Science.gov

Sample records for atomic physics experiments

  1. 3He: cosmological and atomic physics experiments.

    PubMed

    Bunkov, Yuriy M

    2008-08-28

    Because the superfluid 3He order parameter exhibits many similarities with that of our Universe, the superfluid condensate may be considered as a quantum vacuum that carries various types of quasiparticles and topological defects. The condensate thus provides a test system for the experimental investigation of many general physics problems in cosmology, atomic or nuclear physics that are otherwise difficult or even impossible to investigate experimentally.

  2. Experiments in atomic and applied physics using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    A diverse program in atomic and applied physics using x rays produced at the X-26 beam line at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source is in progress. The atomic physics program studies the properties of multiply-ionized atoms using the x rays for photo-excitation and ionization of neutral atoms and ion beams. The applied physics program builds on the techniques and results of the atomic physics work to develop new analytical techniques for elemental and chemical characterization of materials. The results are then used for a general experimental program in biomedical sciences, geo- and cosmochemistry, and materials sciences. The present status of the program is illustrated by describing selected experiments. Prospects for development of new experimental capabilities are discussed in terms of a heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics experiments and the feasibility of photoelectron microscopy for high spatial resolution analytical work. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Atomic physics experiments with stored cooled heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    The wide ranging interest in the development of heavy ion synchrotrons with electron beam cooling is evident from the number of projects presently under way. Although much of the initial motivation for these rings stemmed from nuclear and particle physics, a considerable amount of atomic physics experimentation is planned. This paper surveys some of the new opportunities in atomic physics which may be made available with storage ring systems. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S.

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  5. Extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard X-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    LeBrun, T.

    1996-12-31

    The high-brightness, hard x-ray beams available from third-generation synchrotron sources are opening new opportunities to study the deepest inner shells of atoms, an area where little work has been done and phenomena not observed in less tightly bound inner-shells are manifested. In addition scattering processes which are weak at lower energies become important, providing another tool to investigate atomic structure as well as an opportunity to study photon/atom interactions beyond photoabsorption. In this contribution the authors discuss some of the issues related to extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard x-ray region from the physical and the experimental point of view. They close with a discussion of a technique, resonant Raman scattering, that may prove invaluable in determining the spectra of the very highly-excited states resulting from the excitation of deep inner shells.

  6. An open source digital servo for atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments

    PubMed Central

    Leibrandt, D. R.; Heidecker, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a general purpose digital servo optimized for feedback control of lasers in atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments. The servo is capable of feedback bandwidths up to roughly 1 MHz (limited by the 320 ns total latency); loop filter shapes up to fifth order; multiple-input, multiple-output control; and automatic lock acquisition. The configuration of the servo is controlled via a graphical user interface, which also provides a rudimentary software oscilloscope and tools for measurement of system transfer functions. We illustrate the functionality of the digital servo by describing its use in two example scenarios: frequency control of the laser used to probe the narrow clock transition of 27Al+ in an optical atomic clock, and length control of a cavity used for resonant frequency doubling of a laser. PMID:26724014

  7. An open source digital servo for atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leibrandt, D. R. Heidecker, J.

    2015-12-15

    We describe a general purpose digital servo optimized for feedback control of lasers in atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments. The servo is capable of feedback bandwidths up to roughly 1 MHz (limited by the 320 ns total latency); loop filter shapes up to fifth order; multiple-input, multiple-output control; and automatic lock acquisition. The configuration of the servo is controlled via a graphical user interface, which also provides a rudimentary software oscilloscope and tools for measurement of system transfer functions. We illustrate the functionality of the digital servo by describing its use in two example scenarios: frequency control of the laser used to probe the narrow clock transition of {sup 27}Al{sup +} in an optical atomic clock, and length control of a cavity used for resonant frequency doubling of a laser.

  8. Optical and magnetic properties of a transparent garnet film for atomic physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Mari; Tajima, Ryoichi; Kiyosawa, Ryota; Nagata, Yugo; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the optical and magnetic properties of a transparent magnetic garnet with a particular focus on its applications to atomic physics experiments. The garnet film used in this study was a magnetically soft material that was originally designed for a Faraday rotator at optical communication wavelengths in the near infrared region. The film had a thickness of 2.1 μm and a small optical loss at a wavelength of λ =780 nm resonant with Rb atoms. The Faraday effect was also small and, thus, barely affected the polarization of light at λ =780 nm. In contrast, large Faraday rotation angles at shorter wavelengths enabled us to visualize magnetic domains, which were perpendicularly magnetized in alternate directions with a period of 3.6 μm. We confirmed the generation of an evanescent wave on the garnet film, which can be used for the optical observation and manipulation of atoms on the surface of the film. Finally, we demonstrated a magnetic mirror for laser-cooled Rb atoms using the garnet film.

  9. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  10. A distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control system for atomic physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshet, Aviv; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Atomic physics experiments often require a complex sequence of precisely timed computer controlled events. This paper describes a distributed graphical user interface-based control system designed with such experiments in mind, which makes use of off-the-shelf output hardware from National Instruments. The software makes use of a client-server separation between a user interface for sequence design and a set of output hardware servers. Output hardware servers are designed to use standard National Instruments output cards, but the client-server nature should allow this to be extended to other output hardware. Output sequences running on multiple servers and output cards can be synchronized using a shared clock. By using a field programmable gate array-generated variable frequency clock, redundant buffers can be dramatically shortened, and a time resolution of 100 ns achieved over effectively arbitrary sequence lengths.

  11. Advances in atomic physics

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbini, Tharwat M.

    2013-01-01

    In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University – Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s – when the author first engaged in research – an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics. PMID:26425356

  12. Experiments with Ξ- atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, C. J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with Ξ- atoms are proposed in order to study the nuclear interaction of Ξ hyperons. The production of Ξ- in the (K-,K+) reaction, the Ξ- stopping in matter, and its atomic cascade are incorporated within a realistic evaluation of the results expected for Ξ- x-ray spectra across the periodic table, using an assumed Ξ-nucleus optical potential Vopt. Several optimal targets for measuring the strong-interaction shift and width of the x-ray transition to the ``last'' atomic level observed are singled out: F, Cl, I, and Pb. The sensitivity of these observables to the parameters of Vopt is considered. The relevance of such experiments is discussed in the context of strangeness -2 nuclear physics and multistrange nuclear matter. Finally, with particular reference to searches for the H dibaryon, the properties of Ξ-d atoms are also discussed. The role of Stark mixing and its effect on S and P state capture of Ξ- by the deuteron together with estimates of the resulting probability for producing the H dibaryon are considered in detail.

  13. Making custom fiber lasers for use in an atomic physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Cameron, Garnet; Nault, Kyla; Shiner, David

    2016-05-01

    Fiber lasers can be a reasonable choice for a laser source in atomic physics. Our particular applications involve the optical pumping and in some applications cooling of various transitions in atomic helium. Doped fiber with emission at the required wavelengths is necessary. Readily available fiber and approximate wavelength emission ranges include Yb (990 - 1150 nm), Er/Yb (1530 - 1625 nm) and Th (1900 -2100 nm). High efficiency conversion of pump photons into stable single frequency laser emission at the required wavelength is the function of the fiber laser. A simple fiber laser cavity uses a short (~ few mm) fiber grating high reflector mirror, a doped fiber section for the laser cavity, and a long (~ few cm) fiber grating output coupler. To ensure reliable single frequency operation, the laser cavity length should be within 2-3 times the output grating length. However the cavity length must be long enough for round trip gains to compensate for the output mirror transmission loss. Efficiency can be maximized by avoiding fiber splices in the fiber laser cavity. This requires that the gratings be written into the doped fiber directly. In our previous designs, back coupling of the fiber laser into the pump laser contributes to instability and sometimes caused catastrophic pump failure. Current designs use a fiber based wavelength splitter (WDM) to study and circumvent this problem. Data will be presented on the fiber lasers at 1083 nm. Work on a Thulium 2057 nm fiber laser will also be discussed. This work is supported by NSF Grant # 1404498.

  14. Atomic physics modeling of transmission spectra of Sc-doped aerogel foams to support OMEGA experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, H. M.; Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. L.; Fontes, C. J.; Perry, T. S.; Fryer, C. L.; Brown, C. R. D.; Morton, J. W.; Hager, J. D.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    We present synthetic transmission spectra generated with PrismSPECT utilizing both the ATBASE model and the Los Alamos opacity library (OPLIB) to evaluate whether an alternative choice in atomic data will impact modeling of experimental data from radiation transport experiments using Sc-doped aerogel foams (ScSi6O12 at 75 mg/cm3 density). We have determined that in the 50-200 eV Te range there is a significant difference in the 1s-3p spectra, especially below 100 eV, and for Te = 200 eV above 5000 eV in photon energy. Examining synthetic spectra generated using OPLIB with 300 resolving power reveals spectral sensitivity to Te changes of ˜3 eV.

  15. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  16. First atomic physics experiments with cooled stored ion beams at the Heidelberg heavy-ion ring TSR

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Balykin, V.; Baumann, W.; Berger, J.; Bisoffi, G.; Blatt, P.; Blum, M.; Faulstich, A.; Friedrich, A.; Gerhard, M.; Geyer, C.; Grieser, M.; Grieser, R.; Habs, D.; Heyng, H.W.; Hochadel, B.; Holzer, B.; Huber, G.; Jaeschke, E.; Jung, M.; Karafillidis, A.; Kilgus, G.; Klein, R.; Kraemer, D.; Krause, P.; Krieg, M.; Kuehl, T.; Matl, K.; Mueller, A.; Music, M.; Neumann, R.; Neureither, G.; Ott, W.; Petrich, W.; Povh, B.; Repnow, R.; Schroeder, S.; Schuch, R.; Schwalm, D.; Sigray, P.; Steck, M.; Stokstad, R.; Szmola, E.; Wagner, M.; Wanner, B.; Welti, K.; Zwickler, S. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg Manne Siegbahn Institute , Stockholm Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Giessen, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung , Darmstadt (Fed

    1990-06-01

    An overview of atomic physics experiments at the heavy ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) is given. Highly charged ions up to fully stripped silicon have been stored at energies between 4 and 12 MeV/u. The enhancement of the beam intensity by stacking, the beam lifetime, and electron cooling of these ion beams are discussed. Radiative and state-selective dielectronic recombination rates of hydrogen-like oxygen ions with free electrons from the electron cooler were measured. Beam noise spectra are being investigated with regard to collective effects caused by the Coulomb interaction in the cold ion beams. Resonance fluorescence from stored single-charged ions was observed using tunable narrow-band lasers. First indications of laser cooling in a storage ring were seen.

  17. Contemporary Aspects of Atomic Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, R. G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The approach generally used in writing undergraduate textbooks on Atomic and Nuclear Physics presents this branch as historical in nature. Describes the concepts of astrophysics, plasma physics and spectroscopy as contemporary and intriguing for modern scientists. (PS)

  18. The Atomic and Nuclear Physics of Atomic EDMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Atomic Electric-Dipole-Moment (EDM) measurements employ low-energy atomic and precision-measurement techniques to measure the effects of elementary particle forces that affect the distribution of charge and mass in the nucleus, which is probed by the atomic electrons. Experiments and their interpretation strongly overlap atomic and nuclear physics in the experimental and theoretical problems presented. On the experimental side, the atomic EDM couples to electric fields while the magnetic dipole moment couples to magnetic fields requiring exquisite control and characerization of the magnetic fields. Measuring the tiny frequency shifts requires clock-comparisons and a large signal-to-noise ratio for frequency resolution much smaller than the linewidths, which are lmitied by observation times. To address the experimental challenges, I will discuss systematic effects related to magnetic fields and techniques of magnetometry and co-magntometery as well as optical pumping and related techniques that enhance signal-to-noise. I will also address the interpretation of atomic EDMs in terms of a set of low-energy parameters that relate to effective-field-theory coefficients, and I will empshaize the need for improved calculations from both atomic-theory and nuclear theory.

  19. A new data acquisition system for Schottky signals in atomic physics experiments at GSI's and FAIR's storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trageser, C.; Brandau, C.; Kozhuharov, C.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Müller, A.; Nolden, F.; Sanjari, S.; Stöhlker, T.

    2015-11-01

    A new continuous and broadband data acquisition system for measurements of Schottky-signals of ions revolving in a storage ring has been implemented. This set-up is capable of recording the radio frequency (RF) signal of the ions that circulate in the storage ring with a sustained acquisition rate of more than 3.5× {10}7 IQ-samples per second. This allows several harmonics of the full momentum acceptance of a storage ring to be measured at the same time. The RF signal analyzer modules are complemented by further electronic modules such as counters, precision clocks and synchronization modules that facilitate a seamless integration with main experimental data acquisitions for atomic and nuclear physics. In this contribution, the setup and first results from a test run at the experimental storage ring at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, are presented.

  20. Many-body physics using cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Bhuvanesh

    Advances in experiments on dilute ultracold atomic gases have given us access to highly tunable quantum systems. In particular, there have been substantial improvements in achieving different kinds of interaction between atoms. As a result, utracold atomic gases oer an ideal platform to simulate many-body phenomena in condensed matter physics, and engineer other novel phenomena that are a result of the exotic interactions produced between atoms. In this dissertation, I present a series of studies that explore the physics of dilute ultracold atomic gases in different settings. In each setting, I explore a different form of the inter-particle interaction. Motivated by experiments which induce artificial spin-orbit coupling for cold fermions, I explore this system in my first project. In this project, I propose a method to perform universal quantum computation using the excitations of interacting spin-orbit coupled fermions, in which effective p-wave interactions lead to the formation of a topological superfluid. Motivated by experiments which explore the physics of exotic interactions between atoms trapped inside optical cavities, I explore this system in a second project. I calculate the phase diagram of lattice bosons trapped in an optical cavity, where the cavity modes mediates effective global range checkerboard interactions between the atoms. I compare this phase diagram with one that was recently measured experimentally. In two other projects, I explore quantum simulation of condensed matter phenomena due to spin-dependent interactions between particles. I propose a method to produce tunable spin-dependent interactions between atoms, using an optical Feshbach resonance. In one project, I use these spin-dependent interactions in an ultracold Bose-Fermi system, and propose a method to produce the Kondo model. I propose an experiment to directly observe the Kondo effect in this system. In another project, I propose using lattice bosons with a large hyperfine spin

  1. Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits.

    PubMed

    You, J Q; Nori, Franco

    2011-06-29

    Superconducting circuits based on Josephson junctions exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence and can behave like artificial atoms. Recent technological advances have made it possible to implement atomic-physics and quantum-optics experiments on a chip using these artificial atoms. This Review presents a brief overview of the progress achieved so far in this rapidly advancing field. We not only discuss phenomena analogous to those in atomic physics and quantum optics with natural atoms, but also highlight those not occurring in natural atoms. In addition, we summarize several prospective directions in this emerging interdisciplinary field.

  2. Transition state in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Charles; Farrelly, David; Uzer, T.

    1999-11-01

    The transition state is fundamental to modern theories of reaction dynamics: essentially, the transition state is a structure in phase space that all reactive trajectories must cross. While transition-state theory (TST) has been used mainly in chemical physics, it is possible to apply the theory to considerable advantage in any collision problem that involves some form of reaction. Of special interest are systems in which chaotic scattering or half-scattering occurs such as the ionization of Rydberg atoms in external fields. In this paper the ionization dynamics of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields are shown to possess a transition state: We compute the periodic orbit dividing surface (PODS) which is found not to be a dividing surface when projected into configuration space. Although the possibility of a PODS occurring in phase space rather than configuration space has been recognized before, to our knowledge this is the first actual example: its origin is traced directly to the presence of velocity-dependent terms in the Hamiltonian. Our findings establish TST as the method of choice for understanding ionization of Rydberg atoms in the presence of velocity-dependent forces. To demonstrate this TST is used to (i) uncover a multiple-scattering mechanism for ionization and (ii) compute ionization rates. In the process we also develop a method of computing surfaces of section that uses periodic orbits to define the surface, and examine the fractal nature of the dynamics.

  3. Physical Limits on Atomic Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dyck, D.; van Aert, S.; den Dekker, A. J.

    2004-02-01

    It is shown that the ultimate resolution is not limited by the bandwidth of the microscope but by the bandwidth (i.e., the scattering power) of the object. In the case of a crystal oriented along a zone axis, the scattering is enhanced by the channeling of the electrons. However, if the object is aperiodic along the beam direction, the bandwidth is much more reduced. A particular challenge are the amorphous objects. For amorphous materials, the natural bandwidth is that of the single atom and of the order of 1 [Angstrom capital A, ring][minus sign]1, which can be reached with the present generation of medium voltage microscopes without aberration correctors. A clear distinction is made between resolving a structure and refining, that is, between resolution and precision. In the case of an amorphous structure, the natural bandwidth also puts a limit on the number of atom coordinates that can be refined quantitatively. As a consequence, amorphous structures cannot be determined from one projection, but only by using atomic resolution tomography. Finally a theory of experiment design is presented that can be used to predict the optimal experimental setting or the best instrumental improvement. Using this approach it is suggested that the study of amorphous objects should be done at low accelerating voltage with correction of both spherical and chromatic aberration.

  4. Bringing Atoms into First-Year Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabay, Ruth W.; Sherwood, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that thermal physics should not be treated as a separate topic in introductory physics. Provides an example of a course that emphasizes physical modeling of the phenomenon in terms of the atomic nature of matter. (Author/CCM)

  5. Some Experiments in Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kent R.

    1974-01-01

    The role of spectral color slides in laboratory situations is discussed, then experiments for secondary school students concerning color and wave length, evidence of quantization, and the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom are outlined. Teaching guidelines for creating a set of spectrograms and photographic specifications are provided. (DT)

  6. Relativistic atomic physics at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses the following proposed work for relativistic atomic physics at the Superconducting Super Collider: Beam diagnostics; atomic physics research; staffing; education; budget information; statement concerning matching funds; description and justification of major items of equipment; statement of current and pending support; and assurance of compliance.

  7. Advances in atomic physics: Four decades of contribution of the Cairo University - Atomic Physics Group.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Tharwat M

    2015-09-01

    In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University - Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s - when the author first engaged in research - an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics.

  8. Benchmarking Attosecond Physics with Atomic Hydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-25

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12 Mar 12 – 11 Mar 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The research team obtained uniquely reliable reference data on atomic interactions with intense few-cycle laser pulses...AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4025 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  9. Many-Body Atomic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, J. J.; Pindzola, M. S.

    1998-09-01

    Preface; Contributors; Introduction; Part I. Atomic Structure: 1. Development of atomic many-body theory Ingvar Lindgren; 2. Relativistic MBPT for highly charged ions W. R. Johnson; 3. Parity nonconservation in atoms S. A. Blundell, W. R. Johnson, and J. Sapirstein; Part II. Photoionization of Atoms: 4. Single photoionization processes J. J. Boyle, and M. D. Kutzner; 5. Photoionization dominated by double excitation T. N. Chang; 6. Direct double photoionization in atoms Z. W. Liu; 7. Photoelectron angular distributions Steven T. Manson; Part III. A. Atomic Scattering - General Considerations: 8. The many-body approach to electron-atom collisions M. Ya Amusia; 9. Theoretical aspects of electron impact ionization P. L. Altick; Part III. B. Atomic Scattering - Low-Order Applications: 10. Perturbation series methods D. H. Madison; 11. Target dependence of the triply differential cross section Cheng Pan and Anthony F. Starace; 12. Overview of Thomas processes for fast mass transfer J. H. McGuire, Jack C. Straton and T. Ishihara; Part III. C. Atomic Scattering - All-Order Applications: 13. R-matrix Theory: Some Recent Applications Philip G. Burke: 14. Electron scattering: application of Dirac R-matrix theory Wasantha Wijesundera, Ian Grant and Patrick Norrington; 15. Close coupling and distorted-wave theory D. C. Griffin and M. S. Pindzola; Appendix: Units and notation; References; Index.

  10. Many-Body Atomic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, J. J.; Pindzola, M. S.

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Contributors; Introduction; Part I. Atomic Structure: 1. Development of atomic many-body theory Ingvar Lindgren; 2. Relativistic MBPT for highly charged ions W. R. Johnson; 3. Parity nonconservation in atoms S. A. Blundell, W. R. Johnson, and J. Sapirstein; Part II. Photoionization of Atoms: 4. Single photoionization processes J. J. Boyle, and M. D. Kutzner; 5. Photoionization dominated by double excitation T. N. Chang; 6. Direct double photoionization in atoms Z. W. Liu; 7. Photoelectron angular distributions Steven T. Manson; Part III. A. Atomic Scattering - General Considerations: 8. The many-body approach to electron-atom collisions M. Ya Amusia; 9. Theoretical aspects of electron impact ionization P. L. Altick; Part III. B. Atomic Scattering - Low-Order Applications: 10. Perturbation series methods D. H. Madison; 11. Target dependence of the triply differential cross section Cheng Pan and Anthony F. Starace; 12. Overview of Thomas processes for fast mass transfer J. H. McGuire, Jack C. Straton and T. Ishihara; Part III. C. Atomic Scattering - All-Order Applications: 13. R-matrix Theory: Some Recent Applications Philip G. Burke: 14. Electron scattering: application of Dirac R-matrix theory Wasantha Wijesundera, Ian Grant and Patrick Norrington; 15. Close coupling and distorted-wave theory D. C. Griffin and M. S. Pindzola; Appendix: Units and notation; References; Index.

  11. Project Physics Tests 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 5 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 23 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of atomic model are examined on aspects of relativistic corrections, electron emission, photoelectric effects, Compton effect, quantum theories, electrolysis experiments, atomic number and mass,…

  12. Atomic physics with vapor-cell clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuyer, Bart Hunter

    The most widely used atomic frequency standards (or clocks) are based on the microwave resonant frequencies of optically pumped vapors of alkali-metal atoms in glass cells filled with buffer gas. These vapor-cell clocks are secondary, not primary frequency standards mainly because of the light and pressure shifts, which alter the resonant frequencies of the alkali-metal atoms. This dissertation presents studies of atomic physics important to vapor-cell clocks and, in particular, their accuracy. First, we report a simple method to suppress the light shift in optical pumping systems. This method uses only frequency modulation of a radio frequency or microwave source, which excites an atomic resonance, to simultaneously lock the source frequency to the atomic resonance and lock the pumping light frequency to suppress the light shift. This technique can be applied to many optical pumping systems that experience light shifts. It is especially useful for atomic clocks because it improves the long-term performance, reduces the influence of a pumping laser, and requires less equipment than previous methods. Next, we present three studies of the pressure shift, starting with an estimation of the hyperfine-shift potential that is responsible for most of the pressure shift. We then show that the microwave resonant frequencies of ground-state Rb and Cs atoms in Xe buffer gas have a relatively large nonlinear dependence on the Xe pressure, presumably because of short-lived RbXe and CsXe van der Waals molecules. The Xe data show striking discrepancies with the previous theory for nonlinear shifts, most of which is eliminated by accounting for the spin-rotation interaction in addition to the hyperfine-shift interaction in the molecules. To the limit of our experimental accuracy, the shifts of Rb and Cs in He, Ne, and N2 were linear with pressure. We then consider the prospects for suppressing the pressure shift with buffer-gas mixtures and feedback. Finally, we report an

  13. Classical approach in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solov'ev, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincaré section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormgroup symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well.

  14. Atomic physics of relativistic high contrast laser-produced plasmas in experiments on Leopard laser facility at UNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Faenov, A. Y.; Safronova, U. I.; Wiewior, P.; Renard-Le Galloudec, N.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Wilcox, P.; Shrestha, I.; Ouart, N. D.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Osborne, G. C.; Chalyy, O.; Paudel, Y.

    2012-06-01

    The results of the recent experiments focused on study of x-ray radiation from multicharged plasmas irradiated by relativistic (I > 1019 W/cm2) sub-ps laser pulses on Leopard laser facility at NTF/UNR are presented. These shots were done under different experimental conditions related to laser pulse and contrast. In particular, the duration of the laser pulse was 350 fs or 0.8 ns and the contrast was varied from high (10-7) to moderate (10-5). The thin laser targets (from 4 to 750 μm) made of a broad range of materials (from Teflon to iron and molybden to tungsten and gold) were utilized. Using the x-ray diagnostics including the high-precision spectrometer with resolution R ˜ 3000 and a survey spectrometer, we have observed unique spectral features that are illustrated in this paper. Specifically, the observed L-shell spectra for Fe targets subject to high intensity lasers (˜1019 W/cm2) indicate electron beams, while at lower intensities (˜1016 W/cm2) or for Cu targets there is much less evidence for an electron beam. In addition, K-shell Mg features with dielectronic satellites from high-Rydberg states, and the new K-shell F features with dielectronic satellites including exotic transitions from hollow ions are highlighted.

  15. Atomic physics at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Cowan, P.L.; Gemmell, D.S.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne`s 7-GeV synchrotron light source (APS) is expected to commence operations for research early in FY 1996. The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Research Center (BESSRC) is likewise expected to start its research programs at that time. As members of the BESSRC CAT (Collaborative Access Team), we are preparing, together with atomic physicists from the University of Western Michigan, the University of Tennessee, and University of Notre Dame, to initiate a series of atomic physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of the APS, especially its high brilliance for photon energies extending from about 3 keV to more than 50 keV. Most of our early work will be conducted on an undulator beam line and we are thus concentrating on various aspects of that beam line and its associated experimental areas. Our group has undertaken responsibilities in such areas as hutch design, evaluation of undulator performance, user policy, interfacing and instrumentation, etc. Initial experiments will probably utilize existing apparatus. We are, however, planning to move rapidly to more sophisticated measurements involving, for example, ion-beam targets, simultaneous laser excitation, and the spectroscopy of emitted photons.

  16. Atomic and Molecular Physics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-05

    DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: Understanding interactions between atoms, molecules, ions, and radiation. SUB-AREAS IN PORTFOLIO: • Cold Quantum ...Gases − Strongly-interacting quantum gases − Ultracold molecules − New phases of matter − Non-equilibrium quantum dynamics • Quantum Information...Science (QIS) − Quantum simulation − Quantum communication − Quantum metrology, sensing, and imaging − Cavity optomechanics 3 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

  17. Future flavour physics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current status of flavour physics and the prospects for present and future experiments will be reviewed. Measurements in B‐physics, in which sensitive probes of new physics are the CKM angle γ, the Bs mixing phase ϕs, and the branching ratios of the rare decays B(s)0→μ+μ− , will be highlighted. Topics in charm and kaon physics, in which the measurements of ACP and the branching ratios of the rare decays K→πνν¯ are key measurements, will be discussed. Finally the complementarity of the future heavy flavour experiments, the LHCb upgrade and Belle‐II, will be summarised. PMID:26877543

  18. The atomic hypothesis: physical consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Martín

    2008-08-01

    The hypothesis that matter is made of some ultimate and indivisible objects, together with the restricted relativity principle, establishes a constraint on the kind of variables we are allowed to use for the variational description of elementary particles. We consider that the atomic hypothesis not only states the indivisibility of elementary particles, but also that these ultimate objects, if not annihilated, cannot be modified by any interaction so that all allowed states of an elementary particle are only kinematical modifications of any one of them. Therefore, an elementary particle cannot have excited states. In this way, the kinematical group of spacetime symmetries not only defines the symmetries of the system, but also the variables in terms of which the mathematical description of the elementary particles can be expressed in either the classical or the quantum mechanical description. When considering the interaction of two Dirac particles, the atomic hypothesis restricts the interaction Lagrangian to a kind of minimal coupling interaction.

  19. Experiments in Ice Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

  20. Atomic Physics, Science (Experimental): 5318.42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Ralph E.

    Presented is the study of modern and classical concepts of the atom; the structure of the atom as a mass-energy relationship; practical uses of radioactivity; isotopes; and the strange particles. Performance objectives (16) are included as well as a detailed course outline. Experiments, demonstrations, projects and reports to enhance student…

  1. Atomic and molecular physics at LURE

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, P. |

    1994-08-01

    A short overview of the present research activity at LURE is given, in the field of atomic and molecular physics. Three selected examples are discussed in more detail and the {open_quotes}SOLEIL{close_quotes} project of a new French synchrotron facility is presented.

  2. Crucial Experiments in Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, George L.

    The six experiments included in this monography are titled Blackbody Radiation, Collision of Electrons with Atoms, The Photoelectric Effect, Magnetic Properties of Atoms, The Scattering of X-Rays, and Diffraction of Electrons by a Crystal Lattice. The discussion provides historical background by giving description of the original experiments and…

  3. Essay: Fifty years of atomic, molecular and optical physics in Physical Review Letters.

    PubMed

    Haroche, Serge

    2008-10-17

    The fiftieth anniversary of Physical Review Letters is a good opportunity to review the extraordinary progress of atomic, molecular, and optical physics reported in this journal during the past half-century. As both a witness and an actor of this story, I recall personal experiences and reflect about the past, present, and possible future of my field of research.

  4. Atomic physics processes in radial transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.

    1983-02-01

    These lectures were intended as preparation for detailed discussions of the role of atomic and molecular physics in confinement research at the 1982 NATO Advanced Study Institute. They begin with a description of the major approaches to magnetic confinement: tandem (ambipolar) mirrors with their associated auxiliary barriers, tokamaks, and stellarators. The leading alternatives, the ELMO Bumpy Torus and the reversed field pinch, are also treated. The evolution equations for particle, energy, and (where relevant) field diffusion are presented and discussed. This is the context for atomic and molecular processes relevant to confinement.

  5. Cold Atoms, Statistical Physics and Quantum Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-22

    to be the development of robust theoretical techniques for the simulations of ultra-cold Bose gases and other quantum phenomena, such theoretical...finite-temperature effects in atom-chip interferometry of Bose -Einstein condensates, R. G. Scott, et al., Physical Review A, 063624 (2009). A copy of...March 2009. Mr Hodder was supported through a University of Otago Scholarship. He initially developed a simple single-site Hubbard model, which can be

  6. Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

  7. High School Physics Teaching Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-04-01

    We divided our high school physics teaching experience into three groups: first year teaching physics, second or third year teaching physics, and four or more years of experience teaching physics. We did this because everything is new for teachers teaching a course for the first time. The second and third time through the course, teachers learn from past experiences and hone their approaches. By the time a teacher is in the fourth year of teaching a course, he or she is more comfortable with the material and better able to understand the ways in which different approaches work with different topics.

  8. Astronomy-inspired Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, A. R. P.

    2002-02-01

    Aimed at senior undergraduate and first-year graduate students in departments of physics and astronomy, this textbook gives a systematic treatment of atomic and molecular structure and spectra, together with the effect of weak and strong external electromagnetic fields. Topics chosen are those of interest in astronomy and indeed many were inspired by specific astronomical contexts. Examples include the negative ion of hydrogen and the effects of strong magnetic fields such as those occurring on certain white dwarfs and neutron stars. Adiabatic and non-adiabatic handling of electron correlations and application to processes such as dielectronic recombination are included. Astronomical examples are provided throughout as well as end-of-the chapter problems and exercises. Over seventy illustrative diagrams complete this unique and comprehensive volume. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0467-2

  9. Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yalin

    interesting physical process is buried between the two contact interfaces, thus makes a direct measurement more difficult. Atomistic simulation is able to simulate the process with the dynamic information of each single atom, and therefore provides valuable interpretations for experiments. In this, we will systematically to apply Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation to optimally model the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurement of atomic friction. Furthermore, we also employed molecular dynamics simulation to correlate the atomic dynamics with the friction behavior observed in experiments. For instance, ParRep dynamics (an accelerated molecular dynamic technique) is introduced to investigate velocity dependence of atomic friction; we also employ MD simulation to "see" how the reconstruction of gold surface modulates the friction, and the friction enhancement mechanism at a graphite step edge. Atomic stick-slip friction can be treated as a rate process. Instead of running a direction simulation of the process, we can apply transition state theory to predict its property. We will have a rigorous derivation of velocity and temperature dependence of friction based on the Prandtl-Tomlinson model as well as transition theory. A more accurate relation to prediction velocity and temperature dependence is obtained. Furthermore, we have included instrumental noise inherent in AFM measurement to interpret two discoveries in experiments, suppression of friction at low temperature and the attempt frequency discrepancy between AFM measurement and theoretical prediction. We also discuss the possibility to treat wear as a rate process.

  10. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R.; Imanaliev, A.; Aspect, A.; Cheneau, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  11. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R; Imanaliev, A; Aspect, A; Cheneau, M; Boiron, D; Westbrook, C I

    2015-04-02

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  12. Atomic frequency standard relativistic Doppler shift experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.; Reinhardt, V. S.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment has been performed to measure possible space anisotropy as it would effect the frequency of a cesium atomic beam standard clock in a laboratory on earth due to motion relative to external coordinate frames. The cesium frequency was measured as a function of orientation with respect to an atomic hydrogen maser standard. Over a period of 34 days 101 measurements were made. The results are consistent with a conclusion that no general orientation dependance attributable to spacial anisotropy was observed. It is shown that both the airplane clock results, and the null results for the atomic beam clock, are consistent with Einstein general or special relativity, or with the Lorentz transformations alone.

  13. Planning a School Physics Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasiak, Wladyslaw

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)

  14. Atomic physics and non-equilibrium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheit, J.C.

    1986-04-25

    Three lectures comprise the report. The lecture, Atomic Structure, is primarily theoretical and covers four topics: (1) Non-relativistic one-electron atom, (2) Relativistic one-electron atom, (3) Non-relativistic many-electron atom, and (4) Relativistic many-electron atom. The lecture, Radiative and Collisional Transitions, considers the problem of transitions between atomic states caused by interactions with radiation or other particles. The lecture, Ionization Balance: Spectral Line Shapes, discusses collisional and radiative transitions when ionization and recombination processes are included. 24 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  16. Rb atomic magnetometer toward EDM experiment with laser cooled francium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takahiro; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kato, Ko; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Aiko; Asahi, Koichiro; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or an atom is a suited observable to test the physics beyond the standard model. We plan to search for the electron EDM by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom, since the Fr atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and the laser cooling techniques can suppress both statistical and systematic errors. In the EDM experiment, a fluctuation of the magnetic field is a main source of the errors. In order to achieve the high precision magnetometry, a magnetometer based on the nonlinear magneto-optical rotation effect of the Rb atom is under development. A long coherence time of Rb atom is the key issue for the highly sensitive detection of the field fluctuations. The coherence time is limited due both to collisions with an inner surface of a cell contained the Rb atom and to residual field in a magnetic shield. We prepared the cell coated with an anti-relaxation material and measured the relaxation time. A degauss of the shield was performed to eliminate the residual field. We will report the present status of the magnetometer. A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or an atom is a suited observable to test the physics beyond the standard model. We plan to search for the electron EDM by using the laser cooled francium (Fr) atom, since the Fr atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and the laser cooling techniques can suppress both statistical and systematic errors. In the EDM experiment, a fluctuation of the magnetic field is a main source of the errors. In order to achieve the high precision magnetometry, a magnetometer based on the nonlinear magneto-optical rotation effect of the Rb atom is under development. A long coherence time of Rb atom is the key issue for the highly sensitive detection of the field fluctuations. The coherence time is limited due both to collisions with an inner surface of a cell contained the Rb atom and to residual field in a magnetic shield

  17. Optical physics: Ultrashort light pulses shake atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Taec

    2016-02-01

    The response of electrons in atoms to ultrashort optical light pulses has been probed by measuring the ultraviolet light emitted by the atoms. This reveals that a finite time delay occurs before the response. See Letter p.66

  18. More Homespun Experiments in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how some experiments in physics can be presented in class using cheap materials. How to produce an electrostatic charge using a polythene bottle and how to make a tissue paper electroscope using a tin can are among the experiments described. (HM)

  19. Research in atomic and applied physics using a 6-GeV synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1985-12-01

    The Division of Atomic and Applied Physics in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts a broad program of research using ion beams and synchrotron radiation for experiments in atomic physics and nuclear analytical techniques and applications. Many of the experiments would benefit greatly from the use of high energy, high intensity photon beams from a 6-GeV synchrotron source. A survey of some of the specific scientific possibilities is presented.

  20. Quantum dynamics in ultracold atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiong-Yi; Reid, Margaret D.; Opanchuk, Bogdan; Polkinghorne, Rodney; Rosales-Zárate, Laura E. C.; Drummond, Peter D.

    2012-02-01

    We review recent developments in the theory of quantum dynamics in ultracold atomic physics, including exact techniques and methods based on phase-space mappings that are applicable when the complexity becomes exponentially large. Phase-space representations include the truncated Wigner, positive- P and general Gaussian operator representations which can treat both bosons and fermions. These phase-space methods include both traditional approaches using a phase-space of classical dimension, and more recent methods that use a non-classical phase-space of increased dimensionality. Examples used include quantum Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement of a four-mode BEC, time-reversal tests of dephasing in single-mode traps, BEC quantum collisions with up to 106 modes and 105 interacting particles, quantum interferometry in a multi-mode trap with nonlinear absorption, and the theory of quantum entropy in phase-space. We also treat the approach of variational optimization of the sampling error, giving an elementary example of a nonlinear oscillator.

  1. Project Physics Text 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Basic atomic theories are presented in this fifth unit of the Project Physics text for use by senior high students. Chemical basis of atomic models in the early years of the 18th Century is discussed n connection with Dalton's theory, atomic properties, and periodic tables. The discovery of electrons is described by using cathode rays, Millikan's…

  2. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ATOMIC PHYSICS OBSERVATORY WHICH CONTAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF ATOMIC PHYSICS OBSERVATORY WHICH CONTAINS THE WHITE DOME STRUCTURE. THE SHED-LIKE STRUCTURE TO THE LEFT IS THE SEARCH-LIGHT BUILDING. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Atomic Physics Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. ITER core imaging X-ray spectroscopy: Atomic physics issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Clementson, J.; Widmann, K.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Johnson, D.; Barnsley, R.; Chung, H. K.; Safronova, U. I.

    2017-03-01

    The Core Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer (CIXS) will be employed for measurements of the ion temperature and of the toroidal rotation velocity, Ti and vϕ, respectively, as a function of the radius of ITER plasmas. The diagnostic is based on precision determinations of the Doppler broadening, centroid shift, and intensity of the lines of highly ionized heavy impurities using a curved Bragg crystal spectral disperser and imager. The ions under consideration for the diagnostic are those of tungsten, krypton, xenon, iron, and argon. A detailed discussion is given of the need for atomic physics experiments and calculations involving the primary diagnostic lines and their collisional and dielectronic satellites. Such experiments and calculations define the instrument parameters, determine the diagnostic uncertainties, and provide paths for extending the diagnostic capabilities to measure impurity concentrations, electron temperature, and ion transport parameters. Enabling the diagnostic to measure radially dependent ion transport coefficients, in particular, requires a large amount of high-quality atomic data in the form of reliable excitation, ionization, and recombination rate coefficients as well as ionization balance calculations which make use of these data. Because core imaging spectrometers are being developed and implemented on present-day magnetic fusion devices, much of the atomic data are already needed and can be tested in the analysis of existing spectra recorded by these diagnostics.

  4. Recent advances in Rydberg physics using alkaline-earth atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this brief review, the opportunities that the alkaline-earth elements offer for studying new aspects of Rydberg physics are discussed. For example, the bosonic alkaline-earth isotopes have zero nuclear spin which eliminates many of the complexities present in alkali Rydberg atoms, permitting simpler and more direct comparison between theory and experiment. The presence of two valence electrons allows the production of singlet and triplet Rydberg states that can exhibit a variety of attractive or repulsive interactions. The availability of weak intercombination lines is advantageous for laser cooling and for applications such as Rydberg dressing. Excitation of one electron to a Rydberg state leaves behind an optically active core ion allowing, for high-L states, the optical imaging of Rydberg atoms and their (spatial) manipulation using light scattering. The second valence electron offers the possibility of engineering long-lived doubly excited states such as planetary atoms. Recent advances in both theory and experiment are highlighted together with a number of possible directions for the future.

  5. Parity Violation Experiments with Rare Earth Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, Dmitry

    1997-10-01

    Since the first suggestions (V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and I. B. Khriplovich, Z. Phys. D1, 243 (1986).), (A. Gongora and P. G. H. Sandars, J. Phys. B 19, L291 (1986).) to search for parity violation in the rare earth atoms, experiments have been carried out by groups in Novosibirsk, Oxford, Hiroshima and Berkeley with Sm, Yb and Dy. The status of these experiments will be reviewed, with some details given on recent Berkeley Dy results ( A.-T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, Submitted to Phys. Rev. A.). Progress of the Berkeley Yb experiment ( D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4165 (1995).), ( C.J. Bowers, D. Budker, E.D. Commins, D. DeMille, S.J. Freedman, A.-T. Nguyen, S.-Q. Shang, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3103-9(1996). ) will be described elsewhere at this meeting by C. J. Bowers et al.

  6. Atomic Structure Calculations from the Los Alamos Atomic Physics Codes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cowan, R. D.

    The well known Hartree-Fock method of R.D. Cowan, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is used for the atomic structure calculations. Electron impact excitation cross sections are calculated using either the distorted wave approximation (DWA) or the first order many body theory (FOMBT). Electron impact ionization cross sections can be calculated using the scaled hydrogenic method developed by Sampson and co-workers, the binary encounter method or the distorted wave method. Photoionization cross sections and, where appropriate, autoionizations are also calculated. Original manuals for the atomic structure code, the collisional excitation code, and the ionization code, are available from this website. Using the specialized interface, you will be able to define the ionization stage of an element and pick the initial and final configurations. You will be led through a series of web pages ending with a display of results in the form of cross sections, collision strengths or rates coefficients. Results are available in tabular and graphic form.

  7. Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63

  8. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    This paper illustrates experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes, their molecular structure transitions, and their agglomeration times were estimated. article sizes of 1.8 to 4.6 mm (0.07 to 0. 18 in.) were measured. The particle agglomeration times were 0.5 to 11 min, depending on the loading of particles in the dewar. These experiments are the first step toward visually characterizing these particles, and allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  9. Statistical Physics Experiments Using Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goree, John

    2016-10-01

    Compared to other areas of physics research, Statistical Physics is heavily dominated by theory, with comparatively little experiment. One reason for the lack of experiments is the impracticality of tracking of individual atoms and molecules within a substance. Thus, there is a need for a different kind of experimental system, one where individual particles not only move stochastically as they collide with one another, but also are large enough to allow tracking. A dusty plasma can meet this need. A dusty plasma is a partially ionized gas containing small particles of solid matter. These micron-size particles gain thousands of electronic charges by collecting more electrons than ions. Their motions are dominated by Coulomb collisions with neighboring particles. In this so-called strongly coupled plasma, the dust particles self-organize in much the same way as atoms in a liquid or solid. Unlike atoms, however, these particles are large and slow, so that they can be tracked easily by video microscopy. Advantages of dusty plasma for experimental statistical physics research include particle tracking, lack of frictional contact with solid surfaces, and avoidance of overdamped motion. Moreover, the motion of a collection of dust particles can mimic an equilibrium system with a Maxwellian velocity distribution, even though the dust particles themselves are not truly in thermal equilibrium. Nonequilibrium statistical physics can be studied by applying gradients, for example by imposing a shear flow. In this talk I will review some of our recent experiments with shear flow. First, we performed the first experimental test to verify the Fluctuation Theorem for a shear flow, showing that brief violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics occur with the predicted probabilities, for a small system. Second, we discovered a skewness of a shear-stress distribution in a shear flow. This skewness is a phenomenon that likely has wide applicability in nonequilibrium steady states

  10. Strong interaction physics from hadronic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, C. J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    1997-08-01

    Hadronic atoms provide a unique laboratory for studying strong interactions and nuclear medium effects at zero kinetic energy. Previous results from analyses of strong-interaction data consisting of level shifts, widths and yields in π-, K -, p¯ and ∑ - atoms are reviewed. Recent results from fits to comprehensive sets of data in terms of density-dependent optical potentials that respect the low-density limit, where the interaction tends to the free hadron nucleon value, are discussed. The importance of using realistic nuclear density distributions is highlighted. The introduction of density dependence in most cases significantly improves the fit to the data and leads to some novel results. For K - atoms, a substantial attraction of order 200 MeV in nuclear matter is suggested, with interesting repercussions for K¯ condensation and the evolution of strangeness in high-density stars. For p¯ atoms it is found that a reasonable p-wave strength can be accommodated in the fitted optical potential, in agreement with the energy dependence observed for some low-energy p¯N reactions. For ∑ - atoms, the fitted potential becomes repulsive inside the nucleus, implying that Σ hyperons generally do not bind in nuclei in agreement with recent measurements. This repulsion significantly affects calculated masses of neutron stars.

  11. Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E.B.

    1997-05-15

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment is proposed for experimental studies of spheromak confinement issues in a controlled way: in steady state relative to the confinement timescale and at low collisionality. Experiments in a flux - conserver will provide data on transport in the presence of resistive modes in shear-stabilized systems and establish operating regimes which pave the way for true steady-state experiments with the equilibrium field supplied by external coils. The proposal is based on analysis of past experiments, including the achievement of T{sub e} = 400 eV in a decaying spheromak in CTX. Electrostatic helicity injection from a coaxial ``gun`` into a shaped flux conserver will form and sustain the plasma for several milliseconds. The flux conserver minimizes fluxline intersection with the walls and provides MHD stability. Improvements from previous experiments include modem wall conditioning (especially boronization), a divertor for density and impurity control, and a bias magnetic flux for configurational flexibility. The bias flux will provide innovative experimental opportunities, including testing helicity drive on the large-radius plasma boundary. Diagnostics include Thomson scattering for T{sub e} measurements and ultra-short pulse reflectrometry to measure density and magnetic field profiles and turbulence. We expect to operate at T{sub e} of several hundred eV, allowing improved understanding of energy and current transport due to resistive MHD turbulence during sustained operation. This will provide an exciting advance in spheromak physics and a firm basis for future experiments in the fusion regime.

  12. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  13. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 2, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) ISOTOPES AND MASS NUMBERS, (2) MEASURING ATOMIC MASS, (3) DISCOVERY OF THE NUCLEUS, (4) STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEUS, (5) DISCOVERY OF THE NEUTRON, (6) NUCLEAR REACTIONS,…

  14. NASA GSFC Science Symposium on Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand K. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of a conference on atomic and molecular physics in honor of the retirements of Dr. Aaron Temkin and Dr. Richard Drachman. The conference contained discussions on electron, positron, atomic, and positronium physics, as well as a discussion on muon catalyzed fusion. This proceedings document also contains photographs taken at the symposium, as well as speeches and a short biography made in tribute to the retirees.

  15. MISSE Scattered Atomic Oxygen Characterization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure the atomic oxygen (AO) erosion profile of scattered AO was exposed to Low Earth Orbital (LEO) AO for almost four years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 and 2 (MISSE 1 and 2). The experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), Tray 1, attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) Quest Airlock. The experiment consisted of an aperture disk lid of Kapton H (DuPont) polyimide coated on the space exposed surface with a thin AO durable silicon dioxide film. The aperture lid had a small hole in its center to allow AO to enter into a chamber and impact a base disk of aluminum. The AO that scattered from the aluminum base could react with the under side of the aperture lid which was coated sporadically with microscopic sodium chloride particles. Scattered AO erosion can occur to materials within a spacecraft that are protected from direct AO attack but because of apertures in the spacecraft the AO can attack the interior materials after scattering. The erosion of the underside of the Kapton lid was sufficient to be able to use profilometry to measure the height of the buttes that remained after washing off the salt particles. The erosion pattern indicated that peak flux of scattered AO occurred at and angle of approximately 45 from the incoming normal incidence on the aluminum base unlike the erosion pattern predicted for scattering based on Monte Carlo computational predictions for AO scattering from Kapton H polyimide. The effective erosion yield for the scattered AO was found to be a factor of 0.214 of that for direct impingement on Kapton H polyimide.

  16. Research in Dense Plasma Atomic Physics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-19

    attention on * the solution to the time-independent Schrodinger equation with a self- consistent charge density. For calculations of atomic properties the...interaction potential. Incorporating this potential, the bound and free electron distributions are found from the Schrodinger equation . Thus, given an...spherically symmetric. In Eq. (1), .b is the local density of bound electrons found from solving * the Schrodinger equation where the interaction

  17. Thought experiments and physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Hugh; Gilbert, John; Watts, D. Michael

    1985-09-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.20, p.124 (1985). In part I thought experiments (TES) were referred to as experiments which, although easy to conceive of are either very difficult, very expensive or even impossible to carry out. Their rule in physics was reviewed during an exposition of highly regarded examples drawn from special relativity and quantum mechanics. During this Kuhn's two necessary attributes (Kuhn 1977) of a TE were evaluated: the first, that its conduct should involve the use of concepts within previously experienced or imagined situations, was largely supported, although the possibility of inadequate application of the concepts was identified; the second, that the cognitive conflict which the TE provokes must have been anticipated in some way by the physicist, was not substantiated. As one major function of physics education is the development of future physicists, it is to be expected that TES have a substantial role in physics education. The authors explore some aspects of that role, drawing on examples from secondary school and tertiary educational practice.

  18. PHYSICS OF POLARIZED SCATTERING AT MULTI-LEVEL ATOMIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2015-03-01

    The symmetric peak observed in linear polarization in the core of the solar sodium D{sub 1} line at 5896 Å has remained enigmatic since its discovery nearly two decades ago. One reason is that the theory of polarized scattering has not been experimentally tested for multi-level atomic systems in the relevant parameter domains, although the theory is continually being used for the interpretation of astrophysical observations. A laboratory experiment that was set up a decade ago to find out whether the D{sub 1} enigma is a problem of solar physics or quantum physics revealed that the D{sub 1} system has a rich polarization structure in situations where standard scattering theory predicts zero polarization, even when optical pumping of the m state populations of the hyperfine-split ground state is accounted for. Here we show that the laboratory results can be modeled in great quantitative detail if the theory is extended to include the coherences in both the initial and final states of the scattering process. Radiative couplings between the allowed dipole transitions generate coherences in the initial state. Corresponding coherences in the final state are then demanded by a phase closure selection rule. The experimental results for the well understood D{sub 2} line are used to constrain the two free parameters of the experiment, collision rate and optical depth, to suppress the need for free parameters when fitting the D{sub 1} results.

  19. Status and Prospects of Hirfl Experiments on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H. S.; Zheng, C.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhan, W. L.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Sun, Z. Y.; Wang, J. S.; Gan, Z. G.; Huang, W. X.; Ma, X. W.

    HIRFL is an accelerator complex consisting of 3 accelerators, 2 radioactive beams lines, 1 storage rings and a number of experimental setups. The research activities at HIRFL cover the fields of radio-biology, material science, atomic physics, and nuclear physics. This report mainly concentrates on the experiments of nuclear physics with the existing and planned experimental setups such as SHANS, RIBLL1, ETF, CSRe, PISA and HPLUS at HIRFL.

  20. The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes

    DOE PAGES

    Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Jr, J. Abdallah; ...

    2015-05-28

    The Los Alamos SuitE of Relativistic (LASER) atomic physics codes is a robust, mature platform that has been used to model highly charged ions in a variety of ways. The suite includes capabilities for calculating data related to fundamental atomic structure, as well as the processes of photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation and ionization, photoionization and autoionization within a consistent framework. These data can be of a basic nature, such as cross sections and collision strengths, which are useful in making predictions that can be compared with experiments to test fundamental theories of highly charged ions, such as quantum electrodynamics. The suitemore » can also be used to generate detailed models of energy levels and rate coefficients, and to apply them in the collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas over a wide range of conditions. Such modeling is useful, for example, in the interpretation of spectra generated by a variety of plasmas. In this work, we provide a brief overview of the capabilities within the Los Alamos relativistic suite along with some examples of its application to the modeling of highly charged ions.« less

  1. The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes

    SciTech Connect

    Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Jr, J. Abdallah; Clark, R. E. H.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Colgan, J.; Cunningham, R. T.; Hakel, P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2015-05-28

    The Los Alamos SuitE of Relativistic (LASER) atomic physics codes is a robust, mature platform that has been used to model highly charged ions in a variety of ways. The suite includes capabilities for calculating data related to fundamental atomic structure, as well as the processes of photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation and ionization, photoionization and autoionization within a consistent framework. These data can be of a basic nature, such as cross sections and collision strengths, which are useful in making predictions that can be compared with experiments to test fundamental theories of highly charged ions, such as quantum electrodynamics. The suite can also be used to generate detailed models of energy levels and rate coefficients, and to apply them in the collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas over a wide range of conditions. Such modeling is useful, for example, in the interpretation of spectra generated by a variety of plasmas. In this work, we provide a brief overview of the capabilities within the Los Alamos relativistic suite along with some examples of its application to the modeling of highly charged ions.

  2. Atoms in Flight: The Remarkable Connections between Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-16

    Atomic physics and hadron physics are both based on Yang Mills gauge theory; in fact, quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics provide important insight into the theory of hadrons in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of light-front relativistic equations of motion which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The renormalization scale for the running coupling, which is unambiguously set in QED, leads to a method for setting the renormalization scale in QCD. The production of atoms in flight provides a method for computing the formation of hadrons at the amplitude level. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, and light-front quantization have equal utility for atomic physics, especially in the relativistic domain. I also present a new perspective for understanding the contributions to the cosmological constant from QED and QCD.

  3. The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-02-26

    Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed predictions. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, the quark-interchange process and light-front quantization have important applicants for atomic physics and photon science, especially in the relativistic domain.

  4. Clock Technology Development for the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, W. M.; Thompson, R. J.; Seidel, D. J.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Time and Frequency Sciences and Technology Group at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed a laser cooling capability for flight and has been selected by NASA to support the Laser-Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. Current work in the group includes design and development for tee two laser-cooled atomic clock experiments which have been selected for flight on the International Space Station.

  5. Experiment Design and Analysis Guide - Neutronics & Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Misti A Lillo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a consistent, standardized approach to performing neutronics/physics analysis for experiments inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This document provides neutronics/physics analysis guidance to support experiment design and analysis needs for experiments irradiated in the ATR. This guide addresses neutronics/physics analysis in support of experiment design, experiment safety, and experiment program objectives and goals. The intent of this guide is to provide a standardized approach for performing typical neutronics/physics analyses. Deviation from this guide is allowed provided that neutronics/physics analysis details are properly documented in an analysis report.

  6. Tokamak Physics Experiment divertor design

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) tokamak requires a symmetric up/down double-null divertor capable of operation with steady-state heat flux as high as 7.5 MW/m{sup 2}. The divertor is designed to operate in the radiative mode and employs a deep slot configuration with gas puffing lines to enhance radiative divertor operation. Pumping is provided by cryopumps that pump through eight vertical ports in the floor and ceiling of the vessel. The plasma facing surface is made of carbon-carbon composite blocks (macroblocks) bonded to multiple parallel copper tubes oriented vertically. Water flowing at 6 m/s is used, with the critical heat flux (CHF) margin improved by the use of enhanced heat transfer surfaces. In order to extend the operating period where hands on maintenance is allowed and to also reduce dismantling and disposal costs, the TPX design emphasizes the use of low activation materials. The primary materials used in the divertor are titanium, copper, and carbon-carbon composite. The low activation material selection and the planned physics operation will allow personnel access into the vacuum vessel for the first 2 years of operation. The remote handling system requires that all plasma facing components (PFCs) are configured as modular components of restricted dimensions with special provisions for lifting, alignment, mounting, attachment, and connection of cooling lines, and instrumentation and diagnostics services.

  7. Atomic oxygen exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The calculations are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation on atomic oxygen flux. Results incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the 6-year flight of the spacecraft. To facilitate use of the data, both detailed tabulations and summary charts for atomic oxygen fluences are presented.

  8. Majorana: From Atomic and Molecular, to Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, R.; Angilella, G. G. N.

    2006-10-01

    In the centennial of Ettore Majorana's birth (1906-1938?), we re-examine some aspects of his fundamental scientific production in atomic and molecular physics, including a not well known short communication. There, Majorana critically discusses Fermi's solution of the celebrated Thomas-Fermi equation for electron screening in atoms and positive ions. We argue that some of Majorana's seminal contributions in molecular physics already prelude to the idea of exchange interactions (or Heisenberg-Majorana forces) in his later workson theoretical nuclear physics. In all his papers, he tended to emphasize the symmetries at the basis of a physical problem, as well as the limitations, rather than the advantages, of the approximations of the method employed.

  9. Bringing atomic and nuclear physics laboratory data into the classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Eric B.; Larimer, Ruth-Mary; Rech, Gregory; Lee, Jeffrey; Vue, Chue; Leubane, Tholoana; Zamvil, Kenneth; Guthrie, Laura

    2003-05-27

    To illustrate a number of basic concepts in atomic and nuclear physics, we have developed three websites where students can analyze data from modern laboratories. By working through the on-line procedures, students will become acquainted with characteristic x-ray spectra, the concept of half-life, x-ray fluorescence, and neutron activation analysis.

  10. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 3, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY, (2) DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY, (3) RADIOACTIVE RADIATIONS, (4) ALPHA AND BETA DECAY, (5) BETA DECAY REACTIONS, (6) RADIOACTIVE DATING AND…

  11. Project Physics Reader 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 5, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. Nine excerpts are given under the following headings: failure and success, Einstein, Mr. Tompkins and simultaneity, parable of the surveyors, outside and inside the elevator, the teacher and the Bohr theory of atom, Dirac and Born,…

  12. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 4, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) RADIATION USES AND NUCLEAR FISSION, (2) NUCLEAR REACTORS, (3) ENERGY FROM NUCLEAR REACTORS, (4) NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND FUSION, (5) A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW, AND (6) A…

  13. Difference-frequency combs in cold atom physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliese, Russell; Hoghooghi, Nazanin; Puppe, Thomas; Rohde, Felix; Sell, Alexander; Zach, Armin; Leisching, Patrick; Kaenders, Wilhelm; Keegan, Niamh C.; Bounds, Alistair D.; Bridge, Elizabeth M.; Leonard, Jack; Adams, Charles S.; Cornish, Simon L.; Jones, Matthew P. A.

    2016-12-01

    Optical frequency combs provide the clockwork to relate optical frequencies to radio frequencies. Hence, combs allow optical frequencies to be measured with respect to a radio frequency where the accuracy is limited only by the reference signal. In order to provide a stable link between the radio and optical frequencies, the two parameters of the frequency comb must be fixed: the carrier envelope offset frequency, f ceo, and the pulse repetition-rate, f rep. We have developed the first optical frequency comb based on difference frequency generation (DFG) that eliminates f ceo by design — specifically tailored for applications in cold atom physics. An f ceo-free spectrum at 1550 nm is generated from a super continuum spanning more than an optical octave. Established amplification and frequency conversion techniques based on reliable telecom fibre technology allow the generation of multiple wavelength outputs. The DFG comb is a convenient tool to both stabilise laser sources and accurately measure optical frequencies in Rydberg experiments and more generally in quantum optics. In this paper we discuss the frequency comb design, characterization, and optical frequency measurement of Strontium Rydberg states. The DFG technique allows for a compact and robust, passively f ceo stable frequency comb significantly improving reliability in practical applications.

  14. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  15. Strong field atomic physics in the mid-infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehy, B; Martin, J D D; Clatterbuck, T O; Kim, D W; DiMauro, L F; Agostini, P; Schafer, K J; Gaarde, M B; Kulander, K C

    2000-03-15

    We examine strong field atomic physics in a wavelength region (3-4 microns) where very little work has previously been done. The soft photon energy allows the exploration of one-electron atoms with low binding energies (alkali metals). We find that photoionization spectra differ from rare gas studies at shorter wavelengths due to more complex ion core potentials. Harmonic generation is studied, and we find that harmonic bandwidths are consistent with theory and the possibility of compression to pulse widths much shorter than that of the driving pulse. Harmonic yields in the visible and W are sufficient for a complete study of their amplitude and phase characteristics.

  16. Atomic Force Microscopy: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Scot A. C.

    When the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented in 1980, it was hoped that all scientists would benefit from a device that could image surfaces with atomic resolution. Unfortunately while conductors and semiconductors could be imaged with the STM, the vast number of non-conductors, for examples, most ceramics, proteins and cells were virtually unobservable. With the invention of a new device, the atomic force microscope (AFM) suddenly scientists could image the topography of all samples, including non-conductors. The basic construction and operation of the AFM consists of placing a small probe at the end of a spring and measuring the deflection of the spring. Along with the STM, the AFM has revolutionized the study of surfaces in air, water and vacuum. This dissertation reports some of the work I have been involved in. Specifically: (1) building an AFM that used an STM to measure the deflection of the cantilever, (2) building an improved AFM that used an optical level to measure the deflection of the cantilever, microfabricated tips and a water cell, (3) adding a force modulation imaging mode for imaging the surface elasticity, (4) the creation of a theoretical model to help explain atomic imaging, and (5) the creation of image processing techniques that filter out noise inherent in the system and enhance the topographical features of the surface. Using these techniques, we have imaged and analyzed (1) the amino acid crystal DL-leucine and noted that the surface represents an extension of the bulk crystal, (2) imaged polyalanine demonstrating the ability of the microscope to image polymers with molecular resolution, (3) observed the process of blood clotting at the molecular level, (4) imaged important samples including germanium and graphite with atomic resolution and large scale objects including red and white blood cells with nanometer resolution, (5) imaged photographic film as an example of industrial quality control, (6) demonstrated through

  17. Ultimate statistical physics: fluorescence of a single atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeau, Yves; Le Berre, Martine; Ginibre, Jean

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the statistics of emission of photons by a single atom or ion illuminated by a laser beam at the frequency of quasi-resonance between two energy levels, a situation that corresponds to real experiments. We extend this to the case of two laser beams resonant with the energy differences between two excited levels and the ground state (three level atom in V-configuration). We use a novel approach to this type of problem by considering a Kolmogorov equation for the probability distribution of the atomic state, which takes into account first the deterministic evolution of this state under the effect of the incoming laser beam and second the random emission of photons during the spontaneous decay of the excited state(s) to the ground state. This approach yields solvable equations in the two level atom case. For the three level atom case we set the problem and clearly define its frame. The results obtained are valid in both opposite limits of rare and frequent spontaneous decay, compared to the period of the optical Rabi oscillations due to the interaction between resonant excitation and atomic levels. Our analysis gives access to various statistical properties of the fluorescence light, including one showing that its fluctuations in time are not invariants under time reversal. This result makes evident the fundamentally irreversible character of quantum measurements, represented here by the emission of photons of fluorescence.

  18. Theoretical atomic physics code development I: CATS: Cowan Atomic Structure Code

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.; Cowan, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    An adaptation of R.D. Cowan's Atomic Structure program, CATS, has been developed as part of the Theoretical Atomic Physics (TAPS) code development effort at Los Alamos. CATS has been designed to be easy to run and to produce data files that can interface with other programs easily. The CATS produced data files currently include wave functions, energy levels, oscillator strengths, plane-wave-Born electron-ion collision strengths, photoionization cross sections, and a variety of other quantities. This paper describes the use of CATS. 10 refs.

  19. Physical Science Experiments for Scientific Glassblowing Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillis, Samuel E.; Donaghay, Herbert C.

    The twenty experiments in this text have been designed to give the scientific glassblowing technician the opportunity to use scientific glass apparatus in the study of physical science. Primary emphasis of these experiments is on the practical application of the physical science program as a working tool for the scientific glassblowing technician.…

  20. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  1. ep Collider experiments and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, D.; Baur, U.; Bluemlein, J.

    1992-12-31

    The physics prospects for detectors at ep colliders are examined. Colliders considered include the HERA facility at DESY, LEP I {times} LHC, and LEP II {times} LHC at CERN. Physics topics studied include machine energy and polarization, as well as detector resolution, calibration, jet identification and backgrounds from beam-gas interactions. QCD topics include measurements of the quark and gluon structure functions and parton distributions, as well as the expansion of the observable cross section into angular functions. Electroweak topics include measurements of the weak mixing angle, radiative corrections, and WW{gamma} (WWZ) couplings. Topics beyond the standard model include observation of new Z`s, indirect production of Leptoquarks, pair production of sfermions and searches for R-parity-violating SUSY particle production.

  2. Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment AO171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Materials Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment (SAMPLE), AO171, contained in total approximately 100 materials and materials processes with a 300 specimen complement. With the exception of experiment solar cell and solar cell modules, all test specimens were weighed before flight, thus allowing an accurate determination of mass loss as a result of space exposure. Since almost all of the test specimens were thermal vacuum baked before flight, the mass loss sustained can be attributed principally to atomic oxygen attack. The atomic oxygen effects observed and measured in five classes of materials is documented. The atomic oxygen reactivity values generated for these materials are compared to those values derived for the same materials from exposures on short term shuttle flights. An assessment of the utility of predicting long term atomic oxygen effects from short term exposures is given. This experiment was located on Row 8 position A which allowed all experiment materials to be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(sup 2) as a result of being positioned 38 degrees off the RAM direction.

  3. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  4. Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

  5. Informal proposal for an Atomic Physics Facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.

    1986-01-01

    An Atomic Physics Facility (APF) for experiments that will use radiation from a superconducting wiggler on the NSLS X-13 port is described. The scientific justification for the APF is given and the elements of the facility are discussed. It is shown that it will be possible to conduct a uniquely varied set of experiments that can probe most aspects of atomic physics. A major component of the proposal is a heavy-ion storage ring capable of containing ions with energies of about 10 MeV/nucleon. The ring can be filled with heavy ions produced at the BNL MP Tandem Laboratory or from independent ion-source systems. A preliminary cost estimate for the facility is presented.

  6. Lunar experiments: the moon as a site for certain physical measurements.

    PubMed

    Hill, R D

    1966-01-14

    If the lunar surface becomes available for conducting physical experiments, it may be particularly suited to thermal neutron and molecular and atomic beam measurements. The application of these beams for the purpose of communication on the lunar surface appears possible.

  7. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  8. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  9. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, F. E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (ENL); CERN; DESY; Fermilab. (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMP. Also, summries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated.

  10. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  11. A Group Experience with Physically Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Norma

    1980-01-01

    Describes a group experience program developed as an alternative to the long-term hospitalization of physically handicapped children. The program emphasizes emotional growth through participation in meetings designed to counteract dependency. (CM)

  12. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. ); Oyanagi, Y. ); Dodder, D.C. ); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  13. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Olin, A.; Frosch, R.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  14. Computational challenges in atomic, molecular and optical physics.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kenneth T

    2002-06-15

    Six challenges are discussed. These are the laser-driven helium atom; the laser-driven hydrogen molecule and hydrogen molecular ion; electron scattering (with ionization) from one-electron atoms; the vibrational and rotational structure of molecules such as H(3)(+) and water at their dissociation limits; laser-heated clusters; and quantum degeneracy and Bose-Einstein condensation. The first four concern fundamental few-body systems where use of high-performance computing (HPC) is currently making possible accurate modelling from first principles. This leads to reliable predictions and support for laboratory experiment as well as true understanding of the dynamics. Important aspects of these challenges addressable only via a terascale facility are set out. Such a facility makes the last two challenges in the above list meaningfully accessible for the first time, and the scientific interest together with the prospective role for HPC in these is emphasized.

  15. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Jr., Lloyd

    1997-09-21

    This document contains the final reports from the five panels that comprised a Workshop held to explore future directions, scientific impacts and technological connections of research in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics. This workshop was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences Division and was held at the Westfields International Conference Center in Chantilly, Virginia on September 21-24, 1997. The workshop was chaired by Lloyd Armstrong, Jr., University of Southern California and the five panels focused on the following topics: Panel A: Interactions of Atoms and Molecules with Photons - Low Field Daniel Kleppner (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), chair Panel B: Interactions of Atoms and Molecules with Photons - High Field Phil Bucksbaum (University of Michigan), chair Panel C: Surface Interactions with Photons, Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules J. Wayne Rabalais (University of Houston), chair Panel D: Theory of Structure and Dynamics Chris Greene (University of Colorado), chair Panel E: Nano- and Mesocopic Structures Paul Alivisatos (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), chair The choice of focus areas reflects areas of significant interest to DOE/BES but is clearly not intended to span all fields encompassed by the designation of atomic, molecular and optical physics, nor even all areas that would be considered for review and funding under DOE’s AMOP program. In a similar vein, not all research that might be suggested under these topics in this report would be appropriate for consideration by DOE’s AMOP program. The workshop format included overview presentations from each of the panel chairs, followed by an intensive series of panel discussion sessions held over a two-day period. The panels were comprised of scientists from the U. S. and abroad, many of whom are not supported by DOE’s AMOP Program. This workshop was held in lieu of the customary “Contractors Meeting” held annually for

  16. The Physical Conditions of Atomic Gas at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeleman, Marcel

    In this thesis we provide insight into the chemical composition, physical conditions and cosmic distribution of atomic gas at high redshift. We study this gas in absorption against bright background quasars in absorption systems known as Damped Ly-alpha Systems (DLAs). These systems contain the bulk of the atomic gas at high redshift and are the likely progenitors of modern-day galaxies. In Chapter 2, we find that the atomic gas in DLAs obeys a mass-metallicity relationship that is similar to the mass-metallicity relationship seen in star-forming galaxies. The evolution of this relationship is linear with redshift, allowing for a planar equation to accurately describe this evolution, which provides a more stringent constraint on simulations modeling DLAs. Furthermore, the concomitant evolution of the mass-metallicity relationship of atomic gas and star-forming galaxies suggests an intimate link between the two. We next use a novel way to measure the physical conditions of the gas by using fine-structure line ratios of singly ionized carbon and silicon. By measuring the density of the upper and lower level states, we are able to determine the temperature, hydrogen density and electron density of the gas. We find that the conditions present in this high redshift gas are consistent with the conditions we see in the local interstellar medium (ISM). A few absorbers have higher than expected pressure, which suggests that they probe the ISM of star-forming galaxies. Finally in Chapter 4, we measure the cosmic neutral hydrogen density at redshifts below 1.6. Below this redshift, the Ly-alpha line of hydrogen is absorbed by the atmosphere, making detection difficult. Using the archive of the Hubble Space Telescope, we compile a comprehensive list of quasars for a search of DLAs at redshift below 1.6. We find that the incidence rate of DLAs and the cosmic neutral hydrogen density is smaller than previously measured, but consistent with the values both locally and at

  17. Photoelectroconversion by Semiconductors: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Qinbai; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment designed to give students some experience with photochemistry, electrochemistry, and basic theories about semiconductors. Uses a liquid-junction solar cell and illustrates some fundamental physical and chemical principles related to light and electricity interconversion as well as the properties of semiconductors. (JRH)

  18. Low-Cost Accelerometers for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Straulino, Samuele

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of a modern game-console controller as a data acquisition interface for physics experiments is discussed. The investigated controller is equipped with three perpendicular accelerometers and a built-in infrared camera to evaluate its own relative position. A pendulum experiment is realized as a demonstration of the proposed…

  19. COMPILATION OF CURRENT HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.; Horne, C.P.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Addis, L.; Ward, C.E.W.; Baggett, N.; Goldschmidt-Clermong, Y.; Joos, P.; Gelfand, N.; Oyanagi, Y.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of our compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. We emphasize that only approved experiments are included.

  20. Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

  1. Davisson-Germer Prize in Atomic or Surface Physics Lecture: Exploring Flatland with Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalibard, Jean

    2012-06-01

    A two-dimensional Bose fluid is a remarkably rich many-body system, which allows one to revisit several features of quantum statistical physics. Firstly, the role of thermal fluctuations is enhanced compared to the 3D case, which destroys the ordered state associated with Bose-Einstein condensation. However interactions between particles can still cause a superfluid transition, thanks to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism. Secondly, a weakly interacting Bose fluid in 2D must be scale-invariant, a remarkable feature that manifests itself in the very simple form taken by the equation of state of the fluid. In this talk I will present recent experimental progress in the investigation of 2D atomic gases, which provide a nice illustration of the main features of low dimensional many-body physics.

  2. Yankee atomic experience with coastdown. Report YAEC-1270

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, B.L.; Malone, J.P.; Pilat, E.E.

    1981-05-01

    This report summarizes Yankee Atomic's operating experience with 19 coastdowns in three different nuclear power plants. The observed effects of coastdown on plant capacity factor, efficiency, maneuverability, and fuel integrity are demonstrated. Calculations of resource requirements and fuel cycle economics for equilibrium cycles show typical savings of 3 to 5% for cycles using coastdown compared to those which produce the same energy without coastdown.

  3. Atom optics and space physics: A summary of an 'Enrico Fermi' summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimondo, Ennio; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the scientific content of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' on atom optics and space physics, organized by the Italian Physical Society in Varenna at Lake Como, Italy, 2-13 July 2007.

  4. Miniaturized Lab System for Future Cold Atom Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulas, Sascha; Vogt, Christian; Resch, Andreas; Hartwig, Jonas; Ganske, Sven; Matthias, Jonas; Schlippert, Dennis; Wendrich, Thijs; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Maria Rasel, Ernst; Damjanic, Marcin; Weßels, Peter; Kohfeldt, Anja; Luvsandamdin, Erdenetsetseg; Schiemangk, Max; Grzeschik, Christoph; Krutzik, Markus; Wicht, Andreas; Peters, Achim; Herrmann, Sven; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2017-02-01

    We present the technical realization of a compact system for performing experiments with cold 87Rb and 39K atoms in microgravity in the future. The whole system fits into a capsule to be used in the drop tower Bremen. One of the advantages of a microgravity environment is long time evolution of atomic clouds which yields higher sensitivities in atom interferometer measurements. We give a full description of the system containing an experimental chamber with ultra-high vacuum conditions, miniaturized laser systems, a high-power thulium-doped fiber laser, the electronics and the power management. In a two-stage magneto-optical trap atoms should be cooled to the low μK regime. The thulium-doped fiber laser will create an optical dipole trap which will allow further cooling to sub- μK temperatures. The presented system fulfills the demanding requirements on size and power management for cold atom experiments on a microgravity platform, especially with respect to the use of an optical dipole trap. A first test in microgravity, including the creation of a cold Rb ensemble, shows the functionality of the system.

  5. Physical mechanisms for atomization of a jet spray

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, G.; Chang, S.K.; Corradini, M.L.; El-Beshbeeshy, M.; Martin, J.K.; Krueger, J.

    1988-01-01

    Because combustion in direct injection engines is strongly influenced by the details of the fuel spray in thes engines, the authors have begun a broad research effort of jet breakup experiments and modelling of these high pressure sprays. The main objective of this effort is to better understand fuel injection from the study of the spray-jet breakup process and the associated fuel-oxidant mixing. The focus of this paper is the development of specific models for atomization of the spray-jet. These models are then compared to each other and to preliminary data from the spray-jet breakup experiments. Initial results indicate that KIVA with this proposed spray model shows good agreement with low pressure data (69 MPa) but underestimates spray penetration for higher pressures (104 MPa).

  6. Probing non-Hermitian physics with flying atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jianming; Xiao, Yanhong; Peng, Peng; Cao, Wanxia; Shen, Ce; Qu, Weizhi; Jiang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    Non-Hermtian optical systems with parity-time (PT) symmetry provide new means for light manipulation and control. To date, most of experimental demonstrations on PT symmetry rely on advanced nanotechnologies and sophisticated fabrication techniques to manmade solid-state materials. Here, we report the first experimental realization of optical anti-PT symmetry, a counterpart of conventional PT symmetry, in a warm atomic-vapor cell. By exploiting rapid coherence transport via flying atoms, we observe essential features of anti-PT symmetry with an unprecedented precision on phase-transition threshold. Moreover, our system allows nonlocal interference of two spatially-separated fields as well as anti-PT assisted four-wave mixing. Besides, another intriguing feature offered by the system is refractionless (or unit-refraction) light propagation. Our results thus represent a significant advance in non-Hermitian physics by bridging a firm connection with the AMO field, where novel phenomena and applications in quantum and nonlinear optics aided by (anti-)PT symmetry can be anticipated.

  7. Efimov Physics in a 6Li-133Cs Atomic Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Jacob; Feng, Lei; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng; Wang, Yujun

    2015-05-01

    We investigate Efimov physics based on three-body recombination in an atomic mixture of 6Li and 133Cs in the vicinity of interspecies Feshbach resonances at 843 and 889 G. This allows us to compare the loss spectra near different resonances and test the universality of Efimov states. Theoretically the Efimov spectrum near 889 G is expected to be similar to that near 843 G, except that the first resonance is absent near the former Feshbach resonance. This is due to the difference in the Cs-Cs scattering length near the two resonances: At 843 G it is negative, whereas at 889 G it is positive. Although it is primarily the Li-Cs interactions that lead to Efimov resonances, the Cs-Cs scattering length is expected to influence the spectrum. This work is supported by NSF and Chicago MRSEC.

  8. Research opportunities in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bending-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bending magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV.

  9. Charmonium physics in the belle experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuk, R. V.; Pakhlova, G. V.; Pakhlov, P. N.; Chistov, R. N.

    2010-04-15

    At the present time, charmonium physics experiences renaissance. Among many discoveries made within the past six years, the majority do not have an unambiguous interpretation and do not comply with traditional theoretical expectations. This review article is devoted to experimental results obtained by the members of the Belle Collaboration from the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) in the realms of charmonium spectroscopy and the production and decays of charmonia and charmonium-like states.

  10. Advancing Successful Physics Majors - The Physics First Year Seminar Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deibel, Jason; Petkie, Douglas

    In 2012, the Wright State University physics curriculum introduced a new year-long seminar course required for all new physics majors. The goal of this course is to improve student retention and success via building a community of physics majors and provide them with the skills, mindset, and advising necessary to successfully complete a degree and transition to the next part of their careers. This new course sequence assembles a new cohort of majors annually. To prepare each cohort, students engage in a variety of activities that span from student success skills to more specific physics content while building an entrepreneurial mindset. Students participate in activities including study skills, career night, course planning, campus services, and a department social function. More importantly, students gain exposure to programming, literature searches, data analysis, technical writing, elevator pitches, and experimental design via hands-on projects. This includes the students proposing, designing, and conducting their own experiments. Preliminary evidence indicates increased retention, student success, and an enhanced sense of community among physics undergraduate students, The overall number of majors and students eventually completing their physics degrees has nearly tripled. Associate Professor, Department of Physics.

  11. Probing physical properties at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditzler, Lindsay Rachel

    Techniques that measure physical properties at the nanoscale with high sensitivity are significantly limited considering the number of new nanomaterials being developed. The development of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has lead to significant advancements in the ability to characterize physical properties of materials in all areas of science: chemistry, physics, engineering, and biology have made great scientific strides do to the versatility of the AFM. AFM is used for quantification of many physical properties such as morphology, electrical, mechanical, magnetic, electrochemical, binding interactions, and protein folding. This work examines the electrical and mechanical properties of materials applicable to the field of nano-electronics. As electronic devices are miniaturized the demand for materials with unique electrical properties, which can be developed and exploited, has increased. For example, discussed in this work, a derivative of tetrathiafulvalene, which exhibits a unique loss of conductivity upon compression of the self-assembled monolayer could be developed into a molecular switch. This work also compares tunable organic (tetraphenylethylene tetracarboxylic acid and bis(pyridine)s assemblies) and metal-organic (Silver-stilbizole coordination compounds) crystals which show high electrical conductivity. The electrical properties of these materials vary depending on their composition allowing for the development of compositionally tunable functional materials. Additional work was done to investigate the effects of molecular environment on redox active 11-ferroceneyl-1 undecanethiol (Fc) molecules. The redox process of mixed monolayers of Fc and decanethiol was measured using conductive probe atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy. As the concentration of Fc increased large, variations in the force were observed. Using these variations the number of oxidized molecules in the monolayer was determined. AFM is additionally capable of investigating

  12. TRIμP-Trapped Radioactive Atoms-μicrolaboratories for Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann, K.; Berg, G. P.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hoekstra, R.; Morgenstern, R.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Timmermans, R.; Traykov, E.; Willmann, L.; Wilscut, H. W.

    At the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) in Groningen, NL, a new facility (TRIμP) is under development. Radioactive nuclei will be produced using heavy ion beams from the superconducting AGOR cyclotron. They are then slowed down and finally trapped in ion or atomic traps in order to perform precision experiments with them. The facility will be open for use by the worldwide community. The present local research programme includes precision studies of nuclear β-decays through β-neutrino (recoil nucleus) momentum correlations in weak decays as well as searches for permanent electric dipole moments in heavy atomic systems. Such experiments offer a large potential for discovering new physics or to put sensitive limits on parameters in models beyond standard theory.

  13. Atomic detection in microwave cavity experiments: A dynamical model

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, R. Jr.; Nemes, M. C.; Peixoto de Faria, J. G.

    2007-06-15

    We construct a model for the atomic detection in the context of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) used to study coherence properties of superpositions of states of an electromagnetic mode. Analytic expressions for the atomic ionization are obtained, considering the imperfections of the measurement process due to the probabilistic nature of the interactions between the ionization field and the atoms. We provide for a dynamical content for the available expressions for the counting rates considering limited efficiency of detectors. Moreover, we include false countings. The influence of these imperfections on the information about the state of the cavity mode is obtained. In order to test the adequacy of our approach, we investigate a recent experiment reported by Maitre [X. Maitre et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 769 (1997)] and we obtain excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  14. The Cold Atom Laboratory: a facility for ultracold atom experiments aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aveline, David; CAL Team

    2016-05-01

    Spread across the globe there are many different experiments in cold quantum gases, enabling the creation and study of novel states of matter, as well as some of the most accurate inertial sensors currently known. The Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL), being built at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), will be a multi-user facility that will allow the first study of ultracold quantum gases in the microgravity conditions of the International Space Station (ISS). The microgravity environment offers a wealth of advantages for studies of cold atoms, including expansion into extremely weak traps and achieving unearthly cold temperatures. It will also enable very long interaction times with released samples, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of cold atom interferometry. We will describe the CAL mission objectives and the flight hardware architecture. We will also report our ongoing technology development for the CAL mission, including the first microwave evaporation to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) on a miniaturized atom chip system, demonstrated in JPL's CAL Ground Testbed. We will present the design, setup, and operation of two experiments that reliably generate and probe BECs and dual-species mixtures of Rb-87 and K-39 (or K-41). CAL is scheduled to launch to the ISS in 2017. The CAL mission is supported by NASA's SLPS and ISS-PO. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under Contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Brahms Experiment at RHIC Day-1 Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Videbaek, Flemming

    1999-03-23

    The BRAHMS experiment is designed to measure semi-inclusive spectra of charged hadron over a wide range of rapidity. It will yield information on particle production, both at central rapidity and in the baryon rich fragmentation region. The physics plans for measurements in the first year of running at RHIC are discussed.

  16. Multimedia Representation of Experiments in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirstein, Juergen; Nordmeier, Volkhard

    2007-01-01

    In most physics courses using multimedia, real experiments are represented as digital video demonstrations. These time-based media have the disadvantage that students are often in the state of passive learners. Also, traditional multimedia learning environments only allow for the selection of different digitized media, but the learning process is…

  17. Thermal Sensitive Foils in Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochnícek, Zdenek; Konecný, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a set of physics demonstration experiments where thermal sensitive foils are used for the detection of the two dimensional distribution of temperature. The method is used for the demonstration of thermal conductivity, temperature change in adiabatic processes, distribution of electromagnetic radiation in a microwave oven and…

  18. Thermal sensitive foils in physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochníček, Zdeněk; Konečný, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes a set of physics demonstration experiments where thermal sensitive foils are used for the detection of the two dimensional distribution of temperature. The method is used for the demonstration of thermal conductivity, temperature change in adiabatic processes, distribution of electromagnetic radiation in a microwave oven and detection of resonant acoustic oscillations in a Rubens’ tube.

  19. The Physics of the Imploding Can Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2010-01-01

    One of the popular demonstrations of atmospheric pressure in introductory physics courses is the "crushing can" or "imploding can" experiment. In this demonstration, which has also been extensively discussed on the Internet, a small amount of water is placed in a soda can and heated until it boils and water vapor almost entirely fills the can. The…

  20. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 1, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SELF-TUTORING APPROACH IN EDUCATION. THE MATERIALS COVER SECTIONS ON (1) THE ATOM, (2) ATOMIC PARTICLES, (3) CATHODE RAYS, (4) MEASURING THE ELECTRON, (5) CHARGE AND MASS OF THE ELECTRON, AND (6) MASS OF ATOMS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 003 205 THROUGH ED 003 207, ED…

  1. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  2. Simulations and Experiments in Astronomy and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, F. P.; Maurone, P. A.; Dewarf, L. E.

    1998-12-01

    There are new approaches to teaching astronomy and physics in the laboratory setting, involving the use of computers as tools to simulate events and concepts which can be illuminated in no other reasonable way. With the computer, it is possible to travel back in time to replicate the sky as Galileo saw it. Astronomical phenomena which reveal themselves only after centuries of real time may be compressed in the computer to a simulation of several minutes. Observations simulated on the computer do not suffer from the vagaries of weather, fixed time or geographic position, or non-repeatability. In physics, the computer allows us to secure data for experiments which, by their nature, may not be amenable to human interaction. These could include experiments with very fast or very slow timescales, large number of data samples, complex or tedious manipulation of the data which hides the fundamental nature of the experiment, or data sampling which would need a specialized probe, such as for acid rain. This innovation has become possible only recently, due to the availability and affordability of sophisticated computer hardware and software. We have developed a laboratory experience for non-scientists who need an introductory course in astronomy or physics. Our approach makes extensive use of computers in this laboratory. Using commercially available software, the students use the computer as a time machine and a space craft to explore and rediscover fundamental science. The physics experiments are classical in nature, and the computer acts as a data collector and presenter, freeing the student from the tedium of repetitive data gathering and replotting. In this way, the student is encouraged to explore, to try new things, to refine the measurements, and to discover the principles underlying the observed phenomena.

  3. The Atomic Era: A new interdisciplinary course combining physics, the humanities and the social sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens-Wickham, Belinda

    2001-05-01

    Southern Illinois University Edwardsville won funding from the federal interagency competition, Leadership Opportunity in Science and Humanities Education, which supported interdisciplinary courses combining the natural sciences and the humanities. The author analyses her experiences developing a very successful and popular interdisciplinary course, entitled The Atomic Era, which features a unique combination of physics, sociology and German studies taught jointly by a Physicist, a Sociologist and a Germanist. The objectives of the course, the laboratories and demonstrations, instructional goals, assignments, organization, testing, student and faculty assessment, expenses and the special challenges of coordinating three faculty members and a wide variety of topics and perspectives are addressed and analysed.

  4. ELASR - An electrostatic storage ring for atomic and molecular physics at KACST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghazaly, Mohamed O. A.

    A new ELectrostAtic Storage Ring (ELASR) has been designed and built at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was developed to be the core of a new storage ring laboratory for atomic and molecular physics at KACST. ELASR follows the standard design of the pioneering storage ring ELISA and it thereby features a racetrack single-bend shaped ring. Complementary simulation code packages were used to work out the design under the requirements of the projected experiments. This paper reports a short description of the ELASR storage ring through an overview of its design and construction.

  5. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  6. Atomic physics in the quest for fusion energy and ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2009-05-01

    The urgent quest for new energy sources has led developed countries, representing over half of the world population, to collaborate on demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of magnetic fusion through the construction and operation of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). Data on high-Z ions will be important in this quest. Tungsten plasma facing components have the necessary low erosion rates and low tritium retention but the high radiative efficiency of tungsten ions leads to stringent restrictions on the concentration of tungsten ions in the burning plasma. The influx of tungsten to the burning plasma will need to be diagnosed, understood and stringently controlled. Expanded knowledge of the atomic physics of neutral and ionized tungsten will be important to monitor impurity influxes and derive tungsten concentrations. Also, inert gases such as argon and xenon will be used to dissipate the heat flux flowing to the divertor. This paper will summarize the spectroscopic diagnostics planned for ITER and outline areas where additional data are needed.

  7. MISSE 6 Stressed Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Yi, Grace T.; Guo, Aobo; Ashmeade, Claire C.; Roberts, Lily M.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials used on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded away by reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). For spacecraft design, it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield, Ey (volume loss per incident oxygen atom), of materials susceptible to AO erosion. The Stressed Polymers Experiment was developed and flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6) to compare the AO erosion yields of stressed and non-stressed polymers to determine if erosion is dependent upon stress while in LEO. The experiment contained 36 thin film polymer samples that were exposed to ram AO for 1.45 years. This paper provides an overview of the Stressed Polymers Experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence, and the erosion yield results. The MISSE 6 data are compared to data for similar samples flown on previous MISSE missions to determine fluence or solar radiation effects on erosion yield.

  8. Introductory Physics Experiments Using the Wiimote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, William; Rooney, Frank; Ochoa, Romulo

    2009-03-01

    The Wii, a video game console, is a very popular device with millions of units sold worldwide over the past two years. Although computationally it is not a powerful machine, to a physics educator its most important components can be its controllers. The Wiimote (or remote) controller contains three accelerometers, an infrared detector, and Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, any PC with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the Wiimote. We have designed several experiments for introductory physics courses that make use of the accelerometers and Bluetooth connectivity. We have adapted the Wiimote to measure the: variable acceleration in simple harmonic motion, centripetal and tangential accelerations in circular motion, and the accelerations generated when students lift weights. We present the results of our experiments and compare them with those obtained when using motion and/or force sensors.

  9. The role of atomic and molecular physics for dissipative divertor operation in helium and deuterium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canik, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments in DIII-D helium plasmas are examined to resolve the role of atomic and molecular physics in major discrepancies between experiment and modeling of dissipative divertor operation. Helium operation removes the complicated molecular processes of deuterium plasmas that are a prime candidate for the inability of standard fluid models (SOLPS, UEDGE) to reproduce dissipative divertor operation, primarily the consistent under-prediction of radiated power. With helium fueling, a high-recycling divertor was established with divertor densities increasing to ne,div >= 3 ×1020m-3 and temperatures decreasing to Te,div <= 2 eV as measured by divertor Thomson scattering (DTS). The electron pressure, pe , div decreased gradually with increasing density to less than 30% of the low density value. However, the ion flux to the divertor target did not decrease until the highest densities and lowest temperatures, Te,div <= 2 eV. In contrast, with deuterium operation, increasing density leads to a rapid transition from Te,div >= 10 eV to Te,div <= 3 eV, though both pe , div and ion flux do not decrease until Te,div <= 2 eV. These differences indicate an important role for molecular and atomic physics in the dynamics of divertor dissipation. Initial SOLPS modeling has reproduced ne and Te profiles at the midplane and divertor target, as well as the spatial structure of radiation patterns measured in moderate density helium plasmas. However, the modeled divertor radiation is less than measured, similar to deuterium simulations, suggesting processes more universal than species-specific atomic or molecular physics may be the source of radiation deficit. Detailed assessments of ne, Te profiles in the divertor volume, uniquely determined at DIII-D using DTS, are made along with analysis of measured and modeled line radiation to shed more light on these intriguing findings. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  10. Chaotic dynamics and fractal structures in experiments with cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daza, Alvar; Georgeot, Bertrand; Guéry-Odelin, David; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2017-01-01

    We use tools from nonlinear dynamics for the detailed analysis of cold-atom experiments. A powerful example is provided by the recent concept of basin entropy, which allows us to quantify the final-state unpredictability that results from the complexity of the phase-space geometry. We show here that this enables one to reliably infer the presence of fractal structures in phase space from direct measurements. We illustrate the method with numerical simulations in an experimental configuration made of two crossing laser guides that can be used as a matter-wave splitter.

  11. Versatile cold atom source for multi-species experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Paris-Mandoki, A.; Jones, M. D.; Nute, J.; Warriar, S.; Hackermüller, L.; Wu, J.

    2014-11-15

    We present a dual-species oven and Zeeman slower setup capable of producing slow, high-flux atomic beams for loading magneto-optical traps. Our compact and versatile system is based on electronic switching between different magnetic field profiles and is applicable to a wide range of multi-species experiments. We give details of the vacuum setup, coils, and simple electronic circuitry. In addition, we demonstrate the performance of our system by optimized, sequential loading of magneto-optical traps of lithium-6 and cesium-133.

  12. Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Rochester, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed on line. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans.

  13. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Modelling of a DNA packaging motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Xie, Ping; Xue, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2009-11-01

    During the assembly of many viruses, a powerful molecular motor packages the genome into a preassembled capsid. The Bacillus subtilis phage phi29 is an excellent model system to investigate the DNA packaging mechanism because of its highly efficient in vitro DNA packaging activity and the development of a single-molecule packaging assay. Here we make use of structural and biochemical experimental data to build a physical model of DNA packaging by the phi29 DNA packaging motor. Based on the model, various dynamic behaviours such as the packaging rate, pause frequency and slip frequency under different ATP concentrations, ADP concentrations, external loads as well as capsid fillings are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. Good agreement is obtained between the simulated and available experimental results. Moreover, we make testable predictions that should guide future experiments related to motor function.

  14. Containerless experiments in fluid physics in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    The physical phenomena associated with the behavior of liquid samples freely suspended in low gravity must be thoroughly understood prior to undertaking detailed scientific studies of the materials under scrutiny. The characteristics of molten specimens under the action of containerless positioning stresses must be identified and separated from the specific phenomena relating to the absence of an overwhelming gravitational field. The strategy designed to optimize the scientific return of reliable experimental data from infrequent microgravity investigations should include the gradual and logical phasing of more sophisticated studies building on the accumulated results from previous flight experiments. Lower temperature fluid physics experiments using model materials can provide a great deal of information that can be useful in analyzing the behavior of high temperature melts. The phasing of the experimental capabilities should, therefore, also include a gradual build-up of more intricate and specialized diagnostic instrumentation and environmental control and monitoring capabilities. Basic physical investigations should also be distinguished from specific materials technology issues. The latter investigations require very specific high temperature (and high vacuum) devices that must be thoroughly mastered on the ground prior to implementing them in space.

  15. Physics prospects of the Jinping neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beacom, John F.; Chen, Shaomin; Cheng, Jianping; Doustimotlagh, Sayed N.; Gao, Yuanning; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Guo, Lei; Han, Ran; He, Hong-Jian; Huang, Xingtao; Li, Jianmin; Li, Jin; Li, Mohan; Li, Xueqian; Liao, Wei; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Zuowei; McDonough, William; Šrámek, Ondřej; Tang, Jian; Wan, Linyan; Wang, Yuanqing; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zongyi; Wei, Hanyu; Xi, Yufei; Xu, Ye; Xu, Xun-Jie; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Chunfa; Yeh, Minfang; Yue, Qian; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Zhihong; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Xianglei; Zuber, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL), which has the lowest cosmic-ray muon flux and the lowest reactor neutrino flux of any laboratory, is ideal to carry out low-energy neutrino experiments. With two detectors and a total fiducial mass of 2000 tons for solar neutrino physics (equivalently, 3000 tons for geo-neutrino and supernova neutrino physics), the Jinping neutrino experiment will have the potential to identify the neutrinos from the CNO fusion cycles of the Sun, to cover the transition phase for the solar neutrino oscillation from vacuum to matter mixing, and to measure the geo-neutrino flux, including the Th/U ratio. These goals can be fulfilled with mature existing techniques. Efforts on increasing the target mass with multi-modular neutrino detectors and on developing the slow liquid scintillator will increase the Jinping discovery potential in the study of solar neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and dark matter. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235006, 11475093, 11135009, 11375065, 11505301, and 11620101004), the Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (20121088035, 20131089288, and 20151080432), the Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), U.S. National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1404311 (Beacom), and U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-98CH10886 (Yeh).

  16. Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Joseph J

    2009-08-07

    This Final Report summarizes work performed under DOE STTR Phase II Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER86258 during the project period from August 2006 to August 2009. The project, “Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments,” was led by Prism Computational Sciences (Madison, WI), and involved collaboration with subcontractors University of Nevada-Reno and Voss Scientific (Albuquerque, NM). In this project, we have: Developed and implemented a multi-dimensional, multi-frequency radiation transport model in the LSP hybrid fluid-PIC (particle-in-cell) code [1,2]. Updated the LSP code to support the use of accurate equation-of-state (EOS) tables generated by Prism’s PROPACEOS [3] code to compute more accurate temperatures in high energy density physics (HEDP) plasmas. Updated LSP to support the use of Prism’s multi-frequency opacity tables. Generated equation of state and opacity data for LSP simulations for several materials being used in plasma jet experimental studies. Developed and implemented parallel processing techniques for the radiation physics algorithms in LSP. Benchmarked the new radiation transport and radiation physics algorithms in LSP and compared simulation results with analytic solutions and results from numerical radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. Performed simulations using Prism radiation physics codes to address issues related to radiative cooling and ionization dynamics in plasma jet experiments. Performed simulations to study the effects of radiation transport and radiation losses due to electrode contaminants in plasma jet experiments. Updated the LSP code to generate output using NetCDF to provide a better, more flexible interface to SPECT3D [4] in order to post-process LSP output. Updated the SPECT3D code to better support the post-processing of large-scale 2-D and 3-D datasets generated by simulation codes such as LSP. Updated atomic physics modeling to provide for

  17. The Physics of the CMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanabria, J. C.

    2007-10-26

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will start running 2008 producing proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Four large experiments will operate together with this accelerator: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The main scientific goal of this project is to understand in detail the mechanism for electro-weak symmetry breaking and to search for physics beyond the standard model of particles. ATLAS and CMS are general purpose detectors designed for search and discovery of new physics, and optimized to search for Higgs and signals of supersymmetric matter (SUSY). In this paper the main features of the CMS detector will be presented and its potential for Higgs and SUSY discoveries will be discussed.

  18. Further investigations of experiment A0034 atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal control coatings within the recessed compartments of LDEF Experiment A0034 experienced the maximum leading edge fluence of atomic oxygen with considerably less solar UV radiation exposure than top-surface mounted materials of other LDEF experiments on either the leading or the trailing edge. This combination of exposure within A0034 resulted in generally lower levels of darkening attributable to solar UV radiation than for similar materials on other LDEF experiments exposed to greater cumulative solar UV radiation levels. Changes in solar absorptance and infrared thermal emittance of the exposed coatings are thus unique to this exposure. Analytical results for other applications have been found for environmentally induced changes in fluorescence, surface morphology, light scattering, and the effects of coating outgassing products on adjacent mirrors and windows of the A0034 experiment. Some atmospheric bleaching of the thermal control coatings, in addition to that presumably experience during reentry and recovery operations, has been found since initial post-flight observations and measurements.

  19. Turbulence and atomic physics in magnetically confined plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandet, Y.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Nace, N.; Serre, E.; Tamain, P.; Valentinuzzi, M.

    2017-03-01

    An overview of issues related to the interplay between atomic process and turbulence in the peripheral regions of magnetically confined fusion devices is presented. Both atomic processes and turbulence play key roles for fusion, but have most of the time been treated separately. The effects of fluctuations on the time averaged ionization balance, on the transport of neutral particles (atoms and molecules) are discussed, using stochastic models to generate fluctuations with statistically relevant properties. Then applications to optical diagnostics of turbulence, namely gas puff imaging and beam emission spectroscopy are discussed.

  20. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

  1. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Warren; Lai, Anthony; Croonquist, Arvid; Chui, Talso; Eraker, J. H.; Abbott, Randy; Mills, Gary; Mohl, James; Craig, James; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade

    2000-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) is being developed by NASA to provide long duration low temperature and microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for performing fundamental physics investigations. Currently, six experiments have been selected for flight definition studies. More will be selected in a two-year cycle, through NASA Research Announcement. This program is managed under the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Experiments Project Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The facility is being designed to launch and returned to earth on a variety of vehicles including the HII-A and the space shuttle. On orbit, the facility will be connected to the Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo. Features of the facility include a cryostat capable of maintaining super-fluid helium at a temperature of 1.4 K for 5 months, resistance thermometer bridges, multi-stage thermal isolation system, thermometers capable of pico-Kelvin resolution, DC SQUID magnetometers, passive vibration isolation, and magnetic shields with a shielding factor of 80dB. The electronics and software architecture incorporates two VME buses run using the VxWorks operating system. Technically challenging areas in the design effort include the following: 1) A long cryogen life that survives several launch and test cycles without the need to replace support straps for the helium tank. 2) The minimization of heat generation in the sample stage caused by launch vibration 3) The design of compact and lightweight DC SQUID electronics. 4) The minimization of RF interference for the measurement of heat at pico-Watt level. 5) Light weighting of the magnetic shields. 6) Implementation of a modular and flexible electronics and software architecture. The first launch is scheduled for mid-2003, on an H-IIA Rocket Transfer Vehicle, out of the Tanegashima Space Center of Japan. Two identical facilities will be built. While one facility is onboard

  2. Physical scale experiments on torrential filter structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, Michael; Moser, Markus; Trojer, Martin; Hübl, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the INTERREG Project "SedAlp" physical scale model experiments are carried out in the hydraulic laboratory of the Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering at the University of Life Sciences in Vienna in order to optimize torrent protection structures. Two different types of check dams are investigated. A screen-dam with inclined vertical beams is compared with a beam-dam with horizontal beams. The experiments evaluate the variation of sediment transport of these structures including the influence of coarse woody debris. Therefore the distance between the steel elements can be adjusted to show their ability to filter sediment. The physical scale of the experiments is 1:30. All experimental runs are Froude scaled. Both dams are tested in elongated and pear-shaped sediment retention basins in order to investigate the shape effect of the deposition area. For a systematic comparison of the two check dams experiments with fluvial bedload transport are made. First a typical hydrograph for an extreme flood with unlimited sediment supply is modelled. A typical torrential sediment mixture with a wide grain-size distribution is fed by a conveyor belt according the transport capacity of the upstream reach. Then the deposition is scanned with a laser-scan device in order to analyse the deposition pattern and the deposited volume. Afterwards a flood with a lower reoccurrence period without sediment transport from upstream is modelled to investigate the ability of the protection structure for self-emptying. To investigate the influence of driftwood on the deposition behaviour experiments with logs are made. Different log diameters and lengths are added upstream the basin. The results show, that the deposition during the experiments was not controlled by sorting-effects at the location of the dam. The deposition always started from upstream, where the transport capacity was reduced due to the milder slope and the widening of the basin. No grain sorting effects

  3. Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Broome, S. T.; Townsend, M.; Abbott, R. E.; Snelson, C. M.; Cogbill, A. H.; Conklin, G.; Mitra, G.; Sabbeth, L.

    2012-12-01

    Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiments, conducted at the Nevada National Security Site, also provide an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. In addition, gravity and magnetic data were collected between SPE 2 and 3. The source region of the explosions was also characterized using cross-borehole seismic tomography and vertical seismic profiling utilizing two sets of two boreholes within 40 meters of ground zero. The two sets of boreholes are co-linear with the explosives hole in two directions. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Laboratory testing and optical work show a difference in the characteristics of the rocks below and above 40 feet and within the fault zones.The estimated near-surface densities from the gravity survey show

  4. The laboratory experience in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Maria C.

    1997-03-01

    The last two decades or so have witnessed intense efforts to improve the teaching and learning of physics. Scholarly studies have provided the grounding for many projects which reform the structure of introductory courses. A number of these innovations, however, are resource intensive, or depend on the ability to introduce changes in areas which are beyond the control of the faculty (e.g., scheduling), thus inhibiting their implementation. An alternative strategy that overcomes these obstacles is to modify the nature of the laboratory experience (a component that practically nobody disputes is an essential part of the introductory course), to provide hands-on learning opportunities that differ from the traditional "follow-this-recipe-to-verify-this-law" approach. I have chosen to implement a variety of activities that support the overall objectives of the course: developing conceptual understanding and transferable skills, and providing practice in the ways scientists actually do science. Given the audience in this two-semester, algebra-based course, mostly biology majors and pre-professionals (health-related careers, such as medicine, physical therapy, and veterinary), these goals were identified as the most important and lasting contribution that a physics course can make to the students intellectual development. I offer here examples of the types of hands on activities that I have implemented, organized for the sake of this presentation in four rather loose categories, depending on which subset of the course objectives the activities mostly address: self-designed lab activities, discussion of demo-type activities, building concepts from simple to complex, and out-of-lab physical phenomena.

  5. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Ideas on Size, Visibility and Structure of the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Pervin

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the atom gives the opportunity to both understand and conceptually unify the various domains of science, such as physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy and geology. Among these disciplines, physics teachers are expected to be particularly well educated in this topic. It is important that pre-service physics teachers know what sort of…

  6. Atomic physics and synchrotron radiation: The production and accumulation of highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Agagu, A.; Jones, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation can be used to produce highly-charged ions, and to study photoexcitation and photoionization for ions of virtually any element in the periodic table. To date, with few exceptions, atomic physics studies have been limited to rare gases and a few metal vapors, and to photoexcitation energies in the VUV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These limitations can now be overcome using photons produced by high-brightness synchrotron storage rings, such as the x-ray ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven. Furthermore, calculations indicate that irradiation of an ion trap with an intense energetic photon beam will result in a viable source of highly-charged ions that can be given the name PHOBIS: the PHOton Beam Ion Source. Promising results, which encourage the wider systematic use of synchrotron radiation in atomic physics research, have been obtained in recent experiments on VUV photoemission and the production and storage of multiply-charged ions. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Soft physics results from the PHENIX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esumi, ShinIchi

    2015-03-01

    High-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC-BNL and LHC-CERN provide a unique opportunity to study the properties of the high-temperature and high-density nuclear matter called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), which is supposed to exist in the early universe or inside neutron stars. The PHENIX experiment is one of the major experiments at RHIC to study the properties of QGP, especially focusing on various particle identification capabilities including photons, leptons, and hadrons. This article summarizes the soft physics results from the PHENIX experiment, such as (1) global properties like transverse energy and multiplicity measurements as well as centrality determination, (2) transverse momentum distribution and the nuclear modification factor, which represents the modification of the spectra in A+A collisions relative to the binary-collision-scaled superposition of p+p data, (3) space-time properties with Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) interferometry correlation measurement and source imaging, (4) elliptic collective expansion and higher-order harmonic event anisotropy, and (5) di-hadron correlation, jet modification, and medium response known as jet-quenching from the partonic energy loss and redistribution of the lost energy. These results are reviewed and discussed.

  8. Skylab experiments. Volume 1: Physical science, solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The basic subject of this volume is the solar astronomy program conducted on Skylab. In addition to descriptions of the individual experiments and the principles involved in their performance, a brief description is included of the sun and the energy characteristics associated with each zone. Wherever possible, related classroom activities have been identified and discussed in some detail. It will be apparent that the relationships rest not only in the field of solar astronomy, but also in the following subjects: (1) physics - optics, electromagnetic spectrum, atomic structure, etc.; (2) chemistry - emission spectra, kinetic theory, X-ray absorption, etc.; (3) biology - radiation and dependence on the sun; (4) electronics - cathode ray tubes, detectors, photomultipliers, etc.; (5) photography; (6) astronomy; and (7) industrial arts.

  9. Inelastic processes in atomic, molecular and chemical physics (in honour of Andrey K. Belyaev)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, Paul S.; Tscherbul, Timur V.

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue is dedicated to Professor Andrey K. Belyaev, on the occasion of his 60th birthday and in celebration of his productive career in theoretical atomic, molecular, and chemical physics. It brings together 12 research studies of Inelastic Processes in Atomic, Molecular and Chemical Physics, a research area where Andrey himself made significant contributions. Inelastic processes are central to many different areas of physics, including atmospheric physics, astrophysics, and plasma physics to name a few, as well as in related technological applications such as lasers and fusion reactors. Quantitative understanding of the mechanisms of inelastic processes in atoms and molecules is therefore a problem of fundamental importance in physics, astrophysics, and chemistry. It is precisely this challenging problem that Andrey's research addresses using a broad arsenal of theoretical tools and techniques.

  10. A capstone research experience for physics majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David

    2013-03-01

    Dickinson College is a small liberal arts college with a thriving physics program. For years, one of the key features of our program has been a year-long senior research project that was required for each student. Unfortunately, as our number of majors increased, it became more and more difficult to supervise such a large number of senior research projects. To deal with this growing challenge, we developed a capstone research experience that involves a larger number of students working together on an independent group project. In this talk I will give a broad overview of our new senior research model and provide a few examples of projects that have been carried out over the past few years. I will also briefly describe the positive and negative aspects of this model from the perspective of faculty and students.

  11. "Reaction Microscopes": The "Cloud Chambers" of Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Joachim

    2004-09-01

    Reaction-Microscopes, developed 10 years ago in order to investigate fast ion-atom collisions [1], allow to determine the complete vector momenta of several electrons and ions emerging as a result of the fragmentation of single atoms, molecules or clusters interacting with electrons, ions, single photons or intense laser pulses. Thus, the complete final-state many-particle wave function in momentum space becomes observable for single and multiple ionisation of atoms as well as for the dissociation of molecules [2]. In the talk the working principle of these machines will be described. Illustrative examples will be given demonstrating the ability of the method to identify the ``mechanisms'' of single and multiple ionisation for electron and ion impact. Its potential for the investigation of single photon as well as of intense laser-pulse induced fragmentation will be highlighted. Future possibilities to investigate ultra-low-energy electron atom or molecule collisions, laser assisted ionisation, using few-cycle phase controlled laser pulses or future free-electron lasers are envisaged. [1] R. Moshammer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1994) 3371 [2] J. Ullrich et al., Rep. Prog. Phys. 66 (2003) 1463

  12. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Comparing the atom to a "tiny solar system" is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate…

  13. Request for Support for the Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Ditmire

    2004-10-21

    The Conference on Super Intense Laser Atom Physics (SILAP) was held in November 2003 in Dallas, Texas. The venue for the meeting was South Fork Ranch in the outskirts of Dallas. The topics of the meeting included high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse generation, strong field interactions with molecules and clusters, particle acceleration, and relativistic laser atom interactions.

  14. Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauel, M. E.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.

    2013-12-01

    Modern society's reliance on space-based platforms for a variety of economic and geopolitical purposes makes understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and "space weather'' one of the most important applications of plasma science. During the past decade, results from the CTX and LDX laboratory magnetospheres and from the RT-1 device at University of Tokyo, we have developed techniques to explore space physics using controlled experiments in laboratory magnetospheres. This presentation briefly reviews observations from the laboratory magnetospheres at Columbia University and MIT, including adiabatic drift-resonant transport, low-frequency MHD turbulence, and the formation of high-beta plasmas with profiles similar to Earth's inner magnetosphere. First principle validation of ``whole plasma'' space weather models have been completed in relevant magnetic geometry, including the spectrum and dynamics of turbulence successfully modeled with nonlinear bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations. Plans to explore Alfvénic dynamics and whistler wave trapping are discussed through the achievement of higher-density plasmas using radio-frequency heating. Photographs of the laboratory magnetospheres located at MIT (top) and Columbia University (bottom).

  15. Controlled Space Physics Experiments using Laboratory Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauel, Michael; Davis, M.; Garnier, D.; Roberts, T. M.; Worstell, M.; Kesner, J.

    2013-10-01

    Modern society's reliance on space-based platforms for a variety of economic and geopolitical purposes makes understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and ``space weather'' one of the most important applications of plasma science. During the past decade, results from the CTX and LDX laboratory magnetospheres and from the RT-1 device at University of Tokyo, we have developed techniques to explore space physics using controlled experiments in laboratory magnetospheres. This presentation briefly reviews observations from the laboratory magnetospheres at Columbia University and MIT, including adiabatic drift-resonant transport, low-frequency MHD turbulence, and the formation of high-beta plasmas with profiles similar to Earth's inner magnetosphere. First principle validation of ``whole plasma'' space weather models have been completed in relevant magnetic geometry, including the spectrum and dynamics of turbulence successfully modeled with nonlinear bounce-averaged gyrokinetic simulations. Plans to explore Alfvénic dynamics and whistler wave trapping are discussed through the achievement of higher-density plasmas using radio-frequency heating. Supported by the NSF-DOE Partnership in Plasma Science.

  16. Infrasound Generation from the Source Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, L. A.; Schramm, K. A.; Jones, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the acoustic and infrasound source generation mechanisms from underground explosions is of great importance for usage of this unique data type in non-proliferation activities. One of the purposes of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), a series of underground explosive shots at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), is to gain an improved understanding of the generation and propagation of physical signals, such as seismic and infrasound, from the near to far field. Two of the SPE shots (SPE-1 and SPE-4') were designed to be small "Green's Function" sources with minimal spall or permanent surface deformation. We analyze infrasound data collected from these two shots at distances from ~300 m to ~1 km and frequencies up to 20 Hz. Using weather models based upon actual observations at the times of these sources, including 3-D variations in topography, temperatures, pressures, and winds, we synthesized full waveforms using Sandia's moving media acoustic propagation simulation suite. Several source mechanisms were simulated and compared and contrasted with observed waveforms using full waveform source inversion. We will discuss results of these source inversions including the relative roll of spall from these small explosions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes, their agglomerates, and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. Particle sizes of 1.9 to 8 mm (0.075 to 0.315 in.) were measured. The particle agglomerate sizes and areas were measured, and the total mass of solid hydrogen was computed. A total mass of from 0.22 to 7.9 grams of hydrogen was frozen. Compaction and expansion of the agglomerate implied that the particles remain independent particles, and can be separated and controlled. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  18. Learning Pathways in High-School Level Quantum Atomic Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedderer, Hans; Petri, Juergen

    Investigations of changes in conceptions during physics instruction are the logical and necessary steps to follow successful international research on students' preinstructional conceptions. The theoretical perspective integrates currently available frameworks of cognition, cognitive states, and cognitive processes in physics. Particular emphasis…

  19. Physics of the missing atoms: technetium and promethium

    SciTech Connect

    Aspden, H.

    1987-05-01

    Technetium (Z = 43) and promethium (Z = 61) are by far the least abundant of all atoms below the radioactive elements (Z = 84 onwards). Their scarcity confirms theoretical predictions emerging from a theory of the photon derived from synchronous lattice electrodynamics. This theory has given precise theoretical values for the fine-structure constant and the constant of gravitation G and is now shown in this paper to indicate resonant interactions between the vacuum lattice oscillations and technetium and promethium. In the case of promethium there is strong reason for believing that this atom can assume supergravitational or antigravitational properties, accounting for its scarcity. This paper not only adds support to the earlier theoretical work on the photon and gravitation, but suggests a research route that might lead to new technology based on controlled interactions with gravity fields.

  20. The Heidelberg test storage ring for heavy ions and its use for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1986-11-01

    A brief description of the Heavy-Ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) presently being built at the Max-Planck Institut in Heidelberg is given. It will be able to store ions injected from the tandem postaccelerator combination up to about 30 MeV/nucleon for a charge to mass ratio of 0.5. One of the main purposes of the TSR will be the study of electron cooling. Some atomic physics experiments are discussed using the electron cooling device which provides an electron-ion collision facility with good energy resolution and ion beams of high currents and low emittances. Here the possibilities for measurements of spontaneous and laser-induced radiative recombination and dielectronic recombination in the electron cooling section are discussed.

  1. AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Presti, P.

    1998-07-01

    This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments.

  2. Influence of Halide Solutions on Collagen Networks: Measurements of Physical Properties by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kempe, André; Lackner, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    The influence of aqueous halide solutions on collagen coatings was tested. The effects on resistance against indentation/penetration on adhesion forces were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the change of Young's modulus of the coating was derived. Comparative measurements over time were conducted with halide solutions of various concentrations. Physical properties of the mesh-like coating generally showed large variability. Starting with a compact set of physical properties, data disperse after minutes. A trend of increase in elasticity and permeability was found for all halide solutions. These changes were largest in NaI, displaying a logical trend with ion size. However a correlation with concentration was not measured. Adhesion properties were found to be independent of mechanical properties. The paper also presents practical experience for AFM measurements of soft tissue under liquids, particularly related to data evaluation. The weakening in physical strength found after exposure to halide solutions may be interpreted as widening of the network structure or change in the chemical properties in part of the collagen fibres (swelling). In order to design customized surface coatings at optimized conditions also for medical applications, halide solutions might be used as agents with little impact on the safety of patients. PMID:27721994

  3. Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega, Joaquim A.

    1996-10-01

    Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct. In FAAS, the most critical step is the sample introduction, since solutions need to be converted in an aerosol (nebulization process) that should contain drops with suitable size to attain the flame. Solution physical properties, such as viscosity and surface tension, can severely affect the analytical signals. Solutions with high viscosity are less easily aspirated and the analyte mass that reach the flame is reduced. The surface tension of the solution affects the size of the drops generated by the nebulization process and can modify the quantity of analyte that attain the flame. This work describes an experiment that allow demonstrating the effects of viscosity and surface tension on analytical signals, using a set of copper solutions prepared in different concentrations of ethanol and chromium solutions prepared in surfactant (tetrapropylammonium bromide) medium. The experiment can be carried out in a 4 h laboratory class and is useful to demonstrate to undergraduate students the effects of samples physical properties on the analytical signals in FAAS.

  4. The Physics of Spin-Polarized Atomic Vapors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    formula (82) (Ref. II). shift methods. In this paper we present the basic theory of spin ex- lower third-body pressures. Essentially the same relaxa- change...polarization during the 129Xe relaxa- The voltages on the capacitors are tion transient the left side of R,, in Fig. 17 is essentially "FM F) at ground...exchange is described by non-linear rate equa- tions. The nonlinearity is essential if one is to account for the spin polarization of both atoms which are

  5. Beryllium atom reinvestigated: A comparison between theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mårtensson-Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Alexander, Steve A.; Adamowicz, Ludwik; Oliphant, Nevin; Olsen, Jeppe; Öster, Per; Quiney, Harry M.; Salomonson, Sten; Sundholm, Dage

    1991-04-01

    We compare the theoretical and experimental energies for the ground state of the beryllium atom and investigate possible sources for the small discrepancy of about 60 μhartrees found by Bunge [Phys. Rev. A 14, 1965 (1976); 17, 486(E) (1978)]. Indications that the correlation energy may be underestimated in Bunge's work have been confirmed by a recent, very extensive multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculation. We emphasize that the critical part of the comparison between theory and experiment is the sum of the first and second ionization energies-the third and fourth are known more accurately from theory-and present the theoretical results accordingly. Before a comparison with experimental results can be performed, corrections must be added to account for mass polarization, for the effect of relativity including the Breit interaction and for radiative effects. The previously unknown mass-polarization contribution to the first ionization energy has recently been determined experimentally. Relativity is most important for the 1s electrons and this effect was included in Bunge's work, whereas the relativistic effect on the correlation involving the 2s electrons was neglected. Here, these contributions have been calculated to leading order. A crude estimate of the contribution to the Lamb shift from the 2s electrons is also given. When the revised relativistic corrections are combined with recent results from a very extensive MCHF calculation, the discrepancy in the beryllium ground-state energy is reduced to (10+/-50)μ hartrees.

  6. New experiments on few-electron very heavy atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, H.

    1985-07-01

    New experiments, to test quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong Coulomb fields and to study atomic collisions at ultrarelativistic energies, are proposed. A 0.1% measurement of the 2/sup 2/P/sub 1/2/-2/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ splitting in lithium like uranium (Z=92) and the 2/sup 3/P/sub 0/ - 2/sup 3/S/sub 1/ splitting in heliumlike uranium is proposed as a sub 1% test of the Lamb shift in a strong Coulomb field. Measurements of the hyperfine splitting of hydrogenlike thallium (Z=81) and the g/sub j/ factor of the ground state of hydrogenlike uranium are propsed as a test of the QED contribution to the magnetic moment of an electron bound in a strong Coulomb field. Measurements of capture cross sections for ultra relativistic very heavy nuclei are proposed to look for the capture of electrons from pair production. 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Hadron physics at the COMPASS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-05-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, in principle describes the interaction of quark and gluon fields. However, due to the self-coupling of the gluons, quarks and gluons are confined into hadrons and cannot exist as free particles. The quantitative understanding of this confinement phenomenon, which is responsible for about 98% of the mass of the visible universe, is one of the major open questions in particle physics. The measurement of the excitation spectrum of hadrons and of their properties gives valuable input to theory and phenomenology. In the Constituent Quark Model (CQM) two types of hadrons exist: mesons, made out of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which consist of three quarks. But more advanced QCD-inspired models and Lattice QCD calculations predict the existence of hadrons with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). The Compass experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has acquired large data sets, which allow to study light-quark meson and baryon spectra in unprecedented detail. The presented overview of the first results from this data set focuses in particular on the light meson sector and presents a detailed analysis of three-pion final states. A new JPC = 1++ state, the a1(1420), is observed with a mass and width in the ranges m = 1412 - 1422MeV/c2 and Γ = 130 - 150MeV/c2.

  8. Application of Group Theory to Some Problems in Atomic Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suskin, Mark Albert

    This work comprises three problems, each of which lends itself to investigation via the theory of groups and group representations. The first problem is to complete a set of operators used in the fitting of atomic energy levels of atoms whose ground configuration is f ^ 3. The role of group theory in the labelling of these operators and in their construction is explained. Values of parameters associated with a subset of the operators are also calculated via their group labels. The second problem is to explain the term inversion that occurs between states of the configuration of two equivalent electrons and certain of the states of the half-filled shell. This leads to generalizations that make it possible to investigate correspondences between matrix elements of effective operators taken between states of other configurations besides the two mentioned. This is made possible through the notion of quasispin. The third problem is the construction of recoupling coefficients for groups other than SO(3). Questions of phase convention and Kronecker-product multiplicities are taken up. Several methods of calculation are given and their relative advantages discussed. Tables of values of the calculated 6-j symbols are provided.

  9. Project Physics Handbook 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Five experiments and 19 activities are presented in this Unit 5 handbook. The experiments are related to electrolysis, charge-to-mass ratio, elementary charge determination, photoelectric effects, and spectroscopic analyses. The activities are concerned with Dalton's theory, water electrolysis, periodic tables, single-electron plating, cloud…

  10. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  11. Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A. R.; Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Sensharma, A.; Chase, B.; Field, J. P.; Garcia, A.; Aubin, S.; Jervis, D.

    2014-04-15

    We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold {sup 87}Rb and {sup 39}K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold {sup 39}K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.

  12. Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases.

    PubMed

    Ivory, M K; Ziltz, A R; Fancher, C T; Pyle, A J; Sensharma, A; Chase, B; Field, J P; Garcia, A; Jervis, D; Aubin, S

    2014-04-01

    We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold (87)Rb and (39)K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10(4) (87)Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold (39)K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.

  13. PREFACE: 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jim F.; Buckman, Steve; Bieske, Evan J.

    2009-09-01

    These proceedings arose from the 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP) which was held at the University of Western Australia 24-28 November 2008. The history of AISAMP (Takayanagi and Matsuzawa 2002) recognizes its origin from the Japan-China meeting of 1985, and the first use of the name 'The First Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP)' in 1992. The initial attendees, Japan and China, were joined subsequently by scientists from Korea, Taiwan, India, Australia and recently by Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Turkey Iran, UK and USA. The main purpose of the biennial AISAMP series is to create a wide forum for exchanging ideas and information among atomic and molecular scientists and to promote international collaboration. The scope of the AISAMP8 meeting included pure, strategic and applied research involving atomic and molecular structure and processes in all forms of matter and antimatter. For 2008 the AISAMP conference incorporated the Australian Atomic and Molecular Physics and Quantum Chemistry meeting. The topics for AISAMP8 embraced themes from earlier AISAMP meetings and reflected new interests, in atomic and molecular structures, spectroscopy and collisions; atomic and molecular physics with laser or synchrotron radiation; quantum information processing using atoms and molecules; atoms and molecules in surface physics, nanotechnology, biophysics, atmospheric physics and other interdisciplinary studies. The implementation of the AISAMP themes, as well as the international representation of research interests, is indicated both in the contents list of these published manuscripts as well as in the program for the meeting. Altogether, 184 presentations were made at the 8th AISAMP, including Invited Talks and Contributed Poster Presentations, of which 60 appear in the present Proceedings after review by expert referees in accordance with the usual practice of Journal of Physics: Conference Series of

  14. Nuclear physics (of the cell, not the atom)

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru; Marko, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is physically distinct from the cytoplasm in ways that suggest new ideas and approaches for interrogating the operation of this organelle. Chemical bond formation and breakage underlie the lives of cells, but as this special issue of Molecular Biology of the Cell attests, the nonchemical aspects of cell nuclei present a new frontier to biologists and biophysicists. PMID:25368422

  15. Project Physics Teacher Guide 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Teaching procedures of Project Physics Unit 5 are presented to help teachers make effective use of learning materials. Unit contents are discussed in connection with teaching aid lists, multi-media schedules, schedule blocks, and resource charts. Brief summaries are made for transparencies, 16mm films, and reader articles. Included is information…

  16. Nuclear physics (of the cell, not the atom).

    PubMed

    Pederson, Thoru; Marko, John F

    2014-11-05

    The nucleus is physically distinct from the cytoplasm in ways that suggest new ideas and approaches for interrogating the operation of this organelle. Chemical bond formation and breakage underlie the lives of cells, but as this special issue of Molecular Biology of the Cell attests, the nonchemical aspects of cell nuclei present a new frontier to biologists and biophysicists.

  17. Pulsed power accelerator for material physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Austin, K. N.; Waisman, E. M.; Hickman, R. J.; Davis, J.-P.; Haill, T. A.; Knudson, M. D.; Seagle, C. T.; Brown, J. L.; Goerz, D. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Goldlust, J. A.; Cravey, W. R.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed the design of Thor: a pulsed power accelerator that delivers a precisely shaped current pulse with a peak value as high as 7 MA to a strip-line load. The peak magnetic pressure achieved within a 1-cm-wide load is as high as 100 GPa. Thor is powered by as many as 288 decoupled and transit-time isolated bricks. Each brick consists of a single switch and two capacitors connected electrically in series. The bricks can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of current pulse tailoring. Because the accelerator is impedance matched throughout, capacitor energy is delivered to the strip-line load with an efficiency as high as 50%. We used an iterative finite element method (FEM), circuit, and magnetohydrodynamic simulations to develop an optimized accelerator design. When powered by 96 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 4.1 MA to a load, and achieves peak magnetic pressures as high as 65 GPa. When powered by 288 bricks, Thor delivers as much as 6.9 MA to a load, and achieves magnetic pressures as high as 170 GPa. We have developed an algebraic calculational procedure that uses the single brick basis function to determine the brick-triggering sequence necessary to generate a highly tailored current pulse time history for shockless loading of samples. Thor will drive a wide variety of magnetically driven shockless ramp compression, shockless flyer plate, shock-ramp, equation of state, material strength, phase transition, and other advanced material physics experiments.

  18. Physics of Optically Pumped Alkali-Metal Atoms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-14

    collision broadening and will be almost completely determined by hyperfine structure, natural radiative broadening and Doppler broadening . 3 When pumped by...supported research, and will be an great advantage for work on greenhouse physics. Of particular interest is how collisions of CO2 molecules with the...nitrogen and oxygen molecules of the air affect the way CO2 absorbs and emits radiation. Incorrect modeling of collisional line broadening is one of

  19. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ≈ ni ~ 10¹⁶ cm⁻³, Te ≈ Ti ≈ 1.4 eV, Vjet ≈ 30–100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}$ ≈ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ≡ Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ≈ 20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

  20. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    DOE PAGES

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; ...

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ≈ ni ~ 10¹⁶ cm⁻³, Te ≈ Ti ≈ 1.4 eV, Vjet ≈ 30–100 km/s, mean chargemore » $$\\bar{Z}$$ ≈ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ≡ Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ≈ 20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.« less

  1. Characterization of an atomic hydrogen source for charge exchange experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutenegger, M. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betancourt-Martinez, G. L.; Brown, G. V.; Hell, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Magee, E. W.; Porter, F. S.

    2016-11-01

    We characterized the dissociation fraction of a thermal dissociation atomic hydrogen source by injecting the mixed atomic and molecular output of the source into an electron beam ion trap containing highly charged ions and recording the x-ray spectrum generated by charge exchange using a high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer. We exploit the fact that the charge exchange state-selective capture cross sections are very different for atomic and molecular hydrogen incident on the same ions, enabling a clear spectroscopic diagnostic of the neutral species.

  2. Physics Experiments with Nintendo Wii Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Martyn D.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of the use of Nintendo Wii game controllers in physics demonstrations. The main features of the controller relevant to physics are outlined and the procedure for communicating with a PC is described. A piece of software written by the author is applied to gathering data from a controller suspended from…

  3. PROBING THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF ATOMIC GAS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Neeleman, Marcel; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2015-02-10

    A new method is used to measure the physical conditions of the gas in damped Lyα systems (DLAs). Using high-resolution absorption spectra of a sample of 80 DLAs, we are able to measure the ratio of the upper and lower fine-structure levels of the ground state of C{sup +} and Si{sup +}. These ratios are determined solely by the physical conditions of the gas. We explore the allowed physical parameter space using a Monte Carlo Markov chain method to constrain simultaneously the temperature, neutral hydrogen density, and electron density of each DLA. The results indicate that at least 5% of all DLAs have the bulk of their gas in a dense, cold phase with typical densities of ∼100 cm{sup –3} and temperatures below 500 K. We further find that the typical pressure of DLAs in our sample is log (P/k{sub B} ) = 3.4 (K cm{sup –3}), which is comparable to the pressure of the local interstellar medium (ISM), and that the components containing the bulk of the neutral gas can be quite small with absorption sizes as small as a few parsecs. We show that the majority of the systems are consistent with having densities significantly higher than expected for a purely canonical warm neutral medium, indicating that significant quantities of dense gas (i.e., n {sub H} > 0.1 cm{sup –3}) are required to match observations. Finally, we identify eight systems with positive detections of Si II*. These systems have pressures (P/k{sub B} ) in excess of 20,000 K cm{sup –3}, which suggest that these systems tag a highly turbulent ISM in young, star-forming galaxies.

  4. Otto Stern (1888-1969): The founding father of experimental atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, J. P.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Friedrich, B.; Lower, J. C. A.

    2011-12-01

    We review the work and life of Otto Stern who developed the molecular beam technique and with its aid laid the foundations of experimental atomic physics. Among the key results of his research are: the experimental determination of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities (1920), experimental demonstration of space quantization of angular momentum (1922), diffraction of matter waves comprised of atoms and molecules by crystals (1931) and the determination of the magnetic dipole moments of the proton and deuteron (1933).

  5. Experiments in Cold Atom Optics at ARL I: Introduction to Atom Chip Set-up

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    optics. A pair of coils in an anti- Helmholtz configuration generate the quadrapole trapping fields. While two pairs of coils in Helmhotz configuration...order to trap the atoms an inhomogeneous magnetic field is applied via a pair of coils in an anti- Helmholtz configuration. Atoms that drift away...in an anti- Helmholtz configuration. The current is adjusted in these coils until the overlap between the laser beams and the magnetic field minimum

  6. Computation of Free-Free Transitions in Atomic Physics: Foundations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Sucher, J.

    2003-01-01

    The amplitude T for "free-free" processes, such as bremsstrahlung or photo- absorption by an electron in the continuum in the presence of an external field, is usually written as the matrix element of the radiation operator taken between two continuum states. However, unlike the case when at least one of the states is bound, as in radiative transitions, electron capture, or the photo-effect, this expression contains an unphysical term, proportional to a delta-function and is not really the physical amplitude Tphys. This continues to be true for both the velocity and length form of the dipole approximation to the amplitude T. We first give an a priori definition of Tphys in terms of the scattering parts of the continuum functions, which has an obvious interpretation in terms of time-ordered diagrams. We then show that when the formal amplitude is modified by a long- distance cutoff, the modified form approaches Tphys as the cutoff is removed. The modified form then serves as a basis for the definition of a physical velocity dipole amplitude and this in turn leads to an equivalent length form of the dipole amplitude. This exercise provides a clear theoretical basis for many extant calculations in which cutoff factors are introduces somewhat ad hoc, as needed.

  7. New Phenomena in Physics Related with Single-Atom Electron Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamine, Yuta; Fujiwara, Kazuto; Cho, Bokulae; Oshima, Chuhei

    We have reviewed new phenomena in physics related with development of single-atom electron sources. A collimated electron beam was emitted from the single-atom situated at the top of the nano-pyramids. The following three topics have been discussed. (1) High brightness of electron beam: High-density electrons come out of the source, and overlapping of wave functions presumably produces new phenomena including anti-bunching of electrons in vacuum. Energy spectra showed characteristic features of single-atom electron sources; additional shoulders appeared in the normal spectra. 3) Stable electron emission originates from the field evaporation.

  8. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  9. The Influence of Hands On Physics Experiments on Scientific Process Skills According to Prospective Teachers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirça, Necati

    2013-01-01

    In this study, relationship between prospective science and technology teachers' experiences in conducting Hands on physics experiments and their physics lab I achievement was investigated. Survey model was utilized and the study was carried out in the 2012 spring semester. Seven Hands on physics experiments were conducted with 28 prospective…

  10. Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  11. French Atomic Energy Commission Decommissioning Programme and Feedback Experience - 12230

    SciTech Connect

    Guiberteau, Ph.; Nokhamzon, J.G.

    2012-07-01

    Since the French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission (CEA) was founded in 1945 to carry out research programmes on use of nuclear, and its application France has set up and run various types of installations: research or prototypes reactors, process study or examination laboratories, pilot installations, accelerators, nuclear power plants and processing facilities. Some of these are currently being dismantled or must be dismantled soon so that the DEN, the Nuclear Energy Division, can construct new equipment and thus have available a range of R and D facilities in line with the issues of the nuclear industry of the future. Since the 1960's and 1970's in all its centres, the CEA has acquired experience and know-how through dismantling various nuclear facilities. The dismantling techniques are nowadays operational, even if sometimes certain specific developments are necessary to reduce the cost of operations. Thanks to availability of techniques and guarantees of dismantling programme financing now from two dedicated funds, close to euro 15,000 M for the next thirty years, for current or projected dismantling operations, the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division has been able to develop, when necessary, its immediate dismantling strategy. Currently, nearly thirty facilities are being dismantled by the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division operational units with industrial partners. Thus the next decade will see completion of the dismantling and radioactive clean-up of the Grenoble site and of the facilities on the Fontenay-aux-Roses site. By 2016, the dismantling of the UP1 plant at Marcoule, the largest dismantling work in France, will be well advanced, with all the process equipment dismantled. After an overview of the French regulatory framework, the paper will describe the DD and R (Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation) strategy, programme and feedback experience inside the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division. A special feature of dismantling operations at the CEA

  12. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  13. Use of Video in the Harvard Project Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Joyce

    1974-01-01

    The advantages are related of a video recorder over a Polaroid camera for doing experiments dealing with the "conservation of mass and momentum." Use of video records is advocated for recording measurements in physics experiments. (JP)

  14. V. S. Lebedev and I. L. Beigman, Physics of Highly Excited Atoms and Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewe, R.

    1999-07-01

    This book contains a comprehensive description of the basic principles of the theoretical spectroscopy and experimental spectroscopic diagnostics of Rydberg atoms and ions, i.e., atoms in highly excited states with a very large principal quantum number (n≫1). Rydberg atoms are characterized by a number of peculiar physical properties as compared to atoms in the ground or a low excited state. They have a very small ionization potential (∝1/n2), the highly excited electron has a small orbital velocity (∝1/n), the radius (∝n2) is very large, the excited electron has a long orbital period (∝n3), and the radiation lifetime is very long (∝n3-5). At the same time the R. atom is very sensitive to perturbations from external fields in collisions with charged and neutral targets. In recent years, R. atoms have been observed in laboratory and cosmic conditions for n up to ˜1000, which means that the size amounts to about 0.1 mm, ˜106 times that of an atom in the ground state. The scope of this monograph is to familiarize the reader with today's approaches and methods for describing isolated R. atoms and ions, radiative transitions between highly excited states, and photoionization and photorecombination processes. The authors present a number of efficient methods for describing the structure and properties of R. atoms and calculating processes of collisions with neutral and charged particles as well as spectral-line broadening and shift of Rydberg atomic series in gases, cool and hot plasmas in laboratories and in astrophysical sources. Particular attention is paid to a comparison of theoretical results with available experimental data. The book contains 9 chapters. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the basic properties of R. atoms (ions), Chapter 2 is devoted to an account of general methods describing an isolated Rydberg atom. Chapter 3 is focussed on the recent achievements in calculations of form factors and dipole matrix elements of different types of

  15. Youth with Visual Impairments: Experiences in General Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Robinson, Barbara L.; Rollheiser, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of students with visual impairments currently being educated in inclusive general physical education makes it important that physical education instructors know how best to serve them. Assessment of the experiences of students with visual impairments during general physical education classes, knowledge of students'…

  16. An Experiment on a Physical Pendulum and Steiner's Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russeva, G. B.; Tsutsumanova, G. G.; Russev, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratory curricula usually include experiments on the moment of inertia, the centre of gravity, the harmonic motion of a physical pendulum, and Steiner's theorem. We present a simple experiment using very low cost equipment for investigating these subjects in the general case of an asymmetrical test body. (Contains 3 figures…

  17. Impact Crater Experiments for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Activity-based collisional analysis is developed for introductory physics and astronomy laboratory experiments. Crushable floral foam is used to investigate the physics of projectiles undergoing completely inelastic collisions with a low-density solid forming impact craters. Simple drop experiments enable determination of the average acceleration,…

  18. Friendship, Physicality, and Physical Education: An Exploration of the Social and Embodied Dynamics of Girls' Physical Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Physical education represents a dynamic social space where students experience and interpret physicality in a context that accentuates peer relationships and privileges particular forms of embodiment. This article focuses on girls' understandings of physicality with respect to the organisation of physical education and more informal social…

  19. First order error corrections in common introductory physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckey, Jacob; Baker, Andrew; Aravind, Vasudeva; Clarion Team

    As a part of introductory physics courses, students perform different standard lab experiments. Almost all of these experiments are prone to errors owing to factors like friction, misalignment of equipment, air drag, etc. Usually these types of errors are ignored by students and not much thought is paid to the source of these errors. However, paying attention to these factors that give rise to errors help students make better physics models and understand physical phenomena behind experiments in more detail. In this work, we explore common causes of errors in introductory physics experiment and suggest changes that will mitigate the errors, or suggest models that take the sources of these errors into consideration. This work helps students build better and refined physical models and understand physics concepts in greater detail. We thank Clarion University undergraduate student grant for financial support involving this project.

  20. Atomic photoionization experiment by harmonic-generation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, M. V.; Sarantseva, T. S.; Manakov, N. L.; Fulfer, K. D.; Wilson, B. P.; Troß, J.; Ren, X.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Silaev, A. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.; Starace, Anthony F.; Trallero-Herrero, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of the high-order-harmonic generation yield of the argon (Ar) atom driven by a strong elliptically polarized laser field are shown to completely determine the field-free differential photoionization cross section of Ar, i.e., the energy dependence of both the angle-integrated photoionization cross section and the angular distribution asymmetry parameter.

  1. Clock Technology Development in the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Dave; Thompson, R. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. It focuses on clock technology development. The topics include: 1) Overview of LCAP Flight Projects; 2) Space Clock 101; 3) Physics with Clocks in microgravity; 4) Space Clock Challenges; 5) LCAP Timeline; 6) International Space Station (ISS) Science Platforms; 7) ISS Express Rack; 8) Space Qualification of Components; 9) Laser Configuration; 10) Clock Rate Comparisons: GPS Carrier Phase Frequency Transfer; and 11) ISS Model Views. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  2. PREFACE: 7th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Chakraborty, Purushottam; Williams, Jim F.

    2007-09-01

    These proceedings arose from the 7th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP) which was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras from 4-7 December 2006. The history of the AISAMP has been reviewed by Takayanagi http://www.physics.iitm.ac.in/~aisamp7/history.html. This international seminar/conference series grew out of the Japan-China meetings which were launched in 1985, the fourth of which was held in 1992 and carried a second title: The First Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP), thus providing a formal medium for scientists in this part of the world to report periodically and exchange their scientific thoughts. The founding nations of Japan and China were joined subsequently by Korea, Taiwan, India and Australia. The aims of the symposia included bringing together leading experts and students of atomic and molecular physics, the discussion of important problems, learning and sharing modern techniques and expanding the horizons of modern atomic and molecular physics. The fields of interest ranged from atomic and molecular structure and dynamics to photon, electron and positron scattering, to quantum information processing, the effects of symmetry and many body interactions, laser cooling, cold traps, electric and magnetic fields and to atomic and molecular physics with synchrotron radiation. Particular interest was evident in new techniques and the changes of the physical properties from atomic to condensed matter. Details of the 7th AISAMP, including the topics for the special sessions and the full programme, are available online at the conference website http://www.physics.iitm.ac.in/~aisamp7/. In total, 95 presentations were made at the 7th AISAMP, these included the Invited Talks and Contributed Poster Presentations, of which 52 appear in the present Proceedings after review by expert referees, refereed to the usual standard of the Institute of Physics journal: Journal of Physics B: Atomic

  3. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  4. NASA physics and chemistry experiments in-space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabris, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Physics and Chemistry Experiments Program (PACE) is part of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) research and technology effort in understanding the fundamental characteristics of physics and chemical phenomena. This program seeks to increase the basic knowledge in these areas by well-planned research efforts which include in-space experiments when the limitations of ground-based activities precludes or restricts the achievement of research goals. Overview study areas are concerned with molecular beam experiments for Space Shuttle, experiments on drops and bubbles in a manned earth-orbiting laboratory, the study of combustion experiments in space, combustion experiments in orbiting spacecraft, gravitation experiments in space, and fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat-transfer experiments. Procedures for the study program have four phases. An overview study was conducted in the area of materials science.

  5. Do General Physics Textbooks Discuss Scientists' Ideas about Atomic Structure? A Case in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Kwon, Sangwoon; Kim, Nahyun; Lee, Gyoungho

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general physics textbooks published in Korea based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. The result of this study shows that Korean general…

  6. Simulations of Ground and Space-Based Oxygen Atom Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, T. K.; Cline, J. A.; Braunstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    Fast, pulsed atomic oxygen sources are a key tool in ground-based investigations of spacecraft contamination and surface erosion effects. These technically challenging ground-based studies provide a before and after picture of materials under low-earth-orbit (LEO) conditions. It would be of great interest to track in real time the pulsed flux from the source to the surface sample target and beyond in order to characterize the population of atoms and molecules that actually impact the surface and those that make it downstream to any coincident detectors. We have performed simulations in order to provide such detailed descriptions of these ground-based measurements and to provide an assessment of their correspondence to the actual LEO environment. Where possible we also make comparisons to measured fluxes and erosion yields. To perform the calculations we use a detailed description of a measurement beam and surface geometry based on the W, pulsed apparatus at Montana State University. In this system, a short pulse (on the order of 10 microseconds) of an O/O2 beam impacts a flat sample about 40 cm downstream and slightly displaced &om the beam s central axis. Past this target, at the end of the beam axis is a quadrupole mass spectrometer that measures the relative in situ flux of 0102 to give an overall normalized erosion yield. In our simulations we use the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, and track individual atoms within the atomic oxygen pulse. DSMC techniques are typically used to model rarefied (few collision) gas-flows which occur at altitudes above approximately 110 kilometers. These techniques are well suited for the conditions here, and multi-collision effects that can only be treated by this or a similar technique are included. This simulation includes collisions with the surface and among gas atoms that have scattered from the surface. The simulation also includes descriptions of the velocity spread and spatial profiles of the O/O2 beam

  7. An Atomic Photoionization Experiment by Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trallero, Carlos; Frolov, Mikhail; Sarantseva, Tatiana S.; Manakov, Nikolay; Fulfer, Kristen D.; Wilson, Benjamin; Troß, Jan; Ren, Xiaoming; Poliakoff, Erwin; Silaev, Alexander A.; Vvedenskii, Nikolay; Starace, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of the high-order harmonic generation yield of the argon (Ar) atom driven by a strong elliptically polarized laser field are shown to completely determine the field-free differential photoionization cross section of Ar, i.e., the energy dependence of both the angle-integrated photoionization cross section and the angular distribution asymmetry parameter. NSF EPSCoR Track II Nebraska-Kansas Awards No. 1430519 and No. 1430493.

  8. An Apollo compatible cloud physics experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Hollinden, A. B.; Satterblom, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the utilization of a low-gravity environment to obtain experimental information, in the area of cloud microphysics, which cannot be obtained in ground laboratories. The experiment discussed is designed to obtain quantitative answers about evaporation and breakup of salt particles from ocean spray and other sources. In addition to salt nuclei distribution mechanisms, this breakup has ecological importance in relation to the spreading of salt mists from salted highways and spreading of brine cooling tower spray from electrical power generation plants. This experiment is being submitted for consideration on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program in 1975.

  9. A Technology Demonstration Experiment for Laser Cooled Atomic Clocks in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Seidel, D. J.; Thompson, R. J.; Maleki, L.; Gibble, K.

    2000-01-01

    We have been developing a laser-cooling apparatus for flight on the International Space Station (ISS), with the intention of demonstrating linewidths on the cesium clock transition narrower than can be realized on the ground. GLACE (the Glovebox Laser- cooled Atomic Clock Experiment) is scheduled for launch on Utilization Flight 3 (UF3) in 2002, and will be mounted in one of the ISS Glovebox platforms for an anticipated 2-3 week run. Separate flight definition projects funded at NIST and Yale by the Micro- gravity Research Division of NASA as a part of its Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program will follow GLACE. Core technologies for these and other LCAP missions are being developed at JPL, with the current emphasis on developing components such as the laser and optics subsystem, and non-magnetic vacuum-compatible mechanical shutters. Significant technical challenges in developing a space qualifiable laser cooling apparatus include reducing the volume, mass, and power requirements, while increasing the ruggedness and reliability in order to both withstand typical launch conditions and achieve several months of unattended operation. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. How Novel Algorithms and Access to High Performance Computing Platforms are Enabling Scientific Progress in Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Barry I.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 40 years there has been remarkable progress in the quantitative treatment of complex many-body problems in atomic and molecular physics (AMP). This has happened as a consequence of the development of new and powerful numerical methods, translating these algorithms into practical software and the associated evolution of powerful computing platforms ranging from desktops to high performance computational instruments capable of massively parallel computation. We are taking the opportunity afforded by this CCP2015 to review computational progress in scattering theory and the interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atomic and molecular systems from the early 1960’s until the present time to show how these advances have revealed a remarkable array of interesting and in many cases unexpected features. The article is by no means complete and certainly reflects the views and experiences of the author.

  11. Using the Wiimote in Introductory Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Romulo; Rooney, Frank G.; Somers, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The Wii is a very popular gaming console. An important component of its appeal is the ease of use of its remote controller, popularly known as a Wiimote. This simple-looking but powerful device has a three-axis accelerometer and communicates with the console via Bluetooth protocol. We present two experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of…

  12. Solution Calorimetry Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raizen, Deborah A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents two experiments: the first one measures the heat of an exothermic reaction by the reduction of permanganate by the ferris ion; the second one measures the heat of an endothermic process, the mixing of ethanol and cyclohexane. Lists tables to aid in the use of the solution calorimeter. (MVL)

  13. Time-of-Flight Experiments in Molecular Motion and Electron-Atom Collision Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Denis P.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Describes a set of experiments for an undergraduate laboratory which demonstrates the relationship between velocity, mass, and temperature in a gas. The experimental method involves time-of-flight measurements on atoms excited to metastable states by electron impact. Effects resulting from recoil in the electron-atom collision can also be…

  14. Learning Physics by Experiment: I. Falling Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2014-03-01

    As a rule, students enjoy conducting experiments in which the practical aspects are straightforward and well-defined. This also applies even when there is no anticipated result for students to ``prove.'' A laboratory exercise with such properties was created for students to undertake in a completely blind manner, and they happily proceeded without any knowledge at all of what they might expect to find. The philosophy developed for the research in this paper expands the pioneering approach formulated some half century ago and successfully employed more recently. In the present era of differentiated instruction (DI) being implemented in a diversity of educational settings, the design of the subject experiment is especially significant for its inclusive nature and for the positive outcomes it produces for less academically capable students. All students benefit from such an environment because it preempts the wasted effort of undue manipulation and it removes the need to contrive agreement with a textbook via irregular attempts at reverse engineering.

  15. Cuban Techno-physical Experiments in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, José; Calzadilla Amaya, Ocatvio; Falcon, Federico; Fuentes, Juan E.; Lodos, Jorge; Vigil Santos, Elena

    When Cuba joined the Intercosmos Program of the socialist countries in the mid-1960s, the great educational and scientific reform taking place at that time in the country had hardly begun to bear fruit. But when, a decade later, the Soviet Union offered all the participant countries the chance to make use of its space vehicles and related installations so that their cosmonauts could carry out original scientific experiments in space, the situation had changed radically in Cuba. In a short time around 200 people already involved in scientific and technological activities succeeded in designing and setting up—in close collaboration with various Soviet, East German and Bulgarian institutions—some 20 scientific experiments that were to be carried out in orbit around the earth during the joint Soviet-Cuban space flight of September 18-26, 1980. Those experiments, and a further one that was also set up for the same space flight—but carried out during a later flight, as mentioned below—are historically important since they were the first in their class to be carried out by humans in space under microgravity conditions.

  16. Physics and Its Multiple Roles in the International Atomic Energy Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Charles D.

    2017-01-01

    The IAEA is the world's centre for cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up as the world's ``Atoms for Peace'' organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies. Three main areas of work underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security, Science and Technology, and Safeguards and Verification. To carry out its mission, the Agency is authorized to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world; foster the exchange of scientific and technical information on peaceful uses of atomic energy; and encourage the exchange of training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nowadays, nuclear physics and nuclear technology are applied in a great variety of social areas, such as power production, medical diagnosis and therapies, environmental protection, security control, material tests, food processing, waste treatments, agriculture and artifacts analysis. This presentation will cover the role and practical application of physics at the IAEA, and, in particular, focus on the role physics has, and will play, in nuclear security.

  17. High precision modeling for fundamental physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rievers, Benny; Nesemann, Leo; Costea, Adrian; Andres, Michael; Stephan, Ernst P.; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    With growing experimental accuracies and high precision requirements for fundamental physics space missions the needs for accurate numerical modeling techniques are increasing. Motivated by the challenge of length stability in cavities and optical resonators we propose the develop-ment of a high precision modeling tool for the simulation of thermomechanical effects up to a numerical precision of 10-20 . Exemplary calculations for simplified test cases demonstrate the general feasibility of high precision calculations and point out the high complexity of the task. A tool for high precision analysis of complex geometries will have to use new data types, advanced FE solver routines and implement new methods for the evaluation of numerical precision.

  18. PREFACE: Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yuji; Kasai, Hideaki

    2011-10-01

    To realize next generation functional devices, atomic level controllability of the application and fabrication techniques is necessary. The conventional route to advance solid state devices, which involves improvement of 'instrumental accuracy', is now facing a major paradigm shift towards 'phenomenal accuracy'. Therefore, to keep up with this critical turn in the development of devices, pioneering research (both theoretical and experimental) on relevant materials, focusing on new physics at the atomic scale, is inevitable. This special section contains articles on the advancements in fabrication of functional devices with an emphasis on the exploration, clarification and understanding of atomistic phenomena. Research articles reporting theoretical and experimental findings on various materials such as semiconductors, metals, magnetic and organic systems, collectively present and 'capture' the appropriate processes and mechanisms of this rapidly developing field. The theoretical investigations employ first-principles quantum-mechanical simulations to clarify and bring about design principles and guidelines, or to develop more reliable computational methods. Experimental studies, on the other hand, introduce novel capabilities to build, view and manipulate materials at the atomic scale by employing pioneering techniques. Thus, the section pays significant attention to novel structures and properties and the accompanying fabrication techniques and design arising from the understanding of properties and structures at the atomic scale. We hope that researchers in the area of physics, materials science and engineering, interested in the development of functional devices via atomic level control, will find valuable information in this collaborative work. We are grateful to all of the authors for their contributions. Atomically controlled fabrication contents On the mechanism of carbon nanotube formation: the role of the catalyst G N Ayre, T Uchino, B Mazumder, A L Hector

  19. The Advanced Light Source: A new tool for research in atomic and molecular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1991-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the world's brightest synchrotron radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum when it begins operation in 1993. It will be available as a national user facility to researchers in a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, atomic and molecular physics, chemistry, biology, imaging, and technology. The high brightness of the ALS will be particularly well suited to high-resolution studies of tenuous targets, such as excited atoms, ions, and clusters.

  20. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  1. Physics Analysis of the FIRE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Jardin; C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; J. Breslau; G. Fu; N. Gorelenkov; J. Manickam; W. Park; H. Strauss

    2002-06-19

    An integrated model of a complete discharge in the FIRE experiment has been developed based on the TSC simulation code. The complete simulation model includes a choice of several models for core transport, combined with an edge pedestal model and the Porcelli sawtooth model. Burn control is provided by feedback on the auxiliary heating power. We find that with the GLF23 and MMM95 transport models, Q >10 operation should be possible for H-mode pedestal temperatures in the range of 4-5 keV.

  2. An undergraduate experiment demonstrating the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, James T.; Whitehouse, Christopher B.; Oulton, Rupert F.; Gennaro, Sylvain D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel undergraduate research project that highlights the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans. We confirm the Helmholtz resonance nature of a single can by measuring its amplitude and phase response to a sound wave. Arranging multiple cans in arrays smaller than the wavelength, we then design an antenna that redirects sound into a preferred direction. The antenna can be thought of as a new resonator, composed of artificially engineered meta-atoms, similar to a metamaterial. These experiments are illustrative, tactile, and open ended so as to enable students to explore the physics of matter/wave interaction.

  3. Divertor design for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.N.; Braams, B.; Brooks, J.N.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the present divertor design for the planned TPX tokamak, which will explore the physics and technology of steady-state (1000s pulses) heat and particle removal in high confinement (2--4{times} L-mode), high beta ({beta}{sub N} {ge} 3) divertor plasmas sustained by non-inductive current drive. The TPX device will operate in the double-null divertor configuration, with actively cooled graphite targets forming a deep (0.5 m) slot at the outer strike point. The peak heat flux on, the highly tilted (74{degrees} from normal) re-entrant (to recycle ions back toward the separatrix) will be in the range of 4--6 MW/m{sup 2} with 18 MW of neutral beams and RF heating power. The combination of active pumping and gas puffing (deuterium plus impurities), along with higher heating power (45 MW maximum) will allow testing of radiative divertor concepts at ITER-like power densities.

  4. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

  5. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  6. Simple Experiments on the Physics of Vision: The Retina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortel, Adolf

    2005-01-01

    Many simple experiments can be performed in the classroom to explore the physics of vision. Students can learn of the two types of receptive cells (rods and cones), their distribution on the retina and the existence of the blind spot.

  7. Pilot Experience of Teaching a History of Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddeson, Lillian Hartmann

    1971-01-01

    Outlines laboratory activities designed to permit both majors and non-majors to perform crucial experiments in physics, using, when possible, replicas of original apparatus and copies of translations of original texts. (PR)

  8. B Physics at the DO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Burelo, Eduard de la

    2008-11-13

    At the beginning of RunII of the Tevatron and after more than 30 years of the discovery of the b quark at Fermilab, the lack of statistics had restricted our knowledge on b-baryons to the observation of the lightest b-baryon, the {lambda}{sub b}, and to its lifetime measured in decays which did not allow a fully reconstruction of this particle. I present results of the search for b-baryons in the DO experiment. As part of this program, a precise measurement of the {lambda}{sub b} lifetime was performed, and the discovery of the {xi}{sub b}{sup -} resulted from an analysis of 1.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector during 2002-2006.

  9. Theory and experiment in gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.

  10. Creative Turbulence: Experiments in Art and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Enrico; Dubois, R. Luke; Camnasio, Sara; Porfiri, Maurizio; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Serrano, Daniel; Ranjan, Devesh

    2016-11-01

    Effective communication of basic research to non-experts is necessary to inspire the public and to justify support for science by the taxpayers. The creative power of art is particularly important to engage an adult audience, who otherwise might not be receptive to standard didactic material. Interdisciplinarity defines new trends in research, and works at the intersection of art and science are growing in popularity, even though they are often isolated experiments. We present a public-facing collaboration between physicists/engineers performing research in fluid dynamics, and audiovisual artists working in cutting-edge media installation and performance. The result of this collaboration is a curated exhibition, with supporting public programming. We present the artworks, the lesson learned from the interactions between artists and scientists, the potential outreach impact and future developments. This project is supported by the APS Public Outreach Mini Grant.

  11. Simulations of Ground and Space-Based Oxygen Atom Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finchum, A. (Technical Monitor); Cline, J. A.; Minton, T. K.; Braunstein, M.

    2003-01-01

    A low-earth orbit (LEO) materials erosion scenario and the ground-based experiment designed to simulate it are compared using the direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The DSMC model provides a detailed description of the interactions between the hyperthermal gas flow and a normally oriented flat plate for each case. We find that while the general characteristics of the LEO exposure are represented in the ground-based experiment, multi-collision effects can potentially alter the impact energy and directionality of the impinging molecules in the ground-based experiment. Multi-collision phenomena also affect downstream flux measurements.

  12. Experiments with Ultracold Quantum-degenerate Fermionic Lithium Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Experimental methods of laser and evaporative cooling, used in the production of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates have recently been extended to realize quantum degeneracy in trapped Fermi gases. Fermi gases are a new rich system to explore the implications of Pauli exclusion on scattering properties of the system, and ultimately fermionic superfluidity. We have produced a new macroscopic quantum system, in which a degenerate Li-6 Fermi gas coexists with a large and stable Na-23 BEC. This was accomplished using inter-species sympathetic cooling of fermionic 6Li in a thermal bath of bosonic Na-23. We have achieved high numbers of both fermions (less than 10(exp 5) and bosons (less than 10(exp 6), and Li-6 quantum degeneracy corresponding to one half of the Fermi temperature. This is the first time that a Fermi sea was produced with a condensate as a "refrigerator".

  13. Distributed System of Processing of Data of Physical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, A. A.; Moiseev, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    Complication of physical experiments and increasing volumes of experimental data necessitate the application of supercomputer and distributed computing systems for data processing. Design and development of such systems, their mathematical modeling, and investigation of their characteristics and functional capabilities is an urgent scientific and practical problem. In the present work, the characteristics of operation of such distributed system of processing of data of physical experiments are investigated using the apparatus of theory of queuing networks.

  14. Peer Provocation in Physical Education: Experiences of Botswana Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehu, Jimoh

    2009-01-01

    Critical incidents of peer provocation in physical education were investigated among 675 junior secondary school students in Botswana. Data were generated through a brief, open-ended questionnaire requesting the students to narrate their experiences of bad, hurtful and offensive peer behaviours during physical education classes. Six overlapping…

  15. Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Hanhan Li; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M.

    2005-01-01

    A study involves multiple chemistry and physics concepts applied to a state of matter that has biological relevance. An experiment involving the synthesis and physical properties of liquid crystals illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of liquid crystal research and the practical devices derived from such research.

  16. Web life: The Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    An educational outreach site maintained by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in the US, IPPEX features several interactive, game-like tools (applets) for exploring the physics of fusion, the doughnut-shaped "tokamak" reactors used in fusion experiments around the world, and related topics.

  17. Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Ritort, F

    2006-08-16

    I review single-molecule experiments (SMEs) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SMEs it is possible to manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties, characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and detect molecular intermediates. SMEs provide additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SMEs it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level, emphasizing the importance of SMEs to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SMEs from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOTs), magnetic tweezers (MTs), biomembrane force probes (BFPs) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation) and proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SMEs to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives.

  18. Unveiling the structural arrangements responsible for the atomic dynamics in metallic glasses during physical aging

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, V. M.; Ruta, B

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling physical aging, that is, the spontaneous temporal evolution of out-of-equilibrium systems, represents one of the greatest tasks in material science. Recent studies have revealed the existence of a complex atomic motion in metallic glasses, with different aging regimes in contrast with the typical continuous aging observed in macroscopic quantities. By combining dynamical and structural synchrotron techniques, here for the first time we directly connect previously identified microscopic structural mechanisms with the peculiar atomic motion, providing a broader unique view of their complexity. We show that the atomic scale is dominated by the interplay between two processes: rearrangements releasing residual stresses related to a cascade mechanism of relaxation, and medium range ordering processes, which do not affect the local density, likely due to localized relaxations of liquid-like regions. As temperature increases, a surprising additional secondary relaxation process sets in, together with a faster medium range ordering, likely precursors of crystallization. PMID:26787443

  19. Atomic Physics Effects on Convergent, Child-Langmuir Ion Flow between Nearly Transparent Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, John F.; Emmert, Gilbert A.

    2013-11-07

    Research during this project at the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute (UW FTI) on ion and neutral flow through an arbitrary, monotonic potential difference created by nearly transparent electrodes accomplished the following: (1) developed and implemented an integral equation approach for atomic physics effects in helium plasmas; (2) extended the analysis to coupled integral equations that treat atomic and molecular deuterium ions and neutrals; (3) implemented the key deuterium and helium atomic and molecular cross sections; (4) added negative ion production and related cross sections; and (5) benchmarked the code against experimental results. The analysis and codes treat the species D0, D20, D+, D2+, D3+, D and, separately at present, He0 and He+. Extensions enhanced the analysis and related computer codes to include He++ ions plus planar and cylindrical geometries.

  20. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  1. Atomic physics with highly charged ions: Progress report, 15 August 1985--14 August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1988-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project ''Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions'' speaks to these points. The experimental work is made possible locally by the use of relatively high velocity, highly charged projectiles (v typically 5% c) as obtained from the 6 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the accelerator and collisions at low velocity using secondary beams (recoil ions produced in a high velocity collision) in a so-called SIRS (Secondary Ion Recoil Source) geometry. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x-rays and Auger electrons. Correlation effects and polarization phenomena in ion-atom collisions have been investigated.

  2. Construction and characterization of external cavity diode lasers for atomic physics.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Kyle S; Bennetts, Shayne; Debs, John E; Kuhn, Carlos C N; McDonald, Gordon D; Robins, Nick

    2014-04-24

    Since their development in the late 1980s, cheap, reliable external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) have replaced complex and expensive traditional dye and Titanium Sapphire lasers as the workhorse laser of atomic physics labs. Their versatility and prolific use throughout atomic physics in applications such as absorption spectroscopy and laser cooling makes it imperative for incoming students to gain a firm practical understanding of these lasers. This publication builds upon the seminal work by Wieman, updating components, and providing a video tutorial. The setup, frequency locking and performance characterization of an ECDL will be described. Discussion of component selection and proper mounting of both diodes and gratings, the factors affecting mode selection within the cavity, proper alignment for optimal external feedback, optics setup for coarse and fine frequency sensitive measurements, a brief overview of laser locking techniques, and laser linewidth measurements are included.

  3. Construction and Characterization of External Cavity Diode Lasers for Atomic Physics

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Kyle S.; Bennetts, Shayne; Debs, John E.; Kuhn, Carlos C. N.; McDonald, Gordon D.; Robins, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Since their development in the late 1980s, cheap, reliable external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) have replaced complex and expensive traditional dye and Titanium Sapphire lasers as the workhorse laser of atomic physics labs1,2. Their versatility and prolific use throughout atomic physics in applications such as absorption spectroscopy and laser cooling1,2 makes it imperative for incoming students to gain a firm practical understanding of these lasers. This publication builds upon the seminal work by Wieman3, updating components, and providing a video tutorial. The setup, frequency locking and performance characterization of an ECDL will be described. Discussion of component selection and proper mounting of both diodes and gratings, the factors affecting mode selection within the cavity, proper alignment for optimal external feedback, optics setup for coarse and fine frequency sensitive measurements, a brief overview of laser locking techniques, and laser linewidth measurements are included. PMID:24796259

  4. NAVEX: A space shuttle experiment with atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starker, S.; Nau, H.; Hamesfahr, J.; Tschiesche, H.

    1983-01-01

    A navigation and time transfer experiment (NAVEX) to be flown within the payload of the first German Spacelab mission D-1 is discussed. The objectives of the experiment are to synchronize distant ground stations with an accuracy of better than 10 nsec and to demonstrate one way ranging with an accuracy of better than 30 m. Spread spectrum signals are used and the related technique is tested. On board a Cs and a Rb clock is used. The relativistic effect of these clocks is about -25 microsec per day. On the ground at least two receiving stations and one transmitting-receiving station will be installed. The synchronization of the ground clocks by shuttle signals is compared to those achieved with clock transportations and with GPS measurements. A system description of this experiment is given containing details on the technical concept, the hardware and the planned data evaluation. The present state of the preparatory work is briefly reviewed.

  5. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  6. Low Cost Alternatives to Commercial Lab Kits for Physics Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodejška, C.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubinek, R.; Ríha, J.

    2015-01-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace…

  7. Physics Lab Experiments and Correlated Computer Aids. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H.

    Forty-nine physics experiments are included in the teacher's edition of this laboratory manual. Suggestions are given in margins for preparing apparatus, organizing students, and anticipating difficulties likely to be encountered. Sample data, graphs, calculations, and sample answers to leading questions are also given for each experiment. It is…

  8. Primary Teachers' Experience of a Physical Education Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Maura; Woods, Catherine B.

    2012-01-01

    Professional development (PD) is essential for primary school teachers to meet the demands of the education system. Quality PD is aligned with classroom conditions, school contexts and teachers' daily experiences. The purpose of the study was to explore primary teachers' experiences of a 6-week physical education professional development programme…

  9. Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…

  10. Autonomy and the Student Experience in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nicholas Ron

    2013-01-01

    The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a Self-Determination Theory perspective with two studies. Study I, a correlational study, investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (vs. controlling) students…

  11. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  12. The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC - physics and capabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B. B.

    1998-11-17

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC is designed to study multiplicity distributions and fluctuations over all of 4{pi}, as well as particle spectra and correlations at mid rapidity, with a particular emphasis on physics at low p{sub T}. The experiment is relatively small and relies almost entirely on silicon pad detector technology. The flexibility of the design, the conservative nature of the technologies used, and the ability to take data at high rates place the experiment in a good position to search for exotic physics from heavy-ion collisions at the early stages of RHIC operations.

  13. NAVEX - A Space Shuttle Experiment with Atomic Clocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    results received with NAVSTAR SV # 6 are shown in Fig. 12. As the frequency diffe- rence between USNO- masterclock and GPS time is h o w from USNO...propagation delay times after ionospheric and tropospheric corrections. This procedure is well known from GPS and need not be explained any more...WVEX is a navigation- and time transfer experiment. I t w i l l be flown within the payload of the firstGerman Spacelab mission U-1 , scheduled

  14. Ultracold atoms and their applications (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 October 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), "Ultracold atoms and their applications", was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 28 October 2015.The papers collected in this issue were written based on talks given at the session:(1) Vishnyakova G A, Golovizin A A, Kalganova E S, Tregubov D O, Khabarova K Yu (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region), Sorokin V N, Sukachev D D, Kolachevsky N N (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Ultracold lanthanides: from optical clock to a quantum simulator"; (2) Barmashova T V, Martiyanov K A, Makhalov V B (Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod), Turlapov A V (Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod; Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod) "Fermi liquid to Bose condensate crossover in a two-dimensional ultracold gas experiment"; (3) Taichenachev A V, Yudin V I, Bagayev S N (Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk) "Ultraprecise optical frequency standards based on ultracold atoms: state of the art and prospects"; (4) Ryabtsev I I, Beterov I I, Tretyakov D B, Entin V M, Yakshina E A (Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk) "Spectroscopy of cold rubidium Rydberg atoms for applications in quantum information". • Ultracold lanthanides: from optical clock to a quantum simulator, G A Vishnyakova, A A Golovizin, E S Kalganova, V N Sorokin, D D Sukachev, D O Tregubov, K Yu Khabarova, N N Kolachevsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2016, Volume 59, Number 2, Pages 168-173 • Fermi liquid-to-Bose condensate crossover in a two

  15. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  16. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments without Superconducting Electromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-08-19

    Long-pulse fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long-pulse ignition with deuterium-tritium fuel. Long-pulse resistive electromagnets are alternatives to today's delicate and costly superconductors. At any rate, superconducting technology is now evolving independent of fusion, so near-term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful.

  17. Feasibility guidelines for kaonic atom experiments with ultra-high-resolution X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Okada, S.

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies of strong-interaction effects in kaonic atoms suggest that analysing so-called 'lower' and 'upper' levels in the same atom could separate one-nucleon absorption from multinucleon processes. The present work examines the feasibility of direct measurements of upper level widths in addition to lower level widths in future experiments, using superconducting microcalorimeter detectors. About ten elements are identified as possible candidates for such experiments, all of medium-weight and heavy nuclei. New experiments focused on achieving good accuracy for widths of such pairs of levels could contribute significantly to our knowledge of the K--nucleon interaction in the nuclear medium.

  18. Gender, experience, and self-efficacy in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Jayson M.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] There is growing evidence of persistent gender achievement gaps in university physics instruction, not only for learning physics content, but also for developing productive attitudes and beliefs about learning physics. These gaps occur in both traditional and interactive-engagement (IE) styles of physics instruction. We investigated one gender gap in the area of attitudes and beliefs. This was men's and women's physics self-efficacy, which comprises students' thoughts and feelings about their capabilities to succeed as learners in physics. According to extant research using pre- and post-course surveys, the self-efficacy of both men and women tends to be reduced after taking traditional and IE physics courses. Moreover, self-efficacy is reduced further for women than for men. However, it remains unclear from these studies whether this gender difference is caused by physics instruction. It may be, for instance, that the greater reduction of women's self-efficacy in physics merely reflects a broader trend in university education that has little to do with physics per se. We investigated this and other alternative causes, using an in-the-moment measurement technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). We used ESM to collect multiple samples of university students' feelings of self-efficacy during four types of activity for two one-week periods: (i) an introductory IE physics course, (ii) students' other introductory STEM courses, (iii) their non-STEM courses, and (iv) their activities outside of school. We found that women experienced the IE physics course with lower self-efficacy than men, but for the other three activity types, women's self-efficacy was not reliably different from men's. We therefore concluded that the experience of physics instruction in the IE physics course depressed women's self-efficacy. Using complementary measures showing the IE physics course to be similar to

  19. Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Maria do Carmo; Drljević, Advan; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical physics is a health profession where principles of applied physics are mostly directed towards the application of ionizing radiation in medicine. The key role of the medical physics expert in safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine was widely recognized in recent European reference documents like the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (2014), and European Commission Radiation Protection No. 174, European Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert (2014). Also the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been outspoken in supporting and fostering the status of medical physics in radiation medicine through multiple initiatives as technical and cooperation projects and important documents like IAEA Human Health Series No. 25, Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (2013) and the International Basic Safety Standards, General Safety Requirements Part 3 (2014). The significance of these documents and the recognition of the present insufficient fulfilment of the requirements and recommendations in many European countries have led the IAEA to organize in 2015 the Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe, where major issues in medical physics in Europe were discussed. Most important outcomes of the meeting were the recommendations addressed to European member states and the survey on medical physics status in Europe conducted by the IAEA and European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. Conclusions Published recommendations of IAEA Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe shall be followed and enforced in all European states. Appropriate qualification framework including education, clinical specialization, certification and registration of medical physicists shall be established and international recommendation regarding staffing levels in the field of medical physics shall be fulfilled in particular. European states have clear

  20. Phases and Interfaces from Real Space Atomically Resolved Data: Physics-Based Deep Data Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2016-09-14

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ∼1-10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysis is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. This method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure-property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters.

  1. Phases and interfaces from real space atomically resolved data: Physics-based deep data image analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; ...

    2016-08-12

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ~1–10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysismore » is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. Furthermore, this method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure–property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters.« less

  2. Phases and interfaces from real space atomically resolved data: Physics-based deep data image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-08-12

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ~1–10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysis is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. Furthermore, this method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure–property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters.

  3. Becoming physics people: Development of integrated physics identity through the Learning Assistant experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Eleanor W.; Conn, Jessica; Close, Hunter G.

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] In this study, we analyze the experience of students in the Physics Learning Assistant (LA) program at Texas State University in terms of the existing theoretical frameworks of community of practice and physics identity, and explore the implications suggested by these theories for LA program adoption and adaptation. Regression models from physics identity studies show that the physics identity construct strongly predicts intended choice of a career in physics. The goal of our current project is to understand the details of the impacts of participation in the LA experience on participants' practice and self-concept, in order to identify critical elements of LA program structure that positively influence physics identity and physics career intentions for students. Our analysis suggests that participation in the LA program impacts LAs in ways that support both stronger "physics student" identity and stronger "physics instructor" identity, and that these identities are reconciled into a coherent integrated physics identity. Increased comfort in interactions with peers, near peers, and faculty seems to be an important component of this identity development and reconciliation, suggesting that a focus on supporting community membership is useful for effective program design.

  4. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g

  5. Becoming Physics People: Development of Integrated Physics Identity through the Learning Assistant Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Eleanor W.; Conn, Jessica; Close, Hunter G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the experience of students in the Physics Learning Assistant (LA) program at Texas State University in terms of the existing theoretical frameworks of "community of practice" and "physics identity," and explore the implications suggested by these theories for LA program adoption and adaptation.…

  6. Resiliency in Physics: The Lived Experiences of African-American Women Who Completed Doctoral Physics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Samara Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Currently, little is known about African-American women with doctoral degrees in physics. This study examined the lived experiences of African-American women who completed doctoral programs in physics. Due to factors of race and gender, African-American women automatically enter a double-bind in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  7. The Belle II experiment: fundamental physics at the flavor frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia de la Cruz, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    After the major success of B-factories to establish the CKM mechanism and its proven potential to search for new physics, the Belle II experiment will continue exploring the physics at the flavor frontier over the next years. Belle II will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle, and allow for various precision measurements and searches of rare decays and particles. This paper introduces the B-factory concept and the flavor frontier approach to search for new physics. It then describes the SuperKEKB accelerator and the Belle II detector, as well as some of the physics that will be analyzed in Belle II, concluding with the experiment status and schedule.

  8. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  9. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.

  10. Stalking the Anti-Racist Atom: Engaging Educational Equity and Diversity in Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodari, Apriel K.

    2006-12-01

    One of the first articles I ever read on diversity in physics education stated, “There’s no such thing as an anti-racist atom.” This perspective, that the science of physics is itself inherently unbiased, illustrates the difficulty of engaging our intellectual community on this topic. We genuinely believe that our science is devoid of the complications of the human condition, and therefore we need not worry about these things. It is clear however, as people competing for scarce resources in a non-equitable society, we engage in all of the same behaviors everyone else does, include those that work against equity and diversity. Over the last several years, my colleagues and I have held workshops aimed at addressing educational equity and diversity in physics teaching. In this discussion, I will present some of the questions we have posed, along with lessons learned and ideas about what we can do next.

  11. Resolving all-order method convergence problems for atomic physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gharibnejad, H.; Derevianko, A.; Eliav, E.; Safronova, M. S.

    2011-05-15

    The development of the relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave function are included to all orders of perturbation theory led to many important results for the study of fundamental symmetries, development of atomic clocks, ultracold atom physics, and others, as well as provided recommended values of many atomic properties critically evaluated for their accuracy for a large number of monovalent systems. This approach requires iterative solutions of the linearized coupled-cluster equations leading to convergence issues in some cases where correlation corrections are particularly large or lead to an oscillating pattern. Moreover, these issues also lead to similar problems in the configuration-interaction (CI)+all-order method for many-particle systems. In this work, we have resolved most of the known convergence problems by applying two different convergence stabilizer methods, namely, reduced linear equation and direct inversion of iterative subspace. Examples are presented for B, Al, Zn{sup +}, and Yb{sup +}. Solving these convergence problems greatly expands the number of atomic species that can be treated with the all-order methods and is anticipated to facilitate many interesting future applications.

  12. The physics of musical scales: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin S.; Colton, John S.

    2015-10-01

    The theory of musical scales involves mathematical ratios, harmonic resonators, beats, and human perception and provides an interesting application of the physics of waves and sound. We first review the history and physics of musical scales, with an emphasis on four historically important scales: twelve-tone equal temperament, Pythagorean, quarter-comma meantone, and Ptolemaic just intonation. We then present an easy way for students and teachers to directly experience the qualities of different scales using MIDI synthesis.

  13. Dips in spectral line profiles and their applications in plasma physics and atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, E.; Oks, E.; Renner, O.

    2017-03-01

    We review studies of two kinds of dips in spectral line profiles emitted by plasmas - the dips that have been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally: Langmuir-wave-caused dips (L-dips) and charge-exchange-caused dips (X-dips). There is a principal difference with respect to positions of L-dips and X-dips relative to the unperturbed wavelength of a spectral line: positions of L-dips scale with the electron density Ne roughly as Ne1/2, while positions of X-dips are almost independent of Ne (the dependence is much weaker than for L-dips). L-dips and X-dips phenomena are important both fundamentally and practically. The fundamental importance is due to a rich physics behind each of these phenomena. As for important practical applications, they are as follows. Observations of L-dips constitute a very accurate method to measure the electron density in plasmas - the method that does not require the knowledge of the electron temperature. L-dips also allow measuring the amplitude of the electric field of Langmuir waves - the only one spectroscopic method available for this purpose. Observations of X-dips provide an opportunity to determine rate coefficient of charge exchange between multi-charged ions. This is an important reference data virtually inaccessible by other experimental methods. The rate coefficients of charge exchange are important for magnetic fusion in Tokamaks, for population inversion in the soft x-ray and VUV ranges, for ion storage devices, as well as for astrophysics (e.g., for the solar plasma and for determining the physical state of planetary nebulae).

  14. 2s Hyperfine splitting in light hydrogen-like atoms: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S. G. Kolachevsky, N. N.; Ivanov, V. G.; Fischer, M.; Fendel, P.; Haensch, T. W.

    2006-03-15

    Since the combination D{sub 21} = 8f{sub HFS}(2s)-f{sub HFS}(1s) of hyperfine intervals in hydrogen and light two-body hydrogen-like atomic systems weakly depends on the nuclear structure, comparison between theory and experiment can be sensitive to high order QED corrections. New theoretical and experimental results are presented. Calculations have been performed for the hydrogen and deuterium atoms and for the helium-3 ion. Experiments on the 2s hyperfine splitting (responsible for the dominant contribution to the error in D{sub 21}) have been conducted for hydrogen and deuterium. The theory and experiment are in good agreement, and their accuracy is comparable to that attained in verifying the QED theory of the hyperfine splitting in leptonic atoms (muonium and positronium)

  15. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  16. The physics analysis tools project for the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzi, Bruno; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is expected to start colliding proton beams in 2009. The enormous amount of data produced by the ATLAS experiment (≈1 PB per year) will be used in searches for the Higgs boson and Physics beyond the standard model. In order to meet this challenge, a suite of common Physics Analysis Tools has been developed as part of the Physics Analysis software project. These tools run within the ATLAS software framework, ATHENA, covering a wide range of applications. There are tools responsible for event selection based on analysed data and detector quality information, tools responsible for specific physics analysis operations including data quality monitoring and physics validation, and complete analysis toolkits (frameworks) with the goal to aid the physicist to perform his analysis hiding the details of the ATHENA framework.

  17. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  18. Testing for a cosmological influence on local physics using atomic and gravitational clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, P. J.; Hellings, R. W.; Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.

    1983-01-01

    The existence of a possible influence of the large-scale structure of the universe on local physics is discussed. A particular realization of such an influence is discussed in terms of the behavior in time of atomic and gravitational clocks. Two natural categories of metric theories embodying a cosmic infuence exist. The first category has geodesic equations of motion in atomic units, while the second category has geodesic equations of motion in gravitational units. Equations of motion for test bodies are derived for both categories of theories in the appropriate parametrized post-Newtonian limit and are applied to the Solar System. Ranging data to the Viking lander on Mars are of sufficient precision to reveal (1) if such a cosmological influence exists at the level of Hubble's constant, and (2) which category of theories is appropriate for a descripton of the phenomenon.

  19. Spectroscopy and atomic physics of highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni for tokamak plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Cheng, C.-C.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the spectroscopy and atomic physics for some highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni ions produced in tokamak plasmas. Forbidden and intersystem wavelengths for Cr and Ni ions are extrapolated and interpolated using the known wavelengths for Fe lines identified in solar-flare plasmas. Tables of transition probabilities for the B I, C I, N I, O I, and F I isoelectronic sequences are presented, and collision strengths and transition probabilities for Cr, Fe, and Ni ions of the Be I sequence are given. Similarities of tokamak and solar spectra are discussed, and it is shown how the atomic data presented may be used to determine ion abundances and electron densities in low-density plasmas.

  20. Simulation of Physical Experiments in Immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Wasfy, Tamer M.

    2001-01-01

    An object-oriented event-driven immersive Virtual environment is described for the creation of virtual labs (VLs) for simulating physical experiments. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects of the VLs, including interface devices, software objects, and various applications. The VLs interface with output devices, including immersive stereoscopic screed(s) and stereo speakers; and a variety of input devices, including body tracking (head and hands), haptic gloves, wand, joystick, mouse, microphone, and keyboard. The VL incorporates the following types of primitive software objects: interface objects, support objects, geometric entities, and finite elements. Each object encapsulates a set of properties, methods, and events that define its behavior, appearance, and functions. A container object allows grouping of several objects. Applications of the VLs include viewing the results of the physical experiment, viewing a computer simulation of the physical experiment, simulation of the experiments procedure, computational steering, and remote control of the physical experiment. In addition, the VL can be used as a risk-free (safe) environment for training. The implementation of virtual structures testing machines, virtual wind tunnels, and a virtual acoustic testing facility is described.

  1. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements.

  2. Design, development, and fabrication of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem. Flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Dean, W. C., II

    1975-01-01

    The concept of a flight experiment physical phenomena experiment chest, to be used eventually for investigating and demonstrating ice pack heat sink subsystem physical phenomena during a zero gravity flight experiment, is described.

  3. The FrPNC experiment at TRIUMF: Atomic parity non-conservation in francium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Sheng, D.; Zhang, J.; Collister, R.; Melconian, D.; Flambaum, V. V.; Sprouse, G. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Gwinner, G.

    2012-09-01

    The FrPNC collaboration has begun the construction of an on-line laser cooling and trapping apparatus at TRIUMF to measure atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) and the nuclear anapole moment in a string of artificially produced francium isotopes. Atomic PNC experiments provide unique high precision tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at very low energies. Furthermore, precision measurements of spin-dependent atomic PNC can determine nuclear anapole moments and probe the weak force within the nucleus. Francium is an excellent candidate for precision measurements of atomic PNC due to its simple electronic structure and enhanced parity violation: both the optical PNC and anapole moment signals are expected to be over an order of magnitude larger than in cesium.

  4. Science Goals of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, N.

    2003-01-01

    The PARCS (Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space) experiment will use a laser-cooled Cesium atomic clock operating in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide both advanced tests of gravitational theory and to demonstrate a new cold-atom clock technology for space. PARCS is a joint project of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the University of Colorado (CU). This paper concentrates on the scientific goals of the PARCS mission. The microgravity space environment allows laser-cooled Cs atoms to have Ramsey times in excess of those feasible on Earth, resulting in improved clock performance. Clock stabilities of 5x10(exp -14) at one second, and accuracies better than 10(exp -16) are projected.

  5. Ab Initio Study on Atomic Structures and Physical Properties of CdSe Quantum Nanodots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-25

    CdSe quantum dots , with magic number (( CdSe )13, ( CdSe )19, ( CdSe )33 and ( CdSe )34 ). Effects of organic ligand binding on the stability of CdSe as well...calculations of optical absorption spectra for CdSe quantum dots , with magic number (( CdSe )13, ( CdSe )19, ( CdSe )33 and ( CdSe )34 ), have been calculated in...1 AOARD-08-4037 Title of Proposed Project: Ab initio study on atomic structures and physical

  6. Chapter Three - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics in the Early Universe: From Recombination to Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Chluba, Jens; Furlanetto, Steve R.; Pritchard, Jonathan R.; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the evolution of the early Universe hinges, in part, on our understanding of the underlying atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) processes occurring during that epoch. Here we review the relevant AMO physics from when it first became important at a redshift of z ~ 6000, some 18,000 years after the Big Bang when electrons and ions began to recombine. The review continues through the formation of the first stars and galaxies and concludes after the radiation from these first objects has reionized the Universe at a z ~ 10, about a billion years after the Big Bang.

  7. Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants

    PubMed Central

    Hayano, Ryugo S.

    2010-01-01

    Antiprotonic helium atom, a metastable neutral system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus, was serendipitously discovered, and has been studied at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility. Its transition frequencies have recently been measured to nine digits of precision by laser spectroscopy. By comparing these experimental results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron massratio was determined as 1836.152674(5). This result contributed to the CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. PMID:20075605

  8. Application of the Finite Element Method in Atomic and Molecular Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shertzer, Janine

    2007-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a numerical algorithm for solving second order differential equations. It has been successfully used to solve many problems in atomic and molecular physics, including bound state and scattering calculations. To illustrate the diversity of the method, we present here details of two applications. First, we calculate the non-adiabatic dipole polarizability of Hi by directly solving the first and second order equations of perturbation theory with FEM. In the second application, we calculate the scattering amplitude for e-H scattering (without partial wave analysis) by reducing the Schrodinger equation to set of integro-differential equations, which are then solved with FEM.

  9. Nuclear-spin-independent short-range three-body physics in ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Noam; Shotan, Zav; Kokkelmans, Servaas; Khaykovich, Lev

    2010-09-03

    We investigate three-body recombination loss across a Feshbach resonance in a gas of ultracold 7Li atoms prepared in the absolute ground state and perform a comparison with previously reported results of a different nuclear-spin state [N. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 163202 (2009)]. We extend the previously reported universality in three-body recombination loss across a Feshbach resonance to the absolute ground state. We show that the positions and widths of recombination minima and Efimov resonances are identical for both states which indicates that the short-range physics is nuclear-spin independent.

  10. Skylab Experiments, Volume I, Physical Science, Solar Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Up-to-date knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling them to broaden their scope of material selection. The first volume is concerned with the solar astronomy program. The related fields are physics, electronics, biology, chemistry,…

  11. Physical Activity Experiences of Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.; Staples, Kerri; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity experiences of 12 age-matched boys with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were explored by converging information from Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessments and semistructured interviews. The knowledge-based approach and the inhibitory model of executive functions, a combined theoretical lens,…

  12. Radical Recombination Kinetics: An Experiment in Physical Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Miles

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student kinetic experiment involving second order kinetics as well as displaying photochromism using a wide variety of techniques from both physical and organic chemistry. Describes measurement of (1) the rate of the recombination reaction; (2) the extinction coefficient; and (3) the ESR spectrometer signal. (Author/JN)

  13. The Hispanic Experience in Physical Education Programs and Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Cervantes, Carlos M.; Vigo-Valentin, Alexander N.; Canabal-Torres, Maria Y.; Ortiz-Castillo, Esther M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges and identify strategies to increase the representation of Hispanic faculty in the academy, particularly Physical Education (PE) programs and departments at doctorate-granting universities. Recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Hispanic faculty are provided.…

  14. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A "Physics of Music" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional…

  15. Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

  16. Early Career Experiences of Physical Education Teachers in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the early career experiences of three physical education (PE) teachers who taught in urban charter schools. Using cultural relevance theory, three early career PE teachers were observed and interviewed for approximately six weeks each. Data were analyzed using constant comparison. Two major themes emerged…

  17. Multidisciplinary Field Training in Undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Panin, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Field training is seen as a central component of the discipline of Physical Geography and an essential part of the undergraduate curriculum. This paper explores the structure and relationships between fieldwork and theoretical courses and the abundant experiences of field training in the undergraduate curriculum of 37 Russian universities. It…

  18. A Physical Chemistry Experiment in Polymer Crystallization Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singfield, Kathy L.; Chisholm, Roderick A.; King, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment currently used in an undergraduate physical chemistry lab to investigate the rates of crystallization of a polymer is described. Specifically, the radial growth rates of typical disc-shaped crystals, called spherulites, growing between microscope glass slides are measured and the data are treated according to polymer…

  19. Teachers' Experiences with an Adapted Igcse Physics Syllabus in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koosimile, A.T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on teachers' experiences with implementing a modified International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) physics syllabus in Botswana. The syllabus, characterised by a new organisational and pedagogic paradigm, is a significant shift from the traditional ''teacher-proof'' syllabus to one that is flexible,…

  20. Sixteenth International Conference on the physics of electronic and atomic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgarno, A.; Freund, R.S.; Lubell, M.S.; Lucatorto, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains abstracts of papers on the following topics: photons, electron-atom collisions; electron-molecule collisions; electron-ion collisions; collisions involving exotic species; ion- atom collisions, ion-molecule or atom-molecule collisions; atom-atom collisions; ion-ion collisions; collisions involving rydberg atoms; field assisted collisions; collisions involving clusters and collisions involving condensed matter.

  1. B-physics prospects with the LHCb experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Harnew, N.

    2008-04-15

    This paper summarizes the B-physics prospects of the LHCb experiment. Firstly, a brief introduction to the CKM matrix and the mechanism of CP violation in the Standard Model is given. The advantages of the LHCb experiment for B-physics exploitation will then be described, together with a short description of the detector components. Finally, the LHCb physics aims and prospects will be summarized, focusing on the measurements of sin(2{beta}) in tree and gluonic penguin diagrams, sin(2{alpha}) in B{sub d}{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, neutral B-meson oscillations and the B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing phase, and the measurement of {gamma} using a variety of complementary methods.

  2. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very first days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center both Combustion, Fluid Physics, and Acceleration Measurement GRC has led the successful implementation of an Acceleration Measurement systems, the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion fire detection fire extinguishment soot phenomena flame liftoff and stability and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow magneto-rheological fluids colloidal systems extensional rheology pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years. We also provide a look to the future development. Experiments presented in combustion include areas such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes. In fluid physics, experiments are discussed in

  3. Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Benage, John F.; Albright, Brian J.; Fernandez, Juan C.

    2012-09-04

    An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL

  4. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  5. Note: A versatile radio-frequency source for cold atom experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wu, Yu-Ping; Min, Hao; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) source designed for cold atom experiments is presented. The source uses AD9858, a direct digital synthesizer, to generate the sine wave directly, up to 400 MHz, with sub-Hz resolution. An amplitude control circuit consisting of wideband variable gain amplifier and high speed digital to analog converter is integrated into the source, capable of 70 dB off isolation and 4 ns on-off keying. A field programmable gate array is used to implement a versatile frequency and amplitude co-sweep logic. Owing to modular design, the RF sources have been used on many cold atom experiments to generate various complicated RF sequences, enriching the operation schemes of cold atoms, which cannot be done by standard RF source instruments.

  6. Note: A versatile radio-frequency source for cold atom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Wu, Yu-Ping; Min, Hao; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) source designed for cold atom experiments is presented. The source uses AD9858, a direct digital synthesizer, to generate the sine wave directly, up to 400 MHz, with sub-Hz resolution. An amplitude control circuit consisting of wideband variable gain amplifier and high speed digital to analog converter is integrated into the source, capable of 70 dB off isolation and 4 ns on-off keying. A field programmable gate array is used to implement a versatile frequency and amplitude co-sweep logic. Owing to modular design, the RF sources have been used on many cold atom experiments to generate various complicated RF sequences, enriching the operation schemes of cold atoms, which cannot be done by standard RF source instruments.

  7. Neutrino Physics in the NOvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Mayly

    2016-09-19

    The objective of the experimental neutrino physics program at ISU is to contribute to the NOvA experiment in order to enable the measurement of the unknown neutrino parameters: the CP violation phase and the mass hierarchy. In the Summer of 2015, the NOvA Collaboration released results from the first year of data collected by the experiment. The ISU group played an important role in various aspects of these results including authoring one of the two resulting publications. During this project period and with the support of this grant the PI and her group made leading contributions both in data analysis and operations to the NOvA experiment.

  8. Physics of our Days: Cooling and thermometry of atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onofrio, R.

    2017-02-01

    We review the status of cooling techniques aimed at achieving the deepest quantum degeneracy for atomic Fermi gases. We first discuss some physics motivations, providing a quantitative assessment of the need for deep quantum degeneracy in relevant physics cases, such as the search for unconventional superfluid states. Attention is then focused on the most widespread technique to reach deep quantum degeneracy for Fermi systems, sympathetic cooling of Bose–Fermi mixtures, organizing the discussion according to the specific species involved. Various proposals to circumvent some of the limitations on achieving the deepest Fermi degeneracy, and their experimental realizations, are then reviewed. Finally, we discuss the extension of these techniques to optical lattices and the implementation of precision thermometry crucial to the understanding of the phase diagram of classical and quantum phase transitions in Fermi gases.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of metal oxide patterns on nonwoven fiber mats using localized physical compression.

    PubMed

    Sweet, William J; Oldham, Christopher J; Parsons, Gregory N

    2014-06-25

    Patterning is an essential part of many industrial processes from printing to semiconductor manufacturing. In this work, we demonstrate a new method to pattern and selectively coat nonwoven textiles by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using compressive mask patterning. A physical mask combined with mechanical compression allows lateral definition and fidelity of the ALD coating to be controlled. We produce features of several sizes on different nonwoven fiber materials and demonstrate the ability to limit diffusion effects to within <200 μm of the pattern edge. Lateral and vertical penetration of reactive growth species into nonwoven mats is investigated by plan-view and cross-sectional imaging. Vertical growth is also analyzed by imaging coating depth into fiber mat stacks. We develop a fully quantitative transport model that describes well the effect of fiber structure and mechanical compression on the extent of coating under the physical mask. This method could be implemented for high-volume patterning for applications including flexible electronics.

  10. Industrial metrology as applied to large physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Veal, D.

    1993-05-01

    A physics experiment is a large complex 3-D object (typ. 1200 m{sup 3}, 35000 tonnes), with sub-millimetric alignment requirements. Two generic survey alignment tasks can be identified; first, an iterative positioning of the apparatus subsystems in space and, second, a quantification of as-built parameters. The most convenient measurement technique is industrial triangulation but the complexity of the measured object and measurement environment constraints frequently requires a more sophisticated approach. To enlarge the ``survey alignment toolbox`` measurement techniques commonly associated with other disciplines such as geodesy, applied geodesy for accelerator alignment, and mechanical engineering are also used. Disparate observables require a heavy reliance on least squares programs for campaign pre-analysis and calculation. This paper will offer an introduction to the alignment of physics experiments and will identify trends for the next generation of SSC experiments.

  11. Scintillation counters in modern high-energy physics experiments (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzheev, Yu. N.

    2015-07-01

    Scintillation counters (SCs) based on organic plastic scintillators (OPSs) are widely used in modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. A comprehensive review is given to technologies for production of OPS strips and tiles (extrusion, injection molding, etc.), optical and physical characteristics of OPSs, and methods of light collection based on the use of wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers coupled to multipixel vacuum and silicon PMs. Examples are given of the use of SCs in modern experiments involved in the search for quarks and new particles, including the Higgs boson (D0, CDF, ATLAS, CMS), new states of matter (ALICE), CP violation (LHCb, KLOE), neutrino oscillations (MINOS, OPERA), and cosmic particles in a wide mass and energy interval (AMS-02). Scintillation counters hold great promise for future HEP experiments (at the ILC, NICA, FAIR) due to properties of a high segmentation, WLS fiber light collection, and multipixel silicon PMT readout.

  12. Precision Physics of Simple Atoms and Constraints on a Light Boson with Ultraweak Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S. G.

    2010-06-04

    Constraint on spin-dependent and spin-independent Yukawa potential at atomic scale is developed. That covers constraints on a coupling constant of an additional photon {gamma}* and a pseudovector boson. The mass range considered is from 1 eV/c{sup 2} to 1 MeV/c{sup 2}. The strongest constraint on a coupling constant {alpha}{sup '} is at the level of a few parts in 10{sup 13} (for {gamma}*) and below one part in 10{sup 16} (for a pseudovector) corresponding to mass below 1 keV/c{sup 2}. The constraints are derived from low-energy tests of quantum electrodynamics and are based on spectroscopic data on light hydrogenlike atoms and experiments with magnetic moments of leptons and light nuclei.

  13. Fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, F. T.; Abramson, H. N.; Angrist, S. W.; Catton, I.; Churchill, S. W.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Otrach, S.; Schwartz, S. H.; Sengers, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    An overstudy committee was formed to study and recommend fundamental experiments in fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer for experimentation in orbit, using the space shuttle system and a space laboratory. The space environment, particularly the low-gravity condition, is an indispensable requirement for all the recommended experiments. The experiments fell broadly into five groups: critical-point thermophysical phenomena, fluid surface dynamics and capillarity, convection at reduced gravity, non-heated multiphase mixtures, and multiphase heat transfer. The Committee attempted to assess the effects of g-jitter and other perturbations of the gravitational field on the conduct of the experiments. A series of ground-based experiments are recommended to define some of the phenomena and to develop reliable instrumentation.

  14. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  15. Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

  16. As-Run Physics Analysis for the UCSB-1 Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Joseph Wayne

    2015-09-01

    The University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) -1 experiment was irradiated in the A-10 position of the ATR. The experiment was irradiated during cycles 145A, 145B, 146A, and 146B. Capsule 6A was removed from the test train following Cycle 145A and replaced with Capsule 6B. This report documents the as-run physics analysis in support of Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the test. This report documents the as-run fluence and displacements per atom (DPA) for each capsule of the experiment based on as-run operating history of the ATR. Average as-run heating rates for each capsule are also presented in this report to support the thermal analysis.

  17. Interactive Lecture Experiments in Large Introductory Physics Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Kotlicki, A.; Rieger, G.; Bates, F.; Moll, R.; McPhee, K.; Nashon, S.

    2006-12-01

    We describe Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE), which build on Interactive Lecture Demonstrations proposed by Sokoloff and Thornton (2004) and extends it by providing students with the opportunity to analyze experiments demonstrated in the lecture outside of the classroom. Real time experimental data is collected, using Logger Pro combined with the digital video technology. This data is uploaded to the Internet and made available to the students for further analysis. Student learning is assessed in the following lecture using conceptual questions (clickers). The goal of this project is to use ILE to make large lectures more interactive and promote student interest in science, critical thinking and data analysis skills. We report on the systematic study conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, Force Concept Inventory, open-ended physics problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. The surveys were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to the students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Additional qualitative data on students’ attitudes was collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. We will present preliminary conclusions about the role of ILEs as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses. Sokoloff, D.R. and R.K. Thornton (2004). Interactive Lecture Demonstrations: Active Learning in Introductory Physics, J.Wiley & Sons, INC. Interactive Lecture Experiments: http://www.physics.ubc.ca/ year1lab/p100/LectureLabs/lectureLabs.html

  18. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  19. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very early days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center for combustion, complex fluids, and fluid physics; GRC has led the successful implementation of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion; fire detection; fire extinguishment; soot phenomena; flame liftoff and stability; and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow; magneto-rheological fluids; colloidal systems; extensional rheology; pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years.

  20. LHCf experiment: forward physics at LHC for cosmic rays study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, M.; Adriani, O.; Berti, E.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Kawade, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Okuno, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A.-L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, N.; Sugiura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Tiberio, A.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W. C.; Zhou, Q. D.

    2016-11-01

    The LHCf experiment, optimized for the study of forward physics at LHC, completes its main physics program in this year 2015, with the proton-proton collisions at the energy of 13 TeV. LHCf gives important results on the study of neutral particles at extreme pseudo-rapidity, both for proton-proton and for proton-ion interactions. These results are an important reference for tuning the models of the hadronic interaction currently used for the simulation of the atmospheric showers induced by very high energy cosmic rays. The results of this analysis and the future perspective are presented in this paper.

  1. Elementary Particle Physics Experiment at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, Benjamin; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Willocq, Stephane

    2013-07-30

    In this progress report we summarize the activities of the University of Massachusetts- Amherst group for the three years of this research project. We are fully engaged in research at the energy frontier with the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have made leading contributions in software development and performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, as well as on physics analysis with an emphasis on Standard Model measurements and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, we have increased our contributions to the Muon Spectrometer New Small Wheel upgrade project.

  2. Comparison between experiments and predictions based on maximum entropy for sprays from a pressure atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Chin, L. P.; Tankin, R. S.; Jackson, T.; Stutrud, J.; Switzer, G.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements were made of the droplet size and velocity distributions in a hollow cone spray from a pressure atomizer using a phase/Doppler particle analyzer. The maximum entropy principle is used to predict these distributions. The constraints imposed in this model involve conversation of mass, momentum, and energy. Estimates of the source terms associated with these constraints are made based on physical reasoning. Agreement between the measurements and the predictions is very good.

  3. Optical Pattern Formation in Spatially Bunched Atoms: A Self-Consistent Model and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittberger, Bonnie L.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    The nonlinear optics and optomechanical physics communities use different theoretical models to describe how optical fields interact with a sample of atoms. There does not yet exist a model that is valid for finite atomic temperatures but that also produces the zero temperature results that are generally assumed in optomechanical systems. We present a self-consistent model that is valid for all atomic temperatures and accounts for the back-action of the atoms on the optical fields. Our model provides new insights into the competing effects of the bunching-induced nonlinearity and the saturable nonlinearity. We show that it is crucial to keep the fifth and seventh-order nonlinearities that arise when there exists atomic bunching, even at very low optical field intensities. We go on to apply this model to the results of our experimental system where we observe spontaneous, multimode, transverse optical pattern formation at ultra-low light levels. We show that our model accurately predicts our experimentally observed threshold for optical pattern formation, which is the lowest threshold ever reported for pattern formation. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through Grant #PHY-1206040.

  4. Physics program of P¯ANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Dipanwita; P¯ANDA Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The "antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt"-experiment, P¯ANDA, is one of the main experiments at FAIR, the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research at GSI, Darmstadt. It will be using the antiproton beam of unprecedented intensity and high momentum resolution in the momentum range between 1.5 - 15 GeV/c which will be available at the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) at FAIR. The P¯ANDA experiment aims at high precision spectroscopy in order to address the properties of the strong interaction. The major physics research topics are: hadron spectroscopy, in-medium effects of hadronic particles, study of nucleon structure and precision gamma-ray spectroscopy of single- and double-Λ hypernuclei. To meet the physics objectives of P¯ANDA, a detector with a nearly complete solid angle coverage, an excellent particle identification of hadrons and leptons over a large momentum range and high resolution calorimetry for neutral particles is essential. An overview of the goals and the extensive physics programs, detector development as well as simulation aspects of the P¯ANDA experiment will be discussed.

  5. Low cost alternatives to commercial lab kits for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodejška, Č.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubínek, R.; Říha, J.

    2015-08-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace in the case of professional kits such as Vernier, Pasco or Coach costs around 800 euros. In this paper some physics experiments in which a computer, or a tablet with Microsoft Windows, is used as the measuring device, along with available physical devices such as a laser pointer, a solar cell or an electret microphone, are presented as suitable and alternative ways to carry out lab work. We show that it is possible to perform very simple school experiments (both as a central demonstration and as individual experimentation), in which high accuracy and clear final conclusions can be achieved at a very low cost. Further information is published on the specialized webpage www.sclpx.eu/index.php?lang=en. The worksheets are in Czech, but the English version is in preparation.

  6. A system for designing and simulating particle physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żelazny, Roman; Strzałkowski, Piotr

    1987-01-01

    In view of the rapid development of experimental facilities and their costs, the systematic design and preparation of particle physics experiments have become crucial. A software system is proposed as an aid for the experimental designer, mainly for experimental geometry analysis and experimental simulation. The following model is adopted: the description of an experiment is formulated in a language (here called XL) and put by its processor in a data base. The language is based on the entity-relationship-attribute approach. The information contained in the data base can be reported and analysed by an analyser (called XA) and modifications can be made at any time. In particular, the Monte Carlo methods can be used in experiment simulation for both physical phenomena in experimental set-up and detection analysis. The general idea of the system is based on the design concept of ISDOS project information systems. The characteristics of the simulation module are similar to those of the CERN Geant system, but some extensions are proposed. The system could be treated as a component of a greater, integrated software environment for the design of particle physics experiments, their monitoring and data processing.

  7. Atomically resolved STM imaging with a diamond tip: simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Grushko, V; Lübben, O; Chaika, A N; Novikov, N; Mitskevich, E; Chepugov, A; Lysenko, O; Murphy, B E; Krasnikov, S A; Shvets, I V

    2014-01-17

    The spatial resolution of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) can be enhanced using light element-terminated probes with spatially localized electron orbitals at the apex atom. Conductive diamond probes can provide carbon atomic orbitals suitable for STM imaging with sub-Ångström lateral resolution and high apex stability crucial for the small tunneling gaps necessary for high-resolution experiments. Here we demonstrate that high spatial resolution can be achieved in STM experiments with single-crystal diamond tips, which are generally only considered for use as probes for atomic force microscopy. The results of STM experiments with a heavily boron-doped, diamond probe on a graphite surface; density functional theory calculations of the tip and surface electronic structure; and first-principles tunneling current calculations demonstrate that the highest spatial resolution can be achieved with diamond tips at tip-sample distances of 3-5 Å when frontier p-orbitals of the tip provide their maximum contribution to the tunneling current. At the same time, atomic resolution is feasible even at extremely small gaps with very high noise in the tunneling current.

  8. Physics Results from the Antiproton Experiment (APEX) at Fermilab

    DOE Data Explorer

    APEX Collaboration

    Is Antimatter stable? The APEX experiment searches for the decay of antiprotons at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator. Observation of antiproton decay would indicate a violation of the CPT theorem, which is one of the most fundamental theorems of modern physics. The best laboratory limits on antiproton decay come from the APEX experiment which achieved a sensitivity to antiproton lifetimes up to of order 700,000 years for the most sensitive decay modes. Antiproton lifetimes in this range could arise from CPT violation at the Planck scale.[copied from http://www-apex.fnal.gov/] This website presents published results from the APEX Test Experiment (T861) and from the E868 Experiment. Limits were placed on six antiproton decay modes with a muon in the final state and on seven antiproton decay modes with an electron in the final state. See also the summary table and plot and the APEX picture gallery.

  9. Comparison of numerical simulations to experiments for atomization in a jet nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gélicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and

  10. Comparison of Numerical Simulations to Experiments for Atomization in a Jet Nebulizer

    PubMed Central

    Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gélicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and

  11. Understanding the learning assistant experience with physics identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Eleanor W.; Close, Hunter G.; Donnelly, David

    2013-01-01

    Learning Assistants (LAs) have been shown to have better conceptual understanding and more favorable beliefs about science than non-LAs, and are more likely to choose a career in K-12 science teaching [1]. We propose that connections between elements of identity, persistence, and participation in an LA program can be explained using the concept of the community of practice and its intimate relationship to identity [2]. In separate work, Hazari et al. found that physics identity was highly correlated to expressed career plans in physics [3]. We hypothesize that a thriving LA program has many features of a well-functioning community of practice and contributes to all four elements of physics identity: personal interest, student performance, competence, and recognition by others. We explore how this analysis of the LA experience might shape decisions and influence outcomes of adoption and adaptations of the LA model.

  12. [Health promotion through physical activity: territorial models and experiences].

    PubMed

    Romano-Spica, V; Parlato, A; Palumbo, D; Lorenzo, E; Frangella, C; Montuori, E; Anastasi, D; Visciano, A; Liguori, G

    2008-01-01

    Scientific evidences support the preventive role of physical activity in relation to different multifactorial pathologies. Health's promotion through the spreading of lifestyles that encourage movement, does not represent just an action in contrast with "sedentary life" risk-factor, but also a priority for "quality" of life, with relevant economical and social benefits. WHO indicates physical activity as one of the priorities for an effective prevention. Besides, the EU supports the realization and the diffusion of some prevention-programs. Main pilot experiences developed in Italy and other countries are summarized. Attention is focused on the role of the competences and structures involved in an integrated approach based on availability of medical support, social services and local structures, considering recent developments in health prevention and promotion. In Italy and Europe, new opportunities to implement health promotion through physical activity are offered by the development of higher education in movement and sport sciences.

  13. B Physics at the D0 experiment A Mexican review

    SciTech Connect

    De La Cruz-Burelo, E.

    2010-07-29

    On April of 1992 a Mexican group from Cinvestav officially joined the D0 experiment, one of the two experiments in the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The seed for this experimental group on high energy physics from Cinvestav was planted in Mexico in some measure by Augusto Garcia, to whom this workshop is in memorial. Augusto's efforts and support to groups dedicated to this area was clear and important. Some of these seeds have given origin to today's established Mexican groups on experimental high energy physics, one example of this is the Mexican group at D0. I present here a short review of some of the D0 results on which the Mexican group has contributed, emphasizing the last decade, which I have witnessed.

  14. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  15. An Overview of the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, J. Blair; Gulliford, Jim

    2014-10-09

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties associated with advanced modeling and simulation accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Data provided by those two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades. An overview of the IRPhEP and a brief update of the ICSBEP are provided in this paper.

  16. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Bœhm, Céline

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle sin2 θ W to date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neutrinos, and use these estimates to quantify errors on future measurements of the neutrino fluxes, weak mixing angle and solar observables, as well as to constrain new physics in the neutrino sector. Our analysis shows that the combined rates of solar neutrino events in second generation experiments (SuperCDMS and LZ) can yield a measurement of the pp flux to 2.5% accuracy via electron recoil, and slightly improve the 8B flux determination. Assuming a low-mass argon phase, projected tonne-scale experiments like DARWIN can reduce the uncertainty on both the pp and boron-8 neutrino fluxes to below 1%. Finally, we use current results from LUX, SuperCDMS and CDMSlite to set bounds on new interactions between neutrinos and electrons or nuclei, and show that future direct detection experiments can be used to set complementary constraints on the parameter space associated with light mediators.

  17. The Physics of Miniature Atomic Clocks: 0-0 Versus "End" Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Amber; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Kuzma, Nicholas; Happer, William

    2003-05-01

    The majority of traditional atomic-clock designs are based on the 0-0 hyperfine transition of a Cs 133 atom. We are currently investigating the advantages of operating a miniature optical atomic clock using the "end" transitions, e.g. connecting states |f=1, mf =+/-1> and |f=2, mf=+/-2> in 87Rb. In our paper we present extensive new measurements of relevant relaxation rates, such as those due to spin-exchange collisions, buffer-gas pressure shifts, Carver Rates and others, which ultimately determine the choices of an operating regime for the miniature optical atomic clock. The relationship between these rates is non-trivial: for example, using higher laser power will increase polarization and reduce the spin-exchange rate [1], but it can simultaneously increase the linewidth due to the optical pumping rate. The dependence of these and other relaxation rates on the cell size, temperature, pressure, a choice of buffer gas, and other parameters will be reported. Based on these measured rates, our modeling can be used to predict the transition linewidths, signal-to-noise ratios and thus the stability of the clock in different operating regimes. The trade-off between the stability of the clock and the desired small cell size and low power consumption needs to be carefully considered in order to optimize our design. In our experiments we used optical, microwave, and radio-frequency excitation to study hyperfine and Zeeman resonance lines in heated glass cells containing pure-isotope alkali-metal vapor and buffer gasses (N2, Ar, He, etc.) at low (0 - 10 G) magnetic fields. Simultaneous use of light, microwave and radio-frequency fields allowed us to calibrate surrounding magnetic fields by observing the corresponding shifts of the resonance, thus leading us to a quantitative understanding of our system. [1] S. Appelt, A. B. Baranga, A. R. Young, W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2078 (1999).

  18. A simple digital delay for nuclear physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. G.; Cruz, C.

    2014-05-01

    A simple high precision digital delay for nuclear physics experiments was developed using fast ECL electronics. The circuit uses an oscillator synchronized with the signal to be delayed and a presettable counter. It is capable of delaying a negative NIM signal by 2 μs with a precision better than 50 ps. The circuit was developed for use in slow-fast coincidence units for Perturbed Angular Correlation spectrometers but it is not limited to this application.

  19. Monolithic electronics for nuclear and high-energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    Electronic instrumentation for large fixed-target and collider experiments is rapidly moving to the use of highly integrated electronics wherever it is cost effective. This trend is aided by the development of circuit building blocks useful for nuclear and high-energy physics instrumentation and has accelerated recently with the development of monolithic silicon chips with multiple functions on one substrate. Examples of recent developments are given, together with remarks on the rationale for use of monolithic electronics and economic considerations.

  20. Can There BE Physics Without Experiments? Challenges and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Physicists investigating space, time and matter at the Planck scale will probably have to work with much less guidance from experimental input than has ever happened before in the history of Physics. This may imply that we should insist on much higher demands of logical and mathematical rigour than before. Working with long chains of arguments linking theories to experiment, we must be able to rely on logical precision when and where experimental checks cannot be provided.

  1. Solar sphere viewed through the Skylab solar physics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The solar sphere viewed through the Skylab solar physics experiment (S082) Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliographis seen in this photographic reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The solar chromosphere and lower corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun characterized by the white light emissions. This image was recorded during the huge solar prominence which occurred on August 21, 1973.

  2. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors for Nuclear Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2015-10-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Nowadays, advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from the old generation of multi wire gaseous chamber (MWPCs) to a new family commonly refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGD technologies combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Several technical breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area MPGDs, making them cost effective and high performance detector candidates for future nuclear physics (NP) and high energy physics (HEP) experiments. We give in the present talk, an overview of the state of the art of the MPGDs. We will then briefly present the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 with the goal of further advancing technological developments and applications of MPGDs and associated electronic-readout systems. Finally we report on the rich and diverse R&D activities on MPGDs to prepare for the detector challenges of the next generation of accelerators and for the frontiers of physics research.

  3. Relativistic Momentum-Space Equations with Applications to Atomic and Elementary Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardekopf, Eugene Edward

    Relativistic equal-time wave equations obtained from field theory which describe bound states of N Dirac particles inevitably involve free or external-field positive -energy projection operators (LAMDA)(,+)(i). For N > 2 these operators are vital if the equations are to admit normaliz- able solutions. Such equations have been used in the past to obtain relativistic corrections to simple atomic systems, and to provide a theoretical basis for the Dirac-Hartree-Fock type of equations for many-electron atoms. These equations also find applications in ele- mentary particle physics in describing bound states of quarks. Here we initiate a numerical study of such equations, avoiding an expan- sion in powers of v/c. We work in momentum space, where the free projection operators are simple functions of (')p. We describe tech- niques for finding the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of H(,+)(1,2) = h(,D)(1) + h(,D)(2) + (LAMDA)(,++)V(LAMDA)(,++) where h(,D)(i) is the free Dirac Hamiltonian and V is a local potential with either a (VBAR)(')r(,1)-(')r(,2)(VBAR)('-1) singularity in the case of atomic systems, or a (VBAR)(')r(,1)-(')r(,2)(VBAR) behavior plus a Coulomb-like singular- ity in the case of bound quarks. Results are presented for both pure Coulomb and a Coulomb plus Breit potential for the atomic case, and for a pure Lorentz scalar in the linear potential case. In the atomic case a wide range of m(,1)/m(,2) and coupling strength (gamma) is studied and the m(,2) = (INFIN) limit is compared with the Dirac equation. The magni- tude of level shifts associated with virtual pair production in such two-body systems is discussed. For intermediate values of (gamma) a com- parison is made between the numerical results and those of pertur- bation theory. We find that there can often be large corrections to perturbative results even for not terribly large values of v/c. We also study the strong coupling limit and find the value (gamma)(,max) for which the lowest-lying bound state

  4. Trends in integrated circuit design for particle physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated circuits are one of the key complex units available to designers of multichannel detector setups. A whole number of factors makes Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) valuable for Particle Physics and Astrophysics experiments. Among them the most important ones are: integration scale, low power dissipation, radiation tolerance. In order to make possible future experiments in the intensity, cosmic, and energy frontiers today ASICs should provide new level of functionality at a new set of constraints and trade-offs, like low-noise high-dynamic range amplification and pulse shaping, high-speed waveform sampling, low power digitization, fast digital data processing, serialization and data transmission. All integrated circuits, necessary for physical instrumentation, should be radiation tolerant at an earlier not reached level (hundreds of Mrad) of total ionizing dose and allow minute almost 3D assemblies. The paper is based on literary source analysis and presents an overview of the state of the art and trends in nowadays chip design, using partially own ASIC lab experience. That shows a next stage of ising micro- and nanoelectronics in physical instrumentation.

  5. On the Limitations of Thought Experiments in Physics and the Consequences for Physics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam; Burko, Lior M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the role of Thought Experiments (TEs) in ongoing processes of conceptual refinement for physicists and physics learners. Analyze TEs related to stellar evolution and general relativity. Identifies the stages at which crucial errors are made in these TEs and the cognitive processes which lead to these errors. Discusses implications for…

  6. Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits: from the Dynamical Casimir effect to Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nori, Franco

    2012-02-01

    This talk will present an overview of some of our recent results on atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits. Particular emphasis will be given to photons interacting with qubits, interferometry, the Dynamical Casimir effect, and also studying Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits.[4pt] References available online at our web site:[0pt] J.Q. You, Z.D. Wang, W. Zhang, F. Nori, Manipulating and probing Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits, (2011). Arxiv. J.R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C.M. Wilson, F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting coplanar waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147003 (2009). [0pt] J.R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C.M. Wilson, F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting microwave circuits, Phys. Rev. A 82, 052509 (2010). [0pt] C.M. Wilson, G. Johansson, A. Pourkabirian, J.R. Johansson, T. Duty, F. Nori, P. Delsing, Observation of the Dynamical Casimir Effect in a superconducting circuit. Nature, in press (Nov. 2011). P.D. Nation, J.R. Johansson, M.P. Blencowe, F. Nori, Stimulating uncertainty: Amplifying the quantum vacuum with superconducting circuits, Rev. Mod. Phys., in press (2011). [0pt] J.Q. You, F. Nori, Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits, Nature 474, 589 (2011). [0pt] S.N. Shevchenko, S. Ashhab, F. Nori, Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg interferometry, Phys. Reports 492, 1 (2010). [0pt] I. Buluta, S. Ashhab, F. Nori. Natural and artificial atoms for quantum computation, Reports on Progress in Physics 74, 104401 (2011). [0pt] I.Buluta, F. Nori, Quantum Simulators, Science 326, 108 (2009). [0pt] L.F. Wei, K. Maruyama, X.B. Wang, J.Q. You, F. Nori, Testing quantum contextuality with macroscopic superconducting circuits, Phys. Rev. B 81, 174513 (2010). [0pt] J.Q. You, X.-F. Shi, X. Hu, F. Nori, Quantum emulation of a spin system with topologically protected ground states using superconducting quantum circuit, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063823 (2010).

  7. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PhaSE) or "Making Jello in Space"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Jerri S.; Doherty, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) is a highly successful experiment that flew aboard two shuttle missions to study the transitions involved in the formation of jellolike colloidal crystals in a microgravity environment. A colloidal suspension, or colloid, consists of fine particles, often having complex interactions, suspended in a liquid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. In low Earth orbit, the effective force of gravity is thousands of times less than at the Earth's surface. This provides researchers a way to conduct experiments that cannot be adequately performed in an Earth-gravity environment. In microgravity, colloidal particles freely interact without the complications of settling that occur in normal gravity on Earth. If the particle interactions within these colloidal suspensions could be predicted and accurately modeled, they could provide the key to understanding fundamental problems in condensed matter physics and could help make possible the development of wonderful new "designer" materials. Industries that make semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. Atomic interactions determine the physical properties (e.g., weight, color, and hardness) of ordinary matter. PHaSE uses colloidal suspensions of microscopic solid plastic spheres to model the behavior of atomic interactions. When uniformly sized hard spheres suspended in a fluid reach a certain concentration (volume fraction), the particle-fluid mixture changes from a disordered fluid state, in which the spheres are randomly organized, to an ordered "crystalline" state, in which they are structured periodically. The thermal energy of the spheres causes them to form ordered arrays, analogous to crystals. Seven of the eight PHaSE samples ranged in volume fraction from 0.483 to 0.624 to cover the range of interest, while one sample, having a concentration of 0.019, was included for

  8. Autonomy and the Student Experience in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Nicholas Ron

    The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a Self-Determination Theory perspective with two studies. Study I, a correlational study, investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (vs. controlling) students perceived their instructors to be. An autonomy supportive instructor acknowledges students' perspectives, feelings, and perceptions and provides students with information and opportunities for choice, while minimizing external pressures. It was found that the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was positively correlated with student interest and enjoyment in learning physics (beta=0.31***) and negatively correlated with student anxiety about taking physics (beta=-0.23**). It was also positively correlated with how autonomous (vs. controlled) students' reasons for studying physics became over the duration of the course (i.e., studying physics more because they wanted to vs. had to; beta=0.24***). This change in autonomous reasons for studying physics was in turn positively correlated with student performance in the course (beta=0.17*). Additionally, the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was directly correlated with performance for those students entering the course with relatively autonomous reasons for studying physics (beta=0.25**). In summary, students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy supportive tended to have a more favorable experience in the course. If greater autonomy support was in fact the cause of a more favorable student experience, as suggested by Self-determination Theory and experimental studies in other contexts, these results would have implications for instruction and instructor professional development in similar contexts. I discuss these implications. Study II, an experimental study, investigated the effect

  9. New Developments in Atom Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    interferometers can be applied to a number of experiments in fundamental physics: tests of quantum mechanics such as the Aharonov - Casher effect (6), measurement of...qualitatively new types of experiments involving inertial effects , studies of atomic and molecular properties, tests of basic quantum physics, and may ultimately...laser light as the beam splitters. Atom interferometers will make possible qualitatively new types of experiments involving inertial effects , studies of

  10. The experiment PANDA: physics with antiprotons at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, Gianluigi

    2015-05-01

    PANDA is an experiment that will run at the future facility FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany. A high intensity and cooled antiproton beam will collide on a fixed hydrogen or nuclear target covering center-of-mass energies between 2.2 and 5.5 GeV. PANDA addresses various physics aspects from the low energy non-perturbative region towards the perturbative regime of QCD. With the impressive theoretical developments in this field, e.g. lattice QCD, the predictions are becoming more accurate in the course of time. The data harvest with PANDA will, therefore, be an ideal test bench with the aim to provide a deeper understanding of hadronic phenomena such as confinement and the generation of hadron masses. A variety of physics topics will be covered with PANDA, for example: the formation or production of exotic non-qqbar charm meson states connected to the recently observed XYZ spectrum; the study of gluon-rich matter, such as glueballs and hybrids; the spectroscopy of the excited states of strange and charm baryons, their production cross section and their spin correlations; the behaviour of hadrons in nuclear matter; the hypernuclear physics; the electromagnetic proton form factors in the timelike region. The PANDA experiment is designed to achieve the above mentioned physics goals with a setup with the following characteristics: an almost full solid angle acceptance; excellent tracking capabilities with high resolution (1-2 % at 1 GeV/c in the central region); secondary vertex detection with resolution ≈ 100 microns or better; electromagnetic calorimetry for detections of gammas and electrons up to 10 GeV; good particle identification of charge tracks (electrons, muons, pions, kaons, protons); a dedicated interchangeable central apparatus for the hypernuclear physics; detector and data acquisition system capable of working at 20 MHz interaction rate with an intelligent software trigger that can provide maximum flexibility.

  11. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  12. ATOMIC PHYSICS PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCRAPE-OFF LAYER OF TOKAMAKS

    SciTech Connect

    WEST, W.P.; GOLDSMITH,; B. EVANS,T.E.; OLSON, R.J.

    2002-05-01

    The region between the well-confined plasma and the vessel walls of a magnetic confinement fusion research device, the scrape-off layer (SOL), is typically rich in atomic and molecular physics processes. The most advanced magnetic confinement device, the magnetically diverted tokamak, uses a magnetic separatrix to isolate the confinement zone (closed flux surfaces) from the edge plasma (open field lines). Over most of their length the open field lines run parallel to the separatrix, forming a thin magnetic barrier with the nearby vessel walls. In a poloidally-localized region, the open field lines are directed away from the separatrix and into the divertor, a region spatially separated from the separatrix where intense plasma wall interaction can occur relatively safely. Recent data from several tokamaks indicate that particle transport across the field lines of the SOL can be somewhat faster than previously thought. In these cases, the rate at which particles reach the vessel wall is comparable to the rate to the divertor from parallel transport. The SOL can be thin enough that the recycling neutrals and sputtered impurities from the wall may refuel or contaminate the confinement zone more efficiently than divertor plasma wall interaction. Just inside the SOL is a confinement barrier that produces a sharp pedestal in plasma density and temperature. Understanding neutral transport through the SOL and into the pedestal is key to understanding particle balance and particle and impurity exhaust. The SOL plasma is sufficiently hot and dense to excite and ionize neutrals. Ion and neutral temperatures are high enough that charge exchange between the neutrals and fuel and impurity ions is fast. Excitation of neutrals can be fast enough to lead to nonlinear behavior in charge exchange and ionization processes. In this paper the detailed atomic physics important to the understanding of the neutral transport through the SOL will be discussed.

  13. Source physics experiments at the Nevada Test Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ping; Snelson, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Coblentz, David D.; Corbell, Robert; Bowyer, Theodore W.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Carrigan, Charles R.; Bradley, Christopher R.; Patton, Howard J.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Sweeney, Jerry J.; Brunish, Wendee M.; Hawkins, Ward L.; Antoun,Tarabay H.; Wohletz, Kenneth H.; Zucca, John Jay

    2010-10-01

    The U. S. capability to monitor foreign underground nuclear test activities relies heavily on measurement of explosion phenomena, including characteristic seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and acoustic signals. Despite recent advances in each of these fields, empirical, rather than physics-based, approaches are used to predict and explain observations. Seismologists rely on prior knowledge of the variations of teleseismic and regional seismic parameters such as p- and s-wave arrivals from simple one-dimensional models for the teleseismic case to somewhat more complicated enhanced two-dimensional models for the regional case. Likewise, radionuclide experts rely on empirical results from a handful of limited experiments to determine the radiological source terms present at the surface after an underground test. To make the next step in the advancement of the science of monitoring we need to transform these fields to enable predictive, physics-based modeling and analysis. The Nevada Test Site Source Physics Experiments (N-SPE) provide a unique opportunity to gather precise data from well-designed experiments to improve physics-based modeling capability. In the seismic experiments, data collection will include time domain reflectometry to measure explosive performance and yield, free-field accelerometers, extensive seismic arrays, and infrasound and acoustic measurements. The improved modeling capability that we will develop using this data should enable important advances in our ability to monitor worldwide for nuclear testing. The first of a series of source physics experiments will be conducted in the granite of Climax Stock at the NTS, near the locations of the HARD HAT and PILE DRIVER nuclear tests. This site not only provides a fairly homogeneous and well-documented geology, but also an opportunity to improve our understanding of how fractures, joints, and faults affect seismic wave generation and propagation. The Climax Stock experiments will consist of a 220

  14. Phase-locked laser system for use in atomic coherence experiments.

    PubMed

    Marino, Alberto M; Stroud, C R

    2008-01-01

    We describe a phase-coherent laser system designed for use in experiments involving coherently prepared atomic media. We implement a simple technique based on a sample-and-hold circuit together with a reset of the integrating electronics that makes it possible to scan continuously the relative frequency between the lasers of over tens of gigahertz while keeping them phase locked. The system consists of three external-cavity diode lasers operating around 795 nm. A low-power laser serves as a frequency reference for two high-power lasers which are phased locked with an optical phase-locked loop. We measured the residual phase noise of the system to be less than 0.04 rad(2). In order to show the application of the system towards atomic coherence experiments, we used it to implement electromagnetically induced transparency in a rubidium vapor cell and obtained a reduction in the absorption coefficient of 92%.

  15. Dalton's disputed nitric oxide experiments and the origins of his atomic theory.

    PubMed

    Usselman, Melvyn C; Leaist, Derek G; Watson, Katherine D

    2008-01-11

    In 1808 John Dalton published his first general account of chemical atomic theory, a cornerstone of modern chemistry. The theory originated in his earlier studies of the properties of atmospheric gases. In 1803 Dalton discovered that oxygen combined with either one or two volumes of nitric oxide in closed vessels over water and this pioneering observation of integral multiple proportions provided important experimental evidence for his incipient atomic ideas. Previous attempts to reproduce Dalton's experiments have been unsuccessful and some commentators have concluded the results were fraudulent. We report a successful reconstruction of Dalton's experiments and provide an analysis exonerating him of any scientific misconduct. But we conclude that Dalton, already thinking atomistically, adjusted experimental conditions to obtain the integral combining proportions.

  16. Physical mechanism of the Schwarzschild effect in film dosimetry—theoretical model and comparison with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouguela, A.; Kollhoff, R.; Rühmann, A.; Willborn, K. C.; Harder, D.; Poppe, B.

    2006-09-01

    In consideration of the importance of film dosimetry for the dosimetric verification of IMRT treatment plans, the Schwarzschild effect or failure of the reciprocity law, i.e. the reduction of the net optical density under 'protraction' or 'fractionation' conditions at constant dose, has been experimentally studied for Kodak XOMAT-V (Martens et al 2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 2221-34) and EDR 2 dosimetry films (Djouguela et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 N317-N321). It is known that this effect results from the competition between two solid-state physics reactions involved in the latent-image formation of the AgBr crystals, the aggregation of two Ag atoms freshly formed from Ag+ ions near radiation-induced occupied electron traps and the spontaneous decomposition of the Ag atoms. In this paper, we are developing a mathematical model of this mechanism which shows that the interplay of the mean lifetime τ of the Ag atoms with the time pattern of the irradiation determines the magnitude of the observed effects of the temporal dose distribution on the net optical density. By comparing this theory with our previous protraction experiments and recent fractionation experiments in which the duration of the pause between fractions was varied, a value of the time constant τ of roughly 10 s at room temperature has been determined for EDR 2. The numerical magnitude of the Schwarzschild effect in dosimetry films under the conditions generally met in radiotherapy amounts to only a few per cent of the net optical density (net OD), so that it can frequently be neglected from the viewpoint of clinical applications. But knowledge of the solid-state physical mechanism and a description in terms of a mathematical model involving a typical time constant of about 10 s are now available to estimate the magnitude of the effect should the necessity arise, i.e. in cases of large fluctuations of the temporal pattern of film exposure.

  17. High charge state, ion-atom collision experiments using accel-decel

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, E.M.; Clark, M.W.; Tanis, J.A.; Graham, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of /sub 16/S/sup 13 +/ + He collisions between 2.5 and 200 MeV, which were made using the accel-decel technique with the Brookhaven National Laboratory coupled MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerators, are discussed. Cross sections were measured for single electron-capture and -loss as well as K x rays correlated to electron-capture. Other planned ion-atom collision experiments requiring accel-decel are also presented. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, U.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

  19. Looking at cell mechanics with atomic force microscopy: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Rafael; Toca-Herrera, José L

    2014-11-01

    This review reports on the use of the atomic force microscopy in the investigation of the mechanical properties of cells. It is shown that the technique is able to deliver information about the cell surface properties (e.g., topography), the Young modulus, the viscosity, and the cell the relaxation times. Another aspect that this short review points out is the utilization of the atomic force microscope to investigate basic questions related to materials physics, biology, and medicine. The review is written in a chronological way to offer an overview of phenomenological facts and quantitative results to the reader. The final section discusses in detail the advantages and disadvantages of the Hertz and JKR models. A new implementation of the JKR model derived by Dufresne is presented.

  20. Modeling the heating and atomic kinetics of a photoionized neon plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockard, Tom E.

    Motivated by gas cell photoionized plasma experiments performed by our group at the Z facility of Sandia National Laboratories, we discuss in this dissertation a modeling study of the heating and ionization of the plasma for conditions characteristic of these experiments. Photoionized plasmas are non-equilibrium systems driven by a broadband x-ray radiation flux. They are commonly found in astrophysics but rarely seen in the laboratory. Several modeling tools have been employed: (1) a view-factor computer code constrained with side x-ray power and gated monochromatic image measurements of the z-pinch radiation, to model the time-history of the photon-energy resolved x-ray flux driving the photoionized plasma, (2) a Boltzmann self-consistent electron and atomic kinetics model to simulate the electron distribution function and configuration-averaged atomic kinetics, (3) a radiation-hydrodynamics code with inline non-equilibrium atomic kinetics to perform a comprehensive numerical simulation of the experiment and plasma heating, and (4) steady-state and time-dependent collisional-radiative atomic kinetics calculations with fine-structure energy level description to assess transient effects in the ionization and charge state distribution of the plasma. The results indicate that the photon-energy resolved x-ray flux impinging on the front window of the gas cell is very well approximated by a linear combination of three geometrically-diluted Planckian distributions. Knowledge of the spectral details of the x-ray drive turned out to be important for the heating and ionization of the plasma. The free electrons in the plasma thermalize quickly relative to the timescales associated with the time-history of the x-ray drive and the plasma atomic kinetics. Hence, electrons are well described by a Maxwellian energy distribution of a single temperature. This finding is important to support the application of a radiation-hydrodynamic model to simulate the experiment. It is found

  1. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  2. Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) power supply design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This new feature requires a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes. This paper describes the plan for the adaptation of the PPPL/FTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Five major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF, PF and Fast Plasma Position Control (FPPC) power supplies, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems. Special emphasis is placed on the development of new power supply and protection schemes.

  3. Competing atomic processes in Ba and Sr injection critical velocity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, P. T.; Torbert, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect requires a superthermal electron population to ionize through collisional impact. Such superthermal electrons can however lose energy to competing atomic processes, as well as to ionization, thus limiting the efficiency of the effect. Considering Ba and Sr magnetospheric injection experiments designed to test the CIV theory, it is found that in both cases roughly 60 percent of the superthermal electron energy is lost on exciting line radiation. Moreover, energy loss to background neutral oxygen places a strict limit on the injected cloud densities for which critical velocity effects are possible; a finding which explains the consistently negative results in radial injection experiments.

  4. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of

  5. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  6. A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

    2014-04-01

    We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

  7. Interactive Plasma Physics Education Using Data from Fusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Brisa; Davis, Bill; Zwicker, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience (IPPEX) website was created in 1996 to give users access to data from plasma and fusion experiments. Interactive material on electricity, magnetism, matter, and energy was presented to generate interest and prepare users to understand data from a fusion experiment. Initially, users were allowed to analyze real-time and archival data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiment. IPPEX won numerous awards for its novel approach of allowing users to participate in ongoing research. However, the latest revisions of IPPEX were in 2001 and the interactive material is no longer functional on modern browsers. Also, access to real-time data was lost when TFTR was shut down. The interactive material on IPPEX is being rewritten in ActionScript3.0, and real-time and archival data from the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) will be made available to users. New tools like EFIT animations, fast cameras, and plots of important plasma parameters will be included along with an existing Java-based ``virtual tokamak.'' Screenshots from the upgraded website and future directions will be presented.

  8. Brain simulation of action may be grounded in physical experience.

    PubMed

    Olsson, C J; Nyberg, Lars

    2011-12-01

    An intriguing quality of our brain is that when actions are imagined, corresponding brain regions are recruited as when the actions are actually performed. It has been hypothesized that the similarity between real and simulated actions depends on the nature of motor representations. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining S.D., who never used her legs but is an elite wheel chair athlete. Controls recruited motor brain regions during imagery of stair walking and frontal regions during imagery of wheel chair slalom. S.D. showed the opposite pattern. Thus, brain simulation of actions may be grounded in specific physical experiences.

  9. Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2014-05-19

    The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

  10. A Summer Research Experience in Particle Physics Using Skype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Curran; Alexander, Steven; Mahmood, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    This last summer I did research in particle physics as part of a ``remote REU.'' This poster will describe that experience and the results of my project which was to experimentally verify the mass ranges of the Z' boson. Data from the LHC's Atlas detector was filtered by computers to select for likely Z boson decays; my work was in noting all instances of Z or Z' boson decays in one thousand events and their masses, separating the Z from Z' bosons, and generating histograms of the masses.

  11. The Meaning of Patient Experiences of Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kornelsen, Jude; Atkins, Chloe; Brownell, Keith; Woollard, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Current diagnostic models in medical practice do not adequately account for patient symptoms that cannot be classified. At the moment, when all known diagnostic possibilities have been excluded, physicians-and patients-confront uncertainty in diagnosis, which gives rise to the label of Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms (MUPS). This phenomenological study, conducted by two research teams in two geographic locations, sought to explore patients' experiences of prolonged uncertainty in diagnosis. Participants in this study described their experiences with and consequences of MUPS primarily in relation to levels of acuity and acceptance of uncertainty, the latter loosely correlated to length of time since onset of symptoms (the longer the time, the more forbearance participants expressed). We identified three experiential periods including the active search for a diagnosis, living with MUPS, and, finally, acceptance/resignation of their condition. Findings point to the heightened importance of the therapeutic relationship when dealing with uncertainty.

  12. Photogrammetric methods for measurements in fluid physics experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, H.-G.; Virant, M.; Becker, J.; Bösemann, W.; Gatti, L.; Henrichs, A.

    2002-02-01

    Methods of digital close-range photogrammetry allow for manifold real 3-D measurements in dynamic processes. Based on the acquisition of multi-camera digital image sequences, image analysis with subpixel accuracy image measurement operators, photogrammetric multi-image matching and point determination techniques, strict geometric modeling of complex environments and thorough system calibration techniques, time-resolved accurate 3-D coordinates of a large number of objects in a scene can be determined fully automatically. The paper will first give a short review on basic principles of digital photogrammetry and discuss the application and accuracy potential. After that, practical examples will be given from several breadboard experiments conducted in the frame of the ESA Technological Research and Development Programme to show the applicability of the technique to typical experiments in the field of fluid physics. These experiments focus on the investigation of experiments on Marangoni convection; they include the determination of 3-D velocity fields near a hanging drop within a fluid matrix and the observation of the tangential tension on the boundary surface by measuring changes in shape and/or position of liquid bodies like drops, bubbles or liquid columns in a fluid matrix.

  13. Recent Advances and Cross-Century Outlooks in Physics, Interplay between Theory and Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Interdisciplinary Topics * SUPERSYMMETRY * Supersymmetry, Noncommutative Geometry and Ultimate Unification * Supersymmetry and Beam Dynamics * Brane World * Dynamical Symmetries in High-Temperature Superconductivity * BEAM, PLASMA, GRAVITATION, AND ASTRONOMY * Toroidal Akfvén Eigenmode Experiments in TFTR * Empirical Tests of the Relativistic Gravity: The Past, the Present and the Future * Radio Astronomy in Taiwan: (Personal) Highlights * PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS * Is There only Top Quark? Review of Top Results * Some Topics on Double Heavy Mesons: Heavy Quarkonia and Bc Meson * Softly Broken CP Symmetry * A Pilot Experiment with Reactor Neutrinos in Taiwan * The Composition of the Proton Spin * Recent Results from Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility * SYNCHROTRON RADIATION AND ATOMIC PHYSICS * Synchrotron Radiation/Laser and Doubly-Excited Atoms * Multiply Excited States for Lithium * FRACTIONAL QUANTUM HALL EFFECT * An Introduction to Topological Orders and Edge Excitations in Quantum Hall States * Phases and Phase Transitions in the Quantum Hall Effect * Chiral Luttinger Liquids at the Fractional Quantum Hall Edge * HIGH-Tc SUPERCONDUCTOR PHYSICS * Two Energy Gaps in Cuprate Superconductors: Clues to the High-Tc Mechanism * Applications of High Temperature Superconductors * Magnetism and Superconductivity in Ru-Based Perovskites * Correlation between Crystal Symmetry, Weak Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity in Distorted T'-phase Cuprates * CHAOS * An Overview of Chaos * Chaotic Dynamics: Introduction and Recent Developments * Chaos in Accelerators * HIGHLIGHTS OF PHYSICS ADVANCES IN TAIWAN * Solving the X-Ray Phase Problem for omolecular Crystals by Multi-Wave X-Ray Interference * BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION * Bogoliubov Dispersion Relation and the Possibility of Superfluidity for Weakly-interacting Photons * Bose-Einstein Effects in High-Energy Physics * Physics without Borders

  14. Relaunch of the Interactive Plasma Physics Educational Experience (IPPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, A.; Rusaitis, L.; Zwicker, A.; Stotler, D. P.

    2015-11-01

    In the late 1990's PPPL's Science Education Department developed an innovative online site called the Interactive Plasma Physics Educational Experience (IPPEX). It featured (among other modules) two Java based applications which simulated tokamak physics: A steady state tokamak (SST) and a time dependent tokamak (TDT). The physics underlying the SST and the TDT are based on the ASPECT code which is a global power balance code developed to evaluate the performance of fusion reactor designs. We have relaunched the IPPEX site with updated modules and functionalities: The site itself is now dynamic on all platforms. The graphic design of the site has been modified to current standards. The virtual tokamak programming has been redone in Javascript, taking advantage of the speed and compactness of the code. The GUI of the tokamak has been completely redesigned, including more intuitive representations of changes in the plasma, e.g., particles moving along magnetic field lines. The use of GPU accelerated computation provides accurate and smooth visual representations of the plasma. We will present the current version of IPPEX as well near term plans of incorporating real time NSTX-U data into the simulation.

  15. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  16. Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-fieldquantized slow cesium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey.

    2007-04-05

    A proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM)experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electricfield quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fieldsseen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal lbar mF rbar and,along with the low (approximately 3 m/s) velocity, suppresses thesystematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity andsmall residual magnetic field have made it possible to induce transitionsbetween states and to perform state preparation, analysis, and detectionin regions free of applied static magnetic and electric fields. Thisexperiment demonstrates techniques that may be used to improve the e-EDMlimit by two orders of magnitude, but it is not in itself a sensitivee-EDM search, mostly due to limitations of the laser system.

  17. Physical adsorption: rare gas atoms on solid surfaces. Progress report, June 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, M.W.

    1981-02-01

    This project has entailed investigation of three areas during the current term: physical adsorption, photostimulated field emission (PSE), and phonon reflection at interfaces. The principal effort has been directed toward understanding interactions associated with physical adsorption and the associated properties of a film. The specific topics pursued include the detailed form of the long range interaction, the configuration space wave function, and the interaction between adatoms. Experimental confirmation of the last two come from neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements, respectively. The research in PSE has yielded results which improve upon previous calculations. There is, however, a remaining disagreement with experiment; suggestions for the origin are discussed. The phonon reflection work is directed toward understanding the role of surface roughness, an important factor in increasing the energy transmission across interfaces. A formalism has been developed which will be evaluated in the future.

  18. A Virtual Rock Physics Laboratory Through Visualized and Interactive Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Di Bonito, C.; Clark, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    As new scientific challenges demand more comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigations, laboratory experiments are not expected to become simpler and/or faster. Experimental investigation is an indispensable element of scientific inquiry and must play a central role in the way current and future generations of scientist make decisions. To turn the complexity of laboratory work (and that of rocks!) into dexterity, engagement, and expanded learning opportunities, we are building an interactive, virtual laboratory reproducing in form and function the Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory, at Stanford University. The objective is to combine lectures on laboratory techniques and an online repository of visualized experiments consisting of interactive, 3-D renderings of equipment used to measure properties central to the study of rock physics (e.g., how to saturate rocks, how to measure porosity, permeability, and elastic wave velocity). We use a game creation system together with 3-D computer graphics, and a narrative voice to guide the user through the different phases of the experimental protocol. The main advantage gained in employing computer graphics over video footage is that students can virtually open the instrument, single out its components, and assemble it. Most importantly, it helps describe the processes occurring within the rock. These latter cannot be tracked while simply recording the physical experiment, but computer animation can efficiently illustrate what happens inside rock samples (e.g., describing acoustic waves, and/or fluid flow through a porous rock under pressure within an opaque core-holder - Figure 1). The repository of visualized experiments will complement lectures on laboratory techniques and constitute an on-line course offered through the EdX platform at Stanford. This will provide a virtual laboratory for anyone, anywhere to facilitate teaching/learning of introductory laboratory classes in Geophysics and expand the number of courses

  19. Getting Physical with Your Chemistry: Mechanically Investigating Local Structure and Properties of Surfaces with the Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, William F.; Hoh, Jan H.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) investigates mechanically the chemical properties of individual molecules, surfaces, and materials using suitably designed probes. The current state of the art of AFM in terms of imaging, force measurement, and sample manipulation and its application to physical chemistry is discussed.

  20. Introduction to the Contributions of A. Temkin and R. J. Drachman to Atomic Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Their work, as is the work of most atomic theorists, is concerned with solving the Schroedinger equation accurately for wave function in cases where there is no exact analytical solution. In particular, Temkin is associated with electron scattering from atoms and ions. When he started there already were a number of methods to study the scattering of electrons from atoms.

  1. Initial Physics Results From the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bialek, J.

    2001-01-03

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a approximately equal to 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-bt and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA and with a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and bt =21% were produced.

  2. Physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.; Bell, M.

    2000-11-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a {approx} 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-{beta}{sub t} and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA, stored energies up to 55 kJ, {beta}{sub t} {approx} 10%, and a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and {beta}{sub t}=21% were produced.

  3. Results From the Physics of Colloids Experiment on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, David; Bailey, Arthur; Manley, Suliana; Prasad, Vikram; Christianson, Rebecca; Sankaran, Subramanian; Doherty, Michael; Jankovsky, Amy; Lorik, Tibor; Shiley, William

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment was accommodated within International Space Station (ISS) EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack 2 and was remotely operated from early June 2001 until February 2002 from NASA Glenn Research Center's Telescience Support Center (TSC) in Cleveland, Ohio, and from the remote site at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. PCS was launched on 4/19/2001 on Space Shuttle STS-100. The experiment was activated on 5/31/2001. The entire experimental setup performed remarkably well, and accomplished 2400 hours of science operations on-orbit. The sophisticated instrumentation in PCS is capable of dynamic and static light scattering from 11 to 169 degrees, Bragg scattering over the range from 10 to 60 degrees, dynamic and static light scattering at low angles from 0.3 to 6.0 degrees, and color imaging. The long duration microgravity environment on the ISS facilitated extended studies on the growth and coarsening characteristics of binary crystals. The de-mixing of the colloid-polymer critical-point sample was also studied as it phase-separated into two phases. Further, aging studies on a col-pol gel, gelation rate studies in extremely low concentration fractal gels over several days, and studies on a glass sample, all provided valuable information. Several exciting and unique aspects of these results are discussed here.

  4. MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Catherine E.; Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO) poses a serious threat to spacecraft performance and durability. To address this, 40 different polymer samples and a sample of pyrolytic graphite, collectively called the PEACE (Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment) Polymers, were exposed to the LEO space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 & 2 (MISSE 1 & 2). The purpose of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to obtain accurate mass loss measurements in space to combine with ground measurements in order to accurately calculate the atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymeric materials exposed to the LEO space environment for a long period of time. Error calculations were performed in order to determine the accuracy of the mass measurements and therefore of the erosion yield values. The standard deviation, or error, of each factor was incorporated into the fractional uncertainty of the erosion yield for each of three different situations, depending on the post-flight weighing procedure. The resulting error calculations showed the erosion yield values to be very accurate, with an average error of 3.30 percent.

  5. A physical approach to reduce nonspecific adhesion in molecular recognition atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, O H; Snel, M M; Kuipers, L; Figdor, C G; Greve, J; De Grooth, B G

    1999-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy is one of the few techniques that allow analysis of biological recognition processes at the single-molecule level. A major limitation of this approach is the nonspecific interaction between the force sensor and substrate. We have modeled the nonspecific interaction by looking at the interaction potential between a conical Si3N4 tip with a spherical end face and a mica surface in solution, using DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek) theory and numerical calculations. Insertion of the tip-sample potential in a simulation of an approach-retract cycle of the cantilever gives the well-known force-distance curve. Simulating a force-distance curve at low salt concentration predicts a discrete hopping of the tip, caused by thermal fluctuations. This hopping behavior was observed experimentally and gave rise to a novel approach to making measurements in adhesion mode that essentially works in the repulsive regime. The distance between tip and sample will still be small enough to allow spacer-involved specific interactions, and the percentage of nonspecific interactions of the bare tip with the mica is minimized. We have validated this physical model by imaging intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) antigen with a tip functionalized with anti-ICAM-1 antibody. The measurement demonstrated that a significant decrease in the number of nonspecific interactions was realized, and the topographical image quality and the specific bonding capability of the tip were not affected.

  6. The advanced light source at Lawrence Berkeley laboratory: a new tool for research in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, Alfred S.; Robinson, Arthur L.

    1991-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers) and 24 high-quality bend-magnet ports. The short pulse width (30-50 ps) will be ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will generate high-brightness partially coherent soft X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; this radiation is plane polarized. Wigglers and bend magnets will extend the spectrum by generating high fluxes of X-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will have an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy), and in biology, such as X-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity; the high flux will allow measurements in atomic physics and chemistry to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. Technological applications could include lithography and nano-fabrication.

  7. Protein model refinement using an optimized physics-based all-atom force field.

    PubMed

    Jagielska, Anna; Wroblewska, Liliana; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2008-06-17

    One of the greatest challenges in protein structure prediction is the refinement of low-resolution predicted models to high-resolution structures that are close to the native state. Although contemporary structure prediction methods can assemble the correct topology for a large fraction of protein domains, such approximate models are often not of the resolution required for many important applications, including studies of reaction mechanisms and virtual ligand screening. Thus, the development of a method that could bring those structures closer to the native state is of great importance. We recently optimized the relative weights of the components of the Amber ff03 potential on a large set of decoy structures to create a funnel-shaped energy landscape with the native structure at the global minimum. Such an energy function might be able to drive proteins toward their native structure. In this work, for a test set of 47 proteins, with 100 decoy structures per protein that have a range of structural similarities to the native state, we demonstrate that our optimized potential can drive protein models closer to their native structure. Comparing the lowest-energy structure from each trajectory with the starting decoy, structural improvement is seen for 70% of the models on average. The ability to do such systematic structural refinements by using a physics-based all-atom potential represents a promising approach to high-resolution structure prediction.

  8. Atomic and molecular physics of plasma-based environmental technologies for abatement of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C.P.; Bayless, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques represent a new generation of air emission control technology that potentially could treat large-volume emissions containing dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to apply non-thermal plasmas in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process. There is a need for reliable data concerning the primary decomposition mechanisms and subsequent chemical kinetics associated with non-thermal processing of VOCs. There are many basic atomic and molecular physics issues that are essential in evaluating the economic performance of non- thermal plasma reactors. These studies are important in understanding how the input electrical power is dissipated in the plasma and how efficiently it is converted to the production of the plasma species (radicals, ions, or electrons) responsible for the decomposition of the VOCs. This paper will present results from the basic experimental and theoretical studies aimed at identifying the reaction mechanisms responsible for the primary decomposition of various types of VOCs.

  9. Energy landscape investigation by wavelet transform analysis of atomic force spectroscopy data in a biorecognition experiment.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita

    2016-01-01

    Force fluctuations recorded in an atomic force spectroscopy experiment, during the approach of a tip functionalized with biotin towards a substrate charged with avidin, have been analyzed by a wavelet transform. The observation of strong transient changes only when a specific biorecognition process between the partners takes place suggests a drastic modulation of the force fluctuations when biomolecules recognize each other. Such an analysis allows to investigate the peculiar features of a biorecognition process. These results are discussed in connection with the possible role of energy minima explored by biomolecules during the biorecognition process.

  10. Virtual experiments, physical validation: dental morphology at the intersection of experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P S L; Rayfield, E J

    2012-08-07

    Computational models such as finite-element analysis offer biologists a means of exploring the structural mechanics of biological systems that cannot be directly observed. Validated against experimental data, a model can be manipulated to perform virtual experiments, testing variables that are hard to control in physical experiments. The relationship between tooth form and the ability to break down prey is key to understanding the evolution of dentition. Recent experimental work has quantified how tooth shape promotes fracture in biological materials. We present a validated finite-element model derived from physical compression experiments. The model shows close agreement with strain patterns observed in photoelastic test materials and reaction forces measured during these experiments. We use the model to measure strain energy within the test material when different tooth shapes are used. Results show that notched blades deform materials for less strain energy cost than straight blades, giving insights into the energetic relationship between tooth form and prey materials. We identify a hypothetical 'optimal' blade angle that minimizes strain energy costs and test alternative prey materials via virtual experiments. Using experimental data and computational models offers an integrative approach to understand the mechanics of tooth morphology.

  11. Results on QCD Physics from the CDF-II Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2006-12-01

    In this paper the authors review a selection of recent results obtained, in the area of QCD physics, from the CDF-II experiment that studies p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV provided by the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. All results shown correspond to analysis performed using the Tevatron Run II data samples. In particular they will illustrate the progress achieved and the status of the studies on the following QCD processes: jet inclusive production, using different jet clustering algorithm, W({yields} e{nu}{sub e}) + jets and Z({yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) + jets production, {gamma} + b-jet production, dijet production in double pomeron exchange and finally exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} production. No deviations from the Standard Model have been observed so far.

  12. The Entangled Cosmos: an experiment in physical theopoetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    As an experiment in constructive transdisciplinary relationality, a theology of nonseparable difference here engages a physics of quantum entanglement. The metaphoric potential of "spooky action at a distance" to intensify a cosmology resistant to the dominant individualism and conducive to ethical ecologies of interdependence has only begun to develop across multiple discourses. This essay contemplates the specific unfolding of a theory of nonlocal superpositions by physicists such as Stapp, Bohm and Barad. It does not literalize any God-trope, but rather entangles theology in the mysterious uncertainty of our widest interdependencies. This essay, first presented as a lecture at the American Academy of Religion "Science, Technology and Religion" Group, San Francisco, November 2011, forms the core of a chapter in a book I am currently completing, The Cloud of the Impossible: Theological Entanglements.

  13. First experience of vectorizing electromagnetic physics models for detector simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Amadio, G.; Apostolakis, J.; Bandieramonte, M.; Bianchini, C.; Bitzes, G.; Brun, R.; Canal, P.; Carminati, F.; Licht, J.de Fine; Duhem, L.; Elvira, D.; Gheata, A.; Jun, S. Y.; Lima, G.; Novak, M.; Presbyterian, M.; Shadura, O.; Seghal, R.; Wenzel, S.

    2015-12-23

    The recent emergence of hardware architectures characterized by many-core or accelerated processors has opened new opportunities for concurrent programming models taking advantage of both SIMD and SIMT architectures. The GeantV vector prototype for detector simulations has been designed to exploit both the vector capability of mainstream CPUs and multi-threading capabilities of coprocessors including NVidia GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi. The characteristics of these architectures are very different in terms of the vectorization depth, parallelization needed to achieve optimal performance or memory access latency and speed. An additional challenge is to avoid the code duplication often inherent to supporting heterogeneous platforms. In this paper we present the first experience of vectorizing electromagnetic physics models developed for the GeantV project.

  14. Physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell

    2000-06-13

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is designed for studying toroidal plasma confinement at very low aspect-ratio, A=R/a = 0.85m/0.68m {approximately} 1.25, with cross-section elongation up to 2.2 and triangularity up to 0.5, for plasma currents up to 1 MA and vacuum toroidal magnetic fields up to 0.6 T on axis. Conducting plates are installed close to the plasma on the outboard side to stabilize kink modes. This should permit operation with toroidal-{beta} approaching 40%. The plasmas will be heated by up to 6 MW High-Harmonic Fast Waves (HHFW) at a frequency 30 MHz and by 5 MW of 80 keV deuterium Neutral Beam Injection. Inductive plasma startup can be supplemented by the process of Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI).

  15. Inertial confinement fusion ablator physics experiments on Saturn and Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.E.; Porter, J.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Fehl, D.L.; Jobe, D.O.; Leeper, R.J.; Matzen, M.K.; McGurn, J.S.; Noack, D.D.; Ruggles, L.E.; Sawyer, P.; Torres, J.A.; Vargas, M.; Zagar, D.M.; Kornblum, H.N.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Phillion, D.W.; Suter, L.J.; Thiessen, A.R.; Wallace, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    The Saturn pulsed power accelerator [R. B. Spielman {ital et al.}, in {ital Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Dense} Z-{ital pinches}, Laguna Beach, CA, 1989, edited by N. R. Pereira, J. Davis, and N. Rostoker (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nova laser [J. T. Hunt and D. R. Speck, Opt. Eng. {bold 28}, 461 (1989)] at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been used to explore techniques for studying the behavior of ablator material in x-ray radiation environments comparable in magnitude, spectrum, and duration to those that would be experienced in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraums [J. D. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 3933 (1995)]. The large x-ray outputs available from the Saturn pulsed-power-driven z pinch have enabled us to drive hohlraums of full NIF ignition scale size at radiation temperatures and time scales comparable to those required for the low-power foot pulse of an ignition capsule. The high-intensity drives available in the Nova laser have allowed us to study capsule ablator physics in smaller-scale hohlraums at radiation temperatures and time scales relevant to the peak power pulse for an ignition capsule. Taken together, these experiments have pointed the way to possible techniques for testing radiation-hydrodynamics code predictions of radiation flow, opacity, equation of state, and ablator shock velocity over the range of radiation environments that will be encountered in a NIF hohlraum. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Folding peptides and proteins with all-atom physics: methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shell, M. Scott

    2008-03-01

    Computational methods offer powerful tools for investigating proteins and peptides at the molecular-level; however, it has proven challenging to reproduce the long time scale folding processes of these molecules at a level that is both faithful to the atomic driving forces and attainable with modern commodity cluster computing. Alternatively, the past decade has seen significant progress in using bioinformatics-based approaches to infer the three dimensional native structures of proteins, drawing upon extensive knowledge databases of known protein structures [1]. These methods work remarkably well when a homologous protein can be found to provide a structural template for a candidate sequence. However, in cases where homology to database proteins is low, where the folding pathway is of interest, or where conformational flexibility is substantial---as in many emerging protein and peptide technologies---bioinformatics methods perform poorly. There is therefore great interest in seeing purely physics-based approaches succeed. We discuss a purely physics-based, database-free folding method, relying on proper thermal sampling (replica exchange molecular dynamics) and molecular potential energy functions. In order to surmount the tremendous computational demands of all-atom folding simulations, our approach implements a conformational search strategy based on a putative protein folding mechanism called zipping and assembly [2-4]. That is, we explicitly seek out potential folding pathways inferred from short simulations, and iteratively pursue all such routes by coaxing a polypeptide chain along them. The method is called the Zipping and Assembly Method (ZAM) and it works in two parts: (1) the full polypeptide chain is broken into small fragments that are first simulated independently and then successively re-assembled into larger segments with further sampling, and (2) consistently stable structure in fragments is detected and locked into place, in order to avoid re

  17. Cyber-physical experiments on the efficiency of swimming protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Nathaniel; Floryan, Daniel; van Buren, Tyler; Smits, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We present results from experiments on a biologically inspired cyber-physical system, composed of a two-dimensional heaving and pitching rigid airfoil attached to a six component load cell, mounted to a traverse that can move along a water channel. A feedback controller, influenced by the apparatus of Mackowski and Williamson, introduces the effects of a fictional drag force specified by a virtual body profile and drives the traverse accordingly. Free-swimming protocols using the force-feedback system are compared with similar motions on a motionless traverse. The propulsive efficiency of burst-and-coast kinematics is also considered. Of particular interest are (1) the implementation of the cyber-physical control system with respect to the accessible experimental parameter space, (2) the impact of force-based streamwise actuation on experimental data, and (3) the effects of burst-and-coast motions on propulsive efficiency. The work was supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) under MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  18. High Energy Physics Research with the CMS Experiment at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gail G.

    2013-05-31

    The highlight of our last budget period, June 1, 2010, to May 31, 2013, was the discovery of the Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), announced on July 4, 2012, and for which François Englert and Peter Higgs were awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics on October 8, 2013. The Higgs boson was postulated in 1964 to explain how elementary particles obtain mass and was the missing piece of the Standard Model. However, the Standard Model does not describe everything that we know. There are many unanswered questions, such as how can the Higgs boson have the mass that we have observed, are there more Higgs bosons, why is there more matter than antimatter, and what is the invisible dark matter, which constitutes about 85% of the matter in the universe. Our group played a significant role in the discovery of the Higgs boson and in subsequent analyses. We also carried out searches for new physics, in ways that could help elucidate some of the remaining questions. Our role in the CMS detector focused on the Tracker, a silicon strip outer tracker and pixel inner tracker.

  19. Self-directed learning: A heretical experiment in teaching physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, M. P.

    1995-06-01

    An account is given of the instruction of university-level introductory physics courses according to an educational framework in which (1) curiosity-driven inquiry is recognized as an essential activity of both science and science teaching; (2) the principal role of the instructor is to provide students the incentive to learn science through their pursuit of personally meaningful questions; (3) the commission of errors is regarded as a natural concomitant to learning and is not penalized; (4) emphasis is placed on laboratory investigations that foster minimally restrictive free exploration rather than prescriptive adherence to formal procedure; (5) research skills are developed through out-of-class projects that involve literature search, experiment, and the modeling of real-world physical phenomena: (6) the precise and articulate use of language is regarded as seminal to communication in science (as it is in the humanities) and is promoted through activities that help develop written and oral language skills; (7) the evaluation of student performance is based on a portfolio of accomplished work rather than on the outcome of formal testing.

  20. Optimizing liner implosions for high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Cylindrical metal shells imploded by magnetic fields - liners - are used as kinetic energy drivers for high energy density physics experiments in hydrodynamics and dynamic material property measurements. There are at least three ways in which liners have been, or are expected to be, used to produce high energy density, i.e., high pressure, in target materials. A common approach uses the liner as a convergent flyer plate, which impacts a material target cylinder after having been shocklessly accelerated across an intervening gap. The resultant shock and piston hydrodynamic flow in the target are used in exploration of a wide variety of phenomena and material properties. Another common method is to slowly compress a liner containing a material sample in a such fashion that little heating occurs. This technique is most useful for investigated physical properties at low temperature and extreme density. Finally, one can use a hybrid approach to shock heat with an impacting liner followed by slower adiabatic, if not isentropic, compression to explore material properties in extrema. The magnetic fields for driving these liners may be produced by either high explosive pulsed power generators or by capacitor banks. Here we will consider only capacitor banks.

  1. Effect of Calcium and Magnesium on Phosphatidylserine Membranes: Experiments and All-Atomic Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Molina, Alberto; Rodríguez-Beas, César; Faraudo, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    It is known that phosphatidylserine (PS−) lipids have a very similar affinity for Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations, as revealed by electrokinetic and stability experiments. However, despite this similar affinity, experimental evidence shows that the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ induces very different aggregation behavior for PS− liposomes as characterized by their fractal dimensions. Also, turbidity measurements confirm substantial differences in aggregation behavior depending on the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ cations. These puzzling results suggest that although these two cations have a similar affinity for PS− lipids, they induce substantial structural differences in lipid bilayers containing each of these cations. In other words, these cations have strong ion-specific effects on the structure of PS− membranes. This interpretation is supported by all-atomic molecular-dynamics simulations showing that Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations have different binding sites and induce different membrane hydration. We show that although both ions are incorporated deep into the hydrophilic region of the membrane, they have different positions and configurations at the membrane. Absorbed Ca2+ cations present a peak at a distance ∼2 nm from the center of the lipid bilayer, and their most probable binding configuration involves two oxygen atoms from each of the charged moieties of the PS molecule (phosphate and carboxyl groups). In contrast, the distribution of absorbed Mg2+ cations has two different peaks, located a few angstroms before and after the Ca2+ peak. The most probable configurations (corresponding to these two peaks) involve binding to two oxygen atoms from carboxyl groups (the most superficial binding peak) or two oxygen atoms from phosphate groups (the most internal peak). Moreover, simulations also show differences in the hydration structure of the membrane: we obtained a hydration of 7.5 and 9 water molecules per lipid in simulations with Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. PMID:22824273

  2. Effect of calcium and magnesium on phosphatidylserine membranes: experiments and all-atomic simulations.

    PubMed

    Martín-Molina, Alberto; Rodríguez-Beas, César; Faraudo, Jordi

    2012-05-02

    It is known that phosphatidylserine (PS(-)) lipids have a very similar affinity for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations, as revealed by electrokinetic and stability experiments. However, despite this similar affinity, experimental evidence shows that the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) induces very different aggregation behavior for PS(-) liposomes as characterized by their fractal dimensions. Also, turbidity measurements confirm substantial differences in aggregation behavior depending on the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) cations. These puzzling results suggest that although these two cations have a similar affinity for PS(-) lipids, they induce substantial structural differences in lipid bilayers containing each of these cations. In other words, these cations have strong ion-specific effects on the structure of PS(-) membranes. This interpretation is supported by all-atomic molecular-dynamics simulations showing that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations have different binding sites and induce different membrane hydration. We show that although both ions are incorporated deep into the hydrophilic region of the membrane, they have different positions and configurations at the membrane. Absorbed Ca(2+) cations present a peak at a distance ~2 nm from the center of the lipid bilayer, and their most probable binding configuration involves two oxygen atoms from each of the charged moieties of the PS molecule (phosphate and carboxyl groups). In contrast, the distribution of absorbed Mg(2+) cations has two different peaks, located a few angstroms before and after the Ca(2+) peak. The most probable configurations (corresponding to these two peaks) involve binding to two oxygen atoms from carboxyl groups (the most superficial binding peak) or two oxygen atoms from phosphate groups (the most internal peak). Moreover, simulations also show differences in the hydration structure of the membrane: we obtained a hydration of 7.5 and 9 water molecules per lipid in simulations with Ca(2+) and Mg(2

  3. Creating a Before-School Physical Activity Program: Pre-Service Physical Educators' Experiences and Implications for PETE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; van der Mars, Hans; Jahn, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) majors enrolled in an internship course that provided them with authentic experiences promoting and facilitating a before-school physical activity (PA) program and to examine the associated implications for PETE programs within the Comprehensive…

  4. The new spin physics program of the COMPASS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luís

    2015-05-01

    The COMPASS experiment, at CERN SPS, has been compiling for more than a decade successful and precise results on nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy, leading to statistical errors much smaller than previously measured. The new COMPASS spin physics program, starting this year, aims to a rather complete nucleon structure description; this new representation goes beyond the collinear approximation by including the quark intrinsic transverse momentum distributions. The theoretical framework, for this new picture of the nucleon, is given by the Transverse Momentum Dependent distributions (TMDs) and by the Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs). The TMDs, in particular Sivers, Boer-Mulders, pretzelosity and transversity functions will be obtained through the polarised Drell-Yan process, for the first time. The results will be complementary to those already obtained via polarised Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). Also unpolarised SIDIS will be studied, allowing the knowledge improvement of the strange quark PDF and the access to the kaon fragmentation functions (FFs). Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) off an unpolarised hydrogen target will be used to study the GPDs, in a kinematic region not yet covered by any existing experiment.

  5. A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link.

    PubMed

    Clivati, Cecilia; Ambrosini, Roberto; Artz, Thomas; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bortolotti, Claudio; Frittelli, Matteo; Levi, Filippo; Mura, Alberto; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Nanni, Mauro; Negusini, Monia; Perini, Federico; Roma, Mauro; Stagni, Matteo; Zucco, Massimo; Calonico, Davide

    2017-02-01

    We describe a VLBI experiment in which, for the first time, the clock reference is delivered from a National Metrology Institute to a radio telescope using a coherent fibre link 550 km long. The experiment consisted of a 24-hours long geodetic campaign, performed by a network of European telescopes; in one of those (Medicina, Italy) the local clock was alternated with a signal generated from an optical comb slaved to a fibre-disseminated optical signal. The quality of the results obtained with this facility and with the local clock is similar: interferometric fringes were detected throughout the whole 24-hours period and it was possible to obtain a solution whose residuals are comparable to those obtained with the local clock. These results encourage further investigation of the ultimate VLBI performances achievable using fibre dissemination at the highest precision of state-of-the-art atomic clocks.

  6. An open source/real-time atomic force microscope architecture to perform customizable force spectroscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Materassi, Donatello; Baschieri, Paolo; Tiribilli, Bruno; Zuccheri, Giampaolo; Samorì, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We describe the realization of an atomic force microscope architecture designed to perform customizable experiments in a flexible and automatic way. Novel technological contributions are given by the software implementation platform (RTAI-LINUX), which is free and open source, and from a functional point of view, by the implementation of hard real-time control algorithms. Some other technical solutions such as a new way to estimate the optical lever constant are described as well. The adoption of this architecture provides many degrees of freedom in the device behavior and, furthermore, allows one to obtain a flexible experimental instrument at a relatively low cost. In particular, we show how such a system has been employed to obtain measures in sophisticated single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments [Fernandez and Li, Science 303, 1674 (2004)]. Experimental results on proteins already studied using the same methodologies are provided in order to show the reliability of the measure system.

  7. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation Energy and Imaging Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents particle formation energy balances and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium during the Phase II testing in 2001. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. The particle formation efficiency is also estimated. Particle sizes from the Phase I testing in 1999 and the Phase II testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles and it allows designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  8. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation, Imaging, Observations, and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    This report presents particle formation observations and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Hydrogen was frozen into particles in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. These newly analyzed data are from the test series held on February 28, 2001. Particle sizes from previous testing in 1999 and the testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed: microparticles and delayed particle formation. These experiment image analyses are some of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and they allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  9. A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clivati, Cecilia; Ambrosini, Roberto; Artz, Thomas; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bortolotti, Claudio; Frittelli, Matteo; Levi, Filippo; Mura, Alberto; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Nanni, Mauro; Negusini, Monia; Perini, Federico; Roma, Mauro; Stagni, Matteo; Zucco, Massimo; Calonico, Davide

    2017-02-01

    We describe a VLBI experiment in which, for the first time, the clock reference is delivered from a National Metrology Institute to a radio telescope using a coherent fibre link 550 km long. The experiment consisted of a 24-hours long geodetic campaign, performed by a network of European telescopes; in one of those (Medicina, Italy) the local clock was alternated with a signal generated from an optical comb slaved to a fibre-disseminated optical signal. The quality of the results obtained with this facility and with the local clock is similar: interferometric fringes were detected throughout the whole 24-hours period and it was possible to obtain a solution whose residuals are comparable to those obtained with the local clock. These results encourage further investigation of the ultimate VLBI performances achievable using fibre dissemination at the highest precision of state-of-the-art atomic clocks.

  10. A VLBI experiment using a remote atomic clock via a coherent fibre link

    PubMed Central

    Clivati, Cecilia; Ambrosini, Roberto; Artz, Thomas; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bortolotti, Claudio; Frittelli, Matteo; Levi, Filippo; Mura, Alberto; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Nanni, Mauro; Negusini, Monia; Perini, Federico; Roma, Mauro; Stagni, Matteo; Zucco, Massimo; Calonico, Davide

    2017-01-01

    We describe a VLBI experiment in which, for the first time, the clock reference is delivered from a National Metrology Institute to a radio telescope using a coherent fibre link 550 km long. The experiment consisted of a 24-hours long geodetic campaign, performed by a network of European telescopes; in one of those (Medicina, Italy) the local clock was alternated with a signal generated from an optical comb slaved to a fibre-disseminated optical signal. The quality of the results obtained with this facility and with the local clock is similar: interferometric fringes were detected throughout the whole 24-hours period and it was possible to obtain a solution whose residuals are comparable to those obtained with the local clock. These results encourage further investigation of the ultimate VLBI performances achievable using fibre dissemination at the highest precision of state-of-the-art atomic clocks. PMID:28145451

  11. Atomic-scale friction experiments reconsidered in the light of rapid contact dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, S. Yu.; Frenken, J. W. M.

    2009-12-01

    We present the first fully quantitative and self-consistent analysis of atomic-scale friction, explicitly taking into account the flexibility and low effective mass of the mechanical nanocontact. In a procedure, which is free of the traditional assumptions with respect to the corrugation of the interaction potential of the contact, the basic but experimentally inaccessible system parameter, we arrive at an excellent description of recent nanotribology experiments, including the transition from stick slip to nearly frictionless sliding. We show that, contrary to original interpretation, the ultralow friction observed in some experiments has been largely due to thermal (thermolubricity) rather than mechanistic effects (superlubricity). Furthermore, we observe the manifestations of two different forms of thermally induced sliding dynamics, namely, true thermolubricity (slipperiness based on thermal excitations) and a specific, low-dissipation type of stick-slip motion.

  12. Physical trauma experience among school children in periurban Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Muula, Adamson S; Misiri, Humphreys E

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical trauma is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Africa. There are however, few community-based reports on the subject on the continent. The present study was conducted to explore school children's experience of physical trauma in a disadvantaged periurban area of Blantyre, in Malawi. Methods A cross sectional questionnaire study was carried out among school children in Ndirande-Blantyre, Malawi in 2004. Data were obtained to describe the following aspects of trauma experience: being a victim or observer of motor vehicular accidents involving pedestrians; history of falls from heights; and knowledge about road safety. Sex differences were determined for some of the variables in order to gain insights as to whether there is a difference in trauma experience between boys and girls. Results A total of 217 school children, 99 (45.6%) boys and 118 (54.4%) girls participated in the study. Eight of them reported to have ever been hit by a motor vehicle, 87 (40.1%) had witnessed a road accident where a pedestrian had been hit and 83 (38.2%) had witnessed a pedestrian they knew having been hit by a motor vehicle. Of those that reported to have ever been hit by motor vehicle, 2 (25%) reported that they had been hospitalized as a result of injury. With regard to falling from heights, 86 reported to have ever fallen from tree, 44 of these (51.2%) were injured from the fall and 14 (16.3%) were hospitalized as a result of injury sustained from the fall. Girls were more likely to fall from trees and getting injured as compared to males (p = 0.04 for both situations). Just under half (41.9%) of the study participants were able to report the correct procedure of crossing the road despite the fact that the majority (80%) reported having been taught road safety at home or school. Conclusion Many school children in Blantyre, Malawi have been exposed to trauma either involving themselves or someone they observed. Prevention, including education

  13. Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

  14. Neutrino oscillation physics potential of the T2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T2K Collaboration; Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; de Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaker, F.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.

    2015-04-01

    The observation of the recent electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the high-precision measurement of the mixing angle θ _{13} have led to a re-evaluation of the physics potential of the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Sensitivities are explored for CP violation in neutrinos, non-maximal sin ^22θ _{23}, the octant of θ _{23}, and the mass hierarchy, in addition to the measurements of δ _{CP}, sin ^2θ _{23}, and Δ m^2_{32}, for various combinations of ν-mode and bar {ν }-mode data-taking. With an exposure of 7.8× 10^{21} protons-on-target, T2K can achieve 1σ resolution of 0.050 (0.054) on sin ^2θ _{23} and 0.040 (0.045)× 10^{-3} {eV}^2 on Δ m^2_{32} for 100% (50%) neutrino beam mode running assuming sin ^2θ _{23}=0.5 and Δ m^2_{32} = 2.4× 10^{-3} eV^2. T2K will have sensitivity to the CP-violating phase δ _{CP} at 90% C.L. or better over a significant range. For example, if sin ^22θ _{23} is maximal (i.e. θ _{23}=45°) the range is -115° < δ _{CP}< -60° for normal hierarchy and +50° < δ _{CP}< +130° for inverted hierarchy. When T2K data is combined with data from the NOνA experiment, the region of oscillation parameter space where there is sensitivity to observe a non-zero δ _{CP} is substantially increased compared to if each experiment is analyzed alone.

  15. Gender, Experience, and Self-Efficacy in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Jayson M.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of persistent gender achievement gaps in university physics instruction, not only for learning physics content, but also for developing productive attitudes and beliefs about learning physics. These gaps occur in both traditional and interactive-engagement (IE) styles of physics instruction. We investigated one gender gap…

  16. Atomic "bomb testing": the Elitzur-Vaidman experiment violates the Leggett-Garg inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robens, Carsten; Alt, Wolfgang; Emary, Clive; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Elitzur and Vaidman have proposed a measurement scheme that, based on the quantum superposition principle, allows one to detect the presence of an object—in a dramatic scenario, a bomb—without interacting with it. It was pointed out by Ghirardi that this interaction-free measurement scheme can be put in direct relation with falsification tests of the macro-realistic worldview. Here we have implemented the "bomb test" with a single atom trapped in a spin-dependent optical lattice to show explicitly a violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality—a quantitative criterion fulfilled by macro-realistic physical theories. To perform interaction-free measurements, we have implemented a novel measurement method that correlates spin and position of the atom. This method, which quantum mechanically entangles spin and position, finds general application for spin measurements, thereby avoiding the shortcomings inherent in the widely used push-out technique. Allowing decoherence to dominate the evolution of our system causes a transition from quantum to classical behavior in fulfillment of the Leggett-Garg inequality.

  17. Nuclear thermal-hydraulics education: the Yankee Atomic/University of Lowell experience

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, A.; Brown, G.J.; Yeung, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the long and meaningful relationship between the University of Lowell (UL) and Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in the area of nuclear thermal hydraulics. The UL has actively interacted with YAEC for many years. Many UL graduates from the nuclear program as well as health physics and other disciplines are employed by YAEC. Furthermore, many students have worked for YAEC on a part-time basis through summer employment or the coop program. Several graduate students have completed their thesis work under the joint direction of UL and YAEC personnel, and some faculty members have had consulting and research contracts with the company. At the same time, YAEC employees have taken advantage of the graduate program offered by UL and have earned advanced degrees. Some YAEC personnel have taught courses at UL and have served on the industrial advisory committees.

  18. Atomic and molecular science with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-07

    This paper discusses the following topics: electron correlation in atoms; atomic innershell excitation and decay mechanisms; timing experiments; x-ray scattering; properties of ionized species; electronic properties of actinide atoms; total photon-interaction cross sections; and molecular physics. 66 refs. (LSP)

  19. The MØLLER experiment at Jefferson Lab: search for physics beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oers, Willem T. H.

    2010-07-01

    The MO/LLER experiment at Jefferson Lab will measure the parity-violating analyzing power Az in the scattering of 11 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons from the atomic electrons in a liquid hydrogen target (Mo/ller scattering). In the Standard Model a non-zero Az is due to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude and the weak neutral current amplitude, the latter mediated by the Z0 boson. Az is predicted to be 35.6 parts per billion (ppb) at the kinematics of the experiment. It is the objective of the experiment to measure Az to a precision of 0.73 ppb. This result would yield a measurement of the weak charge of the electron QWe to a fractional error of 2.3% at an average value Q2 of 0.0056 (GeV/c)2. This in turn will yield a determination of the weak mixing angle sin2θw with an uncertainty of ±0.00026(stat) ±0.00013(syst), comparable to the accuracy of the two best determinations at high energy colliders (at the Z0 pole). Consequently, the result could potentially influence the central value of this fundamental electroweak parameter, which is of critical importance in deciphering any signal of new physics that might be observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The measurement is sensitive to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude with new neutral current amplitudes as weak as 10-3 GF from as yet unknown high energy dynamics, a level of sensitivity unlikely to be matched in any experiment measuring a flavor and CP conserving process in the next decade. This provides indirect access to new physics at multi-TeV scales in a manner complementary to direct searches at the LHC.

  20. Coherent optical transients observed in rubidium atomic line filtered Doppler velocimetry experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fajardo, Mario E. Molek, Christopher D.; Vesely, Annamaria L.

    2015-10-14

    We report the first successful results from our novel Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry apparatus, along with unanticipated oscillatory signals due to coherent optical transients generated within pure Rb vapor cells. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration extension of the well-known Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) technique for constructing multi-dimensional flow velocity vector maps in aerodynamics experiments [H. Komine, U.S. Patent No. 4,919,536 (24 April 1990)]. RALF exploits the frequency dependence of pressure-broadened Rb atom optical absorptions in a heated Rb/N{sub 2} gas cell to encode the Doppler shift of reflected near-resonant (λ{sub 0} ≈ 780.24 nm) laser light onto the intensity transmitted by the cell. The present RALF apparatus combines fiber optic and free-space components and was built to determine suitable operating conditions and performance parameters for the Rb/N{sub 2} gas cells. It yields single-spot velocities of thin laser-driven-flyer test surfaces and incorporates a simultaneous Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) channel [Strand et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083108 (2006)] for validation of the RALF results, which we demonstrate here over the v = 0 to 1 km/s range. Both RALF and DGV presume the vapor cells to be simple Beer's Law optical absorbers, so we were quite surprised to observe oscillatory signals in experiments employing low pressure pure Rb vapor cells. We interpret these oscillations as interference between the Doppler shifted reflected light and the Free Induction Decay (FID) coherent optical transient produced within the pure Rb cells at the original laser frequency; this is confirmed by direct comparison of the PDV and FID signals. We attribute the different behaviors of the Rb/N{sub 2} vs. Rb gas cells to efficient dephasing of the atomic/optical coherences by Rb-N{sub 2} collisions. The minimum necessary N{sub 2} buffer gas density ≈0.3 amagat translates into a smallest

  1. Coherent optical transients observed in rubidium atomic line filtered Doppler velocimetry experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario E.; Molek, Christopher D.; Vesely, Annamaria L.

    2015-10-01

    We report the first successful results from our novel Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry apparatus, along with unanticipated oscillatory signals due to coherent optical transients generated within pure Rb vapor cells. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration extension of the well-known Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) technique for constructing multi-dimensional flow velocity vector maps in aerodynamics experiments [H. Komine, U.S. Patent No. 4,919,536 (24 April 1990)]. RALF exploits the frequency dependence of pressure-broadened Rb atom optical absorptions in a heated Rb/N2 gas cell to encode the Doppler shift of reflected near-resonant (λ0 ≈ 780.24 nm) laser light onto the intensity transmitted by the cell. The present RALF apparatus combines fiber optic and free-space components and was built to determine suitable operating conditions and performance parameters for the Rb/N2 gas cells. It yields single-spot velocities of thin laser-driven-flyer test surfaces and incorporates a simultaneous Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) channel [Strand et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083108 (2006)] for validation of the RALF results, which we demonstrate here over the v = 0 to 1 km/s range. Both RALF and DGV presume the vapor cells to be simple Beer's Law optical absorbers, so we were quite surprised to observe oscillatory signals in experiments employing low pressure pure Rb vapor cells. We interpret these oscillations as interference between the Doppler shifted reflected light and the Free Induction Decay (FID) coherent optical transient produced within the pure Rb cells at the original laser frequency; this is confirmed by direct comparison of the PDV and FID signals. We attribute the different behaviors of the Rb/N2 vs. Rb gas cells to efficient dephasing of the atomic/optical coherences by Rb-N2 collisions. The minimum necessary N2 buffer gas density ≈0.3 amagat translates into a smallest useful velocity range of 0 to 2 km/s, which can

  2. Atoms and Molecules. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    There are more than 20 million known substances in the universe, and they are all made of the same basic ingredients--atoms and molecules. In this fun and engaging program, kids will learn about the three main subatomic particles--protons, neutrons and electrons--as well as the forces that keep atoms and molecules together. They'll discover how…

  3. Physical Construction of the Chemical Atom: Is It Convenient to Go All the Way Back?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce; Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of chemistry texts (mainly textbooks) published during the first half of the 20th century. We show the evolution of the explanations therein in terms of atoms and of atomic structure, when scientists were interpreting phenomena as evidence of the discontinuous, corpuscular structure of matter. In this process…

  4. On high explosive launching of projectiles for shock physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Damian C.; Forest, Charles A.; Clark, David A.; Buttler, William T.; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Rightley, Paul

    2007-06-01

    The hydrodynamic operation of the "Forest Flyer" type of explosive launching system for shock physics projectiles was investigated in detail using one and two dimensional continuum dynamics simulations. The simulations were numerically converged and insensitive to uncertainties in the material properties; they reproduced the speed of the projectile and the shape of its rear surface. The most commonly used variant, with an Al alloy case, was predicted to produce a slightly curved projectile, subjected to some shock heating and likely exhibiting some porosity from tensile damage. The curvature is caused by a shock reflected from the case; tensile damage is caused by the interaction of the Taylor wave pressure profile from the detonation wave with the free surface of the projectile. The simulations gave only an indication of tensile damage in the projectile, as damage is not understood well enough for predictions in this loading regime. The flatness can be improved by using a case of lower shock impedance, such as polymethyl methacrylate. High-impedance cases, including Al alloys but with denser materials improving the launching efficiency, can be used if designed according to the physics of oblique shock reflection, which indicates an appropriate case taper for any combination of explosive and case material. The tensile stress induced in the projectile depends on the relative thickness of the explosive, expansion gap, and projectile. The thinner the projectile with respect to the explosive, the smaller the tensile stress. Thus if the explosive is initiated with a plane wave lens, the tensile stress is lower than that for initiation with multiple detonators over a plane. The previous plane wave lens designs did, however, induce a tensile stress close to the spall strength of the projectile. The tensile stress can be reduced by changes in the component thicknesses. Experiments verifying the operation of explosively launched projectiles should attempt to measure

  5. Probing exotic phenomena at the interface of nuclear and particle physics with the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms: A unique window to hadronic and semi-leptonic CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, N.; Sahoo, B. K.; Yoshinaga, N.; Sato, T.; Asahi, K.; Das, B. P.

    2017-03-01

    The current status of electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms which involves the synergy between atomic experiments and three different theoretical areas, i.e. particle, nuclear and atomic, is reviewed. Various models of particle physics that predict CP violation, which is necessary for the existence of such electric dipole moments, are presented. These include the standard model of particle physics and various extensions of it. Effective hadron level combined charge conjugation (C) and parity (P) symmetry violating interactions are derived taking into consideration different ways in which a nucleon interacts with other nucleons as well as with electrons. Nuclear structure calculations of the CP-odd nuclear Schiff moment are discussed using the shell model and other theoretical approaches. Results of the calculations of atomic electric dipole moments due to the interaction of the nuclear Schiff moment with the electrons and the P and time-reversal (T) symmetry violating tensor-pseudotensor electron-nucleus are elucidated using different relativistic many-body theories. The principles of the measurement of the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms are outlined. Upper limits for the nuclear Schiff moment and tensor-pseudotensor coupling constant are obtained combining the results of atomic experiments and relativistic many-body theories. The coefficients for the different sources of CP violation have been estimated at the elementary particle level for all the diamagnetic atoms of current experimental interest and their implications for physics beyond the standard model is discussed. Possible improvements of the current results of the measurements as well as quantum chromodynamics, nuclear and atomic calculations are suggested.

  6. Optics and interferometry with atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, Alexander D.; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Pritchard, David E.

    2009-07-15

    Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic clocks. Atom interferometry is now reaching maturity as a powerful art with many applications in modern science. In this review the basic tools for coherent atom optics are described including diffraction by nanostructures and laser light, three-grating interferometers, and double wells on atom chips. Scientific advances in a broad range of fields that have resulted from the application of atom interferometers are reviewed. These are grouped in three categories: (i) fundamental quantum science, (ii) precision metrology, and (iii) atomic and molecular physics. Although some experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates are included, the focus of the review is on linear matter wave optics, i.e., phenomena where each single atom interferes with itself.

  7. Emulating solid-state physics with a hybrid system of ultracold ions and atoms.

    PubMed

    Bissbort, U; Cocks, D; Negretti, A; Idziaszek, Z; Calarco, T; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Hofstetter, W; Gerritsma, R

    2013-08-23

    We propose and theoretically investigate a hybrid system composed of a crystal of trapped ions coupled to a cloud of ultracold fermions. The ions form a periodic lattice and induce a band structure in the atoms. This system combines the advantages of high fidelity operations and detection offered by trapped ion systems with ultracold atomic systems. It also features close analogies to natural solid-state systems, as the atomic degrees of freedom couple to phonons of the ion lattice, thereby emulating a solid-state system. Starting from the microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, we derive the low energy Hamiltonian, including the atomic band structure, and give an expression for the atom-phonon coupling. We discuss possible experimental implementations such as a Peierls-like transition into a period-doubled dimerized state.

  8. Electrochromic WO[subscript 3] Films: Nanotechnology Experiments in Instrumental Analysis and Physical Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepel, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This experiment teaches students the methodology of investigating novel properties of materials using new instrumental techniques: atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN), voltammetric techniques (linear potential scan and chronoamperometry), and light reflectance measurements. The unique capabilities of…

  9. Experimenting in a constructivist high school physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    Although laboratory activities have long been recognized for their potential to facilitate the learning of science concepts and skills, this potential has yet to be realized. To remediate this problem, researchers have called for constructivist learning environments in which students can pursue open inquiry and frame their own research problems. The present study was designed to describe and understand students' experimenting and problem solving in such an environment. An interpretive research methodology was adopted for the construction of meaning from the data. The data sources included videotapes, their transcripts, student laboratory reports and reflections, interviews with the students, and the teacher's course outline and reflective notes. Forty-six students from three sections of an introductory physics course taught at a private school for boys participated in the study. This article shows the students' remarkable ability and willingness to generate research questions and to design and develop apparatus for data collection. In their effort to frame research questions, students often used narrative explanations to explore and think about the phenomena to be studied. In some cases, blind alleys, students framed research questions and planned experiments that did not lead to the expected results. We observed a remarkable flexibility to deal with problems that arose during the implementation of their plans in the context of the inquiry. These problems, as well as their solutions and the necessary decision-making processes, were characterized by their situated nature. Finally, students pursued meaningful learning during the interpretation of data and graphs to arrive at reasonable answers of their research questions. We concluded that students should be provided with problem-rich learning environments in which they learn to investigate phenomena of their own interest and in which they can develop complex problem-solving skills.

  10. Atomic-Scale Investigation of Latent Fission Tracks in Fluorapatite: Physical Characteristics and Annealing Behavior.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Tracy Anne

    1993-01-01

    A JEOL JEM-2000FX analytical transmission electron microscope, equipped with a cold stage and anticontamination device, has been used to study the physical characteristics and annealing behavior of artificially induced fission tracks in fluorapatite. Near the atomic level, unetched fission tracks are not continuous, but are comprised of segments of extended damage that are separated by gaps of undamaged microstructure. From dark-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, it appears that the crystalline damage around tracks, although intensive, is not extensive. As such, the defect density may be represented by a Gaussian-type distribution function. The disordered nature of the track core and defect distribution geometry supports the Ion-Explosion Theory that has been proposed for track formation. TEM analysis reveals that track width is crystallographically controlled. Parallel to the c-axis, tracks display widths of 5 to 13 nm and hexagonal faceting on the (0001) plane. Tracks perpendicular to the c-axis display widths of 3 to 9 nm and prismatic faceting on the (1000) plane. The track cross-section facets mimic etch-pit morphologies and provide a relative measure of the crystal's surface free energy. A consequence of differential bond strengths and elastic properties in the fluorapatite structure, track-width anisotropy resolves etching- and annealing-rate anisotropy that has been reported for fission tracks in fluorapatite. TEM observation of the behavior of fission tracks in response to electron beam exposure (i.e., radiolytic annealing), and temperature increase (i.e., thermal annealing), yields a physical and a kinetic description of the annealing process. Annealing commences with bulging at the track's tapered ends, followed by detachment of a single sphere. This process is replicated until a critical track radius is encountered at which the track geometry approaches an ideal right cylinder. A sinusoidal boundary develops at the track

  11. Review study and evaluation of possible flight experiments relating to cloud physics experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The general objectives of the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory Program are to improve the level of knowledge in atmospheric cloud research by placing at the disposal of the terrestrial-bound atmospheric cloud physicist a laboratory that can be operated in the environment of zero-gravity or near zero-gravity. This laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamic, electrical, or other techniques to support the object under study. The inhouse analysis of the Skylab 3 and 4 experiments in dynamics of oscillations, rotations, collisions and coalescence of water droplets under low gravity-environment is presented.

  12. Fingerprints of classical chaos in manipulation of cold atoms in the dynamical tunneling experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Osovski, Shmuel; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2005-09-15

    The recent pioneering experiments of the [Nature 412, 52 (2001)] and [Science, 293, 274 (2001)] groups have demonstrated the dynamical tunneling of cold atoms interacting with standing electromagnetic waves. It has been shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 253201 (2002)], that the tunneling oscillations observed in these experiments correspondingly stems from two- and three-Floquet quantum state mechanism and can be controlled by varying the experimental parameters. The question where are the fingerprints of the classical chaotic dynamics in a quantum dynamical process which is controlled by 2 or 3 quantum states remains open. Our calculations show that although the effective ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) associated with the two experiments is large, and the quantum system is far from its semiclassical limit, the quantum Floquet-Bloch quasienergy states still can be classified as regular and chaotic states. In both experiments the quantum and the classical phase-space entropies are quite similar, although the classical phase space is a mixed regular-chaotic space. It is also shown that as the wave packet which is initially localized at one of the two inner regular islands oscillates between them through the chaotic sea, it accumulates a random phase which causes the decay of the amplitude of the oscillating mean momentum, , as measured in both experiments. The extremely high sensitivity of the rate of decay of the oscillations of to the very small changes in the population of different Floquet-Bloch states, is another type of fingerprint of chaos in quantum dynamics that presumably was measured in the NIST and AUSTIN experiments for the first time.

  13. Lower hybrid system design for the Tokamak physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, P.L.; Conner, D.L.; Swain, D.W.; Yugo, J.J.; Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.

    1995-12-31

    The lower hybrid (LH) launcher configuration has been redesigned to integrate the functions of the vertical four-way power splitter and the front waveguide array (front array). This permits 256 waveguide channels to be fed by only 64 waveguides at the vacuum window interface. The resulting configuration is a more compact coupler, which incorporates the simplicity of a multijunction coupler while preserving the spectral flexibility of a conventional lower hybrid launcher. Other spin-offs of the redesign are reduction in thermal incompatibility between the front array and vacuum windows, improved maintainability, in situ vacuum window replacement, a reduced number of radio frequency (rf) connections, and a weight reduction of 7300 kg. There should be a significant cost reduction as well. Issues associated with the launcher design and fabrication have been addressed by a research and development program that includes brazing of the front array and testing of the power splitter configuration to confirm that phase errors due to reflections in the shorted splitter legs will not significantly impact the rf spectrum. The Conceptual Design Review requires that radiation levels at the torus radial port mounting flange and outer surface of the toroidal field coils should be sufficiently low to permit hands-on maintenance. Low activation materials and neutron shielding are incorporated in the launcher design to meet these requirements. The launcher is configured to couple 3 MW of steady state LH heating/LH current drive power at 3.7 GHz to the Tokamak Physics Experiment plasma.

  14. Physics Design of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; J.F. Lyon; the NCSX Team

    2002-02-21

    Compact quasi-axisymmetric stellarators offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio approximately 4.4 and average elongation approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for b > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at b = 4% (the rest is from the coils). Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties.

  15. Automated computer vision interpretation for physical and genetic mapping experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, D.K.; Perlin, M.W.

    1994-09-01

    Much of the high-throughput data currently generated in the molecular genetics laboratory is in the form of two dimensional images. In physical mapping, a high-density gridded filter containing thousands YACs or cosmids can be hybridized against a single labeled probe, such as the IRS-PCR products of a radiation hybrid (RH). In genetic mapping, hundreds of polymorphic dinucleotide repeat PCR experiments can be multiplexed into distinct lanes, size ranges, and fluorescent colors on a single run of an Applied Biosystems (ABl) 373A automated DNA sequencer. For all its advantages such high-throughput data introduces a new fundamental bottleneck: the greatly increased time, expense, and error of scoring these assays when relying solely on the human visual system. Toward this end, we have developed a novel computer vision automation architecture that addresses the needs of high-throughput data interpretation in the molecular genetics laboratory. A flexible knowledge-based approach is used to systematically detect and analyze signal features, motivated by how human experts perform the interpretation. This architecture enables customization to similar hybridization-and gel-based tasks. Our prototype system has thus far been tested on both hybridization data and ABl gel images.

  16. The Wind Spacecraft As an Interplanetary Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Wind spacecraft was launched in the fall of 1994 to explore the nature of the solar wind and the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth. As the years have passed, and the rich datasets collected by the spacecraft have grown, the Wind mission has taken on an additional role as an interplanetary physics experiment, producing fundamental insights into processes in tenuous magnetized plasmas including kinetic instabilities, dissipation, heat flux, and heating. Results from Wind have helped us understand plasmas throughout the heliosphere, but they have also been applied to more exotic situations such as the accretion of matter onto black holes, and cooling of material within galaxy clusters. This talk will both highlight major recent results from Wind and examine the factors of the mission that have made this research possible. Beyond the sensitive statistical tests permitted by two decades of observations, Wind is equipped with a particularly diverse set of complementary instruments, permitting precise inter-calibration of observations and a detailed understanding of the nature of the solar wind that only improves with time.

  17. Experiences developing ALEGRA: A C++ coupled physics framework

    SciTech Connect

    Budge, K.G.; Peery, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    ALEGRA is a coupled physics framework originally written to simulate inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments being conducted at the PBFA-II facility at Sandia National Laboratories. It has since grown into a large software development project supporting a number of computational programs at Sandia. As the project has grown, so has the development team, from the original two authors to a group of over fifteen programmers crossing several departments. In addition, ALEGRA now runs on a wide variety of platforms, from large PCs to the ASCI Teraflops massively parallel supercomputer. The authors discuss the reasons for ALEGRA`s success, which include the intelligent use of object-oriented techniques and the choice of C++ as the programming language. They argue that the intelligent use of development tools, such as build tools (e.g. make), compiler, debugging environment (e.g. dbx), version control system (e.g. cvs), and bug management software (e.g. ClearDDTS), is nearly as important as the choice of language and paradigm.

  18. Soluble renormalised model of atom-molecular Feshbach resonance: comparison to experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Peter; Kheruntsyan, Karen

    2003-05-01

    We consider an effective quantum field Hamiltonian [1] as a generic model of molecule formation from pairs of atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate near a Feshbach resonance. This point-contact model can be renormalised exactly and non-perturbatively [2]. It also has an exact analytic solution for the two-particle ground state. In this case the ground state is a coherent quantum superposition of a molecule with a pair of atoms. We find that the resulting molecular binding energy is in remarkable agreement with inferred binding energies observed in the recent Ramsey-fringe style interference measurement of Donley et al. [3]. The exact solubility of this universal and simple field-theoretic model means that one can obtain analytic expressions for all relevant quantities including the binding energy and the fraction of molecules involved. Our conclusion is that, provided they are renormalised, the use of field theoretic models can allow a quantitative picture of Feshbach molecule formation experiments without requiring a detailed molecular calculation for each specific molecule. [1] P.D.Drummond, K.V.Kheruntsyan, and H.He, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3055 (1998). [2] S.J.J.M.F.Kokkelmans and M.J.Holland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 180401 (2002). [3] E.A.Donley et al., Nature 417, 529 (2002).

  19. 2004 Rahman Prize in Computational Physics: HOW DO SOLIDS FAIL? A Research Adventure Using Lots Of Atoms And Big Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Farid

    2004-03-01

    During the last decade, I have been simulating the dynamic failure of brittle and ductile solids at the atomic level using millions of atoms and some of the world's fastest computers. Computer experiments encompassing crack dynamics in brittle fracture, crack blunting in ductile failure, and dislocation entanglement in work-hardening are some examples and have given new and exciting insights into the failure processes of solids. My goal is to give the audience an appreciation for the power of atomistic simulations, coupled with visualization, in studying "how solids fail."

  20. Oxygen atom reaction with Shuttle materials at orbital altitudes - Data and experiment status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.

    1983-01-01

    Significant surface characteristics changes have been noticed on materials that were exposed in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter on the first four flights. The most notable change was mass loss of Kapton film used as a component of thermal blankets. This film exhibited as much as 35 percent mass loss on STS-3 and loss of material was noticed on all flights. Other changes consist of rapid aging of paints and oxidation of Torlon surfaces. A mechanism has been proposed for the effects described, which involves the interaction of these organic materials with atomic oxygen available at low earth orbital altitudes. Evidence derived from measurements made on Shuttle materials that supports this mechanism will be presented. Experiments planned for near-term Shuttle flights are being developed to obtain quantitative data on reaction rates.

  1. Fundamental underwater cutting method experiment as a dismantling tool for a commercial atomic reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Hamasaki, M.; Murao, Y.; Tateiwa, F.

    1982-10-01

    A new underwater cutting technique applying underwater dismantling to commercial atomic reactor vessels has been developed. This technique involves gas cutting the mild steel underwater after removing the stainless steel cladding by arc gouging. The arc gouging is achieved by blowing out metal--which is melted by an arc between a mild steel electrode wire and the stainless steel--by jetting water from a rear water nozzle. The fuel gas employed for preheating for the gas cutting was a mixed gas of propane and 30% methylacetylene. The test piece used was made of 300-mm-thick mild steel with 8-mm-thick stainless steel cladding. The fundamental cutting experiment was carried out successfully under a cutting speed condition of 15 cm/min at a water depth of 20 cm. This apparatus is easy to handle, compact, and cheap.

  2. Atomic physics of strongly correlated systems. Progress report, 1 August 1980-31 July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.D.

    1981-03-01

    Studies of electron correlations of doubly-excited electrons in hyperspherical coordinates, and differential and total cross sections for charge transfer and ionization in fast ion-atom collisions are reported. (GHT)

  3. A Learning Pathway in High-School Level Quantum Atomic Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petri, Juergen; Niedderer, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Describes one student's learning pathway as a sequence of several metastable conceptions of the atom starting from a planetary model. Displays the final cognitive element as an association of three parallel conceptions. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  4. Nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium self-consistent average-atom model for plasma physics.

    PubMed

    Faussurier, G; Blancard, C; Berthier, E

    2001-02-01

    A time-dependent collisional-radiative average-atom model is presented to study statistical properties of highly charged ion plasmas in off-equilibrium conditions. The time evolution of electron populations and the electron covariance matrix is obtained as approximate solutions of a master equation. Atomic structure is described either with a screened-hydrogenic model including l splitting, or by calculating one-electron states in a self-consistent average-atom potential. Collisional and radiative excitation/deexcitation and ionization/recombination rates, as well as autoionization and dielectronic recombination rates, are formulated within the average-configuration framework. Local thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained as a specific steady-state solution. The influence of atomic structure and the role of autoionization and dielectronic recombination processes are studied by calculating steady-state average ionization and ionization variance of hot plasmas with or without radiation field.

  5. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: L D Landau in the Soviet Atomic Project: a documentary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, G. V.

    2008-09-01

    The article presents information about the participation of Academician L D Landau in the Soviet Atomic Project and is based on a study of archive documents of the First Main Directorate. Their analysis points to L D Landau's important contribution to the development of the theory of heterogeneous nuclear reactors and to the computational justification of the first designs of atomic and hydrogen bombs. Many of the quoted documents have never been published before.

  6. Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbin, Donya Rae

    Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an

  7. Physics Demonstration Experiments at William Jewell College. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Wallace A.

    Presented are descriptions (with photographs) of demonstration equipment purchased, assembled, developed, and used at William Jewell College (Missouri) during the past 25 years. The descriptions are organized into the following topic areas: (1) mechanics; (2) heat; (3) waves, sound, and acoustics; (4) electricity; (5) optics; and (6) atomic and…

  8. ICF Ablator Physics Experiments on Saturn and Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Rick

    1996-11-01

    In indirect drive ICF, the driver energy is absorbed in a high-Z enclosure (or "hohlraum") that surrounds a spherical shell (or "capsule") containing DT fuel. The hohlraum walls are heated by the driver and emit x-rays, which are absorbed by the capsule material (the "ablator") and drive the implosion. We have used the Saturn z-pinch at SNL and the Nova laser at LLNL to explore the behavior of ablator material in x-ray radiation environments comparable in magnitude, spectrum and duration to those that will be experienced in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraums. The large x-ray outputs available from pulsed-power driven z-pinches have enabled us to drive hohlraums of full NIF ignition scale size at radiation temperatures and timescales comparable to those required for the low power "foot" pulse of an ignition capsule. The high intensity of the Nova laser has allowed us to study capsule ablator physics in smaller scale hohlraums at radiation temperatures and timescales relevant to the peak power pulse for an ignition capsule. Taken together, these experiments have allowed us test our radiation-hydrodynamics computer code predictions of ablator opacity, radiation flow, and equation of state over almost the complete range of radiation environments to be encountered in a NIF hohlraum. * in collaboration with J. Porter, G. Chandler, D. Fehl, D. Jobe, R. Leeper, K. Matzen, J. McGurn, D. Noack, L. Ruggles, P. Sawyer, J. Torres, M. Vargas, D. Zagar (SNL), and H. Kornblum, T. Orzechowski, L. Suter, R. Thiessen, R. Wallace (LLNL), and the Saturn and Nova operations and diagnostic crews at SNL and LLNL. +This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. The superconducting magnet system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.D.; Bulmer, R.J.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1994-06-18

    The superconducting magnet system for the Tokamak Physics experiment (TPX) will be the first all superconducting magnet system for a Tokamak, where the poloidal field coils, in addition to the toroidal field coils are superconducting. The magnet system is designed to operate in a steady state mode, and to initiate the plasma discharge ohmically. The toroidal field system provides a peak field of 4.0 Tesla on the plasma axis at a plasma major radius of 2.25 m. The peak field on the niobium 3-tin, cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor is 8.4 Tesla for the 16 toroidal field coils. The toroidal field coils must absorb approximately 5 kW due to nuclear heating, eddy currents, and other sources. The poloidal field system provides a total of 18 volt seconds to initiate the plasma and drive a plasma current up to 2 MA. The poloidal field system consists of 14 individual coils which are arranged symmetrically above and below the horizontal mid plane. Four pairs of coils make up the central solenoid, and three paris of poloidal ring coils complete the system. The poloidal field coils all use a cable-in-conduit conductor, using either niobium 3-tin (NB{sub 3}Sn) or niobium titanium (NbTi) superconducting strands depending on the operating conditions for that coil. All of the coils are cooled by flowing supercritical helium, with inlet and outlet connections made on each double pancake. The superconducting magnet system has gone through a conceptual design review, and is in preliminary design started by the LLNL/MIT/PPPL collaboration. A number of changes have been made in the design since the conceptual design review, and are described in this paper.

  10. Structure Modeling and Validation applied to Source Physics Experiments (SPEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat, C. S.; Rowe, C. A.; Patton, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPEs) comprise a series of small chemical explosions used to develop a better understanding of seismic energy generation and wave propagation for low-yield explosions. In particular, we anticipate improved understanding of the processes through which shear waves are generated by the explosion source. Three tests, 100, 1000 and 1000 kg yields respectively, were detonated in the same emplacement hole and recorded on the same networks of ground motion sensors in the granites of Climax Stock at the Nevada National Security Site. We present results for the analysis and modeling of seismic waveforms recorded close-in on five linear geophone lines extending radially from ground zero, having offsets from 100 to 2000 m and station spacing of 100 m. These records exhibit azimuthal variations of P-wave arrival times, and phase velocity, spreading and attenuation properties of high-frequency Rg waves. We construct a 1D seismic body-wave model starting from a refraction analysis of P-waves and adjusting to address time-domain and frequency-domain dispersion measurements of Rg waves between 2 and 9 Hz. The shallowest part of the structure we address using the arrival times recorded by near-field accelerometers residing within 200 m of the shot hole. We additionally perform a 2D modeling study with the Spectral Element Method (SEM) to investigate which structural features are most responsible for the observed variations, in particular anomalously weak amplitude decay in some directions of this topographically complicated locality. We find that a near-surface, thin, weathered layer of varying thickness and low wave speeds plays a major role on the observed waveforms. We anticipate performing full 3D modeling of the seismic near-field through analysis and validation of waveforms on the 5 radial receiver arrays.

  11. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. (a) Arduous work. Arduous work is primarily...); (2) Work experience of 35 years or more during which he or she did arduous unskilled physical labor... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the only work experience is...

  12. The Use of Cylindrical Lenses in Easy Experiments for Physics Education and the Magic Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by…

  13. A preliminary discussion of gravitational physics experiments for the Spacelab era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.; Winkler, C. G.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of past, present, and proposed future experiments in gravitational physics is given. These experiments are concerned with the measurement of relativistic gravity effects to test theories of gravitation. Certain experiments which could be performed on shuttle and Spacelab missions and the potential of Spacelab for gravitation physics research are discussed.

  14. Physical properties of FePt nanocomposite doped with Ag atoms: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yong-Fei; Shu, Xiao-Lin; Xie, Yong; Chen, Zi-Yu

    2014-07-01

    L10 FePt nanocomposite with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy has been extensively investigated in the fields of ultra-high density magnetic recording media. However, the order—disorder transition temperature of the nanocomposite is higher than 600 °C, which is a disadvantage for the use of the material due to the sustained growth of FePt grain under the temperature. To address the problem, addition of Ag atoms has been proposed, but the magnetic properties of the doped system are still unclear so far. Here in this paper, we use first-principles method to study the lattice parameters, formation energy, electronic structure, atomic magnetic moment and order—disorder transition temperature of L10 FePt with Ag atom doping. The results show that the formation energy of a Ag atom substituting for a Pt site is 1.309 eV, which is lower than that of substituting for an Fe site 1.346 eV. The formation energy of substituting for the two nearest Pt sites is 2.560 eV lower than that of substituting for the further sites 2.621 eV, which indicates that Ag dopants tend to segregate L10 FePt. The special quasirandom structures (SQSs) for the pure FePt and the FePt doped with two Ag atoms at the stable Pt sites show that the order—disorder transition temperatures are 1377 °C and 600 °C, respectively, suggesting that the transition temperature can be reduced with Ag atom, and therefore the FePt grain growth is suppressed. The saturation magnetizations of the pure FePt and the two Ag atoms doped FePt are 1083 emu/cc and 1062 emu/cc, respectively, indicating that the magnetic property of the doped system is almost unchanged.

  15. Movie of phase separation during physics of colloids in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area in the video is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  16. Phase separation during the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  17. Synthesis of atom probe experiments on irradiation-induced solute segregation in French ferritic pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, P.; Pareige, P.; Welzel, S.; Van Duysen, J.-C.

    2000-08-01

    Microstructural changes due to neutron irradiation cause an evolution of the mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) steels. This paper aims at identifying and characterising the microstructural changes which have been found to be responsible in part for the observed embrittlement. This intensive work relies principally on an atom probe (AP) study of a low Cu-level French RPV steel (Chooz A). This material has been irradiated in in-service conditions for 0-16 years in the frame of the surveillance program. Under this aging condition, solute clustering occurs (Cu, Ni, Mn, Si, P, …). In order to identify the role of copper, experiments were also carried out on Fe-Cu model alloys submitted to different types of irradiations (neutron, electron, ion). Cu-cluster nucleation appears to be directly related to the presence of displacement cascades during neutron (ion) irradiation. The operating basic physical process is not clearly identified yet. A recovery of the mechanical properties of the irradiated material can be achieved by annealing treatments (20 h at 450°C in the case of the RPV steel under study, following microhardness measurements). It has been shown that the corresponding microstructural evolution was a rapid dissolution of the high number density of irradiation-induced solute clusters and the precipitation of a very low number density of Cu-rich particles.

  18. Physics of forced magnetic reconnection in coaxial helicity injection experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Raman, R.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2014-05-15

    We numerically examine the physics of fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). By performing resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with poloidal injector coil currents held constant in time, we find that closed flux surfaces are formed through forced magnetic reconnection. Through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection with an elongated current sheet in the injector region, closed flux surfaces expand in the NSTX global domain. Simulations demonstrate outflows approaching poloidally Alfvénic flows and reconnection times consistent with the Sweet-Parker model. Critical requirements for magnetic reconnection and flux closure are studied in detail. These primary effects, which are magnetic diffusivity, injector flux, injector flux footprint width, and rate of injector voltage reduction, are simulated for transient CHI experiments. The relevant time scales for effective reconnection are τ{sub V}<τ{sub rec}≈τ{sub A}√(S)(1+Pm){sup 1/4}<τ{sub R}, where τ{sub V} is the time for the injector voltage reduction, τ{sub A} is the poloidal Alfvén transit time, τ{sub R} is the global resistive diffusion time, and Pm and S are Prandtl and Lundquist numbers.

  19. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Rotter, I; Bird, J P

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  20. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, I.; Bird, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  1. X-ray sources such as metallic liner inside plastic cavities are used to test atomic physics models for LMJ simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Frederic; Jacquet, L.; Primout, M.; Babonneau, D.; Villette, B.; Stemmler, Ph.

    2009-11-01

    Bright multi-keV K-shell emission sources [1-3] are necessary for ICF studies such as radiography of dense materials. Our recent works with titanium (Heα at 4.7 keV) and germanium (Heα at 10.3 keV) lined cavities showed very high multi-keV x-ray conversion efficiencies up to 14.0% and 0.8% (respectively) [3]. Cavities with a titanium, copper or germanium liner have been used on the OMEGA laser facility in Rochester to test specifically atomic physics models coupled to hydrodynamic codes. Simulation results differ significantly from experimental conversion efficiencies for titanium liner but they are close together for germanium one. Atomic physics models do have great impact on X-ray output. The need for accurate predictive simulation is important in order to set up relevant radiography sources for experiments on the path to ignition. Multi-keV emission is diagnosed by a full set of diagnostics giving conversion efficiencies, time dependant x-ray power and imaging, time integrated imaging and high resolution spectra of titanium. [4pt] [1] D. Babonneau et al., Phys. Plasmas, 15, 092702, 2008 [0pt] [2] K. B. Fournier et al., Phys. Plasmas, 16 052703, 2009 [0pt] [3] F. Girard et al., Phys. Plasmas, 16, 052704, 2009

  2. Ground-Laboratory to In-Space Atomic Oxygen Correlation for the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambler, Arielle H.; Inoshita, Karen E.; Roberts, Lily M.; Barbagallo, Claire E.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2) Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) polymers were exposed to the environment of low Earth orbit (LEO) for 3.95 years from 2001 to 2005. There were 41 different PEACE polymers, which were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in order to determine their atomic oxygen erosion yields. In LEO, atomic oxygen is an environmental durability threat, particularly for long duration mission exposures. Although spaceflight experiments, such as the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment, are ideal for determining LEO environmental durability of spacecraft materials, ground-laboratory testing is often relied upon for durability evaluation and prediction. Unfortunately, significant differences exist between LEO atomic oxygen exposure and atomic oxygen exposure in ground-laboratory facilities. These differences include variations in species, energies, thermal exposures and radiation exposures, all of which may result in different reactions and erosion rates. In an effort to improve the accuracy of ground-based durability testing, ground-laboratory to in-space atomic oxygen correlation experiments have been conducted. In these tests, the atomic oxygen erosion yields of the PEACE polymers were determined relative to Kapton H using a radio-frequency (RF) plasma asher (operated on air). The asher erosion yields were compared to the MISSE 2 PEACE erosion yields to determine the correlation between erosion rates in the two environments. This paper provides a summary of the MISSE 2 PEACE experiment; it reviews the specific polymers tested as well as the techniques used to determine erosion yield in the asher, and it provides a correlation between the space and ground laboratory erosion yield values. Using the PEACE polymers asher to in-space erosion yield ratios will allow more accurate in-space materials performance predictions to be made based on plasma asher durability evaluation.

  3. Early Childhood Educators' Experience of an Alternative Physical Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsangaridou, Niki; Genethliou, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Alternative instructional and curricular models are regarded as more comprehensive and suitable approaches to providing quality physical education (Kulinna 2008; Lund and Tannehill 2010; McKenzie and Kahan 2008; Metzler 2011; Quay and Peters 2008). The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of the Early Steps Physical Education…

  4. "Got Disc?" The "Ultimate" Experience in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.; Darst, Paul W.; Brusseau, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    A quality physical education program is one in which students are exposed to and can participate in a variety of sports and activities. One activity that is increasing in popularity in and outside of physical education is the game of "Ultimate." Opportunities to play Ultimate are increasing rapidly in intramural programs and community and…

  5. Computer Simulations for Lab Experiences in Secondary Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Physical science instruction often involves modeling natural systems, such as electricity that possess particles which are invisible to the unaided eye. The effect of these particles' motion is observable, but the particles are not directly observable to humans. Simulations have been developed in physics, chemistry and biology that, under certain…

  6. An Atomic Force Microscope with Dual Actuation Capability for Biomolecular Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sevim, Semih; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Ozer, Sevil; Feng, Luying; Fakhraee, Arielle; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J.; Torun, Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    We report a modular atomic force microscope (AFM) design for biomolecular experiments. The AFM head uses readily available components and incorporates deflection-based optics and a piezotube-based cantilever actuator. Jetted-polymers have been used in the mechanical assembly, which allows rapid manufacturing. In addition, a FeCo-tipped electromagnet provides high-force cantilever actuation with vertical magnetic fields up to 0.55 T. Magnetic field calibration has been performed with a micro-hall sensor, which corresponds well with results from finite element magnetostatics simulations. An integrated force resolution of 1.82 and 2.98 pN, in air and in DI water, respectively was achieved in 1 kHz bandwidth with commercially available cantilevers made of Silicon Nitride. The controller and user interface are implemented on modular hardware to ensure scalability. The AFM can be operated in different modes, such as molecular pulling or force-clamp, by actuating the cantilever with the available actuators. The electromagnetic and piezoelectric actuation capabilities have been demonstrated in unbinding experiments of the biotin-streptavidin complex. PMID:27273214

  7. An Atomic Force Microscope with Dual Actuation Capability for Biomolecular Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevim, Semih; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Ozer, Sevil; Feng, Luying; Fakhraee, Arielle; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J.; Torun, Hamdi

    2016-06-01

    We report a modular atomic force microscope (AFM) design for biomolecular experiments. The AFM head uses readily available components and incorporates deflection-based optics and a piezotube-based cantilever actuator. Jetted-polymers have been used in the mechanical assembly, which allows rapid manufacturing. In addition, a FeCo-tipped electromagnet provides high-force cantilever actuation with vertical magnetic fields up to 0.55 T. Magnetic field calibration has been performed with a micro-hall sensor, which corresponds well with results from finite element magnetostatics simulations. An integrated force resolution of 1.82 and 2.98 pN, in air and in DI water, respectively was achieved in 1 kHz bandwidth with commercially available cantilevers made of Silicon Nitride. The controller and user interface are implemented on modular hardware to ensure scalability. The AFM can be operated in different modes, such as molecular pulling or force-clamp, by actuating the cantilever with the available actuators. The electromagnetic and piezoelectric actuation capabilities have been demonstrated in unbinding experiments of the biotin-streptavidin complex.

  8. An Atomic Force Microscope with Dual Actuation Capability for Biomolecular Experiments.

    PubMed

    Sevim, Semih; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Ozer, Sevil; Feng, Luying; Fakhraee, Arielle; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J; Torun, Hamdi

    2016-06-07

    We report a modular atomic force microscope (AFM) design for biomolecular experiments. The AFM head uses readily available components and incorporates deflection-based optics and a piezotube-based cantilever actuator. Jetted-polymers have been used in the mechanical assembly, which allows rapid manufacturing. In addition, a FeCo-tipped electromagnet provides high-force cantilever actuation with vertical magnetic fields up to 0.55 T. Magnetic field calibration has been performed with a micro-hall sensor, which corresponds well with results from finite element magnetostatics simulations. An integrated force resolution of 1.82 and 2.98 pN, in air and in DI water, respectively was achieved in 1 kHz bandwidth with commercially available cantilevers made of Silicon Nitride. The controller and user interface are implemented on modular hardware to ensure scalability. The AFM can be operated in different modes, such as molecular pulling or force-clamp, by actuating the cantilever with the available actuators. The electromagnetic and piezoelectric actuation capabilities have been demonstrated in unbinding experiments of the biotin-streptavidin complex.

  9. Constraints on a long-range spin-independent interaction from precision atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S. G.

    2010-10-01

    Constraints on a spin-independent interaction by the exchange of a neutral light boson are derived from precision data on the electron anomalous magnetic moment and from atomic spectroscopy of hydrogen and deuterium atoms. The mass range from 1 eV/c{sup 2} to 1 MeV/c{sup 2} is studied, and the effective coupling constant {alpha}{sup '} is allowed below the level of 10{sup -11}-10{sup -13} depending on the value of the boson mass. The mass range corresponds to the Yukawa radius from 0.0002 nm to 20 nm, which covers the distances far above and far below the Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom.

  10. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report, 15 September 1984-14 September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1985-09-01

    Advances are reported in the two areas of primary research: low-energy ion-atom collisions using secondary ion recoil sources, SIRS, and high-energy ion-atom collisions using the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator beams. We have investigated the feasibility of accel-decel with a tandem plus superconducting LINAC with great success, and we have continued to work on the designs of a stand-alone CRYEBIS and a superconducting Nb split-ring resonator LINAC as an appropriate booster for the EN tandem.

  11. Characterization of the Southern Nevada Region for Source Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Myers, S. C.; Pasyanos, M.; Hauk, T. F.; Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) includes an ongoing series of chemical explosions designed to advance seismic monitoring through better understanding of explosion physics and associated simulation codes. A candidate for a future SPE would result in direct comparison of seismic signals from well constrained and co-located earthquake and explosion sources at a common set of receivers. This possibility arises from an area of unusually shallow seismicity in southern Nevada. In May of 1993 a series of events with depths of 1-2 km were recorded at regional seismic stations as well as local stations that were temporarily deployed by the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR). The main shock had a magnitude of approximately 3.7 and 11 more events in the sequence had magnitudes over 2. As part of a feasibility study for a future SPE, LLNL, UNR and NSTec are working to improve our understanding of the region and the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S. Six new telemetered seismic stations located at both original 1993 sites and additional sites have been installed and operating in and around the area since early 2011. Using both historic and current data we seek to ensure that we have the best possible locations for the 1993 sequence and current ongoing microseismicity in the region. For this purpose we use the Bayesloc multiple-event location algorithm (Myers et al., 2007; 2009) to improve hypocentral locations. Bayesloc formulates the location problem as a hierarchy of the travel-time model with travel-time corrections, an arrival time model including picking errors, and a prior model for each parameter. Using known locations of nearby previous nuclear tests we have the ability to test the accuracy and robustness of our relocation parameters and results. In our preliminary analysis, we use a mixture of local and regional nuclear test data with the algorithm for the first time, and initial tests show significant

  12. Accelerator Preparations for Muon Physics Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The use of existing Fermilab facilities to provide beams for two muon experiments - the Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment (Mu2e) and the New g-2 Experiment - is under consideration. Plans are being pursued to perform these experiments following the completion of the Tevatron Collider Run II, utilizing the beam lines and storage rings used today for antiproton accumulation without considerable reconfiguration. Operating scenarios being investigated and anticipated accelerator improvements or reconfigurations will be presented.

  13. Enhancing Laos Students' Understanding of Nature of Science in Physics Learning about Atom for Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengdala, Phoxay; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to study of Grade 12 students' understanding of nature of science in learning about atom for peace through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 51 Grade 12 who study in Thongphong high school Vientiane Capital City Lao PDR, 1st semester of 2012 academic year. This research regarded interpretive…

  14. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report, FY 1989--91

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  15. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Physical mechanisms underlying the selective removal of atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurovich, Boris A.; Prikhod'ko, Kirill E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper reviews the current understanding of the selective removal of atoms (SRA), a technique that uses ion irradiation to controllably change the chemical composition and properties of polyatomic materials. The main effects involved and the possible mechanisms that govern the process are discussed. It is shown that SRA holds great promise for manufacturing functional nanoelements.

  16. Inequality in Experiences of Physics Education: Secondary School Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of their Physics Education and Intentions to Continue with Physics After the Age of 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the factors that are associated in England with 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics after the age of 16, when it is no longer compulsory. Survey responses were collated from 5,034 year 10 students as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009 from 137 England secondary schools. Our analysis uses individual items from the survey rather than constructs (aggregates of items) to explore what it is about physics teachers, physics lessons and physics itself that is most correlated with intended participation in physics after the age of 16. Our findings indicate that extrinsic material gain motivation in physics was the most important factor associated with intended participation. In addition, an item-level analysis helped to uncover issues around gender inequality in physics educational experiences which were masked by the use of construct-based analyses. Girls' perceptions of their physics teachers were similar to those of boys on many fronts. However, despite the encouragement individual students receive from their teachers being a key factor associated with aspirations to continue with physics, girls were statistically significantly less likely to receive such encouragement. We also found that girls had less positive experiences of their physics lessons and physics education than did boys.

  17. Simple Laser Scattering Experiment for Biology-Oriented Physics Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, L.; Schrank, G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a physics exercise designed for biology and premed majors. The activity is a low intensity laser light scattering laboratory exercise to determine the diameter of micron-sized latex spheres (simulated microbes) in water suspension. (GA)

  18. The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)

  19. Results from Effervescent Spray Atomization for MCB and a preliminary Proposal for Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukermans, A.; Cooper, G. F.; Foster, J. D.; Galbraith, L. K.; Jain, S.; Ormond, R.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the preliminary results of spraying saltwater using a variant of effervescent spray atomization (ESA), for the purpose of producing salt nuclei for Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB). ESA is a well known industrial method, where air and water are mixed, to produce a choked two phase flow in a nozzle. The choked flow leaves a pressure residue at the nozzle exit which produces very efficient atomization. The resulting measured salt aerosol appears to be smaller than what is expected from current ESA theories. As measured with standard and well calibrated standard aerosol instruments, the distribution of the salt nuclei has an approximately log normal distribution with mean diameter of 60-80 nm and a GSD close to 2. Measured by electrostatic precipitation of the aerosol on a Si wafer and SEM observation, the median diameter is almost 1.5-2x as large, and this discrepancy has to date not been fully resolved. While the observed median diameter is perhaps somewhat on the low side for efficient conversion in the clouds, this nuclei distribution should be useful for preliminary field experiments. Assuming this distribution, with very simple means, a single small nozzle 150 um in diameter produces 5.3 x1012 nuclei/sec. A few hundred nozzles would be sufficient to produce 1015 nuclei/sec, requiring a power of only 25 kW, although errors on the tail end of the distribution could easily double this figure. To lift the spray, we envision the nozzles easily integrated in standard snowmaking machines, which are estimated by their manufactures to lift the nuclei from 50-100 m in the air, requiring another 20 kW of power. In cooperation with and under the scientific guidance of the U. of Washington, we propose to develop a set of staggered MCB experimental tests in Central California, first on land, and subsequently over the ocean. While this method may not be the ultimate one desired for full deployment (If ever), its simplicity, low cost and ease of deployment would seem

  20. Preliminary design of two Space Shuttle fluid physics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, N.; Kropp, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The mid-deck lockers of the STS and the requirements for operating an experiment in this region are described. The design of the surface tension induced convection and the free surface phenomenon experiments use a two locker volume with an experiment unique structure as a housing. A manual mode is developed for the Surface Tension Induced Convection experiment. The fluid is maintained in an accumulator pre-flight. To begin the experiment, a pressurized gas drives the fluid into the experiment container. The fluid is an inert silicone oil and the container material is selected to be comparable. A wound wire heater, located axisymmetrically above the fluid can deliver three wattages to a spot on the fluid surface. These wattages vary from 1-15 watts. Fluid flow is observed through the motion of particles in the fluid. A 5 mw He/Ne laser illuminates the container. Scattered light is recorded by a 35mm camera. The free surface phenomena experiment consists of a trapezoidal cell which is filled from the bottom. The fluid is photographed at high speed using a 35mm camera which incorporated the entire cell length in the field of view. The assembly can incorporate four cells in one flight. For each experiment, an electronics block diagram is provided. A control panel concept is given for the surface induced convection. Both experiments are within the mid-deck locker weight and c-g limits.