed that E/sup Q/ - E/sup TF/ approx. D/sup Q/z/sup 2/, where E/sup Q/ is the true quantum ground state energy). To calculate D/sup TFW/, it is necessary to find the positive solution to the differential equation: )- ..delta.. + vertical bar psi(x) vertical bar/sup 4/3/ - vertical bar x vertical bar/sup -1/) psi(x) = 0 in three dimensions. While this equation arises from TFW theory with electron-electron repulsion, it also has a second interpretation - namely as the TFW equation for an atom without electron-electron repulsion. The main content of this report is the numerical solution of this equation and the evaluation of D/sup TFW/.
Phase Separation in a Polarized Fermi Gas at Zero Temperature
Pilati, S.; Giorgini, S.
2008-01-25
We investigate the phase diagram of asymmetric two-component Fermi gases at zero temperature as a function of polarization and interaction strength. The equations of state of the uniform superfluid and normal phase are determined using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We find three different mixed states, where the superfluid and the normal phase coexist in equilibrium, corresponding to phase separation between (a) the polarized superfluid and the fully polarized normal gas, (b) the polarized superfluid and the partially polarized normal gas, and (c) the unpolarized superfluid and the partially polarized normal gas.
Fermi Molecular Dynamics Applied to Problems in the Atomic Physics of Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LaGattuta, Ken
2002-10-01
A report on work in progress: The approach to steady state of a partially ionized fluid, in the regime of strong ion-ion coupling, is being simulated with the quasi-classical method known as Fermi Molecular Dynamics (FMD). We begin with a description of FMD, a statement of its advantages and disadvantages, and an overview of past work. We have continued to develop the FMD method as a tool for simulating a variety of inhomogeneous, partially ionized, dense plasma systems.
'Cosmological' quasiparticle production in harmonically trapped superfluid gases
Fedichev, Petr O.; Fischer, Uwe R.
2004-03-01
We show that a variety of cosmologically motivated effective quasiparticle space-times can be produced in harmonically trapped superfluid Bose and Fermi gases. We study the analog of cosmological particle production in these effective space-times, induced by trapping potentials and coupling constants possessing an arbitrary time dependence. The WKB probabilities for phonon creation from the superfluid vacuum are calculated, and an experimental procedure to detect quasiparticle production by measuring density-density correlation functions is proposed.
Vortices in spatially inhomogeneous superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2004-12-01
We study vortices in a radially inhomogeneous superfluid, as realized by a trapped degenerate Bose gas in a uniaxially symmetric potential. We show that, in contrast to a homogeneous superfluid, an off-axis vortex corresponds to an anisotropic superflow whose profile strongly depends on the distance to the trap axis. One consequence of this superflow anisotropy is vortex precession about the trap axis in the absence of an imposed rotation. In the complementary regime of a finite prescribed rotation, we compute the minimum-energy vortex density, showing that in the rapid-rotation limit it is extremely uniform, despite a strongly inhomogeneous (nearly) Thomas-Fermi condensate density ρs(r) . The weak radially dependent contribution [∝∇2lnρs(r)] to the vortex distribution, that vanishes with the number of vortices Nv as 1/Nv , arises from the interplay between vortex quantum discreteness (namely their inability to faithfully support the imposed rigid-body rotation) and the inhomogeneous superfluid density. This leads to an enhancement of the vortex density at the center of a typical concave trap, a prediction that is in quantitative agreement with recent experiments. One striking consequence of the inhomogeneous vortex distribution is an azimuthally directed, radially shearing superflow.
Superfluidity and phase transitions in a resonant Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzihovsky, Leo; Weichman, Peter B.; Park, Jae I.
2008-10-01
The atomic Bose gas is studied across a Feshbach resonance, mapping out its phase diagram, and computing its thermodynamics and excitation spectra. It is shown that such a degenerate gas admits two distinct atomic and molecular superfluid phases, with the latter distinguished by the absence of atomic off-diagonal long-range order, gapped atomic excitations, and deconfined atomic π-vortices. The properties of the molecular superfluid are explored, and it is shown that across a Feshbach resonance it undergoes a quantum Ising transition to the atomic superfluid, where both atoms and molecules are condensed. In addition to its distinct thermodynamic signatures and deconfined half-vortices, in a trap a molecular superfluid should be identifiable by the absence of an atomic condensate peak and the presence of a molecular one.
ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Dynamical entanglement for Fermi coupled stretching and bending modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Chuan-Ming
2009-07-01
The dynamical entanglement for Fermi coupled C-H stretch and bend vibrations in molecule CHD3 is studied in terms of two negativities and the reduced von Neumann entropy, where initial states are taken to be direct products of photon-added coherent states on each mode. It is demonstrated that the negativity defined by the sum of negative eigenvalues of the partial transpose of density matrices is positively correlated with the von Neumann entropy. The entanglement difference between photon-added coherent states and usual coherent states is discussed as well.
Experiments with Ultracold Quantum-degenerate Fermionic Lithium Atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ketterle, Wolfgang
2003-01-01
Experimental methods of laser and evaporative cooling, used in the production of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates have recently been extended to realize quantum degeneracy in trapped Fermi gases. Fermi gases are a new rich system to explore the implications of Pauli exclusion on scattering properties of the system, and ultimately fermionic superfluidity. We have produced a new macroscopic quantum system, in which a degenerate Li-6 Fermi gas coexists with a large and stable Na-23 BEC. This was accomplished using inter-species sympathetic cooling of fermionic 6Li in a thermal bath of bosonic Na-23. We have achieved high numbers of both fermions (less than 10(exp 5) and bosons (less than 10(exp 6), and Li-6 quantum degeneracy corresponding to one half of the Fermi temperature. This is the first time that a Fermi sea was produced with a condensate as a "refrigerator".
Gajula, D. R. Baine, P.; Armstrong, B. M.; McNeill, D. W.; Modreanu, M.; Hurley, P. K.
2014-01-06
Fermi-level pinning of aluminium on n-type germanium (n-Ge) was reduced by insertion of a thin interfacial dielectric by atomic layer deposition. The barrier height for aluminium contacts on n-Ge was reduced from 0.7 eV to a value of 0.28 eV for a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layer (∼2.8 nm). For diodes with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layer, the contact resistance started to increase for layer thicknesses above 2.8 nm. For diodes with a HfO{sub 2} interfacial layer, the barrier height was also reduced but the contact resistance increased dramatically for layer thicknesses above 1.5 nm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, D. M.; Leggett, A. J.
2011-08-01
A history is given of liquid 3He research from the time when 3He first became available following World War II through 1972 when the discovery of the superfluid phases was made. The Fermi liquid nature was established early on, and the Landau Fermi liquid theory provided a framework for understanding the interactions between the Fermions (quasiparticles). The theory's main triumph was to predict zero sound, which was soon discovered experimentally. Experimental techniques are treated, including adiabatic demagnetization, dilution refrigerator technology, and Pomeranchuk cooling. A description of the superfluid 3He discovery experiments using the latter two of these techniques is given. While existing theories provided a basis for understanding the newly discovered superfluid phases in terms of ℓ>0 Cooper pairs, the unexpected stability of the A phase in the high- P, high- T region of the phase diagram needed for its explanation a creative leap beyond the BCS paradigm. The use of sum rules to interpret some of the unusual magnetic resonance in liquid 3He is discussed. Eventually a complete theory of the spin dynamics of superfluid 3He was developed, which predicted many of the exciting phenomena subsequently discovered.
Observing the 1D-3D Crossover in a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.
2016-05-01
Trapped two-component Fermi gases phase separate into superfluid and normal phases when their spin populations are imbalanced. In 3D, a balanced superfluid core is surrounded by shells of partially polarized and normal phases, while in 1D, the balanced superfluid occupies the low density wings. We explored the crossover from 3D to 1D using a two-spin component ultracold atomic gas of 6 Li prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels, where the interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. The atoms are confined to 1D tubes where the tunneling rate t between tubes is varied by changing the depth of a 2D optical lattice. We observe the transition from 1D to 3D-like phase separation by varying t and interaction strength which changes the pair binding energy ɛB. We find a universal scaling of the dimensional crossover with t /ɛB , in agreement with previous theory. The crossover region is believed to be the most promising to find the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by the NSF and the Welch Foundation.
Itinerant Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study
Pilati, S.; Troyer, M.; Bertaina, G.; Giorgini, S.
2010-07-16
We investigate the phase diagram of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas at T=0 by means of quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Both purely repulsive and resonant attractive model potentials are considered in order to analyze the limits of the universal regime where the details of interatomic forces can be neglected. The equation of state of both balanced and unbalanced systems is calculated as a function of the interaction strength and the critical density for the onset of ferromagnetism is determined. The energy of the strongly polarized gas is calculated and parametrized in terms of the physical properties of repulsive polarons, which are relevant for the stability of the fully ferromagnetic state. Finally, we analyze the phase diagram in the interaction-polarization plane under the assumption that only phases with homogeneous magnetization can be produced.
Quantum phases of atomic Fermi gases with anisotropic spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iskin, M.; Subaşı, A. L.
2011-10-01
We consider a general anisotropic spin-orbit coupling and analyze the phase diagrams of both balanced and imbalanced Fermi gases for the entire BCS-BEC evolution. In the first part, we use the self-consistent mean-field theory at zero temperature, and show that the topological structure of the ground-state phase diagrams is quite robust against the effects of anisotropy. In the second part, we go beyond the mean-field description, and investigate the effects of Gaussian fluctuations near the critical temperature. This allows us to derive the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory, from which we extract the effective mass of the Cooper pairs and their critical condensation temperature in the molecular BEC limit.
Quantum phases of atomic Fermi gases with spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iskin, Menderes; Subasi, Levent
2012-02-01
We consider a general anisotropic spin-orbit coupling and analyze the phase diagrams of both balanced and imbalanced Fermi gases for the entire BCS-BEC evolution. First we use the self-consistent mean-field theory at zero temperature, and show that the topological structure of the ground-state phase diagrams is quite robust against the effects of anisotropy. Then we go beyond the mean-field description, and investigate the effects of Gaussian fluctuations near the critical temperature. This allows us to derive the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory, from which we extract the effective mass of the Cooper pairs and their critical condensation temperature in the molecular BEC limit.
Exploring Quantum Degenerate Bose-Fermi Mixtures Toward Cooper Pairing of Fermionic Atoms
Deborah Jin
2011-04-20
We have been exploring interaction dynamics in an ultracold, trapped gas of bosonic and fermionic atoms. Investigation of this new class of quantum degenerate gases concentrates on interaction dominated phenomena such as sympathetic cooling, phase separation, excitations, Feshbach resonances, and the effects of quantum degeneracy. In addition to exploring these new phenomena, we seek to understand and ultimately control the interactions in the gas. In particular, effective interactions between the fermionic atoms will be explored in the context of the longer term goal of realizing Cooper pairing of atoms.
Effect of three-body loss on itinerant ferromagnetism in an atomic Fermi gas
Conduit, G. J.; Altman, E.
2011-04-15
A recent experiment has provided tentative evidence for itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas. However, the interpretation of the results is complicated by significant atom losses. We argue that during the loss process the system gradually heats up but remains in local equilibrium.To quantify the consequences of atom loss on the putative ferromagnetic transition we adopt an extended Hertz-Millis theory. The losses damp quantum fluctuations, thus increasing the critical interaction strength needed to induce ferromagnetism and revert the transition from being first order to second order. This effect may resolve a discrepancy between the experiment and previous theoretical predictions. We further illuminate the impact of loss by studying the collective spin excitations in the ferromagnet. Even in the fully polarized state, where loss is completely suppressed, spin waves acquire a decay rate proportional to the three-body loss coefficient.
Detecting π -phase superfluids with p -wave symmetry in a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Hulet, Randall G.; Liu, W. Vincent
2016-09-01
We propose an experimental protocol to study p -wave superfluidity in a spin-polarized cold Fermi gas tuned by an s -wave Feshbach resonance. A crucial ingredient is to add a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice and tune the fillings of two spins to the s and p band, respectively. The pairing order parameter is confirmed to inherit p -wave symmetry in its center-of-mass motion. We find that it can further develop into a state of unexpected π -phase modulation in a broad parameter regime. Experimental signatures are predicted in the momentum distributions, density of states, and spatial densities for a realistic experimental setup with a shallow trap. The π -phase p -wave superfluid is reminiscent of the π state in superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures but differs in symmetry and physical origin. The spatially varying phases of the superfluid gap provide an approach to synthetic magnetic fields for neutral atoms. It would represent another example of p -wave pairing, first discovered in 3He liquids.
Strong Coupling Effects on the Specific Heat of an Ultracold Fermi Gas in the Unitarity Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Wyk, P.; Tajima, H.; Hanai, R.; Ohashi, Y.
2016-05-01
We investigate strong-coupling corrections to the specific heat C_V in the normal state of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region. A recent experiment on a ^6Li unitary Fermi gas (Ku et. al. in Science 335:563 2012) shows that C_V is remarkably amplified near the superfluid phase transition temperature T_c, being similar to the well-known λ -structure observed in liquid ^4He. Including pairing fluctuations within the framework of the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that strong pairing fluctuations are sufficient to explain the anomalous behavior of C_V observed in a ^6Li unitary Fermi gas near T_c. We also show that there is no contribution from stable preformed Cooper pairs to C_V at the unitarity. This indicates that the origin of the observed anomaly is fundamentally different from the case of liquid 4He, where stable ^4He Bose atoms induce the λ -structure in C_V near the superfluid instability. Instead, the origin is the suppression of the entropy S, near T_c, due to the increase of metastable preformed Cooper pairs. Our results indicate that the specific heat is a useful quantity to study the effects of pairing fluctuations on the thermodynamic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region.
Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid 'atomtronic' circuit.
Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W; Lobb, Christopher J; Phillips, William D; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K
2014-02-13
Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits-it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices). PMID:24522597
Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid 'atomtronic' circuit.
Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W; Lobb, Christopher J; Phillips, William D; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K
2014-02-13
Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits-it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).
Simulating strongly correlated electrons with a strongly interacting Fermi gas
Thomas, John E.
2013-05-28
The quantum many-body physics of strongly-correlated fermions is studied in a degenerate, strongly- interacting atomic Fermi gas, first realized by our group with DOE support in 2002. This system, which exhibits strong spin pairing, is now widely studied and provides an important paradigm for testing predictions based on state-of-the-art many-body theory in fields ranging from nuclear matter to high temperature superfluidity and superconductivity. As the system is strongly interacting, both the superfluid and the normal fluid are nontrivial and of great interest. A central part of our program on Fermi gases is the connection between the study of thermodynamics, supported by DOE and the study of hydrodynamic transport, supported by NSF. This connection is especially interesting in view of a recent conjecture from the string theory community on the concept of nearly perfect normal fluids, which exhibit a minimum ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in strongly-interacting, scale-invariant systems.
The Phases of an Interacting Spin-1/2 Fermi Gas as seen from a New Variational Ansatz
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Sangwoo; Sun, Kuei; Bolech, Carlos
2015-05-01
Since its introduction, the continuous matrix product states (cMPS) have demonstrated success in predicting low energy properties of repulsive one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas systems. We have extended those efforts to nonrelativistic fermions and shown that the cMPS, moreover, is able to correctly describe the ground-state superfluid and magnetic properties of interacting Fermi gases in 1D. This includes the signatures of a partially polarized superfluid regime, in agreement with the large amount of theoretical and experimental work from recent years by the cold-atoms community. The new type of ansatz promises to be ideally posed to be able to describe atomic gases in optical lattices economically but without making a lattice-model (tight-binding) approximation. Funding for this work was provided by the University of Cincinnati and by the DARPA OLE program through ARO W911NF-07-1-0464; parallel computing resources were from the Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC).
All-optical pump-and-probe detection of two-time correlations in a Fermi gas
Dao, T.-L.; Kollath, C.; Carusotto, I.; Koehl, M.
2010-04-15
We propose an all-optical scheme to probe the dynamical correlations of a strongly interacting gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice potential. The proposed technique is based on a pump-and-probe scheme: a coherent light pulse is initially converted into an atomic coherence and later retrieved after a variable storage time. The efficiency of the proposed method to measure the two-time one-particle Green function of the gas is validated by numerical and analytical calculations of the expected signal for the two cases of a normal Fermi gas and a BCS superfluid state. Protocols to extract the superfluid gap and the full quasiparticle dispersions are discussed.
From ultracold Fermi Gases to Neutron Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salomon, Christophe
2012-02-01
Ultracold dilute atomic gases can be considered as model systems to address some pending problem in Many-Body physics that occur in condensed matter systems, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. We have developed a general method to probe with high precision the thermodynamics of locally homogeneous ultracold Bose and Fermi gases [1,2,3]. This method allows stringent tests of recent many-body theories. For attractive spin 1/2 fermions with tunable interaction (^6Li), we will show that the gas thermodynamic properties can continuously change from those of weakly interacting Cooper pairs described by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to those of strongly bound molecules undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. First, we focus on the finite-temperature Equation of State (EoS) of the unpolarized unitary gas. Surprisingly, the low-temperature properties of the strongly interacting normal phase are well described by Fermi liquid theory [3] and we localize the superfluid phase transition. A detailed comparison with theories including recent Monte-Carlo calculations will be presented. Moving away from the unitary gas, the Lee-Huang-Yang and Lee-Yang beyond-mean-field corrections for low density bosonic and fermionic superfluids are quantitatively measured for the first time. Despite orders of magnitude difference in density and temperature, our equation of state can be used to describe low density neutron matter such as the outer shell of neutron stars. [4pt] [1] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, K. Jiang, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Nature 463, 1057 (2010) [0pt] [2] N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, S. Pilati, F. Chevy, S. Giorgini, A. Georges, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 215303 (2011)
George E. Valley, Jr. Prize Talk: Exact relations for Fermi gases with large scattering length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Shina
2011-05-01
Ultracold two-component atomic Fermi gases near broad Feshbach resonances have both strong interactions and relatively long life times, and the strong attractions between fermions lead to remarkable properties such as superfluidity at large percentages of the Fermi temperature. The interactions can often be described by a single parameter, the two-body s-wave scattering length, which determines how the many-body wave function behaves as two atoms get much closer than the average interparticle spacing. This short-range structure of the wave function leads to a number of exact relations among energy, momentum distribution, pressure, and various high-frequency and short-wave properties. All the relations involve a quantity called contact. The exact relations point to a number of independent determinations of the contact, which have been beautifully demonstrated experimentally as well as numerically. This work was supported, in part, by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER41132.
Condensed-matter physics: History matters for a stirred superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Matthew J.; Helmerson, Kristian
2014-02-01
The observation of path dependence in the response of a superfluid to stirring promises potential applications in precision rotation sensing, and provides a test bed for microscopic theories of ultracold atomic gases. See Letter p.200
Quantum liquid-crystal order in resonant atomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzihovsky, Leo
2012-11-01
I review recent studies that predict a realization of quantum liquid-crystalline orders in resonant atomic gases. As examples of such putative systems I will discuss an s-wave resonant imbalanced Fermi gas and a p-wave resonant Bose gas. In the former, the liquid-crystalline smectic, nematic and rich variety of other descendant states emerge from strongly quantum- and thermally-fluctuating Fulde-Ferrell and Larkin-Ovchinnikov states, driven by a competition between resonant pairing and Fermi-surface mismatch. In the latter, at intermediate detuning the p-wave resonant interaction generically drives Bose-condensation at a finite momentum, set by a competition between atomic kinetic energy and atom-molecule hybridization. Because of the underlying rotationally-invariant environment of the atomic gas trapped isotropically, the putative striped superfluid is a realization of a quantum superfluid smectic, that can melt into a variety of interesting phases, such as a quantum nematic. I will discuss the corresponding rich phase diagrams and transitions, as well the low-energy properties of the phases and fractional topological defects generic to striped superfluids and their fluctuation-driven descendants.
Lenr:. Superfluids, Self-Trapping and Non-Self States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chubb, Talbot A.
2005-12-01
LENR ion band state models involve deuteron many-body systems resembling superfluids. The physics of atom Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices teaches that superfluid behavior occurs when the potential barriers between adjacent potential wells permit high tunneling rates and the well potentials are shallow. These superfluids have fractional occupation of individual wells. Well periodic symmetry is not affected by the presence of the atoms. This behavior suggests that deuterons in a lattice should be in non-self-trapping sites, which may indicate that D+Bloch occupies the Pd tetrahedral sites.
Detecting paired and counterflow superfluidity via dipole oscillations
Hu Anzi; Tiesinga, Eite; Williams, Carl J.; Clark, Charles W.; Mathey, L.; Danshita, Ippei
2011-10-15
We suggest an experimentally feasible procedure to observe counterflow and paired superfluidity in ultracold atom systems. We study the time evolution of one-dimensional mixtures of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice following an abrupt displacement of an additional weak confining potential. We find that the dynamic responses of the paired superfluid phase for attractive interspecies interactions and the counterflow superfluid phase for repulsive interactions are qualitatively distinct and reflect the quasi-long-range order that characterizes these phases. These findings suggest a clear experimental procedure for their detection, and give an intuitive insight into their dynamics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Herbert L.
1974-01-01
The final installment of the author's recollections of his work with physicists Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard and others in developing the first controlled nuclear chain reaction and in preparing the test explosion of the first atomic bomb. (GS)
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Yabu, Hiroyuki
2009-10-15
We study quadrupole collective oscillations in the bose-fermi mixtures of ultracold atomic gases of Yb isotopes, which are realized by Kyoto group. Three kinds of combinations are chosen, {sup 170}Yb-{sup 171}Yb, {sup 170}Yb-{sup 173}Yb and {sup 174}Yb-{sup 173}Yb, where boson-fermion interactions are weakly repulsive, strongly attractive and strongly repulsive respectively. Collective oscillations in these mixtures are calculated in a dynamical time-evolution approach with the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii and the Vlasov equations. The boson oscillations are shown to have one collective mode, and the fermions are shown to have the boson-forced and two intrinsic modes, which correspond to the inside- and outside-fermion oscillations for the boson-distributed regions. The oscillations obtained in the dynamical approach show discrepancies from the results obtained in the small-amplitude approximations, e.g., the random phase approximation, except in the case of weak boson-fermion interactions. We also analyze these discrepancies, and show that they originated in the change of the fermion distributions through oscillation.
BEC of 41 K in a Fermi sea of 6 Li
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lous, Rianne S.; Fritsche, Isabella; Huang, Bo; Jag, Michael; Cetina, Marko; Walraven, Jook T. M.; Grimm, Rudolf
2016-05-01
We report on the production of a 41 K Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) immersed in a degenerate two-component 6 Li Fermi sea. After evaporation in an optical dipole trap, we obtain 1 . 2 ×104 41 K atoms with a 55% BEC fraction and a Fermi sea with T /TF < 0 . 1 , consisting of 1 . 8 ×105 6 Li atoms in each of the lowest two spin states. This opens the way to study the collective behavior of a mass-imbalanced mixture of two coupled superfluids. The double-degenerate Fermi-Bose mixture also enables the study of interacting bosonic impurities in a Fermi sea. Using loss spectroscopy, we observe the 335 . 8G Feshbach resonance, which is comparable to the one between 6 Li and the fermionic 40 K isotope exploited in our previous studies on the quantum many-body dynamics of fermionic impurities in a Fermi sea. Investigating the interacting bosonic impurities enables the direct comparison of the role of quantum statistics for fermionic and bosonic impurities. This work is supported by the Austrian Science Fund FWF within the collaborative research grant FoQuS.
Fermionic Paired Superfluids at High Rotation Rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veillette, Martin Y.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Gurarie, Victor; Radzihovsky, Leo
2006-03-01
I will describe our recent work on rotating resonantly-paired superfluids, mapping out the Feshbach resonance detuning, temperature and rotational frequency phase diagram. I will compare our predictions with the recent experiments on degenerate atomic ^6Li gases across a Feshbach resonance [Zwierlein et al. Nature 435, 1047 (2005)] and will make proposals for future experiments in such systems.
Erika Bailey
2011-07-07
The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.
Ideal fluid flow conserves a special quantity known as helicity, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. Helicity can be understood as a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines of the flow, providing an important geometric tool to study diverse physical systems such as turbulent fluids and plasmas. Since superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, a natural question arises: Is there an extra conserved quantity akin to helicity in superfluids? We address the question of a ''superfluid helicity'' theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.
Detecting π-phase superfluids with p-wave symmetry in a quasi-1D optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Hulet, Randall G.; Liu, W. Vincent
2016-05-01
We propose an experimental protocol to create a p-wave superfluid in a spin-polarized cold Fermi gas tuned by an s-wave Feshbach resonance. A crucial ingredient is to add an anisotropic 3D optical lattice and tune the fillings of two spins to the s and p band, respectively. The pairing order parameter is confirmed to inherit p-wave symmetry in its center-of-mass motion. We find that it can further develop into a state of unexpected π-phase modulation in a broad parameter regime. Experimental signatures are predicted in the momentum distributions, density of states and spatial densities for a realistic experimental setup. The π-phase p-wave superfluid is reminiscent of the π-state in superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures but differs in symmetry and physical origin. The spatially-varying phases of the superfluid gap provide a novel approach to synthetic magnetic fields for neutral atoms. It would represent another example of p-wave pairing, first discovered in He-3 liquids. Work supported in part by U.S. ARO, AFOSR, NSF, ONR, Charles E. Kaufman Foundation, and The Pittsburgh Foundation, LPS-MPO-CMTC, JQI-NSF-PFC, ARO-Atomtronics-MURI, the Welch Foundation, ARO-MURI and NSF of China.
Criteria for two-dimensional kinematics in an interacting Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyke, P.; Fenech, K.; Peppler, T.; Lingham, M. G.; Hoinka, S.; Zhang, W.; Peng, S.-G.; Mulkerin, B.; Hu, H.; Liu, X.-J.; Vale, C. J.
2016-01-01
Ultracold Fermi gases subject to tight transverse confinement offer a highly controllable setting to study the two-dimensional (2D) BCS to Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless superfluid crossover. Achieving the 2D regime requires confining particles to their transverse ground state which presents challenges in interacting systems. Here, we establish the conditions for an interacting Fermi gas to display 2D kinematics. Transverse excitations are detected by measuring the transverse expansion rate which displays a sudden increase when the atom number exceeds a critical value N2 D signifying a density driven departure from 2D kinematics. For weak interactions N2 D is set by the aspect ratio of the trap. Close to a Feshbach resonance, however, the stronger interactions reduce N2 D and excitations appear at lower density.
Possible Stimulation of Nuclear alpha Decay by Superfluid Helium
Barabanov, A. L.
2009-08-28
It is suggested that superfluid helium (condensate of {sup 4}He atoms) may stimulate nuclear alpha decay in a situation when an alpha emitter moves through superfluid helium with fine-tuned velocity, so that the backward-emitted alpha particle is at rest in the laboratory frame. It is shown that the probability of stimulated alpha decay in this case may be sizable enough to be detected.
Possible stimulation of nuclear alpha decay by superfluid helium.
Barabanov, A L
2009-08-28
It is suggested that superfluid helium (condensate of (4)He atoms) may stimulate nuclear alpha decay in a situation when an alpha emitter moves through superfluid helium with fine-tuned velocity, so that the backward-emitted alpha particle is at rest in the laboratory frame. It is shown that the probability of stimulated alpha decay in this case may be sizable enough to be detected.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-10-18
... in Monroe County, Michigan. Fermi 1 is a permanently shutdown nuclear reactor facility. The license... breeder reactor power plant cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. In November 1972, the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), the licensee at that time, made the decision...
Exploring the thermodynamics of a universal Fermi gas.
Nascimbène, S; Navon, N; Jiang, K J; Chevy, F; Salomon, C
2010-02-25
One of the greatest challenges in modern physics is to understand the behaviour of an ensemble of strongly interacting particles. A class of quantum many-body systems (such as neutron star matter and cold Fermi gases) share the same universal thermodynamic properties when interactions reach the maximum effective value allowed by quantum mechanics, the so-called unitary limit. This makes it possible in principle to simulate some astrophysical phenomena inside the highly controlled environment of an atomic physics laboratory. Previous work on the thermodynamics of a two-component Fermi gas led to thermodynamic quantities averaged over the trap, making comparisons with many-body theories developed for uniform gases difficult. Here we develop a general experimental method that yields the equation of state of a uniform gas, as well as enabling a detailed comparison with existing theories. The precision of our equation of state leads to new physical insights into the unitary gas. For the unpolarized gas, we show that the low-temperature thermodynamics of the strongly interacting normal phase is well described by Fermi liquid theory, and we localize the superfluid transition. For a spin-polarized system, our equation of state at zero temperature has a 2 per cent accuracy and extends work on the phase diagram to a new regime of precision. We show in particular that, despite strong interactions, the normal phase behaves as a mixture of two ideal gases: a Fermi gas of bare majority atoms and a non-interacting gas of dressed quasi-particles, the fermionic polarons.
Structured Weyl Points in Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermionic Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-12-01
We demonstrate that a Weyl point, widely examined in 3D Weyl semimetals and superfluids, can develop a pair of nondegenerate gapless spheres. Such a bouquet of two spheres is characterized by three distinct topological invariants of manifolds with full energy gaps, i.e., the Chern number of a 0D point inside one developed sphere, the winding number of a 1D loop around the original Weyl point, and the Chern number of a 2D surface enclosing the whole bouquet. We show that such structured Weyl points can be realized in the superfluid quasiparticle spectrum of a 3D degenerate Fermi gas subject to spin-orbit couplings and Zeeman fields, which supports Fulde-Ferrell superfluids as the ground state.
Structured Weyl Points in Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermionic Superfluids.
Xu, Yong; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-12-31
We demonstrate that a Weyl point, widely examined in 3D Weyl semimetals and superfluids, can develop a pair of nondegenerate gapless spheres. Such a bouquet of two spheres is characterized by three distinct topological invariants of manifolds with full energy gaps, i.e., the Chern number of a 0D point inside one developed sphere, the winding number of a 1D loop around the original Weyl point, and the Chern number of a 2D surface enclosing the whole bouquet. We show that such structured Weyl points can be realized in the superfluid quasiparticle spectrum of a 3D degenerate Fermi gas subject to spin-orbit couplings and Zeeman fields, which supports Fulde-Ferrell superfluids as the ground state. PMID:26765002
Imbalanced Feshbach-resonant Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzihovsky, Leo; Sheehy, Daniel E.
2010-07-01
We present an overview of recent developments in species-imbalanced ('polarized') Feshbach-resonant Fermi gases. We summarize the current status of thermodynamics of these systems in terms of a phase diagram as a function of the Feshbach resonance detuning, polarization and temperature. We review instabilities of the s-wave superfluidity across the Bose-Einstein condensation-to-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer crossover to phase separation, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov states, polarized molecular superfluidity and the normal state, driven by the species imbalance. We discuss different models and approximations of this system and compare their predictions with current experiments.
Normal State of a Polarized Fermi Gas at Unitarity
Lobo, C.; Recati, A.; Giorgini, S.; Stringari, S.
2006-11-17
We study the Fermi gas at unitarity and at T=0 by assuming that, at high polarizations, it is a normal Fermi liquid composed of weakly interacting quasiparticles associated with the minority spin atoms. With a quantum Monte Carlo approach we calculate their effective mass and binding energy, as well as the full equation of state of the normal phase as a function of the concentration x=n{sub {down_arrow}}/n{sub {up_arrow}} of minority atoms. We predict a first order phase transition from normal to superfluid at x{sub c}=0.44 corresponding, in the presence of harmonic trapping, to a critical polarization P{sub c}=(N{sub {up_arrow}}-N{sub {down_arrow}})/(N{sub {up_arrow}}+N{sub {down_arrow}})=77%. We calculate the radii and the density profiles in the trap and predict that the frequency of the spin dipole mode will be increased by a factor of 1.23 due to interactions.
Vortices in Spatially Inhomogeneous Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2004-03-01
Trapped degenerate Bose gases exhibit superfluidity with spatially nonuniform superfluid density. We study the vortex distribution in such rotating nonuniform superfluids, focusing particularly on deviations from a uniform distribution corresponding to an average rigid-body rotation. The origin of such deviations is the discrete way in which vortices impart angular momentum to the superfluid. This effect favors highest vortex density in regions where the superfluid density is most uniform, i.e., at the center of a trap, while tending to decrease the overall number of vortices. Supported by NSF DMR-0321848 and the Packard Foundation.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Atom-Molecule Conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Li-Bin; Liu, Jie
2014-03-01
The creation of ultracold molecules has opened up new possibilities for studies on molecular matter waves, strongly interacting superfluids, high-precision molecular spectroscopy and coherent molecular optics. In an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a degenerate Fermi-Fermi or Fermi-Bose mixture, magnetic Feshbach resonance or optical photoassociation (PA) technique has been used to create not only diatomic molecules but also more complex molecules. In this chapter, we focus on many issues of nonlinear dynamics of atom-molecule systems. In Sec. 1, on the basis of the two-channelmean-field approach, we study the manybody effects on the Landau-Zener(LZ) picture of two-body molecular production through dramatically distorting the energy levels near the Feshbach resonance. In Sec. 2, we investigate the Feshbach resonance with modulation of an oscillating magnetic field. In Sec. 3, we include the nonlinear interparticle collisions and focus on the linear instability induced by the collisions and the adiabatic fidelity of the atom-trimer dark state in a stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). In Sec. 4, we theoretically investigate conversion problem from atom to N-body polyatomic molecule in an ultracold bosonic system by implementing the generalized STIRAP. In the last section, we discuss role of two-body interactions in the Feshbach conversion of fermionic atoms to bosonic molecules.
Geometry-induced phase transition from a bosonic superfluid to a Mott insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barter, Thomas; Thomas, Claire; Leung, Tsz Him; Okano, Masayuki; Stamper-Kurn, Dan
2016-05-01
We describe a preliminary characterization of the superfluid and Mott insulating phases of ultracold Rb 87 bosonic atoms in a two-dimensional optical superlattice with tunable lattice geometry. By smoothly changing the lattice structure from the triangular to kagome geometries while maintaining near-constant tunneling and interaction energies, we observe a geometry-induced phase transition from the superfluid to the Mott-insulating state. We characterize the superfluid by measurements of the coherent population fraction in time of flight, and find that the superfluid is less robust in the kagome geometry than in the triangular lattice, owing to the lower its lower coordination number.
Phase diagram of a non-Abelian Aubry-André-Harper model with p -wave superfluidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Liu, Xia-Ji; Xianlong, Gao; Hu, Hui
2016-03-01
We study theoretically a one-dimensional quasiperiodic Fermi system with topological p -wave superfluidity, which can be deduced from a topologically nontrivial tight-binding model on the square lattice in a uniform magnetic field and subject to a non-Abelian gauge field. The system may be regarded as a non-Abelian generalization of the well-known Aubry-André-Harper model. We investigate its phase diagram as a function of the strength of the quasidisorder and the amplitude of the p -wave order parameter through a number of numerical investigations, including a multifractal analysis. There are four distinct phases separated by three critical lines, i.e., two phases with all extended wave functions [(I) and (IV)], a topologically trivial phase (II) with all localized wave functions, and a critical phase (III) with all multifractal wave functions. Phase (I) is related to phase (IV) by duality. It also seems to be related to phase (II) by duality. Our proposed phase diagram may be observable in current cold-atom experiments, in view of simulating non-Abelian gauge fields and topological insulators/superfluids with ultracold atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Soon Yong
2008-04-01
In the recent years, dilute Fermi gases have played the center stage role in the many-body physics. The gas of neutral alkali atoms such as Lithium-6 and Potassium-40 can be trapped at temperatures below the Fermi degeneracy. The most relevant feature of these gases is that the interaction is tunable and strongly interacting superfluid can be artificially created. I will discuss the recent progress in understanding the ground state properties of the dilute Fermi gases at different interaction regimes. First, I will present the case of the spin symmetric systems where the Fermi gas can smoothly crossover from the BCS regime to the BEC regime. Then, I will discuss the case of the spin polarized systems, where different quantum phases can occur as a function of the polarization. In the laboratory, the trapped Fermi gas shows spatial dependence of the different quantum phases. This can be understood in the context of the local variation of the chemical potential. I will present the most accurate quantum ab initio results and the relevant experiments.
p-Wave Resonant Bose Gas: A Finite-Momentum Spinor Superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sungsoo; Radzihovsky, Leo
2010-03-01
We study a degenerate gas of two-species bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance (as realized in, e.g., a ^85Rb-^87Rb mixture). We show that this model exhibits a finite-momentum atomic-molecular superfluid(AMSF), sandwiched by a molecular p-wave (orbital spinor) superfluid and by an s-wave atomic superfluid at large negative and positive detunings, respectively. The magnetic field can be used to tune the modulation wave vector of the AMSF state, as well as to drive quantum phase transitions in this rich system.
p-Wave Resonant Bose Gas: A Finite-Momentum Spinor Superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sungsoo; Radzihovsky, Leo
2009-10-01
We study a degenerate gas of two-species bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance (as realized in, e.g., a ^85Rb-^87Rb mixture). We show that this model exhibits a finite-momentum atomic-molecular superfluid (AMSF), sandwiched by a molecular p-wave (orbital spinor) superfluid and by an s-wave atomic superfluid at large negative and positive detunings, respectively. The magnetic field can be used to tune the modulation wave vector of the AMSF state, as well as to drive quantum phase transitions in this rich system.
p-Wave Resonant Bose Gas: A Finite-Momentum Spinor Superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzihovsky, Leo; Choi, Sungsoo
2009-08-01
We show that a degenerate gas of two-species bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance (as realized in, e.g., a Rb85-Rb87 mixture) exhibits a finite-momentum atomic-molecular superfluid (AMSF), sandwiched by a molecular p-wave (orbital spinor) superfluid and by an s-wave atomic superfluid at large negative and positive detunings, respectively. The magnetic field can be used to tune the modulation wave vector of the AMSF state, as well as to drive quantum phase transitions in this rich system.
p-wave resonant bose gas: a finite-momentum spinor superfluid.
Radzihovsky, Leo; Choi, Sungsoo
2009-08-28
We show that a degenerate gas of two-species bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance (as realized in, e.g., a (85)Rb -- (87)Rb mixture) exhibits a finite-momentum atomic-molecular superfluid (AMSF), sandwiched by a molecular p-wave (orbital spinor) superfluid and by an s-wave atomic superfluid at large negative and positive detunings, respectively. The magnetic field can be used to tune the modulation wave vector of the AMSF state, as well as to drive quantum phase transitions in this rich system. PMID:19792805
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brackett, Jeremy; Newman, Joseph; De Silva, Theja N.
2016-10-01
We study an effective fermion model on a square lattice to investigate the cooperation and competition of superconductivity and anti-ferromagnetism. In addition to particle tunneling and on-site interaction, a bosonic excitation mediated attractive interaction is also included in the model. We assume that the attractive interaction is mediated by spin fluctuations and excitations of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in electronic systems and Bose-Fermi mixtures on optical lattices, respectively. Using an effective mean-field theory to treat both superconductivity and anti-ferromagnetism at equal footing, we study a single effective model relevant for both systems within the Landau energy functional approach and a linearized theory. Within our approaches, we find possible co-existence of superconductivity and anti-ferromagnetism for both electronic and cold-atomic models. Our linearized theory shows while spin fluctuations favor d-wave superconductivity and BEC excitations favor s-wave superconductivity.
Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L
2010-11-04
A quintessential feature of superfluidity is the ability to support dissipationless flow, for example, when an object moves through a superfluid and experiences no drag. This, however, only occurs when the object is moving below a certain critical velocity; when it exceeds this critical velocity it dissipates energy into excitations of the superfluid, resulting in a net drag force on the object and the breakdown of superfluid flow. In many superfluids, such as dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of atoms with contact interactions, this critical velocity is simply the speed of sound in the system, where the speed of sound is set by the density and the s-wave scattering length of the atoms. However, for other superfluids, such as liquid {sup 4}He, this is not the case. In {sup 4}He, the critical velocity is set by a roton mode, corresponding to a peak in the static structure factor of the system at some finite, non-zero momentum, with a characteristic velocity that is considerably less than the speed of sound in the liquid. This feature has been verified experimentally via measurements of ion-drift velocity in the fluid, thereby providing insight into the detailed structure of the system. Interestingly, a roton-like feature was predicted to exist in the dispersion relation of a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) dipolar BEC (DBEC) [16], or a BEC with dipole-dipole interactions. However, unlike the dispersion of {sup 4}He, the disperSion of a DBEC is highly tunable as a function of the condensate density or dipole-dipole interaction (ddi) strength. Additionally, the DBEC is set apart from liquid {sup 4}He in that its interactions depend on how the dipoles are oriented in space. Thus, the DBEC provides an ideal system to study the effects that anisotropies have on the bulk properties of a superfluid, such as the critical velocity. Here we consider a DBEC in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) geometry and allow for the dipoles to be polarized at a nonzero angle into the plane
Shell Models of Superfluid Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wacks, Daniel H.; Barenghi, Carlo F.
2011-12-01
Superfluid helium consists of two inter-penetrating fluids, a viscous normal fluid and an inviscid superfluid, coupled by a mutual friction. We develop a two-fluid shell model to study superfluid turbulence and investigate the energy spectra and the balance of fluxes between the two fluids in a steady state. At sufficiently low temperatures a 'bottle-neck' develops at high wavenumbers suggesting the need for a further dissipative effect, such as the Kelvin wave cascade.
Cavitation in flowing superfluid helium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daney, D. E.
1988-01-01
Flowing superfluid helium cavitates much more readily than normal liquid helium, and there is a marked difference in the cavitation behavior of the two fluids as the lambda point is traversed. Examples of cavitation in a turbine meter and centrifugal pump are given, together with measurements of the cavitation strength of flowing superfluid helium. The unusual cavitation behavior of superfluid helium is attributed to its immense thermal conductivity .
Sound modes in holographic superfluids
Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos
2009-11-15
Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penanen, Konstantin
2004-01-01
The performance of clocks is limited by the characteristics of the underlying oscillator. Both the quality factor of the oscillator and the signal-to-noise ratio for the resonator state measurement are important. A superfluid helium Helmholtz resonator operating at approx.100mK temperatures has the potential of maintaining frequency stability of 5x10(exp -15)/t(exp 1/2) on the time scale of a few months. The high dynamic range of lossless SQUID position displacement measurement, and low losses associated with the superfluid flow, combined with high mechanical stability of cryogenic assemblies, contribute to the projected stability. Low overall mass of the assembly allows for multiple stages of vibration isolation.
Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator
Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.
1992-01-01
A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.
Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator
Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.
1992-12-22
A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.
Low-lying excitations in a strongly interacting Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vale, Christopher; Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus
2016-05-01
We present measurements of the low-lying excitation spectrum of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover using Bragg spectroscopy. By focussing the Bragg lasers onto the central volume of the cloud we can probe atoms at near-uniform density allowing measurement of the homogeneous density-density response function. The Bragg wavevector is set to be approximately half of the Fermi wavevector to probe the collective response. Below the superfluid transition temperature the Bragg spectra dominated by the Bogoliubov-Anderson phonon mode. Single particle excitations become visible at energies greater than twice the pairing gap. As interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regime the phonon and single particle modes separate apart and both the pairing gap and speed of sound can be directly read off in certain regions of the crossover. Single particle pair-breaking excitations become heavily suppressed as interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regimes.
Thermodynamic properties of Rashba spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zhen; Pu, Han; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan
2014-12-01
We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a superfluid Fermi gas subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling and effective Zeeman field. We adopt a T -matrix scheme that takes beyond-mean-field effects, which are important for strongly interacting systems, into account. We focus on the calculation of two important quantities: the superfluid transition temperature and the isothermal compressibility. Our calculation shows very distinct influences of the out-of-plane and the in-plane Zeeman fields on the Fermi gas. We also confirm that the in-plane Zeeman field induces a Fulde-Ferrell superfluid below the critical temperature and an exotic finite-momentum pseudogap phase above the critical temperature.
Surface tension in unitary fermi gases with population imbalance.
De Silva, Theja N; Mueller, Erich J
2006-08-18
We study the effects of surface tension between normal and superfluid regions of a trapped Fermi gas at unitarity. We find that surface tension causes notable distortions in the shape of large aspect ratio clouds. Including these distortions in our theories resolves many of the apparent discrepancies among different experiments and between theory and experiments.
Cronin, James
2005-03-30
A combination of the discovery of nuclear fission and the circumstances of the 2nd World War brought Enrico Fermi to Chicago, where he led the team that produced the first controlled, self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. Following the war in 1945 Chancellor Hutchins, William Zachariasen, and Walter Bartky convinced Fermi to accept a professorship at the University of Chicago, where the Institute for Nuclear Studies was established. Fermi served as the leading figure in surely the greatest collection of scientists the world has ever seen. Fermi's tenure at Chicago was cut short by his death in 1954. My talk will concentrate on the years 1945-54. Examples of his research notebooks, his speeches, his teaching, and his correspondence will be discussed.
Vortex gyroscope imaging of planar superfluids.
Powis, A T; Sammut, S J; Simula, T P
2014-10-17
We propose a robust imaging technique that makes it possible to distinguish vortices from antivortices in quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates from a single image of the density of the atoms. Tilting the planar condensate prior to standard absorption imaging excites a generalized gyroscopic mode of the condensate, revealing the sign and location of each vortex. This technique is anticipated to enable experimental measurement of the incompressible kinetic energy spectrum of the condensate and the observation of a negative-temperature phase transition of the vortex gas, driven by two-dimensional superfluid turbulence.
Non-linear superflow of a unitary Fermi gas through a quantum point contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebrat, Martin; Husmann, Dominik; Uchino, Shun; Krinner, Sebastian; Häusler, Samuel; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Giamarchi, Thierry; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-05-01
Point contacts provide simple connections between macroscopic particle reservoirs. In electric circuits, strong links between metals, semiconductors, or superconductors have applications for fundamental condensed-matter physics as well as quantum information processing. However, for complex, strongly correlated materials, links have been largely restricted to weak tunnel junctions. We studied resonantly interacting Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms connected by a tunable, ballistic quantum point contact, finding a nonlinear current-bias relation. At low temperature, our observations agree quantitatively with a theoretical model in which the current originates from multiple Andreev reflections. In a wide contact geometry, the competition between superfluidity and thermally activated transport leads to a conductance minimum. Our system offers a controllable platform for the study of mesoscopic devices based on strongly interacting matter.
Attractive Fermi Gases with Unequal Spin Populations in Highly Elongated Traps
Orso, G.
2007-02-16
We investigate two-component attractive Fermi gases with imbalanced spin populations in trapped one-dimensional configurations. The ground state properties are determined with the local density approximation, starting from the exact Bethe-ansatz equations for the homogeneous case. We predict that the atoms are distributed according to a two-shell structure: a partially polarized phase in the center of the trap and either a fully paired or a fully polarized phase in the wings. The partially polarized core is expected to be a superfluid of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov type. The size of the cloud as well as the critical spin polarization needed to suppress the fully paired shell are calculated as a function of the coupling strength.
Few-Body Precursor of the Higgs Mode in a Fermi Gas.
Bjerlin, J; Reimann, S M; Bruun, G M
2016-04-15
We demonstrate that an undamped few-body precursor of the Higgs mode can be investigated in a harmonically trapped Fermi gas. Using exact diagonalization, the lowest monopole mode frequency is shown to depend nonmonotonically on the interaction strength, having a minimum in a crossover region. The minimum deepens with increasing particle number, reflecting that the mode is the few-body analogue of a many-body Higgs mode in the superfluid phase, which has a vanishing frequency at the quantum phase transition point to the normal phase. We show that this mode mainly consists of coherent excitations of time-reversed pairs, and that it can be selectively excited by modulating the interaction strength, using, for instance, a Feshbach resonance in cold atomic gases.
d-wave superfluidity in optical lattices of ultracold polar molecules
Kuns, Kevin A.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Rey, Ana Maria
2011-12-15
Recent work on ultracold polar molecules, governed by a generalization of the t-J Hamiltonian, suggests that molecules may be better suited than atoms for studying d-wave superfluidity due to stronger interactions and larger tunability of the system. We compute the phase diagram for polar molecules in a checkerboard lattice consisting of weakly coupled square plaquettes. In the simplest experimentally realizable case where there is only tunneling and an XX-type spin-spin interaction, we identify the parameter regime where d-wave superfluidity occurs. We also find that the inclusion of a density-density interaction destroys the superfluid phase and that the inclusion of a spin-density or an Ising-type spin-spin interaction can enhance the superfluid phase. We also propose schemes for experimentally realizing the perturbative calculations exhibiting enhanced d-wave superfluidity.
Quantum decoupling transition in a one-dimensional Feshbach-resonant superfluid.
Sheehy, Daniel E; Radzihovsky, Leo
2005-09-23
We study a one-dimensional gas of fermionic atoms interacting via an s-wave molecular Feshbach resonance. At low energies the system is characterized by two Josephson-coupled Luttinger liquids, corresponding to paired atomic and molecular superfluids. We show that, in contrast to higher dimensions, the system exhibits a quantum phase transition from a phase in which the two superfluids are locked together to one in which, at low energies, quantum fluctuations suppress the Feshbach resonance (Josephson) coupling, effectively decoupling the molecular and atomic superfluids. Experimental signatures of this quantum transition include the appearance of an out-of-phase gapless mode (in addition to the standard gapless in-phase mode) in the spectrum of the decoupled superfluid phase and a discontinuous change in the molecular momentum distribution function. PMID:16197122
Quantum Decoupling Transition in a One-Dimensional Feshbach-Resonant Superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2005-09-01
We study a one-dimensional gas of fermionic atoms interacting via an s-wave molecular Feshbach resonance. At low energies the system is characterized by two Josephson-coupled Luttinger liquids, corresponding to paired atomic and molecular superfluids. We show that, in contrast to higher dimensions, the system exhibits a quantum phase transition from a phase in which the two superfluids are locked together to one in which, at low energies, quantum fluctuations suppress the Feshbach resonance (Josephson) coupling, effectively decoupling the molecular and atomic superfluids. Experimental signatures of this quantum transition include the appearance of an out-of-phase gapless mode (in addition to the standard gapless in-phase mode) in the spectrum of the decoupled superfluid phase and a discontinuous change in the molecular momentum distribution function.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gradwohl, Ben-Ami
1991-01-01
The universe may have undergone a superfluid-like phase during its evolution, resulting from the injection of nontopological charge into the spontaneously broken vacuum. In the presence of vortices this charge is identified with angular momentum. This leads to turbulent domains on the scale of the correlation length. By restoring the symmetry at low temperatures, the vortices dissociate and push the charges to the boundaries of these domains. The model can be scaled (phenomenologically) to very low energies, it can be incorporated in a late time phase transition and form large scale structure in the boundary layers of the correlation volumes. The novel feature of the model lies in the fact that the dark matter is endowed with coherent motion. The possibilities of identifying this flow around superfluid vortices with the observed large scale bulk motion is discussed. If this identification is possible, then the definite prediction can be made that a more extended map of peculiar velocities would have to reveal large scale circulations in the flow pattern.
Spin-polarized fermionic superfluidity in a trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2006-03-01
Recent research on Feshbach resonantly paired superfluids has focused on the fate of such superfluidity upon changing the relative population of the two hyperfine states undergoing pairing. I will discuss recent work[1] showing that such imposed spin polarization frustrates pairing and leads to a rich phase diagram consisting of a polarized superfluid, phase separation, and Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phases. In the spatially inhomogeneous environment of a trap, the local spin polarization (magnetization) is also inhomogeneous, providing a direct signature of these phases. I will discuss this and other signatures of such phases in degenerate atom experiments. This work was supported by NSF DMR-0321848 and the Packard Foundation. [1] D.E. Sheehy and L. Radzihovsky, cond-mat/0508430.
Dissipative superfluid dynamics from gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz
2011-04-01
Charged asymptotically AdS 5 black branes are sometimes unstable to the condensation of charged scalar fields. For fields of infinite charge and squared mass -4 Herzog was able to analytically determine the phase transition temperature and compute the endpoint of this instability in the neighborhood of the phase transition. We generalize Herzog's construction by perturbing away from infinite charge in an expansion in inverse charge and use the solutions so obtained as input for the fluid gravity map. Our tube wise construction of patched up locally hairy black brane solutions yields a one to one map from the space of solutions of superfluid dynamics to the long wavelength solutions of the Einstein Maxwell system. We obtain explicit expressions for the metric, gauge field and scalar field dual to an arbitrary superfluid flow at first order in the derivative expansion. Our construction allows us to read off the the leading dissipative corrections to the perfect superfluid stress tensor, current and Josephson equations. A general framework for dissipative superfluid dynamics was worked out by Landau and Lifshitz for zero superfluid velocity and generalized to nonzero fluid velocity by Clark and Putterman. Our gravitational results do not fit into the 13 parameter Clark-Putterman framework. Purely within fluid dynamics we present a consistent new generalization of Clark and Putterman's equations to a set of superfluid equations parameterized by 14 dissipative parameters. The results of our gravitational calculation fit perfectly into this enlarged framework. In particular we compute all the dissipative constants for the gravitational superfluid.
Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermi Gases across a Feshbach Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zeng-Qiang; Zhai, Hui
2011-11-01
In this Letter we study both ground state properties and the superfluid transition temperature of a spin-1/2 Fermi gas across a Feshbach resonance with a synthetic spin-orbit coupling, using the mean-field theory and the exact solution of two-body problem. We show that a strong spin-orbit coupling can significantly enhance the pairing gap for negative scattering length as, due to increased density of state at Fermi surface. Strong spin-orbit coupling can also significantly enhance the superfluid transition temperature Tc to a sizable fraction of Fermi temperature when as≲0, while it suppresses Tc slightly for positive as. The interaction energy and pair size at resonance are also discussed.
Anomalous superfluid density in quantum critical superconductors
Hashimoto, Kenichiro; Mizukami, Yuta; Katsumata, Ryo; Shishido, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Minoru; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Yuji; Schlueter, John A.; Fletcher, Jonathan D.; Carrington, Antony; Gnida, Daniel; Kaczorowski, Dariusz; Shibauchi, Takasada
2013-01-01
When a second-order magnetic phase transition is tuned to zero temperature by a nonthermal parameter, quantum fluctuations are critically enhanced, often leading to the emergence of unconventional superconductivity. In these “quantum critical” superconductors it has been widely reported that the normal-state properties above the superconducting transition temperature Tc often exhibit anomalous non-Fermi liquid behaviors and enhanced electron correlations. However, the effect of these strong critical fluctuations on the superconducting condensate below Tc is less well established. Here we report measurements of the magnetic penetration depth in heavy-fermion, iron-pnictide, and organic superconductors located close to antiferromagnetic quantum critical points, showing that the superfluid density in these nodal superconductors universally exhibits, unlike the expected T-linear dependence, an anomalous 3/2 power-law temperature dependence over a wide temperature range. We propose that this noninteger power law can be explained if a strong renormalization of effective Fermi velocity due to quantum fluctuations occurs only for momenta k close to the nodes in the superconducting energy gap Δ(k). We suggest that such “nodal criticality” may have an impact on low-energy properties of quantum critical superconductors. PMID:23404698
Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Zameer, Aneela; Khan, Aziz Ullah; Wazwaz, Abdul Majid
2016-01-01
In this study, a novel bio-inspired computing approach is developed to analyze the dynamics of nonlinear singular Thomas-Fermi equation (TFE) arising in potential and charge density models of an atom by exploiting the strength of finite difference scheme (FDS) for discretization and optimization through genetic algorithms (GAs) hybrid with sequential quadratic programming. The FDS procedures are used to transform the TFE differential equations into a system of nonlinear equations. A fitness function is constructed based on the residual error of constituent equations in the mean square sense and is formulated as the minimization problem. Optimization of parameters for the system is carried out with GAs, used as a tool for viable global search integrated with SQP algorithm for rapid refinement of the results. The design scheme is applied to solve TFE for five different scenarios by taking various step sizes and different input intervals. Comparison of the proposed results with the state of the art numerical and analytical solutions reveals that the worth of our scheme in terms of accuracy and convergence. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed scheme are validated through consistently getting optimal values of statistical performance indices calculated for a sufficiently large number of independent runs to establish its significance. PMID:27610319
Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Zameer, Aneela; Khan, Aziz Ullah; Wazwaz, Abdul Majid
2016-01-01
In this study, a novel bio-inspired computing approach is developed to analyze the dynamics of nonlinear singular Thomas-Fermi equation (TFE) arising in potential and charge density models of an atom by exploiting the strength of finite difference scheme (FDS) for discretization and optimization through genetic algorithms (GAs) hybrid with sequential quadratic programming. The FDS procedures are used to transform the TFE differential equations into a system of nonlinear equations. A fitness function is constructed based on the residual error of constituent equations in the mean square sense and is formulated as the minimization problem. Optimization of parameters for the system is carried out with GAs, used as a tool for viable global search integrated with SQP algorithm for rapid refinement of the results. The design scheme is applied to solve TFE for five different scenarios by taking various step sizes and different input intervals. Comparison of the proposed results with the state of the art numerical and analytical solutions reveals that the worth of our scheme in terms of accuracy and convergence. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed scheme are validated through consistently getting optimal values of statistical performance indices calculated for a sufficiently large number of independent runs to establish its significance.
Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A.R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlohr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bochow, A.; Borrel, V.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Brun, P.; Buhler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P.M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R.C.G.; /more authors..
2009-05-07
We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of {gamma}-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little ({approx}30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.
Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A.; Buehler, R.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Brucker, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Chadwick, P. M.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Borrel, V.; Behera, B.; Boisson, C.; Brion, E.; Brun, P.; Buesching, I.; Boutelier, T. E-mail: berrie@in2p3.fr E-mail: jchiang@slac.stanford.edu
2009-05-10
We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of {gamma}-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little ({approx}30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.
Fermi Liquid in a Torsional Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virtanen, T. H.; Thuneberg, E. V.
2012-12-01
We study the transverse acoustic impedance of normal Fermi liquid inside a torsionally oscillating cylindrical container. We use Landau's Fermi liquid theory, and our approach is applicable to both normal 3He and mixtures of 3He in superfluid 4He. The fluid causes dissipation and a change of the resonant frequency of the oscillator. Usually, a liquid medium increases the moment of inertia of the oscillator, but we show that for a suitable choice of container radius and driving frequency, the Fermi liquid can actually decrease the inertia and increase the resonant frequency. Results of numerical calculations for all values of mean free path l are shown and comparison is made to both hydrodynamic theory and simple kinetic theory in the ballistic limit.
Radzihovsky, Leo; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2009-07-01
We develop a low-energy model of an unidirectional Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) state. Because the underlying rotational and translational symmetries are broken spontaneously, this gapless superfluid is a smectic liquid crystal, that exhibits fluctuations that are qualitatively stronger than in a conventional superfluid, thus requiring a fully nonlinear description of its Goldstone modes. Consequently, at nonzero temperature the LO superfluid is an algebraic phase even in 3D. It exhibits half-integer vortex-dislocation defects, whose unbinding leads to transitions to a superfluid nematic and other phases. In 2D at nonzero temperature, the LO state is always unstable to a nematic superfluid. We expect this superfluid liquid-crystal phenomenology to be realizable in imbalanced resonant Fermi gases trapped isotropically. PMID:19659128
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzihovsky, Leo; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2009-07-01
We develop a low-energy model of an unidirectional Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) state. Because the underlying rotational and translational symmetries are broken spontaneously, this gapless superfluid is a smectic liquid crystal, that exhibits fluctuations that are qualitatively stronger than in a conventional superfluid, thus requiring a fully nonlinear description of its Goldstone modes. Consequently, at nonzero temperature the LO superfluid is an algebraic phase even in 3D. It exhibits half-integer vortex-dislocation defects, whose unbinding leads to transitions to a superfluid nematic and other phases. In 2D at nonzero temperature, the LO state is always unstable to a nematic superfluid. We expect this superfluid liquid-crystal phenomenology to be realizable in imbalanced resonant Fermi gases trapped isotropically.
Radzihovsky, Leo; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2009-07-03
We develop a low-energy model of an unidirectional Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) state. Because the underlying rotational and translational symmetries are broken spontaneously, this gapless superfluid is a smectic liquid crystal, that exhibits fluctuations that are qualitatively stronger than in a conventional superfluid, thus requiring a fully nonlinear description of its Goldstone modes. Consequently, at nonzero temperature the LO superfluid is an algebraic phase even in 3D. It exhibits half-integer vortex-dislocation defects, whose unbinding leads to transitions to a superfluid nematic and other phases. In 2D at nonzero temperature, the LO state is always unstable to a nematic superfluid. We expect this superfluid liquid-crystal phenomenology to be realizable in imbalanced resonant Fermi gases trapped isotropically.
Phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling
Yi, W.; Guo, G.-C.
2011-09-15
We study the phase separation of a spin-polarized Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling near a wide Feshbach resonance. As a result of the competition between spin-orbit coupling and population imbalance, the phase diagram for a uniform gas develops a rich structure of phase separation involving topologically nontrivial gapless superfluid states. We then demonstrate the phase separation induced by an external trapping potential and discuss the optimal parameter region for the experimental observation of the gapless superfluid phases.
Comment on ``Superfluid stability in the BEC-BCS crossover''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2007-04-01
We point out an error in recent work by Pao, Wu, and Yip [Phys. Rev. B 73, 132506 (2006)], that stems from their use of a necessary but not sufficient condition [positive compressibility (magnetic susceptibility) and superfluid stiffness] for the stability of the ground state of a polarized Fermi gas. As a result, for a range of detunings their proposed ground-state solution is a local maximum rather than a minimum of the ground state energy, which thereby invalidates their proposed phase diagram for resonantly interacting fermions under an imposed population difference.
Superfluid transition in the attractive Hofstadter-Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umucalılar, R. O.; Iskin, M.
2016-08-01
We consider a Fermi gas that is loaded onto a square optical lattice and subjected to a perpendicular artificial magnetic field, and determine its superfluid transition boundary by adopting a BCS-like mean-field approach in momentum space. The multiband structure of the single-particle Hofstadter spectrum is taken explicitly into account while deriving a generalized pairing equation. We present the numerical solutions as functions of the artificial magnetic flux, interaction strength, Zeeman field, chemical potential, and temperature, with a special emphasis on the roles played by the density of single-particle states and center-of-mass momentum of Cooper pairs.
Conservation of helicity in superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.
2015-03-01
Helicity arises as a special conserved quantity in ideal fluids, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. As a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines, Helicity provides an important tool for studying a wide variety of physical systems such as plasmas and turbulent fluids. Superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, making it natural to ask whether their knottedness is similarly preserved. We address the conservation of helicity in superfluids theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gully, P.
This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.
Unconventional Superfluidity in Yttrium Iron Garnet Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Chen; Nattermann, Thomas; Pokrovsky, Valery L.
2016-06-01
We argue that the magnon condensate in yttrium iron garnet may display experimentally observable superfluidity at room temperature despite the 100 times dominance of the normal density over superfluid ones. The superfluidity has a more complicated nature than in known superfluids since the U(1) symmetry of the global phase shift is violated by the dipolar interaction leading to the exchange of spin moment between the condensate and the crystal lattice. It produces periodic inhomogeneity in the stationary superfluid flow. We discuss the manner of observation and possible applications of magnon superfluidity. It may strongly enhance the spin-torque effects and reduce the energy consumption of the magnonic devices.
Unconventional Superfluidity in Yttrium Iron Garnet Films.
Sun, Chen; Nattermann, Thomas; Pokrovsky, Valery L
2016-06-24
We argue that the magnon condensate in yttrium iron garnet may display experimentally observable superfluidity at room temperature despite the 100 times dominance of the normal density over superfluid ones. The superfluidity has a more complicated nature than in known superfluids since the U(1) symmetry of the global phase shift is violated by the dipolar interaction leading to the exchange of spin moment between the condensate and the crystal lattice. It produces periodic inhomogeneity in the stationary superfluid flow. We discuss the manner of observation and possible applications of magnon superfluidity. It may strongly enhance the spin-torque effects and reduce the energy consumption of the magnonic devices. PMID:27391750
Relativistic superfluidity and vorticity from the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Chi; Good, Michael R. R.; Guo, Yulong; Liu, Xiaopei; Huang, Kerson
2014-12-01
We investigate superfluidity, and the mechanism for creation of quantized vortices, in the relativistic regime. The general framework is a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime for a complex scalar field, whose phase dynamics gives rise to superfluidity. The mechanisms discussed are local inertial forces (Coriolis and centrifugal), and current-current interaction with an external source. The primary application is to cosmology, but we also discuss the reduction to the nonrelativistic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is widely used in describing superfluidity and vorticity in liquid helium and cold-trapped atomic gases.
Three-dimensional nanoparticle dynamics in superfluid helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lathrop, Daniel
Quantized vortices have been observed in superfluid 4He and AMO trapped atom systems, and have been infered in superfluid 3He and neutron stars. The dynamics of quantum fluids is substantially controlled by the motion of quantized vortices, which are topological phase defects analogous to crystalline dislocations. Long-range quantum order underlies a number of related physical phenomena, including superfluidity, trapped-atom Bose-Einstein condensates, superconductivity, ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, lasers, and the Higgs mechanism. While superfluidity in 4He is one of the first discovered of these, it is one of the least understood, given that the strongly interacting nature of helium makes theory difficult, and that development of local experimental probes is lagging. The advent of three-dimensional flow visualization of particles that trace quantized vortices provides new oportunities to investigate their creation and dynamics. We work to address the following questions using flow visualization in this system: What are field equations that express the coupling of the ordered and disordered parts of the flow? How does vortex reconnection lead to dissipation and breaking of time-reversal invariance? What are the similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence at small and large scales? How do quantized vortices form through the lambda transition? This work is supported by the National Science Foundation DMR CMP 1407472.
Experimental studies of spin-imbalanced Fermi gases in 2D geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, John
We study the thermodynamics of a quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gas, which is not quite two-dimensional (2D), but far from three dimensional (3D). This system offers opportunities to test predictions that cross interdisciplinary boundaries, such as enhanced superfluid transition temperatures in spin-imbalanced quasi-2D superconductors, and provides important benchmarks for calculations of the phase diagrams. In the experiments, an ultra-cold Fermi gas is confined in an infrared CO2 laser standing-wave, which produces periodic pancake-shaped potential wells, separated by 5.3 μm. To study the thermodynamics, we load an ultra-cold mixture of N1 = 800 spin 1/2 -up and N2
Erika Bailey
2011-10-27
The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963. The reactor was tested at low power during the first couple years of operation. Power ascension testing above 1 MW commenced in December 1965 immediately following the receipt of a high-power operating license. In October 1966 during power ascension, zirconium plates at the bottom of the reactor vessel became loose and blocked sodium coolant flow to some fuel subassemblies. Two subassemblies started to melt and the reactor was manually shut down. No abnormal releases to the environment occurred. Forty-two months later after the cause had been determined, cleanup completed, and the fuel replaced, Fermi 1 was restarted. However, in November 1972, PRDC made the decision to decommission Fermi 1 as the core was approaching its burn-up limit. The fuel and blanket subassemblies were shipped off-site in 1973. Following that, the secondary sodium system was drained and sent off-site. The radioactive primary sodium was stored on-site in storage tanks and 55 gallon (gal) drums until it was shipped off-site in 1984. The initial decommissioning of Fermi 1 was completed in 1975. Effective January 23, 1976, DPR-9 was transferred to the Detroit Edison Company (DTE) as a 'possession only' license (DTE 2010a). This report details the confirmatory activities performed during the second Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE
Transition from a Two-Dimensional Superfluid to a One-Dimensional Mott Insulator
Bergkvist, Sara; Rosengren, Anders; Saers, Robert; Lundh, Emil; Rehn, Magnus; Kastberg, Anders
2007-09-14
A two-dimensional system of atoms in an anisotropic optical lattice is studied theoretically. If the system is finite in one direction, it is shown to exhibit a transition between a two-dimensional superfluid and a one-dimensional Mott insulating chain of superfluid tubes. Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with the expectation that the phase transition is of Kosterlitz-Thouless type. The effect of the transition on experimental time-of-flight images is discussed.
Universal spin transport in a strongly interacting Fermi gas.
Sommer, Ariel; Ku, Mark; Roati, Giacomo; Zwierlein, Martin W
2011-04-14
Transport of fermions, particles with half-integer spin, is central to many fields of physics. Electron transport runs modern technology, defining states of matter such as superconductors and insulators, and electron spin is being explored as a new carrier of information. Neutrino transport energizes supernova explosions following the collapse of a dying star, and hydrodynamic transport of the quark-gluon plasma governed the expansion of the early Universe. However, our understanding of non-equilibrium dynamics in such strongly interacting fermionic matter is still limited. Ultracold gases of fermionic atoms realize a pristine model for such systems and can be studied in real time with the precision of atomic physics. Even above the superfluid transition, such gases flow as an almost perfect fluid with very low viscosity when interactions are tuned to a scattering resonance. In this hydrodynamic regime, collective density excitations are weakly damped. Here we experimentally investigate spin excitations in a Fermi gas of (6)Li atoms, finding that, in contrast, they are maximally damped. A spin current is induced by spatially separating two spin components and observing their evolution in an external trapping potential. We demonstrate that interactions can be strong enough to reverse spin currents, with components of opposite spin reflecting off each other. Near equilibrium, we obtain the spin drag coefficient, the spin diffusivity and the spin susceptibility as a function of temperature on resonance and show that they obey universal laws at high temperatures. In the degenerate regime, the spin diffusivity approaches a value set by [planck]/m, the quantum limit of diffusion, where [planck]/m is Planck's constant divided by 2π and m the atomic mass. For repulsive interactions, our measurements seem to exclude a metastable ferromagnetic state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaeva, I. A.; Lindemann, U.; Jiang, N.; de Waele, A. T. A. M.; Thummes, G.
2004-06-01
A superfluid vortex cooler (SVC) is a combination of a fountain pump and a vortex cooler. The working fluid in the SVC is 4He at a temperature below the lambda line. The cooler has no moving parts, is gravity independent, and hardly requires any additional infrastructure. At saturated vapour pressure the SVC is capable of reaching a temperature as low as 0.75 K. At pressures close to the melting pressure the temperature can be brought down to 0.65 K. As the SVC operates only below the lambda line, it has to be precooled e.g. by a liquid-helium bath or a cryocooler. As a first step of our research we have carried out a number of experiments, using a liquid-helium bath as a precooler for the SVC. In this arrangement we have reached temperatures below 1 K with 3.5 mW heating power supplied to the fountain part of the SVC at 1.4 K. The next step was combining the SVC with a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR), developed at the University of Giessen. It is a two-stage G-M type refrigerator with 3He as a working fluid that reached a lowest temperature of 1.27 K. In this contribution we report on the results of the SVC tests in liquid helium and the progress in the integration of the SVC with the PTR.
Observation of a superfluid Hall effect
Jiménez-García, Karina; Williams, Ross A.; Beeler, Matthew C.; Perry, Abigail R.; Phillips, William D.; Spielman, Ian B.
2012-01-01
Measurement techniques based upon the Hall effect are invaluable tools in condensed-matter physics. When an electric current flows perpendicular to a magnetic field, a Hall voltage develops in the direction transverse to both the current and the field. In semiconductors, this behavior is routinely used to measure the density and charge of the current carriers (electrons in conduction bands or holes in valence bands)—internal properties of the system that are not accessible from measurements of the conventional resistance. For strongly interacting electron systems, whose behavior can be very different from the free electron gas, the Hall effect’s sensitivity to internal properties makes it a powerful tool; indeed, the quantum Hall effects are named after the tool by which they are most distinctly measured instead of the physics from which the phenomena originate. Here we report the first observation of a Hall effect in an ultracold gas of neutral atoms, revealed by measuring a Bose–Einstein condensate’s transport properties perpendicular to a synthetic magnetic field. Our observations in this vortex-free superfluid are in good agreement with hydrodynamic predictions, demonstrating that the system’s global irrotationality influences this superfluid Hall signal. PMID:22699494
Observation of a superfluid Hall effect.
LeBlanc, Lindsay J; Jiménez-García, Karina; Williams, Ross A; Beeler, Matthew C; Perry, Abigail R; Phillips, William D; Spielman, Ian B
2012-07-01
Measurement techniques based upon the Hall effect are invaluable tools in condensed-matter physics. When an electric current flows perpendicular to a magnetic field, a Hall voltage develops in the direction transverse to both the current and the field. In semiconductors, this behavior is routinely used to measure the density and charge of the current carriers (electrons in conduction bands or holes in valence bands)--internal properties of the system that are not accessible from measurements of the conventional resistance. For strongly interacting electron systems, whose behavior can be very different from the free electron gas, the Hall effect's sensitivity to internal properties makes it a powerful tool; indeed, the quantum Hall effects are named after the tool by which they are most distinctly measured instead of the physics from which the phenomena originate. Here we report the first observation of a Hall effect in an ultracold gas of neutral atoms, revealed by measuring a Bose-Einstein condensate's transport properties perpendicular to a synthetic magnetic field. Our observations in this vortex-free superfluid are in good agreement with hydrodynamic predictions, demonstrating that the system's global irrotationality influences this superfluid Hall signal.
Superfluid density through 2D superconductor junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Hyoungdo; Shih, Chih-Kang
As S. Qin et al. reported, two monolayer (2 ML) lead film on a silicon (111) substrate has one of two different atomic structures on the silicon substrate: the unstrained 1x1 and the psedumorphically strained √3x √3 (i.e. the same lattice constant as the Si √3x √3 lattice). Most interestingly, although these two different regions show the same quantum well state features, they have different Tc's (5 K and 4 K). These two different regions of 2 ML film naturally form superconductor-superconductor (SS or SS') junctions along silicon step edges. Physical connection of the junction is only 1 ML thickness because of the step height difference of substrate. We will present this study of SS (or SS') junction system using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and in-situ double-coil mutual inductance measurement. The transition of superconducting gaps across either SS or SS' junctions should show how to locally affect each other. Double coil measurement show a global Tc close to the lower Tc region with sizable superfluid density. We will discuss the phase rigidity and its relationship to the superfluid density in this ultra-thin Pb film that is only 2 ML thick.
Rotating a Rashba-coupled Fermi gas in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doko, E.; Subaşı, A. L.; Iskin, M.
2016-03-01
We analyze the interplay of adiabatic rotation and Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the BCS-BEC evolution of a harmonically trapped Fermi gas in two dimensions under the assumption that vortices are not excited. First, by taking the trapping potential into account via both the semiclassical and exact quantum-mechanical approaches, we firmly establish the parameter regime where the noninteracting gas forms a ring-shaped annulus. Then, by taking the interactions into account via the BCS mean-field approximation, we study the pair-breaking mechanism that is induced by rotation, i.e., the Coriolis effects. In particular, we show that the interplay allows for the possibility of creating either an isolated annulus of rigidly rotating normal particles that is disconnected from the central core of nonrotating superfluid pairs or an intermediate mediator phase where the superfluid pairs and normal particles coexist as a partially rotating gapless superfluid.
Is BEC behind superfluidity/superconductivity in fermions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Llano, Manuel
2000-06-01
In the late 1930's London conjectured that BEC must be behind the superfluid transition in helium-4, a Bose system. What about Fermi systems where boson Cooper pairs (CPs) are formed? CPs in two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions are analyzed for an interaction general enough to mimic either helium-3 or electron- (or hole-) charge-carrier Fermi systems. Bosonic CPs with non-zero center-of-mass momentum (CMM)---usually neglected in BCS theory---are included. The CP binding energy is expanded analytically in 2D in powers of the CMM up to quadratic terms. For either 2D or 3D, in the weak-coupling (so-called BCS) regime of severely-overlapped CPs a term linear in the CMM dominates the pair excitation energy, whereas in the strong-coupling (so-called Bose) regime the quadratic-in-CMM kinetic energy of the strongly-bound, well-separated composite boson pairs dominates. Results are expected to play a nontrivial role in testing a BEC model of superfluid helium-3 or of superconductivity based upon their respective CPs.
Shear viscosity of a unitary Fermi gas.
Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr; Drut, Joaquín E
2012-07-13
We present an ab initio determination of the shear viscosity η of the unitary Fermi gas, based on finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo calculations and the Kubo linear-response formalism. We determine the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio η/s. The minimum of η/s appears to be located above the critical temperature for the superfluid-to-normal phase transition with the most probable value being (η/s)min≈0.2ℏ/k(B), which is close the Kovtun-Son-Starinets universal value ℏ/(4πk(B)).
Hysteresis in a superfluid atom circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Tieling; Zhou, D. L.
2016-09-01
We study a hysteresis phenomenon in a rotating BEC with a weak link in a quasi-one-dimensional torus by proposing a microscopic theoretical model including a dissipation bath. By analyzing the role of dissipation and the decay rates of all the energy levels, we are able to give a microscopic interpretation of hysteresis recently observed in the experiment and confirm that the hysteresis is the result of the presence of metastable state. In particular, we obtain the hysteresis loops in a quench process just as that in the experiment. We also find that the shape and size of the hysteresis loop change drastically with the strength of the link.
Superfluidity of Dense {sup 4}He in Vycor
Khairallah, Saad A.; Ceperley, D.M.
2005-10-28
We calculate properties of a model of {sup 4}He in Vycor using the path integral Monte Carlo method. We find that {sup 4}He forms a distinct layered structure with a highly localized first layer, a disordered second layer with some atoms delocalized and able to give rise to the observed superfluid response, and higher layers of nearly perfect crystals. The addition of a single {sup 3}He atom was enough to bring down the total superfluidity by blocking the exchange in the second layer. Our results are consistent with the persistent liquid-layer model to explain the observations. Such a model may be relevant to the experiments on bulk solid {sup 4}He, if there is a fine network of grain boundaries in those systems.
Finite-momentum superfluidity and phase transitions in a p-wave resonant Bose gas
Choi, Sungsoo; Radzihovsky, Leo
2011-10-15
We study a degenerate two-species gas of bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance as, for example, realized in a {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb mixture. We show that, in addition to a conventional atomic and a p-wave molecular spinor-1 superfluidity at large positive and negative detunings, respectively, the system generically exhibits a finite-momentum atomic-molecular superfluidity at intermediate detuning around the unitary point. We analyze the detailed nature of the corresponding phases and the associated quantum and thermal phase transitions.
Finite-momentum superfluidity and phase transitions in a p-wave resonant Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sungsoo; Radzihovsky, Leo
2011-10-01
We study a degenerate two-species gas of bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance as, for example, realized in a 85Rb-87Rb mixture. We show that, in addition to a conventional atomic and a p-wave molecular spinor-1 superfluidity at large positive and negative detunings, respectively, the system generically exhibits a finite-momentum atomic-molecular superfluidity at intermediate detuning around the unitary point. We analyze the detailed nature of the corresponding phases and the associated quantum and thermal phase transitions.
Dynamics of vortex assisted metal condensation in superfluid helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, Evgeny; Mammetkuliyev, Muhammet; Eloranta, Jussi
2013-05-01
Laser ablation of copper and silver targets immersed in bulk normal and superfluid 4He was studied through time-resolved shadowgraph photography. In normal fluid, only a sub-millimeter cavitation bubble is created and immediate formation of metal clusters is observed within a few hundred microseconds. The metal clusters remain spatially tightly focused up to 15 ms, and it is proposed that this observation may find applications in particle image velocimetry. In superfluid helium, the cavitation bubble formation process is distinctly different from the normal fluid. Due to the high thermal conductivity and an apparent lag in the breakdown of superfluidity, about 20% of the laser pulse energy was transferred directly into the liquid and a large gas bubble, up to several millimeters depending on laser pulse energy, is created. The internal temperature of the gas bubble is estimated to exceed 9 K and the following bubble cool down period therefore includes two separate phase transitions: gas-normal liquid and normal liquid-superfluid. The last stage of the cool down process was assigned to the superfluid lambda transition where a sudden formation of large metal clusters is observed. This is attributed to high vorticity created in the volume where the gas bubble previously resided. As shown by theoretical bosonic density functional theory calculations, quantized vortices can trap atoms and dimers efficiently, exhibiting static binding energies up to 22 K. This, combined with hydrodynamic Bernoulli attraction, yields total binding energies as high as 35 K. For larger clusters, the static binding energy increases as a function of the volume occupied in the liquid to minimize the surface tension energy. For heliophobic species an energy barrier develops as a function of the cluster size, whereas heliophilics show barrierless entry into vortices. The present theoretical and experimental observations are used to rationalize the previously reported metal nanowire assembly in
Suspension of superfluid helium using cesium-coated surfaces
Williams, M.C.; Giese, C.F.; Halley, J.W.
1996-03-01
We report results of an experiment which demonstrates that a layer of superfluid helium can be suspended over a cesium-coated orifice. By measuring the layer thickness with a capacitance bridge, we have shown in two runs that fluid layers up to 2 mm thick were suspended over a 70-{mu}m-diam cesium-coated orifice in a platinum foil for over 2 h in a cryostat held at 1.2 K. The effect depends on the recently established fact that superfluid helium does not wet cesium-coated surfaces. As a consequence, superfluid helium is expected to form a stable meniscus across such a cesium-coated hole. The observed depths of suspended helium are consistent with a simple theoretical model based on this picture. We briefly discuss the possible application of this method to the performance of a proposed experiment to study quantum coherence in superfluid helium by directing pulsed beams of helium atoms at such a suspended layer of fluid. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Self consistent theories of superfluid density and collective modes in BCS-BEC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyack, Rufus; Anderson, Brandon; Wu, Chien-Te; Levin, Kathryn
Establishing fully self consistent and sum rule compatible response functions in strongly correlated Fermi superfluids has been a historically challenging subject. In this talk, we present recent progress pertaining to response functions in many-body Fermi systems. We note that even in strict BCS theory, the textbook derivation of density and current response functions in the gradient expansion breaks certain conservation laws such as the compressibility sum rule. To include additional contributions that preserve all expected conservation laws, we show how to exploit Ward identities within two different t-matrix schemes. In this way we address the density-density response (including collective modes) and the superfluid density. Finally, we characterize approximations made in the literature where some consistency requirements have been dropped.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chen Ning
2013-05-01
Enrico Fermi was, of all the great physicists of the 20th century, among the most respected and admired. He was respected and admired because of his contributions to both theoretical and experimental physics, because of his leadership in discovering for mankind a powerful new source of energy, and above all, because of his personal character. He was always reliable and trustworthy. He had both of his feet on the ground all the time. He had great strength, but never threw his weight around. He did not play to the gallery. He did not practise one-up-manship. He exemplified, I always believe, the perfect Confucian gentleman...
Nonlocality in homogeneous superfluid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dix, O. M.; Zieve, R. J.
2014-10-01
Simulating superfluid turbulence using the localized induction approximation allows neighboring parallel vortices to proliferate. In many circumstances a turbulent tangle becomes unsustainable, degenerating into a series of parallel, noninteracting vortex lines. Calculating with the fully nonlocal Biot-Savart law prevents this difficulty but also increases computation time. Here we use a truncated Biot-Savart integral to investigate the effects of nonlocality on homogeneous turbulence. We find that including the nonlocal interaction up to roughly the spacing between nearest-neighbor vortex segments prevents the parallel alignment from developing, yielding an accurate model of homogeneous superfluid turbulence with less computation time.
Vortex lattice inhomogeneity in spatially inhomogeneous superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2004-11-01
A trapped degenerate Bose gas exhibits superfluidity with spatially nonuniform superfluid density. We show that the vortex distribution in such a highly inhomogeneous rotating superfluid is nevertheless nearly uniform. The inhomogeneity in vortex density, which diminishes in the rapid-rotation limit, is driven by the discrete way vortices impart angular momentum to the superfluid. This effect favors the highest vortex density in regions where the superfluid density is most uniform (e.g., the center of a harmonically trapped gas). A striking consequence of this is that the boson velocity deviates from a rigid-body form exhibiting a radial-shear flow past the vortex lattice.
Fluctuation theory of Rashba Fermi gases: Gaussian and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shenoy, Vijay B.; Vyasanakere, Jayantha P.
Fermi gases with generalized Rashba spin orbit coupling induced by a synthetic gauge field have the potential of realizing many interesting states such as rashbon condensates and topological phases. Here we address the key open problem of the fluctuation theory of such systems and demonstrate that beyond-Gaussian effects are essential to capture finite temperature physics of such systems. We obtain their phase diagram by constructing an approximate non-Gaussian theory. We conclusively establish that spin-orbit coupling can enhance the exponentially small transition temperature (Tc) of a weakly attracting superfluid to the order of Fermi temperature, paving a pathway towards high Tc superfluids. Work supported by CSIR, DST, DAE and IUSSTF.
Cooling a Band Insulator with a Metal: Fermionic Superfluid in a Dimerized Holographic Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haldar, Arijit; Shenoy, Vijay B.
A cold atomic realization of a quantum correlated state of many fermions on a lattice, eg. superfluid, has eluded experimental realization due to the entropy problem. Here we propose a route to realize such a state using holographic lattice and confining potentials. The potentials are designed to produces a band insulating state (low heat capacity) at the trap center, and a metallic state (high heat capacity) at the periphery. The metal ``cools'' the central band insulator by extracting out the excess entropy. The central band insulator can be turned into a superfluid by tuning an attractive interaction between the fermions. Crucially, the holographic lattice allows the emergent superfluid to have a high transition temperature - even twice that of the effective trap temperature. The scheme provides a promising route to a laboratory realization of a fermionic lattice superfluid, even while being adaptable to simulate other many body states. Reference: Scientific Reports 4, 6665 (2014). Work supported by CSIR, DST and DAE.
Cooling a Band Insulator with a Metal: Fermionic Superfluid in a Dimerized Holographic Lattice
Haldar, Arijit; Shenoy, Vijay B.
2014-01-01
A cold atomic realization of a quantum correlated state of many fermions on a lattice, eg. superfluid, has eluded experimental realization due to the entropy problem. Here we propose a route to realize such a state using holographic lattice and confining potentials. The potentials are designed to produces a band insulating state (low heat capacity) at the trap center, and a metallic state (high heat capacity) at the periphery. The metal “cools” the central band insulator by extracting out the excess entropy. The central band insulator can be turned into a superfluid by tuning an attractive interaction between the fermions. Crucially, the holographic lattice allows the emergent superfluid to have a high transition temperature – even twice that of the effective trap temperature. The scheme provides a promising route to a laboratory realization of a fermionic lattice superfluid, even while being adaptable to simulate other many body states. PMID:25324029
Hydrodynamics in a Degenerate, Strongly Attractive Fermi Gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, John E.; Kinast, Joseph; Hemmer, Staci; Turlapov, Andrey; O'Hara, Ken; Gehm, Mike; Granade, Stephen
2004-01-01
In summary, we use all-optical methods with evaporative cooling near a Feshbach resonance to produce a strongly interacting degenerate Fermi gas. We observe hydrodynamic behavior in the expansion dynamics. At low temperatures, collisions may not explain the expansion dynamics. We observe hydrodynamics in the trapped gas. Our observations include collisionally-damped excitation spectra at high temperature which were not discussed above. In addition, we observe weakly damped breathing modes at low temperature. The observed temperature dependence of the damping time and hydrodynamic frequency are not consistent with collisional dynamics nor with collisionless mean field interactions. These observations constitute the first evidence for superfluid hydrodynamics in a Fermi gas.
Role of Nucleonic Fermi Surface Depletion in Neutron Star Cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, J. M.; Lombardo, U.; Zhang, H. F.; Zuo, W.
2016-01-01
The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties that determine the neutron star (NS) thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach, employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity, and in particular neutron 3PF2 superfluidity, turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young NSs are significantly slowed.
Anomalous minimum in the shear viscosity of a Fermi gas.
Elliott, E; Joseph, J A; Thomas, J E
2014-07-11
We measure the static shear viscosity η in a two-component Fermi gas near a broad collisional (Feshbach) resonance, as a function of interaction strength and energy. We find that η has both a quadratic and a linear dependence on the interaction strength 1/(k(FI)a), where a is the s-wave scattering length and k(FI) is the Fermi wave vector for an ideal gas at the trap center. For energies above the superfluid transition, the minimum in η as a function of interaction strength is significantly shifted toward the BEC side of resonance, to 1/(k(FI)a)≃0.25.
Vorticity matching in superfluid helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samuels, David C.
1991-12-01
Recent experiments have rekindled interest in high Reynolds number flows using superfluid helium. In a continuing series of experiments, the flow of helium II through various devices (smooth pipes, corrugated pipes, valves, venturies, turbine flowmeters, and coanda flowmeters for example) was investigated. In all cases, the measured values (typically, mass flow rates and pressure drops) were found to be well described by classical relations for high Reynolds flows. This is unexpected since helium II consists of two interpenetrating fluids; one fluid with nonzero viscosity (the normal fluid) and one with zero viscosity (the superfluid). Only the normal fluid component should directly obey classical relations. Since the experiments listed above only measure the external behavior of the flow (i.e., pressure drops over devices), there is a great deal of room for interpretation of their results. One possible interpretation is that in turbulent flows the normal fluid and the superfluid velocity fields are somehow 'locked' together, presumably by the mutual friction force between the superfluid vortex filaments and the normal fluid. We refer to this locking together of the two fluids as 'vorticity matching.'
Scale invariance and superfluid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, Siddhartha; Ray, Koushik
2013-11-01
We construct a Schroedinger field theory invariant under local spatial scaling. It is shown to provide an effective theory of superfluid turbulence by deriving, analytically, the observed Kolmogorov 5/3 law and to lead to a Biot-Savart interaction between the observed filament excitations of the system as well.
Vortex Rings in Superfluid Helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alamri, Sultan Z.; Barenghi, Carlo F.
2008-11-01
We present results of numerical simulations of large-scale vortex rings in superfluid helium. These large-scale vortex rings consists of many discrete (quantized) vortex filaments which interact with each other moving according to the Biot-Savart law. Lifetime, structural stability and speed of large-scale vortex rings will be discussed and compared to experimental results.
A recuperative superfluid stirling refrigerator
Brisson, J.G.; Swift, G.W.
1993-07-01
A superfluid Stirling refrigerator has been built with a counterflow heat exchanger serving as a recuperative regenerator. It has achieved temperatures of 296 mK with a 4% {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixture. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for a 6.6% mixture.
Savage, J.W.
1981-08-12
A human factors audit of the Fermi-2 control room was conducted April 27 through May 1, 1981. This report contains the audit team findings, organized according to the draft NUREG-0700 guidelines sections. The discrepancies identified during the audit are categorized according to their severity and the required schedule for their resolution.
Comment on "Pairing and phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas".
Zwierlein, Martin W; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2006-10-01
Partridge et al. (Reports, 27 January 2006, p. 503) reported pairing and phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas. We argue that it is not possible to distinguish the superfluid from the normal regimes in the presented data, or to discern which clouds were phase-separated. Some of the reported conclusions are inconsistent with recent experiments.
A Ring with a Spin: Superfluidity in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramanathan, Anand Krishnan
2011-12-01
Superfluidity is a remarkable phenomenon. Superfluidity was initially characterized by flow without friction, first seen in liquid helium in 1938, and has been studied extensively since. Superfluidity is believed to be related to, but not identical to Bose-Einstein condensation, a statistical mechanical phenomena predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 based on the statistics of Satyendra Nath Bose, where bosonic atoms make a phase transition to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a gas which has macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state. Developments in laser cooling of neutral atoms and the subsequent realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold gases have opened a new window into the study of superfluidity and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation. In our atomic sodium BEC experiment, we studied superfluidity and dissipationless flow in an all-optical toroidal trap, constructed using the combination of a horizontal "sheet"-like beam and vertical "ring"-like beam, which, like a circuit loop, allows flow around the ring. On inducing a single quantum of circulation in the condensate, the smoothness and uniformity of the toroidal BEC enabled the sustaining of a persistent current lasting 40 seconds, limited by the lifetime of the BEC due to background gas pressure. This success set the stage for further experiments studying superfluidity. In a first set of experiments, we studied the stability of the persistent current by inserting a barrier in the flow path of the ring. The superflow stopped abruptly at a barrier strength such that the local flow velocity at the barrier exceeded a critical velocity, which supported decay via the creation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Our precise control in inducing and arresting superflow in the BEC is a first step toward studying other aspects of superfluidity, such as the effect of temperature and dimensionality. This thesis discusses these experiments and also details partial-transfer absorption imaging, an
Superfluid - Mott transition in the presence of artificial gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasic, Ivana; Petrescu, Alex; Le Hur, Karyn; Hofstetter, Walter
2014-05-01
Several recent cold atom experiments reported implementation of artificial gauge fields in optical lattice systems, paving the way toward observation of new phases of matter. Here we study the tight-binding model on the honeycomb lattice introduced by Haldane, for lattice bosons. We analyze the ground state topology and quasiparticle properties in the Mott phase by applying bosonic dynamical mean field theory, strong-coupling perturbation theory and exact diagonalization. The phase diagram also contains two different superfluid phases. The quasiparticle dynamics, number fluctuations, and local currents are measurable in cold atom experiments.
Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices.
Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören
2015-09-08
We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid.
Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices
Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören
2015-01-01
We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose—Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721
Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices.
Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören
2015-01-01
We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721
Babichenko, V. S. Kagan, Yu.
2012-11-15
The influence of multiparticle correlation effects and Cooper pairing in an ultracold Fermi gas with a negative scattering length on the formation rate of molecules is investigated. Cooper pairing is shown to cause the formation rate of molecules to increase, as distinct from the influence of Bose-Einstein condensation in a Bose gas on this rate. This trend is retained in the entire range of temperatures below the critical one.
Microphotonic Forces from Superfluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAuslan, D. L.; Harris, G. I.; Baker, C.; Sachkou, Y.; He, X.; Sheridan, E.; Bowen, W. P.
2016-04-01
In cavity optomechanics, radiation pressure and photothermal forces are widely utilized to cool and control micromechanical motion, with applications ranging from precision sensing and quantum information to fundamental science. Here, we realize an alternative approach to optical forcing based on superfluid flow and evaporation in response to optical heating. We demonstrate optical forcing of the motion of a cryogenic microtoroidal resonator at a level of 1.46 nN, roughly 1 order of magnitude larger than the radiation pressure force. We use this force to feedback cool the motion of a microtoroid mechanical mode to 137 mK. The photoconvective forces we demonstrate here provide a new tool for high bandwidth control of mechanical motion in cryogenic conditions, while the ability to apply forces remotely, combined with the persistence of flow in superfluids, offers the prospect for new applications.
Bulk viscosity of superfluid hyperon stars
Gusakov, Mikhail E.; Kantor, Elena M.
2008-10-15
We calculate the bulk viscosity due to nonequilibrium weak processes in superfluid nucleon-hyperon matter of neutron stars. For that, the dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics, formulated eariler [M. E. Gusakov, Phys. Rev. D 76, 083001 (2007).] for superfluid mixtures, is extended to the case when both nucleons and hyperons are superfluid. It is demonstrated that in the most general case (when neutrons, protons, {lambda}, and {sigma}{sup -} hyperons are superfluid), nonequilibrium weak processes generate 16 bulk viscosity coefficients, with only three of them being independent. In addition, we correct an inaccuracy in a widely used formula for the bulk viscosity of nonsuperfluid nucleon-hyperon matter.
Exotic Ions in Superfluid Helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Wanchun; Xie, Zhuolin; Cooper, Leon N.; Maris, Humphrey J.
2016-11-01
Exotic ions are negatively charged objects which have been detected in superfluid helium-4 at temperatures in the vicinity of 1 K. Mobility experiments in several different labs have revealed the existence of at least 18 such objects. These ions have a higher mobility than the normal negative ion and appear to be singly charged and smaller. We summarize the experimental situation, the possible structure of these objects, and how these objects might be formed.
Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Dominick, Sam M.; Anderson, John E.; Gille, John P.; Martin, Tim A.; Marino, John S.; Paynter, Howard L.; Traill, R. Eric; Herzl, Alfred; Gotlib, Sam
1988-01-01
Replenishment of superfluid helium (SFHe) offers the potential of extending the on-orbit life of observatories, satellite instruments, sensors and laboratories which operate in the 2 K temperature regime. A reference set of resupply customers was identified as representing realistic helium servicing requirements and interfaces for the first 10 years of superfluid helium tanker (SFHT) operations. These included the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility (Astromag), and the Microgravity and Materials Processing Sciences Facility (MMPS)/Critical Point Phenomena Facility (CPPF). A mixed-fleet approach to SFHT utilization was considered. The tanker permits servicing from the Shuttle cargo bay, in situ when attached to the OMV and carried to the user spacecraft, and as a depot at the Space Station. A SFHT Dewar ground servicing concept was developed which uses a dedicated ground cooling heat exchanger to convert all the liquid, after initial fill as normal fluid, to superfluid for launch. This concept permits the tanker to be filled to a near full condition, and then cooled without any loss of fluid. The final load condition can be saturated superfluid with any desired ullage volume, or the tank can be totally filed and pressurized. The SFHT Dewar and helium plumbing system design has sufficient component redundancy to meet fail-operational, fail-safe requirements, and is designed structurally to meet a 50 mission life usage requirement. Technology development recommendations were made for the selected SFHT concept, and a Program Plan and cost estimate prepared for a phase C/D program spanning 72 months from initiation through first launch in 1997.
Connecting strongly correlated superfluids by a quantum point contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husmann, Dominik; Uchino, Shun; Krinner, Sebastian; Lebrat, Martin; Giamarchi, Thierry; Esslinger, Tilman; Brantut, Jean-Philippe
2015-12-01
Point contacts provide simple connections between macroscopic particle reservoirs. In electric circuits, strong links between metals, semiconductors, or superconductors have applications for fundamental condensed-matter physics as well as quantum information processing. However, for complex, strongly correlated materials, links have been largely restricted to weak tunnel junctions. We studied resonantly interacting Fermi gases connected by a tunable, ballistic quantum point contact, finding a nonlinear current-bias relation. At low temperature, our observations agree quantitatively with a theoretical model in which the current originates from multiple Andreev reflections. In a wide contact geometry, the competition between superfluidity and thermally activated transport leads to a conductance minimum. Our system offers a controllable platform for the study of mesoscopic devices based on strongly interacting matter.
Anomalous Weyl superfluid in three-dimensional ultracold fermionic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Beibing
2016-08-01
In this paper we use layer construction method to construct an experimentally feasible model to realize one type of anomalous Weyl superfluids (WS) in the context of cold fermionic gases. This exotic phase still characterizes the Weyl points in the bulk but completely different Majorana Fermi arc surface state (MFASS) on the boundaries. In contrast to conventional WS, where MFASS only connects the projection of Weyl points, new MFASS continuously stretches to the border of surface Brillouin zone. We self-consistently determine the phase diagram of model at the mean-field level to claim the achievement of anomalous WS. In addition, inversion symmetry and band inversion in this model are analyzed in detail to provide unique feature of identifying anomalous WS experimentally by momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy.
Zero-point energy of ultracold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salasnich, Luca; Toigo, Flavio
2016-06-01
We analyze the divergent zero-point energy of a dilute and ultracold gas of atoms in D spatial dimensions. For bosonic atoms we explicitly show how to regularize this divergent contribution, which appears in the Gaussian fluctuations of the functional integration, by using three different regularization approaches: dimensional regularization, momentum-cutoff regularization and convergence-factor regularization. In the case of the ideal Bose gas the divergent zero-point fluctuations are completely removed, while in the case of the interacting Bose gas these zero-point fluctuations give rise to a finite correction to the equation of state. The final convergent equation of state is independent of the regularization procedure but depends on the dimensionality of the system and the two-dimensional case is highly nontrivial. We also discuss very recent theoretical results on the divergent zero-point energy of the D-dimensional superfluid Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover. In this case the zero-point energy is due to both fermionic single-particle excitations and bosonic collective excitations, and its regularization gives remarkable analytical results in the BEC regime of composite bosons. We compare the beyond-mean-field equations of state of both bosons and fermions with relevant experimental data on dilute and ultracold atoms quantitatively confirming the contribution of zero-point-energy quantum fluctuations to the thermodynamics of ultracold atoms at very low temperatures.
Fermi's Conundrum: Proliferation and Closed Societies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teller, Wendy; Westfall, Catherine
2007-04-01
On January 1, 1946 Emily Taft Douglas, a freshman Representative at Large for Illinois, sent a letter to Enrico Fermi. She wanted to know whether, if atomic energy was used for peaceful purposes, it might be possible to clandestinely divert some material for bombs. Douglas first learned about the bomb not quite five months before when Hiroshima was bombed. Even though she was not a scientist she identified a key problem of the nuclear age. Fermi responded with requirements to allow peaceful uses of atomic energy and still outlaw nuclear weapons. First, free interchange of information between people was required, and second, people who reported possible violations had to be protected. Fermi had lived in Mussolini's Italy and worked under the war time secrecy restrictions of the Manhattan Project. He was not optimistic that these conditions could be met. This paper discusses how Douglas came to recognize the proliferation issue and what led Fermi to his solution and his pessimism about its practicality.
Mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices
Albus, Alexander; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Eisert, Jens
2003-08-01
We discuss the theory of mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in periodic potentials at zero temperature. We derive a general Bose-Fermi Hubbard Hamiltonian in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic trapping potential. We study the conditions for linear stability of the mixture and derive a mean-field criterion for the onset of a bosonic superfluid transition. We investigate the ground-state properties of the mixture in the Gutzwiller formulation of mean-field theory, and present numerical studies of finite systems. The bosonic and fermionic density distributions and the onset of quantum phase transitions to demixing and to a bosonic Mott-insulator are studied as a function of the lattice potential strength. The existence is predicted of a disordered phase for mixtures loaded in very deep lattices. Such a disordered phase possessing many degenerate or quasidegenerate ground states is related to a breaking of the mirror symmetry in the lattice.
Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects
Packard, Richard
2006-09-07
This paper provides a brief history of the evolution of the Berkeley experiments on macroscopic quantum effects in superfluid helium. The narrative follows the evolution of the experiments proceeding from the detection of single vortex lines to vortex photography to quantized circulation in 3He to Josephson effects and superfluid gyroscopes in both 4He and 3He.
Resource Letter SH-1: Superfluid Helium.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hallock, Robert B.
1982-01-01
Provides an annotated list of books, textbooks, and films on superfluid helium. Also lists research reports/reviews arranged by category, including among others, early history, microscopic understanding, ions in helium, helium in rotation, vortices and quantization, helium films and constricted geometrics, persistence flow, and superfluid helium…
Okazaki, K; Ito, Y; Ota, Y; Kotani, Y; Shimojima, T; Kiss, T; Watanabe, S; Chen, C-T; Niitaka, S; Hanaguri, T; Takagi, H; Chainani, A; Shin, S
2014-02-28
Conventional superconductivity follows Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS) theory of electrons-pairing in momentum-space, while superfluidity is the Bose-Einstein condensation(BEC) of atoms paired in real-space. These properties of solid metals and ultra-cold gases, respectively, are connected by the BCS-BEC crossover. Here we investigate the band dispersions in FeTe(0.6)Se(0.4)(Tc = 14.5 K ~ 1.2 meV) in an accessible range below and above the Fermi level(EF) using ultra-high resolution laser angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We uncover an electron band lying just 0.7 meV (~8 K) above EF at the Γ-point, which shows a sharp superconducting coherence peak with gap formation below Tc. The estimated superconducting gap Δ and Fermi energy [Symbol: see text]F indicate composite superconductivity in an iron-based superconductor, consisting of strong-coupling BEC in the electron band and weak-coupling BCS-like superconductivity in the hole band. The study identifies the possible route to BCS-BEC superconductivity.
This animation illustrates how analysis of Fermi data reveals new pulsars. Fermi's LAT records the precise arrival time and approximate direction of the gamma rays it detects, but to identify a pul...
Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1988-01-01
The accomplishments and recommendations of the two-phase Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study are presented. During the first phase of the study, the emphasis was on defining a comprehensive set of user requirements, establishing SFHT interface parameters and design requirements, and selecting a fluid subsystem design concept. During the second phase, an overall system design concept was constructed based on appropriate analyses and more detailed definition of requirements. Modifications needed to extend the baseline for use with cryogens other than SFHT have been determined, and technology development needs related to the recommended design have been assessed.
Chladni solitons and the onset of the snaking instability for dark solitons in confined superfluids.
Muñoz Mateo, A; Brand, J
2014-12-19
Complex solitary waves composed of intersecting vortex lines are predicted in a channeled superfluid. Their shapes in a cylindrical trap include a cross, spoke wheels, and Greek Φ, and trace the nodal lines of unstable vibration modes of a planar dark soliton in analogy to Chladni's figures of membrane vibrations. The stationary solitary waves extend a family of solutions that include the previously known solitonic vortex and vortex rings. Their bifurcation points from the dark soliton indicating the onset of new unstable modes of the snaking instability are predicted from scale separation for Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and superfluid Fermi gases across the BEC-BCS crossover, and confirmed by full numerical calculations. Chladni solitons could be observed in ultracold gas experiments by seeded decay of dark solitons.
Attractive and repulsive Fermi polarons in two dimensions.
Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Vogt, Enrico; Fröhlich, Bernd; Feld, Michael; Köhl, Michael
2012-05-31
The dynamics of a single impurity in an environment is a fundamental problem in many-body physics. In the solid state, a well known case is an impurity coupled to a bosonic bath (such as lattice vibrations); the impurity and its accompanying lattice distortion form a new entity, a polaron. This quasiparticle plays an important role in the spectral function of high-transition-temperature superconductors, as well as in colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. For impurities in a fermionic bath, studies have considered heavy or immobile impurities which exhibit Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe and the Kondo effect. More recently, mobile impurities have moved into the focus of research, and they have been found to form new quasiparticles known as Fermi polarons. The Fermi polaron problem constitutes the extreme, but conceptually simple, limit of two important quantum many-body problems: the crossover between a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate and a superfluid with BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) pairing with spin-imbalance for attractive interactions, and Stoner's itinerant ferromagnetism for repulsive interactions. It has been proposed that such quantum phases (and other elusive exotic states) might become realizable in Fermi gases confined to two dimensions. Their stability and observability are intimately related to the theoretically debated properties of the Fermi polaron in a two-dimensional Fermi gas. Here we create and investigate Fermi polarons in a two-dimensional, spin-imbalanced Fermi gas, measuring their spectral function using momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. For attractive interactions, we find evidence for a disputed pairing transition between polarons and tightly bound dimers, which provides insight into the elementary pairing mechanism of imbalanced, strongly coupled two-dimensional Fermi gases. Additionally, for repulsive interactions, we study novel quasiparticles--repulsive polarons--the lifetime of which determines the
Formation of Au and tetrapyridyl porphyrin complexes in superfluid helium.
Feng, Cheng; Latimer, Elspeth; Spence, Daniel; Al Hindawi, Aula M A A; Bullen, Shem; Boatwright, Adrian; Ellis, Andrew M; Yang, Shengfu
2015-07-14
Binary clusters containing a large organic molecule and metal atoms have been formed by the co-addition of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (H2TPyP) molecules and gold atoms to superfluid helium nanodroplets, and the resulting complexes were then investigated by electron impact mass spectrometry. In addition to the parent ion H2TPyP yields fragments mainly from pyrrole, pyridine and methylpyridine ions because of the stability of their ring structures. When Au is co-added to the droplets the mass spectra are dominated by H2TPyP fragment ions with one or more Au atoms attached. We also show that by switching the order in which Au and H2TPyP are added to the helium droplets, different types of H2TPyP-Au complexes are clearly evident from the mass spectra. This study suggests a new route for the control over the growth of metal-organic compounds inside superfluid helium nanodroplets.
Breathing modes of a fast rotating Fermi gas
Antezza, Mauro; Stringari, Sandro; Cozzini, Marco
2007-05-15
We derive the frequency spectrum of the lowest compressional oscillations of a three-dimensional harmonically trapped Fermi superfluid in the presence of a vortex lattice, treated in the diffused vorticity approximation within a hydrodynamic approach. We consider the general case of a superfluid at T=0 characterized by a polytropic equation of state ({approx}n{sup {gamma}}), which includes both the Bose-Einstein condensed regime of dimers ({gamma}=1) and the unitary limit of infinite scattering length ({gamma}=2/3). Important limiting cases are considered, including the centrifugal limit, the isotropic trapping, and the cigar geometry. The conditions required to enter the lowest Landau level and quantum Hall regimes at unitarity are also discussed.
Breathers on quantized superfluid vortices.
Salman, Hayder
2013-10-18
We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings. PMID:24182275
Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salman, Hayder
2013-10-01
We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.
Magnetic and Superfluid Transitions in the One-Dimensional Spin-1 Boson Hubbard Model
Batrouni, G. G.; Rousseau, V. G.; Scalettar, R. T.
2009-04-10
Recent progress in experiments on trapped ultracold atoms has made it possible to study the interplay between magnetism and superfluid-insulator transitions in the boson Hubbard model. We report on quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the spin-1 boson Hubbard model in the ground state. For antiferromagnetic interactions favoring singlets, we present exact numerical evidence that the superfluid-insulator transition is first (second) order for even (odd) Mott lobes. Inside even lobes, we search for nematic-to-singlet first order transitions. In the ferromagnetic case where transitions are all continuous, we map the phase diagram and show the superfluid to be ferromagnetic. We compare the quantum Monte Carlo phase diagram with a third order perturbation calculation.
Large Chern-number topological superfluids in a coupled-layer system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Beibing; Chan, Chun Fai; Gong, Ming
2015-04-01
Large Chern-number topological phase is always an important topic in modern physics. Here we investigate the topological superfluids in a coupled-layer system, in which transitions between different topological superfluids can be realized by controlling the binding energy, interlayer tunneling, and layer asymmetry, etc. These topological transitions are characterized by energy gap closing and reopening at the critical points at zero momentum, where the Chern number and sign of Pfaffian undergo a discontinuous change. Topological protected edge modes at the boundaries are ensured by the bulk-edge correspondence. In a trapped potential the edge modes are spatially localized at the interfaces between distinct topological superfluids, where the number of edge modes is equal to the Chern-number difference between the left and right superfluids. These topological transitions can be detected by spin texture at or near zero momentum, which changes discretely across the critical points due to band inversion. The model can be generalized to a multilayer system in which the Chern number can be equal to any positive integer. These large Chern-number topological superfluids provide fertile grounds for exploring exotic quantum matters in the context of ultracold atoms.
Unveiling Unidentified Fermi Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lizhong; South Pole Telescope
2016-01-01
The Fermi γ-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) has surveyed the entire sky at the highest-energy band of the electromagnetic spectrum. The majority of Fermi sources have counterpart identifications from multi-wavelength large-area surveys, particularly in the radio and x-ray bands. However, around 35% of Fermi sources remain unidentified, a problem exasperated by the low resolution of the telescope. Understanding the nature of unidentified Fermi sources is one of the most pressing problems in γ-ray astronomy. The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has completed a survey covering a 2500 square degrees of the southern extragalactic sky with arcminute resolution at millimeter wavelengths. The mm wavelength is the most efficient means to identify blazars and unidentified Fermi sources. Our analysis shows that the SPT point source catalog provides candidate associations for 40% of the unidentified Fermi sources, showing them to be flat-spectrum radio quasars which are extraordinarily bright at millimeter (mm) wavelengths.
Quench and Transport Dynamics in Disordered Atomic Hubbard Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demarco, Brian
I will give an overview of our experiments using ultracold atom gases trapped in optical lattices to probe transport, dynamics, and relaxation in disordered Hubbard models. By introducing disorder to naturally clean optical lattices using focused optical speckle, we realize variants of the disordered Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard models. In these systems, the distribution of Hubbard parameters is fully known, and the ratio of characteristic energy scales is completely tunable. I will discuss two measurements. In the first, we observe localization via transport measurements in the metallic regime of the Fermi-Hubbard model. We observe three phenomena consistent with many-body localization: localization at non-zero temperature, localization across a range of temperatures, and interaction-induced delocalization. These measurements show agreement with a mean-field theory in a limited parameter regime. In a separate experiment using bosonic atoms, we measure excitations following a quantum quench of disorder. Via comparison to state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo calculations that capture all aspects of the experiments--including all the particles--we show that the onset of excitations corresponds to the superfluid-Bose-glass transition. I will discuss how this behavior is reminiscent of the quantum Kibble-Zurek effect. This work is funded by the NSF and ARO.
Pulsar timing noise from superfluid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melatos, Andrew; Link, Bennett
2014-01-01
Shear-driven turbulence in the superfluid interior of a neutron star exerts a fluctuating torque on the rigid crust, causing the rotational phase to walk randomly. The phase fluctuation spectrum is calculated analytically for incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence and is found to be red; the half-power point is set by the observed spin-down rate, the crust-superfluid lag and the dynamical response time of the superfluid. Preliminary limits are placed on the latter quantities using selected time- and frequency-domain data. It is found that measurements of the normalization and slope of the power spectrum are reproduced for reasonable choices of the turbulence parameters. The results point preferentially to the neutron star interior containing a turbulent superfluid rather than a turbulent Navier-Stokes fluid. The implications for gravitational wave detection by pulsar timing arrays are discussed briefly.
Local and nonlocal dynamics in superfluid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherwin-Robson, L. K.; Barenghi, C. F.; Baggaley, A. W.
2015-03-01
In turbulent superfluid He II, the quantized vortex lines interact via the classical Biot-Savart law to form a complicated vortex tangle. We show that vortex tangles with the same vortex line density will have different energy spectra, depending on the normal fluid which feeds energy into the superfluid component, and identify the spectral signature of two forms of superfluid turbulence: Kolmogorov tangles and Vinen tangles. By decomposing the superfluid velocity field into local and nonlocal contributions, we find that in Vinen tangles the motion of vortex lines depends mainly on the local curvature, whereas in Kolmogorov tangles the long-range vortex interaction is dominant and leads to the formation of clustering of lines, in analogy to the "worms" of ordinary turbulence.
Superfluid helium leak sealant study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vorreiter, J. W.
1981-01-01
Twenty-one leak specimens were fabricated in the ends of stainless steel and aluminum tubes. Eighteen of these tubes were coated with a copolymer material to seal the leak. The other three specimens were left uncoated and served as control specimens. All 21 tubes were cold shocked in liquid helium 50 times and then the leak rate was measured while the tubes were submerged in superfluid helium at 1.7 K. During the cold shocks two of the coated specimens were mechanically damaged and eliminated from the test program. Of the remaining 16 coated specimens one suffered a total coating failure and resulting high leak rate. Another three of the coated specimens suffered partial coating failures. The leak rates of the uncoated specimens were also measured and reported. The significance of various leak rates is discussed in view of the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Dewar performance.
Collisional Properties of a Polarized Fermi Gas with Resonant Interactions
Bruun, G. M.; Recati, A.; Stringari, S.; Pethick, C. J.; Smith, H.
2008-06-20
Highly polarized mixtures of atomic Fermi gases constitute a novel Fermi liquid. We demonstrate how information on thermodynamic properties may be used to calculate quasiparticle scattering amplitudes even when the interaction is resonant and apply the results to evaluate the damping of the spin dipole mode. We estimate that under current experimental conditions the mode would be intermediate between the hydrodynamic and collisionless limits.
Perturbation Theory for Superfluid in Nonuniform Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koshida, Shinji; Kato, Yusuke
2016-05-01
Perturbation theory of superfluid fraction in terms of nonuniform potential is constructed. We find that the coefficient of the leading term is determined by the dynamical structure factor or density fluctuation of the system. The results for the ideal Bose gas and the interacting Bose system with linear dispersion are consistent to implications from Landau's criterion. We also find that the superfluidity of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with K>2 is shown to be stable against nonuniform potential.
Condensate fraction of a two-dimensional attractive Fermi gas
Salasnich, Luca
2007-07-15
We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of fermionic pairs in a two-dimensional uniform two-component Fermi superfluid obtaining an explicit formula for the condensate density as a function of the chemical potential and the energy gap. By using the mean-field extended Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, we analyze, as a function of the bound-state energy, the off-diagonal long-range order in the crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer state of weakly bound Cooper pairs to the Bose-Einstein condensate of strongly-bound molecular dimers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanner, D. B.
Measurements for a number of cuprate families of optical reflectance over a wide spectral range (far-infrared to ultraviolet) have been analyzed using Kramers-Kronig analysis to obtain the optical conductivity σ (ω) and (by integration of the real part of the conductivity) the spectral weight of low- and mid-energy excitations. For the Kramers-Kronig analysis to give reliable results, accurate high-frequency extrapolations, based on x-ray atomic scattering functions, were used. When the optical conductivities of the normal and superconducting states are compared, a transfer of spectral weight from finite frequencies to the zero-frequency delta-function conductivity of the superconductor is seen. The strength of this delta function gives the superfluid density, ρs. In a clean metallic superconductor the superfluid density is essentially equal to the conduction electron density. The cuprates in contrast have only about 20% of the a b-plane low-energy spectral weight in the superfluid. The rest remains in finite-frequency, midinfrared absorption. In underdoped materials the superfluid fraction is even smaller. There are two ways to measure ρs, using either the partial sum rule for the conductivity or by examination of σ2 (ω) . Comparison of these two estimates of the superfluid density shows that 98% of the a b-plane superfluid density comes from energies below 0.15 eV. Many students, postdocs, and materials preparers have contributed to this work; to all I am very grateful.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoletti, Matthew
2010-11-01
Long-range quantum order underlies a number of related physical phenomena including superfluidity, superconductivity and Bose-Einstein condensation. While superfluidity in helium-4 was one of the earliest discovered, it is not the best understood, owing to the strong interactions present (making theoretical progress difficult) and the lack of local experimental probes. Quantum fluids, such as superfluid helium-4, are typically described as a mixture of two interpenetrating fluids with distinct velocity fields: a viscous normal fluid akin to water and an inviscid superfluid exhibiting long-range quantum order. In this "two-fluid model," there is no conventional viscous dissipation in the superfluid component and vorticity is confined to atomically-thin vortices with quantized circulation. Turbulence may occur in either fluid component with turbulence in the superfluid exhibiting a complex tangle of quantized vortices, as first envisioned by Feynman. Approximately five years ago, our group discovered that micron-sized hydrogen particles may be used for flow visualization in superfluid helium-4. The particles can trace the motions of the normal fluid or be trapped by the quantized vortices, which enables one to characterize the dynamics of both the normal fluid and superfluid components for the first time. By directly observing and tracking these particles, we have directly confirmed the two-fluid model, observed vortex rings and quantized vortex reconnection, characterized thermal counterflows, and observed the very peculiar nature of quantum turbulence. One of many surprising observations is the existence of power-law tails in the probability distribution of velocities in quantum turbulence, which are in stark contrast to the Gaussian distributions typical of classical fluid turbulence.
Vortex dynamics in superfluids governed by an interacting gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butera, Salvatore; Valiente, Manuel; Öhberg, Patrik
2016-08-01
We study the dynamics of a vortex in a quasi two-dimensional Bose gas consisting of light-matter coupled atoms forming two-component pseudo spins. The gas is subject to a density dependent gauge potential, hence governed by an interacting gauge theory, which stems from a collisionally induced detuning between the incident laser frequency and the atomic energy levels. This provides a back-action between the synthetic gauge potential and the matter field. A Lagrangian approach is used to derive an expression for the force acting on a vortex in such a gas. We discuss the similarities between this force and the one predicted by Iordanskii, Lifshitz and Pitaevskii when scattering between a superfluid vortex and the thermal component is taken into account.
Cooper pairing above the critical temperature in a unitary Fermi gas.
Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr; Drut, Joaquín E; Bulgac, Aurel; Roche, Kenneth J
2013-03-01
We present an ab initio determination of the spin response of the unitary Fermi gas. Based on finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo calculations and the Kubo linear-response formalism, we determine the temperature dependence of the spin susceptibility and the spin conductivity. We show that both quantities exhibit suppression above the critical temperature of the superfluid-to-normal phase transition due to Cooper pairing. The spin diffusion transport coefficient does not display a minimum in the vicinity of the critical temperature and drops to very low values D(s)≈0.8ħ/m in the superfluid phase. All these spin observables show a smooth and monotonic behavior with temperature when crossing the critical temperature T(c), until the Fermi liquid regime is attained at the temperature T(*), above which the pseudogap regime disappears.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking of Bose-Fermi mixtures in double-well potentials
Adhikari, S. K.; Malomed, B. A.; Salasnich, L.; Toigo, F.
2010-05-15
We study the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of a superfluid Bose-Fermi (BF) mixture in a double-well potential (DWP). The mixture is described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) for the bosons, coupled to an equation for the order parameter of the Fermi superfluid, which is derived from the respective density functional in the unitarity limit (a similar model applies to the BCS regime, too). Straightforward SSB in the degenerate Fermi gas loaded into a DWP is impossible, as it requires an attractive self-interaction, and the intrinsic nonlinearity in the Fermi gas is repulsive. Nonetheless, we demonstrate that the symmetry breaking is possible in the mixture with attraction between fermions and bosons, like {sup 40}K and {sup 87}Rb. Numerical results are represented by dependencies of asymmetry parameters for both components on particle numbers of the mixture, N{sub F} and N{sub B}, and by phase diagrams in the (N{sub F},N{sub B}) plane, which displays regions of symmetric and asymmetric ground states. The dynamical picture of the SSB, induced by a gradual transformation of the single-well potential into the DWP, is reported too. An analytical approximation is proposed for the case when the GPE for the boson wave function may be treated by means of the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation. Under a special linear relationship between N{sub F} and N{sub B}, the TF approximation allows us to reduce the model to a single equation for the fermionic function, which includes competing repulsive and attractive nonlinear terms. The latter one directly displays the mechanism of the generation of the effective attraction in the Fermi superfluid, mediated by the bosonic component of the mixture.
Superfluidity enhanced by spin-flip tunnelling in the presence of a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Jun-Hui; Wang, Daw-Wei; Juzeliūnas, Gediminas
2016-09-01
It is well-known that when the magnetic field is stronger than a critical value, the spin imbalance can break the Cooper pairs of electrons and hence hinder the superconductivity in a spin-singlet channel. In a bilayer system of ultra-cold Fermi gases, however, we demonstrate that the critical value of the magnetic field at zero temperature can be significantly increased by including a spin-flip tunnelling, which opens a gap in the spin-triplet channel near the Fermi surface and hence reduces the influence of the effective magnetic field on the superfluidity. The phase transition also changes from first order to second order when the tunnelling exceeds a critical value. Considering a realistic experiment, this mechanism can be implemented by applying an intralayer Raman coupling between the spin states with a phase difference between the two layers.
Superfluidity enhanced by spin-flip tunnelling in the presence of a magnetic field.
Zheng, Jun-Hui; Wang, Daw-Wei; Juzeliūnas, Gediminas
2016-01-01
It is well-known that when the magnetic field is stronger than a critical value, the spin imbalance can break the Cooper pairs of electrons and hence hinder the superconductivity in a spin-singlet channel. In a bilayer system of ultra-cold Fermi gases, however, we demonstrate that the critical value of the magnetic field at zero temperature can be significantly increased by including a spin-flip tunnelling, which opens a gap in the spin-triplet channel near the Fermi surface and hence reduces the influence of the effective magnetic field on the superfluidity. The phase transition also changes from first order to second order when the tunnelling exceeds a critical value. Considering a realistic experiment, this mechanism can be implemented by applying an intralayer Raman coupling between the spin states with a phase difference between the two layers. PMID:27633848
Superfluidity enhanced by spin-flip tunnelling in the presence of a magnetic field
Zheng, Jun-Hui; Wang, Daw-Wei; Juzeliūnas, Gediminas
2016-01-01
It is well-known that when the magnetic field is stronger than a critical value, the spin imbalance can break the Cooper pairs of electrons and hence hinder the superconductivity in a spin-singlet channel. In a bilayer system of ultra-cold Fermi gases, however, we demonstrate that the critical value of the magnetic field at zero temperature can be significantly increased by including a spin-flip tunnelling, which opens a gap in the spin-triplet channel near the Fermi surface and hence reduces the influence of the effective magnetic field on the superfluidity. The phase transition also changes from first order to second order when the tunnelling exceeds a critical value. Considering a realistic experiment, this mechanism can be implemented by applying an intralayer Raman coupling between the spin states with a phase difference between the two layers. PMID:27633848
Realization of a Strongly Interacting Bose-Fermi Mixture from a Two-Component Fermi Gas
Shin Yongil; Schirotzek, Andre; Schunck, Christian H.; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2008-08-15
We show the emergence of a strongly interacting Bose-Fermi mixture from a two-component Fermi mixture with population imbalance. By analyzing in situ density profiles of {sup 6}Li atoms in the BCS-BEC crossover regime, we identify a critical interaction strength, beyond which all minority atoms pair up with majority atoms and form a Bose condensate. This is the regime where the system can be effectively described as a boson-fermion mixture. We determine the dimer-fermion and dimer-dimer scattering lengths and beyond-mean-field contributions. Our study realizes a gedanken experiment of bosons immersed in a Fermi sea of one of their constituents, revealing the composite nature of the bosons.
Fermi Liquid Instabilities in the Spin Channel
Wu, Congjun; Sun, Kai; Fradkin, Eduardo; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-16
We study the Fermi surface instabilities of the Pomeranchuk type in the spin triplet channel with high orbital partial waves (F{sub l}{sup a} (l > 0)). The ordered phases are classified into two classes, dubbed the {alpha} and {beta}-phases by analogy to the superfluid {sup 3}He-A and B-phases. The Fermi surfaces in the {alpha}-phases exhibit spontaneous anisotropic distortions, while those in the {beta}-phases remain circular or spherical with topologically non-trivial spin configurations in momentum space. In the {alpha}-phase, the Goldstone modes in the density channel exhibit anisotropic overdamping. The Goldstone modes in the spin channel have nearly isotropic underdamped dispersion relation at small propagating wavevectors. Due to the coupling to the Goldstone modes, the spin wave spectrum develops resonance peaks in both the {alpha} and {beta}-phases, which can be detected in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. In the p-wave channel {beta}-phase, a chiral ground state inhomogeneity is spontaneously generated due to a Lifshitz-like instability in the originally nonchiral systems. Possible experiments to detect these phases are discussed.
Suppression of Density Fluctuations in a Quantum Degenerate Fermi Gas
Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J.; Keshet, Aviv; Gommers, Ralf; Shin, Yong-il; Huang Wujie; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2010-07-23
We study density profiles of an ideal Fermi gas and observe Pauli suppression of density fluctuations (atom shot noise) for cold clouds deep in the quantum degenerate regime. Strong suppression is observed for probe volumes containing more than 10 000 atoms. Measuring the level of suppression provides sensitive thermometry at low temperatures. After this method of sensitive noise measurements has been validated with an ideal Fermi gas, it can now be applied to characterize phase transitions in strongly correlated many-body systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sourie, Aurélien; Oertel, Micaela; Novak, Jérôme
2016-04-01
We present a numerical model for uniformly rotating superfluid neutron stars in a fully general relativistic framework with, for the first time, realistic microphysics including entrainment. We compute stationary and axisymmetric configurations of neutron stars composed of two fluids, namely superfluid neutrons and charged particles (protons and electrons), rotating with different rates around a common axis. Both fluids are coupled by entrainment, a nondissipative interaction which in the case of a nonvanishing relative velocity between the fluids causes the fluid momenta to be not aligned with the respective fluid velocities. We extend the formalism put forth by Comer and Joynt in order to calculate the equation of state (EOS) and entrainment parameters for an arbitrary relative velocity as far as superfluidity is maintained. The resulting entrainment matrix fulfills all necessary sum rules, and in the limit of small relative velocity our results agree with Fermi liquid theory ones derived to lowest order in the velocity. This formalism is applied to two new nuclear equations of state which are implemented in the numerical model, which enables us to obtain precise equilibrium configurations. The resulting density profiles and moments of inertia are discussed employing both EOSs, showing the impact of entrainment and the dependence on the EOS.
Vortex lattices in strongly interacting Fermi gas with crossed-beam dipole trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yuping; Yao, Xingcan; Chen, Haoze; Liu, Xiangpei; Wang, Xiaoqiong
2016-05-01
We have built an experiment system to explore the dynamic and vortex in quantum degenerate Li6 gas. By using UV MOT and crossed-beam dipole trap, we obtained BEC of 2* 105 molecules. With a tightly focused 532nm laser beam as rotating bucket wall, We observed vortex formation in strongly interacting fermi superfluid. At suitable stirring frequency we produced the condensate of fermi pairs for which up to 10 vortices were simultaneously present. We produced vortex lattices in different magnetic fields (from BEC side to BCS side). Also we measured the lifetime of vortex lattices in different interaction region. This work was funded by CAS and USTC.
Nonequilibrium dynamics and thermodynamics of a degenerate fermi gas across a feshbach resonance.
Andreev, A V; Gurarie, V; Radzihovsky, L
2004-09-24
We consider a two-species degenerate Fermi gas coupled by a diatomic Feshbach resonance. We show that the resulting superfluid can exhibit a form of coherent BEC-to-BCS oscillations in response to a nonadiabatic change in the system's parameters, such as, for example, a sudden shift in the position of the Feshbach resonance. In the narrow resonance limit, the resulting solitonlike collisionless dynamics can be calculated analytically. In equilibrium, the thermodynamics can be accurately computed across the full range of BCS-BEC crossover, with corrections controlled by the ratio of the resonance width to the Fermi energy. PMID:15524684
Nonequilibrium Dynamics and Thermodynamics of a Degenerate Fermi Gas Across a Feshbach Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, A. V.; Gurarie, V.; Radzihovsky, L.
2004-09-01
We consider a two-species degenerate Fermi gas coupled by a diatomic Feshbach resonance. We show that the resulting superfluid can exhibit a form of coherent BEC-to-BCS oscillations in response to a nonadiabatic change in the system’s parameters, such as, for example, a sudden shift in the position of the Feshbach resonance. In the narrow resonance limit, the resulting solitonlike collisionless dynamics can be calculated analytically. In equilibrium, the thermodynamics can be accurately computed across the full range of BCS-BEC crossover, with corrections controlled by the ratio of the resonance width to the Fermi energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, H.; Hanai, R.; Ohashi, Y.
2016-05-01
We theoretically investigate magnetic properties of a unitary Fermi gas in a harmonic trap. Including strong pairing fluctuations within the framework of an extended T-matrix approximation, as well as effects of a trap potential within the local density approximation, we calculate the local spin susceptibility χ (T,r) above the superfluid phase transition temperature T_c. We show that the formation of preformed singlet Cooper pairs anomalously suppresses χ (T,r) in the trap center near T_c. We also point out that, in the unitarity limit, the spin-gap temperature in a uniform Fermi gas can be evaluated from the observation of the spatial variation of χ (T,r). Since a real ultracold Fermi gas is always in a trap potential, our results would be useful for the study of how this spatial inhomogeneity affects thermodynamic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region.
Okumura, M.; Yamada, S.; Machida, M.; Aoki, H.
2011-03-15
We consider repulsively interacting, cold fermionic atoms loaded on an optical ladder lattice in a trapping potential. The density-matrix renormalization-group method is used to numerically calculate the ground state for systematically varied values of interaction U and spin imbalance p in the Hubbard model on the ladder. The system exhibits rich structures, where a fully spin-polarized phase, spatially separated from other domains in the trapping potential, appears for large enough U and p. The phase-separated ferromagnetism can be captured as a real-space image of the energy gap between the ferromagnetic and other states arising from the combined effect of the Nagaoka ferromagnetism extended to the ladder and the density dependence of the energy separation between competing states. We also predict how to maximize the ferromagnetic region.
Mott Criticality and Pseudogap in Bose-Fermi Mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altman, Ehud; Demler, Eugene; Rosch, Achim
2012-12-01
We study the Mott transition of a mixed Bose-Fermi system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice, where the number of (spinless) fermions and bosons adds up to one atom per lattice, nF+nB=1. For weak interactions, a Fermi surface coexists with a Bose-Einstein condensate while for strong interaction the system is incompressible but still characterized by a Fermi surface of composite fermions. At the critical point, the spectral function of the fermions A(k,ω) exhibits a pseudogapped behavior, rising as |ω| at the Fermi momentum, while in the Mott phase it is fully gapped. Taking into account the interaction between the critical modes leads at very low temperatures either to p-wave pairing or the transition is driven weakly first order. The same mechanism should also be important in antiferromagnetic metals with a small Fermi surface.
Viscosity and scale invariance in the unitary Fermi gas
Enss, Tilman; Haussmann, Rudolf; Zwerger, Wilhelm
2011-03-15
We compute the shear viscosity of the unitary Fermi gas above the superfluid transition temperature, using a diagrammatic technique that starts from the exact Kubo formula. The formalism obeys a Ward identity associated with scale invariance which guarantees that the bulk viscosity vanishes identically. For the shear viscosity, vertex corrections and the associated Aslamazov-Larkin contributions are shown to be crucial to reproduce the full Boltzmann equation result in the high-temperature, low fugacity limit. The frequency dependent shear viscosity {eta}({omega}) exhibits a Drude-like transport peak and a power-law tail at large frequencies which is proportional to the Tan contact. The weight in the transport peak is given by the equilibrium pressure, in agreement with a sum rule due to Taylor and Randeria. Near the superfluid transition the peak width is of the order of 0.5T{sub F}, thus invalidating a quasiparticle description. The ratio {eta}/s between the static shear viscosity and the entropy density exhibits a minimum near the superfluid transition temperature whose value is larger than the string theory bound h/(4{pi}k{sub B}) by a factor of about seven.
Synthetic p-wave interaction and topological superfluids in s-wave quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pu, Han; Wang, Bin; Zheng, Zhen; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan
2016-05-01
P-wave interaction in cold atoms may give rise to exotic topological superfluids. However, realization of p-wave interaction in cold atom system is experimentally challenging. Here we propose a simple scheme to synthesize effective p-wave interaction in conventional s-wave interacting quantum gases. The key idea is to load atoms into spin-dependent optical lattice potential. Using two concrete examples involving spin-1/2 fermions, we show how the original system can be mapped into a model describing spinless fermions with nearest neighbor p-wave interaction, whose ground state can be a topological superfluid that supports Majorana fermions under proper conditions. Our proposal has the advantage that it does not require spin-orbit coupling or loading atoms onto higher orbitals, which is the key in earlier proposals to synthesize effective p-wave interaction in s-wave quantum gases, and may provide a completely new route for realizing p-wave topological superfluids.
Equations of motion for superfluids
Basile, A.G.; Elser, V.
1995-06-01
To the principles of least action and minimum error, for determining the time evolution of the parameters in a variational wave function, we add a third: continuous collapse dynamics. In this formulation, exact time evolution is applied for an infinitesimal time and is followed by projection of the state back into the variational manifold (``collapse``). All three principles lead to the same equations of motion when applied to complex parameters but take two distinct forms when the parameters are real. As an application of these principles, we study the time evolution of two variational wave functions for superfluids. The first wave function, containing real parameters, was considered by Kerman and Koonin [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 100, 332 (1976)] and leads to the Euler equation in the hydrodynamic limit. The equation for our second wave function, a coherent state of Feynman excitations with complex parameters, has essentially the same hydrodynamic limit. The latter wave function, however, has a significant advantage in that the equation it generates is useful and meaningful on a microscopic scale as well.
Microscopic molecular superfluid response: theory and simulations.
Zeng, Tao; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas
2014-04-01
Since its discovery in 1938, superfluidity has been the subject of much investigation because it provides a unique example of a macroscopic manifestation of quantum mechanics. About 60 years later, scientists successfully observed this phenomenon in the microscopic world though the spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in helium nano-droplets. This reduction of scale suggests that not only helium but also para-H2 (pH2) can be a candidate for superfluidity. This expectation is based on the fact that the smaller number of neighbours and surface effects of a finite-size cluster may hinder solidification and promote a liquid-like phase. The first prediction of superfluidity in pH2 clusters was reported in 1991 based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The possible superfluidity of pH2 was later indirectly observed in a spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in 2000. Since then, a growing number of studies have appeared, and theoretical simulations have been playing a special role because they help guide and interpret experiments. In this review, we go over the theoretical studies of pH2 superfluid clusters since the experiment of 2000. We provide a historical perspective and introduce the basic theoretical formalism along with key experimental advances. We then present illustrative results of the theoretical studies and comment on the possible future developments in the field. We include sufficient theoretical details such that the review can serve as a guide for newcomers to the field. PMID:24647079
Microscopic molecular superfluid response: theory and simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Tao; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas
2014-04-01
Since its discovery in 1938, superfluidity has been the subject of much investigation because it provides a unique example of a macroscopic manifestation of quantum mechanics. About 60 years later, scientists successfully observed this phenomenon in the microscopic world though the spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in helium nano-droplets. This reduction of scale suggests that not only helium but also para-H2 (pH2) can be a candidate for superfluidity. This expectation is based on the fact that the smaller number of neighbours and surface effects of a finite-size cluster may hinder solidification and promote a liquid-like phase. The first prediction of superfluidity in pH2 clusters was reported in 1991 based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The possible superfluidity of pH2 was later indirectly observed in a spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in 2000. Since then, a growing number of studies have appeared, and theoretical simulations have been playing a special role because they help guide and interpret experiments. In this review, we go over the theoretical studies of pH2 superfluid clusters since the experiment of 2000. We provide a historical perspective and introduce the basic theoretical formalism along with key experimental advances. We then present illustrative results of the theoretical studies and comment on the possible future developments in the field. We include sufficient theoretical details such that the review can serve as a guide for newcomers to the field.
Microscopic molecular superfluid response: theory and simulations.
Zeng, Tao; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas
2014-04-01
Since its discovery in 1938, superfluidity has been the subject of much investigation because it provides a unique example of a macroscopic manifestation of quantum mechanics. About 60 years later, scientists successfully observed this phenomenon in the microscopic world though the spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in helium nano-droplets. This reduction of scale suggests that not only helium but also para-H2 (pH2) can be a candidate for superfluidity. This expectation is based on the fact that the smaller number of neighbours and surface effects of a finite-size cluster may hinder solidification and promote a liquid-like phase. The first prediction of superfluidity in pH2 clusters was reported in 1991 based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The possible superfluidity of pH2 was later indirectly observed in a spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in 2000. Since then, a growing number of studies have appeared, and theoretical simulations have been playing a special role because they help guide and interpret experiments. In this review, we go over the theoretical studies of pH2 superfluid clusters since the experiment of 2000. We provide a historical perspective and introduce the basic theoretical formalism along with key experimental advances. We then present illustrative results of the theoretical studies and comment on the possible future developments in the field. We include sufficient theoretical details such that the review can serve as a guide for newcomers to the field.
Fermi-Teller theory of low-velocity ionization losses applied to monopoles
Ritson, D.M.
1982-07-01
The Fermi-Teller theory was originally used to predict the stopping, by ionization losses, of slow charged particles in materials. The theory is based on a calculation of the energy cost to a uniform Fermi sea. However, the Fermi velocity cancels out in the derivation, so the calculated results also apply to a Thomas-Fermi atom, in which each volume element is considered to be a Fermi sea filled to the top of the potential well with atomic electrons. An outline is presented of the modifications required to make the Fermi-Teller theory valid for a slow monopole traversing an insulator using the Thomas-Fermi model of the atom. (GHT)
Kasevich, Mark
2008-05-08
Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton's constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gyroscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be used to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?
Mark Kasevich
2008-05-07
Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?
Mark Kasevich
2016-07-12
Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newtonâs constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?
Finite-temperature vortices in a rotating Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimin, S. N.; Tempere, J.; Verhelst, N.; Milošević, M. V.
2016-08-01
Vortices and vortex arrays have been used as a hallmark of superfluidity in rotated, ultracold Fermi gases. These superfluids can be described in terms of an effective field theory for a macroscopic wave function representing the field of condensed pairs, analogous to the Ginzburg-Landau theory for superconductors. Here we establish how rotation modifies this effective field theory, by rederiving it starting from the action of Fermi gas in the rotating frame of reference. The rotation leads to the appearance of an effective vector potential, and the coupling strength of this vector potential to the macroscopic wave function depends on the interaction strength between the fermions, due to a renormalization of the pair effective mass in the effective field theory. The mass renormalization derived here is in agreement with results of functional renormalization-group theory. In the extreme Bose-Einstein condensate regime, the pair effective mass tends to twice the fermion mass, in agreement with the physical picture of a weakly interacting Bose gas of molecular pairs. Then we use our macroscopic-wave-function description to study vortices and the critical rotation frequencies to form them. Equilibrium vortex state diagrams are derived and they are in good agreement with available results of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory and with experimental data.
Note on zero temperature holographic superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Minyong; Lan, Shanquan; Niu, Chao; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao
2016-06-01
In this note, we have addressed various issues on zero temperature holographic superfluids. First, inspired by our numerical evidence for the equality between the superfluid density and particle density, we provide an elegant analytic proof for this equality by a boost trick. Second, using not only the frequency domain analysis but also the time domain analysis from numerical relativity, we identify the hydrodynamic normal modes and calculate out the sound speed, which is shown to increase with the chemical potential and saturate to the value predicted by the conformal field theory in the large chemical potential limit. Third, the generic non-thermalization is demonstrated by the fully nonlinear time evolution from a non-equilibrium state for our zero temperature holographic superfluid. Furthermore, a conserved Noether charge is proposed in support of this behavior.
Reaching Fermi degeneracy via universal dipolar scattering.
Aikawa, K; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Baier, S; Grimm, R; Ferlaino, F
2014-01-10
We report on the creation of a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. We force evaporative cooling in a fully spin-polarized sample down to temperatures as low as 0.2 times the Fermi temperature. The strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction enables elastic collisions between identical fermions even in the zero-energy limit. The measured elastic scattering cross section agrees well with the predictions from the dipolar scattering theory, which follow a universal scaling law depending only on the dipole moment and on the atomic mass. Our approach to quantum degeneracy proceeds with very high cooling efficiency and provides large atomic densities, and it may be extended to various dipolar systems. PMID:24483874
Evidence for intertwined superfluid and density wave order in two dimensional 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saunders, John
2015-03-01
We report the identification of a new state of quantum matter with intertwined superfluid and density wave order in a system of two dimensional bosons subject to a triangular lattice potential. Using a torsional oscillator we have measured the response of the second atomic layer of 4He adsorbed on the surface of graphite over a wide temperature range down to 2 mK. Superfluidity is observed over a narrow range of film densities, emerging suddenly and collapsing towards a quantum critical point, near to layer completion where a Mott insulating phase is predicted to form. The unusual temperature dependence of the superfluid density in the T --> 0 limit and the absence of a clear superfluid onset temperature are explained, self-consistently, by an ansatz for the excitation spectrum, reflecting density wave order, and a quasi-condensate wavefunction breaking both gauge and translational symmetry. In collaboration with Jan Nyeki, Anastasia Phillis, Andrew Ho, Derek Lee, Piers Coleman, Jeevak Parpia, Brian Cowan. Supported by EPSRC (U.K) EP/H048375/1.
Coherent structure formation in turbulent thermal superfluids.
Kivotides, Demosthenes
2006-05-01
By means of numerical calculations, we show that in turbulent thermal superfluids the normal fluid induces coherent bundles of quantized line vortices in the superfluid. These filamentary structures are formed in between the normal fluid vortices, acquiring eventually comparable circulation. They are self-stretched and evolve according to self-regulating dynamics. Their spectrum mimics the normal fluid spectrum with the mutual friction force exciting the large scales and damping the small scales. Strongly interacting triads of them merge sporadically into stronger, braided vortex filaments, inducing strong fluctuations in the system's energetics. A theoretical account of the system's statistical mechanics is proposed. PMID:16712309
Superfluid-like turbulence in cosmology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gradwohl, Ben-Ami
1991-01-01
A network of vortices in a superfluid system exhibits turbulent behavior. It is argued that the universe may have experienced such a phase of superfluid-like turbulence due to the existence of a coherent state with non-topological charge and a network of global strings. The unique feature of a distribution of turbulent domains is that it can yield non-gravitationally induced large-scale coherent velocities. It may be difficult, however, to relate these velocities to the observed large-scale bulk motion.
Superfluid Couette flow in an enclosed annulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, Karen L.; Barenghi, Carlo F.
2004-11-01
The Couette configuration of a fluid contained between two rotating concentric cylinders has proved useful to test and validate the HVBK equations which govern the motion of superfluid helium II. We critically review the current understanding of the superfluid Couette problem and compare theory and experiment, distinguishing between the results obtained with infinitely long cylinders and those obtained at small aspect ratio. After discussing some issues which are still unsolved, we point to what should be fruitful directions of further investigation which can be pursued in the Couette configuration.
Superfluid light in bulk nonlinear media.
Carusotto, Iacopo
2014-09-01
We review how the paraxial approximation naturally leads to a hydrodynamic description of light propagation in a bulk Kerr nonlinear medium in terms of a wave equation analogous to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the order parameter of a superfluid. The main features of the many-body collective dynamics of the fluid of light in this propagating geometry are discussed: generation and observation of Bogoliubov sound waves in the fluid of light is first described. Experimentally accessible manifestations of superfluidity are then highlighted. Perspectives in view of realizing analogue models of gravity are finally given. PMID:25197252
Triple vortex ring structure in superfluid helium II.
Kivotides, D; Barenghi, C F; Samuels, D C
2000-10-27
Superfluids such as helium II consist of two interpenetrating fluids: the normal fluid and the superfluid. The helium II vortex ring has generally been considered merely as a superfluid object, neglecting any associated motion of the normal fluid. We report a three-dimensional calculation of the coupled motion of the normal-fluid and superfluid components, which shows that the helium II vortex ring consists of a superfluid vortex ring accompanied by two coaxial normal-fluid vortex rings of opposite polarity. The three vortex rings form a coherent, dissipative structure. PMID:11052935
How superfluid vortex knots untie
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleckner, Dustin; Kauffman, Louis H.; Irvine, William T. M.
2016-07-01
Knots and links often occur in physical systems, including shaken strands of rope and DNA (ref. ), as well as the more subtle structure of vortices in fluids and magnetic fields in plasmas. Theories of fluid flows without dissipation predict these tangled structures persist, constraining the evolution of the flow much like a knot tied in a shoelace. This constraint gives rise to a conserved quantity known as helicity, offering both fundamental insights and enticing possibilities for controlling complex flows. However, even small amounts of dissipation allow knots to untie by means of `cut-and-splice’ operations known as reconnections. Despite the potentially fundamental role of these reconnections in understanding helicity--and the stability of knotted fields more generally--their effect is known only for a handful of simple knots. Here we study the evolution of 322 elemental knots and links in the Gross-Pitaevskii model for a superfluid, and find that they universally untie. We observe that the centreline helicity is partially preserved even as the knots untie, a remnant of the perfect helicity conservation predicted for idealized fluids. Moreover, we find that the topological pathways of untying knots have simple descriptions in terms of minimal two-dimensional knot diagrams, and tend to concentrate in states which are twisted in only one direction. These results have direct analogies to previous studies of simple knots in several systems, including DNA recombination and classical fluids. This similarity in the geometric and topological evolution suggests there are universal aspects in the behaviour of knots in dissipative fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shuyuan; Qin, Xizhou; Xu, Jun; Lee, Chaohong
2016-10-01
According to the famous Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM), the universality of spontaneous defect generation in continuous phase transitions (CPTs) can be understood by the critical slowing down. In most CPTs of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), the universality of spontaneous defect generations has been explained by the divergent relaxation time associated with the nontrivial gapless Bogoliubov excitations. However, for atomic BECs in synthetic gauge fields, their spontaneous superfluidity breakdown results from the divergent correlation length associated with the zero Landau critical velocity. Here, by considering an atomic BEC ladder subjected to a synthetic magnetic field, we reveal that the spontaneous superfluidity breakdown obeys the KZM. The Kibble-Zurek scalings are derived from the Landau critical velocity which determines the correlation length. Furthermore, the critical exponents are numerically extracted from the critical spatiotemporal dynamics of the bifurcation delay and the spontaneous vortex generation. Our study provides a general way to explore and understand the spontaneous superfluidity breakdown in CPTs from a single-well dispersion to a double-well one, such as BECs in synthetic gauge fields, spin-orbit-coupled BECs, and BECs in shaken optical lattices.
Superfluid-superfluid phase transitions in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate.
Kuklov, Anatoly; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris
2004-01-23
Depending on the Hamiltonian parameters, two-component bosons in an optical lattice can form at least three different superfluid phases in which both components participate in the superflow: a (strongly interacting) mixture of two miscible superfluids (2SF), a paired superfluid (PSF) vacuum, and (at a commensurate total filling factor) the super-counter-fluid (SCF) state. We study the universal properties of the 2SF-PSF and 2SF-SCF quantum phase transitions and show that (i) they can be mapped onto each other and (ii) their universality class is identical to the (d+1)-dimensional normal-superfluid transition in a single-component liquid. The finite-temperature 2SF-PSF(SCF) transitions and the topological properties of 2SF-PSF(SCF) interfaces are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hays, Elizabeth
2009-01-01
An overview of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's first 6 months in operation is provided. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, formerly called GLAST, is a mission to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy rage 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV to 30 MeV. It contains a Large Area Telescope capable of viewing the entire sky every 3 hours and a Gamma-ray Burst Monitor for viewing the entire unocculted sky. Since its launch on June 11, 2008 Fermi has provided information on pulsars, gamma ray bursts, relativistic jets, the active galactic nucleus, and a globular star cluster. This presentation describes Fermi's development, mission, instruments and recent findings.
This animation zooms into an image of the Milky Way, shown in visible light, and superimposes a gamma-ray map of the galactic center from NASA's Fermi. Raw data transitions to a view with all known...
Observing chiral superfluid order by matter-wave interference.
Kock, T; Ölschläger, M; Ewerbeck, A; Huang, W-M; Mathey, L; Hemmerich, A
2015-03-20
The breaking of time-reversal symmetry via the spontaneous formation of chiral order is ubiquitous in nature. Here, we present an unambiguous demonstration of this phenomenon for atoms Bose-Einstein condensed in the second Bloch band of an optical lattice. As a key tool, we use a matter-wave interference technique, which lets us directly observe the phase properties of the superfluid order parameter and allows us to reconstruct the spatial geometry of certain low-energy excitations, associated with the formation of domains of different chirality. Our work marks a new era of optical lattices where orbital degrees of freedom play an essential role for the formation of exotic quantum matter, similarly as in electronic systems. PMID:25839285
Dynamics of Laser Ablation in Superfluid ^4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buelna, X.; Popov, E.; Eloranta, J.
2016-10-01
Pulsed laser ablation of metal targets immersed in superfluid ^4He is visualized by time-resolved shadowgraph photography and the products are analyzed by post-experiment atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The expansion dynamics of the gaseous ablation half-bubble on the target surface appears underdamped and follows the predicted behavior for the thermally induced bubble growth mechanism. An inherent instability of the ablation bubble appears near its maximum radius and no tightly focused cavity collapse or rebound events are observed. During the ablation bubble retreat phase, the presence of sharp edges in the target introduces flow patterns that lead to the creation of large classical vortex rings. Furthermore, on the nanometer scale, AFM data reveal that the metal nanoparticles created by laser ablation are trapped in spherical vortex tangles and quantized vortex rings present in the non-equilibrium liquid.
Observing chiral superfluid order by matter-wave interference.
Kock, T; Ölschläger, M; Ewerbeck, A; Huang, W-M; Mathey, L; Hemmerich, A
2015-03-20
The breaking of time-reversal symmetry via the spontaneous formation of chiral order is ubiquitous in nature. Here, we present an unambiguous demonstration of this phenomenon for atoms Bose-Einstein condensed in the second Bloch band of an optical lattice. As a key tool, we use a matter-wave interference technique, which lets us directly observe the phase properties of the superfluid order parameter and allows us to reconstruct the spatial geometry of certain low-energy excitations, associated with the formation of domains of different chirality. Our work marks a new era of optical lattices where orbital degrees of freedom play an essential role for the formation of exotic quantum matter, similarly as in electronic systems.
Superfluidity and Chaos in low dimensional circuits.
Arwas, Geva; Vardi, Amichay; Cohen, Doron
2015-01-01
The hallmark of superfluidity is the appearance of "vortex states" carrying a quantized metastable circulating current. Considering a unidirectional flow of particles in a ring, at first it appears that any amount of scattering will randomize the velocity, as in the Drude model, and eventually the ergodic steady state will be characterized by a vanishingly small fluctuating current. However, Landau and followers have shown that this is not always the case. If elementary excitations (e.g. phonons) have higher velocity than that of the flow, simple kinematic considerations imply metastability of the vortex state: the energy of the motion cannot dissipate into phonons. On the other hand if this Landau criterion is violated the circulating current can decay. Below we show that the standard Landau and Bogoliubov superfluidity criteria fail in low-dimensional circuits. Proper determination of the superfluidity regime-diagram must account for the crucial role of chaos, an ingredient missing from the conventional stability analysis. Accordingly, we find novel types of superfluidity, associated with irregular or chaotic or breathing vortex states. PMID:26315272
Condensate fraction in superfluid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olinto, A. C.
1987-04-01
Recently, a relationship between the chemical potential and the condensate fracton n0(T) has been derived for all temperatures in the superfluid region. An analysis of liquid 4He chemical-potential data yields n0(T=0)=0.062, and n0(T) is in excellent agreement with the empirical results of Svensson, Sears, and Griffin.
Magnus force in superfluids and superconductors
Sonin, E.B. |
1997-01-01
The forces on the vortex, transverse to its velocity, are considered. In addition to the superfluid Magnus force from the condensate (superfluid component), there are transverse forces from thermal quasiparticles and external fields violating the Galilean invariance. The forces between quasiparticles and the vortex originate from interference of quasiparticles with trajectories on the left and on the right from the vortex like similar forces for electrons interacting with the thin magnetic-flux tube (the Aharonov-Bohm effect). These forces are derived for phonons from the equations of superfluid hydrodynamics, and for BCS quasiparticles from the Bogolyubov{endash}de Gennes equations. The effect of external fields breaking Galilean invariance is analyzed for vortices in the two-dimensional Josephson junction array. The symmetry analysis of the classical equations for the array shows that the total transverse force on the vortex vanishes. Therefore the Hall effect which is linear in the transverse force is absent also. This means that the Magnus force from the superfluid component {ital exactly} cancels with the transverse force from the external fields. The results of other approaches are also brought together for discussion. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Nonlocal Magnetoresistance Mediated by Spin Superfluidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2015-10-01
The electrical response of two diffusive metals is studied when they are linked by a magnetic insulator hosting a topologically stable (superfluid) spin current. We discuss how charge currents in the metals induce a spin supercurrent state, which in turn generates a magnetoresistance that depends on the topology of the electrical circuit. This magnetoresistance relies on phase coherence over the entire magnet and gives direct evidence for spin superfluidity. We show that driving the magnet with an ac current allows coherent spin transport even in the presence of U(1)-breaking magnetic anisotropy that can preclude dc superfluid transport. Spin transmission in the ac regime shows a series of resonance peaks as a function of frequency. The peak locations, heights, and widths can be used to extract static interfacial properties, e.g., the spin-mixing conductance and effective spin Hall angle, and to probe dynamic properties such as the spin-wave dispersion. Thus, ac transport may provide a simpler route to realizing nonequilbrium coherent spin transport and a useful way to characterize the magnetic system, serving as a precursor to the realization of dc superfluid spin transport.
Measurements with a recuperative superfluid Stirling refrigerator
Watanabe, A.; Swift, G.W.; Brisson, J.G.
1995-08-01
A superfluid Stirling refrigerator cooled to 168 mK using a 4.9% {sup 3}He- {sup 4}He mixture and exhausting its waste heat at 383 mK. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for 4.9%, 17%, and 36% mixtures. At the highest concentration, a dissipation mechanism of unknown origin is observed.
Fiber-Cavity Optomechanics with Superfluid Helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Kashkanova, Anna D.; Shkarin, Alexey B.; Hoch, Scott W.; Deutsch, Christian; Reichel, Jakob; Harris, Jack G. E.
2014-03-01
In a typical optomechanical device, the resonance frequency of a cavity is coupled to mechanical motion through the radiation pressure force. To date, experimental cavities have predominately coupled to a resonant mechanical mode of a solid structure, often a lithographically-defined beam or membrane. We will describe our progress towards realizing an optomechanical device in which an optical fiber-cavity couples to the acoustic modes of superfluid helium. In this system, the optical modes and the acoustic modes of the superfluid are co-located between the mirrored ends of two fiber optic cables. Changes in the density of the superfluid change the effective length of the cavity which results in a standard, linear optomechanical coupling between the 300 MHz acoustic resonances and the 200 THz optical resonances. This type of device is motivated by the self-aligning nature of the acoustic and optical modes (which eases the difficulties of operating at cryogenic temperatures) and by the low optical and mechanical losses of superfluid helium. Although we expect the mechanical quality factor to be limited by acoustic radiation into the glass fiber, we will describe a proposal to realize a dual-band Bragg mirror to confine the optical and acoustic modes more efficiently. Supported by NSF Grant #1106110, ARO Grant #W911NF-13-1-0104, and the DARPA/MTO ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.
Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams
He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei
2015-01-01
We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He2+ and He4+, which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl4 doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He)nC+, (He)nCl+, and (He)nCCl+. Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets. PMID:26329210
Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams.
He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M; Kong, Wei
2015-08-01
We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He2(+) and He4(+), which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl4 doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He)(n)C(+), (He)(n)Cl(+), and (He)(n)CCl(+). Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.
Possible superfluidity of molecular hydrogen in a two-dimensional crystal phase of sodium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cazorla, Claudio; Boronat, Jordi
2013-12-01
We theoretically investigate the ground-state properties of a molecular para-hydrogen (p-H2) film in which crystallization is energetically frustrated by embedding sodium (Na) atoms periodically distributed in a triangular lattice. In order to fully deal with the quantum nature of p-H2 molecules, we employ the diffusion Monte Carlo method and realistic semiempirical pairwise potentials describing the interactions between H2-H2 and Na-H2 species. In particular, we calculate the energetic, structural, and superfluid properties of two-dimensional Na-H2 systems within a narrow density interval around equilibrium at zero temperature. In contrast to previous computational studies considering other alkali metal species such as rubidium and potassium, we find that the p-H2 ground state is a liquid with a significantly large superfluid fraction of ρs/ρ=0.29(2). The appearance of p-H2 superfluid response is due to the fact that the interactions between Na atoms and H2 molecules are less attractive than between H2 molecules. This induces a considerable reduction of the hydrogen density which favors the stabilization of the liquid phase.
Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei
2015-08-01
We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He2+ and He4+, which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl4 doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He)nC+, (He)nCl+, and (He)nCCl+. Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.
Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams
He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei
2015-08-15
We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sub 4}{sup +}, which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl{sub 4} doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He){sub n}C{sup +}, (He){sub n}Cl{sup +}, and (He){sub n}CCl{sup +}. Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.
Fractal generalization of Thomas-Fermi model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rekhviashvili, S. Sh.; Sokurov, A. A.
2016-05-01
The Thomas-Fermi model is developed for a multielectron neutral atom at an arbitrary metric dimension of the electron cloud. It has been shown that the electron cloud with the reduced dimension should be located in the close vicinity of the nucleus. At a metric dimension of the electron cloud of 2, the differential equation of the model admits an analytical solution. In this case, the screening parameter does not depend on the charge of the nucleus.
Vortex-core structure in neutral fermion superfluids with population imbalance.
Takahashi, M; Mizushima, T; Ichioka, M; Machida, K
2006-11-01
Quantized vortex-core structure is theoretically investigated in fermion superfluids with population imbalance for two atom species of neutral atom clouds near a Feshbach resonance. In contrast with the vortex core in balance case where the quantum depletion makes a vortex visible through the density profile measurement, the vortex core is filled in and becomes less visible because the quantized discrete bound states are occupied exclusively by the majority species. Yet it is shown that the core can be visible through the minority density profile experiment using phase contrast imaging, revealing an interesting opportunity to examine low-lying fermionic core bound states unexplored so far.
Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D.
2011-06-15
We compare the theoretical predictions for universal thermodynamics of a homogeneous, strongly correlated Fermi gas with the latest experimental measurements reported by the ENS group [S. Nascimbene et al., Nature (London) 463, 1057 (2010)] and the Tokyo group [M. Horikoshi et al., Science 327, 442 (2010)]. The theoretical results are obtained using two diagrammatic theories, together with a virial expansion theory combined with a Pade approximation. We find good agreement between theory and experiment. In particular, the virial expansion, using a Pade approximation up to third order, describes the experimental results extremely well down to the superfluid transition temperature, T{sub c{approx}}0.16T{sub F}, where T{sub F} is the Fermi temperature. The comparison in this work complements our previous comparative study on the universal thermodynamics of a strongly correlated but trapped Fermi gas. The comparison also raises interesting issues about the unitary entropy and the applicability of the Pade approximation.
Temperature effects on superfluid phase transition in Bose-Hubbard model with three-body interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopeć, T. K.; Szymański, M. W.
2014-10-01
We theoretically investigate the effect of the three-body on-site interactions on the Mott-insulator-superfluid transition for ultracold bosonic atoms in the framework of the Bose-Hubbard model. In particular, we explore the combined effects of three-body interaction and finite temperature on the phase diagram in detail. In order to handle system with strong local interactions a resolvent expansion technique based on the contour integral representation of the partition function has been devised. Subsequently, we derive the Landau-type expansion for the free energy in terms of the superfluid order parameter and find the phase diagrams depicting the relationships between various physical quantities of interest.
Sound-induced vortex interactions in a zero-temperature two-dimensional superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, Andrew; Surówka, Piotr
2014-11-01
We present a systematic derivation of the effective action for interacting vortices in a nonrelativistic two-dimensional superfluid described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation by integrating out longitudinal fluctuations of the order parameter. There are no logarithmically divergent coefficients in the equations of motion. Our analysis is valid in a dilute limit of vortices where the intervortex spacing is large compared to the core size, and where number fluctuations of atoms in vortex cores are suppressed. We analyze sound-induced corrections to the dynamics of a vortex-antivortex pair and show that there is no instability to annihilation, suggesting that sound-mediated interactions are not strong enough to ruin an inverse energy cascade in two-dimensional zero-temperature superfluid turbulence.
Chiral magnetism and spontaneous spin Hall effect of interacting Bose superfluids.
Li, Xiaopeng; Natu, Stefan S; Paramekanti, Arun; Das Sarma, S
2014-01-01
Recent experiments on ultracold atoms in optical lattices have synthesized a variety of tunable bands with degenerate double-well structures in momentum space. Such degeneracies in the single-particle spectrum strongly enhance quantum fluctuations, and often lead to exotic many-body ground states. Here we consider weakly interacting spinor Bose gases in such bands, and discover a universal quantum 'order by disorder' phenomenon which selects a novel superfluid with chiral spin order displaying remarkable properties such as spontaneous spin Hall effect and momentum space antiferromagnetism. For bosons in the excited Dirac band of a hexagonal lattice, such a state supports staggered spin loop currents in real space. We show that Bloch oscillations provide a powerful dynamical route to quantum state preparation of such a chiral spin superfluid. Our predictions can be readily tested in spin-resolved time-of-flight experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Portillo, Stephen; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.
2015-01-01
The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has a point spread function with large tails, consisting of events affected by tracker ineffiencies, inactive volumes, and hard scattering; these tails can make source confusion a limiting factor. The parameter CTBCORE, available in the publicly available Extended Fermi LAT data, estimates the quality of each event's direction reconstruction; by implementing a cut in this parameter, the tails of the point spread function can be suppressed at the cost of losing effective area. We implement cuts on CTBCORE and present updated instrument response functions derived from the Fermi LAT data itself, along with all-sky maps generated with these cuts. Having shown the effectiveness of these cuts, especially at low energies, we encourage their use in analyses where angular resolution is more important than Poisson noise.
Yocum, D.R.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Chadwick, K.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Timm, S.; /Fermilab
2007-05-01
As one of the founding members of the Open Science Grid Consortium (OSG), Fermilab enables coherent access to its production resources through the Grid infrastructure system called FermiGrid. This system successfully provides for centrally managed grid services, opportunistic resource access, development of OSG Interfaces for Fermilab, and an interface to the Fermilab dCache system. FermiGrid supports virtual organizations (VOs) including high energy physics experiments (USCMS, MINOS, D0, CDF, ILC), astrophysics experiments (SDSS, Auger, DES), biology experiments (GADU, Nanohub) and educational activities.
Not Available
1993-09-01
Leon Lederman has received the 1992 Enrico Fermi Award, presented in recognition of a lifetime of achievement in nuclear energy. This article briefly details Lederman's award-winning work (1988 Nobel Proze in Physics) in high-energy physics -- his discovery of the upsilon particle and the muon neutrino. His leadership in the creation of the superconducting accelerator at Fermilab and his leadership in science education of society are also cited with respect to the Enrico Fermi Award. Specifics on the award and its presentation are included in this article.
Electron bubbles and Weyl fermions in chiral superfluid 3He-A
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shevtsov, Oleksii; Sauls, J. A.
2016-08-01
Electrons embedded in liquid 3He form mesoscopic bubbles with large radii compared to the interatomic distance between 3He atoms, voids of Nbubble≈200 3He atoms, generating a negative ion with a large effective mass that scatters thermal excitations. Electron bubbles in chiral superfluid 3He-A also provide a local probe of the ground state. We develop a scattering theory of Bogoliubov quasiparticles by negative ions embedded in 3He-A that incorporates the broken symmetries of 3He-A , particularly broken symmetries under time reversal and mirror symmetry in a plane containing the chiral axis l ̂. Multiple scattering by the ion potential, combined with branch conversion scattering by the chiral order parameter, leads to a spectrum of Weyl fermions bound to the ion that support a mass current circulating the electron bubble—a mesoscopic realization of chiral edge currents in superfluid 3He-A films. A consequence is that electron bubbles embedded in 3He-A acquire angular momentum, L ≈-(Nbubble/2 ) ℏ l ̂ , inherited from the chiral ground state. We extend the scattering theory to calculate the forces on a moving electron bubble, both the Stokes drag and a transverse force, FW=e/c v ×BW , defined by an effective magnetic field, BW∝l ̂ , generated by the scattering of thermal quasiparticles off the spectrum of Weyl fermions bound to the moving ion. The transverse force is responsible for the anomalous Hall effect for electron bubbles driven by an electric field reported by the RIKEN group. Our results for the scattering cross section, drag, and transverse forces on moving ions are compared with experiments and shown to provide a quantitative understanding of the temperature dependence of the mobility and anomalous Hall angle for electron bubbles in normal and superfluid 3He-A . We also discuss our results in relation to earlier work on the theory of negative ions in superfluid 3He.
Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules
Fedorov, A. K.; Matveenko, S. I.; Yudson, V. I.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.
2016-01-01
Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry. PMID:27278711
Novel p-wave superfluids of fermionic polar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, A. K.; Matveenko, S. I.; Yudson, V. I.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.
2016-06-01
Recently suggested subwavelength lattices offer remarkable prospects for the observation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules. It becomes realistic to obtain a topological p-wave superfluid of microwave-dressed polar molecules in 2D lattices at temperatures of the order of tens of nanokelvins, which is promising for topologically protected quantum information processing. Another foreseen novel phase is an interlayer p-wave superfluid of polar molecules in a bilayer geometry.
Imaging of quantum vortices in superfluid helium droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilesov, Andrey
Helium nanodroplets are especially promising for exploring quantum hydrodynamics in self-contained, isolated superfluids. However, until very recently, the dynamic properties of individual droplets, such as vorticity, could not be assessed experimentally. Here we investigate the rotation of single superfluid 4-He droplets ranging from 200 to 2000 nm in diameter at T = 0.4 K via single-shot femtosecond X-ray coherent diffractive imaging. The droplets were produced by free jet expansion of liquid helium into vacuum. The angular velocities of the droplets were estimated from the centrifugal distortion and span a range from vanishing to those close to the disintegration limit. For visualization of vortices, Xe atoms were added to the droplets where they gather in cores forming nm-thin filaments. A newly developed phase retrieval technique enables the reconstruction of the instantaneous positions and shapes of the vortices from the diffraction images with about 20 nm resolution. The vorticity attainable in the nano-droplets was found to be about six orders of magnitude larger than achieved in previous experiments in the bulk. Stationary configurations of vortices are represented by triangular lattice in large (2 μm) droplets and symmetric arrangements of few vortices in smaller (200 nm) droplets. Evidence for non-stationary vortex dynamics comes from observation of asymmetric formations of vortices in some droplets. This collaborative work was performed at Linac Coherent Light Source, the free electron laser within SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiments and the full list of collaborators are reported in: L. F. Gomez et. al. Science, 345 (2014) 906.
Monopole strength function of deformed superfluid nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoitsov, M.; Kortelainen, M.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Losa, C.; Nazarewicz, W.
2011-10-01
We present an efficient method for calculating strength functions using the finite-amplitude method (FAM) for deformed superfluid heavy nuclei within the framework of the nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrate that FAM reproduces strength functions obtained with the fully self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) at a fraction of the computational cost. As a demonstration, we compute the isoscalar and isovector monopole strengths for strongly deformed configurations in 100Zr and 240Pu by considering huge quasiparticle QRPA spaces. Our approach to FAM, based on Broyden's iterative procedure, opens the possibility for large-scale calculations of strength distributions in well-deformed superfluid nuclei across the nuclear landscape.
Bistability in a Driven-Dissipative Superfluid.
Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Ott, Herwig
2016-06-10
We experimentally study a driven-dissipative Josephson junction array, realized with a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate residing in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Engineered losses on one site act as a local dissipative process, while tunneling from the neighboring sites constitutes the driving force. We characterize the emerging steady states of this atomtronic device. With increasing dissipation strength γ the system crosses from a superfluid state, characterized by a coherent Josephson current into the lossy site, to a resistive state, characterized by an incoherent hopping transport. For intermediate values of γ, the system exhibits bistability, where a superfluid and an incoherent branch coexist. We also study the relaxation dynamics towards the steady state, where we find a critical slowing down, indicating the presence of a nonequilibrium phase transition. PMID:27341243
Bistability in a Driven-Dissipative Superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Ott, Herwig
2016-06-01
We experimentally study a driven-dissipative Josephson junction array, realized with a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate residing in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Engineered losses on one site act as a local dissipative process, while tunneling from the neighboring sites constitutes the driving force. We characterize the emerging steady states of this atomtronic device. With increasing dissipation strength γ the system crosses from a superfluid state, characterized by a coherent Josephson current into the lossy site, to a resistive state, characterized by an incoherent hopping transport. For intermediate values of γ , the system exhibits bistability, where a superfluid and an incoherent branch coexist. We also study the relaxation dynamics towards the steady state, where we find a critical slowing down, indicating the presence of a nonequilibrium phase transition.
Dark matter superfluid and DBI dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang
2016-01-01
It was shown recently that, without jeopardizing the success of the Λ cold dark matter model on cosmic scales, the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) can be derived as an emergent phenomenon when axionlike dark matter particles condense into superfluid on the galactic scales. We propose in this paper a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) scalar field conformally coupled to the matter components. To maintain the success of MOND phenomenon of dark matter superfluid on the galactic scales, the fifth force introduced by the DBI scalar should be screened on the galactic scales. It turns out that the screening effect naturally leads to a simple explanation for a longstanding puzzle that the MOND critical acceleration coincides with present Hubble scale. This galactic coincidence problem is solved, provided that the screened DBI scalar also plays the role of dark energy on the cosmic scales.
Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states
Wreszinski, Walter F.
2015-01-15
We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system.
Dynamics and nucleation of vorticity in superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freire, Jose Arruda De Oliveira
1997-11-01
This thesis contains numerical studies on vortex dynamics and on quantum nucleation of vorticity in superfluids at zero temperature. In both cases the superfluid was described by the Gross-Pitaevskii model. In the first part of the thesis, the vortex mass problem is analyzed by a numerical integration of the condensate equation of motion, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. We were able to extract, from the observed vortex dynamics in a time-dependent superflow, the frequency dependence of the vortex effective mass. In the second part, the problem of quantum nucleation of vorticity in superflows past obstacles, in both one and two dimensions, is studied by the application of the bounce formalism of Coleman (12) to the coherent state action of the Gross-Pitaevskii model. We obtained bounce solutions and tunneling rates by directly solving the field equations for the condensate in imaginary time.
Magnus and Iordanskii Forces in Superfluids
Wexler, C.
1997-08-01
The transverse force acting on a quantized vortex in a superfluid is a problem that has eluded a complete understanding for more than three decades. In this Letter I calculate the {ital superfluid } velocity part of the transverse force in a way closely related to Laughlin{close_quote}s argument for the quantization of conductance in the quantum Hall effect. A combination of this result, the {ital vortex} velocity part of the transverse force found by Thouless, Ao, and Niu [Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 3758 (1996)], and Galilean invariance shows that there cannot be a transverse force proportional to the normal fluid velocity. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Electric generation of vortices in polariton superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flayac, H.; Pavlovic, G.; Kaliteevski, M. A.; Shelykh, I. A.
2012-02-01
We have theoretically demonstrated the on-demand electric generation of vortices in an exciton-polariton superfluid. Electric pulses applied to a horseshoe-shaped metallic mesa, deposited on top of the microcavity, generate a noncylindrically symmetric solitonic wave in the system. Breakdown of its wave front at focal points leads to the formation of vortex-antivortex pairs, which subsequently propagate in the superfluid. The trajectory of these vortex dipoles can be controlled by applying a voltage to additional electrodes. They can be confined within channels formed by metallic stripes and unbound by a wedged mesa giving birth to grey solitons. Finally, single static vortices can be generated using a single metallic plate configuration.
Dynamics of rotating superfluid systems with pinning
Sedrakyan, A.D.; Sedrakyan, D.M.
1995-08-01
Equations describing the dynamics of motion of superfluid systems with pinning are derived, and analytical solutions of these equations are established for the case where the difference between the angular velocities of the superfluid and normal components is small. The solutions can be used to explain the time-dependent behavior of the angular velocity of the Vela pulsar. It is shown that vortex pinning in the period between two consecutive jumps in the pulsar angular velocity can redistribute the vortex number density so as to produce both the observed jump and the after-jump relaxation of the pulsar. For one thing, the formulas obtained are shown to provide an explanation of the 1988 Christmas discontinuity in the angular velocity of the Vela pulsar. 8 refs.
Characterization of reconnecting vortices in superfluid helium
Bewley, Gregory P.; Paoletti, Matthew S.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.
2008-01-01
When two vortices cross, each of them breaks into two parts and exchanges part of itself for part of the other. This process, called vortex reconnection, occurs in classical and superfluids, and in magnetized plasmas and superconductors. We present the first experimental observations of reconnection between quantized vortices in superfluid helium. We do so by imaging micrometer-sized solid hydrogen particles trapped on quantized vortex cores and by inferring the occurrence of reconnection from the motions of groups of recoiling particles. We show that the distance separating particles on the just-reconnected vortex lines grows as a power law in time. The average value of the scaling exponent is approximately ½, consistent with the self-similar evolution of the vortices. PMID:18768790
Simulating infinite vortex lattices in superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mingarelli, Luca; Keaveny, Eric E.; Barnett, Ryan
2016-07-01
We present an efficient framework to numerically treat infinite periodic vortex lattices in rotating superfluids described by the Gross-Pitaevskii theory. The commonly used split-step Fourier (SSF) spectral methods are inapplicable to such systems as the standard Fourier transform does not respect the boundary conditions mandated by the magnetic translation group. We present a generalisation of the SSF method which incorporates the correct boundary conditions by employing the so-called magnetic Fourier transform. We test the method and show that it reduces to known results in the lowest-Landau-level regime. While we focus on rotating scalar superfluids for simplicity, the framework can be naturally extended to treat multicomponent systems and systems under more general ‘synthetic’ gauge fields.
Superfluid stiffness of a driven dissipative condensate with disorder.
Janot, Alexander; Hyart, Timo; Eastham, Paul R; Rosenow, Bernd
2013-12-01
Observations of macroscopic quantum coherence in driven systems, e.g. polariton condensates, have strongly stimulated experimental as well as theoretical efforts during the last decade. We address the question of whether a driven quantum condensate is a superfluid, allowing for the effects of disorder and its nonequilibrium nature. We predict that for spatial dimensions d<4 the superfluid stiffness vanishes once the condensate exceeds a critical size, and treat in detail the case d=2. Thus a nonequilibrium condensate is not a superfluid in the thermodynamic limit, even for weak disorder, although superfluid behavior would persist in small systems.
Anisotropice superfluid fraction of3He A1 phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastea, M.; Kojima, H.
1995-11-01
The superfluid fraction of3He a1 phase is computed from measurements of the velocity of spin/entropy waves induced in a cylindrical chamber, for two different directions of the magnetic field: parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the chamber. The ratio of the superfluid fractions in the parallel and perpendicular orientations is 1.85, and does not depend on the field between 1 and 5 Tesla. We adapt a theoretical texture model to account for the superfluid flow, and the results are consistent with the above ratio and direct estimates of superfluid velocity.
Superfluid state of coherent light in nonlinear waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Ze
2014-01-01
We establish the photonic superfluid theory in waveguides made of self-defocussing polar crystals. In quantum theory it is shown that photons can sense an attractive effective interaction by exchange of virtual optical phonons. Such an interaction leads to the photonic superfluid state, in which a propagating photon pair consists of a combination of two photons with opposite transverse wave vector and spins. The most important property of the photonic superfluid state is that the system of photon pairs evolves without scattering attenuations. The traveling-wave superfluid state has the squeezing property and the soliton effect.
Superfluid 3He in ``nematically ordered'' aerogel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitriev, Vladimir
2014-03-01
Liquid 3He immersed in aerogel allows investigation of the influence of impurities on unconventional superfluidity. In most of such experiments silica aerogels are used. These aerogels consist of thin strands which form a ``wisp.'' Although it is established that superfluid phases of 3He in silica aerogels (A-like and B-like) have the same order parameters as A and B phases of bulk 3He, many new phenomena were observed. In particular, it was found that global anisotropy of aerogel (e.g. caused by squeezing or stretching) can orient the order parameter. Depending on prehistory and on the type of the anisotropy the A-like phase may be homogeneous or in a state with random orbital part of the order parameter. Theory predicts that a large stretching anisotropy may even influence the order parameter structure: polar phase (or A phase with polar distortion), which are not realized in bulk 3He, may become more favorable than pure A phase. Large stretching anisotropy is hardly achievable in silica aerogel. Therefore in experiments described in the talk we used a new type of aerogel, consisting of Al2O3 . H2O strands which are parallel to each other, i.e. this aerogel may be considered as infinitely stretched. We found that the superfluid phase diagram of 3He in such ``nematically ordered'' aerogel is different from the case of 3He in silica aerogel and that both observed A and B phases have large polar distortion. This distortion is larger at low pressures and grows on warming. There are indications that a pure polar phase appears near the superfluid transition temperature. Recent results will be also presented.
Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M
2011-10-21
We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic wave function whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the wave function leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence.
Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M
2011-10-21
We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic wave function whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the wave function leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence. PMID:22107532
Fermiâs Gamma-ray Burst Monitor detected 130 TGFs from August 2008 to the end of 2010. Thanks to instrument tweaks, the team has been able to improve the detection rate to several TGFs per week. ...
Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi
2015-11-01
Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds>=|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper-Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition.
Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands.
Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi
2015-11-20
Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper-Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition.
Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands
Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi
2015-01-01
Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper–Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition. PMID:26586543
Interaction quenches of Fermi gases
Uhrig, Goetz S.
2009-12-15
It is shown that the jump in the momentum distribution of Fermi gases evolves smoothly for small and intermediate times once an interaction between the fermions is suddenly switched on. The jump does not vanish abruptly. The loci in momentum space where the jumps occur are those of the noninteracting Fermi sea. No relaxation of the Fermi surface geometry takes place.
Stability of spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases with population imbalance.
Iskin, M; Subaşı, A L
2011-07-29
We use the self-consistent mean-field theory to analyze the effects of Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the ground-state phase diagram of population-imbalanced Fermi gases throughout the BCS-Bose-Einstein condensate evolution. We find that the SOC and population imbalance are counteracting, and that this competition tends to stabilize the uniform superfluid phase against the phase separation. However, we also show that the SOC stabilizes (destabilizes) the uniform superfluid phase against the normal phase for low (high) population imbalances. In addition, we find topological quantum phase transitions associated with the appearance of momentum-space regions with zero quasiparticle energies, and study their signatures in the momentum distribution.
Particle detection using superfluid helium
Bandler, S.R.; Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; More, T.; Porter, F.S.; Seidel, G.M.; Torii, R.
1991-01-01
We have observed 5 MeV {alpha} particles stopped in volumes-up to two liters of liquid helium at 70 mK. A fraction of the kinetic energy of an {alpha} particle is converted to elementary excitations (rotons and phonons), which progagate ballistically in isotopically pure {sup 4}He below 0.1 K. Most of these excitations have sufficient energy to evaporate helium atoms on hitting a free surface. The evaporated helium atoms can be detected calorimetrically when adsorbed on a thin silicon wafer ({approximately}1.7 g, 35 cm{sup 2}) suspended above the liquid. Temperature changes of the silicon are measured with a NTD germanium bolometer. For the geometry studied the observed temperature change of the silicon resulting from an {alpha} event in the liquid is approximately 5% of the temperature rise from an {alpha} hitting the silicon directly. The implications of these measurements will be discussed as they relate to the possible construction of a large scale detector of solar neutrinos.
Particle detection using superfluid helium
Bandler, S.R.; Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; More, T.; Porter, F.S.; Seidel, G.M.; Torii, R.
1991-12-31
We have observed 5 MeV {alpha} particles stopped in volumes-up to two liters of liquid helium at 70 mK. A fraction of the kinetic energy of an {alpha} particle is converted to elementary excitations (rotons and phonons), which progagate ballistically in isotopically pure {sup 4}He below 0.1 K. Most of these excitations have sufficient energy to evaporate helium atoms on hitting a free surface. The evaporated helium atoms can be detected calorimetrically when adsorbed on a thin silicon wafer ({approximately}1.7 g, 35 cm{sup 2}) suspended above the liquid. Temperature changes of the silicon are measured with a NTD germanium bolometer. For the geometry studied the observed temperature change of the silicon resulting from an {alpha} event in the liquid is approximately 5% of the temperature rise from an {alpha} hitting the silicon directly. The implications of these measurements will be discussed as they relate to the possible construction of a large scale detector of solar neutrinos.
The superfluid transition in helium clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jortner, Joshua
2003-12-01
We address cluster size effects on the λ temperature (Tλ) for the rounded-off transition for the Bose-Einstein condensation and for the onset of superfluidity in (4He)N clusters of radius R0=aN1/3, where a=3.5 Å is the constituent radius. The phenomenological Ginsburg-Pitaevskii-Sobaynin theory for the order parameter of the second-order phase transition, in conjunction with the free-surface boundary condition, results in a scaling law for the cluster size dependence of Tλ, which is defined by the maximum of the specific heat and/or from the onset of the finite fraction of the superfluid density. This size scaling law (Tλ0-Tλ)/Tλ0∝R0-1/ν∝N-1/3ν, where ν (=0.67) is the critical exponent for the superfluid fraction and for the correlation length for superfluidity in the infinite bulk system, implies the depression of the finite system Tλ relative to the bulk value of Tλ0. The quantum path integral molecular dynamics simulations of Sindzingre, Ceperley, and Klein [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1601 (1989)] for N=64, 128, together with experimental data for specific heat of 4He in porous gold and in other confined systems [J. Yoon and M. H. W. Chan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4801 (1997); G. M. Zahssenhaus and J. D. Reppy, ibid. 83, 4800 (1999)], are accounted for in terms of the cluster size scaling theory (Tλ0-Tλ)/Tλ0=(πξ0/a)3/2N-1/2, where ξ0=1.7±0.3 Å is the "critical" amplitude for the correlation length in the bulk. The phenomenological theory relates Tλ for the finite system to the correlation length ξ(T) for superfluidity in the infinite bulk system, with the shift (Tλ0-Tλ) being determined by the ratio R0/ξ(T), in accord with the theory of finite-size scaling.
Scaling relation for the superfluid density of cuprate superconductors: Origins and limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tallon, J. L.; Cooper, J. R.; Naqib, S. H.; Loram, J. W.
2006-05-01
A universal scaling relation, ρs∝σ(Tc)×Tc has been reported by Homes [Nature (London) 430, 539 (2004)] where ρs is the superfluid density and σ(T) is the dc conductivity. The relation was shown to apply to both c -axis and in-plane dynamics for high- Tc superconductors as well as to the more conventional superconductors Nb and Pb, suggesting common physics in these systems. We show quantitatively that the scaling behavior has several possible origins, including marginal Fermi-liquid behavior, Josephson coupling, dirty-limit superconductivity, and unitary impurity scattering for a d -wave order parameter. However, the relation breaks down seriously in overdoped cuprates, and possibly even at lower doping.
Rotating superfluids in anharmonic traps: From vortex lattices to giant vortices
Correggi, Michele; Pinsker, Florian; Rougerie, Nicolas; Yngvason, Jakob
2011-11-15
We study a superfluid in a rotating anharmonic trap and explicate a rigorous proof of a transition from a vortex lattice to a giant vortex state as the rotation is increased beyond a limiting speed determined by the interaction strength. The transition is characterized by the disappearance of the vortices from the annulus where the bulk of the superfluid is concentrated due to centrifugal forces while a macroscopic phase circulation remains. The analysis is carried out within two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii theory at large coupling constant and reveals significant differences between ''soft'' anharmonic traps (like a quartic plus quadratic trapping potential) and traps with a fixed boundary: in the latter case the transition takes place in a parameter regime where the size of vortices is very small relative to the width of the annulus, whereas in soft traps the vortex lattice persists until the width of the annulus becomes comparable to the vortex cores. Moreover, the density profile in the annulus where the bulk is concentrated is, in the soft case, approximately Gaussian with long tails and not of the Thomas-Fermi type like in a trap with a fixed boundary.
Relativistic entrainment matrix of a superfluid nucleon-hyperon mixture: The zero temperature limit
Gusakov, Mikhail E.; Kantor, Elena M.; Haensel, Pawel
2009-05-15
We calculate the relativistic entrainment matrix Y{sub ik} at zero temperature for a nucleon-hyperon mixture composed of neutrons, protons, and {lambda} and {sigma}{sup -} hyperons, as well as electrons and muons. This matrix is analogous to the entrainment matrix (also termed mass-density matrix or Andreev-Bashkin matrix) of nonrelativistic theory. It is an important ingredient for modeling the pulsations of massive neutron stars with superfluid nucleon-hyperon cores. The calculation is done in the frame of the relativistic Landau Fermi-liquid theory generalized to the case of superfluid mixtures; the matrix Y{sub ik} is expressed through the Landau parameters of nucleon-hyperon matter. The results are illustrated with a particular example of the {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} mean-field model with scalar self-interactions. Using this model, we calculate the matrix Y{sub ik} and the Landau parameters. We also analyze the stability of the ground state of nucleon-hyperon matter with respect to small perturbations.
Superfluid Phase Transition of Long-Lifetime Polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snoke, David
2012-02-01
Exciton-polaritons are quanta of electronic excitation which can have their properties tailored in semiconductor structures to have extremely light mass, about four orders of magnitude less than a free electron. One can think of them as photons dressed with an effective mass and an atom-like interaction. Because of their very light mass, exciton-polaritons show Bose quantum effects even at moderate densities and temperatures from tens of Kelvin up to room temperature. In the past five years, multiple experiments have shown effects of polaritons analogous to Bose condensation of cold atoms, such as a bimodal momentum distribution, quantized vortices, a Bogoliubov excitation spectrum, spatial condensation in a trap, and Josephson junction oscillations. In these experiments, though, the lifetime of the polaritons has been just a little longer than their thermalization time, which means that nonequilibrium effects play an important role; in particular, the transition to superfluidity has been smeared out rather than a sharp transition. In this talk I report new results with polaritons that have very long lifetime compared to their thermalization time. We see a discontinuous jump in the properties of the polariton gas indicative of a true phase transition, and we see ballistic transport over hundreds of microns. We also now have a way to use a laser to create a potential barrier for the polaritons.
Superfluid transition of homogeneous and trapped two-dimensional Bose gases
Holzmann, Markus; Baym, Gordon; Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Laloë, Franck
2007-01-01
Current experiments on atomic gases in highly anisotropic traps present the opportunity to study in detail the low temperature phases of two-dimensional inhomogeneous systems. Although, in an ideal gas, the trapping potential favors Bose–Einstein condensation at finite temperature, interactions tend to destabilize the condensate, leading to a superfluid Kosterlitz–Thouless–Berezinskii phase with a finite superfluid mass density but no long-range order, as in homogeneous fluids. The transition in homogeneous systems is conveniently described in terms of dissociation of topological defects (vortex–antivortex pairs). However, trapped two-dimensional gases are more directly approached by generalizing the microscopic theory of the homogeneous gas. In this paper, we first derive, via a diagrammatic expansion, the scaling structure near the phase transition in a homogeneous system, and then study the effects of a trapping potential in the local density approximation. We find that a weakly interacting trapped gas undergoes a Kosterlitz–Thouless–Berezinskii transition from the normal state at a temperature slightly below the Bose–Einstein transition temperature of the ideal gas. The characteristic finite superfluid mass density of a homogeneous system just below the transition becomes strongly suppressed in a trapped gas. PMID:17244706
Suppression of density fluctuations in a quantum degenerate Fermi gas.
Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J; Keshet, Aviv; Gommers, Ralf; Shin, Yong-Il; Huang, Wujie; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2010-07-23
We study density profiles of an ideal Fermi gas and observe Pauli suppression of density fluctuations (atom shot noise) for cold clouds deep in the quantum degenerate regime. Strong suppression is observed for probe volumes containing more than 10 000 atoms. Measuring the level of suppression provides sensitive thermometry at low temperatures. After this method of sensitive noise measurements has been validated with an ideal Fermi gas, it can now be applied to characterize phase transitions in strongly correlated many-body systems.
Acoustic Spectroscopy of Superfluid 3He in Aerogel
Davis, J. P.; Choi, H.; Pollanen, J.; Halperin, W. P.
2006-09-07
We have designed an experiment to study the role of global anisotropic quasiparticle scattering on the dirty aerogel superfluid 3He system. We observe significant regions of two stable phases at temperatures below the superfluid transition at a pressure of 25 bar for a 98% aerogel.
Measurements and modelling of recuperator for superfluid Stirling refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brisson, J. G.; Swift, G. W.
Measurements and several methods of modelling of a recuperator for use in a dual superfluid Stirling refrigerator are discussed. The models are also applicable to non-superfluid machines. The heat capacity of the fluid entrained in the recuperator is essential for its efficient operation if the piston motions are sinusoidal.
Chiral d -Wave Superfluid in Periodically Driven Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shao-Liang; Lang, Li-Jun; Zhou, Qi
2015-11-01
A chiral d -wave superfluid is a preliminary example of interacting topological matter. However, unlike s -wave superfluids prevalent in nature, its existence requires a strong d -wave interaction, a criterion that is difficult to access in ordinary systems. There is no experimental observation of such unconventional superfluid at the moment. Here, we present a new principle for creating a two-dimensional (2D) chiral d -wave superfluid using periodically driven lattices. Because of an imprinted 2D pseudospin-orbit coupling, where the sublattice index serves as the pseudospin, the s -wave interaction between two hyperfine spin states naturally creates a chiral d -wave superfluid. This scheme can be directly implemented in current experiments.
Pinning down the superfluid and measuring masses using pulsar glitches
Ho, Wynn C. G.; Espinoza, Cristóbal M.; Antonopoulou, Danai; Andersson, Nils
2015-01-01
Pulsars are known for their superb timing precision, although glitches can interrupt the regular timing behavior when the stars are young. These glitches are thought to be caused by interactions between normal and superfluid matter in the crust of the star. However, glitching pulsars such as Vela have been shown to require a superfluid reservoir that greatly exceeds that available in the crust. We examine a model in which glitches tap the superfluid in the core. We test a variety of theoretical superfluid models against the most recent glitch data and find that only one model can successfully explain up to 45 years of observational data. We develop a new technique for combining radio and x-ray data to measure pulsar masses, thereby demonstrating how current and future telescopes can probe fundamental physics such as superfluidity near nuclear saturation. PMID:26601293
Pinning down the superfluid and measuring masses using pulsar glitches.
Ho, Wynn C G; Espinoza, Cristóbal M; Antonopoulou, Danai; Andersson, Nils
2015-10-01
Pulsars are known for their superb timing precision, although glitches can interrupt the regular timing behavior when the stars are young. These glitches are thought to be caused by interactions between normal and superfluid matter in the crust of the star. However, glitching pulsars such as Vela have been shown to require a superfluid reservoir that greatly exceeds that available in the crust. We examine a model in which glitches tap the superfluid in the core. We test a variety of theoretical superfluid models against the most recent glitch data and find that only one model can successfully explain up to 45 years of observational data. We develop a new technique for combining radio and x-ray data to measure pulsar masses, thereby demonstrating how current and future telescopes can probe fundamental physics such as superfluidity near nuclear saturation.
Pinning down the superfluid and measuring masses using pulsar glitches.
Ho, Wynn C G; Espinoza, Cristóbal M; Antonopoulou, Danai; Andersson, Nils
2015-10-01
Pulsars are known for their superb timing precision, although glitches can interrupt the regular timing behavior when the stars are young. These glitches are thought to be caused by interactions between normal and superfluid matter in the crust of the star. However, glitching pulsars such as Vela have been shown to require a superfluid reservoir that greatly exceeds that available in the crust. We examine a model in which glitches tap the superfluid in the core. We test a variety of theoretical superfluid models against the most recent glitch data and find that only one model can successfully explain up to 45 years of observational data. We develop a new technique for combining radio and x-ray data to measure pulsar masses, thereby demonstrating how current and future telescopes can probe fundamental physics such as superfluidity near nuclear saturation. PMID:26601293
Superfluid response of two-dimensional parahydrogen clusters in confinement
Idowu, Saheed; Boninsegni, Massimo
2015-04-07
We study by computer simulations the effect of confinement on the superfluid properties of small two-dimensional (2D) parahydrogen clusters. For clusters of fewer than twenty molecules, the superfluid response in the low temperature limit is found to remain comparable in magnitude to that of free clusters, within a rather wide range of depth and size of the confining well. The resilience of the superfluid response is attributable to the “supersolid” character of these clusters. We investigate the possibility of establishing a bulk 2D superfluid “cluster crystal” phase of p-H{sub 2}, in which a global superfluid response would arise from tunnelling of molecules across adjacent unit cells. The computed energetics suggests that for clusters of about ten molecules, such a phase may be thermodynamically stable against the formation of the equilibrium insulating crystal, for values of the cluster crystal lattice constant possibly allowing tunnelling across adjacent unit cells.
Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He.
Lounasmaa, O V; Thuneberg, E
1999-07-01
In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe.
Superfluid Stirling refrigerator with a counterflow regenerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brisson, J. G.; Swift, G. W.
The superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR) uses a He-3-He-4 liquid mixture as a working fluid. It operates at temperatures below 2 K where the He-4 component of the working fluid is superfluid. The He-3 component of the working fluid, to first approximation, behaves thermodynamically like an ideal gas in the inert background of superfluid He-4. Using pistons equipped with a superleak bypass, it is possible to expand and compress the He-3 solute 'gas'. The SSR is a Stirling machine equipped with these 'superleaked' pistons to take advantage of the properties of the He-3 solute to cool below 1 K. The proof of principle was shown by Kotsubo and Swift in 1990. There are three other techniques for cooling below 1 K: (1) the He-3-He-4 dilution refrigerator which utilizes the endothermic heat of mixing of He-3 into He-4 to reach temperatures below 0.010 K; (2) the evaporation of He-3 which can reach temperatures of 0.3 K; and, (3) adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt. There are several advantages of the SSR over each of the other techniques. The power consumption of a dilution refrigerator is typically on the order of kilowatts; whereas, the SSR consumes hundreds of watts. The SSR has the potential to cool below 0.3 K and out-perform the evaporative He-3 refrigerator. Adiabatic demagnetization often requires magnetic shielding between the refrigerator and the object to be cooled; obviously, the SSR requires no such shielding. There is an interest in developing subkelvin cryocoolers for satellite-borne X-ray and infrared detectors. In space applications, the power consumption of an SSR can be reduced to tens of watts. This coupled with the SSR's insensitivity to a zero G environment makes it an attractive option to cool detectors in space.
Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He.
Lounasmaa, O V; Thuneberg, E
1999-07-01
In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe. PMID:10393895
Superfluid Stirling refrigerator with a counterflow regenerator
Brisson, J.G.; Swift, G.W.
1992-01-01
The superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR) uses a [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid mixture as a working fluid. It operates at temperatures below 2 K where the [sup 4]He component of the working fluid is superfluid. The [sup 3]He component of the working fluid, to first approximation, behaves thermodynamically like an ideal gas in the inert background of superfluid [sup 4]He. Using pistons equipped with a superleak bypass, it is possible to expand and compress the [sup 3]He solute gas.'' The SSR is a Stirling machine equipped with these superleaked'' pistons to take advantage of the properties of the [sup 3]He solute to cool below 1 K. The proof of principle was shown by Kotsubo and Swift in 1990. There are three other techniques for cooling below 1 K: (1) the [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He dilution refrigerator which utilizes the endothermic heat of mixing of [sup 3]He into [sup 4]He to reach temperatures below 0.010 K; (2) the evaporation of [sup 3]He which can reach temperatures of 0.3 K; and, (3) adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt. There are several advantages of the SSR over each of the other techniques. The power consumption of a dilution refrigerator is typically on the order of kilowatts; whereas, the SSR consumes hundreds of watts. The SSR has the potential to cool below 0.3 K and out-perform the evaporative [sup 3]He refrigerator. Adiabatic demagnetization often requires magnetic shielding between the refrigerator and the object to be cooled; obviously, the SSR requires no such shielding. There is an interest in developing subkelvin cryocoolers for satellite-borne X-ray and infrared detectors. In space applications, the power consumption of an SSR can be reduced to tens of watts. This coupled with the SSR's insensitivity to a zero G environment makes it an attractive option to cool detectors in space.
Lattices of quantized vortices in polariton superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulier, Thomas; Cancellieri, Emiliano; Sangouard, Nicolas D.; Hivet, Romain; Glorieux, Quentin; Giacobino, Élisabeth; Bramati, Alberto
2016-10-01
In this review, we will focus on the description of the recent studies conducted in the quest for the observation of lattices of quantized vortices in resonantly injected polariton superfluids. In particular, we will show how the implementation of optical traps for polaritons allows for the realization of vortex-antivortex lattices in confined geometries and how the development of a flexible method to inject a controlled orbital angular momentum (OAM) in such systems results in the observation of patterns of same-sign vortices.
Anisotropic Superfluidity in a Dipolar Bose Gas
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M.; Bohn, John L.
2011-02-11
We study the superfluid character of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (DBEC) in a quasi-two dimensional geometry. We consider the dipole polarization to have some nonzero projection into the plane of the condensate so that the effective interaction is anisotropic in this plane, yielding an anisotropic dispersion relation. By performing direct numerical simulations of a probe moving through the DBEC, we observe the sudden onset of drag or creation of vortex-antivortex pairs at critical velocities that depend strongly on the direction of the probe's motion. This anisotropy emerges because of the anisotropic manifestation of a rotonlike mode in the system.
The multiuniverse transition in superfluid 3He.
Bunkov, Yury
2013-10-01
The symmetry-breaking phase transitions of the universe and of superfluid (3)He may lead to the formation of different states with different order parameters. In both cases the energy potential below the transition temperature has a complicated multidimensional profile with many local minima and saddle points, which correspond to different states. Consequently, not only topological defects, but also islands of different metastable states can be created. Using (3)He we can analyse the properties and experimental consequences of such transitions and, in particular, the first-order phase transition between the two low symmetry states. PMID:24026020
Higgs instability in gapless superfluidity/superconductivity
Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Huang Mei; Ren Haicang
2007-01-01
In this letter we explore the Higgs instability in the gapless superfluid/superconducting phase. This is in addition to the (chromo)magnetic instability that is related to the fluctuations of the Nambu-Goldstone bosonic fields. While the latter may induce a single-plane-wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel state, the Higgs instability favors spatial inhomogeneity. In the case of the 2-flavor color superconductivity state the Higgs instability can only be partially removed by the electric Coulomb energy. But this does not exclude the possibility that it can be completely removed in other exotic states such as the gapless color-flavor locked state.
Quantum dynamics of a Bose superfluid vortex.
Thompson, L; Stamp, P C E
2012-05-01
We derive a fully quantum-mechanical equation of motion for a vortex in a 2-dimensional Bose superfluid in the temperature regime where the normal fluid density ρ(n)(T) is small. The coupling between the vortex "zero mode" and the quasiparticles has no term linear in the quasiparticle variables--the lowest-order coupling is quadratic. We find that as a function of the dimensionless frequency Ω=ℏΩ/k(B)T, the standard Hall-Vinen-Iordanskii equations are valid when Ω≪1 (the "classical regime"), but elsewhere, the equations of motion become highly retarded, with significant experimental implications when Ω≳1.
Dirac and Weyl rings in three-dimensional cold-atom optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chuanwei
2016-06-01
Recently three-dimensional topological quantum materials with gapless energy spectra have attracted considerable interest in many branches of physics. Besides the celebrated example, Dirac and Weyl points which possess gapless point structures in the underlying energy dispersion, the topologically protected gapless spectrum, can also occur along a ring, named Dirac and Weyl nodal rings. Ultracold atomic gases provide an ideal platform for exploring new topological materials with designed symmetries and dispersion. However, whether Dirac and Weyl rings can exist in the single-particle spectrum of cold atoms remains elusive. Here we propose a realistic model for realizing Dirac and Weyl rings in the single-particle band dispersion of a cold-atom optical lattice. Our scheme is based on a previously experimentally implemented Raman coupling setup for realizing spin-orbit coupling. Without the Zeeman field, the model preserves both pseudo-time-reversal and inversion symmetries, allowing Dirac rings. The Dirac rings split into Weyl rings with a Zeeman field that breaks the pseudo-time-reversal symmetry. We examine the superfluidity of attractive Fermi gases in this model and also find Dirac and Weyl rings in the quasiparticle spectrum.
Finite-temperature collective dynamics of a Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover.
Wright, M J; Riedl, S; Altmeyer, A; Kohstall, C; Guajardo, E R Sánchez; Denschlag, J Hecker; Grimm, R
2007-10-12
We report on experimental studies on the collective behavior of a strongly interacting Fermi gas with tunable interactions and variable temperature. A scissors mode excitation in an elliptical trap is used to characterize the dynamics of the quantum gas in terms of hydrodynamic or near-collisionless behavior. We obtain a crossover phase diagram for collisional properties, showing a large region where a nonsuperfluid strongly interacting gas shows hydrodynamic behavior. In a narrow interaction regime on the BCS side of the crossover, we find a novel temperature-dependent damping peak, suggesting a relation to the superfluid phase transition. PMID:17995145
Exact Solution for a Trapped Fermi Gas with Population Imbalance and BCS Pairing
Ying Zujian; Cuoco, Mario; Noce, Canio; Zhou Huanqiang
2008-04-11
The problem of a two-component Fermi gas in a harmonic trap, with an imbalanced population and a pairing interaction of zero total momentum, is mapped onto the exactly solvable reduced BCS model. For a one-dimensional trap, the complete ground state diagram is determined with various topological features in ground state energy spectra. In addition to the conventional two-shell density profile of a paired core and polarized outer wings, a three-shell structure as well as a double-peak superfluid distribution are unveiled.
Cryogenic Microjet Source for Orthotropic Beams of Ultralarge Superfluid Helium Droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grisenti, Robert E.; Toennies, J. Peter
2003-06-01
Liquid 4He at pressures P0=0.5 30 bars and temperatures T0=1.5 4.2 K is discharged into vacuum through two different 2 μm nozzles. The velocities of the beam of particles obey the Bernoulli equation down to 15 m/sec. With decreasing T0 and increasing P0 the velocity and angular distributions become exceedingly narrow with Δv/v≲1% and Δϑ≲1 mrad. Optical observations indicate that the beam consists of micron-sized droplets (N≳109 atoms). This new droplet source provides opportunities for novel experimental studies of superfluid behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, Faustin Wirkus
This dissertation is an account of the first calorimetric detection of individual He*2 excimers within a bath of superfluid 4He. When superfluid helium is subject to ionizing radiation, diatomic He molecules are created in both the singlet and triplet states. The singlet He molecules decay within nanoseconds, but due to a forbidden spin-flip the triplet molecules have a relatively long lifetime of 13 seconds in superfluid He. When He* 2 molecules decay, they emit a ~15 eV photon. Nearly all matter is opaque to these vacuum-UV photons, although they do propagate through liquid helium. The triplet state excimers propagate ballistically through the superfluid until they quench upon a surface; this process deposits a large amount of energy into the surface. The prospect of detecting both excimer states is the motivation for building a detector immersed directly in the superfluid bath. The detector used in this work is a single superconducting titanium transition edge sensor (TES). The TES is mounted inside a hermetically sealed chamber at the baseplate of a dilution refrigerator. The chamber contains superfluid helium at 100 mK. Excimers are created during the relaxation of high-energy electrons, which are introduced into the superfluid bath either in situ via a sharp tungsten tip held above the field-emission voltage, or by using an external gamma-ray source to ionize He atoms. These excimers either propagate through the LHe bath and quench on a surface, or decay and emit vacuum-ultraviolet photons that can be collected by the detector. This dissertation discusses the design, construction, and calibration of the TES-based excimer detecting instrument. It also presents the first spectra resulting from the direct detection of individual singlet and triplet helium excimers.
Transport phenomena in correlated quantum liquids: Ultracold Fermi gases and F/N junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hua
Landau Fermi-liquid theory was first introduced by L. D. Landau in the effort of understanding the normal state of Fermi systems, where the application of the concept of elementary excitations to the Fermi systems has proved very fruitful in clarifying the physics of strongly correlated quantum systems at low temperatures. In this thesis, I use Landau Fermi-liquid theory to study the transport phenomena of two different correlated quantum liquids: the strongly interacting ultracold Fermi gases and the ferromagnet/normal-metal (F/N) junctions. The detailed work is presented in chapter II and chapter III of this thesis, respectively. Chapter I holds the introductory part and the background knowledge of this thesis. In chapter II, I study the transport properties of a Fermi gas with strong attractive interactions close to the unitary limit. In particular, I compute the transport lifetimes of the Fermi gas due to superfluid fluctuations above the BCS transition temperature Tc. To calculate the transport lifetimes I need the scattering amplitudes. The scattering amplitudes are dominated by the superfluid fluctuations at temperatures just above Tc. The normal scattering amplitudes are calculated from the Landau parameters. These Landau parameters are obtained from the local version of the induced interaction model for computing Landau parameters. I also calculate the leading order finite temperature corrections to the various transport lifetimes. A calculation of the spin diffusion coefficient is presented in comparison to the experimental findings. Upon choosing a proper value of F0a, I am able to present a good match between the theoretical result and the experimental measurement, which indicates the presence of the superfluid fluctuations near Tc. Calculations of the viscosity, the viscosity/entropy ratio and the thermal conductivity are also shown in support of the appearance of the superfluid fluctuations. In chapter III, I study the spin transport in the low
Enrico Fermi - And the Revolutions of Modern Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, Dan
1999-02-01
In 1938, at the age of 37, Enrico Fermi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. That same year he emigrated from Italy to the United States and, in the course of his experiments, discovered nuclear fission--a process which forms the basis of nuclear power and atomic bombs. Soon the brilliant physicist was involved in the top secret race to produce the deadliest weapon on Earth. He created the first self-sustaining chain reaction, devised new methods for purifying plutonium, and eventually participated in the first atomic test. This compelling biography traces Fermis education in Italy, his meteoric career in the scientific world, his escape from fascism to America, and the ingenious experiments he devised and conducted at the University of Rome, Columbia University, and the Los Alamos laboratory. The book also presents a mini-course in quantum and nuclear physics in an accessible, fast-paced narrative that invokes all the dizzying passion of Fermis brilliant discoveries.
Anisotropic superfluidity of {sup 4}He on a C{sub 36} fullerene molecule
Park, Sungjin; Kim, Byeongjoon; Kwon, Yongkyung
2015-09-14
We have performed path-integral Monte Carlo calculations to study the adsorption of {sup 4}He atoms on two different C{sub 36} isomers with the D{sub 6h} and the D{sub 2d} symmetries. The radial {sup 4}He density distributions reveal layer-by-layer growth with the first layer being located at a distance of ∼5.5 Å from the C{sub 36} molecular center and the second layer at ∼8.3 Å. From the angular density profiles of {sup 4}He, we find different quantum states as the number of {sup 4}He adatoms N varies. For N = 20, we observe commensurate solid structures on both D{sub 6h} and D{sub 2d} isomers, where each of 8 hexagon and 12 pentagon centers of the fullerene surfaces is occupied by a single {sup 4}He atom. The second-layer promotion starts beyond N = 38 on both isomers, where a compressible incommensurate structure is observed on the D{sub 6h} isomer and another commensurate structure on D{sub 2d}. Between N = 20 and N = 38, the {sup 4}He monolayer on D{sub 6h} shows several distinct rings of delocalized {sup 4}He atoms along with strongly anisotropic superfluid responses at low temperatures, while isotropic but weak superfluid responses are observed in the {sup 4}He layer on D{sub 2d}.
Anisotropic superfluidity of (4)He on a C36 fullerene molecule.
Park, Sungjin; Kim, Byeongjoon; Kwon, Yongkyung
2015-09-14
We have performed path-integral Monte Carlo calculations to study the adsorption of (4)He atoms on two different C36 isomers with the D6h and the D2d symmetries. The radial (4)He density distributions reveal layer-by-layer growth with the first layer being located at a distance of ∼5.5 Å from the C36 molecular center and the second layer at ∼8.3 Å. From the angular density profiles of (4)He, we find different quantum states as the number of (4)He adatoms N varies. For N = 20, we observe commensurate solid structures on both D6h and D2d isomers, where each of 8 hexagon and 12 pentagon centers of the fullerene surfaces is occupied by a single (4)He atom. The second-layer promotion starts beyond N = 38 on both isomers, where a compressible incommensurate structure is observed on the D6h isomer and another commensurate structure on D2d. Between N = 20 and N = 38, the (4)He monolayer on D6h shows several distinct rings of delocalized (4)He atoms along with strongly anisotropic superfluid responses at low temperatures, while isotropic but weak superfluid responses are observed in the (4)He layer on D2d. PMID:26374039
Dissipative processes in superfluid neutron stars
Mannarelli, Massimo; Colucci, Giuseppe; Manuel, Cristina
2011-05-23
We present some results about a novel damping mechanism of r-mode oscillations in neutron stars due to processes that change the number of protons, neutrons and electrons. Deviations from equilibrium of the number densities of the various species lead to the appearance in the Euler equations of the system of a dissipative mechanism, the so-called rocket effect. The evolution of the r-mode oscillations of a rotating neutron star are influenced by the rocket effect and we present estimates of the corresponding damping timescales. In the description of the system we employ a two-fluid model, with one fluid consisting of all the charged components locked together by the electromagnetic interaction, while the second fluid consists of superfluid neutrons. Both components can oscillate however the rocket effect can only efficiently damp the countermoving r-mode oscillations, with the two fluids oscillating out of phase. In our analysis we include the mutual friction dissipative process between the neutron superfluid and the charged component. We neglect the interaction between the two r-mode oscillations as well as effects related with the crust of the star. Moreover, we use a simplified model of neutron star assuming a uniform mass distribution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meegan, Charles A.
2008-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) with the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. Included are pictures of the observatory, with illustrations of the Large Area Telescope (LAT), and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) including information about both their capabilities. Graphs showing the GBM count rate over time after the GBM trigger for three GRBs, preliminary charts showing the multiple detector light curves the spectroscopy of the main LAT peak and the spectral evolution of GRB 080916C Burst Temporally-extended LAT emission.
Large quantum superpositions of a nanoparticle immersed in superfluid helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lychkovskiy, O.
2016-06-01
Preparing and detecting spatially extended quantum superpositions of a massive object comprises an important fundamental test of quantum theory. These quantum states are extremely fragile and tend to quickly decay into incoherent mixtures due to the environmental decoherence. Experimental setups considered up to date address this threat in a conceptually straightforward way—by eliminating the environment, i.e., by isolating an object in a sufficiently high vacuum. We show that another option exists: decoherence is suppressed in the presence of a strongly interacting environment if this environment is superfluid. Indeed, as long as an object immersed in a pure superfluid at zero temperature moves with a velocity below the critical one, it does not create, absorb, or scatter any excitations of the superfluid. Hence, in this idealized situation the decoherence is absent. In reality the decoherence will be present due to thermal excitations of the superfluid and impurities contaminating the superfluid. We examine various decoherence channels in the superfluid
Zero temperature holographic superfluids with two competing orders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ran, Li; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao; Zhao, Junkun
2016-08-01
We initiate the investigation of the zero temperature holographic superfluids with two competing orders, where besides the vacuum phase, two one component superfluid phases, the coexistent superfluid phase has also been found in the anti-de Sitter soliton background for the first time. We construct the complete phase diagram in the e - μ plane by numerics, which is consistent with our qualitative analysis. Furthermore, we calculate the corresponding optical conductivity and sound speed by the linear response theory. The onset of the pole of optical conductivity at ω =0 indicates that the spontaneous breaking phase always represents the superfluid phase, and the residue of the pole is increased with the chemical potential, which is consistent with the fact that the particle density is essentially the superfluid density for zero temperature superfluids. In addition, the resulting sound speed demonstrates the nonsmoothness at the critical points as the order parameter of the condensate, which indicates that the phase transitions can also be identified by the behavior of the sound speed. Moreover, as expected from the boundary conformal field theory, the sound speed saturates to 1/√{2 } at the large chemical potential limit for our two component holographic superfluid model.
Bragg spectroscopy of strongly interacting Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lingham, M. G.; Fenech, K.; Peppler, T.; Hoinka, S.; Dyke, P.; Hannaford, P.; Vale, C. J.
2016-10-01
This article provides an overview of recent developments and emerging topics in the study of two-component Fermi gases using Bragg spectroscopy. Bragg scattering is achieved by exposing a gas to two intersecting laser beams with a slight frequency difference and measuring the momentum transferred to the atoms. By varying the Bragg laser detuning, it is possible to measure either the density or spin response functions which characterize the basic excitations present in the gas. Specifically, one can measure properties such as the dynamic and static structure factors, Tan's universal contact parameter and observe signatures for the onset of pair condensation locally within a gas.
The role of causality in tunable Fermi gas condensates.
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Lin, Chi-Yong; Lee, Da-Shin; Rivers, Ray J
2013-10-01
We develop a new formalism for the description of the condensates of cold Fermi atoms whose speed of sound can be tuned with the aid of a narrow Feshbach resonance. We use this to look for spontaneous phonon creation that mimics spontaneous particle creation in curved space-time in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and other model universes. PMID:24025481
New physics of metals: fermi surfaces without Fermi liquids.
Anderson, P W
1995-01-01
I relate the historic successes, and present difficulties, of the renormalized quasiparticle theory of metals ("AGD" or Fermi liquid theory). I then describe the best-understood example of a non-Fermi liquid, the normal metallic state of the cuprate superconductors. PMID:11607559
Superfluidity of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of polaritons
Wouters, Michiel; Savona, Vincenzo
2010-02-01
We study theoretically superfluidity in a driven-dissipative Bose gas out of thermal equilibrium, and discuss the relation with conventional superfluids. We show how the superfluid behavior is characterized by a dramatic increase in the lifetime of a quantized vortex and point out the influence of the spatial geometry of the condensate. We apply our study to a condensate of polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity, whose properties can be directly inferred from optical spectroscopy. We propose three different experimental schemes to measure the vorticity of the polariton condensate.
Acquisition system testing with superfluid helium. [cryopumping for space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, John E.; Fester, Dale A.; Dipirro, Michael J.
1988-01-01
Minus one-g outflow tests were conducted with superfluid helium in conjunction with a thermomechanical pump setup in order to study the use of capillary acquisition systems for NASA's Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment. Results show that both fine mesh screen and porous sponge systems are capable of supplying superfluid helium to the thermomechanical pump inlet against a one-g head up to 4 cm, fulfilling the SHOOT requirements. Sponge results were found to be reproducible, while the screen results were not.
Normal and superfluid fractions of inhomogeneous nonequilibrium quantum fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladilin, Vladimir N.; Wouters, Michiel
2016-04-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the normal and superfluid fractions of quantum fluids described by a nonequilibrium extension of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of an external potential. Both disordered and regular potentials are considered. The normal and superfluid fractions are defined by the response of the nonequilibrium quantum fluid to a vector potential, in analogy with the equilibrium case. We find that the physical meaning of these definitions breaks down out of equilibrium. The normal and superfluid fractions no longer add up to one and for some types of external potentials they can even become negative.
Multiscaling in superfluid turbulence: A shell-model study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Vishwanath; Pandit, Rahul
2016-10-01
We examine the multiscaling behavior of the normal- and superfluid-velocity structure functions in three-dimensional superfluid turbulence by using a shell model for the three-dimensional (3D) Hall-Vinen-Bekharevich-Khalatnikov (HVBK) equations. Our 3D-HVBK shell model is based on the Gledzer-Okhitani-Yamada shell model. We examine the dependence of the multiscaling exponents on the normal-fluid fraction and the mutual-friction coefficients. Our extensive study of the 3D-HVBK shell model shows that the multiscaling behavior of the velocity structure functions in superfluid turbulence is more complicated than it is in fluid turbulence.
Supercritical superfluid and vortex unbinding following a quantum quench
Mathey, L.; Polkovnikov, A.
2009-10-15
We study the dynamics of the relative phase of a bilayer of two-dimensional superfluids after the two superfluids have been decoupled, using truncated Wigner approximation. On short time scales the relative phase shows 'light-cone'-like thermalization and creates a metastable superfluid state, which can be supercritical. On longer time scales this state relaxes to a disordered state due to dynamical vortex unbinding. This scenario of dynamically suppressed vortex proliferation constitutes a reverse-Kibble-Zurek effect. We observe dynamics of creation of vortex-antivortex pairs and their consequent motion. Our predictions can be directly measured in interference experiments [Z. Hadzibabic et al., Nature (London) 441, 1118 (2006)].
Behavior of turbine and Venturi flowmeters in superfluid helium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daney, D. E.
1988-01-01
An apparatus which forces liquid helium from a calibrated bellows through a flow meter is used to calibrate turbine and Venturi flow meters in both normal and superfluid helium. The bellows are driven by an ambient temperature stepping motor. Flow rates range up to 0.35 L/s, and helium temperatures range from 1.25-4.0 K. For the case of a 9.3-mm bore turbine meter, identical meter factors are found for normal and superfluid helium. For the Venturi meter, discharge coefficients between 0.98 and 1.0 are found with normal and superfluid helium.
Large-scale superfluid vortex rings at nonzero temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wacks, D. H.; Baggaley, A. W.; Barenghi, C. F.
2014-12-01
We numerically model experiments in which large-scale vortex rings—bundles of quantized vortex loops—are created in superfluid helium by a piston-cylinder arrangement. We show that the presence of a normal-fluid vortex ring together with the quantized vortices is essential to explain the coherence of these large-scale vortex structures at nonzero temperatures, as observed experimentally. Finally we argue that the interaction of superfluid and normal-fluid vortex bundles is relevant to recent investigations of superfluid turbulence.
Dai, Liang; Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian E-mail: Enrico.pajer@gmail.com
2015-11-01
Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC) are a useful frame for isolating the locally observable, physical effects of a long-wavelength spacetime perturbation. Their cosmological application, however, is hampered by the fact that they are only valid on scales much smaller than the horizon. We introduce a generalization that we call Conformal Fermi Coordinates (CFC). CFC preserve all the advantages of FNC, but in addition are valid outside the horizon. They allow us to calculate the coupling of long- and short-wavelength modes on all scales larger than the sound horizon of the cosmological fluid, starting from the epoch of inflation until today, by removing the complications of the second order Einstein equations to a large extent, and eliminating all gauge ambiguities. As an application, we present a calculation of the effect of long-wavelength tensor modes on small scale density fluctuations. We recover previous results, but clarify the physical content of the individual contributions in terms of locally measurable effects and ''projection'' terms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devreese, Jeroen P. A.; Tempere, Jacques
2014-01-01
In ultracold Fermi gases, the effect of spin imbalance on superfluidity has been the subject of intense study. One of the reasons for this is that spin imbalance frustrates the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid pairing mechanism, in which fermions in different spin states combine into Cooper pairs with zero momentum. In 1964, it was proposed that an exotic superfluid state called the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, in which the Cooper pairs have nonzero momentum, could exist in a spin-imbalanced Fermi gas. At the saddle-point (mean-field) level, it has been shown that the FFLO state only occupies a very small sliver in the ground-state phase diagram of a three-dimensional (3D) Fermi gas. However, a question that remains to be investigated is as follows: What is the influence of phase fluctuations on the FFLO state? In this work, we show that phase fluctuations only lead to relatively small quantitative corrections to the presence of the FFLO state in the saddle-point phase diagram of a 3D spin-imbalanced Fermi gas. Starting from the partition function of the system, we calculate the effective action within the path-integral adiabatic approximation. The action is then expanded up to second order in the fluctuation field around the saddle point, leading to the fluctuation free energy. Using this free energy, we calculate corrections due to phase fluctuations to the BCS-FFLO transition in the saddle-point phase diagram. At temperatures at which the FFLO state exists, we find only small corrections to the size of the FFLO area. Our results suggest that fluctuations of the phase of the FFLO order parameter, which can be interpreted as an oscillation of its momentum vector, do not cause an instability of the FFLO state with respect to the BCS state.
Modified Fermi sphere, pairing gap, and critical temperature for the BCS-BEC crossover
Floerchinger, S.; Wetterich, C.; Scherer, M. M.
2010-06-15
We investigate the phase diagram of two-component fermions in the BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensate) crossover. Using functional renormalization-group equations we calculate the effect of quantum fluctuations on the fermionic self-energy parametrized by a wave-function renormalization, an effective Fermi radius, and the gap. This allows us to follow the modifications of the Fermi surface and the dispersion relation for fermionic excitations throughout the whole crossover region. We also determine the critical temperature of the second-order phase transition to superfluidity. Our results are in agreement with BCS theory including Gorkov's correction for a small negative scattering length a and with an interacting Bose gas for a small positive a. At the unitarity point the result for the gap at zero temperature agrees well with quantum Monte Carlo simulations, while the critical temperature differs.
Harmonically trapped quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gases with synthetic spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, JingKun; Chen, JinGe; Chen, KeJi; Yi, Wei; Zhang, Wei
2016-09-01
We study the properties of spin-orbit coupled and harmonically trapped quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gas with tunable s-wave interaction between the two spin species. We adapt an effective two-channel model which takes the excited states occupation in the strongly confined axial direction into consideration by introducing dressed molecules in the closed channel, and use a Bogoliubovde Gennes (BdG) formalism to go beyond local density approximation. We find that both the in-trap phase structure and density distribution can be significantly modified near a wide Feshbach resonance compared with the single-channel model without the dressed molecules. Our findings will be helpful for the experimental search for the topological superfluid phase in ultracold Fermi gases.
Evaporative depolarization and spin transport in a unitary trapped Fermi gas
Parish, Meera M.; Huse, David A.
2009-12-15
We consider a partially spin-polarized atomic Fermi gas in a high-aspect-ratio trap, with a flux of predominantly spin-up atoms exiting the center of the trap. We argue that such a scenario can be produced by evaporative cooling, and we find that it can result in a substantially nonequilibrium polarization pattern for typical experimental parameters. We offer this as a possible explanation for the quantitative discrepancies in recent experiments on spin-imbalanced unitary Fermi gases.
Realization of a SU(2)xSU(6) System of Fermions in a Cold Atomic Gas
Taie, Shintaro; Takasu, Yosuke; Sugawa, Seiji; Tsujimoto, Takuya; Murakami, Ryo; Yamazaki, Rekishu; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2010-11-05
We report the realization of a novel degenerate Fermi mixture with an SU(2)xSU(6) symmetry in a cold atomic gas. We successfully cool the mixture of the two fermionic isotopes of ytterbium {sup 171}Yb with the nuclear spin I=1/2 and {sup 173}Yb with I=5/2 below the Fermi temperature T{sub F} as 0.46T{sub F} for {sup 171}Yb and 0.54T{sub F} for {sup 173}Yb. The same scattering lengths for different spin components make this mixture featured with the novel SU(2)xSU(6) symmetry. The nuclear spin components are separately imaged by exploiting an optical Stern-Gerlach effect. In addition, the mixture is loaded into a 3D optical lattice to implement the SU(2)xSU(6) Hubbard model. This mixture will open the door to the study of novel quantum phases such as a spinor Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-like fermionic superfluid.
Gubler, Philipp; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Nishida, Yusuke
2015-05-15
Making use of the operator product expansion, we derive a general class of sum rules for the imaginary part of the single-particle self-energy of the unitary Fermi gas. The sum rules are analyzed numerically with the help of the maximum entropy method, which allows us to extract the single-particle spectral density as a function of both energy and momentum. These spectral densities contain basic information on the properties of the unitary Fermi gas, such as the dispersion relation and the superfluid pairing gap, for which we obtain reasonable agreement with the available results based on quantum Monte-Carlo simulations.
Superfluid helium-4 interferometers: construction and experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Aditya Ajit
This dissertation has two main goals: to highlight some new results in the field of superfluid 4He interferometry and to provide an in-depth, "hands-on" guide to the physics, design, construction, testing and operation of a continuously operating, fluxlocked 4 He dc-SHeQUID (Superfluid Helium Quantum Interference Device). Many of these topics haven't really been addressed in writing and the hapless new experimenter seeking to develop a SHeQUID is generally forced to reinvent the wheel rather than start at the frontier and push it forward. We would like to prevent that by making this a comprehensive guide to building and operating SHeQUIDs. We have optimized the fabrication of the nanoscale aperture arrays that are the very heart of the SHeQUID and resolved long-standing issues with their durability and long-term usability. A detailed report on this should assist in avoiding the many pitfalls that await those who fabricate and use these aperture arrays. We have constructed a new, modular SHeQUID that is designed to be easily adaptable to a wide array of proposed experiments without the necessity of rebuilding and reassembling key components like the displacement transducer. We have automated its working as a continuously operating, linearized (flux-locked) interferometer by using the so-called "chemical potential battery" in conjunction with a feedback system. We have also constructed a new reorientation system that is several orders of magnitude quieter than its predecessors. Together, these developments have allowed us to measure a changing rotation field in real time, a new development for this kind of device. We have also developed a module that allows control of the reorientation stage by automated data-taking software for investigating long-term drifts (by safely sweeping the stage back and forth). We have also investigated the chemical potential battery in further detail and report some fascinating nonlinear mode locking phenomena that have important
Correlated Density Matrix Theory of Boson Superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ristig, M. L.; Senger, G.; Serhan, M.; Clark, J. W.
1995-11-01
A variational approach to unified microscopic description of normal and superfluid phases of a strongly interacting Bose system is proposed. We begin the formulation of an optimal theory within this approach through the diagrammatic analysis and synthesis of key distribution functions that characterize the spatial structure and the degree of coherence present in the two phases. The approach centers on functional minimization of the free energy corresponding to a suitable trial form for the many-body density matrix W(R, R‧) ∝ Φ(R) Q(R, R‧) Φ(R‧), with the wave function Φ and incoherence factor Q chosen to incorporate the essential dynamical and statistical correlations. In earlier work addressing the normal phase, Φ was taken as a Jastrow product of two-body dynamical correlation factors and Q was taken as a permanent of short-range two-body statistical bonds. A stratagem applied to the noninteracting Bose gas by Ziff, Uhlenbeck, and Kac is invoked to extend this ansatz to encompass both superfluid and normal phases, while introducing a variational parameter B that signals the presence of off-diagonal long-range order. The formal development proceeds from a generating functional Λ, defined by the logarithm of the normalization integral ∫ dR Φ2(R) Q(R, R). Construction of the Ursell-Mayer diagrammatic expansion of the generator Λ is followed by renormalization of the statistical bond and of the parameter B. For B ≡ 0, previous results for the normal phase are reproduced, whereas For B > 0, corresponding to the superfluid regime, a new class of anomalous contributions appears. Renormalized expansions for the pair distribution function g(r) and the cyclic distribution function Gcc(r) are extracted from Λ by functional differentiation. Standard diagrammatic techniques are adapted to obtain the appropriate hypernetted-chain equations for the evaluation of these spatial distribution functions. Corresponding results are presented for the internal energy
Non-thermal fixed point in a holographic superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ewerz, Carlo; Gasenzer, Thomas; Karl, Markus; Samberg, Andreas
2015-05-01
We study the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a (2 + 1)-dimensional super-fluid at finite temperature and chemical potential using its holographic description in terms of a gravitational system in 3 + 1 dimensions. Starting from various initial conditions corresponding to ensembles of vortex defects we numerically evolve the system to long times. At intermediate times the system exhibits Kolmogorov scaling the emergence of which depends on the choice of initial conditions. We further observe a universal late- time regime in which the occupation spectrum and different length scales of the superfluid exhibit scaling behaviour. We study these scaling laws in view of superfluid turbulence and interpret the universal late-time regime as a non-thermal fixed point of the dynamical evolution. In the holographic superfluid the non-thermal fixed point can be understood as a stationary point of the classical equations of motion of the dual gravitational description.
A theory of first order dissipative superfluid dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz; Yarom, Amos
2014-05-01
We determine the most general form of the equations of relativistic superfluid hydrodynamics consistent with Lorentz invariance, time-reversal invariance, the Onsager principle and the second law of thermodynamics at first order in the derivative expansion. Once parity is violated, either because the U(1) symmetry is anomalous or as a consequence of a different parity-breaking mechanism, our results deviate from the standard textbook analysis of superfluids. Our general equations require the specification of twenty parameters (such as the viscosity and conductivity). In the limit of small relative superfluid velocities we find a seven parameter set of equations. In the same limit, we have used the AdS/CFT correspondence to compute the parity odd contributions to the superfluid equations of motion for a generic holographic model and have verified that our results are consistent.
Phase order in superfluid helium films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bramwell, Steven T.; Faulkner, Michael F.; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.; Taroni, Andrea
2015-12-01
Classic experimental data on helium films are transformed to estimate a finite-size phase order parameter that measures the thermal degradation of the condensate fraction in the two-dimensional superfluid. The order parameter is found to evolve thermally with the exponent β = 3 π^2/128 , a characteristic, in analogous magnetic systems, of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition. Universal scaling near the BKT fixed point generates a collapse of experimental data on helium and ferromagnetic films, and implies new experiments and theoretical protocols to explore the phase order. These results give a striking example of experimental finite-size scaling in a critical system that is broadly relevant to two-dimensional Bose fluids. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Maxime Clusel, with whom we enjoyed many stimulating discussions on related topics.
On electrical phenomena in electroneutral superfluid systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shevchenko, S. I.; Rukin, A. S.
2010-02-01
Keldysh's theory of a rarefied superfluid electron-hole gas is extended to the case of possible pair polarization. It is established that the complex order parameter Φ(r1,r2), which is the wave function of a pair, satisfies a nonlinear, nonlocal, integrodifferential equation. The equation obtained is solved for the order parameter varying slowly over a distance of the order of the pair size. The dipole-moment density of the system is found from the known function Φ(r1,r2), and it is shown that the inhomogeneity of the system engenders a dipole moment proportional and oriented parallel to the gradient of the particle density. It is determined that an additional dipole moment associated with pair polarization due to the Lorentz force appears in a magnetic field.