Kjaergaard, Thomas; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe; Coriani, Sonia; Helgaker, Trygve
2008-08-07
We present a second-quantization based atomic-orbital method for the computation of time-dependent response functions within Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density-functional theories. The method is suited for linear scaling. Illustrative results are presented for excitation energies, one- and two-photon transition moments, polarizabilities, and hyperpolarizabilities for hexagonal BN sheets with up to 180 atoms.
Grinberg, H.; Maranon, J.; Vucetich, H.
1983-01-15
The Kustaanheimo--Stiefel transformation together with the well-known expansion of the kernel of an isotropic harmonic oscillator is used to generate the atomic orbitals of the nonrelativistic hydrogen atom in a four-dimensional Riemann space through the path integral formalism. Group theoretical implications of the present problem are briefly discussed.
Cuadrado, R; Cerdá, J I
2012-02-29
We present an efficient implementation of the spin-orbit coupling within the density functional theory based SIESTA code (2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 2745) using the fully relativistic and totally separable pseudopotential formalism of Hemstreet et al (1993 Phys. Rev. B 47 4238). First, we obtain the spin-orbit splittings for several systems ranging from isolated atoms to bulk metals and semiconductors as well as the Au(111) surface state. Next, and after extensive tests on the accuracy of the formalism, we also demonstrate its capability to yield reliable values for the magnetic anisotropy energy in magnetic systems. In particular, we focus on the L1(0) binary alloys and on two large molecules: Mn(6)O(2)(H -sao)(6)(O(2)CH)(2)(CH(3)OH)(4) and Co(4)(hmp)(4)(CH(3)OH)(4)Cl(4). In all cases our calculated anisotropies are in good agreement with those obtained with full-potential methods, despite the latter being, in general, computationally more demanding.
The atomic orbitals of the topological atom.
Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Mayer, István
2013-06-07
The effective atomic orbitals have been realized in the framework of Bader's atoms in molecules theory for a general wavefunction. This formalism can be used to retrieve from any type of calculation a proper set of orthonormalized numerical atomic orbitals, with occupation numbers that sum up to the respective Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) atomic populations. Experience shows that only a limited number of effective atomic orbitals exhibit significant occupation numbers. These correspond to atomic hybrids that closely resemble the core and valence shells of the atom. The occupation numbers of the remaining effective orbitals are almost negligible, except for atoms with hypervalent character. In addition, the molecular orbitals of a calculation can be exactly expressed as a linear combination of this orthonormalized set of numerical atomic orbitals, and the Mulliken population analysis carried out on this basis set exactly reproduces the original QTAIM atomic populations of the atoms. Approximate expansion of the molecular orbitals over a much reduced set of orthogonal atomic basis functions can also be accomplished to a very good accuracy with a singular value decomposition procedure.
Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.
1981-01-01
Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bridgeman, Adam J.; Schmidt, Timothy W.; Young, Nigel A.
2013-01-01
The stretching modes of ML[subscript "x"] complexes have the same symmetry as the atomic orbitals on M that are used to form its s bonds. In the exercise suggested here, the atomic orbitals are used to derive the form of the stretching modes without the need for formal group theory. The analogy allows students to help understand many…
Electronic structure interpolation via atomic orbitals.
Chen, Mohan; Guo, G-C; He, Lixin
2011-08-17
We present an efficient scheme for accurate electronic structure interpolation based on systematically improvable optimized atomic orbitals. The atomic orbitals are generated by minimizing the spillage value between the atomic basis calculations and the converged plane wave basis calculations on some coarse k-point grid. They are then used to calculate the band structure of the full Brillouin zone using the linear combination of atomic orbitals algorithms. We find that usually 16-25 orbitals per atom can give an accuracy of about 10 meV compared to the full ab initio calculations, and the accuracy can be systematically improved by using more atomic orbitals. The scheme is easy to implement and robust, and works equally well for metallic systems and systems with complicated band structures. Furthermore, the atomic orbitals have much better transferability than Shirley's basis and Wannier functions, which is very useful for perturbation calculations.
Keeping Track of Directions of Atomic Orbitals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Talaty, Erach R.
1990-01-01
Illustrated is the usefulness of keeping track of the directions of atomic orbitals in predicting the shapes of molecules. The application of this technique to all cumulenes and its use in the determination of aromaticity in cyclic systems is discussed. (KR)
Is It Time to Retire the Hybrid Atomic Orbital?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grushow, Alexander
2011-01-01
A rationale for the removal of the hybrid atomic orbital from the chemistry curriculum is examined. Although the hybrid atomic orbital model does not accurately predict spectroscopic energies, many chemical educators continue to use and teach the model despite the confusion it can cause for students. Three arguments for retaining the model in the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Chenchen; Martínez, Todd J.
2016-05-01
We present a tensor hypercontracted (THC) scaled opposite spin second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (SOS-MP2) method. By using THC, we reduce the formal scaling of SOS-MP2 with respect to molecular size from quartic to cubic. We achieve further efficiency by exploiting sparsity in the atomic orbitals and using graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate integral construction and matrix multiplication. The practical scaling of GPU-accelerated atomic orbital-based THC-SOS-MP2 calculations is found to be N2.6 for reference data sets of water clusters and alanine polypeptides containing up to 1600 basis functions. The errors in correlation energy with respect to density-fitting-SOS-MP2 are less than 0.5 kcal/mol for all systems tested (up to 162 atoms).
Antihydrogen-hydrogen elastic scattering at thermal energies using an atomic-orbital technique
Sinha, Prabal K.; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab; Ghosh, A.S.
2003-05-01
In view of the recent interest in the trapping of antihydrogen atom H(bar sign), at very low temperatures, H-bar-H scattering has been investigated at low incident energies using a close-coupling model with the basis set H-bar(1s,2s,2p-bar)+H(1s,2s,2p-bar). The predicted s-wave elastic phase shifts, scattering length, and effective range are in a good agreement with the other recent predictions of Jonsell et al. and of Armour and Chamberlain. The results indicate that the atomic orbital expansion model is suitable to study the H-bar-H scattering at ultracold temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bast, Radovan; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ringholm, Magnus; Ruud, Kenneth
2009-02-01
We present the first analytic calculations of the second hyperpolarizability in a relativistic framework. The calculations are made possible by our recent developments of a response theory built on a quasienergy formalism, in which the basis set may be both time and perturbation dependent. The approach is formulated for an arbitrary self-consistent field state in the atomic orbital basis. The implementation consists of a stand-alone code that only requires the unperturbed density in the atomic orbital basis as input, as well as a linear response solver by which we can determine the perturbed density matrices to different orders, at each new order solving equations that have the same structure as the linear response equation. Using these features of our formalism, we extend in this paper our approach to the relativistic domain, utilizing both two- and four-component relativistic wave functions. We apply the formalism to the calculation of the electronic and pure vibrational contributions to the second hyperpolarizability tensor for the hydrogen halides. Our results demonstrate that relativistic effects can be substantial for frequency-dependent second hyperpolarizabilities. Due to changes in the pole structure when going to the relativistic domain, the relativistic corrections to the hyperpolarizabilities are not transferable between different optical processes, except for very low frequencies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsaparlis, Georgios
1997-01-01
Investigates the impact an undergraduate quantum chemistry course has on students' knowledge and understanding of atomic orbitals, molecular orbitals, and related concepts. Analysis reveals that students do not have a clear understanding of these concepts and confuse the various atomic orbital representations. Includes some suggestions and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saputra, Andrian; Canaval, Lorentz R.; Sunyono; Fadiawati, Noor; Diawati, Chansyanah; Setyorini, M.; Kadaritna, Nina; Kadaryanto, Budi
2015-01-01
Quick and real-time plotting equations using the Winplot software can be employed to create accurate hybrid atomic orbitals without complicated scripting. Performing this task on their own, students can more easily understand and remember hybrid atomic orbitals, in terms of shape and orientation.
Atomic orbital-based SOS-MP2 with tensor hypercontraction. II. Local tensor hypercontraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Chenchen; Martínez, Todd J.
2017-01-01
In the first paper of the series [Paper I, C. Song and T. J. Martinez, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 174111 (2016)], we showed how tensor-hypercontracted (THC) SOS-MP2 could be accelerated by exploiting sparsity in the atomic orbitals and using graphical processing units (GPUs). This reduced the formal scaling of the SOS-MP2 energy calculation to cubic with respect to system size. The computational bottleneck then becomes the THC metric matrix inversion, which scales cubically with a large prefactor. In this work, the local THC approximation is proposed to reduce the computational cost of inverting the THC metric matrix to linear scaling with respect to molecular size. By doing so, we have removed the primary bottleneck to THC-SOS-MP2 calculations on large molecules with O(1000) atoms. The errors introduced by the local THC approximation are less than 0.6 kcal/mol for molecules with up to 200 atoms and 3300 basis functions. Together with the graphical processing unit techniques and locality-exploiting approaches introduced in previous work, the scaled opposite spin MP2 (SOS-MP2) calculations exhibit O(N2.5) scaling in practice up to 10 000 basis functions. The new algorithms make it feasible to carry out SOS-MP2 calculations on small proteins like ubiquitin (1231 atoms/10 294 atomic basis functions) on a single node in less than a day.
Atomic orbital-based SOS-MP2 with tensor hypercontraction. II. Local tensor hypercontraction.
Song, Chenchen; Martínez, Todd J
2017-01-21
In the first paper of the series [Paper I, C. Song and T. J. Martinez, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 174111 (2016)], we showed how tensor-hypercontracted (THC) SOS-MP2 could be accelerated by exploiting sparsity in the atomic orbitals and using graphical processing units (GPUs). This reduced the formal scaling of the SOS-MP2 energy calculation to cubic with respect to system size. The computational bottleneck then becomes the THC metric matrix inversion, which scales cubically with a large prefactor. In this work, the local THC approximation is proposed to reduce the computational cost of inverting the THC metric matrix to linear scaling with respect to molecular size. By doing so, we have removed the primary bottleneck to THC-SOS-MP2 calculations on large molecules with O(1000) atoms. The errors introduced by the local THC approximation are less than 0.6 kcal/mol for molecules with up to 200 atoms and 3300 basis functions. Together with the graphical processing unit techniques and locality-exploiting approaches introduced in previous work, the scaled opposite spin MP2 (SOS-MP2) calculations exhibit O(N(2.5)) scaling in practice up to 10 000 basis functions. The new algorithms make it feasible to carry out SOS-MP2 calculations on small proteins like ubiquitin (1231 atoms/10 294 atomic basis functions) on a single node in less than a day.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liguori, Lucia
2014-01-01
Atomic orbital theory is a difficult subject for many high school and beginning undergraduate students, as it includes mathematical concepts not yet covered in the school curriculum. Moreover, it requires certain ability for abstraction and imagination. A new atomic orbital model "the chocolate shop" created "by" students…
Helmich-Paris, Benjamin; Repisky, Michal; Visscher, Lucas
2016-07-07
We present a formulation of Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) energies for two-component Hamiltonians in the Kramers-restricted formalism. This low-order scaling technique can be used to enable correlated relativistic calculations for large molecular systems. We show that the working equations to compute the relativistic MP2 energy differ by merely a change of algebra (quaternion instead of real) from their non-relativistic counterparts. With a proof-of-principle implementation we study the effect of the nuclear charge on the magnitude of half-transformed integrals and show that for light elements spin-free and spin-orbit MP2 energies are almost identical. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of separation of charge distributions on the Coulomb and exchange energy contributions, which show the same long-range decay with the inter-electronic/atomic distance as for non-relativistic MP2. A linearly scaling implementation is possible if the proper distance behavior is introduced to the quaternion Schwarz-type estimates as for non-relativistic MP2.
Goings, Joshua J; Li, Xiaosong
2016-06-21
One of the challenges of interpreting electronic circular dichroism (ECD) band spectra is that different states may have different rotatory strength signs, determined by their absolute configuration. If the states are closely spaced and opposite in sign, observed transitions may be washed out by nearby states, unlike absorption spectra where transitions are always positive additive. To accurately compute ECD bands, it is necessary to compute a large number of excited states, which may be prohibitively costly if one uses the linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. Here we implement a real-time, atomic-orbital based TDDFT method for computing the entire ECD spectrum simultaneously. The method is advantageous for large systems with a high density of states. In contrast to previous implementations based on real-space grids, the method is variational, independent of nuclear orientation, and does not rely on pseudopotential approximations, making it suitable for computation of chiroptical properties well into the X-ray regime.
Cheng, Lan; Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian
2009-12-28
It is recognized only recently that the incorporation of the magnetic balance condition is absolutely essential for four-component relativistic theories of magnetic properties. Another important issue to be handled is the so-called gauge problem in calculations of, e.g., molecular magnetic shielding tensors with finite bases. It is shown here that the magnetic balance can be adapted to distributed gauge origins, leading to, e.g., magnetically balanced gauge-including atomic orbitals (MB-GIAOs) in which each magnetically balanced atomic orbital has its own local gauge origin placed on its center. Such a MB-GIAO scheme can be combined with any level of theory for electron correlation. The first implementation is done here at the coupled-perturbed Dirac-Kohn-Sham level. The calculated molecular magnetic shielding tensors are not only independent of the choice of gauge origin but also converge rapidly to the basis set limit. Close inspections reveal that (zeroth order) negative energy states are only important for the expansion of first order electronic core orbitals. Their contributions to the paramagnetism are therefore transferable from atoms to molecule and are essentially canceled out for chemical shifts. This allows for simplifications of the coupled-perturbed equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth; Rizzo, Antonio; Coriani, Sonia
2008-10-01
We present the first gauge-origin-independent, frequency-dependent calculations of the hypermagnetizability anisotropy, which determines the temperature-independent contribution to magnetic-field-induced linear birefringence, the so-called Cotton-Mouton effect. A density-matrix-based scheme for analytical calculations of frequency-dependent molecular properties for self-consistent field models has recently been developed, which is also valid with frequency- and field-dependent basis sets. Applying this scheme to Hartree-Fock wave functions and using London atomic orbitals in order to obtain gauge-origin-independent results, we have calculated the hypermagnetizability anisotropy. Our results show that the use of London orbitals leads to somewhat better basis-set convergence for the hypermagnetizability compared to conventional basis sets and that London orbitals are mandatory in order to obtain reliable magnetizability anisotropies.
Embedded-cluster calculations in a numeric atomic orbital density-functional theory framework
Berger, Daniel Oberhofer, Harald; Reuter, Karsten; Logsdail, Andrew J. Farrow, Matthew R.; Catlow, C. Richard A.; Sokol, Alexey A.; Sherwood, Paul; Blum, Volker
2014-07-14
We integrate the all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims into the general ChemShell package for solid-state embedding quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. A major undertaking in this integration is the implementation of pseudopotential functionality into FHI-aims to describe cations at the QM/MM boundary through effective core potentials and therewith prevent spurious overpolarization of the electronic density. Based on numeric atomic orbital basis sets, FHI-aims offers particularly efficient access to exact exchange and second order perturbation theory, rendering the established QM/MM setup an ideal tool for hybrid and double-hybrid level density functional theory calculations of solid systems. We illustrate this capability by calculating the reduction potential of Fe in the Fe-substituted ZSM-5 zeolitic framework and the reaction energy profile for (photo-)catalytic water oxidation at TiO{sub 2}(110)
Linear scaling coupled cluster and perturbation theories in the atomic orbital basis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Ayala, Philippe Y.
1999-11-01
We present a reformulation of the coupled cluster equations in the atomic orbital (AO) basis that leads to a linear scaling algorithm for large molecules. Neglecting excitation amplitudes in a screening process designed to achieve a target energy accuracy, we obtain an AO coupled cluster method which is competitive in terms of number of amplitudes with the traditional molecular orbital (MO) solution, even for small molecules. For large molecules, the decay properties of integrals and excitation amplitudes becomes evident and our AO method yields a linear scaling algorithm with respect to molecular size. We present benchmark calculations to demonstrate that our AO reformulation of the many-body electron correlation problem defeats the "exponential scaling wall" that has characterized high-level MO quantum chemistry calculations for many years.
Embedded-cluster calculations in a numeric atomic orbital density-functional theory framework.
Berger, Daniel; Logsdail, Andrew J; Oberhofer, Harald; Farrow, Matthew R; Catlow, C Richard A; Sherwood, Paul; Sokol, Alexey A; Blum, Volker; Reuter, Karsten
2014-07-14
We integrate the all-electron electronic structure code FHI-aims into the general ChemShell package for solid-state embedding quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. A major undertaking in this integration is the implementation of pseudopotential functionality into FHI-aims to describe cations at the QM/MM boundary through effective core potentials and therewith prevent spurious overpolarization of the electronic density. Based on numeric atomic orbital basis sets, FHI-aims offers particularly efficient access to exact exchange and second order perturbation theory, rendering the established QM/MM setup an ideal tool for hybrid and double-hybrid level density functional theory calculations of solid systems. We illustrate this capability by calculating the reduction potential of Fe in the Fe-substituted ZSM-5 zeolitic framework and the reaction energy profile for (photo-)catalytic water oxidation at TiO2(110).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter
2016-07-01
Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.
Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter
2016-07-15
Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.
Explicitly correlated atomic orbital basis second order Møller-Plesset theory.
Hollman, David S; Wilke, Jeremiah J; Schaefer, Henry F
2013-02-14
The scope of problems treatable by ab initio wavefunction methods has expanded greatly through the application of local approximations. In particular, atomic orbital (AO) based wavefunction methods have emerged as powerful techniques for exploiting sparsity and have been applied to biomolecules as large as 1707 atoms [S. A. Maurer, D. S. Lambrecht, D. Flaig, and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 144107 (2012)]. Correlated wavefunction methods, however, converge notoriously slowly to the basis set limit and, excepting the use of large basis sets, will suffer from a severe basis set incompleteness error (BSIE). The use of larger basis sets is prohibitively expensive for AO basis methods since, for example, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) scales linearly with the number of atoms, but still scales as O(N(5)) in the number of functions per atom. Explicitly correlated F12 methods have been shown to drastically reduce BSIE for even modestly sized basis sets. In this work, we therefore explore an atomic orbital based formulation of explicitly correlated MP2-F12 theory. We present working equations for the new method, which produce results identical to the widely used molecular orbital (MO) version of MP2-F12 without resorting to a delocalized MO basis. We conclude with a discussion of several possible approaches to a priori screening of contraction terms in our method and the prospects for a linear scaling implementation of AO-MP2-F12. The discussion includes concrete examples involving noble gas dimers and linear alkane chains.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhile, Ian J.
2014-01-01
Atomic orbitals are a theme throughout the undergraduate chemistry curriculum, and visualizing them has been a theme in this journal. Contour plots as isosurfaces or contour lines in a plane are the most familiar representations of the hydrogen wave functions. In these representations, a surface of a fixed value of the wave function ? is plotted…
Lin, Lin; Chen, Mohan; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin
2012-02-10
We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEpSI is that it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEpSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEpSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundreds. Both the wall clock time and the memory requirement of PEpSI is modest. This makes it even possible to perform Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for 10,000-atom nanotubes on a single processor. We also show that the use of PEpSI does not lead to loss of accuracy required in a practical DFT calculation.
Liu, Shubin; Pedersen, Lee G.
2009-01-01
An effective approach of estimating molecular pKa values from simple density functional calculations is proposed in this work. Both the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at the nucleus of the acidic atom and the sum of valence natural atomic orbitals are employed for three categories of compounds, amines and anilines, carbonyl acids and alcohols, and sulfonic acids and thiols. A strong correlation between experimental pKa values and each of these two quantities for each of the three categories has been discovered. Moreover, if the MEP is subtracted by the isolated atomic MEP for each category of compounds, we observe a single unique linear relationship between the resultant MEP difference and experimental pKa data of amines, anilines, carbonyl acids, alcohols, sulfonic acids, thiols, and their substituents. These results can generally be utilized to simultaneously estimate pKa values at multiple sites with a single calculation for either relatively small molecules in drug design or amino acids in proteins and macromolecules. PMID:19317439
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimori, A.; Minami, F.; Tsuda, N.
1980-10-01
Electronic energy bands have been calculated for CeH2 and CeH3 using the augmented-plane-wave method and have been fitted by the linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals interpolation scheme. The partial densities of states and the numbers of electrons on atomic orbitals indicate that hydrogen in CeH2 is almost anionlike. When going from CeH2 to CeH3, shallow bonding levels are found to form between the third hydrogen state and conduction electrons of CeH2, other features of CeH2 being little affected by it. Thus the rare-earth dihydrides are regarded as ionic compounds similar to the saline-element dihydrides except for the presence of d-like conduction electrons.
Liquid Water through Density-Functional Molecular Dynamics: Plane-Wave vs Atomic-Orbital Basis Sets.
Miceli, Giacomo; Hutter, Jürg; Pasquarello, Alfredo
2016-08-09
We determine and compare structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water at near ambient conditions through density-functional molecular dynamics simulations, when using either plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets. In both frameworks, the electronic structure and the atomic forces are self-consistently determined within the same theoretical scheme based on a nonlocal density functional accounting for van der Waals interactions. The overall properties of liquid water achieved within the two frameworks are in excellent agreement with each other. Thus, our study supports that implementations with plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets yield equivalent results and can be used indiscriminately in study of liquid water or aqueous solutions.
Grimme, Stefan; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Bannwarth, Christoph; Hansen, Andreas
2015-08-07
A density functional theory (DFT) based composite electronic structure approach is proposed to efficiently compute structures and interaction energies in large chemical systems. It is based on the well-known and numerically robust Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhoff (PBE) generalized-gradient-approximation in a modified global hybrid functional with a relatively large amount of non-local Fock-exchange. The orbitals are expanded in Ahlrichs-type valence-double zeta atomic orbital (AO) Gaussian basis sets, which are available for many elements. In order to correct for the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and to account for the important long-range London dispersion effects, our well-established atom-pairwise potentials are used. In the design of the new method, particular attention has been paid to an accurate description of structural parameters in various covalent and non-covalent bonding situations as well as in periodic systems. Together with the recently proposed three-fold corrected (3c) Hartree-Fock method, the new composite scheme (termed PBEh-3c) represents the next member in a hierarchy of "low-cost" electronic structure approaches. They are mainly free of BSSE and account for most interactions in a physically sound and asymptotically correct manner. PBEh-3c yields good results for thermochemical properties in the huge GMTKN30 energy database. Furthermore, the method shows excellent performance for non-covalent interaction energies in small and large complexes. For evaluating its performance on equilibrium structures, a new compilation of standard test sets is suggested. These consist of small (light) molecules, partially flexible, medium-sized organic molecules, molecules comprising heavy main group elements, larger systems with long bonds, 3d-transition metal systems, non-covalently bound complexes (S22 and S66×8 sets), and peptide conformations. For these sets, overall deviations from accurate reference data are smaller than for various other tested DFT methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimme, Stefan; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Bannwarth, Christoph; Hansen, Andreas
2015-08-01
A density functional theory (DFT) based composite electronic structure approach is proposed to efficiently compute structures and interaction energies in large chemical systems. It is based on the well-known and numerically robust Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhoff (PBE) generalized-gradient-approximation in a modified global hybrid functional with a relatively large amount of non-local Fock-exchange. The orbitals are expanded in Ahlrichs-type valence-double zeta atomic orbital (AO) Gaussian basis sets, which are available for many elements. In order to correct for the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and to account for the important long-range London dispersion effects, our well-established atom-pairwise potentials are used. In the design of the new method, particular attention has been paid to an accurate description of structural parameters in various covalent and non-covalent bonding situations as well as in periodic systems. Together with the recently proposed three-fold corrected (3c) Hartree-Fock method, the new composite scheme (termed PBEh-3c) represents the next member in a hierarchy of "low-cost" electronic structure approaches. They are mainly free of BSSE and account for most interactions in a physically sound and asymptotically correct manner. PBEh-3c yields good results for thermochemical properties in the huge GMTKN30 energy database. Furthermore, the method shows excellent performance for non-covalent interaction energies in small and large complexes. For evaluating its performance on equilibrium structures, a new compilation of standard test sets is suggested. These consist of small (light) molecules, partially flexible, medium-sized organic molecules, molecules comprising heavy main group elements, larger systems with long bonds, 3d-transition metal systems, non-covalently bound complexes (S22 and S66×8 sets), and peptide conformations. For these sets, overall deviations from accurate reference data are smaller than for various other tested DFT methods
Grimme, Stefan Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Bannwarth, Christoph; Hansen, Andreas
2015-08-07
A density functional theory (DFT) based composite electronic structure approach is proposed to efficiently compute structures and interaction energies in large chemical systems. It is based on the well-known and numerically robust Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhoff (PBE) generalized-gradient-approximation in a modified global hybrid functional with a relatively large amount of non-local Fock-exchange. The orbitals are expanded in Ahlrichs-type valence-double zeta atomic orbital (AO) Gaussian basis sets, which are available for many elements. In order to correct for the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and to account for the important long-range London dispersion effects, our well-established atom-pairwise potentials are used. In the design of the new method, particular attention has been paid to an accurate description of structural parameters in various covalent and non-covalent bonding situations as well as in periodic systems. Together with the recently proposed three-fold corrected (3c) Hartree-Fock method, the new composite scheme (termed PBEh-3c) represents the next member in a hierarchy of “low-cost” electronic structure approaches. They are mainly free of BSSE and account for most interactions in a physically sound and asymptotically correct manner. PBEh-3c yields good results for thermochemical properties in the huge GMTKN30 energy database. Furthermore, the method shows excellent performance for non-covalent interaction energies in small and large complexes. For evaluating its performance on equilibrium structures, a new compilation of standard test sets is suggested. These consist of small (light) molecules, partially flexible, medium-sized organic molecules, molecules comprising heavy main group elements, larger systems with long bonds, 3d-transition metal systems, non-covalently bound complexes (S22 and S66×8 sets), and peptide conformations. For these sets, overall deviations from accurate reference data are smaller than for various other tested DFT
Hohenstein, Edward G.; Luehr, Nathan; Ufimtsev, Ivan S.; Martínez, Todd J.
2015-06-14
Despite its importance, state-of-the-art algorithms for performing complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) computations have lagged far behind those for single reference methods. We develop an algorithm for the CASSCF orbital optimization that uses sparsity in the atomic orbital (AO) basis set to increase the applicability of CASSCF. Our implementation of this algorithm uses graphical processing units (GPUs) and has allowed us to perform CASSCF computations on molecular systems containing more than one thousand atoms. Additionally, we have implemented analytic gradients of the CASSCF energy; the gradients also benefit from GPU acceleration as well as sparsity in the AO basis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deeney, Tony; O'Sullivan, Colm
2014-09-01
The Bohr-Sommerfeld atomic model is recast in the language of wave-particle duality and it is shown that requirements equivalent to the Sommerfeld-Wilson quantisation conditions arise naturally in this context. It is suggested that treating the one-electron atom in this way provides a useful introduction for students prior to encountering the more formal analysis based on the solution of the Schrödinger equation.
Skachkov, Dmitry; Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Kadantsev, Eugene; Ziegler, Tom
2010-05-11
We present here a method that can calculate NMR shielding tensors from first principles for systems with translational invariance. Our approach is based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory and gauge-including atomic orbitals. Our scheme determines the shielding tensor as the second derivative of the total electronic energy with respect to an external magnetic field and a nuclear magnetic moment. The induced current density due to a periodic perturbation from nuclear magnetic moments is obtained through numerical differentiation, whereas the influence of the responding perturbation in terms of the external magnetic field is evaluated analytically. The method is implemented into the periodic program BAND. It employs a Bloch basis set made up of Slater-type or numeric atomic orbitals and represents the Kohn-Sham potential fully without the use of effective core potentials. Results from calculations of NMR shielding constants based on the present approach are presented for isolated molecules as well as systems with one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity. The reported values are compared to experiment and results from calculations on cluster models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Masato
2014-02-01
The analytical gradient for the atomic-orbital-based Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) energy functional, the modified form of which was proposed by Staroverov and Scuseria to account for the static electron correlation [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 11107 (2002)], is derived. Interestingly, the Pulay force for the HFB energy is expressed with the same formula as that for the Hartree-Fock method. The efficiency of the present HFB energy gradient is demonstrated in the geometry optimizations of conjugated and biradical systems. The geometries optimized by using the HFB method with the appropriate factor ζ, which controls the degree of static correlation included, are found to show good agreement with those obtained by using a complete active-space self-consistent field method, although they are significantly dependent on ζ.
Kobayashi, Masato
2014-02-28
The analytical gradient for the atomic-orbital-based Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) energy functional, the modified form of which was proposed by Staroverov and Scuseria to account for the static electron correlation [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 11107 (2002)], is derived. Interestingly, the Pulay force for the HFB energy is expressed with the same formula as that for the Hartree-Fock method. The efficiency of the present HFB energy gradient is demonstrated in the geometry optimizations of conjugated and biradical systems. The geometries optimized by using the HFB method with the appropriate factor ζ, which controls the degree of static correlation included, are found to show good agreement with those obtained by using a complete active-space self-consistent field method, although they are significantly dependent on ζ.
Kobayashi, Masato
2014-02-28
The analytical gradient for the atomic-orbital-based Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) energy functional, the modified form of which was proposed by Staroverov and Scuseria to account for the static electron correlation [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 11107 (2002)], is derived. Interestingly, the Pulay force for the HFB energy is expressed with the same formula as that for the Hartree–Fock method. The efficiency of the present HFB energy gradient is demonstrated in the geometry optimizations of conjugated and biradical systems. The geometries optimized by using the HFB method with the appropriate factor ζ, which controls the degree of static correlation included, are found to show good agreement with those obtained by using a complete active-space self-consistent field method, although they are significantly dependent on ζ.
Bachler, Vinzenz
2007-09-01
Localized bonding schemes and their weights have been obtained for the pi-electron system of nitrone by expanding complete active space self-consistent field wave functions into a set of Slater determinants composed of orthogonal natural atomic orbitals (NAOs) of Weinhold and Landis (Valency and Bonding: A Natural Bond Orbital Donor-Acceptor Perspective, 2005). Thus, the derived bonding schemes are close to orthogonal valence bond structures. The calculated sequence of bonding scheme weights accords with the sequence of genuine resonance structure weights derived previously by Ohanessian and Hiberty (Chem Phys Lett 1987, 137, 437), who employed nonorthogonal atomic orbitals. This accord supports the notion that NAOs form an appropriate orthogonal one-electron basis for expanding complete active space self-consistent field wave functions into meaningful bonding schemes and their weights.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xin; Geskin, Victor; Stadler, Robert
2017-03-01
Destructive quantum interference (DQI) in single molecule electronics is a purely quantum mechanical effect and is entirely defined by the inherent properties of the molecule in the junction such as its structure and symmetry. This definition of DQI by molecular properties alone suggests its relation to other more general concepts in chemistry as well as the possibility of deriving simple models for its understanding and molecular device design. Recently, two such models have gained a wide spread attention, where one was a graphical scheme based on visually inspecting the connectivity of the carbon sites in conjugated π systems in an atomic orbital (AO) basis and the other one puts the emphasis on the amplitudes and signs of the frontier molecular orbitals (MOs). There have been discussions on the range of applicability for these schemes, but ultimately conclusions from topological molecular Hamiltonians should not depend on whether they are drawn from an AO or a MO representation, as long as all the orbitals are taken into account. In this article, we clarify the relation between both models in terms of the zeroth order Green's function and compare their predictions for a variety of systems. From this comparison, we conclude that for a correct description of DQI from a MO perspective, it is necessary to include the contributions from all MOs rather than just those from the frontier orbitals. The cases where DQI effects can be successfully predicted within a frontier orbital approximation we show them to be limited to alternant even-membered hydrocarbons, as a direct consequence of the Coulson-Rushbrooke pairing theorem in quantum chemistry.
Ji, Wen-Xin; Xu, Wei; Schwarz, W H Eugen; Wang, Shu-Guang
2015-03-15
Lanthanide trihalide molecules LnX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) were quantum chemically investigated, in particular detail for Ln = Lu (lutetium). We applied density functional theory (DFT) at the nonrelativistic and scalar and SO-coupled relativistic levels, and also the ab initio coupled cluster approach. The chemically active electron shells of the lanthanide atoms comprise the 5d and 6s (and 6p) valence atomic orbitals (AO) and also the filled inner 4f semivalence and outer 5p semicore shells. Four different frozen-core approximations for Lu were compared: the (1s(2) -4d(10) ) [Pd] medium core, the [Pd+5s(2) 5p(6) = Xe] and [Pd+4f(14) ] large cores, and the [Pd+4f(14) +5s(2) 5p(6) ] very large core. The errors of LuX bonding are more serious on freezing the 5p(6) shell than the 4f(14) shell, more serious upon core-freezing than on the effective-core-potential approximation. The LnX distances correlate linearly with the AO radii of the ionic outer shells, Ln(3+) -5p(6) and X(-) -np(6) , characteristic for dominantly ionic Ln(3+) -X(-) binding. The heavier halogen atoms also bind covalently with the Ln-5d shell. Scalar relativistic effects contract and destabilize the LuX bonds, spin orbit coupling hardly affects the geometries but the bond energies, owing to SO effects in the free atoms. The relativistic changes of bond energy BE, bond length Re , bond force k, and bond stretching frequency vs do not follow the simple rules of Badger and Gordy (Re ∼BE∼k∼vs ). The so-called degeneracy-driven covalence, meaning strong mixing of accidentally near-degenerate, nearly nonoverlapping AOs without BE contribution is critically discussed.
Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nathan, Mitchell J.
2012-01-01
I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denning, Peter J.
1991-01-01
The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.
Schurkus, Henry F.; Ochsenfeld, Christian
2016-01-21
An atomic-orbital (AO) reformulation of the random-phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy is presented allowing to reduce the steep computational scaling to linear, so that large systems can be studied on simple desktop computers with fully numerically controlled accuracy. Our AO-RPA formulation introduces a contracted double-Laplace transform and employs the overlap-metric resolution-of-the-identity. First timings of our pilot code illustrate the reduced scaling with systems comprising up to 1262 atoms and 10 090 basis functions. .
Loibl, Stefan; Schütz, Martin
2012-08-28
An efficient method for the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensors is presented, which treats electron correlation at the level of second-order Mo̸ller-Plesset perturbation theory. It uses spatially localized functions to span occupied and virtual molecular orbital spaces, respectively, which are expanded in a basis of gauge including atomic orbitals (GIAOs or London atomic orbitals). Doubly excited determinants are restricted to local subsets of the virtual space and pair energies with an interorbital distance beyond a certain threshold are omitted. Furthermore, density fitting is employed to factorize the electron repulsion integrals. Ordinary Gaussians are employed as fitting functions. It is shown that the errors in the resulting NMR shielding constant, introduced (i) by the local approximation and (ii) by density fitting, are very small or even negligible. The capabilities of the new program are demonstrated by calculations on some extended molecular systems, such as the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolesion with adjacent nucleobases in the native intrahelical DNA double strand (ATTA sequence). Systems of that size were not accessible to correlated ab initio calculations of NMR spectra before. The presented method thus opens the door to new and interesting applications in this area.
Kerley, G.I.
1988-10-01
Atomic orbital energies and radial expectation values are tabulated for the ground state electronic configuration of all elements with Z less than or equal to 103 and for all orbitals having principal quantum numbers n less than or equal to 8. These tables have been developed for use in a model of electronic excitation and ionization that requires orbital data for both the occupied and unoccupied orbitals. The wavefunctions were calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater method, with a local exchange potential due to Liberman. This potential has the Coulombic form at large distances from the nucleus, with the result that both the occupied and unoccupied orbitals are bound states. The complete nonlocal exchange expression was used to compute the orbital energies. The results are in good agreement with full Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for the occupied orbitals. 22 refs., 2 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Chandan; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Helgaker, Trygve; Fliegl, Heike
2016-12-01
An atomic orbital density matrix based response formulation of the nuclei-selected approach of Beer, Kussmann, and Ochsenfeld [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 074102 (2011)] to calculate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensors has been developed and implemented into LSDalton allowing for a simultaneous solution of the response equations, which significantly improves the performance. The response formulation to calculate nuclei-selected NMR shielding tensors can be used together with the density-fitting approximation that allows efficient calculation of Coulomb integrals. It is shown that using density-fitting does not lead to a significant loss in accuracy for both the nuclei-selected and the conventional ways to calculate NMR shielding constants and should thus be used for applications with LSDalton.
Sure, Rebecca; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit
2015-01-01
Abstract In quantum chemical computations the combination of Hartree–Fock or a density functional theory (DFT) approximation with relatively small atomic orbital basis sets of double‐zeta quality is still widely used, for example, in the popular B3LYP/6‐31G* approach. In this Review, we critically analyze the two main sources of error in such computations, that is, the basis set superposition error on the one hand and the missing London dispersion interactions on the other. We review various strategies to correct those errors and present exemplary calculations on mainly noncovalently bound systems of widely varying size. Energies and geometries of small dimers, large supramolecular complexes, and molecular crystals are covered. We conclude that it is not justified to rely on fortunate error compensation, as the main inconsistencies can be cured by modern correction schemes which clearly outperform the plain mean‐field methods. PMID:27308221
Maurer, Marina; Ochsenfeld, Christian
2013-05-07
An atomic-orbital (AO) based formulation for calculating nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shieldings at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level is introduced, which provides a basis for reducing the scaling of the computational effort with the molecular size from the fifth power to linear and for a specific nucleus to sublinear. The latter sublinear scaling in the rate-determining steps becomes possible by avoiding global perturbations with respect to the magnetic field and by solving for quantities that involve the local nuclear magnetic spin perturbation instead. For avoiding the calculation of the second-order perturbed density matrix, we extend our AO-based reformulation of the Z-vector method within a density matrix-based scheme. Our pilot implementation illustrates the fast convergence with respect to the required number of Laplace points and the asymptotic scaling behavior in the rate-determining steps.
Kumar, Chandan; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Helgaker, Trygve; Fliegl, Heike
2016-12-21
An atomic orbital density matrix based response formulation of the nuclei-selected approach of Beer, Kussmann, and Ochsenfeld [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 074102 (2011)] to calculate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensors has been developed and implemented into LSDalton allowing for a simultaneous solution of the response equations, which significantly improves the performance. The response formulation to calculate nuclei-selected NMR shielding tensors can be used together with the density-fitting approximation that allows efficient calculation of Coulomb integrals. It is shown that using density-fitting does not lead to a significant loss in accuracy for both the nuclei-selected and the conventional ways to calculate NMR shielding constants and should thus be used for applications with LSDalton.
Sure, Rebecca; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Grimme, Stefan
2016-04-01
In quantum chemical computations the combination of Hartree-Fock or a density functional theory (DFT) approximation with relatively small atomic orbital basis sets of double-zeta quality is still widely used, for example, in the popular B3LYP/6-31G* approach. In this Review, we critically analyze the two main sources of error in such computations, that is, the basis set superposition error on the one hand and the missing London dispersion interactions on the other. We review various strategies to correct those errors and present exemplary calculations on mainly noncovalently bound systems of widely varying size. Energies and geometries of small dimers, large supramolecular complexes, and molecular crystals are covered. We conclude that it is not justified to rely on fortunate error compensation, as the main inconsistencies can be cured by modern correction schemes which clearly outperform the plain mean-field methods.
Experimental Evaluation of a Planning Language Suitable for Formal Verification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Rick W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.
2008-01-01
The marriage of model checking and planning faces two seemingly diverging alternatives: the need for a planning language expressive enough to capture the complexity of real-life applications, as opposed to a language simple, yet robust enough to be amenable to exhaustive verification and validation techniques. In an attempt to reconcile these differences, we have designed an abstract plan description language, ANMLite, inspired from the Action Notation Modeling Language (ANML) [17]. We present the basic concepts of the ANMLite language as well as an automatic translator from ANMLite to the model checker SAL (Symbolic Analysis Laboratory) [7]. We discuss various aspects of specifying a plan in terms of constraints and explore the implications of choosing a robust logic behind the specification of constraints, rather than simply propose a new planning language. Additionally, we provide an initial assessment of the efficiency of model checking to search for solutions of planning problems. To this end, we design a basic test benchmark and study the scalability of the generated SAL models in terms of plan complexity.
Funahashi, Shiro; Tanaka, Kiyoaki; Iga, Fumitoshi
2010-06-01
Accurate electron-density measurement of SmB(6) at 100, 165, 230 and 298 K, and X-ray atomic orbital (XAO) analysis were carried out. The 4f-electron density around Sm and 5d electron density at approximately 1 A from Sm were analysed by XAO analysis. The 5d electron density is due to the electrons of the 5d(J = 5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals which stem from the e(g) orbitals in the strong field approximation. The change in electron populations of the 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals with temperature is similar to that of the resistivity. Since the conduction band consists of 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) and B-2p orbitals according to band theory, this indicates that the larger populations of the 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals correspond to the larger number of localized electrons and are correlated to the resistivity of SmB(6). The occupation of the bulky 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals may be the reason for the elongation of the lattice parameter below 150 K. The 4f(7/2)Gamma(6) orbitals are obviously occupied except at 100 K, which seems to be caused by the energy gap between 4f(5/2) and 4f(7/2) states, which begins to exist between 100 and 150 K, and may represent one of the properties of a Kondo insulator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ching, Wai-Yim; Rulis, Paul
2009-03-01
Over the last eight years, a large number of x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and/or electron energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) spectroscopic calculations for complex oxides and nitrides have been performed using the supercell-OLCAO (orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals) method, obtaining results in very good agreement with experiments. The method takes into account the core-hole effect and includes the dipole matrix elements calculated from ab initio wavefunctions. In this paper, we describe the method in considerable detail, emphasizing the special advantages of this method for large complex systems. Selected results are reviewed and several hitherto unpublished results are also presented. These include the Y K edge of Y ions segregated to the core of a Σ31 grain boundary in alumina, O K edges of water molecules, C K edges in different types of single walled carbon nanotubes, and the Co K edge in the cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) molecule. On the basis of these results, it is argued that the interpretation of specific features of the calculated XANES/ELNES edges is not simple for complex material systems because of the delocalized nature of the conduction band states. The long-standing notion of the 'fingerprinting' technique for spectral interpretation of experimental data is not tenable. A better approach is to fully characterize the structure under study, using either crystalline data or accurate ab initio modeling. Comparison between calculated XANES/ELNES spectra and available measurements enables us to ascertain the validity of the modeled structure. For complex crystals or structures, it is necessary to use the weighted sum of the spectra from structurally nonequivalent sites for comparison with the measured data. Future application of the supercell-OLCAO method to complex biomolecular systems is also discussed.
Doser, Bernd; Lambrecht, Daniel S; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian
2009-02-14
A Laplace-transformed second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method is presented, which allows to achieve linear scaling of the computational effort with molecular size for electronically local structures. Also for systems with a delocalized electronic structure, a cubic or even quadratic scaling behavior is achieved. Numerically significant contributions to the atomic orbital (AO)-MP2 energy are preselected using the so-called multipole-based integral estimates (MBIE) introduced earlier by us [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 184102 (2005)]. Since MBIE provides rigorous upper bounds, numerical accuracy is fully controlled and the exact MP2 result is attained. While the choice of thresholds for a specific accuracy is only weakly dependent upon the molecular system, our AO-MP2 scheme offers the possibility for incremental thresholding: for only little additional computational expense, the numerical accuracy can be systematically converged. We illustrate this dependence upon numerical thresholds for the calculation of intermolecular interaction energies for the S22 test set. The efficiency and accuracy of our AO-MP2 method is demonstrated for linear alkanes, stacked DNA base pairs, and carbon nanotubes: e.g., for DNA systems the crossover toward conventional MP2 schemes occurs between one and two base pairs. In this way, it is for the first time possible to compute wave function-based correlation energies for systems containing more than 1000 atoms with 10 000 basis functions as illustrated for a 16 base pair DNA system on a single-core computer, where no empirical restrictions are introduced and numerical accuracy is fully preserved.
Formal Methods Tool Qualification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, Lucas G.; Cofer, Darren; Slind, Konrad; Tinelli, Cesare; Mebsout, Alain
2017-01-01
Formal methods tools have been shown to be effective at finding defects in safety-critical digital systems including avionics systems. The publication of DO-178C and the accompanying formal methods supplement DO-333 allows applicants to obtain certification credit for the use of formal methods without providing justification for them as an alternative method. This project conducted an extensive study of existing formal methods tools, identifying obstacles to their qualification and proposing mitigations for those obstacles. Further, it interprets the qualification guidance for existing formal methods tools and provides case study examples for open source tools. This project also investigates the feasibility of verifying formal methods tools by generating proof certificates which capture proof of the formal methods tool's claim, which can be checked by an independent, proof certificate checking tool. Finally, the project investigates the feasibility of qualifying this proof certificate checker, in the DO-330 framework, in lieu of qualifying the model checker itself.
The isotropic Hamiltonian formalism
Vaisman, Izu
2011-02-10
A Hamiltonian formalism is a procedure that allows to associate a dynamical system to a function and that includes classical Hamiltonian mechanics as a particular case. The present, expository paper gives a survey of the Hamiltonian formalism defined by an isotropic subbundle of TM+T*M, in particular, by a Dirac structure. We discuss reduction and geometric quantization of the Hamiltonian dynamical systems provided by this formalism.
Software Formal Inspections Guidebook
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.
Formality in Rhetorical Delivery.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Skopec, Eric Wm.
Formality in rhetorical delivery can be defined as a complex variable that represents the speaker's efforts to invoke sociocultural rules of audience control through the nonverbal components of the delivery. This document describes some of the aspects of formality, outlines its significance in rhetorical contexts, and evaluates the concept in…
Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.
2011-01-01
A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.
Software Formal Inspections Standard
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.
Correlates of Formal Reasoning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven
This study of Piagetian formal reasoning in seventh grade students reports the relationships between four aspects of the ability to control variables in an experiment and the relationships between those four aspects and other constructs. The four aspects of the ability to control variables identified are: (1) set up a controlled experiment, (2)…
Biodiversity: Habitat Suitability
Habitat suitability quantifies the relationship between species and habitat, and is evaluated according to the species’ fitness (i.e. proportion of birth rate to death rate). Even though it might maximize evolutionary success, species are not always in habitat that optimizes fit...
Semisymmetric systems: Hermitian formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchdahl, H. A.
1995-04-01
The power series representing the characteristic function of a regular semisymmetric system involves four linearly independent rotational invariants XA (A=1,.. .,4) that jointly satisfy a quadratic identity. When the X A are appropriately chosen, this takes the form -(X1)2-(X2 )2-(X3)2+( X4)2=0 . The XA are thus the components of a null vector in a four-dimensional Euclidean space whose metric is gAB: =diag(-1,-1 ,-1,1) . Such a vector is equivalent to a simple 2-spinor xi alpha . The intrinsic presence of a spin vector in the formalism used hitherto suggests that it might be of advantage to replace the latter with an explicit 2-spinor formalism. A way of doing this is examined.
2009-09-01
Against a vast and rich canvas of diverse types of privacy rights and violations, we argue technology’s dual role in privacy : new technologies raise...new threats to privacy rights and new technologies can help preserve privacy . Formal methods, as just one class of technology , can be applied to...differs from what a teenager thinks, and vice versa [18]. New technologies give rise to new privacy concerns. Warren and Brandeis’s 1890 seminal paper
Formalizing the concept of sound.
Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.
1999-08-03
The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.
Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.
1996-01-01
This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.
Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.
2014-05-01
In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamaya, S.; Maeda, H.; Funaki, M.; Fukui, H.
2008-12-01
The relativistic calculation of nuclear magnetic shielding tensors in hydrogen halides is performed using the second-order regular approximation to the normalized elimination of the small component (SORA-NESC) method with the inclusion of the perturbation terms from the metric operator. This computational scheme is denoted as SORA-Met. The SORA-Met calculation yields anisotropies, Δσ =σ∥-σ⊥, for the halogen nuclei in hydrogen halides that are too small. In the NESC theory, the small component of the spinor is combined to the large component via the operator σ⃗ṡπ⃗U/2c, in which π⃗=p⃗+A⃗, U is a nonunitary transformation operator, and c ≅137.036 a.u. is the velocity of light. The operator U depends on the vector potential A⃗ (i.e., the magnetic perturbations in the system) with the leading order c-2 and the magnetic perturbation terms of U contribute to the Hamiltonian and metric operators of the system in the leading order c-4. It is shown that the small Δσ for halogen nuclei found in our previous studies is related to the neglect of the U(0,1) perturbation operator of U, which is independent of the external magnetic field and of the first order with respect to the nuclear magnetic dipole moment. Introduction of gauge-including atomic orbitals and a finite-size nuclear model is also discussed.
Hamaya, S; Maeda, H; Funaki, M; Fukui, H
2008-12-14
The relativistic calculation of nuclear magnetic shielding tensors in hydrogen halides is performed using the second-order regular approximation to the normalized elimination of the small component (SORA-NESC) method with the inclusion of the perturbation terms from the metric operator. This computational scheme is denoted as SORA-Met. The SORA-Met calculation yields anisotropies, Delta sigma = sigma(parallel) - sigma(perpendicular), for the halogen nuclei in hydrogen halides that are too small. In the NESC theory, the small component of the spinor is combined to the large component via the operator sigma x piU/2c, in which pi = p + A, U is a nonunitary transformation operator, and c approximately = 137.036 a.u. is the velocity of light. The operator U depends on the vector potential A (i.e., the magnetic perturbations in the system) with the leading order c(-2) and the magnetic perturbation terms of U contribute to the Hamiltonian and metric operators of the system in the leading order c(-4). It is shown that the small Delta sigma for halogen nuclei found in our previous studies is related to the neglect of the U(0,1) perturbation operator of U, which is independent of the external magnetic field and of the first order with respect to the nuclear magnetic dipole moment. Introduction of gauge-including atomic orbitals and a finite-size nuclear model is also discussed.
The formal verification of generic interpreters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.
1991-01-01
The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.
Formal verification of AI software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan
1989-01-01
The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.
Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitbol, Michel
The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine
2010-01-01
This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…
Ultrafast charge transfer and atomic orbital polarization
Deppe, M.; Foehlisch, A.; Hennies, F.; Nagasono, M.; Beye, M.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Echenique, P. M.; Wurth, W.
2007-11-07
The role of orbital polarization for ultrafast charge transfer between an atomic adsorbate and a substrate is explored. Core hole clock spectroscopy with linearly polarized x-ray radiation allows to selectively excite adsorbate resonance states with defined spatial orientation relative to the substrate surface. For c(4x2)S/Ru(0001) the charge transfer times between the sulfur 2s{sup -1}3p*{sup +1} antibonding resonance and the ruthenium substrate have been studied, with the 2s electron excited into the 3p{sub perpendicular}* state along the surface normal and the 3p{sub parallel}* state in the surface plane. The charge transfer times are determined as 0.18{+-}0.07 and 0.84{+-}0.23 fs, respectively. This variation is the direct consequence of the different adsorbate-substrate orbital overlap.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Fallfish
Trial, Joan G.; Wade, Charles S.; Stanley, Jon G.; Nelson, Patrick C.
1983-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for fallfish (Semotilis corporalis), a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater, marine and estuarine areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Fallfish habitat.
Habitat Suitability Information: Blacknose dace
Trial, Joan G.; Stanley, Jon G.; Batcheller, Mary; Gebhart, Gary; Maughan, O. Eugene; Nelson, Patrick C.
1983-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Blacknose dace, a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater, marine, and estuarine areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Blacknose dace.
NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)
1990-01-01
The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.
Formalism and functionalism in linguistics.
Newmeyer, Frederick J
2010-05-01
Formalism and functionalism in linguistics are often taken to be diametrically opposed approaches. However, close examination of the relevant phenomena reveals that the two are complementary, rather than being irrevocably in opposition to each other. One can be a formal linguist and a functional linguist at the same time, without there being any contradiction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Formalization of an environmental model using formal concept analysis - FCA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourdon-García, Rubén D.; Burgos-Salcedo, Javier D.
2016-08-01
Nowadays, there is a huge necessity to generate novel strategies for social-ecological systems analyses for resolving global sustainability problems. This paper has as main purpose the application of the formal concept analysis to formalize the theory of Augusto Ángel Maya, who without a doubt, was one of the most important environmental philosophers in South America; Ángel Maya proposed and established that Ecosystem-Culture relations, instead Human-Nature ones, are determinants in our understanding and management of natural resources. Based on this, a concept lattice, formal concepts, subconcept-superconcept relations, partially ordered sets, supremum and infimum of the lattice and implications between attributes (Duquenne-Guigues base), were determined for the ecosystem-culture relations.
The stable computation of formal orthogonal polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckermann, Bernhard
1996-12-01
For many applications - such as the look-ahead variants of the Lanczos algorithm - a sequence of formal (block-)orthogonal polynomials is required. Usually, one generates such a sequence by taking suitable polynomial combinations of a pair of basis polynomials. These basis polynomials are determined by a look-ahead generalization of the classical three term recurrence, where the polynomial coefficients are obtained by solving a small system of linear equations. In finite precision arithmetic, the numerical orthogonality of the polynomials depends on a good choice of the size of the small systems; this size is usually controlled by a heuristic argument such as the condition number of the small matrix of coefficients. However, quite often it happens that orthogonality gets lost.
Generalized Boltzmann formalism for oscillating neutrinos
Strack, P.; Burrows, A.
2005-05-01
In the standard approaches to neutrino transport in the simulation of core-collapse supernovas, one will often start from the classical Boltzmann equation for the neutrino's spatial, temporal, and spectral evolution. For each neutrino species, and its antiparticle, the classical density in phase space, or the associated specific intensity, will be calculated as a function of time. The neutrino radiation is coupled to matter by source and sink terms on the 'right-hand side' of the transport equation and together with the equations of hydrodynamics this set of coupled partial differential equations for classical densities describes, in principle, the evolution of core collapse and explosion. However, with the possibility of neutrino oscillations between species, a purely quantum-physical effect, how to generalize this set of Boltzmann equations for classical quantities to reflect oscillation physics has not been clear. To date, the formalisms developed have retained the character of quantum operator physics involving complex quantities and have not been suitable for easy incorporation into standard supernova codes. In this paper, we derive generalized Boltzmann equations for quasiclassical, real-valued phase-space densities that retain all the standard oscillation phenomenology, including the matter-enhanced resonant flavor conversion (Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect), neutrino self-interactions, and the interplay between decohering matter coupling and flavor oscillations. With this formalism, any code(s) that can now handle the solution of the classical Boltzmann or transport equation can easily be generalized to include neutrino oscillations in a quantum-physically consistent fashion.
A brief overview of NASA Langley's research program in formal methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
An overview of NASA Langley's research program in formal methods is presented. The major goal of this work is to bring formal methods technology to a sufficiently mature level for use by the United States aerospace industry. Towards this goal, work is underway to design and formally verify a fault-tolerant computing platform suitable for advanced flight control applications. Also, several direct technology transfer efforts have been initiated that apply formal methods to critical subsystems of real aerospace computer systems. The research team consists of six NASA civil servants and contractors from Boeing Military Aircraft Company, Computational Logic Inc., Odyssey Research Associates, SRI International, University of California at Davis, and Vigyan Inc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan
1999-01-01
A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pronghorn
Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.
1984-01-01
This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.
Evidence Arguments for Using Formal Methods in Software Certification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganesh
2013-01-01
We describe a generic approach for automatically integrating the output generated from a formal method/tool into a software safety assurance case, as an evidence argument, by (a) encoding the underlying reasoning as a safety case pattern, and (b) instantiating it using the data produced from the method/tool. We believe this approach not only improves the trustworthiness of the evidence generated from a formal method/tool, by explicitly presenting the reasoning and mechanisms underlying its genesis, but also provides a way to gauge the suitability of the evidence in the context of the wider assurance case. We illustrate our work by application to a real example-an unmanned aircraft system- where we invoke a formal code analysis tool from its autopilot software safety case, automatically transform the verification output into an evidence argument, and then integrate it into the former.
Formal verification of mathematical software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sutherland, D.
1984-01-01
Methods are investigated for formally specifying and verifying the correctness of mathematical software (software which uses floating point numbers and arithmetic). Previous work in the field was reviewed. A new model of floating point arithmetic called the asymptotic paradigm was developed and formalized. Two different conceptual approaches to program verification, the classical Verification Condition approach and the more recently developed Programming Logic approach, were adapted to use the asymptotic paradigm. These approaches were then used to verify several programs; the programs chosen were simplified versions of actual mathematical software.
The Traps of Formal Correspondence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albert, Sandor
The dangers of translation are discussed when the translator does not try to create textual equivalence, but settles for formal correspondence (i.e., with simple transcoding at a linguistic level) during the process of translating. Difficulties of explaining, commenting, or summarizing rather than translating are also discussed. Pedagogical and…
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten
Allen, Arthur W.
1982-01-01
Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.
1983-01-01
variety of source material. The primary research document was the booklet, Formal Dining -In, published by the 1st Battalion, The School E rigade , United...CHAPTER 1: Background on British Regimental Mess, CHAPTER II: Background on US Regimental b Mess: CHAPTER III: Standards for Dining-In 9 CHAPTER IV: E ...entertaining guests in the surroundings of traditions and customs of the regiment, served to make the officers aware of the luxuries of life . Young
Formal properties of the Metathesaurus.
Tuttle, M S; Olson, N E; Campbell, K E; Sherertz, D D; Nelson, S J; Cole, W G
1994-01-01
The Metathesaurus is a machine-created, human edited and enhanced synthesis of authoritative biomedical terminologies. Its formal properties permit it to be a) exploited by computers, and b) modified and enhanced without compromising that usage. If further constraints were imposed on the existence and identity of Metathesaurus relationships, i.e., if every Metathesaurus concept had a "genus" and a "differentia," then the Metathesaurus could be converted into an "Aristotelian Hierarchy." In this sense, a genus is a concept that classifies another concept, and a differentia is a concept that distinguishes the classified concept from all other concepts in the same class. Since, in principle, these constraints would make the Metathesaurus easier to leverage and maintain computationally, it is interesting to ask to what degree the maintenance and enhancement procedures now in place are producing a Metathesaurus that is also an "Aristotelian Hierarchy." Given a liberal interpretation of the current Metathesaurus schema, the proportion of the Metathesaurus that is "Aristotelian" in each annual version is increasing in spite of dramatic concurrent increases in the number of Metathesaurus concepts. Without formality there is no modifiability nor scalability. [1] We need formal methods and computer-based tools that can help us with the task [of controlled medical vocabulary construction]. We need research in which controlled vocabulary development is the focus rather than a stepping stone for work on other theories and applications. [2
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bullfrog
Graves, Brent M.; Anderson, Stanley H.
1987-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bobcat
Boyle, Katherine A.; Fendley, Timothy T.
1987-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bobcat (Felis rufus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zharinov, V. V.
2013-02-01
We propose a formal construction generalizing the classic de Rham complex to a wide class of models in mathematical physics and analysis. The presentation is divided into a sequence of definitions and elementary, easily verified statements; proofs are therefore given only in the key case. Linear operations are everywhere performed over a fixed number field {F} = {R},{C}. All linear spaces, algebras, and modules, although not stipulated explicitly, are by definition or by construction endowed with natural locally convex topologies, and their morphisms are continuous.
Knowledge formalization of intelligent building
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Žáček, Martin
2016-06-01
This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.
Formalizing the Analysis of Algorithms.
1979-06-01
worst case or in the average case. For the parameter A, the worst case analysis is no challenge . First, since the if-test is only performed once per...use of a counter variable; this approach was introduced by Knuth [ exercise 1.2.1-13 in 18]. We can add to the program a new variable C, set initially...encoded. Value of the Proposed System. It is worthwhile pausing for a moment to attempt to assess the benefits that such a formal system might have
On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pontius, D. H., Jr.
1992-01-01
The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.
47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....
47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....
47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....
47 CFR 8.12 - Formal Complaints.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Formal Complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal Complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Beaver
Allen, Arthur W.
1982-01-01
Habitat preferences of the beaver (Castor canadensis) are described in this publication, which is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. Habitat use information is presented in a synthesis of the literature on the species-habitat requirements of the beaver, followed by the development of the HSI model. The model is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities, and should be used in conjunction with habitat evaluation procedures previously developed by the Fish and Wildlife Service. This revised model updates the original publication dated September 1982.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tempesta, Piergiulio
2016-11-01
We shall prove that the celebrated Rényi entropy is the first example of a new family of infinitely many multi-parametric entropies. We shall call them the Z-entropies. Each of them, under suitable hypotheses, generalizes the celebrated entropies of Boltzmann and Rényi. A crucial aspect is that every Z-entropy is composable (Tempesta 2016 Ann. Phys. 365, 180-197. (doi:10.1016/j.aop.2015.08.013)). This property means that the entropy of a system which is composed of two or more independent systems depends, in all the associated probability space, on the choice of the two systems only. Further properties are also required to describe the composition process in terms of a group law. The composability axiom, introduced as a generalization of the fourth Shannon-Khinchin axiom (postulating additivity), is a highly non-trivial requirement. Indeed, in the trace-form class, the Boltzmann entropy and Tsallis entropy are the only known composable cases. However, in the non-trace form class, the Z-entropies arise as new entropic functions possessing the mathematical properties necessary for information-theoretical applications, in both classical and quantum contexts. From a mathematical point of view, composability is intimately related to formal group theory of algebraic topology. The underlying group-theoretical structure determines crucially the statistical properties of the corresponding entropies.
Formal groups and Z-entropies.
Tempesta, Piergiulio
2016-11-01
We shall prove that the celebrated Rényi entropy is the first example of a new family of infinitely many multi-parametric entropies. We shall call them the Z-entropies. Each of them, under suitable hypotheses, generalizes the celebrated entropies of Boltzmann and Rényi. A crucial aspect is that every Z-entropy is composable (Tempesta 2016 Ann. Phys.365, 180-197. (doi:10.1016/j.aop.2015.08.013)). This property means that the entropy of a system which is composed of two or more independent systems depends, in all the associated probability space, on the choice of the two systems only. Further properties are also required to describe the composition process in terms of a group law. The composability axiom, introduced as a generalization of the fourth Shannon-Khinchin axiom (postulating additivity), is a highly non-trivial requirement. Indeed, in the trace-form class, the Boltzmann entropy and Tsallis entropy are the only known composable cases. However, in the non-trace form class, the Z-entropies arise as new entropic functions possessing the mathematical properties necessary for information-theoretical applications, in both classical and quantum contexts. From a mathematical point of view, composability is intimately related to formal group theory of algebraic topology. The underlying group-theoretical structure determines crucially the statistical properties of the corresponding entropies.
Formal Methods at Intel - An Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrison, John
2010-01-01
Since the 1990s, Intel has invested heavily in formal methods, which are now deployed in several domains: hardware, software, firmware, protocols etc. Many different formal methods tools and techniques are in active use, including symbolic trajectory evaluation, temporal logic model checking, SMT-style combined decision procedures, and interactive higher-order logic theorem proving. I will try to give a broad overview of some of the formal methods activities taking place at Intel, and describe the challenges of extending formal verification to new areas and of effectively using multiple formal techniques in combination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.
2013-01-01
Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…
Formal methods technology transfer: Some lessons learned
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, David
1992-01-01
IBM has a long history in the application of formal methods to software development and verification. There have been many successes in the development of methods, tools and training to support formal methods. And formal methods have been very successful on several projects. However, the use of formal methods has not been as widespread as hoped. This presentation summarizes several approaches that have been taken to encourage more widespread use of formal methods, and discusses the results so far. The basic problem is one of technology transfer, which is a very difficult problem. It is even more difficult for formal methods. General problems of technology transfer, especially the transfer of formal methods technology, are also discussed. Finally, some prospects for the future are mentioned.
Identification of process suitable diluent
Dean R. Peterman
2014-01-01
The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation (STMAS) was formed within the USDOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program in order to develop more efficient methods for the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MA) from used nuclear fuel. The development of processes for MA separations is driven by the potential benefits; reduced long-term radiotoxicty of waste placed in a geologic repository, reduced timeframe of waste storage, reduced repository heat load, the possibility of increased repository capacity, and increased utilization of energy potential of used nuclear fuel. The research conducted within the STMAS framework is focused upon the realization of significant simplifications to aqueous recycle processes proposed for MA separations. This report describes the research efforts focused upon the identification of a process suitable diluent for a flowsheet concept for the separation of MA which is based upon the dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants previously developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
Formal analysis of electromagnetic optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan-Afshar, Sanaz; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiène
2014-09-01
Optical systems are increasingly being used in safety-critical applications. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification raises many challenges for engineers. Traditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about their correctness by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as a complementary approach to improve optical system analysis. This paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of electromagnetic optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our approach, we present the analysis of resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices.
Tensor formalism in anharmonic calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nero, N.
1984-11-01
A new method is presented to compute cartesian tensors in the expansion of curvilinear internal coordinates. Second- and higher-order coefficients are related to the metrics of the space of displacements. Components of the metric tensor are taken from existing tables of inverse kinetic energy matrix elements or, when rotations are involved, derived from general invariance conditions of scalars within a molecule. This leads to a tensor formalism particularly convenient in dealing with curvilinear coordinates in anharmonic calculations of vibrational frequencies. Formulae are given for elements of the potential energy matrix, related to quadratic and cubic force constants in terms of Christoffel symbols. The latter quantities are also used in the expansion of redundancy relations, with explicit coefficients given up to the third order.
10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...
10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...
10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...
10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...
10 CFR 963.11 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.11 Suitability determination. DOE will evaluate whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable... determinations described in §§ 963.12 and 963.15. If DOE's evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site for the...
One-parameter formal deformations of Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yao; Chen, Liangyun; Lin, Jie
2015-01-01
This paper studies one-parameter formal deformations of Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras. The first, second, and third cohomology groups on Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras extending ones on Lie-Yamaguti algebras are provided. It is proved that first and second cohomology groups are suitable to the deformation theory involving infinitesimals, equivalent deformations, and rigidity. However, the third cohomology group is not suitable for the obstructions.
M-Theory in the Gaugeon Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mir, Faizal
2012-04-01
In this paper we will analyse the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in superspace formalism. We then study the quantum gauge transformations for this ABJM theory in gaugeon formalism. We will also analyse the extended BRST symmetry for this ABJM theory in gaugeon formalism and show that these BRST transformations for this theory are nilpotent and this in turn leads to the unitary evolution of the S-matrix.
Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.
Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo
2014-12-01
Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.
Third NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler)
1995-01-01
This publication constitutes the proceedings of NASA Langley Research Center's third workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. This workshop brought together formal methods researchers, industry engineers, and academicians to discuss the potential of NASA-sponsored formal methods and to investigate new opportunities for applying these methods to industry problems. contained herein are copies of the material presented at the workshop, summaries of many of the presentations, a complete list of attendees, and a detailed summary of the Langley formal methods program. Much of this material is available electronically through the World-Wide Web via the following URL.
The Second NASA Formal Methods Workshop 1992
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Sally C. (Compiler); Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)
1992-01-01
The primary goal of the workshop was to bring together formal methods researchers and aerospace industry engineers to investigate new opportunities for applying formal methods to aerospace problems. The first part of the workshop was tutorial in nature. The second part of the workshop explored the potential of formal methods to address current aerospace design and verification problems. The third part of the workshop involved on-line demonstrations of state-of-the-art formal verification tools. Also, a detailed survey was filled in by the attendees; the results of the survey are compiled.
Formal Methods for Life-Critical Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Ricky W.; Johnson, Sally C.
1993-01-01
The use of computer software in life-critical applications, such as for civil air transports, demands the use of rigorous formal mathematical verification procedures. This paper demonstrates how to apply formal methods to the development and verification of software by leading the reader step-by-step through requirements analysis, design, implementation, and verification of an electronic phone book application. The current maturity and limitations of formal methods tools and techniques are then discussed, and a number of examples of the successful use of formal methods by industry are cited.
Anyons in the operational formalism
Neori, Klil H.; Goyal, Philip
2015-01-13
The operational formalism to quantum mechanics seeks to base the theory on a firm foundation of physically well-motivated axioms [1]. It has succeeded in deriving the Feynman rules [2] for general quantum systems. Additional elaborations have applied the same logic to the question of identical particles, confirming the so-called Symmetrization Postulate [3]: that the only two options available are fermions and bosons [4, 5]. However, this seems to run counter to results in two-dimensional systems, which allow for anyons, particles with statistics which interpolate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein (see [6] for a review). In this talk we will show that the results in two dimensions can be made compatible with the operational results. That is, we will show that anyonic behavior is a result of the topology of the space in two dimensions [7], and does not depend on the particles being identical; but that nevertheless, if the particles are identical, the resulting system is still anyonic.
Universal formalism of Fano resonance
Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Luo, Hong-Gang; Grebogi, Celso
2015-01-15
The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be complex or real is an issue of great experimental interest. Using coherent quantum transport as a paradigm and taking into account of the collective contribution from all available scattering channels, we derive a universal formula for the Fano-resonance profile. We show that our formula bridges naturally the traditional Fano formulas with complex and real asymmetry parameters, indicating that the two types of formulas are fundamentally equivalent (except for an offset). The connection also reveals a clear footprint for the conductance resonance during a dephasing process. Therefore, the emergence of complex asymmetric parameter when fitting with experimental data needs to be properly interpreted. Furthermore, we have provided a theory for the width of the resonance, which relates explicitly the width to the degree of localization of the close-by eigenstates and the corresponding coupling matrices or the self-energies caused by the leads. Our work not only resolves the issue about the nature of the asymmetry parameter, but also provides deeper physical insights into the origin of Fano resonance. Since the only assumption in our treatment is that the transport can be described by the Green’s function formalism, our results are also valid for broad disciplines including scattering problems of electromagnetic waves, acoustics, and seismology.
Kireev, Artem S; Breithaupt, August T; Collins, William; Nadein, Oleg N; Kornienko, Alexander
2005-01-21
Formal synthesis of (+)- and (-)-cyclophellitol from d-xylose has been accomplished through utilization of the latent plane of chirality present in the starting carbohydrate. The synthetic pathway is suitable for preparation and biological evaluation of cyclophellitol analogues in both enantiomeric series.
Directly executable formal models of middleware for MANET and Cloud Networking and Computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pashchenko, D. V.; Sadeq Jaafar, Mustafa; Zinkin, S. A.; Trokoz, D. A.; Pashchenko, T. U.; Sinev, M. P.
2016-04-01
The article considers some “directly executable” formal models that are suitable for the specification of computing and networking in the cloud environment and other networks which are similar to wireless networks MANET. These models can be easily programmed and implemented on computer networks.
Formal language constrained path problems
Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.
1997-07-08
In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.
Structuring the formal definition of Ada
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hansen, Kurt W.
1986-01-01
The structure of the formal definition of Ada are described. At present, a difficult subset of Ada has been defined and the experience gained so far by this work is reported. Currently, the work continues towards the formal definition of the Ada language.
18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....
18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....
Formal Moral Education and Individual Moral Development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Friend, Gary Gene
This report provides a summarization of a study designed to determine if there is a significant relationship between formal religious education and the moral judgment development of college students, and after controlling for formal religious education, to see if there was also a significant relationship between the educational environment or…
18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....
18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....
18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....
The Hierarchical Structure of Formal Operational Tasks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bart, William M.; Mertens, Donna M.
1979-01-01
The hierarchical structure of the formal operational period of Piaget's theory of cognitive development was explored through the application of ordering theoretical methods to a set of data that systematically utilized the various formal operational schemes. Results suggested a common structure underlying task performance. (Author/BH)
Formalisms for user interface specification and design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Auernheimer, Brent J.
1989-01-01
The application of formal methods to the specification and design of human-computer interfaces is described. A broad outline of human-computer interface problems, a description of the field of cognitive engineering and two relevant research results, the appropriateness of formal specification techniques, and potential NASA application areas are described.
Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Svensson, Lennart; Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Aberg, Carina
2004-01-01
A model for workplace learning is presented, which intends to integrate formal and informal learning with the use of e-learning. An important underlying assumption is that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order to create desirable competencies, from both an individual and an organisational perspective. Two case…
Formal hardware verification of digital circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joyce, J.; Seger, C.-J.
1991-01-01
The use of formal methods to verify the correctness of digital circuits is less constrained by the growing complexity of digital circuits than conventional methods based on exhaustive simulation. This paper briefly outlines three main approaches to formal hardware verification: symbolic simulation, state machine analysis, and theorem-proving.
Multiverse in the Third Quantized Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mir, Faizal
2014-11-01
In this paper we will analyze the third quantization of gravity in path integral formalism. We will use the time-dependent version of Wheeler—DeWitt equation to analyze the multiverse in this formalism. We will propose a mechanism for baryogenesis to occur in the multiverse, without violating the baryon number conservation.
Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Linn, Marcia C.
Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…
45 CFR 12a.4 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.4 Suitability determination. (a) Suitability determination. Within 30... § 12a.6, which properties are suitable for use as facilities to assist the homeless and report its... use as a facility to assist the homeless without regard to any particular use. (c)...
45 CFR 12a.4 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.4 Suitability determination. (a) Suitability determination. Within 30... § 12a.6, which properties are suitable for use as facilities to assist the homeless and report its... use as a facility to assist the homeless without regard to any particular use. (c)...
45 CFR 12a.4 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.4 Suitability determination. (a) Suitability determination. Within 30... § 12a.6, which properties are suitable for use as facilities to assist the homeless and report its... use as a facility to assist the homeless without regard to any particular use. (c)...
45 CFR 12a.4 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.4 Suitability determination. (a) Suitability determination. Within 30... § 12a.6, which properties are suitable for use as facilities to assist the homeless and report its... use as a facility to assist the homeless without regard to any particular use. (c)...
45 CFR 12a.4 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.4 Suitability determination. (a) Suitability determination. Within 30... § 12a.6, which properties are suitable for use as facilities to assist the homeless and report its... use as a facility to assist the homeless without regard to any particular use. (c)...
Covariant Quantisation in the Antifield Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandoren, S.
1996-01-01
In this thesis we give an overview of the antifield formalism and show how it must be used to quantise arbitrary gauge theories. The formalism is further developed and illustrated in several examples, including Yang-Mills theory, chiral W_3 and W_{2,5/2} gravity, strings in curved backgrounds and topological field theories. All these models are characterised by their gauge algebra, which can be open, reducible, or even infinitly reducible. We show in detail how to perform the gauge fixing and how to compute the anomalies using Pauli-Villars regularisation and the heat kernel method. Finally, we discuss the geometrical structure of the antifield formalism.
Importance of Reversibility in the Quantum Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, François
2011-10-01
In this Letter I stress the role of causal reversibility (time symmetry), together with causality and locality, in the justification of the quantum formalism. First, in the algebraic quantum formalism, I show that the assumption of reversibility implies that the observables of a quantum theory form an abstract real C⋆ algebra, and can be represented as an algebra of operators on a real Hilbert space. Second, in the quantum logic formalism, I emphasize which axioms for the lattice of propositions (the existence of an orthocomplementation and the covering property) derive from reversibility. A new argument based on locality and Soler’s theorem is used to derive the representation as projectors on a regular Hilbert space from the general quantum logic formalism. In both cases it is recalled that the restriction to complex algebras and Hilbert spaces comes from the constraints of locality and separability.
The adolescent personality, formal reasoning, and values.
Darmody, J P
1991-01-01
This study examined the relationship between levels of Piagetian formal reasoning ability and values preferences derived from the Rokeach Value Survey. The subjects were 448 secondary school students (mean age = 16.25 years). The results of the study were consistent with predictions about the likely changes in value rankings as formal reasoning ability develops. Subjects with high scores on formal reasoning ranked terminal values representing abstract notions with long-term implications higher than those focusing on immediate gratification. They also favored the instrumental values of self-reliance, competence, and independence. Low scorers on formal reasoning showed a preference for value groupings which were personal, hedonistic, and involved immediate gratification and social approval.
Formal specification of human-computer interfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Auernheimer, Brent
1990-01-01
A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.
Importance of reversibility in the quantum formalism.
David, François
2011-10-28
In this Letter I stress the role of causal reversibility (time symmetry), together with causality and locality, in the justification of the quantum formalism. First, in the algebraic quantum formalism, I show that the assumption of reversibility implies that the observables of a quantum theory form an abstract real C^{⋆} algebra, and can be represented as an algebra of operators on a real Hilbert space. Second, in the quantum logic formalism, I emphasize which axioms for the lattice of propositions (the existence of an orthocomplementation and the covering property) derive from reversibility. A new argument based on locality and Soler's theorem is used to derive the representation as projectors on a regular Hilbert space from the general quantum logic formalism. In both cases it is recalled that the restriction to complex algebras and Hilbert spaces comes from the constraints of locality and separability.
General formalism for singly thermostated Hamiltonian dynamics.
Ramshaw, John D
2015-11-01
A general formalism is developed for constructing modified Hamiltonian dynamical systems which preserve a canonical equilibrium distribution by adding a time evolution equation for a single additional thermostat variable. When such systems are ergodic, canonical ensemble averages can be computed as dynamical time averages over a single trajectory. Systems of this type were unknown until their recent discovery by Hoover and colleagues. The present formalism should facilitate the discovery, construction, and classification of other such systems by encompassing a wide class of them within a single unified framework. This formalism includes both canonical and generalized Hamiltonian systems in a state space of arbitrary dimensionality (either even or odd) and therefore encompasses both few- and many-particle systems. Particular attention is devoted to the physical motivation and interpretation of the formalism, which largely determine its structure. An analogy to stochastic thermostats and fluctuation-dissipation theorems is briefly discussed.
A non-commuting stabilizer formalism
Ni, Xiaotong; Van den Nest, Maarten; Buerschaper, Oliver
2015-05-15
We propose a non-commutative extension of the Pauli stabilizer formalism. The aim is to describe a class of many-body quantum states which is richer than the standard Pauli stabilizer states. In our framework, stabilizer operators are tensor products of single-qubit operators drawn from the group 〈αI, X, S〉, where α = e{sup iπ/4} and S = diag(1, i). We provide techniques to efficiently compute various properties related to bipartite entanglement, expectation values of local observables, preparation by means of quantum circuits, parent Hamiltonians, etc. We also highlight significant differences compared to the Pauli stabilizer formalism. In particular, we give examples of states in our formalism which cannot arise in the Pauli stabilizer formalism, such as topological models that support non-Abelian anyons.
Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olson, Joann S.
2014-01-01
This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.
Why Engineers Should Consider Formal Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, C. Michael
1997-01-01
This paper presents a logical analysis of a typical argument favoring the use of formal methods for software development, and suggests an alternative argument that is simpler and stronger than the typical one.
Experiences Using Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David
1996-01-01
This paper describes three cases studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, the formal modeling provided a cost effective enhancement of the existing verification and validation processes. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Downy woodpecker
Schroeder, Richard L.
1983-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the downy woodpecker (Picoides eubescens). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pileated woodpecker
Schroeder, Richard L.
1983-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use.with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Design for validation, based on formal methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Ricky W.
1990-01-01
Validation of ultra-reliable systems decomposes into two subproblems: (1) quantification of probability of system failure due to physical failure; (2) establishing that Design Errors are not present. Methods of design, testing, and analysis of ultra-reliable software are discussed. It is concluded that a design-for-validation based on formal methods is needed for the digital flight control systems problem, and also that formal methods will play a major role in the development of future high reliability digital systems.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth buffalo
Edwards, Elizabeth A.
1983-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common shiner
Trial, Joan G.; Wade, Charles S.; Stanley, Jon G.; Nelson, Patrick C.
1983-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for common shiner (Notropis cornutus). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for the northeastern range of the common shiner in North America. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of smallmouth bass habitat.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow perch
Krieger, Douglas A.; Terrell, James W.; Nelson, Patrick C.
1983-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for yellow perch (Perca flavescens). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine habitat in the 48 contiguous United States. Habitat Suitability Indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of yellow perch habitat.
Formality of the Chinese collective leadership.
Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C
2016-09-01
We investigated the linguistic patterns in the discourse of four generations of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1921 to 2012. The texts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao were analyzed using computational linguistic techniques (a Chinese formality score) to explore the persuasive linguistic features of the leaders in the contexts of power phase, the nation's education level, power duration, and age. The study was guided by the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, which includes a central route (represented by formal discourse) versus a peripheral route (represented by informal discourse) to persuasion. The results revealed that these leaders adopted the formal, central route more when they were in power than before they came into power. The nation's education level was a significant factor in the leaders' adoption of the persuasion strategy. The leaders' formality also decreased with their increasing age and in-power times. However, the predictability of these factors for formality had subtle differences among the different types of leaders. These results enhance our understanding of the Chinese collective leadership and the role of formality in politically persuasive messages.
Formal verification of an avionics microprocessor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivas, Mandayam, K.; Miller, Steven P.
1995-01-01
Formal specification combined with mechanical verification is a promising approach for achieving the extremely high levels of assurance required of safety-critical digital systems. However, many questions remain regarding their use in practice: Can these techniques scale up to industrial systems, where are they likely to be useful, and how should industry go about incorporating them into practice? This report discusses a project undertaken to answer some of these questions, the formal verification of the AAMPS microprocessor. This project consisted of formally specifying in the PVS language a rockwell proprietary microprocessor at both the instruction-set and register-transfer levels and using the PVS theorem prover to show that the microcode correctly implemented the instruction-level specification for a representative subset of instructions. Notable aspects of this project include the use of a formal specification language by practicing hardware and software engineers, the integration of traditional inspections with formal specifications, and the use of a mechanical theorem prover to verify a portion of a commercial, pipelined microprocessor that was not explicitly designed for formal verification.
Formal Methods for Verification and Validation of Partial Specifications: A Case Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Easterbrook, Steve; Callahan, John
1997-01-01
This paper describes our work exploring the suitability of formal specification methods for independent verification and validation (IV&V) of software specifications for large, safety critical systems. An IV&V contractor often has to perform rapid analysis on incomplete specifications, with no control over how those specifications are represented. Lightweight formal methods show significant promise in this context, as they offer a way of uncovering major errors, without the burden of full proofs of correctness. We describe a case study of the use of partial formal models for V&V of the requirements for Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery on the space station. We conclude that the insights gained from formalizing a specification are valuable, and it is the process of formalization, rather than the end product that is important. It was only necessary to build enough of the formal model to test the properties in which we were interested. Maintenance of fidelity between multiple representations of the same requirements (as they evolve) is still a problem, and deserves further study.
7 CFR 1955.63 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.63 Suitability determination. As soon as real property is acquired, a determination must be made as to whether or not the property can be used for program purposes. The suitability determination will be recorded in the...
7 CFR 1955.63 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.63 Suitability determination. As soon as real property is acquired, a determination must be made as to whether or not the property can be used for program purposes. The suitability determination will be recorded in the...
7 CFR 1955.63 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.63 Suitability determination. As soon as real property is acquired, a determination must be made as to whether or not the property can be used for program purposes. The suitability determination will be recorded in the...
45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suitability criteria. 12a.6 Section 12a.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.6 Suitability criteria. (a) All properties, buildings and land will...
45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suitability criteria. 12a.6 Section 12a.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.6 Suitability criteria. (a) All properties, buildings and land will...
45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suitability criteria. 12a.6 Section 12a.6 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.6 Suitability criteria. (a) All properties, buildings and land will...
45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suitability criteria. 12a.6 Section 12a.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.6 Suitability criteria. (a) All properties, buildings and land will...
45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suitability criteria. 12a.6 Section 12a.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.6 Suitability criteria. (a) All properties, buildings and land will...
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Rainbow trout
Raleigh, Robert F.; Hickman, Terry; Solomon, R. Charles; Nelson, Patrick C.
1984-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Fallfish habitat.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth bass
Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Gebhart, Glen; Maughan, O. Eugene
1983-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The instream flow suitability curves are intended for use with the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used by the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Smallmouth bass habitat.
Synthesis of heterocycles by formal cycloadditions of isocyanides.
Kruithof, Art; Ruijter, Eelco; Orru, Romano V A
2015-03-01
Synthetic methodology for the synthesis of heterocycles is of continuous and high interest with applications in materials, catalysis, and medicines. Multicomponent reactions are suitable tools to efficiently generate chemically diverse sets of heterocycles with sufficient structural complexity. Especially isocyanides have proven to be particularly versatile building blocks in these one-pot processes. Due to their electronic structure, isocyanides are able to act sequentially or simultaneously as a nucleophile and an electrophile. Traditionally, isocyanides are therefore frequently used in multicomponent chemistry. In the recent literature, numerous reactions have been reported that involve formal cycloadditions of isocyanides with conjugated heterodienes. This Focus Review aims at mapping this reactivity and at providing insight into the relationship between the various reported reaction partners and the observed reactivity modes.
A Formal Model of Partitioning for Integrated Modular Avionics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiVito, Ben L.
1998-01-01
The aviation industry is gradually moving toward the use of integrated modular avionics (IMA) for civilian transport aircraft. An important concern for IMA is ensuring that applications are safely partitioned so they cannot interfere with one another. We have investigated the problem of ensuring safe partitioning and logical non-interference among separate applications running on a shared Avionics Computer Resource (ACR). This research was performed in the context of ongoing standardization efforts, in particular, the work of RTCA committee SC-182, and the recently completed ARINC 653 application executive (APEX) interface standard. We have developed a formal model of partitioning suitable for evaluating the design of an ACR. The model draws from the mathematical modeling techniques developed by the computer security community. This report presents a formulation of partitioning requirements expressed first using conventional mathematical notation, then formalized using the language of SRI'S Prototype Verification System (PVS). The approach is demonstrated on three candidate designs, each an abstraction of features found in real systems.
a Unified Formalism of Thermal Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, H.; Umezawa, H.
We present a comprehensive review of the most fundamental and practical aspects of thermo-field dynamics (TFD), including some of the most recent developments in the field. To make TFD fully consistent, some suitable changes in the structure of the thermal doublets and the Bogoliubov transformation matrices have been made. A close comparison between TFD and the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path formalism (SKF) is presented. We find that TFD and SKF are in many ways the same in form; in particular, the two approaches are identical in stationary situations. However, TFD and SKF are quite different in time-dependent nonequilibrium situations. The main source of this difference is that the time evolution of the density matrix itself is ignored in SKF while in TFD it is replaced by a time-dependent Bogoliubov transformation. In this sense TFD is a better candidate for time-dependent quantum field theory. Even in equilibrium situations, TFD has some remarkable advantages over the Matsubara approach and SKF, the most notable being the Feynman diagram recipes, which we will present. We will show that the calculations of two-point functions are simplified, instead of being complicated, by the matrix nature of the formalism. We will present some explicit calculations using TFD, including space-time inhomogeneous situations and the vacuum polarization in equilibrium relativistic QED.
Baxter Operator Formalism for Macdonald Polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerasimov, Anton; Lebedev, Dimitri; Oblezin, Sergey
2013-11-01
We develop basic constructions of the Baxter operator formalism for the Macdonald polynomials associated with root systems of type A. Precisely, we construct a bispectral pair of mutually commuting Baxter operators such that the Macdonald polynomials are their common eigenfunctions. The bispectral pair of Baxter operators is closely related to the bispectral pair of recursive operators for Macdonald polynomials leading to various families of their integral representations. We also construct the Baxter operator formalism for the q-deformed {{gl}_{ell+1}} -Whittaker functions and the Jack polynomials obtained by degenerations of the Macdonald polynomials associated with the type A ℓ root system. This note provides a generalization of our previous results on the Baxter operator formalism for the Whittaker functions. It was demonstrated previously that Baxter operator formalism for the Whittaker functions has deep connections with representation theory. In particular, the Baxter operators should be considered as elements of appropriate spherical Hecke algebras and their eigenvalues are identified with local Archimedean L-factors associated with admissible representations of reductive groups over {{R}}. We expect that the Baxter operator formalism for the Macdonald polynomials has an interpretation in representation theory over higher-dimensional local/global fields.
Link-space formalism for network analysis.
Smith, David M D; Lee, Chiu Fan; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F
2008-03-01
We introduce the link-space formalism for analyzing network models with degree-degree correlations. The formalism is based on a statistical description of the fraction of links l(i,j) connecting nodes of degrees i and j. To demonstrate its use, we apply the framework to some pedagogical network models, namely, random attachment, Barabási-Albert preferential attachment, and the classical Erdos and Rényi random graph. For these three models the link-space matrix can be solved analytically. We apply the formalism to a simple one-parameter growing network model whose numerical solution exemplifies the effect of degree-degree correlations for the resulting degree distribution. We also employ the formalism to derive the degree distributions of two very simple network decay models, more specifically, that of random link deletion and random node deletion. The formalism allows detailed analysis of the correlations within networks and we also employ it to derive the form of a perfectly nonassortative network for arbitrary degree distribution.
Formal Methods Case Studies for DO-333
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cofer, Darren; Miller, Steven P.
2014-01-01
RTCA DO-333, Formal Methods Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A provides guidance for software developers wishing to use formal methods in the certification of airborne systems and air traffic management systems. The supplement identifies the modifications and additions to DO-178C and DO-278A objectives, activities, and software life cycle data that should be addressed when formal methods are used as part of the software development process. This report presents three case studies describing the use of different classes of formal methods to satisfy certification objectives for a common avionics example - a dual-channel Flight Guidance System. The three case studies illustrate the use of theorem proving, model checking, and abstract interpretation. The material presented is not intended to represent a complete certification effort. Rather, the purpose is to illustrate how formal methods can be used in a realistic avionics software development project, with a focus on the evidence produced that could be used to satisfy the verification objectives found in Section 6 of DO-178C.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Laughing gull
Zale, Alexander V.; Mulholland, Rosemarie
1985-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for laughing gull (Larus atricilla). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.
Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.
Grafen, Alan
2009-11-12
Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Radovic, Slaviša; Passey, Don
2016-01-01
The aim of this paper is to explore further an under-developed area--how drivers of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment conceptions and practices shape the creation and uses of technologically based resources to support mathematics learning across informal, non-formal and formal learning environments. The paper considers: the importance of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almeida, Joana; Fantini, Alvino E.; Simões, Ana Raquel; Costa, Nilza
2016-01-01
This paper examines how the addition of intercultural interventions carried out throughout European credit-bearing exchange programmes can enhance sojourners' development of intercultural competencies, and it explores how both formal and non-formal pedagogical interventions may be designed and implemented. Such interventions were conducted at a…
Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Misko, Josie
2008-01-01
This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Verduin-Muller, Henriette
In a shrinking world where there is limited space, materials, and capital for men's basic needs, it is important to make well considered use of the physical and human geographical setting. To obtain from the geographical setting the information needed to attain adequate decision making, empirical research is needed, and through formal, non-formal,…
User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.
Extending the ADM formalism to Weyl geometry
Barreto, A. B.; Almeida, T. S.; Romero, C.
2015-03-26
In order to treat quantum cosmology in the framework of Weyl spacetimes we take the first step of extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism to Weyl geometry. We then obtain an expression of the curvature tensor in terms of spatial quantities by splitting spacetime in (3+l)-dimensional form. We next write the Lagrangian of the gravitation field based in Weyl-type gravity theory. We extend the general relativistic formalism in such a way that it can be applied to investigate the quantum cosmology of models whose spacetimes are endowed with a Weyl geometrical structure.
Raman Tensor Formalism for Optically Anisotropic Crystals.
Kranert, Christian; Sturm, Chris; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius
2016-03-25
We present a formalism for calculating the Raman scattering intensity dependent on the polarization configuration for optically anisotropic crystals. It can be applied to crystals of arbitrary orientation and crystal symmetry measured in normal incidence backscattering geometry. The classical Raman tensor formalism cannot be used for optically anisotropic materials due to birefringence causing the polarization within the crystal to be depth dependent. We show that in the limit of averaging over a sufficiently large scattering depth, the observed Raman intensities converge and can be described by an effective Raman tensor given here. Full agreement with experimental results for uniaxial and biaxial crystals is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tignanelli, H.
Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.
Differential matrix formalism for depolarizing anisotropic media.
Ossikovski, Razvigor
2011-06-15
Azzam's differential matrix formalism [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1756 (1978)], originally developed for longitudinally inhomogeneous anisotropic nondepolarizing media, is extended to include depolarizing media. The generalization is physically interpreted in terms of means and uncertainties of the elementary optical properties of the medium, as well as of three anisotropy absorption parameters introduced to describe the depolarization. The formalism results in a particularly simple mathematical procedure for the retrieval of the elementary properties of a generally depolarizing anisotropic medium, assumed to be globally homogeneous, from its experimental Mueller matrix. The approach is illustrated on literature data and the conditions of its validity are identified and discussed.
Geometric formalism for DNA quadruplex folding.
Webba da Silva, Mateus
2007-01-01
Understanding the control of self-assembly and stereochemical properties of DNA higher order architectural folds is of fundamental importance in biology as well as biochemical technological applications. Guanine-rich DNA sequences can form tetrahelical architectures termed quadruplexes. A formalism is presented describing the interdependency of a set of structural descriptors as a geometric basis for folding of unimolecular quadruplex topologies. It represents a standard for interpretation of structural characteristics of quadruplexes, and is comprehensive in explicitly harmonizing the results of published literature with a unified language. The formalism is a fundamental step towards prediction of unimolecular quadruplex folding topologies from primary sequence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; Rogers, T. C.; Sato, N.; Wang, B.
2016-08-01
We construct an improved implementation for combining transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suitable for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W +Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. We further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y term.
Interpreter composition issues in the formal verification of a processor-memory module
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fura, David A.; Cohen, Gerald C.
1994-01-01
This report describes interpreter composition techniques suitable for the formal specification and verification of a processor-memory module using the HOL theorem proving system. The processor-memory module is a multichip subsystem within a fault-tolerant embedded system under development within the Boeing Defense and Space Group. Modeling and verification methods were developed that permit provably secure composition at the transaction-level of specification, significantly reducing the complexity of the hierarchical verification of the system.
A Microcomputer-Assisted Presentation of Atomic Orbitals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petrich, James A.
1981-01-01
A program written for the Apple II microcomputer that plots the "one-S" orbital of an atom is described. The material is used to move from the Bohr model of the atom to the quantum mechanical description. (MP)
20 CFR 702.336 - Formal hearings; new issues.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; new issues. 702.336 Section... Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.336 Formal hearings; new issues. (a) If, during the course of the formal..., the hearing may be expanded to include the new issue. If in the opinion of the administrative...
20 CFR 702.332 - Formal hearings; how conducted.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; how conducted. 702.332 Section 702.332 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.332 Formal hearings; how conducted. Formal hearings shall...
Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran
2010-01-01
The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…
Informal and Formal Learning of General Practitioners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spaan, Nadia Roos; Dekker, Anne R. J.; van der Velden, Alike W.; de Groot, Esther
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of formal learning from a web-based training and informal (workplace) learning afterwards on the behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) with respect to prescription of antibiotics. Design/methodology/approach: To obtain insight in various learning processes, semi-structured…
HEALTH EDUCATION THROUGH NON – FORMAL EDUCATION
Sundararaj, P. Selva Peter; Kumar, P. Surendra
1990-01-01
The non-availability of health care in the rural area leads to the problems like infant mortality, infectious disease deaths and malnutrition. Rural health can be promoted both at preventive and promotive levels through non-formal education. PMID:22556504
On the Need for Practical Formal Methods
1998-01-01
either a good violin or a highly talented violinist . Light-weight techniques o er software developers good violins. A user need not be a talented... violinist to bene t. This is in contrast to heavy-duty techniques where the user needs to be a good violinist . Formal methods research has already produced a
The formal path integral and quantum mechanics
Johnson-Freyd, Theo
2010-11-15
Given an arbitrary Lagrangian function on R{sup d} and a choice of classical path, one can try to define Feynman's path integral supported near the classical path as a formal power series parameterized by 'Feynman diagrams', although these diagrams may diverge. We compute this expansion and show that it is (formally, if there are ultraviolet divergences) invariant under volume-preserving changes of coordinates. We prove that if the ultraviolet divergences cancel at each order, then our formal path integral satisfies a 'Fubini theorem' expressing the standard composition law for the time evolution operator in quantum mechanics. Moreover, we show that when the Lagrangian is inhomogeneous quadratic in velocity such that its homogeneous-quadratic part is given by a matrix with constant determinant, then the divergences cancel at each order. Thus, by 'cutting and pasting' and choosing volume-compatible local coordinates, our construction defines a Feynman-diagrammatic 'formal path integral' for the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving in a Riemannian manifold with an external electromagnetic field.
Formal Synthesis of (±)-Roseophilin
Bitar, Abdallah Y.; Frontier, Alison J.
2009-01-01
A formal synthesis of (±)-roseophilin is described. Scandium(III)-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of 2,5-disubstituted N-tosylpyrrole 19 gives a 5,5’-fused ketopyrrole, and ansa-bridge formation via π-allyl palladium macrocyclization gives 21. PMID:19053717
An Elementary Formalism for General Relativity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
diSessa, Andrea A.
1981-01-01
An elementary formalism is developed for representing curved space-time which allows transparent qualitative explanation of general relativistic effects and is used to make a conceptual analysis of Einstein's principle of equivalence. A final section outlines a number of student activities. (Author/SK)
A Simplified Approach to Product Operator Formalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spiese, Christopher E.
2004-01-01
The utilization of the simple and traditional vector model-based product operator formalism is highlighted. It is seen as a critical device in the area of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry for a comprehensive analysis of spin coupling and quantum coherences.
Formal Foundations for Hierarchical Safety Cases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain
2015-01-01
Safety cases are increasingly being required in many safety-critical domains to assure, using structured argumentation and evidence, that a system is acceptably safe. However, comprehensive system-wide safety arguments present appreciable challenges to develop, understand, evaluate, and manage, partly due to the volume of information that they aggregate, such as the results of hazard analysis, requirements analysis, testing, formal verification, and other engineering activities. Previously, we have proposed hierarchical safety cases, hicases, to aid the comprehension of safety case argument structures. In this paper, we build on a formal notion of safety case to formalise the use of hierarchy as a structuring technique, and show that hicases satisfy several desirable properties. Our aim is to provide a formal, theoretical foundation for safety cases. In particular, we believe that tools for high assurance systems should be granted similar assurance to the systems to which they are applied. To this end, we formally specify and prove the correctness of key operations for constructing and managing hicases, which gives the specification for implementing hicases in AdvoCATE, our toolset for safety case automation. We motivate and explain the theory with the help of a simple running example, extracted from a real safety case and developed using AdvoCATE.
Teaching Some Informatics Concepts Using Formal System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Sojung; Park, Seongbin
2014-01-01
There are many important issues in informatics and many agree that algorithms and programming are most important issues that need to be included in informatics education (Dagiene and Jevsikova, 2012). In this paper, we propose how some of these issues can be easily taught using the notion of a formal system which consists of axioms and inference…
Helping Students Understand Formal Chemical Concepts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ward, Charles R.; Herron, J. Dudley
1980-01-01
Investigated outcomes of the use of the learning cycle, which divides instruction into the Piagetian phases of exploration, invention, and discovery in general college chemistry laboratory experiments. Differences between concrete and formal operational students were explored in students' ability to master chemistry material varying in cognitive…
Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walsh, Lori; Straits, William
2014-01-01
In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…
The Transition to Formal Thinking in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tall, David
2008-01-01
This paper focuses on the changes in thinking involved in the transition from school mathematics to formal proof in pure mathematics at university. School mathematics is seen as a combination of visual representations, including geometry and graphs, together with symbolic calculations and manipulations. Pure mathematics in university shifts…
Quantum formalism to describe binocular rivalry.
Manousakis, Efstratios
2009-11-01
On the basis of the general character and operation of the process of perception, a formalism is sought to mathematically describe the subjective or abstract/mental process of perception. It is shown that the formalism of orthodox quantum theory of measurement, where the observer plays a key role, is a broader mathematical foundation which can be adopted to describe the dynamics of the subjective experience. The mathematical formalism describes the psychophysical dynamics of the subjective or cognitive experience as communicated to us by the subject. Subsequently, the formalism is used to describe simple perception processes and, in particular, to describe the probability distribution of dominance duration obtained from the testimony of subjects experiencing binocular rivalry. Using this theory and parameters based on known values of neuronal oscillation frequencies and firing rates, the calculated probability distribution of dominance duration of rival states in binocular rivalry under various conditions is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. This theory naturally explains an observed marked increase in dominance duration in binocular rivalry upon periodic interruption of stimulus and yields testable predictions for the distribution of perceptual alteration in time.
50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...
50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...
50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...
50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...
50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...
Formal Schema Theory and Teaching EFL Reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young, Barbara N; Man, Zhou
2005-01-01
Inquirers designed and conducted a study investigating whether or not results derived from previous research focusing on teaching and learning English as a native or foreign language would be replicated in a learning environment in which English is taught as a foreign language as in China. Because activation of formal schemata plays an important…
Situationally Embodied Curriculum: Relating Formalisms and Contexts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barab, Sasha; Zuiker, Steve; Warren, Scott; Hickey, Dan; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Kwon, Eun-Ju; Kouper, Inna; Herring, Susan C.
2007-01-01
This study describes an example of design-based research in which we make theoretical improvements in our understanding, in part based on empirical work, and use these to revise our curriculum and, simultaneously, our evolving theory of the relations between contexts and disciplinary formalisms. Prior to this study, we completed a first cycle of…
28 CFR 68.39 - Formal hearings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.39 Formal hearings. (a... Law Judge shall have jurisdiction to decide all issues of fact and related issues of law. (c) Rights of parties. Every party shall have the right of timely notice and all other rights essential to...
28 CFR 68.39 - Formal hearings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.39 Formal hearings. (a... Law Judge shall have jurisdiction to decide all issues of fact and related issues of law. (c) Rights of parties. Every party shall have the right of timely notice and all other rights essential to...
28 CFR 68.39 - Formal hearings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.39 Formal hearings. (a... Law Judge shall have jurisdiction to decide all issues of fact and related issues of law. (c) Rights of parties. Every party shall have the right of timely notice and all other rights essential to...
STUDENTS' MANUAL OF MODERN FORMAL TAMIL.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LISKER, LEIGH; VAIDYANATHAN, S.
A BEGINNING TEXT IN TAMIL, ONE OF THE MOST WIDELY SPOKEN DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES IN INDIA, IS PRESENTED. THE FORMAL LANGUAGE STYLE USED IN THESE MATERIALS REPRESENTS THE STYLE USED IN LECTURES, RADIO BROADCASTS, AND CITATION FORMS, AND IS ESSENTIALLY THE SPOKEN VERSION OF THE MODERN STANDARD WRITTEN TAMIL. THIS MANUAL, WHILE SERVING AS INTRODUCTION TO…
Rhythmic Characteristics of Colloquial and Formal Tamil
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keane, Elinor
2006-01-01
Application of recently developed rhythmic measures to passages of read speech in colloquial and formal Tamil revealed some significant differences between the two varieties, which are in diglossic distribution. Both were also distinguished from a set of control data from British English speakers reading an equivalent passage. The findings have…
Verification Games: Crowd-Sourced Formal Verification
2016-03-01
Formal Verification the verification tools developed by the Programming Languages and Software Engineering group were improved. A series of games...were developed by the Center for Game Science: Pipe Jam, Traffic Jam, Flow Jam and Paradox. Verification tools and games were integrated to verify...N/A i Contents List of Figures 1. SUMMARY .............................................................................................. 1 2
Partial Acquisition of the Formal Operations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greene, Anita-Louise
Sixty adolescents, stratified by sex and grade level (i.e., 9th, 12th, and college sophomore) participated in an examination of Piaget's suggestion that the formal operations are prerequisite to the development of political idealism, abstract thought and future time perspective in adolescence. Analysis of the cognition data revealed that the…
HIV Education in the Formal Curriculum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nsubuga, Yusuf K.; Bonnet, Sandrine
2009-01-01
The AIDS epidemic presents a complex of issues that require global answers, involving entire societies. The only sustainable solution is to include all sectors of society in a multidisciplinary collaboration, within which the formal education system plays a key role in delivering a comprehensive response to the disease at the national level.…
A Preliminary Search for Formal Operations Structures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neimark, Edith D.
In a test the presence or absence of a "structure" in the individual's cognitive processes of formal operations thinking, 61 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students were administered three tasks supposedly requiring such a method of thinking. The three tasks were (1) a problem solving task (PS), (2) a chemistry task requiring a certain combination…
Identifying Concrete and Formal Operational Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Docherty, Edward M.
This paper presents a study designed to determine if groups of concrete and formal operational children can be identified through the technique of cluster analysis, using a battery of Piagetian tasks. A Total of 64 subjects, 8 boys and 8 girls from each of the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth grade levels, were selected from a public elementary…
Formal and Applied Counseling in Israel
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Israelashvili, Moshe; Wegman-Rozi, Orit
2012-01-01
Living in Israel is intensive and demanding but also meaningful and exciting. This article addresses the gap between the narrowly defined formal status of counseling in Israel and the widespread occurrence of counseling in various settings. It is argued that several recent changes, especially in the definition of treatment, along with the…
A formal theory of the selfish gene.
Gardner, A; Welch, J J
2011-08-01
Adaptation is conventionally regarded as occurring at the level of the individual organism. In contrast, the theory of the selfish gene proposes that it is more correct to view adaptation as occurring at the level of the gene. This view has received much popular attention, yet has enjoyed only limited uptake in the primary research literature. Indeed, the idea of ascribing goals and strategies to genes has been highly controversial. Here, we develop a formal theory of the selfish gene, using optimization theory to capture the analogy of 'gene as fitness-maximizing agent' in mathematical terms. We provide formal justification for this view of adaptation by deriving mathematical correspondences that translate the optimization formalism into dynamical population genetics. We show that in the context of social interactions between genes, it is the gene's inclusive fitness that provides the appropriate maximand. Hence, genic selection can drive the evolution of altruistic genes. Finally, we use the formalism to assess the various criticisms that have been levelled at the theory of the selfish gene, dispelling some and strengthening others.
Formal concept analysis and linguistic hedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belohlavek, Radim; Vychodil, Vilem
2012-07-01
This paper presents an application of linguistic hedges to formal concept analysis of data with fuzzy attributes. Formal concept analysis aims at extraction of particular (bi-)clusters, called formal concepts, from data. The clusters link collections of objects (extents) and attributes (intents), and have a clear interpretation due to a simple verbal description of the concept-forming operators. We insert linguistic hedges such as 'very' or 'extremely' in the description of the operators. In this way, linguistic hedges become parameters for formal concept analysis that control the number of clusters extracted from data. Namely, as we show theoretically as well as experimentally, stronger hedges result in a smaller number of clusters. The new concept-forming operators form Galois-like connections. We study their properties and axiomatize them. Then, we show that a concept lattice with hedges, i.e. the set of all formal concepts of the new operators is indeed a complete lattice which is isomorphic to a particular ordinary concept lattice. We describe the isomorphism and its inverse. These mappings serve as translation procedures. As a consequence, we obtain a theorem characterizing the structure of concept lattices with hedges which generalizes the well-known main theorem of ordinary concept lattices. The isomorphism and its inverse enable us to compute a concept lattice with hedges using algorithms for ordinary concept lattices. We demonstrate by experiments that when selecting various hedges from the strongest to weaker hedges, the reduction in size of the corresponding concept lattices is smooth. From a broader perspective, we argue that linguistic hedges represent mathematically and computationally a feasible way to parameterize methods for knowledge extraction from data that enable one to emphasize or to suppress extracted patterns while keeping their interpretation.
Formal verification of medical monitoring software using Z language: a representative sample.
Babamir, Seyed Morteza; Borhani, Mehdi
2012-08-01
Medical monitoring systems are useful aids assisting physicians in keeping patients under constant surveillance; however, taking sound decision by the systems is a physician concern. As a result, verification of the systems behavior in monitoring patients is a matter of significant. The patient monitoring is undertaken by software in modern medical systems; so, software verification of modern medial systems have been noticed. Such verification can be achieved by the Formal Languages having mathematical foundations. Among others, the Z language is a suitable formal language has been used to formal verification of systems. This study aims to present a constructive method to verify a representative sample of a medical system by which the system is visually specified and formally verified against patient constraints stated in Z Language. Exploiting our past experience in formal modeling Continuous Infusion Insulin Pump (CIIP), we think of the CIIP system as a representative sample of medical systems in proposing our present study. The system is responsible for monitoring diabetic's blood sugar.
Formal Methods of V&V of Partial Specifications: An Experience Report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Easterbrook, Steve; Callahan, John
1997-01-01
This paper describes our work exploring the suitability of formal specification methods for independent verification and validation (IV&V) of software specifications for large, safety critical systems. An IV&V contractor often has to perform rapid analysis on incomplete specifications, with no control over how those specifications are represented. Lightweight formal methods show significant promise in this context, as they offer a way of uncovering major errors, without the burden of full proofs of correctness. We describe an experiment in the application of the method SCR. to testing for consistency properties of a partial model of requirements for Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery on the space station. We conclude that the insights gained from formalizing a specification is valuable, and it is the process of formalization, rather than the end product that is important. It was only necessary to build enough of the formal model to test the properties in which we were interested. Maintenance of fidelity between multiple representations of the same requirements (as they evolve) is still a problem, and deserves further study.
Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments
Goode, S. D.; Kuhan, G.; Altaf, N.; Simpson, R.; Beech, A.; Richards, T.; MacSweeney, S. T.; Braithwaite, B. D.
2009-09-15
The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55 years (interquartile range 45-66), and 62% patients were women. A set of criteria based on duplex ultrasonography was used to select patients for each procedure. Great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux was present in 77% (446 of 577) of legs. Overall, 328 (73%) of the legs were suitable for at least one of the endovenous options. Of the 114 legs with recurrent GSV reflux disease, 83 (73%) were suitable to receive endovenous therapy. Patients with increasing age were less likely to be suitable for endovenous therapy (P = 0.03). Seventy-three percent of patients with VVs caused by GSV incompetence are suitable for endovenous therapy.
Formal Assurance Certifiable Tooling Formal Assurance Certifiable Tooling Strategy Final Report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bush, Eric; Oglesby, David; Bhatt, Devesh; Murugesan, Anitha; Engstrom, Eric; Mueller, Joe; Pelican, Michael
2017-01-01
This is the Final Report of a research project to investigate issues and provide guidance for the qualification of formal methods tools under the DO-330 qualification process. It consisted of three major subtasks spread over two years: 1) an assessment of theoretical soundness issues that may affect qualification for three categories of formal methods tools, 2) a case study simulating the DO-330 qualification of two actual tool sets, and 3) an investigation of risk mitigation strategies that might be applied to chains of such formal methods tools in order to increase confidence in their certification of airborne software.
Evaluation of a habitat suitability index model
Farmer, A.H.; Cade, B.S.; Stauffer, D.F.
2002-01-01
We assisted with development of a model for maternity habitat of the Indiana bat (Myotis soda/is), for use in conducting assessments of projects potentially impacting this endangered species. We started with an existing model, modified that model in a workshop, and evaluated the revised model, using data previously collected by others. Our analyses showed that higher indices of habitat suitability were associated with sites where Indiana bats were present and, thus, the model may be useful for identifying suitable habitat. Utility of the model, however, was based on a single component-density of suitable roost trees. Percentage of landscape in forest did not allow differentiation between sites occupied and not occupied by Indiana bats. Moreover, in spite of a general opinion by participants in the workshop that bodies of water were highly productive feeding areas and that a diversity of feeding habitats was optimal, we found no evidence to support either hypothesis.
Formal Safety Certification of Aerospace Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd
2005-01-01
In principle, formal methods offer many advantages for aerospace software development: they can help to achieve ultra-high reliability, and they can be used to provide evidence of the reliability claims which can then be subjected to external scrutiny. However, despite years of research and many advances in the underlying formalisms of specification, semantics, and logic, formal methods are not much used in practice. In our opinion this is related to three major shortcomings. First, the application of formal methods is still expensive because they are labor- and knowledge-intensive. Second, they are difficult to scale up to complex systems because they are based on deep mathematical insights about the behavior of the systems (t.e., they rely on the "heroic proof"). Third, the proofs can be difficult to interpret, and typically stand in isolation from the original code. In this paper, we describe a tool for formally demonstrating safety-relevant aspects of aerospace software, which largely circumvents these problems. We focus on safely properties because it has been observed that safety violations such as out-of-bounds memory accesses or use of uninitialized variables constitute the majority of the errors found in the aerospace domain. In our approach, safety means that the program will not violate a set of rules that can range for the simple memory access rules to high-level flight rules. These different safety properties are formalized as different safety policies in Hoare logic, which are then used by a verification condition generator along with the code and logical annotations in order to derive formal safety conditions; these are then proven using an automated theorem prover. Our certification system is currently integrated into a model-based code generation toolset that generates the annotations together with the code. However, this automated formal certification technology is not exclusively constrained to our code generator and could, in principle, also be
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern brown pelican
Hingtgen, Terrence M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie; Zale, Alexander V.
1985-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for the eastern brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat) for coastal areas within the eastern brown pelican's breeding range. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the eastern brown pelican habitat model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Lesser scaup (wintering)
Mulholland, Rosemarie
1985-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluating wintering habitat quality for the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimal habitat) for Southern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are provided.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Lewis' woodpecker
Sousa, Patrick J.
1983-01-01
This document is part of the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) Model Series (FWS/OBS-82/10), which provides habitat information useful for impact assessment and habitat management. Several types of habitat i nformat i on are provided. The Habitat Use Information Section is largely constrained to those data that can be used to derive quantitative relationships between key environmental variables and habitat suitability. The habitat use information provides the foundation for HSI models that follow. In addition, this same information may be useful in the development of other models more appropriate to specific assessment or evaluation needs.
Measurements and mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slavnov, D. A.
2007-03-01
A scheme for constructing quantum mechanics is given that does not have Hilbert space and linear operators as its basic elements. Instead, a version of algebraic approach is considered. Elements of a noncommutative algebra (observables) and functionals on this algebra (elementary states) associated with results of single measurements are used as primary components of the scheme. On the one hand, it is possible to use within the scheme the formalism of the standard (Kolmogorov) probability theory, and, on the other hand, it is possible to reproduce the mathematical formalism of standard quantum mechanics, and to study the limits of its applicability. A short outline is given of the necessary material from the theory of algebras and probability theory. It is described how the mathematical scheme of the paper agrees with the theory of quantum measurements, and avoids quantum paradoxes.
A Formal Framework for Workflow Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cravo, Glória
2010-09-01
In this paper we provide a new formal framework to model and analyse workflows. A workflow is the formal definition of a business process that consists in the execution of tasks in order to achieve a certain objective. In our work we describe a workflow as a graph whose vertices represent tasks and the arcs are associated to workflow transitions. Each task has associated an input/output logic operator. This logic operator can be the logical AND (•), the OR (⊗), or the XOR -exclusive-or—(⊕). Moreover, we introduce algebraic concepts in order to completely describe completely the structure of workflows. We also introduce the concept of logical termination. Finally, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for this property to hold.
Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework
Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro
2016-01-01
Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436
A Formal Basis for Safety Case Patterns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh
2013-01-01
By capturing common structures of successful arguments, safety case patterns provide an approach for reusing strategies for reasoning about safety. In the current state of the practice, patterns exist as descriptive specifications with informal semantics, which not only offer little opportunity for more sophisticated usage such as automated instantiation, composition and manipulation, but also impede standardization efforts and tool interoperability. To address these concerns, this paper gives (i) a formal definition for safety case patterns, clarifying both restrictions on the usage of multiplicity and well-founded recursion in structural abstraction, (ii) formal semantics to patterns, and (iii) a generic data model and algorithm for pattern instantiation. We illustrate our contributions by application to a new pattern, the requirements breakdown pattern, which builds upon our previous work
Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst
Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.
Theory of connectivity for formally symmetric operators
Herrera, Ismael
1977-01-01
A previous paper introduced the notion of complete connectivity conditions and developed variational principles for diffraction problems subjected to such restrictions. Here, an abstract definition of formally symmetric operators is given and it is shown that the problem of connecting solutions of equations associated with this kind of operators leads to complete connectivity conditions. The variational principles previously developed as well as a present more general one are thus applicable. The problem of connecting solutions defined in different regions is basic for finite element formulations. Formally symmetric operators occur in many branches of science and engineering. Applications are given here to potential theory, wave propagation, elasticity, and a general class of boundary integral equations. PMID:16592459
Hartle formalism for rotating Newtonian configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boshkayev, Kuantay; Quevedo, Hernando; Kalymova, Zhanerke; Zhami, Bakytzhan
2016-11-01
We apply the Hartle formalism to study equilibrium configurations in the framework of Newtonian gravity. This approach allows one to study in a simple manner the properties of the interior gravitational field in the case of static as well as stationary rotating stars in hydrostatic equilibrium. It is shown that the gravitational equilibrium conditions reduce to a system of ordinary differential equations which can be integrated numerically. We derive all the relevant equations up to the second order in the angular velocity. Moreover, we find explicitly the total mass, the moment of inertia, the quadrupole moment, the polar and equatorial radii, the eccentricity and the gravitational binding energy of the rotating body. We also present the procedure to calculate the gravitational Love number. We test the formalism in the case of white dwarfs and show its compatibility with the known results in the literature.
Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.
Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro
2016-01-01
Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.
Analyzing phonetic confusions using formal concept analysis.
Peláez-Moreno, C; García-Moral, A I; Valverde-Albacete, F J
2010-09-01
Confusion matrices have been used as a tool for the analysis of speech perception or human speech recognition (HSR) for decades. However, they are rarely employed in automatic speech recognition (ASR) mainly due to the lack of a systematic procedure for their exploration. The generalization of formal concept analysis employed in this paper provides a conceptual interpretation of confusion matrices that enables the analysis of the structure of confusions for both human and machine performances. Generalized formal concept analysis transforms confusion matrices into ordered lattices of confusion events, supporting classic results in HSR that identify a hierarchy of virtual articulatory-acoustic channels. Translating this technique into ASR, a detailed map of the relationships among the speech units employed in the system can be traced to make different sources of confusions apparent: the influence of the lexicon, segmentation errors, dialectal variations or limitations of the feature extraction procedures, among others.
Formal Definition of Measures for BPMN Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynoso, Luis; Rolón, Elvira; Genero, Marcela; García, Félix; Ruiz, Francisco; Piattini, Mario
Business process models are currently attaining more relevance, and more attention is therefore being paid to their quality. This situation led us to define a set of measures for the understandability of BPMN models, which is shown in a previous work. We focus on understandability since a model must be well understood before any changes are made to it. These measures were originally informally defined in natural language. As is well known, natural language is ambiguous and may lead to misunderstandings and a misinterpretation of the concepts captured by a measure and the way in which the measure value is obtained. This has motivated us to provide the formal definition of the proposed measures using OCL (Object Constraint Language) upon the BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation) metamodel presented in this paper. The main advantages and lessons learned (which were obtained both from the current work and from previous works carried out in relation to the formal definition of other measures) are also summarized.
Formal verification of human-automation interaction.
Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael
2002-01-01
This paper discusses a formal and rigorous approach to the analysis of operator interaction with machines. It addresses the acute problem of detecting design errors in human-machine interaction and focuses on verifying the correctness of the interaction in complex and automated control systems. The paper describes a systematic methodology for evaluating whether the interface provides the necessary information about the machine to enable the operator to perform a specified task successfully and unambiguously. It also addresses the adequacy of information provided to the user via training material (e.g., user manual) about the machine's behavior. The essentials of the methodology, which can be automated and applied to the verification of large systems, are illustrated by several examples and through a case study of pilot interaction with an autopilot aboard a modern commercial aircraft. The expected application of this methodology is an augmentation and enhancement, by formal verification, of human-automation interfaces.
Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.
Okasha, S; Paternotte, C
2012-06-01
We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis.
Viscous warm inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhtari, L.; Mohammadi, A.; Sayar, K.; Saaidi, Kh.
2017-04-01
Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, the scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameter without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of the dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, r -ns and αs -ns are drown that show the acquired result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.
Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daumas, Marc; Lester, David; Martin-Dorel, Erik; Truffert, Annick
2009-01-01
We provide a framework to bound the probability that accumulated errors were never above a given threshold on numerical algorithms. Such algorithms are used for example in aircraft and nuclear power plants. This report contains simple formulas based on Levy's and Markov's inequalities and it presents a formal theory of random variables with a special focus on producing concrete results. We selected four very common applications that fit in our framework and cover the common practices of systems that evolve for a long time. We compute the number of bits that remain continuously significant in the first two applications with a probability of failure around one out of a billion, where worst case analysis considers that no significant bit remains. We are using PVS as such formal tools force explicit statement of all hypotheses and prevent incorrect uses of theorems.
A suitable model for emeraldine salt.
Varela-Alvarez, Adrián; Sordo, José A
2008-05-07
A new mechanism for the formation of doped polyaniline is presented. Besides providing suitable structural and spectroscopic parameters, the new mechanism allows for the rationalization of the experimentally observed equilibrium between polaron and bipolaron defects in emeraldine salt. The magnetic behavior and the "metallic island" model for conduction in doped polyaniline are also theoretically supported by the new proposal.
24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability criteria. 581.6 Section 581.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...
24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability criteria. 581.6 Section 581.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...
24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability criteria. 581.6 Section 581.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...
24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Suitability criteria. 581.6 Section 581.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...
24 CFR 581.6 - Suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability criteria. 581.6 Section 581.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...
7 CFR 1955.63 - Suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Suitability determination. 1955.63 Section 1955.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.63...
10 CFR 26.63 - Suitable inquiry.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.63 Suitable.... Licensees and other entities may also rely on those licensees' and entities' determinations of fitness that..., and other information that could reflect on the individual's fitness to be granted authorization....
10 CFR 26.63 - Suitable inquiry.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.63 Suitable.... Licensees and other entities may also rely on those licensees' and entities' determinations of fitness that..., and other information that could reflect on the individual's fitness to be granted authorization....
10 CFR 26.63 - Suitable inquiry.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.63 Suitable.... Licensees and other entities may also rely on those licensees' and entities' determinations of fitness that..., and other information that could reflect on the individual's fitness to be granted authorization....
10 CFR 26.63 - Suitable inquiry.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.63 Suitable.... Licensees and other entities may also rely on those licensees' and entities' determinations of fitness that..., and other information that could reflect on the individual's fitness to be granted authorization....
10 CFR 26.63 - Suitable inquiry.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.63 Suitable.... Licensees and other entities may also rely on those licensees' and entities' determinations of fitness that..., and other information that could reflect on the individual's fitness to be granted authorization....
Assessing the Suitability of Water for Irrigation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Introduction Water quality assessment to evaluate the suitability of an irrigation water has traditionally (Ayers and Westcot, 1985) considered only salinity and SAR (sodium adsorption ratio). The criteria have been developed from a combination of field observations by experts and short duration co...
Elk habitat suitability map for North Carolina
Williams, Steven G.; Cobb, David T.; Collazo, Jaime
2015-01-01
Although eastern elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were extirpated from the eastern United States in the 19th century, they were successfully reintroduced in the North Carolina portion of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the early 2000s. The North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) is evaluating the prospect of reintroducing the species in other locations in the state to augment recreational opportunities. As a first step in the process, we created a state-wide elk habitat suitability map. We used medium-scale data sets and a two-component approach to iden- tify areas of high biological value for elk and exclude from consideration areas where elk-human conflicts were more likely. Habitats in the state were categorized as 66% unsuitable, 16.7% low, 17% medium, and <1% high suitability for elk. The coastal plain and Piedmont contained the most suitable habitat, but prospective reintroduction sites were largely excluded from consideration due to extensive agricultural activities and pervasiveness of secondary roads. We ranked 31 areas (≥ 500 km2) based on their suitability for reintroduction. The central region of the state contained the top five ranked areas. The Blue Ridge Mountains, where the extant population of elk occurs, was ranked 21st. Our work provides a benchmark for decision makers to evaluate potential consequences and trade-offs associated with the selection of prospective elk reintroduction sites.
Decidability of formal theories and hyperincursivity theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grappone, Arturo G.
2000-05-01
This paper shows the limits of the Proof Standard Theory (briefly, PST) and gives some ideas of how to build a proof anticipatory theory (briefly, PAT) that has no such limits. Also, this paper considers that Gödel's proof of the undecidability of Principia Mathematica formal theory is not valid for axiomatic theories that use a PAT to build their proofs because the (hyper)incursive functions are self-representable.
Toward a Formal Evaluation of Refactorings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paul, John; Kuzmina, Nadya; Gamboa, Ruben; Caldwell, James
2008-01-01
Refactoring is a software development strategy that characteristically alters the syntactic structure of a program without changing its external behavior [2]. In this talk we present a methodology for extracting formal models from programs in order to evaluate how incremental refactorings affect the verifiability of their structural specifications. We envision that this same technique may be applicable to other types of properties such as those that concern the design and maintenance of safety-critical systems.
Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)
1997-01-01
This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.
Flexible receiver adapter formal design review
Krieg, S.A.
1995-06-13
This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.
Terra in K-16 formal education settings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.
2009-12-01
Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.
Structure Based Formal Methods for Software Engineering
1989-07-27
9 3.4 The Initial PegaSys Prototype ....... ...................... 9 4 Related Research 11 References 12 Accession For NI T 1... PegaSys - that uses pictures as for- mal documentation. To our knowledge, PegaSys is the first system to manipu- late nontrivial design structures in...The Initial PegaSys Prototype PegaSys is a display-oriented, interactive environment that uses intuitive graphical pictures as formal documentation to
Formal Synthesis of (±)-Platensimycin
Zou, Yefen; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Taylor, Christopher D.; Foxman, Bruce M.; Snider, Barry B.
2008-01-01
Reductive alkylation of 5-methoxy-1-tetralone (6) with 2,3-dibromopropene gave an equilibrium mixture of bicyclic diones 7 (51%) and 8 (35%). Radical cyclization of 7 afforded tricyclic dione 5 (84%), which was reduced, cyclized and dehydrated to give tetracyclic alkene 13 in 63% yield. Allylic oxidation of 13 with SeO2 and activated MnO2 afforded enone 2 in 85% yield, thereby completing a short formal synthesis of (±)-platensimycin. PMID:17407302
Formalized Epistemology in a Philosophical Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barreau, Hervé
The need for a formalized epistemology is recognized by all scholars who think that the relativity of all sciences must not be referred to a social relativism. In XXth century, Husserl was the protagonist of such an epistemic philosophy. But this philosophy was more successful in social and human sciences than in natural sciences. In this latter domain, quantum mechanics obeys the requirements of a Kantien perspective in a more precise sense that was the case with Newtonian mechanics.
[How to write an article: formal aspects].
Corral de la Calle, M A; Encinas de la Iglesia, J
2013-06-01
Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail.
Extension of Liouville Formalism to Postinstability Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
2003-01-01
A mathematical formalism has been developed for predicting the postinstability motions of a dynamic system governed by a system of nonlinear equations and subject to initial conditions. Previously, there was no general method for prediction and mathematical modeling of postinstability behaviors (e.g., chaos and turbulence) in such a system. The formalism of nonlinear dynamics does not afford means to discriminate between stable and unstable motions: an additional stability analysis is necessary for such discrimination. However, an additional stability analysis does not suggest any modifications of a mathematical model that would enable the model to describe postinstability motions efficiently. The most important type of instability that necessitates a postinstability description is associated with positive Lyapunov exponents. Such an instability leads to exponential growth of small errors in initial conditions or, equivalently, exponential divergence of neighboring trajectories. The development of the present formalism was undertaken in an effort to remove positive Lyapunov exponents. The means chosen to accomplish this is coupling of the governing dynamical equations with the corresponding Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the flow of error probability. The underlying idea is to suppress the divergences of different trajectories that correspond to different initial conditions, without affecting a target trajectory, which is one that starts with prescribed initial conditions.
A thermodynamical formalism describing mechanical interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrade, R. F. S.; Souza, A. M. C.; Curado, E. M. F.; Nobre, F. D.
2014-10-01
The dynamical behavior of an overdamped mechanical model devoid of any usual thermal effects is analyzed by a formalism that is similar to usual thermodynamics, and completely independent of any ad hoc assumption of a probability distribution of states in phase space of the mechanical model. It leads to the definition of a new entropy function, which does not coincide with the usual thermodynamical entropy. The new step making the difference to previous studies of this system is the identification of two non-equivalent mechanical interaction mechanisms, which are defined and identified as work and pseudo-heat. Together with the introduced effective temperature θ, they make it possible to characterize the equivalent to isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, and isochoric processes. Three statements, formally analogous to the zeroth, first, and second law of thermodynamics, are issued. The statement of the second law results from the asymmetry in the way energy can be exchanged along the two processes. A Carnot cycle is defined, for which the efficiency is expressed in terms of θ in the operating pseudo-heat reservoirs. The analogous Clausius theorem for the system operating an arbitrary reversible cycle is proved, leading to the new entropy function. Consequences of the extension of thermodynamic formalism to mechanical models with different processes of transferring energy are discussed.
Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus.
Messina, Jane P; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Golding, Nick; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Gething, Peter W; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran; Tatem, Andrew J; Jaenisch, Thomas; Murray, Christopher Jl; Marinho, Fatima; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I
2016-04-19
Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas.
Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus
Messina, Jane P; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Golding, Nick; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Gething, Peter W; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran; Tatem, Andrew J; Jaenisch, Thomas; Murray, Christopher JL; Marinho, Fatima; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I
2016-01-01
Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15272.001 PMID:27090089
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus wren
Short, Henry L.
1985-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp rabbit
Allen, Arthur W.
1985-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Snapping turtle
Graves, Brent M.; Anderson, Stanley H.
1987-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Belted kingfisher
Prose, Bart L.
1985-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Slider turtle
Morreale, Stephen J.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield
1986-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the slider turtle (Pseudemys scripta). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Hairy woodpecker
Sousa, Patrick J.
1987-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Snowshoe hare
Carreker, Raymond G.
1985-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Application of the projection operator formalism to non-hamiltonian dynamics.
Xing, Jianhua; Kim, K S
2011-01-28
Reconstruction of equations of motion from incomplete or noisy data and dimension reduction are two fundamental problems in the study of dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom. For the latter, extensive efforts have been made, but with limited success, to generalize the Zwanzig-Mori projection formalism, originally developed for hamiltonian systems close to thermodynamic equilibrium, to general non-hamiltonian systems lacking detailed balance. One difficulty introduced by such systems is the lack of an invariant measure, needed to define a statistical distribution. Based on a recent discovery that a non-hamiltonian system defined by a set of stochastic differential equations can be mapped to a hamiltonian system, we develop such general projection formalism. In the resulting generalized Langevin equations, a set of generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations connect the memory kernel and the random noise terms, analogous to hamiltonian systems obeying detailed balance. Lacking of these relations restricts previous application of the generalized Langevin formalism. Result of this work may serve as the theoretical basis for further technical developments on model reconstruction with reduced degrees of freedom. We first use an analytically solvable example to illustrate the formalism and the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Our numerical test on a chemical network with end-product inhibition further demonstrates the validity of the formalism. We suggest that the formalism can find wide applications in scientific modeling. Specifically, we discuss potential applications to biological networks. In particular, the method provides a suitable framework for gaining insights into network properties such as robustness and parameter transferability.
Application of the projection operator formalism to non-Hamiltonian dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Jianhua; Kim, K. S.
2011-01-01
Reconstruction of equations of motion from incomplete or noisy data and dimension reduction are two fundamental problems in the study of dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom. For the latter, extensive efforts have been made, but with limited success, to generalize the Zwanzig-Mori projection formalism, originally developed for Hamiltonian systems close to thermodynamic equilibrium, to general non-Hamiltonian systems lacking detailed balance. One difficulty introduced by such systems is the lack of an invariant measure, needed to define a statistical distribution. Based on a recent discovery that a non-Hamiltonian system defined by a set of stochastic differential equations can be mapped to a Hamiltonian system, we develop such general projection formalism. In the resulting generalized Langevin equations, a set of generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations connect the memory kernel and the random noise terms, analogous to Hamiltonian systems obeying detailed balance. Lacking of these relations restricts previous application of the generalized Langevin formalism. Result of this work may serve as the theoretical basis for further technical developments on model reconstruction with reduced degrees of freedom. We first use an analytically solvable example to illustrate the formalism and the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Our numerical test on a chemical network with end-product inhibition further demonstrates the validity of the formalism. We suggest that the formalism can find wide applications in scientific modeling. Specifically, we discuss potential applications to biological networks. In particular, the method provides a suitable framework for gaining insights into network properties such as robustness and parameter transferability.
The formal verification used for the AAMP5 and AAMP-FV
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivas, Mandayam
1995-01-01
The main goal of the project was two-fold: First, to investigate the feasibility of formally specifying and verifying a complex commercial microprocessor that was not expressly designed for formal verification. Second, to explore effective ways to transfer the technology to an industrial setting. The choice of the AAMP5 satisfied the first goal since the AAMP5 was not designed for formal verification, but to provide a more than threefold performance improvement while remaining object-code-compatible with the earlier AAMP2, which is used in numerous avionics applications, including the Boeing 737, 747, 757, and 767. To satisfy the technology transfer objective, we had to develop a suitable verification methodology and a formal infrastructure to make the technology usable by practicing engineers. This infrastructure includes techniques for decomposing the microcompressor verification problem into a st of verification conditions that the engineers can formulate and strategies to automate the proof of the verification conditions. The development of the infrastructure was one of the key accomplishments of the project. Most of the infrastructure and methodology are general enough to be reused for other microprocessors, certainly in the verification of another member of the AAMP family. This methodology was used to formally specify the entire microarchitecture and more than half of the instruction set and to verify a core set of eleven AAMP5 instructions representative of several instruction classes. However, the methodology and the formal machinery developed are adequate to cover most of the remaining AAMP5 instructions. Although PVS was the vehicle of the experiment, the methodology is applicable to other sufficiently powerful theorem provers.
Formal Assurance Arguments: A Solution In Search of a Problem?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graydon, Patrick J.
2015-01-01
An assurance case comprises evidence and argument showing how that evidence supports assurance claims (e.g., about safety or security). It is unsurprising that some computer scientists have proposed formalizing assurance arguments: most associate formality with rigor. But while engineers can sometimes prove that source code refines a formal specification, it is not clear that formalization will improve assurance arguments or that this benefit is worth its cost. For example, formalization might reduce the benefits of argumentation by limiting the audience to people who can read formal logic. In this paper, we present (1) a systematic survey of the literature surrounding formal assurance arguments, (2) an analysis of errors that formalism can help to eliminate, (3) a discussion of existing evidence, and (4) suggestions for experimental work to definitively answer the question.
Niche Suitability Affects Development: Skull Asymmetry Increases in Less Suitable Areas
Maestri, Renan; Fornel, Rodrigo; Galiano, Daniel; de Freitas, Thales R. O.
2015-01-01
For conservation purposes, it is important to take into account the suitability of a species to particular habitats; this information may predict the long-term survival of a species. In this sense, morphological measures of developmental stress, such as fluctuating asymmetry, can be proxies for an individual’s performance in different regions. In this study, we conducted tests to determine whether areas with different levels of suitability for a species (generated by ecological niche models) were congruent with morphological markers that reflect environmental stress and morphological variance. We generated a Maxent niche model and compared the suitability assessments of several areas with the skull morphology data (fluctuating asymmetry and morphological disparity) of populations of the Atlantic forest endemic to Brazil rodent Akodon cursor. Our analyses showed a significant negative relationship between suitability levels and fluctuating asymmetry levels, which indicates that in less suitable areas, the individuals experience numerous disturbances during skull ontogeny. We have not found an association between morphological variance and environmental suitability. As expected, these results suggest that in environments with a lower suitability, developmental stress is increased. Such information is helpful in the understanding of the species evolution and in the selection of priority areas for the conservation of species. PMID:25874364
Prerequisites to Deriving Formal Specifications from Natural Language Requirements.
1981-10-01
Special 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side Ii nocessary and Identify by block number) formal specifications, English specifications, modules, software... English specifications and formal specifications of modules are complementary and since formal specifications require so much effort to write, our...involved four areas of work. The firtt is,A\\ comparing English descriptions with formal specifications of the same software module. This work is now complete
Canonical formalism for coupled beam optics
Kheifets, S.A.
1989-09-01
Beam optics of a lattice with an inter-plane coupling is treated using canonical Hamiltonian formalism. The method developed is equally applicable both to a circular (periodic) machine and to an open transport line. A solution of the equation of a particle motion (and correspondingly transfer matrix between two arbitrary points of the lattice) are described in terms of two amplitude functions (and their derivatives and corresponding phases of oscillations) and four coupling functions, defined by a solution of the system of the first-order nonlinear differential equations derived in the paper. Thus total number of independent parameters is equal to ten. 8 refs.
BRST and the pure spinor formalism
Garcia, J. Antonio
2008-03-06
The aim of this talk is to show the relation between the standard BRST approach of the GS superstring with the quantization technics used in the pure spinor approach to superstring. To that end we will use the Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) conversion program of second class constraints to first class constraints in the GS superstring using light cone coordinates. By applying this systematic procedure we were able to obtain a gauge system that is equivalent to the recent model proposed in [1] to relate the GS superstring to the pure spinor formalism.
Formal specification and verification of Ada software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hird, Geoffrey R.
1991-01-01
The use of formal methods in software development achieves levels of quality assurance unobtainable by other means. The Larch approach to specification is described, and the specification of avionics software designed to implement the logic of a flight control system is given as an example. Penelope is described which is an Ada-verification environment. The Penelope user inputs mathematical definitions, Larch-style specifications and Ada code and performs machine-assisted proofs that the code obeys its specifications. As an example, the verification of a binary search function is considered. Emphasis is given to techniques assisting the reuse of a verification effort on modified code.
Formal Aspects of Human-Automation Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael; Moodi, Michael; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
While new versions of automated control systems such as flight guidance systems are introduced at a rapid pace, it is widely recognized that user interaction with these machines is increasingly problematic. One cause for this difficulty that is commonly cited in the literature, is the discrepancy between the machine's behavior and the operator's (e.g., pilot) expectations. This paper discusses a formal approach to the analysis of operator's interaction with complex automated control systems. We focus attention on the issue of interface correctness; that is, on the question whether the display provides adequate information about the machine's configurations (states, modes, and associated parameters) and transitions, so as to enable the operator to successfully perform the specified set of tasks. To perform the analysis several assumptions are made: (1) A complete formal model of the machine's behavior is available (e.g., as a state transition system, or as a hybrid-machine); (2) A specification of operator's tasks is available and can be formally described (e.g., the reliable and predictable transition between activities involved in executing a climb to a new altitude); (3) The pilot is well trained and has a correct 'mental' model of the machine's response-map. By 'comparing' the machine's model with the set of operator's tasks we formally (i.e., mathematically) evaluate two questions: 1) does the machine's output interface (display) enable the operator to determine, unambiguously, what the current configuration (e.g., mode) of the machine is, and 2) does the display enable the operator to determine, unambiguously, what the next configuration of the machine will be, in response to a specified interaction by the operator (e.g., engaging a mode or changing a parameter such as a speed or target altitude). This paper describes a methodology for conducting such an evaluation using examples from automated flight control systems of modem 'glass cockpit' jetliners
Representations of spacetime: Formalism and ontological commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bain, Jonathan Stanley
This dissertation consists of two parts. The first is on the relation between formalism and ontological commitment in the context of theories of spacetime, and the second is on scientific realism. The first part begins with a look at how the substantivalist/relationist debate over the ontological status of spacetime has been influenced by a particular mathematical formalism, that of tensor analysis on differential manifolds (TADM). This formalism has motivated the substantivalist position known as manifold substantivalism. Chapter 1 focuses on the hole argument which maintains that manifold substantivalism is incompatible with determinism. I claim that the realist motivations underlying manifold substantivalism can be upheld, and the hole argument avoided, by adopting structural realism with respect to spacetime. In this context, this is the claim that it is the structure that spacetime points enter into that warrants belief and not the points themselves. In Chapter 2, an elimination principle is defined by means of which a distinction can be made between surplus structure and essential structure with respect to formulations of a theory in two distinct mathematical formulations and some prior ontological commitments. This principle is then used to demonstrate that manifold points may be considered surplus structure in the formulation of field theories. This suggests that, if we are disposed to read field theories literally, then, at most, it should be the essential structure common to all alternative formulations of such theories that should be taken literally. I also investigate how the adoption of alternative formalisms informs other issues in the philosophy of spacetime. Chapter 3 offers a realist position which takes a semantic moral from the preceding investigation and an epistemic moral from work done on reliability. The semantic moral advises us to read only the essential structure of our theories literally. The epistemic moral shows us that such structure
Toward the Identification of Styles of Formal Reasoning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frey, Susan; Bart, William M.
A method of examining individual variation in responses to Inhelder-Piaget formal reasoning tasks is proposed as a means of identifying cognitive style components of formal reason and as a means of generating more complete descriptions of observable manifestations of formal reasoning. The method is one used by human ethologists and consists of…
19 CFR 128.25 - Formal entry procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal entry procedures. 128.25 Section 128.25... TREASURY EXPRESS CONSIGNMENTS Procedures § 128.25 Formal entry procedures. Formal entry, as provided for under 19 U.S.C. 1484 in parts 141, 142, and 143 (except for subpart C), of this chapter, is required...
20 CFR 702.336 - Formal hearings; new issues.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal hearings; new issues. 702.336 Section... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.336 Formal hearings; new issues. (a) If, during the course of the... considered, the hearing may be expanded to include the new issue. If in the opinion of the administrative...
40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a)...
40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a)...
40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a)...
40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a)...
"Passing It On": Beyond Formal or Informal Pedagogies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cain, Tim
2013-01-01
Informal pedagogies are a subject of debate in music education, and there is some evidence of teachers abandoning formal pedagogies in favour of informal ones. This article presents a case of one teacher's formal pedagogy and theorises it by comparing it with a case of informal pedagogy. The comparison reveals affordances of formal pedagogies…
How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sun, Min; Frank, Kenneth A.; Penuel, William R.; Kim, Chong Min
2013-01-01
Purposes: This study investigates the role of formal and informal leaders in the diffusion of external reforms into schools and to teachers' practices. Formal leaders are designated by their roles in the formal organization of the school (e.g., principals, department chairs, and instructional coaches) and informal leaders refer to those who do not…
40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a)...
Truncated horseshoes and formal languages in chaotic scattering.
Troll, G.
1993-10-01
In this paper we study parameter families of truncated horseshoes as models of multiscattering systems which show a transition to chaos without losing hyperbolicity, so that the topological features of the transition are completely describable by a parametrized family of symbolic dynamics. At a fixed parameter value the corresponding horseshoe represents the set of orbits trapped in the scattering region. The bifurcations are a pure boundary effect and no other bifurcations such as saddle center bifurcations occur in this transition scenario. Truncated horseshoes actually arise in concrete potential scattering under suitable conditions. It is shown that a simple scattering model introduced earlier can realize this scenario in a certain parameter range (the "truncated sawshoe"). For this purpose, we solve the inverse scattering problem of finding the central potential associated to the sawshoe model. Furthermore, we review classification schemes for the transition to chaos of truncated horseshoes originating from symbolic dynamics and formal language theory and apply them to the truncated double horseshoe and the truncated sawshoe.
Detecting Mode Confusion Through Formal Modeling and Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Steven P.; Potts, James N.
1999-01-01
Aircraft safety has improved steadily over the last few decades. While much of this improvement can be attributed to the introduction of advanced automation in the cockpit, the growing complexity of these systems also increases the potential for the pilots to become confused about what the automation is doing. This phenomenon, often referred to as mode confusion, has been involved in several accidents involving modern aircraft. This report describes an effort by Rockwell Collins and NASA Langley to identify potential sources of mode confusion through two complementary strategies. The first is to create a clear, executable model of the automation, connect it to a simulation of the flight deck, and use this combination to review of the behavior of the automation and the man-machine interface with the designers, pilots, and experts in human factors. The second strategy is to conduct mathematical analyses of the model by translating it into a formal specification suitable for analysis with automated tools. The approach is illustrated by applying it to a hypothetical, but still realistic, example of the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System.
Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.
Witzel, Wayne; Rudinger, Kenneth Michael; Sarovar, Mohan
2015-11-01
Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.
Integrating Formal Methods and Testing 2002
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cukic, Bojan
2002-01-01
Traditionally, qualitative program verification methodologies and program testing are studied in separate research communities. None of them alone is powerful and practical enough to provide sufficient confidence in ultra-high reliability assessment when used exclusively. Significant advances can be made by accounting not only tho formal verification and program testing. but also the impact of many other standard V&V techniques, in a unified software reliability assessment framework. The first year of this research resulted in the statistical framework that, given the assumptions on the success of the qualitative V&V and QA procedures, significantly reduces the amount of testing needed to confidently assess reliability at so-called high and ultra-high levels (10-4 or higher). The coming years shall address the methodologies to realistically estimate the impacts of various V&V techniques to system reliability and include the impact of operational risk to reliability assessment. Combine formal correctness verification, process and product metrics, and other standard qualitative software assurance methods with statistical testing with the aim of gaining higher confidence in software reliability assessment for high-assurance applications. B) Quantify the impact of these methods on software reliability. C) Demonstrate that accounting for the effectiveness of these methods reduces the number of tests needed to attain certain confidence level. D) Quantify and justify the reliability estimate for systems developed using various methods.
Formalism and Interpretation in Quantum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilce, Alexander
2010-04-01
Quantum Mechanics can be viewed as a linear dynamical theory having a familiar mathematical framework but a mysterious probabilistic interpretation, or as a probabilistic theory having a familiar interpretation but a mysterious formal framework. These points of view are usually taken to be somewhat in tension with one another. The first has generated a vast literature aiming at a “realistic” and “collapse-free” interpretation of quantum mechanics that will account for its statistical predictions. The second has generated an at least equally large literature aiming to derive, or at any rate motivate, the formal structure of quantum theory in probabilistically intelligible terms. In this paper I explore, in a preliminary way, the possibility that these two programmes have something to offer one another. In particular, I show that a version of the measurement problem occurs in essentially any non-classical probabilistic theory, and ask to what extent various interpretations of quantum mechanics continue to make sense in such a general setting. I make a start on answering this question in the case of a rudimentary version of the Everett interpretation.
Spatial Experiment Technologies Suitable for Unreturnable Bioreactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Weibo; Tong, Guanghui
2016-07-01
The system composition and main function of the bioreactor piggybacked on TZ cargo transport spacecraft are introduced briefly in the paper.The spatial experiment technologies which are suitable for unreturnable bioreactor are described in detail,including multi-channel liquid transportion and management,multi-type animal cells circuit testing,dynamic targets microscopic observation in situ etc..The feasibility and effectiveness of these technologies which will be used in space experiment in bioreactor are verified in tests and experiments on the ground.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: American alligator
Newsom, John D.; Joanen, Ted; Howard, Rebecca J.
1987-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluating American alligator habitat quality. The model is applicable in marshes along the northern Gulf of Mexico. It is scaled to produce an index between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat). Habitat suitability index models are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are described.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red king crab
Jewett, Stephen C.; Onuf, Christopher P.
1988-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for evaluating habitat of different life stages of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica). A model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat) in Alaskan coastal waters, especially in the Gulf of Alaska and the southeastern Bering Sea. HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Pink salmon
Raleigh, Robert F.; Nelson, Patrick C.
1985-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Inland stocks of striped bass
Crance, Johnie H.
1984-01-01
The Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and instream flow Suitability Index (SI) presented in this publication aid in identifying important variables that determine the quality of striped bass habitat. Facts, ideas, and opinions obtained from published and unpublished reports, a Delphi panel of 18 striped bass experts/authorities, and the Striped Bass Committee, Southern Division, American Fisheries Society, are synthesized and presented in a format that can be used for habitat impact assessment and development of management alternatives.
Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Chum salmon
Hale, Stephen S.; McMahon, Thomas E.; Nelson, Patrick C.
1985-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey, Angel M.; Román-Roy, Narciso; Salgado, Modesto
2005-05-01
The first aim of this paper is to extend the Skinner-Rusk formalism on classical mechanics for first-order field theories. The second is to generalize the definition and properties of the evolution K-operator on classical mechanics for first-order field theories using in both cases Günther's formalism (k-symplectic formalism).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth; Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia
2014-01-01
In this article, we propose to approach Indigenous education beyond the formal/non-formal dichotomy. We argue that there is a critical need to conscientiously include Indigenous knowledge in education processes from the school to the community; particularly, when formal systems exclude Indigenous cultures and languages. Based on ethnographic…
Guidance for Using Formal Methods in a Certification Context
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Duncan; Delseny, Herve; Hayhurst, Kelly; Wiels, Virginie
2010-01-01
This paper discusses some of the challenges to using formal methods in a certification context and describes the effort by the Formal Methods Subgroup of RTCA SC-205/EUROCAE WG-71 to propose guidance to make the use of formal methods a recognized approach. This guidance, expected to take the form of a Formal Methods Technical Supplement to DO-178C/ED-12C, is described, including the activities that are needed when using formal methods, new or modified objectives with respect to the core DO-178C/ED-12C document, and evidence needed for meeting those objectives.
Information Superiority via Formal Concept Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koester, Bjoern; Schmidt, Stefan E.
This chapter will show how to get more mileage out of information. To achieve that, we first start with an introduction to the fundamentals of Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). FCA is a highly versatile field of applied lattice theory, which allows hidden relationships to be uncovered in relational data. Moreover, FCA provides a distinguished supporting framework to subsequently find and fill information gaps in a systematic and rigorous way. In addition, we would like to build bridges via a universal approach to other communities which can be related to FCA in order for other research areas to benefit from a theory that has been elaborated for more than twenty years. Last but not least, the essential benefits of FCA will be presented algorithmically as well as theoretically by investigating a real data set from the MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base and also by demonstrating an application in the field of Web Information Retrieval and Web Intelligence.
Whatever Happened to Formal Methods for Security?
Voas, J; Schaffer, K
2016-08-01
We asked 7 experts 7 questions to find out what has occurred recently in terms of applying formal methods (FM) to security-centric, cyber problems. We are continually reminded of the 1996 paper by Tony Hoare "How did Software Get So Reliable Without Proof?" [1] In that vein, how did we get so insecure with proof? Given daily press announcements concerning new malware, data breaches, and privacy loss, is FM still relevant or was it ever? Our experts answered with unique personal insights. We were curious as to whether this successful methodology in "safety-critical" has succeeded as well for today's "build it, hack it, patch it" mindset. Our experts were John McLean (Naval Research Labs), Paul Black (National Institute of Standards and Technology), Karl Levitt (University of California at Davis), Joseph Williams (CloudEconomist.Com), Connie Heitmeyer (Naval Research Labs), Eugene Spafford (Purdue University), and Joseph Kiniry (Galois, Inc.). The questions and responses follow.
Thermodynamic consistency of the interaction parameter formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srikanth, S.; Jacob, K. T.
1988-04-01
The apparent contradiction between the exact nature of the interaction parameter formalism as presented by Lupis and Elliott and the inconsistencies discussed recently by Pelton and Bale arise from the truncation of the Maclaurin series in the latter treatment. The truncation removes the exactness of the expression for the logarithm of the activity coefficient of a solute in a multi-component system. The integrals are therefore path dependent. Formulae for integration along paths of constant Xi, or X i/Xj are presented. The expression for In γsolvent given by Pelton and Bale is valid only in the limit that the mole fraction of solvent tends to one. The truncation also destroys the general relations between interaction parameters derived by Lupis and Elliott. For each specific choice of parameters special relationships are obtained between interaction parameters.
Geodesic Acoustic Propagation and Ballooning Mode Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, M. B.; Diamond, P. H.; Young, G. G.; Arakawa, M.
2005-10-01
Relevance of ballooning formalism (BMF) in nonlinear interaction of toroidal electromagnetic drift waves in the presence of zonal flows and Geodesic Acoustic Oscillation (GAO) is critically examined from a physical argument of radial propagation of wave packets. To achieve the quasi-translational invariance of poloidal harmonics which is necessary for the BMF, the geodesic curvature induced transfer [1] of fluctuation energy in radial direction should occur faster than the time scale of physical interest. Of course, this does not happen necessarily in drift-Alfven (DALF) turbulence simulations [2]. This observation casts considerable doubts on the applicability of various codes based on the BMF concept to nonlinear electromagnetic problems. [1] B. Scott, Phys. Letters A 320 (2003) 53. [2] B. Scott, New J. Phys 7 (2005) 92.
A very general electromagnetic gyrokinetic formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMillan, B. F.; Sharma, A.
2016-09-01
We derive a gyrokinetic formalism which is very generally valid: the ordering allows both large inhomogeneities in plasma flow and magnetic field at long wavelength, such as typical drift-kinetic theories, as well as fluctuations at the gyro-scale. The underlying approach is to order the vorticity to be small, and to assert that the timescales in the local plasma frame are long compared to the gyrofrequency. Unlike most other derivations, we do not treat the long and short wavelength components of the fluctuating fields separately; the single-field description defines the particle motion and their interaction with the electromagnetic field at small-scale, the system-scale, and intermediate length scales in a unified fashion. As in earlier literature, the work consists of identifying a coordinate system where the gyroangle-dependent terms are small, and using a near-unity transform to systematically find a set of coordinates where the gyroangle dependence vanishes. We derive a gyrokinetic Lagrangian which is valid where the vorticity | ∇ × ( E × B / B ) | is small compared to the gyrofrequency Ω, and the magnetic field scale length is long compared to the gyroradius; we also require that time variation be slow in an appropriately chosen reference frame. This appears to be a minimum set of constraints on a gyrokinetic theory and is substantially more general than earlier approaches. It is the general-geometry electromagnetic extension of Dimits, Phys. Plasmas 17, 055901 (2010) (which is an electrostatic formalism with a homogeneous background magnetic field). This approach also does not require a separate treatment of fluctuating and background components of the magnetic field, unlike much of the previous literature. As a consequence, the "cross terms" due to a combination of long- and short-wavelength variation, which were ignored in the earlier work (but derived in a more restrictive ordering in Parra and Calvo, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 045001 (2011
A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bock, J. J.; LeDuc, H. G.; Lange, A. E.; Zmuidzinas, J.
1997-01-01
The development of arrays of infrared bolometers that are suitable for use in the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) mission is reported. The array architecture is based on the silicon nitride micromesh bolometer currently baselined for use in the case of the Planck mission. This architecture allows each pixel to be efficiently coupled to one or both polarizations and to one or more spatial models of radiation. Micromesh structures are currently being developed, coupled with transistor-edge sensors and read out by a SQUID amplifier. If these devices are successful, then the relatively large cooling power available at 300 mK may enable a SQUID-based multiplexer to be integrated on the same wafer as the array, creating a monolithic, fully multiplexed, 2D array with relatively few connections to the sub-Kelvin stage.
Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs: Suitable metal scouts?
Torres, Paulo; da Cunha, Regina Tristão; Dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo
2017-02-05
Heavy metals are a hazard to marine fauna and human health. In this study we assess stable isotopes and metal content in Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus and analyse these results within and among other species and across regions and geographical areas. Also, we evaluate their suitability, together with Raja clavata and Galeorhinus galeus, as Mid-Atlantic bioindicators. Prionace glauca and I. oxyrinchus shared the same trophic level in a pelagic food web and did not present significant differences between genders or metals, except for As. Arsenic and Hg accumulated while Cd and Pb were not detected. One I. oxyrinchus presented Hg values above regulatory limits. A high Hg exposure was associated with I. oxyrinchus since its maximum weekly intake was exceeded. Elasmobranchs can be used as metal sentinels, each presenting different key features which defines a good marine bioindicator, allowing long-term monitoring at different temporal and spatial scales.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Brook trout
Raleigh, Robert F.
1982-01-01
The habitat use information and Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models presented in this document are an aid for impact assessment and habitat management activities. Literature concerning a species' habitat requirements and preferences is reviewed and then synthesized into HSI models, which are scaled to produce an index between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimal habitat). Assumptions used to transform habitat use information into these mathematical models are noted, and guidelines for model application are described. Any models found in the literature which may also be used to calculate an HSI are cited, and simplified HSI models, based on what the authors believe to be the most important habitat characteristics for this species, are presented.
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Ferruginous hawk
Jasikoff, Thomas M.
1982-01-01
The ferruginous hawk inhabits grasslands, shrublands, and steppe-deserts of the Western United States. It is a common nester in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming (Call 1978). Populations in the more Northern States tend to be migratory, spending the winter in New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Texas, and Oklahoma (Call 1979).Ferruginous hawks thrive in areas that favor the production of rabbits (Lagomorpha), prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), or ground squirrels (Citellus spp. and Spermophilus spp.) (Call 1979), provided that suitable nesting sites are available. Foraging habitat consists of nonforested, nonmountainous areas, such as desert shrub and grassland communities. Nesting habitat consists of communities with isolated trees, woodland edges, buttes, cliffs, and/or grassland with some relief.
Application of a new dosimetry formalism to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT).
Rosser, Karen E; Bedford, James L
2009-12-07
Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) offers a challenge to classical dosimetry protocols as the beams are dynamic in orientation and aperture shape and may include small apertures. The aim of this paper is to apply a formalism to VMAT beams that has recently been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) working party to improve the dosimetry for small and non-standard fields. We investigated three possible fields and assessed their suitability as plan class specific reference (pcsr) fields. The factors in the new dosimetry formalism were investigated: the conversion of dose to water from the conventional reference field to the pcsr and then from the pcsr to a treatment plan, using a PTW semiflex chamber, two Farmer chambers and an electron diode. Finally, the dose was compared for Alanine, the new formalism and calculated using Pinnacle(3) (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) for two typical clinical VMAT beams. Correction factors between the reference field and the pcsr determined with Alanine range from 0.1% to 2.3% for the three pcsr fields. Dose to water measured using the calibrated ionization chambers is less than 2% different to the dose calculated by Pinnacle(3). VMAT planning and delivery procedures have been successfully implemented and a new dosimetry protocol has been investigated for this new technique. Calibration factors for pcsr fields are found to be up to 2.3% different when using the new formalism, compared to using a standard dosimetry protocol. Using the calibration factors determined in the pcsr fields, the ionization chambers and electron diode agree to within 1% with Alanine dosimetry for two clinical VMAT plans. Good agreements between calculations and measurements are found for these two plans when the new formalism is used.
Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; Rogers, T. C.; Sato, N.; Wang, B.
2016-08-08
We construct an improved implementation for combining TMD factorization transverse- momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suit- able for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W + Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. As a result, we further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q- dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y -term.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tilmes, Curt
2014-01-01
The Global Change Information System (GCIS) provides a framework for the formal representation of structured metadata about data and information about global change. The pilot deployment of the system supports the National Climate Assessment (NCA), a major report of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). A consumer of that report can use the system to browse and explore that supporting information. Additionally, capturing that information into a structured data model and presenting it in standard formats through well defined open inter- faces, including query interfaces suitable for data mining and linking with other databases, the information becomes valuable for other analytic uses as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belohlavek, Radim; Kostak, Martin; Osicka, Petr
2013-05-01
We present a case study in identification of taxa in paleobiological data. Our approach utilizes formal concept analysis and is based on conceiving a taxon as a group of individuals sharing a collection of attributes. In addition to the incidence relation between individuals and their attributes, the method uses expert background knowledge regarding importance of attributes which helps to filter out correctly formed but paleobiologically irrelevant taxa. We present results of experiments carried out with belemnites-a group of extinct cephalopods which seems particularly suitable for such a purpose. We demonstrate that the methods are capable of revealing taxa and relationships among them that are relevant from a paleobiological point of view.
10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.14 Preclosure suitability criteria. DOE will evaluate preclosure...
10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.14 Preclosure suitability criteria. DOE will evaluate preclosure...
10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.14 Preclosure suitability criteria. DOE will evaluate preclosure...
10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.14 Preclosure suitability criteria. DOE will evaluate preclosure...
10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination, Methods, and Criteria § 963.14 Preclosure suitability criteria. DOE will evaluate preclosure...
Formal verification of an oral messages algorithm for interactive consistency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rushby, John
1992-01-01
The formal specification and verification of an algorithm for Interactive Consistency based on the Oral Messages algorithm for Byzantine Agreement is described. We compare our treatment with that of Bevier and Young, who presented a formal specification and verification for a very similar algorithm. Unlike Bevier and Young, who observed that 'the invariant maintained in the recursive subcases of the algorithm is significantly more complicated than is suggested by the published proof' and who found its formal verification 'a fairly difficult exercise in mechanical theorem proving,' our treatment is very close to the previously published analysis of the algorithm, and our formal specification and verification are straightforward. This example illustrates how delicate choices in the formulation of the problem can have significant impact on the readability of its formal specification and on the tractability of its formal verification.
Systems immunology: a survey of modeling formalisms, applications and simulation tools.
Narang, Vipin; Decraene, James; Wong, Shek-Yoon; Aiswarya, Bindu S; Wasem, Andrew R; Leong, Shiang Rong; Gouaillard, Alexandre
2012-09-01
Immunological studies frequently analyze individual components (e.g., signaling pathways) of immune systems in a reductionist manner. In contrast, systems immunology aims to give a synthetic understanding of how these components function together as a whole. While immunological research involves in vivo and in vitro experiments, systems immunology research can also be conducted in silico. With an increasing interest in systems-level studies spawned by high-throughput technologies, many immunologists are looking forward to insights provided by computational modeling and simulation. However, modeling and simulation research has mainly been conducted in computational fields, and therefore, little material is available or accessible to immunologists today. This survey is an attempt at bridging the gap between immunologists and systems immunology modeling and simulation. Modeling and simulation refer to building and executing an in silico replica of an immune system. Models are specified within a mathematical or algorithmic framework called formalism and then implemented using software tools. A plethora of modeling formalisms and software tools are reported in the literature for systems immunology. However, it is difficult for a new entrant to the field to know which of these would be suitable for modeling an immunological application at hand. This paper covers three aspects. First, it introduces the field of system immunology emphasizing on the modeling and simulation components. Second, it gives an overview of the principal modeling formalisms, each of which is illustrated with salient applications in immunological research. This overview of formalisms and applications is conducted not only to illustrate their power but also to serve as a reference to assist immunologists in choosing the best formalism for the problem at hand. Third, it lists major software tools, which can be used to practically implement models in these formalisms. Combined, these aspects can help
Towards Rapid Recertification Using Formal Analysis
2015-04-30
Language ( OWL ), which is suitable for computer processing by an automated DL reasoning tool (Bechhofer et al., 2004). ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê...parser into Web Ontology Language ( OWL ). OWL can be analyzed automatically by freely available open source DL inference engines such as Pellet, Fact...used to analyze the OWL ontology, rather than the tools which parse the Application Profile Language syntax. For the purposes of our study, we used the
Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran
The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and
Formal Techniques for Synchronized Fault-Tolerant Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiVito, Ben L.; Butler, Ricky W.
1992-01-01
We present the formal verification of synchronizing aspects of the Reliable Computing Platform (RCP), a fault-tolerant computing system for digital flight control applications. The RCP uses NMR-style redundancy to mask faults and internal majority voting to purge the effects of transient faults. The system design has been formally specified and verified using the EHDM verification system. Our formalization is based on an extended state machine model incorporating snapshots of local processors clocks.
A formalism for the calculus of variations with spinors
Bäckdahl, Thomas; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.
2016-02-15
We develop a frame and dyad gauge-independent formalism for the calculus of variations of functionals involving spinorial objects. As a part of this formalism, we define a modified variation operator which absorbs frame and spin dyad gauge terms. This formalism is applicable to both the standard spacetime (i.e., SL(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors as well as to space (i.e., SU(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors. We compute expressions for the variations of the connection and the curvature spinors.
Formal modeling and verification of fractional order linear systems.
Zhao, Chunna; Shi, Likun; Guan, Yong; Li, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiping
2016-05-01
This paper presents a formalization of a fractional order linear system in a higher-order logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Based on the formalization of the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, we formally specify and verify the linear and superposition properties of fractional order systems. The proof provides a rigor and solid underpinnings for verifying concrete fractional order linear control systems. Our implementation in HOL demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in practical applications.
The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for higher order field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitagliano, Luca
2010-06-01
We generalize the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism of Skinner and Rusk to higher order field theories on fiber bundles. As a byproduct we solve the long standing problem of defining, in a coordinate free manner, a Hamiltonian formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories. Namely, our formalism does only depend on the action functional and, therefore, unlike previously proposed ones, is free from any relevant ambiguity.
The Most Suitable Habitats in the Galaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Paul A.
2016-06-01
Astrophysical environments constrain life on the surface of planets. The classical habitable zone characterized by stellar luminosity and temperature may be defined both for single stars and planets in binary star systems. However, in many cases, habitability is strongly affected by stellar UV radiation, winds, and catastrophic events such as nearby supernovae, GRBs, and AGN. Planets with sufficiently thick atmospheres and strong magnetic fields provide protection against radiation from the host star(s) and some nearby radiation events. Atmospheric ozone provides significant UV shield if present. Single star and binary winds provide additional protection for habitable zone planets from galactic cosmic-rays. In certain cases, binary star winds have increased protection over single stars, by providing a longer path-length against particle fluxes, since these binaries produce a higher wind flux and thus a larger “heliosphere” than a single star of comparable mass. Metallicity also plays an important role, with improvements in habitability increasing with stellar metallicity. It is proposed that circumbinary planets, Earth-like and super-Earths, with thick atmospheres, including ozone, high metallicity, and strong magnetic fields are the most suitable habitats in the Galaxy.
Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.
Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J
2009-02-01
Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole.
A Formal Semantics for the SRI Hierarchical Program Design Methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyer, R. S.; Moore, J. S.
1983-01-01
A formal statement of what it means to use (a subset of) the methodology is presented. It is formally defined that some specified module exists and what it means to say that another module is paid correctly implemented on top of it. No attention is to motivation, either of the methodology or of the formal development of it. Concentration is entirely upon mathematical succinctness and precision. A discussion is presented of how to use certain INTERLISP programs which implement the formal definitions. Among these are a program which generates Floyd like verification conditions sufficient to imply the correctness of a module implementation.
Functional Lagrange formalism for time-non-local Lagrangians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferialdi, L.; Bassi, A.
2012-05-01
We develop a time-non-local (TNL) formalism based on variational calculus, which allows for the analysis of TNL Lagrangians. We derive the generalized Euler-Lagrange equations starting from the Hamilton's principle and, by defining a generalized momentum, we introduce the corresponding Hamiltonian formalism. We apply the formalism to second order TNL Lagrangians and we show that it reproduces standard results in the time-local limit. An example will show how the formalism works, and will provide an interesting insight on the non-standard features of TNL equations.
Historical revision of the differential Stokes-Mueller formalism: discussion.
Arteaga, Oriol
2017-03-01
The differential Stokes-Mueller matrix formalism expresses the local evolution of the Mueller matrix or the Stokes parameters for light propagating through a homogeneous optical medium. This paper presents a historical revision of the development of the differential Stokes-Mueller matrix formalism and highlights several important early contributions that have been overlooked. Particularly relevant is that this formalism was pioneered as early as 1929 by Paul Soleillet, almost 50 years earlier than it has been usually assumed. This historical revision demonstrates that several different authors independently formulated the differential Stokes-Mueller formalism during the 20th century and they found equivalent results studying the propagation problem from different approaches.
On Applicability of Formal Methods and Tools to Dependable Services
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, Fuyuki; Honiden, Shinichi
As a variety of digital services are provided through networks, more and more efforts are made to ensure dependability of software behavior implementing services. Formal methods and tools have been considered as promising means to support dependability in complex software systems during the development. On the other hand, there have been serious doubts on practical applicability of formal methods. This paper overviews the present state of formal methods and discusses their applicability, especially focusing on two representative methods (SPIN and B Method) and their recent industrial applications. This paper also discusses applications of formal methods to dependable networked software.
Formal policies for flexible EHR security.
Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter
2006-01-01
State of the Art methodologies for establishing requirements and solutions to securing applications are based on narrative descriptions about the use of available system, sometimes also dedicated to system components. Even nowadays new developments to ruling application security services by the use of predicate logic suffer from being administered manually. Therefore, security and privacy requirements cannot be properly met resulting in restrictions and fears for allowing the use of sensitive data and functions. Because of the sensitivity of personal health information and especially of genetic data with its wider implications beyond the original subject of care, weaknesses in guaranteeing fine-grained security and privacy rules lead to less acceptance or even the avoidance of essential information transfer and use. To overcome the problem, security and privacy have to become properties of the architectural components of the respective health information system. Embedding security into the systems architecture allows for negotiating and enforcing any security and privacy services related to principals, their roles, their relationships, further contextual information as well as other regulations summarized in formally modeled policies. The paper introduces the evolving paradigm of the model-driven architecture, first time also comprehensively deployed for security and privacy services in bio-genetic and health information systems.
Toward solotronics design in the Wigner formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellier, J. M.; Dimov, I.
2015-01-01
The capability of manipulating single dopant atoms in semiconductor materials, with atomic precision, has given birth to a new branch of electronics known as solotronics (solitary dopant optoelectronics). While experiments are advancing rapidly, the theoretical comprehension of quantum phenomena occurring at that scale is relatively basic. Indeed, in this context, simulations come with incredible mathematical challenges. This eventually prevents practical design and optimization of solotronic devices. In this work, we focus our attention on a planar honeycomb structure exploiting single dopants embedded in silicon and study under which conditions it behaves as an electron ballistic channel. To this aim, we apply the time-dependent Wigner Monte Carlo formalism, based on signed particles to simulate and analyze the phenomena occurring in the proposed structure. We show that, by positioning the dopant atoms (phosphorus and boron) in particular planar patterns (honeycomb), it is possible to control the dynamics of a single electron. Finally, by introducing spatial distortions, we can show how the time-dependent electron dynamics is eventually affected. The results confirm that the Wigner Monte Carlo method is an efficient TCAD (Technology Computer Aided Design) tool which can be exploited for the time-dependent simulation of even more realistic situations necessary for the design of active solotronic devices.
Boltzmann hierarchy for interacting neutrinos I: formalism
Oldengott, Isabel M.; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y. E-mail: cornelius.rampf@port.ac.uk
2015-04-01
Starting from the collisional Boltzmann equation, we derive for the first time and from first principles the Boltzmann hierarchy for neutrinos including interactions with a scalar particle. Such interactions appear, for example, in majoron-like models of neutrino mass generation. We study two limits of the scalar mass: (i) An extremely massive scalar whose only role is to mediate an effective 4-fermion neutrino-neutrino interaction, and (ii) a massless scalar that can be produced in abundance and thus demands its own Boltzmann hierarchy. In contrast to, e.g., the first-order Boltzmann hierarchy for Thomson-scattering photons, our interacting neutrino/scalar Boltzmann hierarchies contain additional momentum-dependent collision terms arising from a non-negligible energy transfer in the neutrino-neutrino and neutrino-scalar interactions. This necessitates that we track each momentum mode of the phase space distributions individually, even if the particles were massless. Comparing our hierarchy with the commonly used (c{sub eff}{sup 2},c{sub vis}{sup 2})-parameterisation, we find no formal correspondence between the two approaches, which raises the question of whether the latter parameterisation even has an interpretation in terms of particle scattering. Lastly, although we have invoked majoron-like models as a motivation for our study, our treatment is in fact generally applicable to all scenarios in which the neutrino and/or other ultrarelativistic fermions interact with scalar particles.
Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farley, Todd
2009-01-01
The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.
The Parametrized Post-Newtonian-Vainshteinian formalism
Avilez-Lopez, A.; Padilla, A.; Saffin, Paul M.; Skordis, C. E-mail: antonio.padilla@nottingham.ac.uk E-mail: skordis@ucy.ac.cy
2015-06-01
Light degrees of freedom that modify gravity on cosmological scales must be ''screened' on solar system scales in order to be compatible with data. The Vainshtein mechanism achieves this through a breakdown of classical perturbation theory, as large interactions involving new degrees of freedom become important below the so-called Vainshtein radius. We begin to develop an extension of the Parameterized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism that is able to handle Vainshteinian corrections. We argue that theories with a unique Vainshtein scale must be expanded using two small parameters. In this Parameterized Post-Newtonian-Vainshteinian (PPNV) expansion, the primary expansion parameter that controls the PPN order is, as usual, the velocity v. The secondary expansion parameter, α, controls the strength of the Vainshteinian correction and is a theory-specific combination of the Schwarzschild radius and the Vainshtein radius of the source that is independent of its mass. We present the general framework and apply it to Cubic Galileon theory both inside and outside the Vainshtein radius. The PPNV framework can be used to determine the compatibility of such theories with solar system and other strong-field data.
Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic
Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert
2015-01-01
How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311
Whatever Happened to Formal Methods for Security?
Voas, J.; Schaffer, K.
2016-01-01
We asked 7 experts 7 questions to find out what has occurred recently in terms of applying formal methods (FM) to security-centric, cyber problems. We are continually reminded of the 1996 paper by Tony Hoare “How did Software Get So Reliable Without Proof?” [1] In that vein, how did we get so insecure with proof? Given daily press announcements concerning new malware, data breaches, and privacy loss, is FM still relevant or was it ever? Our experts answered with unique personal insights. We were curious as to whether this successful methodology in “safety-critical” has succeeded as well for today’s “build it, hack it, patch it” mindset. Our experts were John McLean (Naval Research Labs), Paul Black (National Institute of Standards and Technology), Karl Levitt (University of California at Davis), Joseph Williams (CloudEconomist.Com), Connie Heitmeyer (Naval Research Labs), Eugene Spafford (Purdue University), and Joseph Kiniry (Galois, Inc.). The questions and responses follow. PMID:27890940
Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.
Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio
2011-05-01
Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jamsek, Damir A.
1993-01-01
A brief example of the use of formal methods techniques in the specification of a software system is presented. The report is part of a larger effort targeted at defining a formal methods pilot project for NASA. One possible application domain that may be used to demonstrate the effective use of formal methods techniques within the NASA environment is presented. It is not intended to provide a tutorial on either formal methods techniques or the application being addressed. It should, however, provide an indication that the application being considered is suitable for a formal methods by showing how such a task may be started. The particular system being addressed is the Structured File Services (SFS), which is a part of the Data Storage and Retrieval Subsystem (DSAR), which in turn is part of the Data Management System (DMS) onboard Spacestation Freedom. This is a software system that is currently under development for NASA. An informal mathematical development is presented. Section 3 contains the same development using Penelope (23), an Ada specification and verification system. The complete text of the English version Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is reproduced in Appendix A.
Formal education and back pain: a review
Dionne, C; Von Korff, M; Koepsell, T; Deyo, R; Barlow, W; Checkoway, H
2001-01-01
OBJECTIVES—To summarise the scientific evidence on the relation between educational status and measures of the frequency and the consequences of back pain and of the outcomes of interventions among back pain patients, and to outline possible mechanisms that could explain such an association if found. DESIGN—Sixty four articles published between 1966 and 2000 that documented the association of formal education with back pain were reviewed. MAIN RESULTS—Overall, the current available evidence points indirectly to a stronger association of low education with longer duration and/or higher recurrence of back pain than to an association with onset. The many reports of an association of low education with adverse consequences of back pain also suggest that the course of a back pain episode is less favourable among persons with low educational attainment. Mechanisms that could explain these associations include variations in behavioural and environmental risk factors by educational status, differences in occupational factors, compromised "health stock" among people with low education, differences in access to and utilisation of health services, and adaptation to stress. Although lower education was not associated with the outcomes of interventions in major studies, it is difficult, in light of the current limited available evidence, to draw firm conclusions on this association. CONCLUSION—Scientific evidence supports the hypothesis that less well educated people are more likely to be affected by disabling back pain. Further study of this association may help advance our understanding of back pain as well as understanding of the relation between socioeconomic status and disease as a general phenomenon. Keywords: back pain; educational status PMID:11413174
A formal model of interpersonal inference
Moutoussis, Michael; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; El-Deredy, Wael; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.
2014-01-01
Introduction: We propose that active Bayesian inference—a general framework for decision-making—can equally be applied to interpersonal exchanges. Social cognition, however, entails special challenges. We address these challenges through a novel formulation of a formal model and demonstrate its psychological significance. Method: We review relevant literature, especially with regards to interpersonal representations, formulate a mathematical model and present a simulation study. The model accommodates normative models from utility theory and places them within the broader setting of Bayesian inference. Crucially, we endow people's prior beliefs, into which utilities are absorbed, with preferences of self and others. The simulation illustrates the model's dynamics and furnishes elementary predictions of the theory. Results: (1) Because beliefs about self and others inform both the desirability and plausibility of outcomes, in this framework interpersonal representations become beliefs that have to be actively inferred. This inference, akin to “mentalizing” in the psychological literature, is based upon the outcomes of interpersonal exchanges. (2) We show how some well-known social-psychological phenomena (e.g., self-serving biases) can be explained in terms of active interpersonal inference. (3) Mentalizing naturally entails Bayesian updating of how people value social outcomes. Crucially this includes inference about one's own qualities and preferences. Conclusion: We inaugurate a Bayes optimal framework for modeling intersubject variability in mentalizing during interpersonal exchanges. Here, interpersonal representations are endowed with explicit functional and affective properties. We suggest the active inference framework lends itself to the study of psychiatric conditions where mentalizing is distorted. PMID:24723872
[Climate suitability for tea growing in Zhejiang Province].
Jin, Zhi-Feng; Ye, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zai-Qiang; Sun, Rui; Hu, Bo; Li, Ren-Zhong
2014-04-01
It is important to quantitatively assess the climate suitability of tea and its response to climate change. Based on meteorological indices of tea growth and daily meteorological data from 1971 to 2010 in Zhejiang Province, three climate suitability models for single climate factors, including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, were established at a 10-day scale by using the fuzzy mathematics method, and a comprehensive climate suitability model was established with the geometric average method. The results indicated that the climate suitability was high in the tea growth season in Zhejiang Province, and the three kinds of climate suitability were all higher than 0.6. As for the single factor climate suitability, temperature suitability was the highest and sunshine suitability was the lowest. There were obvious inter-annual variations of tea climate suitability, with a decline trend in the 1970s, less variation in the 1980s, and an obvious incline trend after the 1990s. The change tendency of climate suitability for spring tea was similar with that of annual climate suitability, lower in the 1980s, higher in the 1970s and after the 1990s. However, the variation amplitude of the climate suitability for spring tea was larger. The climate suitability for summer tea and autumn tea showed a decline trend from 1971 to 2010.
On a purported local extension of the quantum formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melia, Joseph; Redhead, Michael
1999-09-01
It is widely believed that Bell has proved there can be no consistent local extension of the quantum formalism. Against this, Angelidis has presented a hidden variable theory which, he claims, makes precisely the same predictions as the quantum formalism and which also satisfies locality. In this note, we argue that Angelidis' theory does not live up to its inventor's claims.
How Online Journalists Learn within a Non-Formal Context
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kronstad, Morten; Eide, Martin
2015-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of workplace learning, with a focus on the non-formal learning that takes place among online journalists. The focus of this article is journalists working in an online newspaper and their experiences with workplace and non-formal learning, centering on framework conditions…
Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.
2011-01-01
The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…
Adolescent Egocentrism and Formal Operations: Tests of a Theoretical Assumption.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lapsley, David K.; And Others
1986-01-01
Describes two studies of the theoretical relation between adolescent egocentrism and formal operations. Study 1 used the Adolescent Egocentrism Scale (AES) and Lunzer's battery of formal reasoning tasks to assess 183 adolescents. Study 2 administered the AES, the Imaginary Audience Scale (IAS), and the Test of Logical Thinking to 138 adolescents.…
Formal or Nonformal Education? Entrepreneurial Women in Ghana.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robertson, Claire C.
1984-01-01
Ghanian women have a long history as traders. In early 1978, 42 Central Accra schoolgirls and 42 girls engaged in selling were surveyed to determine the relationship of formal education to marketing skills. Formal education was not significantly helpful in promoting schoolgirls' trading knowledge nor in providing skills likely to land them jobs.…
Does the nontrivially deformed field-antifield formalism exist?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
2015-06-01
We reformulate the Lagrange deformed field-antifield BV-formalism suggested, in terms of the general Euler vector field N generated by the antisymplectic potential. That N generalizes, in a natural anticanonically-invariant manner, the usual power-counting operator. We provide for the "usual" gauge-fixing mechanism as applied to the deformed BV-formalism.
47 CFR 6.16 - Informal or formal complaints.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informal or formal complaints. 6.16 Section 6..., TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AND CUSTOMER PREMISES EQUIPMENT BY PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 6.16 Informal or formal complaints. Complaints against manufacturers or providers, as defined under this...
47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...
47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...
47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...
47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...
Blending Formal and Informal Learning Networks for Online Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Czerkawski, Betül C.
2016-01-01
With the emergence of social software and the advance of web-based technologies, online learning networks provide invaluable opportunities for learning, whether formal or informal. Unlike top-down, instructor-centered, and carefully planned formal learning settings, informal learning networks offer more bottom-up, student-centered participatory…
On the Equivalence of Formal Grammars and Machines.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lund, Bruce
1991-01-01
Explores concepts of formal language and automata theory underlying computational linguistics. A computational formalism is described known as a "logic grammar," with which computational systems process linguistic data, with examples in declarative and procedural semantics and definite clause grammars. (13 references) (CB)
Beyond Formalism: Literary Criticism Now and in the Immediate Future.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Standley, Fred L.
Formalism, an amalgamation of literary critical methods originating in the 1920's, which emphasize close textual analysis of the literary work itself, is declining as the predominant critical approach due to its self-imposed limitations. New perspectives, attempting to counter the fragmentation of formalism and demonstrating an awareness of the…
The Archival Photograph and Its Meaning: Formalisms for Modeling Images
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benson, Allen C.
2009-01-01
This article explores ontological principles and their potential applications in the formal description of archival photographs. Current archival descriptive practices are reviewed and the larger question is addressed: do archivists who are engaged in describing photographs need a more formalized system of representation, or do existing encoding…
Automatically Grading Customer Confidence in a Formal Specification.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shukur, Zarina; Burke, Edmund; Foxley, Eric
1999-01-01
Describes an automatic grading system for a formal methods computer science course that is able to evaluate a formal specification written in the Z language. Quality is measured by considering first, specification correctness (syntax, semantics, and satisfaction of customer requirements), and second, specification maintainability (comparison of…
49 CFR 209.8 - Depositions in formal proceedings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depositions in formal proceedings. 209.8 Section... in formal proceedings. (a) Any party to a proceeding under subpart B, C, or D of this part may take... witnesses may be compelled by subpoena as provided in § 209.7 and, for proceedings under subpart D of...
The Role of Formal Rules in Pronunciation Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dickerson, Wayne B.
Both aural-oral practice with the sounds of English and formal rules are important in pronunciation instruction, and have a role to play in interlanguage development. Formal rules provide self-evaluation for purposes of self-correction, a process which allows learners to judge or self-correct their own utterances against rule-generated predictions…
Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.
2015-01-01
This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…
Academic Achievement and Formal Thought in Engineering Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vazquez, Stella Maris; de Anglat, Hilda Difabio
2009-01-01
Introduction: Research on university-level academic performance has significantly linked failure and dropping out to formal reasoning deficiency. We have not found any papers on formal thought in Argentine university students, in spite of the obvious shortcomings observed in the classrooms. Thus, the main objective of this paper was exploring the…
I, Pronoun: A Study of Formality in Online Content
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thayer, Alexander; Evans, Mary B.; McBride, Alicia A.; Queen, Matt; Spyridakis, Jan H.
2010-01-01
This article presents the results of a study that investigated readers' perceptions of tone formality in online text passages. The study found that readers perceived text passages to be less formal when they contained personal pronouns, active voice verbs, informal punctuation, or verb contractions. The study reveals that professional…
Integrating Formal and Grounded Representations in Combinatorics Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.
2013-01-01
The terms "concreteness fading" and "progressive formalization" have been used to describe instructional approaches to science and mathematics that use grounded representations to introduce concepts and later transition to more formal representations of the same concepts. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to…
Home Education Transitions with Formal Schooling: Student Perspectives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Glenda
2007-01-01
Home education is a well established phenomenon in Australia but little is known about the movement of students between home schooling and formal education and how students view and handle the transitions. A sociocultural theoretical framework has been used to explore student perceptions of their transition experiences between formal education and…
Toward the Characterization of Non-Formal Pedagogy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silberman-Keller, Diana
This study examined characteristic attributes of non-formal education and the non-formal pedagogy directing its teaching and learning processes. Data were collected on organizational and pedagogical characteristics in several out-of-school organizations (youth movements, youth organizations, community centers, bypass educational systems, local…
Toward a mathematical formalism of performance, task difficulty, and activation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samaras, George M.
1988-01-01
The rudiments of a mathematical formalism for handling operational, physiological, and psychological concepts are developed for use by the man-machine system design engineer. The formalism provides a framework for developing a structured, systematic approach to the interface design problem, using existing mathematical tools, and simplifying the problem of telling a machine how to measure and use performance.
7 CFR 1487.7 - How are agreements formalized?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are agreements formalized? 1487.7 Section 1487.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT....7 How are agreements formalized? Following the approval of a proposal, the CCC will enter into...
10 CFR 963.12 - Preclosure suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
....12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.13 and 963.14 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... under § 963.13 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable radiation...
10 CFR 963.13 - Preclosure suitability evaluation method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.13 Section 963.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site using the method described in paragraph (b) of this...
10 CFR 963.15 - Postclosure suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
....15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.16 and 963.17 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... conducted under § 963.16 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable...
10 CFR 963.13 - Preclosure suitability evaluation method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.13 Section 963.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site using the method described in paragraph (b) of this...
10 CFR 963.12 - Preclosure suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
....12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.13 and 963.14 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... under § 963.13 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable radiation...
10 CFR 963.12 - Preclosure suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
....12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.13 and 963.14 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... under § 963.13 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable radiation...
10 CFR 963.12 - Preclosure suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
....12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.13 and 963.14 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... under § 963.13 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable radiation...
10 CFR 963.13 - Preclosure suitability evaluation method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.13 Section 963.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site using the method described in paragraph (b) of this...
10 CFR 963.12 - Preclosure suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
....12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.13 and 963.14 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... under § 963.13 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable radiation...
10 CFR 963.13 - Preclosure suitability evaluation method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.13 Section 963.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site using the method described in paragraph (b) of this...
10 CFR 963.15 - Postclosure suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
....15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.16 and 963.17 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... conducted under § 963.16 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable...
10 CFR 963.15 - Postclosure suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
....15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.16 and 963.17 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... conducted under § 963.16 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable...
10 CFR 963.15 - Postclosure suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
....15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.16 and 963.17 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... conducted under § 963.16 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable...
10 CFR 963.15 - Postclosure suitability determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
....15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... and criteria described in §§ 963.16 and 963.17 to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site... conducted under § 963.16 show that the Yucca Mountain site is likely to meet the applicable...
10 CFR 963.13 - Preclosure suitability evaluation method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preclosure suitability evaluation method. 963.13 Section 963.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site using the method described in paragraph (b) of this...
5 CFR 731.105 - Authority to take suitability actions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority to take suitability actions. 731.105 Section 731.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.105 Authority to take suitability actions....
5 CFR 731.105 - Authority to take suitability actions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to take suitability actions. 731.105 Section 731.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.105 Authority to take suitability actions....
5 CFR 731.105 - Authority to take suitability actions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority to take suitability actions. 731.105 Section 731.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.105 Authority to take suitability actions....
5 CFR 731.105 - Authority to take suitability actions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority to take suitability actions. 731.105 Section 731.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.105 Authority to take suitability actions....
46 CFR 90.10-38 - Specially suitable for vehicles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specially suitable for vehicles. 90.10-38 Section 90.10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-38 Specially suitable for vehicles. A space which is specially suitable for vehicles is one designed for the carriage of automobiles...
46 CFR 90.10-38 - Specially suitable for vehicles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specially suitable for vehicles. 90.10-38 Section 90.10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-38 Specially suitable for vehicles. A space which is specially suitable for vehicles is one designed for the carriage of automobiles...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga
2010-01-01
This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eaton, Sarah Elaine
2010-01-01
This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to literacy and essential skills, as well as the learning of second and other languages in Canada. It builds upon the work of the OECD (n.d.) and Werquin…
Correlates of formal reasoning: Content and problem effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven; Gans, Adrienne
Piaget's structural theory of formal thought suggests that a general construct of formal reasoning exists. The content of the task and type of problem employed are often ignored in Piagetian based studies but are important for generalizing findings to other studies and to educational problems. The study reported here examines content and problem effects of formal thought in 13-year-old adolescents. Specifically, three controlling variables tasks with different content and two question type tests (analysis and controlling questions) were administered to 120 seventh graders. Ability measures and personality dimensions associated with formal reasoning in the literature are used to clarify what formal reasoning is and how content and problem type are involved in formal reasoning. Significant main effects were found for problem and content effects (p = 0.001), and a significant interaction was found between the two (p = 0.001). Across the three tasks general ability, field dependency, and locus of control were consistently and significantly related to the controlling questions. However, only measures of field dependency were related to the analysis questions. Combinations of ability and personality factors were found to be uniquely related to each task, within each question type. Results have implications for a theory of formal thought and the teaching of the controlling variables strategy.
Automatic derivation of formal software specifications from informal descriptions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miriyala, Kanth; Harandi, Mehdi T.
1991-01-01
SPECIFIER, an interactive system which derives formal specifications of data types and programs from their informal descriptions, is described. The process of deriving formal specifications is viewed as a problem-solving process. The system uses common problem-solving techniques such as schemas, analogy, and difference-based reasoning to derive formal specifications. If an informal description is a commonly occurring operation for which the system has a schema, then the formal specification is derived by instantiating the schema. If there is no such schema, SPECIFIER tries to find a previously solved problem which is analogous to the current problem. If the problem found is directly analogous to the current problem, it applies an analogy mapping to obtain a formal specification. On the other hand, if the analogy found is only approximate, it solves the directly analogous part of the problem by analogy and performs difference-based reasoning using the remaining (unmatched) parts to transform the formal specification obtained by analogy to a formal specification for the entire original problem.
What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawson, Anton E.
Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.
A review of research on formal reasoning and science teaching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawson, Anton E.
A central purpose of education is to improve students' reasoning abilities. The present review examines research in developmental psychology and science education that has attempted to assess the validity of Piaget's theory of formal thought and its relation to educational practice. Should a central objective of schools be to help students become formal thinkers? To answer this question research has focused on the following subordinate questions: (1) What role does biological maturation play in the development of formal reasoning? (2) Are Piaget's formal tasks reliable and valid? (3) Does formal reasoning constitute a unified and general mode of intellectual functioning? (4) How does the presence or absence of formal reasoning affect school achievement? (5) Can formal reasoning be taught? (6) What is the structural or functional nature of advanced reasoning? The general conclusion drawn is that although Piaget's work and that which has sprung from it leaves a number of unresolved theoretical and methodological problems, it provides an important background from which to make substantial progress toward a most significant educational objective.All our dignity lies in thought. By thought we must elevate ourselves, not by space and time which we can not fill. Let us endeavor then to think well; therein lies the principle of morality. Blaise Pascal 1623-1662.
Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi
Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David
2011-10-01
In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ How much could these areas produce sustainably? ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ
Proceedings of the Second NASA Formal Methods Symposium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Munoz, Cesar (Editor)
2010-01-01
This publication contains the proceedings of the Second NASA Formal Methods Symposium sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and held in Washington D.C. April 13-15, 2010. Topics covered include: Decision Engines for Software Analysis using Satisfiability Modulo Theories Solvers; Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems; Formal Methods at Intel -- An Overview; Automatic Review of Abstract State Machines by Meta Property Verification; Hardware-independent Proofs of Numerical Programs; Slice-based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z; How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project; A Machine-Checked Proof of A State-Space Construction Algorithm; Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Omega-Regular Systems and Specifications; Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving; Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol; Can Regulatory Bodies Expect Efficient Help from Formal Methods?; Synthesis of Greedy Algorithms Using Dominance Relations; A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines; Verification of Faulty Message Passing Systems with Continuous State Space in PVS; Phase Two Feasibility Study for Software Safety Requirements Analysis Using Model Checking; A Prototype Embedding of Bluespec System Verilog in the PVS Theorem Prover; SimCheck: An Expressive Type System for Simulink; Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness; Software Model Checking of ARINC-653 Flight Code with MCP; Evaluation of a Guideline by Formal Modelling of Cruise Control System in Event-B; Formal Verification of Large Software Systems; Symbolic Computation of Strongly Connected Components Using Saturation; Towards the Formal Verification of a Distributed Real-Time Automotive System; Slicing AADL Specifications for Model Checking; Model Checking with Edge-valued Decision Diagrams
Formal Specification of the OpenMP Memory Model
Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B
2006-12-19
OpenMP [2] is an important API for shared memory programming, combining shared memory's potential for performance with a simple programming interface. Unfortunately, OpenMP lacks a critical tool for demonstrating whether programs are correct: a formal memory model. Instead, the current official definition of the OpenMP memory model (the OpenMP 2.5 specification [2]) is in terms of informal prose. As a result, it is impossible to verify OpenMP applications formally since the prose does not provide a formal consistency model that precisely describes how reads and writes on different threads interact. We expand on our previous work that focused on the formal verification of OpenMP programs through a formal memory model [?]. As in that work, our formalization, which is derived from the existing prose model [2], provides a two-step process to verify whether an observed OpenMP execution is conformant. This paper extends the model to cover the entire specification. In addition to this formalization, our contributions include a discussion of ambiguities in the current prose-based memory model description. Although our formal model may not capture the current informal memory model perfectly, in part due to these ambiguities, our model reflects our understanding of the informal model's intent. We conclude with several examples that may indicate areas of the OpenMP memory model that need further refinement, however it is specified. Our goal is to motivate the OpenMP community to adopt those refinements eventually, ideally through a formal model, in later OpenMP specifications.
A Formalization of HIPAA for a Medical Messaging System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Peifung E.; Mitchell, John C.; Sundaram, Sharada
The complexity of regulations in healthcare, financial services, and other industries makes it difficult for enterprises to design and deploy effective compliance systems. We believe that in some applications, it may be practical to support compliance by using formalized portions of applicable laws to regulate business processes that use information systems. In order to explore this possibility, we use a stratified fragment of Prolog with limited use of negation to formalize a portion of the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). As part of our study, we also explore the deployment of our formalization in a prototype hospital Web portal messaging system.
Multisymplectic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formalisms of Classical Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Román-Roy, Narciso
2009-11-01
This review paper is devoted to presenting the standard multisymplectic formulation for describing geometrically classical field theories, both the regular and singular cases. First, the main features of the Lagrangian formalism are revisited and, second, the Hamiltonian formalism is constructed using Hamiltonian sections. In both cases, the variational principles leading to the Euler-Lagrange and the Hamilton-De Donder-Weyl equations, respectively, are stated, and these field equations are given in different but equivalent geometrical ways in each formalism. Finally, both are unified in a new formulation (which has been developed in the last years), following the original ideas of Rusk and Skinner for mechanical systems.
Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Echeverría-Enríquez, Arturo; López, Carlos; Marín-Solano, Jesús; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso
2004-01-01
The Rusk-Skinner formalism was developed in order to give a geometrical unified formalism for describing mechanical systems. It incorporates all the characteristics of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian descriptions of these systems (including dynamical equations and solutions, constraints, Legendre map, evolution operators, equivalence, etc.). In this work we extend this unified framework to first-order classical field theories, and show how this description comprises the main features of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, both for the regular and singular cases. This formulation is a first step toward further applications in optimal control theory for partial differential equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bin
Spatial control behaviors account for a large proportion of human everyday activities from normal daily tasks, such as reaching for objects, to specialized tasks, such as driving, surgery, or operating equipment. These behaviors involve intensive interactions within internal processes (i.e. cognitive, perceptual, and motor control) and with the physical world. This dissertation builds on a concept of interaction pattern and a hierarchical functional model. Interaction pattern represents a type of behavior synergy that humans coordinates cognitive, perceptual, and motor control processes. It contributes to the construction of the hierarchical functional model that delineates humans spatial control behaviors as the coordination of three functional subsystems: planning, guidance, and tracking/pursuit. This dissertation formalizes and validates these two theories and extends them for the investigation of human spatial control skills encompassing development and assessment. Specifically, this dissertation first presents an overview of studies in human spatial control skills encompassing definition, characteristic, development, and assessment, to provide theoretical evidence for the concept of interaction pattern and the hierarchical functional model. The following, the human experiments for collecting motion and gaze data and techniques to register and classify gaze data, are described. This dissertation then elaborates and mathematically formalizes the hierarchical functional model and the concept of interaction pattern. These theories then enables the construction of a succinct simulation model that can reproduce a variety of human performance with a minimal set of hypotheses. This validates the hierarchical functional model as a normative framework for interpreting human spatial control behaviors. The dissertation then investigates human skill development and captures the emergence of interaction pattern. The final part of the dissertation applies the hierarchical
Land-use suitability analysis for urban development in Beijing.
Liu, Renzhi; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair G L
2014-12-01
Land-use suitability analyses are of considerable use in the planning of mega-cities. An Urban Development Land-use Suitability Mapping (UDLSM) approach has been constructed, based on opportunity and constraint criteria. Two Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, the Ideal Point Method (IPM) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), were used to generate the opportunity map. The protection map was obtained by means of constraint criteria, utilizing the Boolean union operator. A suitability map was then generated by overlaying the opportunity and protection maps. By applying the UDLSM approach to Beijing, its urban development land-use suitability was mapped, and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to examine the robustness of the proposed approach. Indirect validation was achieved by mutual comparisons of suitability maps resulting from the two MCE methods, where the overall agreement of 91% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 indicated that both methods provide very similar spatial land-use suitability distributions. The suitability level decreases from central Beijing to its periphery, and the area classed as suitable amounts to 28% of the total area. Leading attributes of each opportunity factor for suitability were revealed, with 2256 km(2), i.e. 70%, of existing development land being overlaid by suitable areas in Beijing. Conflicting parcels of land were identified by overlaying the resultant map with two previous development blueprints for Beijing. The paper includes several recommendations aimed at improving the long-term urban development plans for Beijing.
Formal reasoning on qualitative models of coinfection of HIV and Tuberculosis and HAART therapy
2010-01-01
descriptions that suitably account for aspects of interests; iii) suggest that the integration of different models together with automated reasoning techniques can improve the understanding of infections and therapies through formal analysis methodologies. Conclusion We argue that the described methodology suitably supports the study of viral infections in a formal, automated and expressive manner. We envisage a long-term contribution of this kind of approaches to clinical Bioinformatics and Translational Medicine. PMID:20122243
Dominant partition method. [based on a wave function formalism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.
1979-01-01
By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) wave function formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.
Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.
Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick
2013-06-01
This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.
Why are Formal Methods Not Used More Widely?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, John C.; DeJong, Colleen L.; Gibble, Matthew S.; Nakano, Luis G.
1997-01-01
Despite extensive development over many years and significant demonstrated benefits, formal methods remain poorly accepted by industrial practitioners. Many reasons have been suggested for this situation such as a claim that they extent the development cycle, that they require difficult mathematics, that inadequate tools exist, and that they are incompatible with other software packages. There is little empirical evidence that any of these reasons is valid. The research presented here addresses the question of why formal methods are not used more widely. The approach used was to develop a formal specification for a safety-critical application using several specification notations and assess the results in a comprehensive evaluation framework. The results of the experiment suggests that there remain many impediments to the routine use of formal methods.
Rayleigh-Lagrange formalism for classical dissipative systems.
Virga, Epifanio G
2015-01-01
It is often believed that the Rayleigh-Lagrange formalism for classical dissipative systems is unable to encompass forces described by nonlinear functions of the velocities. Here we show that this is indeed a misconception.
Formal methods and digital systems validation for airborne systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rushby, John
1993-01-01
This report has been prepared to supplement a forthcoming chapter on formal methods in the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Its purpose is as follows: to outline the technical basis for formal methods in computer science; to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used on board aircraft; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. These latter factors assume the context for software development and assurance described in RTCA document DO-178B, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification,' Dec. 1992.
CSR-induced emittance growth in achromats: Linear formalism revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venturini, M.
2015-09-01
We review the R-matrix formalism used to describe Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR)-induced projected emittance growth in electron beam transport lines and establish the connection with a description in terms of the dispersion-invariant function.
Experiences Using Lightweight Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David
1997-01-01
This paper describes three case studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, formal methods enhanced the existing verification and validation processes, by testing key properties of the evolving requirements, and helping to identify weaknesses. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.
A logarithmic correction in the entropy functional formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammad, Fayçal; Faizal, Mir
2016-04-01
The entropy functional formalism allows one to recover general relativity, modified gravity theories, as well as the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula. In most approaches to quantum gravity, the Bekenstein-Hawking’s entropy formula acquires a logarithmic correction term. As such terms occur almost universally in most approaches to quantum gravity, we analyze the effect of such terms on the entropy functional formalism. We demonstrate that the leading correction to the micro-canonical entropy in the entropy functional formalism can be used to recover modified theories of gravity already obtained with an uncorrected micro-canonical entropy. Furthermore, since the entropy functional formalism reproduces modified gravity, the rise of gravity-dependent logarithmic corrections turns out to be one way to impose constraints on these theories of modified gravity. The constraints found here for the simple case of an ℱ(R)-gravity are the same as those obtained in the literature from cosmological considerations.
Bridging the Gap Between Formal and Informal Science Education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamel, C.
2001-12-01
Formal learning skills are enhanced throughout our daily lives through the public media, (television, newspapers, radio); while hiking our favorite park; or by visiting a museum or science center. Over the past few years the informal science community has started to bridge the gap with the formal education community. Although few informal education organizations have established set curriculum guidelines, many have adapted the use of the National Science Standards. In so doing, these organizations have raised their level of professionalism. Many formal school programs are now actively seeking collaborative science education programs to enhance and expand their hands-on, inquiry based curriculia through informal science organizations. This paper/presentation will address my current research within this field. I will discuss selected federal science agencies education and outreach efforts. Key points will include media useage, age of target audiences, credentials of interpretation staff, and level(s) of collaboration with formal schools.
Formal Approaches to Ensuring the Safety of Space Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd
2006-01-01
A viewgraph describing formal approaches taken to assure the safety of space software is presented. The topics include: 1) Certifiable Program Generation; 2) Certification Framework; 3) Annotation Generation; 4) Experiments; and 5) Future Work.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weber, Doug; Jamsek, Damir
1994-01-01
The goal of this task was to investigate how formal methods could be incorporated into a software engineering process for flight-control systems under DO-178B and to demonstrate that process by developing a formal specification for NASA's Guidance and Controls Software (GCS) Experiment. GCS is software to control the descent of a spacecraft onto a planet's surface. The GCS example is simplified from a real example spacecraft, but exhibits the characteristics of realistic spacecraft control software. The formal specification is written in Larch.
Formal Foundations for the Specification of Software Architecture.
1995-03-01
AFIT/DSG/ENG/95M-01 "DTIC ELECTE AUG 1 5 1995 F FORMAL FOUNDATIONS FOR THE SPECIFICATION OF SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE DISSERTATION Mark James Gerken...Captain, USAF AFIT/DSG/ENG/95M-O1 19950811 050 DTI QUALIT1 CTD 5 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited AFIT/DSG/ENG/95M-01 FORMAL...4-13 4.4 Summary ..................................... 4-15 V. Mathematical Foundations ................................... 5 -1 5.1
Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso
2012-07-01
The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.
Bridging the Semantic Gap Between Heterogeneous Modeling Formalisms and FMI
2014-04-25
Bridging the Semantic Gap Between Heterogeneous Modeling Formalisms and FMI Stavros Tripakis David Broman Electrical Engineering and Computer...Modeling Formalisms and FMI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT FMI (Functional Mockup Interface) is a standard for exchanging and co-simulating model components (called FMUs) coming
Formal functional test designs with a test representation language
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hops, J. M.
1993-01-01
The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subset for effective testing. An automatic tool and a formal language were developed to implement the method and produce the specification of test cases.
FORMED: Bringing Formal Methods to the Engineering Desktop
2016-02-01
other languages and tools, such as Coq. While the language was easy to pick up, based on Lisp, the tools took a while to learn . Documentation...Tree DSL Domain Specific Language FORMED Formal Methods Engineering Desktop IDE Integrated Development Environment OCL Object Constraint Language ... integrates formal verification into software design and development by precisely defining semantics for a restricted subset of the Unified Modeling
Proceedings of the First NASA Formal Methods Symposium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denney, Ewen (Editor); Giannakopoulou, Dimitra (Editor); Pasareanu, Corina S. (Editor)
2009-01-01
Topics covered include: Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem; Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice; TLA+: Whence, Wherefore, and Whither; Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation; Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design; Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering; Model Checking for Autonomic Systems Specified with ASSL; A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process; Software Model Checking Without Source Code; Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries; A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing; Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design; Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3; A Module Language for Typing by Contracts; From Goal-Oriented Requirements to Event-B Specifications; Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking; Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis; Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder; jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java; Machine-Checkable Timed CSP; Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms; Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software; Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq; Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context; Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms; Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems; and Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000.
Incremental and unifying modelling formalism for biological interaction networks
Yartseva, Anastasia; Klaudel, Hanna; Devillers, Raymond; Képès, François
2007-01-01
Background An appropriate choice of the modeling formalism from the broad range of existing ones may be crucial for efficiently describing and analyzing biological systems. Results We propose a new unifying and incremental formalism for the representation and modeling of biological interaction networks. This formalism allows automated translations into other formalisms, thus enabling a thorough study of the dynamic properties of a biological system. As a first illustration, we propose a translation into the R. Thomas' multivalued logical formalism which provides a possible semantics; a methodology for constructing such models is presented on a classical benchmark: the λ phage genetic switch. We also show how to extract from our model a classical ODE description of the dynamics of a system. Conclusion This approach provides an additional level of description between the biological and mathematical ones. It yields, on the one hand, a knowledge expression in a form which is intuitive for biologists and, on the other hand, its representation in a formal and structured way. PMID:17996051
Adolescent thinking ála Piaget: The formal stage.
Dulit, E
1972-12-01
Two of the formal-stage experiments of Piaget and Inhelder, selected largely for their closeness to the concepts defining the stage, were replicated with groups of average and gifted adolescents. This report describes the relevant Piagetian concepts (formal stage, concrete stage) in context, gives the methods and findings of this study, and concludes with a section discussing implications and making some reformulations which generally support but significantly qualify some of the central themes of the Piaget-Inhelder work. Fully developed formal-stage thinking emerges as far from commonplace among normal or average adolescents (by marked contrast with the impression created by the Piaget-Inhelder text, which chooses to report no middle or older adolescents who function at less than fully formal levels). In this respect, the formal stage differs appreciably from the earlier Piagetian stages, and early adolescence emerges as the age for which a "single path" model of cognitive development becomes seriously inadequate and a more complex model becomes essential. Formal-stage thinking seems best conceptualized, like most other aspects of psychological maturity, as a potentiality only partially attained by most and fully attained only by some.
30 CFR 75.515 - Cable fittings; suitability.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice boxes, and electric compartments only through proper fittings. When insulated wires other than cables pass through metal frames,...
40 CFR 203.5 - Suitable substitute decision.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suitable substitute decision. 203.5 Section 203.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS LOW-NOISE-EMISSION PRODUCTS § 203.5 Suitable substitute decision. (a) If the...
21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...
21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...
21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...
21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...
21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...
21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...
21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...
21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...
21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...
21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...
Evaluation of Agricultural Land Suitability: Application of Fuzzy Indicators
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The problem of evaluation of agricultural land suitability is considered as a fuzzy modeling task. The application of individual fuzzy indicators provides an opportunity for assessment of lsand suitability of lands as degree or grade of performance when the lands are used for agricultural purposes....
30 CFR 75.515 - Cable fittings; suitability.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable fittings; suitability. 75.515 Section 75... fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice boxes, and electric compartments only through proper fittings. When insulated wires other than cables pass through metal frames,...
30 CFR 77.505 - Cable fittings; suitability.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable fittings; suitability. 77.505 Section 77... Electrical Equipment-General § 77.505 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice boxes, and electric compartments only through proper fittings. When insulated wires, other...
10 CFR 26.419 - Suitability and fitness evaluations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Suitability and fitness evaluations. 26.419 Section 26.419 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.419 Suitability and fitness evaluations. Licensees and other entities who implement FFD programs under...
10 CFR 26.419 - Suitability and fitness evaluations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Suitability and fitness evaluations. 26.419 Section 26.419 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.419 Suitability and fitness evaluations. Licensees and other entities who implement FFD programs under...
10 CFR 26.419 - Suitability and fitness evaluations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suitability and fitness evaluations. 26.419 Section 26.419 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.419 Suitability and fitness evaluations. Licensees and other entities who implement FFD programs under...
10 CFR 26.419 - Suitability and fitness evaluations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suitability and fitness evaluations. 26.419 Section 26.419 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.419 Suitability and fitness evaluations. Licensees and other entities who implement FFD programs under...
10 CFR 26.419 - Suitability and fitness evaluations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Suitability and fitness evaluations. 26.419 Section 26.419 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.419 Suitability and fitness evaluations. Licensees and other entities who implement FFD programs under...
30 CFR 77.504 - Electrical connections or splices; suitability.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical connections or splices; suitability... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.504 Electrical connections or splices; suitability. Electrical connections or splices in electric conductors shall be mechanically and electrically...
30 CFR 75.514 - Electrical connections or splices; suitability.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical connections or splices; suitability... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.514 Electrical connections or splices; suitability. All electrical connections or splices...
30 CFR 77.504 - Electrical connections or splices; suitability.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical connections or splices; suitability... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.504 Electrical connections or splices; suitability. Electrical connections or splices in electric conductors shall be mechanically and electrically...
Digital image watermarking: its formal model, fundamental properties and possible attacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyeem, Hussain; Boles, Wageeh; Boyd, Colin
2014-12-01
While formal definitions and security proofs are well established in some fields like cryptography and steganography, they are not as evident in digital watermarking research. A systematic development of watermarking schemes is desirable, but at present, their development is usually informal, ad hoc, and omits the complete realization of application scenarios. This practice not only hinders the choice and use of a suitable scheme for a watermarking application, but also leads to debate about the state-of-the-art for different watermarking applications. With a view to the systematic development of watermarking schemes, we present a formal generic model for digital image watermarking. Considering possible inputs, outputs, and component functions, the initial construction of a basic watermarking model is developed further to incorporate the use of keys. On the basis of our proposed model, fundamental watermarking properties are defined and their importance exemplified for different image applications. We also define a set of possible attacks using our model showing different winning scenarios depending on the adversary capabilities. It is envisaged that with a proper consideration of watermarking properties and adversary actions in different image applications, use of the proposed model would allow a unified treatment of all practically meaningful variants of watermarking schemes.
A mathematical formalism for hyperspectral, multipoint plastic scintillation detectors.
Archambault, Louis; Therriault-Proulx, François; Beddar, Sam; Beaulieu, Luc
2012-11-07
The aim of this paper is to generalize and extend the mathematical formalism used with plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs). By doing so, we show the feasibility of multi-point PSD. The new formalism is based on the sole hypothesis that a PSD optical signal is a linear superposition of spectra. Two calibration scenarios were developed. Both involve solving a linear equation of the form Y = XB, but the process and input data depend on the information available on the detector system. Simulations were carried out to validate both scenarios and demonstrate the advantages of the new formalism. In this paper, we prove the following results. (1) Multi-point PSDs are feasible. Simulations have shown that six different spectra could be resolved accurately even in the presence of up to 10% Gaussian noise. (2) The new formalism leads to more precise PSD measurements. (3) By using the condition number of the measurement matrix, the ideal sets of calibration measurements can be identified. (4) By using principal component analysis it was possible to identify the best set of wavelength filters. We have shown through numerical simulations that multi-point detectors are feasible. This has potential for applications such as in vivo dose verification. Furthermore, our new formalism can be used to improve the robustness and ease of use of PSDs.
Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems
Williams, L.G.
1991-11-15
As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.
Proceedings of the Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods (LFM) Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rozier, Kristin Yvonne (Editor)
2008-01-01
Today's verification techniques are hard-pressed to scale with the ever-increasing complexity of safety critical systems. Within the field of aeronautics alone, we find the need for verification of algorithms for separation assurance, air traffic control, auto-pilot, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), adaptive avionics, automated decision authority, and much more. Recent advances in formal methods have made verifying more of these problems realistic. Thus we need to continually re-assess what we can solve now and identify the next barriers to overcome. Only through an exchange of ideas between theoreticians and practitioners from academia to industry can we extend formal methods for the verification of ever more challenging problem domains. This volume contains the extended abstracts of the talks presented at LFM 2008: The Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop held on April 30 - May 2, 2008 in Newport News, Virginia, USA. The topics of interest that were listed in the call for abstracts were: advances in formal verification techniques; formal models of distributed computing; planning and scheduling; automated air traffic management; fault tolerance; hybrid systems/hybrid automata; embedded systems; safety critical applications; safety cases; accident/safety analysis.
Introduction to Wave Turbulence Formalisms for Incoherent Optical Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picozzi, Antonio; Garnier, Josselin; Xu, Gang; Rica, Sergio
We provide an introduction to different wave turbulence formalisms describing the propagation of partially incoherent optical waves in nonlinear media. We consider the nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a representative model accounting for a nonlocal or a noninstantaneous nonlinearity, as well as higher-order dispersion effects. We discuss the wave turbulence kinetic equation describing, e.g., wave condensation or wave thermalization through supercontinuum generation; the Vlasov formalism describing incoherent modulational instabilities and the formation of large scale incoherent localized structures in analogy with long-range gravitational systems; and the weak Langmuir turbulence formalism describing spectral incoherent solitons, as well as spectral shock or collapse singularities. Finally, recent developments and some open questions are discussed, in particular in relation with a wave turbulence formulation of laser systems and different mechanisms of breakdown of thermalization.
Formal Verification of the AAMP-FV Microcode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Steven P.; Greve, David A.; Wilding, Matthew M.; Srivas, Mandayam
1999-01-01
This report describes the experiences of Collins Avionics & Communications and SRI International in formally specifying and verifying the microcode in a Rockwell proprietary microprocessor, the AAMP-FV, using the PVS verification system. This project built extensively on earlier experiences using PVS to verify the microcode in the AAMP5, a complex, pipelined microprocessor designed for use in avionics displays and global positioning systems. While the AAMP5 experiment demonstrated the technical feasibility of formal verification of microcode, the steep learning curve encountered left unanswered the question of whether it could be performed at reasonable cost. The AAMP-FV project was conducted to determine whether the experience gained on the AAMP5 project could be used to make formal verification of microcode cost effective for safety-critical and high volume devices.
Formal mechanization of device interactions with a process algebra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, Karl; Cohen, Gerald C.
1992-01-01
The principle emphasis is to develop a methodology to formally verify correct synchronization communication of devices in a composed hardware system. Previous system integration efforts have focused on vertical integration of one layer on top of another. This task examines 'horizontal' integration of peer devices. To formally reason about communication, we mechanize a process algebra in the Higher Order Logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Using this formalization we show how four types of device interactions can be represented and verified to behave as specified. The report also describes the specification of a system consisting of an AVM-1 microprocessor and a memory management unit which were verified in previous work. A proof of correct communication is presented, and the extensions to the system specification to add a direct memory device are discussed.
DNA quadruplex folding formalism--a tutorial on quadruplex topologies.
Karsisiotis, Andreas Ioannis; O'Kane, Christopher; Webba da Silva, Mateus
2013-11-01
Quadruplexes of DNA adopt a large variety of topologies that are dependent on their environment. We have been developing a formalism for quadruplex folding based on the relationship between base and its sugar--as defined by the glycosidic bond angle. By reducing the quadruplex stem to a description based on two finite states of the range of angles the glycosidic bond angle may adopt, the description of the relationships of type of loop and groove widths of a quadruplex stem are possible. In its current form this formalism has allowed for the prediction of some unimolecular quadruplex topologies. Its rules, whilst developed for unimolecular quadruplexes of three loops, are of general utility in understanding the interdependency of structural characteristics of multimolecular folds, as well as unimolecular quadruplexes of more than three loops. Here we describe current understanding of the interdependent structural features that define the quadruplex fold, and provide a tutorial for the use and application of this formalism.
Weak Quantum Theory: Formal Framework and Selected Applications
Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas; Roemer, Hartmann
2006-01-04
Two key concepts of quantum theory, complementarity and entanglement, are considered with respect to their significance in and beyond physics. An axiomatically formalized, weak version of quantum theory, more general than the ordinary quantum theory of physical systems, is described. Its mathematical structure generalizes the algebraic approach to ordinary quantum theory. The crucial formal feature leading to complementarity and entanglement is the non-commutativity of observables.The ordinary Hilbert space quantum mechanics can be recovered by stepwise adding the necessary features. This provides a hierarchy of formal frameworks of decreasing generality and increasing specificity. Two concrete applications, more specific than weak quantum theory and more general than ordinary quantum theory, are discussed: (i) complementarity and entanglement in classical dynamical systems, and (ii) complementarity and entanglement in the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli.
Pedagogical basis of DAS formalism in engineering education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.
2011-03-01
The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other engineering fields. The motivation for this new curriculum structure originates from the urge to solve the problems that engineering education has faced during the past decades, e.g. student recruitment problems and dissatisfactory learning outcomes. The focus of this paper is on the structure of the curriculum but the content is also discussed when it has an effect on the structure and its implementation. The presented structure, i.e. DAS formalism, builds upon the ideas of some classical pedagogical theories, which have regularly been applied at course level but seldom used to solve curriculum-level issues.
A Formal Approach to Requirements-Based Programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.
2005-01-01
No significant general-purpose method is currently available to mechanically transform system requirements into a provably equivalent model. The widespread use of such a method represents a necessary step toward high-dependability system engineering for numerous application domains. Current tools and methods that start with a formal model of a system and mechanically produce a provably equivalent implementation are valuable but not sufficient. The "gap" unfilled by such tools and methods is that the formal models cannot be proven to be equivalent to the requirements. We offer a method for mechanically transforming requirements into a provably equivalent formal model that can be used as the basis for code generation and other transformations. This method is unique in offering full mathematical tractability while using notations and techniques that are well known and well trusted. Finally, we describe further application areas we are investigating for use of the approach.
Formally Verified Practical Algorithms for Recovery from Loss of Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Caesar A.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we develop and formally verify practical algorithms for recovery from loss of separation. The formal verification is performed in the context of a criteria-based framework. This framework provides rigorous definitions of horizontal and vertical maneuver correctness that guarantee divergence and achieve horizontal and vertical separation. The algorithms are shown to be independently correct, that is, separation is achieved when only one aircraft maneuvers, and implicitly coordinated, that is, separation is also achieved when both aircraft maneuver. In this paper we improve the horizontal criteria over our previous work. An important benefit of the criteria approach is that different aircraft can execute different algorithms and implicit coordination will still be achieved, as long as they all meet the explicit criteria of the framework. Towards this end we have sought to make the criteria as general as possible. The framework presented in this paper has been formalized and mechanically verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS).
Formal verification of a fault tolerant clock synchronization algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rushby, John; Vonhenke, Frieder
1989-01-01
A formal specification and mechanically assisted verification of the interactive convergence clock synchronization algorithm of Lamport and Melliar-Smith is described. Several technical flaws in the analysis given by Lamport and Melliar-Smith were discovered, even though their presentation is unusally precise and detailed. It seems that these flaws were not detected by informal peer scrutiny. The flaws are discussed and a revised presentation of the analysis is given that not only corrects the flaws but is also more precise and easier to follow. Some of the corrections to the flaws require slight modifications to the original assumptions underlying the algorithm and to the constraints on its parameters, and thus change the external specifications of the algorithm. The formal analysis of the interactive convergence clock synchronization algorithm was performed using the Enhanced Hierarchical Development Methodology (EHDM) formal specification and verification environment. This application of EHDM provides a demonstration of some of the capabilities of the system.
How Formal Dynamic Verification Tools Facilitate Novel Concurrency Visualizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aananthakrishnan, Sriram; Delisi, Michael; Vakkalanka, Sarvani; Vo, Anh; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Kirby, Robert M.; Thakur, Rajeev
With the exploding scale of concurrency, presenting valuable pieces of information collected by formal verification tools intuitively and graphically can greatly enhance concurrent system debugging. Traditional MPI program debuggers present trace views of MPI program executions. Such views are redundant, often containing equivalent traces that permute independent MPI calls. In our ISP formal dynamic verifier for MPI programs, we present a collection of alternate views made possible by the use of formal dynamic verification. Some of ISP’s views help pinpoint errors, some facilitate discerning errors by eliminating redundancy, while others help understand the program better by displaying concurrent even orderings that must be respected by all MPI implementations, in the form of completes-before graphs. In this paper, we describe ISP’s graphical user interface (GUI) capabilities in all these areas which are currently supported by a portable Java based GUI, a Microsoft Visual Studio GUI, and an Eclipse based GUI whose development is in progress.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schubert, Klaus
1988-01-01
Describes DLT, the multilingual machine translation system that uses Esperanto as an intermediate language in which substantial portions of the translation subprocesses are carried out. The criteria for choosing an intermediate language and the reasons for preferring Esperanto over other languages are explained. (Author/DJD)
Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and juvenile red drum
Buckley, Jack
1984-01-01
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.
Formalization of a synthesis problem and methods for its solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dokukin, A. A.
2014-06-01
A formal formulation is proposed for the synthesis problem of finding objects with certain properties described only by a collection of precedents. A key feature of this formalization is that it is closely related to the pattern recognition theory. A general approach to solving the synthesis problem is described, and particular solution methods are presented in two important cases. For this purpose, a new recognition method is proposed that exhibits a high speed as applied to the data of the structure under study. The performance of the methods is demonstrated on actual data.
Formal training in forensic mental health: psychiatry and psychology.
Sadoff, Robert L; Dattilio, Frank M
2012-01-01
The field of forensic mental health has grown exponentially in the past decades to include forensic psychiatrists and psychologists serving as the primary experts to the court systems. However, many colleagues have chosen to pursue the avenue of serving as forensic experts without obtaining formal training and experience. This article discusses the importance of formal education, training and experience for psychiatrists and psychologists working in forensic settings and the ethical implications that befall those who fail to obtain such credentials. Specific aspects of training and supervised experience are discussed in detail.
Formalism for determining pseudostates in modified close-coupling calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulter, Philip W.
1980-08-01
A formalism for determining pseudostate wave functions for use in modified close-coupling calculations is presented. Applications to low-energy electron-hydrogen scattering are discussed. The 2p― pseudostate proposed by Damburg and Karule is analyzed using this formalism and a reason for its success is given which is independent of the fact that it fully accounts for the ground-state polarizability of atomic hydrogen. The analysis suggests, in agreement with expectations of Burke and Schey and others, that short-range correlations are more important than long-range polarization in determining the best form of the pseudostates.
Predator-prey quasicycles from a path-integral formalism.
Butler, Thomas; Reynolds, David
2009-03-01
The existence of beyond mean-field quasicycle oscillations in a simple spatial model of predator-prey interactions is derived from a path-integral formalism. The results agree substantially with those obtained from analysis of similar models using system size expansions of the master equation. In all of these analyses, the discrete nature of predator-prey populations and finite-size effects lead to persistent oscillations in time, but spatial patterns fail to form. The path-integral formalism goes beyond mean-field theory and provides a focus on individual realizations of the stochastic time evolution of population not captured in the standard master-equation approach.
Statistical foundation of the fluid analogue of the soliton formalism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
A fully nonlinear analysis is used to develop a general soliton formalism for the description of the nonlinear evolution of soliton fluctuations in both plasmas and classical fluids. From the Navier-Stokes equations for plasmas and compressible fluids of two scales, two equations for the propagation of density waves are derived. A fast soliton field is spontaneously created by rarefaction, and a slow density wave modulates the field intensity as a ponderomotive force. Constitutive properties are demonstrated using a Lagrangian-kinetic formalism of the fluctuation-dissipation theory.
The generation of gravitational waves. II - The postlinear formalism revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crowley, R. J.; Thorne, K. S.
1977-01-01
Two different versions of the Green's function for the scalar wave equation in weakly curved spacetime (one due to DeWitt and DeWitt, the other to Thorne and Kovacs) are compared and contrasted; and their mathematical equivalence is demonstrated. Then the DeWitt-DeWitt Green's function is used to construct several alternative versions of the Thorne-Kovacs postlinear formalism for gravitational-wave generation. Finally it is shown that, in calculations of gravitational bremsstrahlung radiation, some of our versions of the postlinear formalism allow one to treat the interacting bodies as point masses, while others do not.
Sudakov resummation in the small-x saturation formalism.
Mueller, A H; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng
2013-02-22
Through an explicit calculation of massive scalar particle (e.g., Higgs boson) production in high energy pA collisions up to one-loop order, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the Sudakov-type logarithms in hard processes in the small-x saturation formalism can be systematically separated from the small-x logarithms. The generic feature of the Sudakov logarithms and all order resummation is derived. This calculation shall provide us deep insights into the understanding of factorizations in the saturation formalism. We further comment on the phenomenological implications in the LHC energy regime and extension to other hard processes in small-x calculations.
21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...
21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...
21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...
21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...