Science.gov

Sample records for atorvastatin-treated healthy men

  1. Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... of potassium from fruits, vegetables, fish and milk. Energy Foods Since men have more muscle and are ... 000 to 2,800 calories per day. Your energy needs depend on your height, weight and activity ...

  2. Coenzyme Q10 reverses mitochondrial dysfunction in atorvastatin-treated mice and increases exercise endurance.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Ayako; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Mitsuishi, Masanori; Tamaki, Masanori; Tanaka, Kumiko; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs widely used in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases; however, they are associated with various types of myopathies. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and thus decrease biosynthesis of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and may also reduce ubiquinones, essential coenzymes of a mitochondrial electron transport chain, which contain isoprenoid residues, synthesized through an HMG-CoA reductase-dependent pathway. Therefore, we hypothesized that statin treatment might influence physical performance through muscular mitochondrial dysfunction due to ubiquinone deficiency. The effect of two statins, atorvastatin and pravastatin, on ubiquinone content, mitochondrial function, and physical performance was examined by using statin-treated mice. Changes in energy metabolism in association with statin treatment were studied by using cultured myocytes. We found that atorvastatin-treated mice developed muscular mitochondrial dysfunction due to ubiquinone deficiency and a decrease in exercise endurance without affecting muscle mass and strength. Meanwhile, pravastatin at ten times higher dose of atorvastatin had no such effects. In cultured myocytes, atorvastatin-related decrease in mitochondrial activity led to a decrease in oxygen utilization and an increase in lactate production. Conversely, coenzyme Q(10) treatment in atorvastatin-treated mice reversed atorvastatin-related mitochondrial dysfunction and a decrease in oxygen utilization, and thus improved exercise endurance. Atorvastatin decreased exercise endurance in mice through mitochondrial dysfunction due to ubiquinone deficiency. Ubiquinone supplementation with coenzyme Q(10) could reverse atorvastatin-related mitochondrial dysfunction and decrease in exercise tolerance.

  3. Facial Redness Increases Men's Perceived Healthiness and Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Thorstenson, Christopher A; Pazda, Adam D; Elliot, Andrew J; Perrett, David I

    2016-11-24

    Past research has shown that peripheral and facial redness influences perceptions of attractiveness for men viewing women. The current research investigated whether a parallel effect is present when women rate men with varying facial redness. In four experiments, women judged the attractiveness of men's faces, which were presented with varying degrees of redness. We also examined perceived healthiness and other candidate variables as mediators of the red-attractiveness effect. The results show that facial redness positively influences ratings of men's attractiveness. Additionally, perceived healthiness was documented as a mediator of this effect, independent of other potential mediator variables. The current research emphasizes facial coloration as an important feature of social judgments.

  4. A simple lifestyle score predicts survival in healthy elderly men.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Carole A; Jamrozik, Konrad; Norman, Paul E; Lawrence-Brown, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Although improvements in life expectancy have been attributed in part to the adoption of a more prudent lifestyle, few studies have examined the association of lifestyle with survival, using several lifestyle factors simultaneously, in a healthy elderly population. We investigated the association of health related behaviors with mortality in 7989 men aged 65 to 83 years participating in a population-based trial in Perth, Western Australia, by calculating a lifestyle score as a simple tally of how many of eight prudent behaviors each individual followed. Invitations to screening produced a corrected response of 70.5%. Out of a possible score of 8, 46% of men had a score of less than 5. Within 5 years, a total of 703 men (9%) had died from any cause. The hazard ratio in men with a low lifestyle score was 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.5] compared with men with a score of 5 or more. Lifestyle remains an important predictor of mortality even in old age. Survival in older men without a history of cardiovascular disease can potentially be enhanced by promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  5. Understanding barriers to healthy behaviors in black college men.

    PubMed

    Mincey, Krista; Turner, Brian L; Brown, Amber; Maurice, Sheldon

    2017-08-04

    Due to the short life expectancy of black men, it is important to understand what impacts health behaviors in this group so that interventions and programs can be developed to improve their health behaviors which may help in increasing the life expectancy of black men. The purpose of this study was to understand what perceived barriers exist for black college men that prevent them from engaging in healthy behaviors. Thirty-five black male students at a southern Historically Black College and University participated in five focus groups and four interviews. A qualitative analysis was used to analyze data for similar themes and codes. Perceived barriers to engaging in healthy behaviors appear to be influenced by image, food cost, and education. Cues to action for not engaging in healthy behaviors appear to be related to role models. Black college men are not adequately informed or educated about elements that can impact their health and how they can improve it. College administrators and researchers should develop interventions that include elements of increasing health knowledge and age-appropriate role models to improve health behavior change among this group.

  6. Seasonal variations of antioxidant imbalance in Cuban healthy men.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, J; Fleites, P; Chassagne, M; Verdura, T; Barnouin, J; Richard, M J; Chacornac, J P; Garcia, I G; Perez-Cristia, R; Favier, A E

    2001-01-01

    To determine the antioxidant imbalance in healthy Cuban men 2y after the end of the epidemic neuropathy (50 862 cases from 1991 to 1993) and to evaluate its change over 1 y. Prospective study. La Lisa health centres (Havana, Cuba). One-hundred and ninety-nine healthy middle-aged men were selected and 106 completed the study. Subjects were studied at 3 month intervals over 1 year. No invervention. An assessment of dietary intake and the determination of blood lipid peroxides (TBARS), glutathione, diglutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, vitamin E, carotenoids, copper, zinc and selenium were performed at each period. While dietary zinc, vitamins C and E, carotenoids and fat dietary intakes and blood concentrations were low for adult men compared to international reference ranges, serum TBARS concentrations were high at every period. Some significant seasonal variations were observed. The lowest carotenoids (P < 0.002) and vitamin C(P = 0.0001) intakes, serum beta-carotene (P = 0.0001) and lutein/zeaxanthin (P < 0.05) concentrations, and the highest blood TBARS (P = 0.0001) and diglutathione (P < 0.001) concentrations were observed at the end of the rainy season (October). This period seemed to pose the greatest risk of antioxidant imbalance. Cuban men still represent a vulnerable population in terms of antioxidant imbalance. A national program of vegetable growing and increase in fruit and vegetable consumption is now evaluated in Cuba.

  7. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  8. TMJ energy densities in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, L R; Gonzalez, Y M; Liu, Y; Liu, H; Markova, M; Gallo, L M; Nickel, J C

    2017-06-01

    Cartilage fatigue, due to mechanical work, may account for the early development of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and why women are three times more likely to be afflicted. This study tested for gender differences in mechanical energy densities in women and men with healthy TMJs. Eighteen women and eighteen men gave informed consent. Research diagnostic criteria including imaging were used to ensure that subjects' TMJs were normal, without disc displacement or signs of DJD. Numerical modeling determined TMJ loads (Fnormal). Jaw tracking and three-dimensional dynamic stereometry characterized individual-specific data of stress-field dynamic mechanics during 10 symmetrical jaw closing cycles. These data were used to estimate tractional forces (Ftraction). Energy densities were then calculated, where: Energy Density = W/Q (W = work done or mechanical energy input = Ftraction*distance of stress-field translation, Q = volume of cartilage). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and follow-up two-group comparisons tested mean energy densities for ipsilateral and contralateral TMJs in women vs men. Mean energy densities ± standard deviations in ipsilateral and contralateral TMJs in women were 9.0 ± 9.7 and 8.4 ± 5.5 mJ/mm(3), respectively, and were significantly larger (P = 0.004 and 0.001, respectively) compared to ipsilateral and contralateral TMJs in men, which were 5.6 ± 4.2 and 6.3 ± 4.2 mJ/mm(3), respectively. Energy densities were significantly larger in healthy TMJs of women than men. Larger TMJ energy densities during normal jaw functions could predispose earlier mechanical fatigue of the TMJ disc. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, M E; Almohsen, A E-R M; El Shahid, A R; Abd Al-Sameaa, M T; Mostafa, T

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men. Two thousand physically normal men (22-40 years) were subjected to measurement of stretched penile length, glans penis, testis size, index finger, weight, height, span, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio. The mean stretched penile length of the studied subjects was 13.84 ± 1.35 cm (range 12-19 cm), and the mean glans penis length was 2.6 ± 0.4 cm (range 1.7-3.8 cm). Penile length demonstrated positive significant correlation with glans penis length, index finger length, BMI and significant negative correlation with waist/hip ratio. On the other hand, penile length demonstrated nonsignificant correlation with age, weight, height, waist circumference, span or testicular size. It is concluded that the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men is mostly related to glans penis and index finger lengths.

  10. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis and Muscular Fitness in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Muscle strength can define the general muscular fitness (MF) measurable through hand-grip strength (HG), which is a factor that relates to the health of people of different ages. In this study we evaluated the muscle strength together with a bioimpedance electric analysis in 223 healthy Colombian adult subjects. The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) was conducted to determine the resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PhA). We classified the subjects into three groups (for tertiles), obtaining lower values of R and Xc in subjects with lower HG, plus a high correlation between PhA and HG. An increase in the level of PhA is associated with a high level of MF in a sample of healthy Latin American adult men. The BIVA’s parameters and PhA are a potentially effective preventive measure to be integrated into routine screening in the clinical setting. PMID:27384579

  11. Antioxidant intake is associated with semen quality in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, B; Kidd, S A; Marks, A R; Sloter, E; Block, G; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-01

    We seek to determine whether dietary and supplement intake of specific micronutrients (zinc and folate) and antioxidants (vitamins C, E and beta-carotene) is associated with semen quality. Ninety-seven healthy, non-smoking men provided semen and were interviewed. Average daily nutrient intake from food and supplements was derived from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Intake levels were summarized as low, moderate and high. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, progressive motility and total progressively motile sperm count (TPMS) were measured. After controlling for covariates, a high intake of antioxidants was associated with better semen quality but, in almost all cases, there was no clear dose relationship in that moderate intake groups had the poorest semen quality. For example, positive associations were observed between vitamin C intake and sperm number as reflected in the higher mean count (P=0.04), concentration (P=0.05) and TPMS (P = 0.09); between vitamin E intake and progressive motility (P = 0.04) and TPMS (P = 0.05); and between beta-carotene intake and sperm concentration (P = 0.06) and progressive motility (P = 0.06). Folate and zinc intake were not associated with improved semen quality. In a convenience sample of healthy non-smoking men from a non-clinical setting, higher antioxidant intake was associated with higher sperm numbers and motility.

  12. Hot flushes in healthy aging men differ from those in men with prostate cancer and in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anna-Clara Spetz; Thorell, Lars-Håkan; Theodorsson, Elvar; Hammar, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) seems to be involved in hot flushes in women and in castrated men. Therefore, we studied whether the plasma concentrations of CGRP changed during flushes in a group of healthy aging men. Twelve men (49-71 years) with no history of current or former prostate cancer or hormonal treatment reporting ≥ 20 flushes/week were investigated. Blood samples were drawn during and between flushes for analysis of CGRP and also androgen concentrations, that is, testosterone and bioavailable testosterone were analysed. Skin temperature and skin conductance were monitored. Thirty-five flushes were reported by 10 men. The plasma concentrations of CGRP did not increase during flushes. No significant change in skin temperature or conductance was found. CGRP is probably not involved in the mechanisms of flushes in healthy aging men. Therefore, flushes in aging healthy men seem to be different from flushes in men and women deprived of sex steroids where CGRP increases during flushes.

  13. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  14. Relation of Misperception of Healthy Weight to Obesity in Urban Black Men

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Job G.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Rassnick, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity, as well as moderators of this relation, in a sample of middle-aged black men. Survey data from 404 mostly immigrant, black males living in greater New York City were collected as part of a larger randomized controlled trial. Data included measures of health status, BMI, perceived healthy weight, and misperception of healthy weight. Misperception of healthy weight was more frequent among obese men (90.2%) than nonobese men (48.7%) (P < 0.001). Mean level of misperception was also significantly higher in obese men than nonobese men (P < 0.001). Health status moderated the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity: obese men who felt healthy or who had fewer comorbid conditions had greater misperception of healthy weight than obese men who felt unhealthy or had relatively more comorbid conditions (P < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate that misperception of healthy weight discriminates between obese and nonobese black men, and the magnitude of this relation is exacerbated in obese men who are relatively healthy. Future studies should determine the prevalence of misperception of healthy weight in more diverse populations and identify potential mediators of the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity. PMID:19876006

  15. Relation of misperception of healthy weight to obesity in urban black men.

    PubMed

    Godino, Job G; Lepore, Stephen J; Rassnick, Stefanie

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity, as well as moderators of this relation, in a sample of middle-aged black men. Survey data from 404 mostly immigrant, black males living in greater New York City were collected as part of a larger randomized controlled trial. Data included measures of health status, BMI, perceived healthy weight, and misperception of healthy weight. Misperception of healthy weight was more frequent among obese men (90.2%) than nonobese men (48.7%) (P < 0.001). Mean level of misperception was also significantly higher in obese men than nonobese men (P < 0.001). Health status moderated the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity: obese men who felt healthy or who had fewer comorbid conditions had greater misperception of healthy weight than obese men who felt unhealthy or had relatively more comorbid conditions (P < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate that misperception of healthy weight discriminates between obese and nonobese black men, and the magnitude of this relation is exacerbated in obese men who are relatively healthy. Future studies should determine the prevalence of misperception of healthy weight in more diverse populations and identify potential mediators of the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity.

  16. Effect of Drinking on Adiponectin in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Imhof, Armin; Plamper, Ines; Maier, Steffen; Trischler, Gerlinde; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality and increases adiponectin concentrations, but effects might differ according to sex and beverage consumed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 72 healthy individuals (22–56 years) were enrolled in this randomized controlled crossover trial. After washout, two interventions for 3 weeks followed: ethanol (concentration 12.5%), beer (5.6%), or red wine (12.5%) equivalent to 30 g ethanol/day for men and 20 g/day for women or the same de-alcoholized beverages or water. Adiponectin was measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Among women, adiponectin significantly increased after consuming red wine (29.8%, P < 0.05) and increased among men after ethanol solution (17.4%, P < 0.05) and consuming beer (16.1%, P < 0.05). De-alcoholized beverages had no substantial effect on adiponectin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS Moderate amounts of ethanol-containing beverages increased adiponectin concentrations, but sex-specific effects might depend on type of beverage consumed. PMID:19244090

  17. Eccentric Exercise, Kinesiology Tape, and Balance in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Hosp, Simona; Folie, Ramona; Csapo, Robert; Hasler, Michael; Nachbauer, Werner

    2017-07-01

      Deficits in balance have been identified as a possible risk factor for knee injuries in athletes. Despite a lack of evidence for its effectiveness, kinesiology tape (KT) is widely used to prevent knee injuries.   To investigate the influence of KT at the knee joint on balance ability in healthy men after eccentric exercise.   Crossover study.   University laboratory.   Twelve young men with no history of lower limb injury volunteered for the study (age = 23.3 ± 2.6 years). All participants were students enrolled in a sports science program.   Participants performed the balance test with and without KT at the knee joint on 2 separate days.   The ability to maintain balance was assessed during a single-legged-stance test using a computerized balance-stability test system. The test was performed before and after 30 minutes of downhill walking on a treadmill.   Eccentric exercise resulted in a deterioration of balance ability, which was attenuated by the use of KT. Further analyses revealed that the effectiveness of KT depended on the participant's balance status, with the preventive effect being greater in participants presenting with poorer baseline balance ability.   Applied to the knee joint, KT counteracted the exercise-related deterioration of balance ability observed when no tape was used. Participants presenting with below-average balance ability received more benefit from KT. By preventing exercise-related impairment of balance ability, KT might help to reduce the risk of sport-associated knee injuries.

  18. Governing the healthy male citizen: men, masculinity and popular health in Men's Health magazine.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Recent commentators have noted the potential of newer neo-liberal discourses of health care to position responsibility for the management of well-being with the individual. Often promoted through the inculcation of risk avoidance and management, such discourses are played out in myriad settings, including the popular media. Magazines are one such media site in which diverse exhortations for the achievement of health, well-being and the perfectible body are made, and Bunton [1997. Popular health, advanced liberalism and good housekeeping magazine. In A. Petersen & Bunton R. (Eds.) Foucault, health and medicine (pp. 223-247). London: Routledge] has identified 'magazine medicine' as a significant manifestation of more dedifferentiated models of health care. Recent discussions have placed men's health high on research and policy agendas, with a concomitant interest in more popular realms. The UK magazine Men's Health (MH) is indicative of these trends, and represents a site at which discourses of men, health and masculinity are constructed. Typically reflecting neo-liberal models of health, here men are constructed as active and entrepreneurial citizens able to maintain their own health and well-being through the judicious management of risk in contexts appropriate to dominant discourses of hegemonic masculinity. Data which resulted from a critical discourse analysis of a 2-year sample (21 issues) of MH are considered and findings related to medicalisation, individualisation and risk discussed. It is suggested that magazine texts such as MH reflect newer individualised models of health care and neo-liberal strategies of health governance premised upon constructing a healthy male citizen, willing and able to take responsibility for their own well-being.

  19. Aromatase Inhibition Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Natalie Z. M.; Faqehi, Abdullah M. M.; Upreti, Rita; Livingstone, Dawn E.; McInnes, Kerry J.; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Deficiency of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is associated with insulin resistance in humans and mice. Objective: We hypothesized that pharmacological aromatase inhibition results in peripheral insulin resistance in humans. Design: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study. Setting: The study was conducted at a clinical research facility. Participants: Seventeen healthy male volunteers (18–50 y) participated in the study. Intervention: The intervention included oral anastrozole (1 mg daily) and placebo, each for 6 weeks with a 2-week washout period. Main Outcome Measure: Glucose disposal and rates of lipolysis were measured during a stepwise hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Data are mean (SEM). Results: Anastrozole therapy resulted in significant estradiol suppression (59.9 ± 3.6 vs 102.0 ± 5.7 pmol/L, P = < .001) and a more modest elevation of total T (25.8 ± 1.2 vs 21.4 ± 0.7 nmol/L, P = .003). Glucose infusion rate, during the low-dose insulin infusion, was lower after anastrozole administration (12.16 ± 1.33 vs 14.15 ± 1.55 μmol/kg·min, P = .024). No differences in hepatic glucose production or rate of lipolysis were observed. Conclusion: Aromatase inhibition reduces insulin sensitivity, with respect to peripheral glucose disposal, in healthy men. Local generation and action of estradiol, at the level of skeletal muscle, is likely to be an important determinant of insulin sensitivity. PMID:26967690

  20. Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Christian; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lassen, Arne; Mahnke, Christin; Schultes, Bernd; Schiöth, Helgi Birgir; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that chronic sleep curtailment increases risk of developing obesity, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown. We examined the influence of a single night of total sleep deprivation on morning energy expenditures and food intakes in healthy humans. According to a balanced crossover design, we examined 14 normal-weight male subjects on 2 occasions during a regular 24-h sleep-wake cycle (including 8 h of nocturnal sleep) and a 24-h period of continuous wakefulness. On the morning after regular sleep and total sleep deprivation, resting and postprandial energy expenditures were assessed by indirect calorimetry, and the free-choice food intake from an opulent buffet was tested in the late afternoon at the end of the experiment. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, norepinephrine, cortisol, thyreotropin, glucose, and insulin were repeatedly measured over the entire 24-h session. In comparison with normal sleep, resting and postprandial energy expenditures assessed on the subsequent morning were significantly reduced after sleep deprivation by ≈5% and 20%, respectively (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Nocturnal wakefulness increased morning plasma ghrelin concentrations (P < 0.02) and nocturnal and daytime circulating concentrations of thyreotropin, cortisol, and norepinephrine (P < 0.05) as well as morning postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Changes in food intakes were variable, and no differences between wake and sleep conditions were detected. Our findings show that one night of sleep deprivation acutely reduces energy expenditure in healthy men, which suggests that sleep contributes to the acute regulation of daytime energy expenditure in humans.

  1. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system.

  2. Cold pressor test improves fear extinction in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Antov, Martin I; Melicherová, Ursula; Stockhorst, Ursula

    2015-04-01

    Fear extinction is an important paradigm to study the neural basis of anxiety and trauma- and stressor-related disorders and for modeling features of extinction learning and exposure-based psychotherapy. To date the effects of acute stress on extinction learning in humans are not well understood. Models of stress effects on emotional memory suggest that learning during the so-called first wave of the stress response will be enhanced. The first wave includes (among others) increases of noradrenaline in the brain and increased sympathetic tone, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the periphery while the second wave includes genomic glucocorticoid-actions. The cold pressor test (CPT) is a valid way to induce the first wave of the stress response. We thus hypothesized that the CPT will facilitate extinction. In a 2-day fear-conditioning procedure with 40 healthy men, using differential skin conductance responses as a measure of conditioned fear, we placed the CPT versus a control procedure prior to extinction training on Day 1. We tested for extinction learning on Day 1 and extinction retrieval on Day 2. During extinction training (Day 1) only the CPT-group showed a significant reduction in differential responding. This was still evident on Day 2, where the CPT group had less differential responding during early trials (retrieval) and a higher extinction retention index. This is the first human study to show that a simple procedure, triggering the first-wave stress response--the CPT--can effectively enhance fear extinction in humans.

  3. STABLE VARIANTS OF SPERM ANEUPLOIDY AMONG HEALTHY MEN SHOW ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GERMINAL AND SOMATIC ANEUPLOIDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable variants of sperm aneuploidy among healthy men show associations between germinal and somatic aneuploidy

    The purpose of this study was to identify healthy men who reproducibly produced increased frequencies of sperm with numerical chromosomal abnormalities and to d...

  4. STABLE VARIANTS OF SPERM ANEUPLOIDY AMONG HEALTHY MEN SHOW ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GERMINAL AND SOMATIC ANEUPLOIDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable variants of sperm aneuploidy among healthy men show associations between germinal and somatic aneuploidy

    The purpose of this study was to identify healthy men who reproducibly produced increased frequencies of sperm with numerical chromosomal abnormalities and to d...

  5. Physical exercise and cardiac autonomic activity in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, p<0.001). This study showed 3 months of exercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.

  6. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid increases brain creatine levels in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik; Vranes, Milan; Jovanov, Pavle

    2017-01-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an experimental dietary additive that might act as a creatine source in tissues with high-energy requirements. In this case study, we evaluated brain levels of creatine in white matter, gray matter, cerebellum, and thalamus during 8 wk oral GAA administration in five healthy men and monitored the prevalence and severity of side effects of the intervention. Volunteers were supplemented daily with 36 mg/kg body weight (BW) of GAA for the first 4 wk of the intervention; afterward GAA dosage was titrated ≤60 mg/kg BW of GAA daily. At baseline, 4, and 8 wk, the participants underwent brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy, clinical chemistry studies, and open-ended questionnaire for side-effect prevalence and severity. Brain creatine levels increased in similar fashion in cerebellum, and white and gray matter after GAA supplementation, with an initial increase of 10.7% reported after 4 wk, and additional upsurge (7.7%) from the weeks 4 to 8 follow-up (P < 0.05). Thalamus creatine levels decreased after 4 wk for 6.5% (P = 0.02), and increased nonsignificantly after 8 wk for 8% (P = 0.09). GAA induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate levels at 8-wk follow-up in all brain areas evaluated (P < 0.05). No participants reported any neurologic adverse event (e.g., seizures, tingling, convulsions) during the intervention. Supplemental GAA led to a region-dependent increase of the creatine pool in the human brain. This might be relevant for restoring cellular bioenergetics in disorders characterized by low brain creatine and functional enzymatic machinery for creatine synthesis, including neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, or cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. STABLE VARIANTS OF SPERM ANEUPLOIDY AMONG HEALTHY MEN SHOW ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GERMINAL AND SOMATIC ANEUPLOIDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract.

    Our objective was to identify men who consistently produced high frequencies of sperm with numerical chromosomal abnormalities (stable variants) and to determine whether healthy men with normal semen quality vary with respect to the incidence of sperm aneuploidy ...

  8. STABLE VARIANTS OF SPERM ANEUPLOIDY AMONG HEALTHY MEN SHOW ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GERMINAL AND SOMATIC ANEUPLOIDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract.

    Our objective was to identify men who consistently produced high frequencies of sperm with numerical chromosomal abnormalities (stable variants) and to determine whether healthy men with normal semen quality vary with respect to the incidence of sperm aneuploidy ...

  9. Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.

    Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

  10. Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.

    Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

  11. Men's Health--Is There a "Popular Press" Potential?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Angela; Parry-Langdon, Nina; Roberts, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of health messages delivered to males and females through the "popular" media of magazines that have a health content, and to consider the potential for "popular" magazines to play a role in communicating health promotion messages to men. Design: A qualitative approach that subscribes to content analysis of a sample…

  12. Men's Health--Is There a "Popular Press" Potential?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Angela; Parry-Langdon, Nina; Roberts, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of health messages delivered to males and females through the "popular" media of magazines that have a health content, and to consider the potential for "popular" magazines to play a role in communicating health promotion messages to men. Design: A qualitative approach that subscribes to content analysis of a sample…

  13. Employment after myocardial infarction amongst previously healthy men.

    PubMed

    Watson, P A; Mayberry, J F; Calcraft, B; Colbourne, G

    1986-06-01

    A postal questionnaire was sent to 55 men 18 months after their first myocardial infarction; information obtained was supplemented by interview with two of the authors (PW and GC). Fifty-three men had been in full-time employment prior to their illness, 38 of them in manual work. Their return to work and changes in employment were examined and, in addition, enquiries were made about subsequent health, assistance from trade unions and the local Disabled Resettlement Officer (DRO). Details of attitude to subsequent physical exercise and sexual activity were also recorded. Eighteen months after myocardial infarction, only 35% of these men were employed and 27% asymptomatic. Patients in heavy manual work were largely unable to return to their previous job and little assistance was obtained from trade unions. Even when patients were made aware of the existence of the DRO, few approached him for advice. A counselling service is needed for patients recovering from an infarct to encourage them to return to an active and profitable life.

  14. Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Inversely Associated with Arterial Stiffness in Metabolically Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwon, Nayeon; Yoon, So Ra

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that lower proportion of serum phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is inversely associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular function in metabolically healthy men. To elucidate it, we first compared serum phospholipid free fatty acid (FA) compositions and cardiovascular risk parameters between healthy men (n = 499) and male patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, n = 111) (30-69 years) without metabolic syndrome, and then further-analyzed the association of serum phospholipid DHA composition with arterial stiffness expressed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) in metabolically healthy men. Basic parameters, lipid profiles, fasting glycemic status, adiponectin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and LDL particle size, and serum phospholipid FA compositions were significantly different between the two subject groups. Serum phospholipid DHA was highly correlated with most of long-chain FAs. Metabolically healthy men were subdivided into tertile groups according to serum phospholipid DHA proportion: lower (< 2.061%), middle (2.061%-3.235%) and higher (> 3.235%). Fasting glucose, insulin resistance, hs-CRP and ba-PWVs were significantly higher and adiponectin and LDL particle size were significantly lower in the lower-DHA group than the higher-DHA group after adjusted for confounding factors. In metabolically healthy men, multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that serum phospholipid DHA mainly contributed to arterial stiffness (β′-coefficients = -0.127, p = 0.006) together with age, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride (r = 0.548, p = 0.023). Lower proportion of serum phospholipid DHA was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men. It suggests that maintaining higher proportion of serum phospholipid DHA may be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk including arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men. PMID:27482523

  15. Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Inversely Associated with Arterial Stiffness in Metabolically Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwon, Nayeon; Yoon, So Ra; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that lower proportion of serum phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is inversely associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular function in metabolically healthy men. To elucidate it, we first compared serum phospholipid free fatty acid (FA) compositions and cardiovascular risk parameters between healthy men (n = 499) and male patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, n = 111) (30-69 years) without metabolic syndrome, and then further-analyzed the association of serum phospholipid DHA composition with arterial stiffness expressed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) in metabolically healthy men. Basic parameters, lipid profiles, fasting glycemic status, adiponectin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and LDL particle size, and serum phospholipid FA compositions were significantly different between the two subject groups. Serum phospholipid DHA was highly correlated with most of long-chain FAs. Metabolically healthy men were subdivided into tertile groups according to serum phospholipid DHA proportion: lower (< 2.061%), middle (2.061%-3.235%) and higher (> 3.235%). Fasting glucose, insulin resistance, hs-CRP and ba-PWVs were significantly higher and adiponectin and LDL particle size were significantly lower in the lower-DHA group than the higher-DHA group after adjusted for confounding factors. In metabolically healthy men, multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that serum phospholipid DHA mainly contributed to arterial stiffness (β'-coefficients = -0.127, p = 0.006) together with age, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride (r = 0.548, p = 0.023). Lower proportion of serum phospholipid DHA was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men. It suggests that maintaining higher proportion of serum phospholipid DHA may be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk including arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men.

  16. Metabolically Healthy Obesity Is Not Associated with Food Intake in White or Black Men1234

    PubMed Central

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, PK

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. Objective: We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status–metabolic health phenotypes. Methods: Men (n = 4855) aged ≥45 y with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. Results: MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P < 0.001), whereas HOMA-IR–defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower red meat intake (P < 0.0001) compared with healthy normal weight in multivariable-adjusted analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical confounders. However, results were attenuated and became nonsignificant after further adjustment for BMI. Healthy and unhealthy overweight, defined by both criteria, were associated with lower whole grain bread intake (P < 0.001) in all models. Among black men, weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were not associated with food intake in all models. Conclusion: Healthy obesity in men is not associated with

  17. Metabolically Healthy Obesity Is Not Associated with Food Intake in White or Black Men.

    PubMed

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, P K

    2015-11-01

    Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status-metabolic health phenotypes. Men (n = 4855) aged ≥ 45 y with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P < 0.001), whereas HOMA-IR-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower red meat intake (P < 0.0001) compared with healthy normal weight in multivariable-adjusted analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical confounders. However, results were attenuated and became nonsignificant after further adjustment for BMI. Healthy and unhealthy overweight, defined by both criteria, were associated with lower whole grain bread intake (P < 0.001) in all models. Among black men, weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were not associated with food intake in all models. Healthy obesity in men is not associated with a healthier diet. Future studies need to consider dietary

  18. Cardiac arrhythmias during exercise testing in healthy men.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, E. F.; Owen, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Clinically healthy male executives who participate in a long-term physical conditioning program have demonstrated cardiac arrhythmia during and after periodic ergometric testing at submaximal and maximal levels. In 1,385 tests on 248 subjects, it was found that 34% of subjects demonstrated an arrhythmia at some time and 13% of subjects developed arrhythmia on more than one test. Premature systoles of ventricular origin were most common, but premature systoles of atrial origin, premature systoles of junctional origin, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular block, wandering pacemaker, and pre-excitation were also seen. Careful post-test monitoring and pulse rate regulated training sessions are suggested for such programs.

  19. Cardiac arrhythmias during exercise testing in healthy men.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, E. F.; Owen, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Clinically healthy male executives who participate in a long-term physical conditioning program have demonstrated cardiac arrhythmia during and after periodic ergometric testing at submaximal and maximal levels. In 1,385 tests on 248 subjects, it was found that 34% of subjects demonstrated an arrhythmia at some time and 13% of subjects developed arrhythmia on more than one test. Premature systoles of ventricular origin were most common, but premature systoles of atrial origin, premature systoles of junctional origin, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular block, wandering pacemaker, and pre-excitation were also seen. Careful post-test monitoring and pulse rate regulated training sessions are suggested for such programs.

  20. Effects of Music on Cardiovascular Responses in Men with Essential Hypertension Compared with Healthy Men Based on Introversion and Extraversion

    PubMed Central

    Namdar, Hossein; Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Sabourimoghaddam, Hassan; Sadeghi, Babak; Ezzati, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. Methods: One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and extravert healthy subjects (each group with 25 samples with age range 31-50). Baseline blood pressure and heart rate of each subject was recorded without any stimulus. Then subjects were exposed to slow-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. After15 minute break, and a little cognitive task for distraction, subjects were exposed to fast-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded again. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) test showed that extravert patient subjects obtained greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert patients (P= 0.035, and P= 0.033 respectively). And extravert healthy subjects obtained greater reduction in heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert healthy subjects (P= 0.036). However, there are no significant differences between introvert and extravert groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting fast-beat music. Conclusion: Based on our results, introvert subjects experience negative emotions more than extravert subjects and negative emotions cause less change in blood pressure in these subjects compared with extravert subjects. PMID:25320667

  1. Effects of music on cardiovascular responses in men with essential hypertension compared with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Namdar, Hossein; Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Sabourimoghaddam, Hassan; Sadeghi, Babak; Ezzati, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and extravert healthy subjects (each group with 25 samples with age range 31-50). Baseline blood pressure and heart rate of each subject was recorded without any stimulus. Then subjects were exposed to slow-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. After15 minute break, and a little cognitive task for distraction, subjects were exposed to fast-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded again. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) test showed that extravert patient subjects obtained greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert patients (P= 0.035, and P= 0.033 respectively). And extravert healthy subjects obtained greater reduction in heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert healthy subjects (P= 0.036). However, there are no significant differences between introvert and extravert groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting fast-beat music. Based on our results, introvert subjects experience negative emotions more than extravert subjects and negative emotions cause less change in blood pressure in these subjects compared with extravert subjects.

  2. Enhanced emotional empathy after psychosocial stress in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.

  3. Humor attenuates the cortisol awakening response in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Lai, Julian C L; Chong, Alice M L; Siu, Oswald T; Evans, Phil; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the impact of an important factor contributing to successful aging, humor, on post-awakening cortisol levels among a group of 45 older men whose ages ranged from 64 years to 86 years (mean=73.6 years). Four saliva samples were collected from the participants for 2 days immediately after waking and every 15 min thereafter for three times. Cortisol data of the 2 days were aggregated for analysis. Two separate indices of cortisol awakening response reflecting the mean level of secretion and the rise from immediately to 45 min post-awakening, AUC(G) and AUC(I), were computed using the trapezoid formula. The relation of these two indices to humor (operationalized as coping) was examined in a multiple regression analysis while controlling for the effect of age, socioeconomic status, and self-esteem. Results indicated that higher humor scores were associated with lower AUC(G) but had no relation with AUC(I). Findings of the present study suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is the major pathway whereby positive psychological dispositions, such as humor, exert their health effects in the aging population. Moreover, cortisol levels in the awakening period may be particularly sensitive to the influences of psychosocial factors.

  4. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  5. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway.

  6. Metabolism of injected barium in six healthy men

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, D.; Harrison, G.E.; Kang, C.; Warner, A.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Data are presented on the early metabolism and long-term retention of 133Ba (half-life 10.74 y) injected into six healthy male volunteers at ages 25-81 y. The tracer appeared to be mainly skeletal within several days, much earlier than predicted by the ICRP's model of alkaline earth metabolism. Excretion was mainly fecal, the relative fecal: urinary clearance up to 14 d ranging from 6 to 15 in the six subjects. The whole-body retention at 50 d (mean 8%, range 4.5 to 12%) was similar to that inferred from published data on the retention of injected Ra in man (mean 7%, range 3-13%). For about 1 y thereafter, the retention of Ba could be represented by simple power functions of time, with the rate of loss correlating with the excretory plasma clearance rate inferred over the first 4 d. In the subject aged 81 y, the pattern differed from that established following an earlier injection at age 60, but the differences were not necessarily related to advancing age.

  7. Intranasal oxytocin enhances positive self-attribution in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Colonnello, Valentina; Heinrichs, Markus

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of studies consistently demonstrates that social responsiveness toward others is influenced by the neurohormone oxytocin. However, the potential role of oxytocin for self-perception remains relatively unexplored. Thus, we investigated whether oxytocin administration influences the self-attribution of positive and negative adjectives at the early, effortful stage of self-related information processing. Sixty healthy male participants received either 24I.U. oxytocin or a placebo in a randomized double-blind study before completing a sorting task, in which they were instructed to co-classify, as fast as possible, positive and negative adjectives into either self or non-self categories. Oxytocin-treated participants reported stronger positive attitudes toward themselves compared to placebo. The present findings demonstrate that oxytocin administration influences the early stage of self-related information processing and suggests that the oxytocinergic system might be involved in psychopathological conditions characterized by a negative representation of self. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intersubject variation in the pharmacokinetics of chlorpromazine in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Midha, K K; Hawes, E M; Hubbard, J W; Korchinski, E D; McKay, G

    1989-02-01

    Interpatient variation in response to therapy with antipsychotic drugs is a major problem. This study was designed to assess the extent of variation in disease-free subjects in whom known sources of variance were controlled as much as possible. The subjects were 32 healthy, nonsmoking males of European origin, aged 18-25 years, and weighing no more than +/- 15% from the ideal weight for height. After an overnight fast, each subject ingested 50 mg of chlorpromazine. Plasma samples were harvested over a 24-hour period during which the subjects were on a standardized, caffeine-free diet. Plasma levels of chlorpromazine were measured by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed wide intersubject variation in all pharmacokinetic parameters including maximum concentration, area under the curve, and oral clearance. Furthermore, none of the data were normally distributed. For each pharmacokinetic parameter, the distribution was leptokurtotic and skewed. As a consequence, the geometric means provided better estimates of central tendency than the arithmetic means. It seems that a major proportion of intersubject variation is an inherent problem that cannot be accounted for by differences in race, diet, smoking habits, or concomitant drug ingestion.

  9. Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Sabrina; Piel, Marcel; Wolf, Oliver T

    2005-03-16

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to modulate memory in animals and humans. One popular model suggests that stress or GC treatment enhances memory consolidation while impairing delayed memory retrieval. Studies in humans have documented that treatment with GCs impairs delayed memory retrieval. Similar alterations after exposure to stress have not been observed thus far. In the present study, 19 young healthy male subjects were exposed to either a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition in a crossover manner. After both treatments, retrieval of a word list (learned 24 h earlier) containing 10 neutral, 10 negative, and 10 positive words was tested. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol and a decrease in mood. Memory retrieval (free recall) was significantly impaired after the stress condition. Follow-up analysis revealed that negative and positive words (i.e., emotionally arousing words) were affected, whereas no effect was observed for neutral words. No changes were detected for cued recall, working memory, or attention. The present study thus demonstrates that psychosocial stress impairs memory retrieval in humans and suggests that emotionally arousing material is especially sensitive to this effect.

  10. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relation of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Patients Healthy young men with untested fertility (n=215). Intervention A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Main outcomes measure Semen quality parameters. Results Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥9.5h/wk) to men in the bottom quartile (≤3h/wk) were 4.3% (−30.2, 38.9) for total sperm count, 7.2% (−30.6, 45.1) for sperm concentration, −2.42% (−6.53, 1.69) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (−12.0, 37.2) for sperm morphology. Conclusion In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. PMID:25064411

  11. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2014-10-01

    To study the relationship of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Cross-sectional study. University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Healthy young men with untested fertility (n = 215). A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Semen quality parameters. Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (≥9.5 h/wk) with men in the bottom quartile (≤3 h/wk) were 4.3% (-30.2%, 38.9%) for total sperm count, 7.2% (-30.6%, 45.1%) for sperm concentration, -2.42% (-6.53%, 1.69%) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (-12.0%, 37.2%) for sperm morphology. In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The rate of change in declining steroid hormones: a new parameter of healthy aging in men?

    PubMed

    Walther, Andreas; Philipp, Michel; Lozza, Niclà; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-09-20

    Research on healthy aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. Testosterone (T) decline is primarily investigated, while age-related changes in other sex steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], estradiol [E2], progesterone [P]) are mostly neglected. An integrated hormone parameter reflecting aging processes in men has yet to be identified. 271 self-reporting healthy men between 40 and 75 provided both psychometric data and saliva samples for hormone analysis. Correlation analysis between age and sex steroids revealed negative associations for the four sex steroids (T, DHEA, E2, and P). Principal component analysis including ten salivary analytes identified a principal component mainly unifying the variance of the four sex steroid hormones. Subsequent principal component analysis including the four sex steroids extracted the principal component of declining steroid hormones (DSH). Moderation analysis of the association between age and DSH revealed significant moderation effects for psychosocial factors such as depression, chronic stress and perceived general health. In conclusion, these results provide further evidence that sex steroids decline in aging men and that the integrated hormone parameter DSH and its rate of change can be used as biomarkers for healthy aging in men. Furthermore, the negative association of age and DSH is moderated by psychosocial factors.

  13. The rate of change in declining steroid hormones: a new parameter of healthy aging in men?

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Andreas; Philipp, Michel; Lozza, Niclà; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research on healthy aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. Testosterone (T) decline is primarily investigated, while age-related changes in other sex steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], estradiol [E2], progesterone [P]) are mostly neglected. An integrated hormone parameter reflecting aging processes in men has yet to be identified. 271 self-reporting healthy men between 40 and 75 provided both psychometric data and saliva samples for hormone analysis. Correlation analysis between age and sex steroids revealed negative associations for the four sex steroids (T, DHEA, E2, and P). Principal component analysis including ten salivary analytes identified a principal component mainly unifying the variance of the four sex steroid hormones. Subsequent principal component analysis including the four sex steroids extracted the principal component of declining steroid hormones (DSH). Moderation analysis of the association between age and DSH revealed significant moderation effects for psychosocial factors such as depression, chronic stress and perceived general health. In conclusion, these results provide further evidence that sex steroids decline in aging men and that the integrated hormone parameter DSH and its rate of change can be used as biomarkers for healthy aging in men. Furthermore, the negative association of age and DSH is moderated by psychosocial factors. PMID:27589836

  14. Safety Measures of L-Carnitine L-Tartrate Supplementation in Healthy Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Martyn R.; Volek, Jeff S.; Gomez, Ana L.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; French, Duncan N.; Sharman, Matthew J.; Kraemer, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of ingesting the dietary supplement L- CARNIPURE on liver and renal function and blood hematology among healthy men. Analysis of blood samples indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the L-CARNIPURE and placebo conditions for any variables examined, suggesting there are no safety concerns…

  15. Safety Measures of L-Carnitine L-Tartrate Supplementation in Healthy Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Martyn R.; Volek, Jeff S.; Gomez, Ana L.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; French, Duncan N.; Sharman, Matthew J.; Kraemer, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of ingesting the dietary supplement L- CARNIPURE on liver and renal function and blood hematology among healthy men. Analysis of blood samples indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the L-CARNIPURE and placebo conditions for any variables examined, suggesting there are no safety concerns…

  16. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  17. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  18. Age-related differences in left ventricular structure and function between healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Nio, A Q X; Stöhr, E J; Shave, R E

    2017-10-01

    Cardiovascular function generally decreases with age, but whether this decrease differs between men and women is unclear. Our aims were twofold: (1) to investigate age-related sex differences in left ventricular (LV) structure, function and mechanics, and (2) to compare these measures between pre- and postmenopausal women in the middle-aged group. Resting echocardiography was performed in a cross-sectional sample of 82 healthy adults (14 young men, 19 middle-aged men, 15 young women, 34 middle-aged women: 15 premenopausal and 19 postmenopausal). Two-way ANOVAs were used to examine sex × age interactions, and t-tests to compare pre- and postmenopausal women (α < 0.1). Normalized LV mass, stroke volume and end-diastolic volume were significantly lower in middle-aged than young men, but this difference was smaller between middle-aged and young women. Peak systolic apical mechanics were significantly greater in middle-aged men than in middle-aged women, but not between young men and women. Postmenopausal women had significantly lower LV relaxation and mechanics (torsion, twisting velocity and apical circumferential strain rates) compared with middle-aged premenopausal women. Our cross-sectional findings suggest that the hearts of men and women may age differently, with men displaying greater differences in LV volumes accompanied by differences in apical mechanics.

  19. Effects of 10-ppm hydrogen sulfide inhalation on pulmonary function in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Y; Burnham, R; Snydmiller, G; MacLean, I; Lovlin, R

    1996-10-01

    This study examined the acute effects of oral inhalation of 10-ppm hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhalation (a concentration equal to its occupational exposure limit) on the pulmonary function in healthy men and women. Nine men and ten women consented to inhale medical air or 10 ppm H2S for 15 minutes each during cycle exercise at 50% of their maximal aerobic power. Routine pulmonary function tests were administered at rest and immediately after the two exposure conditions. The results indicated no significant changes in any of the variables derived from the flow volume loop, maximum ventilation volume, and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide in both genders. None of the subjects experienced any signs and symptoms as a result of H2S exposure. It was concluded that oral inhalation of 10 ppm H2S at an elevated metabolic and ventilation rate does not significantly alter pulmonary function in healthy men and women.

  20. Factors affecting workforce participation and healthy worker biases in U.S. women and men.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Candice Y; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Lawson, Christina C; Grajewski, Barbara; Howards, Penelope P

    2017-08-25

    To investigate potential attenuation of healthy worker biases in populations in which healthy women of reproductive age opt out of the workforce to provide childcare. We used 2013-2015 data from 120,928 U.S. women and men aged 22-44 years participating in the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between health and workforce nonparticipation. Women and men reporting poor health were more likely to be out of the workforce than individuals reporting excellent health (POR: 3.7, 95% CI: 3.2-4.2; POR: 6.7, 95% CI: 5.7-7.8, respectively), suggesting potential for healthy worker bias. For women (P < .001) but not men (P = .30), the strength of this association was modified by number of children in the home: POR: 7.3 (95% CI: 5.8-9.1) for women with no children, decreasing to POR: 0.9 (95% CI: 0.6-1.5) for women with four or more children. These results are consistent with attenuation of healthy worker biases when healthy women opt out of the workforce to provide childcare. Accordingly, we might expect the magnitude of these biases to vary with the proportion of women with differing numbers of children in the population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Relation between vertical facial morphology and jaw muscle activity in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Graziano; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Antinori, Marco; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to quantitatively analyze the relation between the activity of masticatory muscles and the inclination of the mandibular plane in a group of 73 healthy white men aged 20-36 years. The three-dimensional coordinates of soft-tissue landmarks gnathion and left and right gonion were digitized using an electromagnetic computerized instrument, the orientation of mandibular plane relative to the true vertical was computed and projected on the anatomical sagittal plane. The electromyographic (EMG) potentials of left and right masseter and temporalis anterior during maximum voluntary teeth clenching were recorded, and the mean EMG amplitude calculated. Two groups of men with opposite facial morphology were then selected: all men with a steep mandibular plane (higher than the mean plus one standard deviation) entered a first group (10 'long face' subjects), while all men with a relatively more horizontal mandibular plane (lower than the mean minus one standard deviation) entered a second group (13 'short face' subjects). Mean EMG potentials computed in the two groups were compared by using Student's t -test for independent samples. All the EMG potentials recorded during maximum voluntary clench in the 'long face' men were lower than that recorded in the 'short face' men, with statistically significant differences for all four analyzed muscles (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a non-invasive three-dimensional method confirmed that facial morphology and muscular function are significantly related, at least in men with a sound stomatognathic apparatus.

  2. Risk factors for low BMD in healthy men age 50 years or older: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, A; Kennedy, C C; Cranney, A; Hawker, G; Brown, J P; Kaiser, S M; Leslie, W D; O'Brien, C J M; Sawka, A M; Khan, A; Siminoski, K; Tarulli, G; Webster, D; McGowan, J; Adachi, J D

    2009-04-01

    In this systematic review, we summarize risk factors for low bone mineral density and bone loss in healthy men age 50 years or older. Consistent risk factors were: age, smoking, low weight, physical/functional limitations, and previous fracture. Data specific to men has clinical and policy implications. Osteoporosis is a significant health care problem in men as well as women, yet the majority of evidence on diagnosis and management of osteoporosis is focused on postmenopausal women. The objective of this systematic review is to examine risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in healthy men age 50 years or older. A systematic search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, CENTRAL, CINAHL and Embase, Health STAR. The three main search concepts were bone density, densitometry, and risk factors. Trained reviewers assessed articles using a priori criteria. Of 642 screened abstracts, 299 articles required a full review, and 25 remained in the final assessment. Consistent risk factors for low BMD/bone loss were: advancing age, smoking, and low weight/weight loss. Although less evidence was available, physical/functional limitations and prevalent fracture (after age 50) were also associated with low BMD/bone loss. The evidence was inconsistent or weak for physical activity, alcohol consumption, calcium intake, muscle strength, family history of fracture/osteoporosis, and height/height loss. In this systematic review, we identified several risk factors for low BMD/bone loss in men that are measurable in primary practice.

  3. Lower Cardiac Vagal Tone in Non-Obese Healthy Men with Unfavorable Anthropometric Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Plínio S.; Araújo, Claudio Gil S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2), healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications), aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old). Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype), a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles – unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005), sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037) and waist circumference (p<0.001). In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023), while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:20126345

  4. Genioglossus muscle activity at rest and in response to brief hypoxia in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Jordan, A S; Catcheside, P G; O'Donoghue, F J; Saunders, N A; McEvoy, R D

    2002-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in men than in women for reasons that are not clearly understood. An underlying difference between men and women in the respiratory-related neural control of upper airway dilator muscles has been suggested as a possible reason for the gender difference. We have compared three aspects of upper airway dilator muscle function in healthy men and women: 1) resting inspiratory genioglossus electromyogram (EMGgg) activity, 2) the respiratory EMGgg "afterdischarge" after a brief hypoxic stimulus, and 3) the relationship between the EMGgg and pharyngeal airway pressure. Inspired minute ventilation (VI), epiglottic pressure (P(epi)), and EMGgg and diaphragm EMG (EMGdi) activity were measured in 24 subjects (12 men, 12 women in the luteal menstrual phase) and were compared between genders while lying supine awake. Every 7-8 min over 2 h, subjects were exposed to 45-s periods of isocapnic hypoxia (9% O(2) in N(2)) that were abruptly terminated with one breath of 100% O(2). The relationship between P(epi) and EMGgg activity was also compared between genders. The results of 117 trials with satisfactory end-tidal PCO(2) control and no sighs or swallows are reported. There was no gender difference in the resting level of peak inspiratory EMGgg [3.7 +/- 0.8 (women) vs. 3.2 +/- 0.6% maximal activity (men)]. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed no gender or gender-by-time interaction effect between men and women in VI or EMGgg or EMGdi activity during or after the hypoxic stimulus. The relationship between P(epi) and EMGgg was not different between men (slope -0.63 +/- 0.20) and women (slope -0.69 +/- 0.33). These results do not support the hypothesis that the higher prevalence of OSA in men is related to an underlying gender difference in respiratory neural control of upper airway dilator muscles.

  5. Healthy lifestyle status, antihypertensive treatment and the risk of heart failure among Finnish men and women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Mähönen, Markku; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Hu, Gang

    2013-11-01

    To compare the association between antihypertensive drug treatment and heart failure (HF) risk with the association between engaging in a healthy lifestyle and HF risk. We prospectively investigated the single and joint associations of lifestyle factors and awareness, treatment, blood pressure control status with HF risk among 38 075 Finns, who were 25-74 years old and free of HF at baseline. During a median follow-up of 14.1 years, 638 men and 445 women developed HF. Engaging in a healthy lifestyle was associated with an decreased risk of HF. Compared with normotensive people, hypertensive patients with and without antihypertensive treatment had a higher risk of HF. Hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs but did not engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF [HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.21] than hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drugs but engaged in a healthy lifestyle. In addition, compared with hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs and engaged in a healthy lifestyle, hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drug or engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24-1.95). The present study demonstrates that HF risk was lower in hypertensive patients who engaged in a healthy lifestyle but higher in hypertensive people using antihypertensive drug treatment.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of abiraterone in healthy Japanese men: dose-proportionality and effect of food timing.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kouichi; Shishido, Akira; Vaccaro, Nicole; Jiao, James; Stieltjes, Hans; Bernard, Apexa; Yu, Margaret; Chien, Caly

    2015-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate (AA) was recently approved for castration-resistant prostate cancer in Japan. Two phase 1 studies were conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of abiraterone after single-dose administration in Japanese healthy men and to evaluate the effects of food timing on abiraterone pharmacokinetics after single-dose administration of AA in Japanese and Caucasian healthy men. In the dose-proportionality study, subjects (n = 30 Japanese) were randomly assigned to receive single doses of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg AA, and in the food-timing study, subjects (n = 22 Japanese and n = 23 Caucasian) randomly received single doses of 1,000 mg AA under fasted (overnight) and three different modified fasting conditions. Mean C(max) and AUC(∞) for abiraterone increased dose-dependently in Japanese healthy men; however, 90 % confidential interval (CI) was outside the predefined dose-proportionality criteria. Based on geometric mean ratios and 90 % CIs (versus overnight fasting condition), abiraterone exposure (AUC) increased significantly with dosing 1 h premeal, 2 h postmeal, or in between two meals 4 h apart by 57 %, 595 %, and 649 %, respectively. No clinically meaningful difference was observed in the pharmacokinetics of abiraterone between Caucasian and Japanese subjects.

  7. Chronic intake of onion extract containing quercetin improved postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hideki; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Sawada, Hiroshi; Higashi, Yukihito

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that dietary flavonoids reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Onion is rich in quercetin, a strong antioxidant flavonoid. In some in vitro studies, quercetin improved endothelial function associated with atherosclerosis, a leading cause of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic onion extract intake would improve postprandial endothelial dysfunction induced by an oral maltose load in healthy men. Healthy men (44±10 years, n=23) received 4.3 g of onion extract (containing 51 mg of quercetin) once a day for 30 days. Before and after the chronic onion extract intake, fasting and postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) responses were measured. Maltose loading significantly decreased FMD both before and after chronic onion extract intake (p=0.000037 and p=0.0035, respectively). The chronic onion extract intake did not significantly affect fasting FMD (p=0.069) but improved the postprandial FMD significantly from 5.1%±2.2% to 6.7%±2.6% (p=0.00015). The chronic onion extract intake did not alter systemic and forearm hemodynamics. These findings suggest that chronic onion extract intake ameliorates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy men and may be beneficial for improving cardiovascular health.

  8. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort.

    PubMed

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Nielsen, Lene Buch-Krogh; Højlund, Kurt; Brøsen, Kim

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions: A: baseline; B: after 21 days of treatment with St. John's wort; and C: at least 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was ingested. Plasma glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test and used for estimation of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) as well as indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. We found that treatment with St. John's wort increased total and incremental glucose AUC and 2-hr plasma glucose levels. Surprisingly, this effect was sustained and even further increased 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was taken. No effect on indices of insulin sensitivity was seen, but indices of insulin secretion were reduced even after adjustment for insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study indicates that long-term treatment with St. John's wort may impair glucose tolerance by reducing insulin secretion in young, healthy men. The unregulated use of this over-the-counter drug might be a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride reference ranges of twenty lipoprotein subclasses for healthy Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ai, Masumi; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ura, Kazuya; Kohzuma, Takuji; Schaefer, Ernst J; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This epidemiological study was done to generate normal ranges for the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum lipoprotein subclasses isolated from healthy adults based on gender and menopausal status. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 20 lipoprotein subclasses as separated by high performance liquid chromatography were measured in serum obtained from 825 fasting healthy subjects (267 men, 558 women). For serum cholesterol, 13.7% was found in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, 55.6% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, and 30.4% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. For serum triglycerides, these values were 52.1%, 27.9%, and 17.4%, respectively. Levels of cholesterol in some VLDL subclasses were inversely correlated with the levels of some HDL subclasses, while for triglycerides, elevated levels in any one subclass were generally strongly associated with elevated levels in all other subclasses. Men had significantly higher large VLDL-cholesterol levels than women (P < 0.05), while women had significantly higher small VLDL-cholesterol levels than men (P < 0.001). Women had significantly higher large LDL- and large and medium HDL-cholesterol levels than men (P < 0.001). Men had significantly higher chylomicron (CM), large and medium VLDL-, and small LDL-triglyceride levels than women (P < 0.001). Women had significantly higher very large and large HDL-triglyceride levels than men (P < 0.01). Postmenopausal women had significantly higher CM, all VLDL, and large, medium and small LDL-cholesterol levels, and significantly higher all VLDL, LDL, and HDL-triglyceride levels than premenopausal women (P < 0.001). Our data document important gender and menopausal status differences in cholesterol and triglyceride subclass levels, as well as significant correlations between values in the various serum lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tales of healthy men: male reproductive bodies in biomedicine from 'Lebensborn' to sperm banks.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Using the example of 'sperm tales', borne out of the biomedical technologies that went hand in hand with the establishment of the 'science of man' (andrology), the article engages with the epistemic evolution of interrelated biomedical theories and concepts of what constitutes a 'healthy' reproductive male body. The article asks: how has the normative ideal male body been either perpetuated or interrogated through these tales of male reproduction at the interface between scientific and medical technologies? And how were changes to the normalization of male bodies central to clinical practices and cultural understandings of health and illness? With many aspects of the medical history of male reproduction in the 20th century still unexplored, this article will focus on the growing intervention of biomedicine to 'treat' male infertility by way of the classification, standardization and normalization of male corporeality, focusing in particular on the representation and construction of men and the male body, as reflected in medical science and practice from the second half of the 20th century onwards in Germany. The article analyses the rise in importance of sperm in biomedical investigation, including a consideration of the construction of infertility as the defining force behind concepts of 'healthy men', and examines the related conceptualization of male reproductive bodies at the crossroad between 'healthy' and 'normal'. It is argued that the ideal of male reproduction as being inherently healthy has lost ground. By the late 20th century, male bodies have become vulnerable, at least as represented in medical science and technology.

  11. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD) aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax). Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37 ± 0.28 versus 1.27 ± 0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P < 0.05) but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA). Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass) and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations. PMID:26451234

  12. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Chrzczanowicz, Jacek; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD) aged 34.8-77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC(85%HRmax)). CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37 ± 0.28 versus 1.27 ± 0.23 mmol FeCl2·L(-1); P < 0.05) but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA). Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass) and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC(85%HRmax/kg). Those associations were not found in healthy men. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations.

  13. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural) and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in the longer term, more

  14. Similar reference intervals for total testosterone in healthy young and elderly men: results from the Odense Androgen Study.

    PubMed

    Frost, M; Wraae, K; Nielsen, T L; Hougaard, D M; Brixen, K; Hagen, C; Andersen, M

    2013-05-01

    Ageing in men is associated with changes in levels of sex hormones. To evaluate differences in sex hormones in young and elderly men and the significance of comorbidity and fat mass on sex hormones in elderly men. Cross-sectional. Seven hundred and eighty-three men aged 20-29 years and 600 men aged 60-74 years randomly recruited from the background population. Sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured, and reference intervals were determined in healthy individuals in both groups and in elderly men stratified according to whether they were obese or lean (waist circumference ≥102 cm). Sex hormones were lower and SHBG higher in elderly men compared with the young cohort. Lower cut-offs for total testosterone (TT) in healthy, young and elderly men were similar [Lower cut-off (95% CI): Young: 11·7 (11·2-12·1) vs elderly: 11·2 (10·3-12·1) nmol/l], but lower and higher cut-offs of bioavailable testosterone (BT) and free testosterone (FT) were higher in young men. Higher levels of androgens were found in healthy elderly men compared with those with a chronic disease or obesity. Androgens were inversely associated with central fat mass (CFM), whereas SHBG was inversely and directly associated with CFM and lower extremity fat mass, respectively, in both young and elderly men. Reference intervals for TT were comparable in healthy young and elderly men, but reference intervals for FT and BT were lower in elderly men due to higher levels of SHBG. Androgens and SHBG were lower in elderly men with chronic disease and inversely associated with CFM. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The epidemiology of oral HPV infection among a multinational sample of healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kreimer, Aimee R; Villa, Alessandro; Nyitray, Alan G; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Smith, Danelle; Hildesheim, Allan; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2011-01-01

    Oral human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV16) infection is a risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer. We examined oral HPV infection among healthy men. Oral rinse/gargle specimens and questionnaire data were collected from 1,688 healthy men aged 18 to 74 (median = 31 years), from the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58 and 59, and noncarcinogenic HPV types were detected using Roche Linear Array. Oral HPV DNA was detected in 67 of 1,680 (4.0%, 95% CI = 3.1%-5.0%) β-globin-positive specimens; carcinogenic HPVs were detected in 1.3% (95% CI = 0.8%-2.0%; n = 22) and HPV16 was the most commonly detected carcinogenic HPV type (0.6%, 95% CI = 0.2%-1.1%; n = 10). The prevalence of oral HPV infection was similar by country except for HPV55, which had notably higher prevalence in Mexico (3.0%) than Brazil (0%) or the United States (0.2%). Oral HPV prevalence nonsignificantly increased over increasing age categories (P(trend) = 0.096). The strongest predictor of oral HPV was current tobacco use, which increased the odds 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.4-4.4). Oral sexual behaviors were not associated with oral HPV infection. Oral HPV16 infection was rare in healthy men, especially at younger ages, and was positively associated with current tobacco use. Oral HPV appears to be about 10-fold less prevalent than infection at genital sites in men (4% vs. ∼40%, respectively). It remains unclear whether this reflects reduced exposure or if the oral region is more resistant to HPV infection compared with anogenital sites. ©2011 AACR.

  16. Effects of intermittent hypoxia training on exercise performance, hemodynamics, and ventilation in healthy senior men.

    PubMed

    Shatilo, Valeriy B; Korkushko, Oleg V; Ischuk, Vadim A; Downey, H Fred; Serebrovskaya, Tatiana V

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) were investigated in healthy, 60- to 74-yr-old men. Fourteen men (Gr 1) who routinely exercised daily for 20 to 30 min were compared with 21 (Gr 2) who avoided exercise. Their submaximal work-load power values before the IHT training were 94 +/- 3.7 and 66 +/- 3.1, respectively. Before and after 10 days of IHT, the ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia (SH; 12% O(2) for 10 min), work capacity (bicycle ergometer), and forearm cutaneous perfusion (laser Doppler) were determined. During SH, no negative electrocardiogram (ECG) changes were observed in either group, and the ventilatory response to SH was unaltered by IHT. In Gr 1, IHT (normobaric rebreathing for 5 min, final Sa(O(2)) = 85% to 86%, followed by 5 min normoxia, 4/day) produced no changes in hemodynamic indixes and work capacity. In Gr 2, IHT decreased blood pressure (BP) by 7.9 +/- 3.1 mmHg (p < 0.05) and increased submaximal work by 11.3% (p < 0.05) and anaerobic threshold by 12.7% (p < 0.05). The increase in HR and BP caused by a 55 W-work load was reduced by 5% and 6.5%, respectively (p < 0.05). Cutaneous perfusion increased by 0.06 +/- 0.04 mL/min/100 g in Gr 1 and by 0.11 +/- 0.04 mL/min/100 g in Gr 2 (p < 0.05). Hyperemia recovery time increased significantly by 15.3 +/- 4.6 sec in Gr 1 and by 25.2 +/- 11.2 sec in Gr 2. Thus, healthy senior men well tolerate IHT as performed in this investigation. In untrained, healthy senior men, IHT had greater positive effects on hemodynamics, microvascular endothelial function, and work capacity.

  17. Aerobic training does not alter CRP in apparently healthy, untrained men.

    PubMed

    Stoutenberg, M; Kressler, J; Chen, G L; Perry, A C; Myerburg, R J; Mendez, A J; Signorile, J F; Arheart, K L; Lewis, J E; Jacobs, K A

    2012-02-01

    Regular aerobic exercise may reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by lowering the concentration of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). While studies in diseased populations have shown significant decreases in CRP concentrations with regular aerobic training, little has been conclusively determined regarding the effects of aerobic training on CRP concentrations in apparently healthy, untrained populations. Aim of the study was to examine the effects of a 17-wk half marathon training program (TP) on CRP concentrations, aerobic fitness, and body composition in apparently healthy, untrained men. Twenty men (29.3±1.0 y) enrolled as training subjects (TRN) in a 17-wk half marathon TP. An additional 22 men (27.8±1.4 y) served as controls (CON). Fasting blood samples were taken at four time points over the TP and were analyzed for CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations. Aerobic capacity (VO2max) and body fat percent (BF%) were measured before and after the TP. No significant post-training changes in CRP (P=0.70) or IL-6 concentrations (P=0.67) were seen in TRN as a result of the TP, despite significant improvements in VO2max (42.2±1.9 ml∙kg-1∙min⁻¹, P<0.0001) and significant reductions in resting heart rate (P=0.004), BF% (P=0.03), and body mass index (BMI, P=0.05). No significant changes in CRP, VO2max, BMI, or BF% were detected in CON over time. Regular aerobic training does not appear to affect CRP concentrations in apparently healthy, untrained men despite significant improvements in bodyweight, BF%, BMI, and VO2max.

  18. Mirtazapine Provokes Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep in Young Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Stephany; Kloiber, Stefan; Dose, Tatjana; Lucae, Susanne; Holsboer, Florian; Schaaf, Ludwig; Hennings, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent evidence suggests that certain antidepressants are associated with an increase of periodic leg movements (PLMS) that may disturb sleep. So far, this has been shown in patients clinically treated for depression and in cross-sectional studies for various substances, but not mirtazapine. It is unclear whether antidepressants induce the new onset of PLMS or only increase preexisting PLMS, and whether this is a general property of the antidepressant or only seen in depressed patients. We report here the effect of mirtazapine on PLMS in young healthy men. Design: Open-labeled clinical trial (NCT00878540) including a 3-week preparatory phase with standardized food, physical activity, and sleep-wake behavior, and a 10-day experimental inpatient phase with an adaptation day, 2 baseline days, and 7 days with mirtazapine. Setting: Research institute. Participants: Twelve healthy young (20-25 years) men. Interventions: Seven days of nightly intake (22:00) of 30 mg mirtazapine. Measurements and results: Sleep was recorded on 2 drug-free baseline nights, the first 2 drug nights, and the last 2 drug nights. Eight of the 12 subjects showed increased PLMS after the first dose of mirtazapine. Frequency of PLMS was highest on the first drug night and attenuated over the course of the next 6 days. Three subjects reported transient restless legs symptoms. Conclusions: Mirtazapine provoked PLMS in 67% of young healthy males. The effect was most pronounced in the first days. The possible role of serotonergic, noradrenergic and histaminergic mechanisms in mirtazapine-induced PLMS is discussed. Citation: Fulda S; Kloiber S; Dose T; Lucae S. Mirtazapine provokes periodic leg movements during sleep in young healthy men. SLEEP 2013;36(5):661-669. PMID:23633748

  19. Aerobic Capacity Reference Data in 3816 Healthy Men and Women 20–90 Years

    PubMed Central

    Loe, Henrik; Rognmo, Øivind; Saltin, Bengt; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20–90 years. Methods Maximal and sub maximal levels of VO2, heart rate, oxygen pulse, and rating of perceived exertion (Borg scale: 6–20) were measured in 1929 men and 1881 women during treadmill running. Results The highest VO2max and maximal heart rate among men and women were observed in the youngest age group (20–29 years) and was 54.4±8.4 mL·kg−1·min−1 and 43.0±7.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 (sex differences, p<0.001) and 196±10 beats·min−1 and 194±9 beats·min−1 (sex differences, p<0.05), respectively, with a subsequent reduction of approximately 3.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 and 6 beats·min−1 per decade. The highest oxygen pulses were observed in the 3 youngest age groups (20–29 years, 30–39 years, 40–49 years) among men and women; 22.3 mL·beat−1±3.6 and 14.7 mL·beat−1±2.7 (sex differences, p<0.001), respectively, with no significant difference between these age groups. After the age of 50 we observed an 8% reduction per decade among both sexes. Borg scores appear to give a good estimate of the relative exercise intensity, although observing a slightly different relationship than reported in previous reference material from small populations. Conclusion This is the largest European reference material of objectively measured parameters of aerobic fitness and exercise-physiology in healthy men and women aged 20–90 years, forming the basis for an easily accessible, valid and understandable tool for improved training prescription in healthy men and women. PMID:23691196

  20. Effect of chronic supplementation with methylsulfonylmethane on oxidative stress following acute exercise in untrained healthy men.

    PubMed

    Nakhostin-Roohi, Babak; Barmaki, Sarah; Khoshkhahesh, Faegheh; Bohlooli, Shahab

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of chronic daily methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) supplementation on known markers of oxidative stress following acute bouts of exercise in untrained healthy young men. Eighteen untrained men volunteered for this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into two groups: MSM (n = 9) and placebo (n = 9). The participants took supplementation or placebo daily for 10 days before running. Participants ran 14 km. The MSM supplementation was prepared in water at 50 mg/kg body weight. The placebo group received water. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and plasma oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were measured as markers of oxidative stress. The plasma-reduced glutathione (GSH) level and the GSH/GSSG ratio were determined as markers of plasma antioxidant capacity. Acute exercise led to elevated levels of serum MDA, PC and plasma GSSG. MSM supplementation maintained PC, MDA and GSSG at lower levels after exercise than the placebo. The plasma level of GSH and the ratio of GSH/GSSG were significantly higher in the MSM supplemented group. These results suggest that chronic daily oral supplementation of MSM has alleviating effects on known markers of oxidative stress following acute bouts of exercise in healthy young men. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Effects of Ylang-Ylang aroma on blood pressure and heart rate in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da-Jung; Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Although the Ylang-Ylang aroma (YYA) has used as a general method for enhancing sedative effect, there was a little report on the efficacy of YYA on heart function using the electrocardiogram (EKG). Therefore, identifying of the effects of YYA on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) is important in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of YYA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of YYA on BP and HR in healthy men. Twenty-nine men took part in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: Ylang-Ylang group (YYG, n= 15) and control group (CG, n= 14). Physiological parameters recorded were BP by using a sphygmomanometer and HR by using an EKG. The present results demonstrated that inhalation of YYA significantly decreased the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Inhalation of YYA also significantly decreased the HRs in 10 leads, except in lead I and aVR. This indicates that the HRs recorded in lead I and aVR were less sensitive or obtuse compared to those in the 10 other leads. Therefore, such a result reveals that it is necessary to be aware of the terms regarding the position. In the present results, YYA caused a reduction of HR and BP, and a relief of the arousal level in healthy men. The present results show a sedative effect of YYA, and this study provides some evidences for the usage of YYA in medicinal agent. PMID:24278868

  2. Resting heart rate predicts metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy non-obese Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2014-02-01

    Autonomic nervous dysfunction is considered to be one of the mechanisms of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study is to investigate whether resting heart rate, a marker of autonomic nervous dysfunction, is a predictor of MetS in apparently healthy non-obese [body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m(2)] Japanese men. This is an observational study through 3 years in apparently healthy Japanese 1,265 men and 793 women without MetS and with no history of cardiovascular disease and no use of antihypertensive, antidiabetic, or antihyperlipidemic medication at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident MetS were calculated for each 1 SD increase in heart rate stratified by gender and obesity. Incidence of MetS for each tertile of heart rate and HRs of MetS for the highest tertile (T3) compared with the lowest tertile (T1) were calculated stratified by gender and obesity. The HRs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of MetS for each 1 SD increase in heart rate were 1.319 (1.035-1.681) (p = 0.025) in non-obese men, 1.172 (0.825-1.665) (p = 0.377) in obese men, 1.115 (0.773-1.608) (p = 0.560) in non-obese women, and 1.401 (0.944-2.078) (p = 0.094) in obese women adjusted for BMI, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. The HRs (95% CIs) of MetS for T3 were 2.138 (1.071-4.269) (p = 0.031) in non-obese men and 1.341 (0.565-3.180) (p = 0.506) in obese men adjusted for pre-existing five components of MetS, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. In conclusion, an increase in resting heart rate was a significant predictor of MetS in non-obese Japanese men.

  3. Longitudinal changes in body composition associated with healthy ageing: men, aged 20-96 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Andrew S; Janssen, Ian; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia are health problems associated with ageing. The present study modelled the longitudinal changes in body composition of healthy men, aged from 20 to 96 years, and evaluated the fidelity of BMI to identify age-dependent changes in fat mass and fat-free mass. The data from 7265 men with multiple body composition determinations (total observations 38,328) were used to model the age-related changes in body mass, fat mass, fat-free mass, BMI and percentage of body fat. Changes in fat mass and fat-free mass were used to evaluate the fidelity of BMI and to detect body composition changes with ageing. Linear mixed regression models showed that all trajectories of body composition with healthy ageing were quadratic. Fat mass, BMI and percentage of body fat increased from age 20 years and levelled off at approximately 80 years. Fat-free mass increased slightly from age 20 to 47 years and then declined at a non-linear rate with ageing. Levels of aerobic exercise had a positive influence on fat mass and a slight negative effect on fat-free mass. BMI and percentage of body fat were sensitive in detecting the increase in fat mass that occurred with healthy ageing, but failed to identify the loss of fat-free mass that started at age 47 years.

  4. Effects of hydrocortisone on false memory recognition in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Duesenberg, Moritz; Weber, Juliane; Schaeuffele, Carmen; Fleischer, Juliane; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Roepke, Stefan; Moritz, Steffen; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-12-01

    Most of the studies focusing on the effect of stress on false memories by using psychosocial and physiological stressors yielded diverse results. In the present study, we systematically tested the effect of exogenous hydrocortisone using a false memory paradigm. In this placebo-controlled study, 37 healthy men and 38 healthy women (mean age 24.59 years) received either 10 mg of hydrocortisone or placebo 75 min before using the false memory, that is, Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM), paradigm. We used emotionally charged and neutral DRM-based word lists to look for false recognition rates in comparison to true recognition rates. Overall, we expected an increase in false memory after hydrocortisone compared to placebo. No differences between the cortisol and the placebo group were revealed for false and for true recognition performance. In general, false recognition rates were lower compared to true recognition rates. Furthermore, we found a valence effect (neutral, positive, negative, disgust word stimuli), indicating higher rates of true and false recognition for emotional compared to neutral words. We further found an interaction effect between sex and recognition. Post hoc t tests showed that for true recognition women showed a significantly better memory performance than men, independent of treatment. This study does not support the hypothesis that cortisol decreases the ability to distinguish between old versus novel words in young healthy individuals. However, sex and emotional valence of word stimuli appear to be important moderators. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Relationship between dietary factors and prostate-specific antigen in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Endo, Fumiyasu; Kachi, Yuko; Hattori, Kazunori; Muraishi, Osamu; Nishikitani, Mariko; Yano, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    There is little evidence indicating whether dietary factors influence prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations. We examined whether nutritional factors, including energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake were associated with PSA in healthy men. We investigated 13,594 men aged 50 years and over who visited a hospital for a routine health checkup between 2003 and 2007. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. We performed a multiple linear regression to examine the association between PSA and dietary intake. After controlling for age, body mass index, and physical activity, PSA was significantly negatively associated with percent protein intake (p for trend < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quintile, PSA was 5.8% lower (95% CI: -8.9 to -2.5%) in the highest quintile. We also observed a significant positive association between percent fat intake and PSA concentration (p for trend 0.043). PSA was 3.4% greater (95% CI: 0-6.9%) among men in the highest quintile compared with those in the lowest quintile. Men who had a lower percent protein intake and higher percent fat intake had an elevated PSA level, although the magnitude of these associations was small. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  7. Healthy lifestyle behaviours and cardiovascular mortality among Japanese men and women: the Japan collaborative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tanabe, Naohito; Wada, Yasuhiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Shogo; Inaba, Yutaka; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2012-02-01

    To examine the combined impacts of healthy lifestyle behaviours on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Asians. A total of 18 747 men and 24 263 women aged 40-79 without a history of stroke or coronary heart disease (CHD) at baseline in 1988-90 were followed up until 2006. Participants scored one point for each following lifestyle behaviour: consumption of fruits ≥1 intake per day, fish ≥1 intake per day, milk almost every day, exercise ≥5 h per week and/or walking ≥1 h per day, body mass index (BMI) of 21-25 kg/m(2), alcohol intake <46.0 g per day, non-smoking, and sleep duration of 5.5-7.5 h per day. During 16.5 years of follow-up, there were 1907 deaths from total CVDs including 849 strokes and 402 CHDs. For both genders, persons with the highest scores had the lowest CVD mortality. The multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval, population-attributable fraction) for the highest (7-8) vs. lowest (0-2) score categories were 0.35 (0.25-0.49, 52.3%) in men, and 0.24 (0.16-0.36, 44.6%) in women. Similar associations were found for stroke: 0.36 (0.22-0.58, 45.0%) in men and 0.28 (0.15-0.53, 43.4%) in women, and for CHD: 0.19 (0.08-0.50, 76.2%) and 0.20 (0.09-0.47, 34.5%), respectively. Mortality from stroke, CHD, and CVD in the highest healthy lifestyle score category was one-third in men and one-fourth in women of those in the lowest scores, suggesting that a large fraction of CVD could be prevented through lifestyle modification.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone after intramuscular administration in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Suvisaari, J; Sundaram, K; Noé, G; Kumar, N; Aguillaume, C; Tsong, Y Y; Lähteenmäki, P; Bardin, C W

    1997-05-01

    7alpha-Methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) is a potent synthetic androgen that is resistant to 5alpha-reductases and therefore less prone to over-stimulate the prostate. It is a good candidate for implant administration in long-term androgen replacement therapy for hypogonadal men or as part of a male contraceptive system. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of MENT after i.m. administration, single i.m. injections of 2, 4 or 8 mg of micronized MENT were given in aqueous suspension to 18 healthy men in two clinics. Blood was sampled frequently for 8 h and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 9 days after the injections. Serum MENT concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Peak MENT concentrations were dose-dependent and were reached about 1-2 h after the injections. Doubling the dose of MENT resulted in an increase of 60% in peak serum MENT concentrations. The mean +/- SE clearance rate was 1790 +/- 140 l/day. The antigonadotrophic activity of MENT was investigated by giving six consecutive daily i.m. injections of 1, 2 or 4 mg of MENT to 24 healthy men in two clinics. Blood was sampled before each injection and up to 24 days after the last injection. Serum testosterone and gonadotrophin concentrations (determined by radioimmunoassay and fluoroimmunoassay respectively) decreased in a dose-dependent and statistically significant manner. The highest dose caused a 74% fall in testosterone, a 70% fall in luteinizing hormone, and a 57% fall in follicle stimulating hormone concentrations. MENT injections did not cause any side-effects. The results show that MENT is a potent antigonadotrophic agent in men.

  9. Association between simple renal cysts and development of hypertension in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Ji; Kim, Min S; Cho, Seong; Kim, Sung R

    2012-04-01

    The temporal relationship between simple renal cysts and incident hypertension is unknown. In this study, we assessed the time-dependent relationship between simple renal cysts and incident hypertension in a cohort of healthy middle-aged men. A cohort study was conducted with data for 4516 healthy men with no evidence of hypertension at baseline. Study participants received a health checkup including abdominal ultrasonography between 2003 and 2004, and were followed in annual or biennial health examinations until May 2011. We matched groups with and without renal cysts by age. Renal cysts were found in 123 participants (2.7%). The age-matched control group included 1476 men. Mean age of the cyst group did not differ from that of the control group (42.3 ± 6.6 and 42.2 ± 6.8 years, respectively; P = 0.939). SBP was lower in the cyst group than in the control group (118.0 ± 13.2 and 120.5 ± 12.2, respectively; P = 0.044). During 10,731.5 person-years of follow-up, 169 participants developed hypertension (1.6/100 person-years). Cumulative incidence of hypertension was higher in the cyst group than in the control group (29.9 and 15.4%, respectively; P = 0.000). After adjusting for confounding factors, renal cysts still significantly increased risk for hypertension (hazard ratio, 3.28; 95% confidence interval 2.24-4.80; P = 0.000). Age, BMI, mean arterial pressure and a family history of hypertension were also risk factors. Simple renal cysts independently predicted incident hypertension in this cohort of middle-aged men. Further research is justified to test the causal role of renal cysts in the development of hypertension.

  10. Life style and longevity among initially healthy middle-aged men: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Heir, Trond; Erikssen, Jan; Sandvik, Leiv

    2013-09-11

    Few studies have examined how various lifestyle factors in midlife predict longevity, and none of these studies have examined the impact of physical fitness. The present study aimed to examine longevity in relation to smoking, overweight and physical fitness. We prospectively studied longevity (defined as reaching at least 85 years of age) in relation to smoking status, body mass index and physical fitness in 821 healthy men between 51 and 59 years of age. Of these, 369 were smokers, 320 were overweight, and 31 were obese. The associations were adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol level, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Deaths were registered until the 31st of December, 2006. Physical fitness was measured as the total work performed in a maximal exercise tolerance bicycle test. 252 men survived to the age of 85 years (30.7%). Smoking status was significantly and independently related to longevity; 37.2% of the non-smokers survived to the age of 85, and 22.8% of the smokers. Among non-smokers, overweight and physical fitness were significantly and independently related to longevity after adjustment for age, blood pressure and cholesterol level, but not among smokers. Among non-smokers with high physical fitness, 48.8% reached the age of 85 years, compared to 27.9% among non-smokers with low physical fitness. Lifestyle variables appear to be strong and independent predictors of longevity in initially healthy middle-aged men. The probability of longevity may be a useful concept when informing the general public about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle.

  11. Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Jonas; Hindorf, Ulf; Persson, Paula; Bengtsson, Thomas; Malmqvist, Ulf; Werkström, Viktoria; Ekelund, Mats

    2008-02-01

    The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the leading cause of postmarketing warnings and withdrawals. Physical exercise can result in transient elevations of liver function tests. There is no consensus in the literature on which forms of exercise may cause changes in liver function tests and to what extent. Weightlifting results in profound increases in liver function tests in healthy men used to moderate physical activity, not including weightlifting. Liver function tests are significantly increased for at least 7 days after weightlifting. It is important to impose relevant restrictions on heavy muscular exercise prior to and during clinical studies. To investigate the effect of intensive muscular exercise (weightlifting) on clinical chemistry parameters reflecting liver function in healthy men. Fifteen healthy men, used to moderate physical activity not including weightlifting, performed an 1 h long weightlifting programme. Blood was sampled for clinical chemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin] at repeated intervals during 7 days postexercise and at a follow-up examination 10-12 days postexercise. Five out of eight studied clinical chemistry parameters (AST, ALT, LD, CK and myoglobin) increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.01) and remained increased for at least 7 days postexercise. Bilirubin, gamma GT and ALP remained within the normal range. The liver function parameters, AST and ALT, were significantly increased for at least 7 days after the exercise. In addition, LD and, in particular, CK and myoglobin showed highly elevated levels. These findings highlight the importance of imposing restrictions on weightlifting prior to and during clinical studies. Intensive muscular exercise, e

  12. Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Jonas; Hindorf, Ulf; Persson, Paula; Bengtsson, Thomas; Malmqvist, Ulf; Werkström, Viktoria; Ekelund, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of intensive muscular exercise (weightlifting) on clinical chemistry parameters reflecting liver function in healthy men. Methods Fifteen healthy men, used to moderate physical activity not including weightlifting, performed an 1 h long weightlifting programme. Blood was sampled for clinical chemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin] at repeated intervals during 7 days postexercise and at a follow-up examination 10–12 days postexercise. Results Five out of eight studied clinical chemistry parameters (AST, ALT, LD, CK and myoglobin) increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.01) and remained increased for at least 7 days postexercise. Bilirubin, γGT and ALP remained within the normal range. Conclusion The liver function parameters, AST and ALT, were significantly increased for at least 7 days after the exercise. In addition, LD and, in particular, CK and myoglobin showed highly elevated levels. These findings highlight the importance of imposing restrictions on weightlifting prior to and during clinical studies. Intensive muscular exercise, e.g. weightlifting, should also be considered as a cause of asymptomatic elevations of liver function tests in daily clinical practice. What is already known about this subject The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the leading cause of postmarketing warnings and withdrawals.Physical exercise can result in transient elevations of liver function tests.There is no consensus in the literature on which forms of exercise may cause changes in liver function tests and to what extent. What this study adds Weightlifting results in profound increases in liver function tests in healthy men used to moderate physical activity, not including

  13. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J.; Maurer, David G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05) indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during non-fatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men. PMID:25536008

  14. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-02-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05), indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men.

  15. The bacterial flora of the nasal cavity in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, S; Ylikoski, J; Jousimies-Somer, H

    1986-12-01

    The nasal cavity of 97 young healthy men (applicants for the pilot education in the Finnish Air Force) was examined. Bacterial culture demonstrated one or more species of aerobic bacteria in all 194 nasal cavities examined and anaerobic bacteria in 76.5%. In ten per cent of the cultures bacteria were detected after enrichment only. The most common aerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis (79%), diphtheroids (41%) and Staphylococcus aureus (34%). Haemophilus influenzae was found in 5% and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 0.5%. Anaerobic culture yielded Propionibacterium acnes in 74.5% and Peptococcus magnus in 3.5%.

  16. Wrist circumference is related to patellar tendon thickness in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Nyland, John; Fried, Andrew; Maitra, Ranjan; Johnson, Darren L; Caborn, David N M

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of dominant wrist circumference measurements to predict dominant lower extremity patellar tendon thickness at regions of interest for bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft harvest was studied among 24 healthy men and women. Dominant wrist circumference displayed good relationships with dominant lower extremity patellar tendon thickness as determined by two-dimensional diagnostic ultrasound. This initial screening method may assist surgeons as they consider graft selection for patients who may be at risk for developing or exacerbating preexisting patellofemoral joint or knee extensor mechanism conditions with BPTB autograft harvest.

  17. Cortisol reduces recall of explicit contextual pain memory in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2010-09-01

    Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance.

  18. Hip bone geometry in HIV/HCV-co-infected men and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, C. G.; Araujo, A. B.; Chiu, G. R.; Travison, T. G.; Mehta, S.; Sulkowski, M. S.; Higgins, Y.; Thomas, D. L.; Dobs, A. S.; Beck, T. J.; Brown, T. T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary People with both HIV and hepatitis C are more likely than those with HIV alone to have wrist, hip, and spine fractures. We compared hip strength between HIV/HCV-co-infected men and healthy men and found that HIV/HCV-co-infected men had decreased hip strength due to lower lean body mass. Introduction Hepatitis C co-infection is a risk factor for fragility fracture among HIV-infected populations. Whether bone strength is compromised in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients is unknown. Methods We compared dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived hip geometry, a measure of bone strength, in 88 HIV/HCV-co-infected men from the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic to 289 men of similar age and race and without HIV or HCV from the Boston Area Community Health Survey/Bone Survey. Hip geometry was assessed at the narrow neck, intertrochanter, and shaft using hip structural analysis. Lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (FM), and fat mass ratio (FMR) were measured by whole-body DXA. Linear regression was used to identify body composition parameters that accounted for differences in bone strength between cohorts. Results HIV/HCV-co-infected men had lower BMI, LBM, and FM and higher FMR compared to controls (all p<0.05). At the narrow neck, significant differences were observed between HIV/HCV-co-infected men and controls in bone mineral density, cross-sectional area, section modulus, buckling ratio, and centroid position. After adjustment for race, age, smoking status, height, and weight, only buckling ratio and centroid position remained significantly different between cohorts (all p<0.05). Substituting LBM, FM, and FMR for weight in the multivariate model revealed that differences in LBM, but not FM or FMR, accounted for differences in all narrow neck parameters between cohorts, except buckling ratio and centroid position. Conclusion HIV/HCV-co-infected men have compromised hip strength at the narrow neck compared to uninfected controls, which is attributable in large part to

  19. Healthy lifestyles and health-related quality of life among men living with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Uphold, Constance R; Holmes, Wanda; Reid, Kimberly; Findley, Kimberly; Parada, Jorge P

    2007-01-01

    Although healthy lifestyles are related to improved quality of life in the general population, little is known about the role of healthy lifestyles during HIV infection. The authors examined the relationships between health-promoting behaviors, risk behaviors, stress, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 226 men with HIV infection who were attending three infectious disease clinics. As hypothesized, health-promoting behaviors were positively related and stress was negatively related with most of the HRQOL dimensions. Contrary to the hypothesis, tobacco use, recreational drug use, and unsafe sexual behaviors were not related to the HRQOL dimensions. Hazardous alcohol use was negatively associated with one HRQOL dimension--social functioning. The association of modifiable factors, such as health-promoting behaviors and stress, with HQROL offers opportunities for improving HIV-related health care. Relatively simple, straightforward changes in lifestyles such as eating well, remaining active, and avoiding stressful life events may result in improvements in HRQOL.

  20. Effects of a Rubus coreanus Miquel supplement on plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Jung eun; Auh, Joong Hyuck; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Jaehwi; Cho, SooMuk

    2011-01-01

    Korean raspberry, Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM), contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds, which prevent oxidative stress. To determine the effect of RCM on antioxidant capacity in humans, we assessed in vivo lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities from plasma in 15 healthy men. The subjects ingested 30 g of freeze-dried RCM daily for 4 weeks. Blood was taken at baseline and at the end of the study to determine blood lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, liver function, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. RCM supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or fasting plasma glucose concentrations but decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. RCM supplementation increased glutathione peroxidase activities (P < 0.05) but had no effect on lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that short-term RCM supplementation may offer health benefits by enhancing antioxidant capacity in a healthy population. PMID:22125680

  1. Effect of tequila on homocysteine, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic profile in healthy men.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Manuel; Pascoe-González, Sara; Kam-Ramos, Angélica M; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of a low dose of tequila on homocysteine, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic profile in healthy young men. An open clinical trial was carried out in eight healthy nonobese, young male volunteers. The study was divided in two phases. The first one evaluated metabolic changes, including insulin secretion and sensitivity due to acute administration of 30 ml of straight tequila. The second phase of the study evaluated metabolic effects due to the daily administration of 30 ml of tequila during 30 days. There were no significant metabolic changes after the single oral administration of 30 ml of straight tequila. After the administration of tequila during 30 days, a significant increase in homocysteine levels and a tendency to increase the glucose concentration and to decrease the insulin sensitivity were found. Detrimental metabolic changes were observed with the daily administration of 30 ml of tequila during 30 days.

  2. Regular endurance exercise induces expansive arterial remodelling in the trained limbs of healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Dinenno, Frank A; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Monahan, Kevin D; Clevenger, Christopher M; Eskurza, Iratxe; DeSouza, Christopher A; Seals, Douglas R

    2001-01-01

    In experimental animals chronic elevations in arterial blood flow increase the lumen diameter and reduce the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the arterial segment involved. We determined whether intermittent elevations in active muscle blood flow associated with regular aerobic leg exercise induced such expansive arterial remodelling in the common femoral artery of humans. In the cross-sectional study 53 sedentary (47 ± 2 years) and 55 endurance exercise-trained (47 ± 2 years) men were studied. Common femoral artery lumen diameter (B-mode ultrasound) was 7 % greater (9.62 ± 0.12 vs. 9.03 ± 0.13 mm), and femoral IMT (0.46 ± 0.02 vs. 0.55 ± 0.02 mm) and IMT/lumen ratio were 16–21 % smaller in the endurance-trained men (all P < 0.001). Basal femoral artery blood flow (duplex ultrasound) was not different, shear stress tended to be lower (P = 0.08), and mean femoral tangential wall stress was 30 % higher in the endurance-trained men (P < 0.001). In the intervention study 22 men (51 ± 2 years) were studied before and after 3 months of regular aerobic leg exercise (primarily walking). After training, the femoral diameter increased by 9 % (8.82 ± 0.18 vs. 9.60 ± 0.20 mm), and IMT (0.65 ± 0.05 vs. 0.56 ± 0.05 mm) and the IMT/lumen ratio were ≈15–20 % smaller (all P < 0.001). Basal femoral blood flow and shear stress were not different after training, whereas the mean femoral tangential wall stress increased by 31 %. The changes in arterial structure were not related to changes in risk factors for atherosclerosis. Our results are consistent with the concept that regular aerobic leg exercise induces expansive arterial remodelling in the femoral artery of healthy men. This adaptive process is produced by even a moderate training stimulus, is not obviously dependent on corresponding improvements in risk factors for atherosclerosis, and is robust, occurring in healthy men of different ages. PMID:11433009

  3. [Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position].

    PubMed

    Dalli, Ernesto; Segarra, Leopoldo; Ruvira, Jorge; Esteban, Esther; Cabrera, Abraham; Lliso, Ramón; López, Esther; Llopis, Enric; Sotillo, José F

    2002-09-01

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is endothelium-dependent and can be assessed by ultrasound in the brachial artery. We sought to determine the most suitable position for the occlusion cuff for the study of FMD in three groups of adult men. We included 160 subjects, mean age 58.5 7.8 years: 40 healthy subjects, 80 with cardiovascular risk factors, and 40 patients with AMI. In a subgroup of 60 subjects, the first 10, 30, and 20 of each group, respectively, FMD was evaluated twice, after upper arm occlusion and forearm occlusion to induce hyperemia. In the initial substudy, the FMD after upper arm occlusion was 7.6 2.4% in healthy subjects, 5.1 2.2% in men with risk factors (p < 0.0001), and 3.5 2.2% in AMI patients (p < 0.041, with respect to the risk-factor group). FMD after forearm occlusion was 4.6 1.5%, 2.3 2.1% (p < 0.006), and 2.2 1.9%, respectively, with no significant statistical differences between the risk-factor and AMI groups. Only upper arm occlusion was performed in the remaining participants, as planned, because it provided the most accurate information. Overall, the FMD was, respectively, 7.8 3.1%, 5 2.6% (p < 0.0001) and 3.3 3% (p < 0.004, with respect to the risk-factor group). FMD was directly related to HDL cholesterol and inversely related to resting diameter and number of risk factors. The best approach to studying FMD is proximal occlusion since it allows for a better stratification of the with endothelial dysfunction. With this technique, a worsening of endothelial function in acute myocardial infarction can be demonstrated.

  4. Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on risk of atrial fibrillation: Prospective study in men and women.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Drca, Nikola; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-01-15

    The combined impact of multiple lifestyle factors on risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unclear. We investigated the joint association of four modifiable lifestyle factors on incidence of AF in a prospective study of men and women. The study cohort comprised 39 300 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men and 33 090 women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort who were 45-83 years of age and free from atrial fibrillation at baseline. Healthy lifestyle was defined as body mass index <25 kg/m(2), regular exercise for ≥ 20 min/day, no or light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (≤ 2 drinks/day for men and ≤ 1 drink/day for women), and not smoking. Incident AF cases were identified through linkage with the Swedish National Inpatient Register. During a mean follow-up of 10.9 years, AF occurred in 4028 men and 2539 women. Compared with men and women with no healthy lifestyle factors, the multivariable relative risks (95% confidence interval) of AF were 0.83 (0.65-1.07) for one, 0.74 (0.58-0.94) for two, 0.62 (0.49-0.79) for three, and 0.50 (0.39-0.64) for four healthy lifestyle factors (P for trend <0.0001). The inverse association was similar in men and women. Four healthy lifestyle factors combined were associated with a halving of the risk of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive performance effects of low zinc (Zn) intakes in healthy adult men

    SciTech Connect

    Penland, J.G. )

    1991-03-15

    A battery of tasks assessing sensory-motor skills and cognitive performance was administered to 14 healthy men participating in a 7-month, live-in metabolic study of Zn nutrition. Following a 33-day equilibration period, during which Zn intake was approximately 10 mg/2,500 kcal/day, all subjects were fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 mg Zn/day during each of four consecutive 35-day depletion periods administered in a random, double-blind manner. The study concluded with a 35-day repletion period providing 10 mg Zn/day. When contrasted with performance during the Zn repletion period, measures of response time and/or error on 10 of the 15 tasks administered showed a significant negative relationship to dietary Zn intake. Two sensory-motor tasks, two attention tasks, three perceptual tasks, two memory tasks, and one spatial task showed impaired performance with the low Zn intakes. However, there were few differences among the four depletion periods to support a dose effect of dietary Zn. Results suggest that even marginally low Zn intakes may have a negative effect on psychological and behavioral function in otherwise healthy young adult men.

  6. Less Healthy Dietary Pattern is Associated with Smoking in Korean Men According to Nationally Representative Data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hyun; Park, Sang Shin; Seo, Ah-Ram; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Yong Joo; Yim, Eunji

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between smoking and nutrient intake has been widely investigated in several countries. However, Korea presents a population with a smoking rate of approximately 50% and dietary consumption of unique foods. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with smoking in Korean men using a nationally representative sample. The study subjects were comprised of 4,851 Korean men over 19 yr of age who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hr recall method. The smoking group comprised 2,136 men (46.6%). Five dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis: 'sugar & fat', 'vegetables & seafood', 'meat & drinks', 'grains & eggs', and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products.' Current smokers showed a more significant 'sugar & fat' pattern (P = 0.001) while significantly less of the 'vegetables & seafood' and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products' patterns (P = 0.011, P < 0.001, respectively). As found in similar results from Western studies, Korean male smokers showed less healthy dietary patterns than nonsmokers. Thus, the result of this study underlines the need for health professionals to also provide advice on dietary patterns when counseling patients on smoking cessation. PMID:23772151

  7. Moderate stress enhances immediate and delayed retrieval of educationally relevant material in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Hupbach, Almut; Fieman, Rachel

    2012-12-01

    Retrieval practice is a powerful memory enhancer. However, in educational settings, test taking is often experienced as a stressful event. While it is known that stress can impair retrieval processes, little is known about the delayed consequences of testing memory for educationally relevant material under stressful conditions, which is the focus of the present study. Participants (38 women, 37 men) memorized a scientific text passage on Day 1. On Day 2, they were either exposed to a stressor (cold pressor test; CPS) or a warm water control, and immediately afterward, they were asked to recall the text passage (i.e., retrieval under stress vs. control). Salivary cortisol was measured as an index of the stress response before, and 20 min after the CPS versus control treatment. The delayed effects of testing under stress were assessed with a final recall test on Day 3. In comparison to the control condition, CPS caused significant increases in salivary cortisol, and, surprisingly resulted in enhanced memory in men. Importantly, this enhancement was not only observed in the test that immediately followed the stressor, but also in the delayed test. In women, CPS caused only marginal increases in cortisol concentrations, and retrieval remained unaffected. Our study suggests that moderate stress can improve memory performance for educationally relevant material in a long-lasting manner in healthy young men.

  8. Effects of drinking water monochloramine on lipid and thyroid metabolism in healthy men.

    PubMed Central

    Wones, R G; Deck, C C; Stadler, B; Roark, S; Hogg, E; Frohman, L A

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 4-week consumption of 1.5L per day of drinking water containing monochloramine at a concentration of 2 ppm (ppm = mg/L) or 15 ppm under controlled conditions would alter parameters of lipid or thyroid metabolism in healthy men. Forty-eight men completed an 8-week protocol during which diet (600 mg cholesterol per day, 40% calories as fat) and other factors known to affect lipid metabolism were controlled. During the first 4 weeks of the protocol, all subjects consumed distilled water. During the second 4 weeks, one-third of the subjects were assigned randomly to drink 1.5 L per day of water containing 2 ppm of monochloramine, to drink 1.5 L per day of water containing 15 ppm monochloramine, or to continue drinking distilled water. Four blood samples were collected from each subject at the end of each 4-week study period. Subjects drinking monochloramine at a concentration of 2 ppm showed no significant changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins A1, A2, or B when compared to the distilled water group. Parameters of thyroid function also were unchanged by exposure to monochloramine at this concentration. However, subjects drinking monochloramine at a concentration of 15 ppm experienced an increase in the level of apolipoprotein B. Other parameters of lipid and thyroid metabolism did not change. We conclude that consumption of drinking water containing 2 ppm of monochloramine does not alter parameters of lipid and thyroid metabolism in healthy men. Consumption of water containing 15 ppm monochloramine may be associated with increased levels of plasma apolipoprotein B. PMID:8319653

  9. Dysanapsis and the resistive work of breathing during exercise in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Bingham, Derek; Swartz, Philippa M.; Road, Jeremy D.; Sheel, A. William

    2015-01-01

    We asked if the higher work of breathing (Wb) during exercise in women compared with men is explained by biological sex. We created a statistical model that accounts for both the viscoelastic and the resistive components of the total Wb and independently compares the effects of biological sex. We applied the model to esophageal pressure-derived Wb values obtained during an incremental cycle test to exhaustion. Subjects were healthy men (n = 17) and women (n = 18) with a range of maximal aerobic capacities (V̇o2 max range: men = 40-68 and women = 39–60 ml·kg−1·min−1). We also calculated the dysanapsis ratio using measures of lung recoil and forced expiratory flow as index of airway caliber. By applying the model we found that the differences in the total Wb during exercise in women are due to a higher resistive Wb rather than viscoelastic Wb. We also found that the higher resistive Wb is independently explained by biological sex. To account for the known effect of lung volumes on the dysanapsis ratio we compared the sexes with an analysis of covariance procedures and found that when vital capacity was accounted for the adjusted mean dysanapsis ratio is statistically lower in women (0.17 vs. 0.25 arbitrary units; P < 0.05). Our collective findings suggest that innate sex-based differences may exist in human airways, which result in significant male-female differences in the Wb during exercise in healthy subjects. PMID:26359483

  10. Age-related testosterone decline in a Brazilian cohort of healthy military men.

    PubMed

    Nardozza Júnior, Archimedes; Szelbracikowski, Sergio dos Santos; Nardi, Aguinaldo Cesar; Almeida, Jose Carlos de

    2011-01-01

    Androgen decline in the aging man has become a topic of increasing clinical relevance worldwide, as the reduction in testosterone levels has been reported to be accompanied by loss of muscle mass, accumulation of central adiposity, impaired mobility and increase risk of bone fractures. Although well-established in studies conducted in developed countries, progressive decline in serum testosterone levels with age has been poorly investigated in Brazil. To determine the pattern of blood testosterone concentrations decline with age in a cohort of Brazilian healthy military men. We retrospectively reviewed data on serum testosterone measurements of healthy individuals that had undergone a routine check-up at the Military Biology Institute. Blood samples were obtained early in the morning, and total testosterone concentration was determined using a commercial chemoluminescent immunoassay. Mean values were analyzed in five age groups: ≤ 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 60, 61 to 70, and > 70 years. Mean total testosterone levels. 1,623 subjects were included in the analysis; mean age was 57 years (24 to 87), and mean testosterone level was 575.5 ng/dL (25.0 to 1308.0 ng/dL). The evaluation of age-related changes in total testosterone levels revealed a progressive reduction in serum levels of this hormone with increasing age. Testosterone levels below 300 ng/dL were reported in 321 participants, a prevalence of nearly 20% in the study population. In agreement with other findings, a reduction of total testosterone levels with age was reported for healthy Brazilian men.

  11. Association between left-handedness and cardiac autonomic function in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Işcen, Sinan; Özenç, Salim; Tavlasoglu, Urat

    2014-07-01

    Effects of nonright-handedness on risk for sudden death associated with coronary artery disease via sympathetic imbalance contributed to ventricular arrhythmogenesis previously have been demonstrated. This study hypothesized that left-handedness might be associated with cardiac autonomic functions in healthy young men. The aim of this study was to examine the association between left-handedness and cardiac autonomic functions in healthy young men. A total of 992 asymptomatic young male subjects underwent routine health checkup between May 2012 and July 2013, and were included in this study. All were submitted to a standard protocol that included a complete clinical examination, laboratory evaluation, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and 2D-echocardiogram. Fifty-two subjects were left-handed; 32 subjects had abnormal QRS-T angle. Statistical analyses were performed using statistical package SPSS 15.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and statistical significance was assessed at the two-tailed 0.05 threshold. A total of 52 (5%) subjects were left-handed; 32 (3%) subjects had an abnormal frontal QRS-T angle. The mean age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, current smoking, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin, leukocyte count, platelet count, and echocardiographic parameters were not different between two groups. But subjects with left-handedness had greater prevalence of abnormal QRS-T angle. The left-handedness group had 18 subjects with abnormal QRS-T angle (34%) and the right-handedness group had 14 subjects with abnormal QRS-T angle (1.4%). The difference between two groups was significant (P < 0.001). In this study, there was a significant association between left-handedness and abnormal QRS-T angle in healthy young subjects. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Blunted autonomic reactivity to pharmacological panic challenge under long-term escitalopram treatment in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Michael; Stiedl, Oliver; Muhtz, Christoph; Wiedemann, Klaus; Demiralay, Cüneyt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central serotonergic pathways influence brain areas involved in vagal cardiovascular regulation and, thereby, influence sympathetic efferent activity. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect multiple serotonergic pathways, including central autonomic pathways. However, only a few studies have assessed SSRI-mediated effects on autonomic reactivity in healthy individuals using heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: The present study assessed the influence of long-term treatment with escitalopram (ESC) on autonomic reactivity to an intravenous application of 50 µg cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) in 30 healthy young men using a double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled, randomized, within-subject cross-over design. Main outcome measures were time- and frequency-domain HRV parameters, assessed at both baseline and immediately after CCK-4 application. Results: Results showed substantial effects for the treatment × CCK-4 challenge interaction with respect to heart rate (p < 0.001; pη2 = 0.499), SDNN (p < 0.001; pη2 = 576), RMSSD (p = 0.015; pη2 = 194), NN50% (p = 0.008; pη2 = 0.224), and LF% (p = 0.014; pη2 = 0.196), and moderate effects with respect HF% (p = 0.099; pη2 = 0.094), with PLA subjects showing a higher increase in HR and SDNN and a higher decrease in RMSSD, NN50, LF and HF than subjects in the ESC condition. Thus, ESC treatment significantly blunted the autonomic reactivity to CCK-4. Secondary analysis indicated no effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on CCK-4-induced autonomic response. Conclusions: Our results support findings suggesting an effect of SSRI treatment on autonomic regulation and provide evidence that ESC treatment is associated with blunted autonomic reactivity in healthy men. PMID:25522396

  13. Shorter Sleep Duration is Associated with Decreased Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy White Men

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patricia M.; Manuck, Stephen B.; DiNardo, Monica M.; Korytkowski, Mary; Muldoon, Matthew F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Short sleep has been linked to increased risk for type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular disease and acute sleep restriction impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Here, we examined whether indices of glucose metabolism vary with naturally occurring differences in sleep duration. Design and Measures: Subjects were midlife, nondiabetic community volunteers (N = 224; mean age 44.5 ± 6.6 y [range: 30–54]; 52% female; 89% white). Laboratory measures of insulin sensitivity (Si) and acute secretion (AIRg), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and disposition index (Di) were obtained from a 180-min, intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results: Shorter self-reported sleep duration (in hours) was associated with lower Si (P = 0.043), although an interaction of sleep duration with participant race (β = −0.81, P = 0.002) showed this association significant only in whites. Moreover, sex-stratified analyses revealed that shorter sleep duration predicted lower Si in white men (β = 0.29, P = 0.003) but not in white women (P = 0.22). Findings were similar for AIRg. The relationship between sleep duration and AIRg was moderated by race as well as sex, such that shorter sleep duration associated with greater insulin release only in white men (β = −0.28, P = 0.004). Sleep duration was unrelated to Sg and Di (P's > 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that shorter sleep duration may impair insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in nondiabetic white men, possibly contributing to later type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Citation: Wong PM, Manuck SB, DiNardo MM, Korytkowski M, Muldoon MF. Shorter sleep duration is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in healthy white men. SLEEP 2015;38(2):223–231. PMID:25325485

  14. Hormone replacement therapy and physical function in healthy older men. Time to talk hormones?

    PubMed

    Giannoulis, Manthos G; Martin, Finbarr C; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Umpleby, A Margot; Sonksen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Improving physical function and mobility in a continuously expanding elderly population emerges as a high priority of medicine today. Muscle mass, strength/power, and maximal exercise capacity are major determinants of physical function, and all decline with aging. This contributes to the incidence of frailty and disability observed in older men. Furthermore, it facilitates the accumulation of body fat and development of insulin resistance. Muscle adaptation to exercise is strongly influenced by anabolic endocrine hormones and local load-sensitive autocrine/paracrine growth factors. GH, IGF-I, and testosterone (T) are directly involved in muscle adaptation to exercise because they promote muscle protein synthesis, whereas T and locally expressed IGF-I have been reported to activate muscle stem cells. Although exercise programs improve physical function, in the long-term most older men fail to comply. The GH/IGF-I axis and T levels decline markedly with aging, whereas accumulating evidence supports their indispensable role in maintaining physical function integrity. Several studies have reported that the administration of T improves lean body mass and maximal voluntary strength in healthy older men. On the other hand, most studies have shown that administration of GH alone failed to improve muscle strength despite amelioration of the detrimental somatic changes of aging. Both GH and T are anabolic agents that promote muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy but work through separate mechanisms, and the combined administration of GH and T, albeit in only a few studies, has resulted in greater efficacy than either hormone alone. Although it is clear that this combined approach is effective, this review concludes that further studies are needed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of combined hormone replacement therapy in older men before the medical rationale of prescribing hormone replacement therapy for combating the sarcopenia of aging can be established.

  15. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Physical Function in Healthy Older Men. Time to Talk Hormones?

    PubMed Central

    Giannoulis, Manthos G.; Martin, Finbarr C.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Umpleby, A. Margot

    2012-01-01

    Improving physical function and mobility in a continuously expanding elderly population emerges as a high priority of medicine today. Muscle mass, strength/power, and maximal exercise capacity are major determinants of physical function, and all decline with aging. This contributes to the incidence of frailty and disability observed in older men. Furthermore, it facilitates the accumulation of body fat and development of insulin resistance. Muscle adaptation to exercise is strongly influenced by anabolic endocrine hormones and local load-sensitive autocrine/paracrine growth factors. GH, IGF-I, and testosterone (T) are directly involved in muscle adaptation to exercise because they promote muscle protein synthesis, whereas T and locally expressed IGF-I have been reported to activate muscle stem cells. Although exercise programs improve physical function, in the long-term most older men fail to comply. The GH/IGF-I axis and T levels decline markedly with aging, whereas accumulating evidence supports their indispensable role in maintaining physical function integrity. Several studies have reported that the administration of T improves lean body mass and maximal voluntary strength in healthy older men. On the other hand, most studies have shown that administration of GH alone failed to improve muscle strength despite amelioration of the detrimental somatic changes of aging. Both GH and T are anabolic agents that promote muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy but work through separate mechanisms, and the combined administration of GH and T, albeit in only a few studies, has resulted in greater efficacy than either hormone alone. Although it is clear that this combined approach is effective, this review concludes that further studies are needed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of combined hormone replacement therapy in older men before the medical rationale of prescribing hormone replacement therapy for combating the sarcopenia of aging can be established

  16. Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Markers of Subclinical Arterial Disease in Healthy Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Won; Chang, Yoosoo; Zhao, Di; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Ryu, Seungho; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Yun, Kyung Eun; Choi, Yuni; Ahn, Jiin; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Baek, Youngji; Lima, Joao A; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee; Sung, Eunju

    2015-10-01

    Short and long sleep duration are associated with increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events, but the association between sleep duration and subclinical cardiovascular disease is not well established. We examined the association between sleep duration and sleep quality with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult men and women who underwent a health checkup examination, including assessment of sleep duration and quality and coupled with either CAC (n=29 203) or brachial-ankle PWV (n=18 106). The multivariate-adjusted CAC score ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing sleep durations of ≤5, 6, 8, and ≥9 hours with 7 hours of sleep were 1.50 (1.17-1.93), 1.34 (1.10-1.63), 1.37 (0.99-1.89), and 1.72 (0.90-3.28), respectively (P for quadratic trend=0.002). The corresponding average differences in brachial-ankle PWV were 6.7 (0.75-12.6), 2.9 (-1.7 to 7.4), 10.5 (4.5-16.5), and 9.6 (-0.7 to 19.8) cm/s, respectively (P for quadratic trend=0.019). Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with CAC in women but not in men, whereas the association between poor subjective sleep quality and brachial-ankle PWV was stronger in men than in women. In this large study of apparently healthy men and women, extreme sleep duration and poor subjective sleep quality were associated with increased prevalence of CAC and higher PWV. Our results underscore the importance of an adequate quantity and quality of sleep to maintain cardiovascular health. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Glucagon-like peptide-1 elicits vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Asmar, Ali; Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette; Sorensen, Charlotte M; Bülow, Jens

    2017-02-01

    In healthy subjects, we recently demonstrated that during acute administration of GLP-1, cardiac output increased significantly, whereas renal blood flow remained constant. We therefore hypothesize that GLP-1 induces vasodilation in other organs, for example, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and/or splanchnic tissues. Nine healthy men were examined twice in random order during a 2-hour infusion of either GLP-1 (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline. Cardiac output was continuously estimated noninvasively concomitantly with measurement of intra-arterial blood pressure. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured by the (133)Xenon clearance technique. Leg and splanchnic blood flow were measured by Fick's Principle, using indocyanine green as indicator. In the GLP-1 study, cardiac output increased significantly together with a significant increase in arterial pulse pressure and heart rate compared with the saline study. Subcutaneous, abdominal ATBF and leg blood flow increased significantly during the GLP-1 infusion compared with saline, whereas splanchnic blood flow response did not differ between the studies. We conclude that in healthy subjects, GLP-1 increases cardiac output acutely due to a GLP-1-induced vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle together with an increase in cardiac work.

  18. Noneffect of manual needle acupuncture on experimental pain parameters in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Micalos, Peter S; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of manual acupuncture on experimental pain parameters in healthy participants. The experimental design was a repeated-measures, three-group pre- and postprocedure. All subjects participated in a control, sham, and acupuncture procedure, separated by 1 week, in a counterbalanced sequence to forestall an order effect. Data were collected in a laboratory environment. The participants included 12 healthy young men (mean age 21.3 ± 2.6 years; height 183.8 ± 5 cm; weight 77.7 ± 9.5 kg). The control procedure comprised assessing the experimental pain parameters before and after a quiet rest for 20 minutes. The sham procedure was performed with the needle inserted bilaterally 1-1.5 cm outside each acupoint. The manual acupuncture procedure was performed at two bilateral acupoints of LI-4 (Large Intestine 4, Hegu) and ST-44 (Stomach 44, Nei Ting). Pain parameters assessed included the pain threshold, nociceptive reflex threshold, and nociceptive reflex amplitude. Repeated-measures analysis of variance between pre- and postcontrol, sham, and acupuncture procedures for pain threshold, nociceptive reflex threshold, and nociceptive reflex amplitude revealed no significant difference. Manual acupuncture at bilateral acupoints LI-4 and ST-44 did not show a change in pain threshold, nociceptive flexion reflex threshold, or the nociceptive reflex amplitude in healthy participants.

  19. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Cutillas-Tolín, A.; Mínguez-Alarcón, L.; Mendiola, J.; López-Espín, J.J.; Jørgensen, N.; Navarrete-Muñoz, E.M.; Torres-Cantero, A.M.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011 in Murcia Region (Spain). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Two hundred and nine healthy men aged 18–23 years were finally included in this analysis. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Linear regression was used to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits and seafood) and a Western pattern (characterized by high intakes of processed meats, French fries and snacks). The Mediterranean pattern was positively associated with total sperm count (P, trend = 0.04). The Western pattern was positively related to the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P, trend = 0.008). We found an inverse association between adherence to the Western pattern and sperm concentration among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.04). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As with all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. However, participants were blinded to the study outcomes thus reducing the potential influenced their report of diet. Although we adjusted for a large number of known and suspected confounders, we cannot exclude the possibility

  20. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men.

    PubMed

    Cutillas-Tolín, A; Mínguez-Alarcón, L; Mendiola, J; López-Espín, J J; Jørgensen, N; Navarrete-Muñoz, E M; Torres-Cantero, A M; Chavarro, J E

    2015-12-01

    Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive potential. The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011 in Murcia Region (Spain). Two hundred and nine healthy men aged 18-23 years were finally included in this analysis. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Linear regression was used to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits and seafood) and a Western pattern (characterized by high intakes of processed meats, French fries and snacks). The Mediterranean pattern was positively associated with total sperm count (P, trend = 0.04). The Western pattern was positively related to the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P, trend = 0.008). We found an inverse association between adherence to the Western pattern and sperm concentration among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.04). As with all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. However, participants were blinded to the study outcomes thus reducing the potential influenced their report of diet. Although we adjusted for a large number of known and suspected confounders, we cannot exclude the possibility of residual confounding or chance findings. This study was carried out on healthy and young men, so it is difficult to predict whether and how the observed differences in semen quality translate

  1. Endocrine response to masturbation-induced orgasm in healthy men following a 3-week sexual abstinence.

    PubMed

    Exton, M S; Krüger, T H; Bursch, N; Haake, P; Knapp, W; Schedlowski, M; Hartmann, U

    2001-11-01

    This current study examined the effect of a 3-week period of sexual abstinence on the neuroendocrine response to masturbation-induced orgasm. Hormonal and cardiovascular parameters were examined in ten healthy adult men during sexual arousal and masturbation-induced orgasm. Blood was drawn continuously and cardiovascular parameters were constantly monitored. This procedure was conducted for each participant twice, both before and after a 3-week period of sexual abstinence. Plasma was subsequently analysed for concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, prolactin, luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentrations. Orgasm increased blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines and prolactin. These effects were observed both before and after sexual abstinence. In contrast, although plasma testosterone was unaltered by orgasm, higher testosterone concentrations were observed following the period of abstinence. These data demonstrate that acute abstinence does not change the neuroendocrine response to orgasm but does produce elevated levels of testosterone in males.

  2. Stress-like adrenocorticotropin responses to caffeine in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Lovallo, W R; Al'Absi, M; Blick, K; Whitsett, T L; Wilson, M F

    1996-11-01

    The effects of oral caffeine (3.3 mg/kg, equivalent to 2-3 cups of coffee) on plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT) were tested in 47 healthy young men at rest in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Following caffeine, ACTH was significantly elevated at all times from 30 min to 180 min, and CORT was elevated from 60 min to 120 min (Fs > or = 8.4, ps < 0.01). Peak increases relative to placebo were: ACTH, 33% (+5.2 pg/ml) and CORT, 30% (+2.7 micrograms/dl) at 60 min postcaffeine. The results suggest that caffeine can activate important components of the pituitary-adrenocortical response in humans during the resting state. Caffeine's known ability to increase CORT production appears at least partly due to an increase in ACTH release at the pituitary.

  3. Executive function on the 16-day of bed rest in young healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2009-05-01

    Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.

  4. Testosterone levels in healthy men are related to amygdala reactivity and memory performance.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Sandra; Spalek, Klara; Rasch, Björn; Gschwind, Leo; Coynel, David; Fastenrath, Matthias; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2012-09-01

    Testosterone is a steroid hormone thought to influence both emotional and cognitive functions. It is unknown, however, if testosterone also affects the interaction between these two domains, such as the emotional arousal-induced enhancement of memory. Healthy subjects (N=234) encoded pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and underwent a free recall test 10 min after memory encoding. We show that higher endogenous testosterone levels at encoding were associated with higher arousal ratings of neutral pictures in men. fMRI analysis revealed that higher testosterone levels were related to increased brain activation in the amygdala during encoding of neutral pictures. Moreover, endogenous testosterone levels were positively correlated with the number of freely recalled neutral pictures. No such relations were found in women. These findings point to a male-specific role for testosterone in enhancing memory by increasing the biological salience of incoming information.

  5. Effect of zinc administration on thyrotropin releasing hormone-stimulated prolactinemia in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Castro, A V; Mendonça, B B; Bloise, W; Shuhama, T; Brandão-Neto, J

    1999-12-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated zinc (Zn++) inhibition of basal and of potassium (K+) or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-stimulated prolactin (PRL) secretion, in a selective, reversible, and dose-dependent manner. Thus, Zn++ may regulate physiologically pituitary PRL secretion. Furthermore, studies with patients with uremia, cirrhosis or prolactinoma, have shown the coexistence of hypozincemia and hyperprolactinemia and zinc supplementation did not correct hyperprolactinemia in these patients. In normal individuals Zn++ administration produced controversial results on PRL secretion. Here, we investigated whether zinc administration affects TRH-stimulated PRL in healthy men. We found that Zn++ administration does not change the TRH-stimulated PRL. Therefore, in normal conditions, Zn++ does not inhibit TRH-stimulated prolactinemia. In addition, we found that acute increases of blood PRL and TRH do not alter blood Zn++ levels.

  6. Exogenous cortisol acutely influences motivated decision making in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Antypa, Niki; Crysovergi, Panagiota; van der Does, Willem A J

    2010-02-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) hormone cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). Acute psychological stress increases HPA activity and GC release. In humans, chronic disturbances in HPA activity have been observed in affective disorders and in addictive behaviour. Recent research indicates that acute effects of GCs may be anxiolytic and increase reward sensitivity. Furthermore, cortisol acutely influences early cognitive processing of emotional stimuli. In order to extend such findings to more complex emotional-cognitive behaviour, the present study tested acute effects of 40 mg cortisol on motivated decision making in 30 healthy young men. Results showed that cortisol indeed increased risky decision making, as predicted. This effect occurred for decisions where making a risky choice could potentially yield a big reward. These results are discussed with respect to currently proposed mechanisms for cortisol's potential anxiolytic effect and GCs' involvement in reward systems.

  7. Healthy bodies, social bodies: men's and women's concepts and practices of health in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Saltonstall, R

    1993-01-01

    Using interview data from white, middle-class men and women, ages 35-55, the research explores the phenomenological, embodied aspects of health. Health is found to be grounded in a sense of self and a sense of body, both of which are tied to conceptions of past and future actions. Gender is a leitmotif. The body, as the focal point of self-construction as well as health construction, implicates gender in the everyday experience of health. The interplay between health, self, body, and gender at the individual level is linked to the creation of a sense of healthiness in the body politic of society. If social psychological theories of health are to reflect adequately the everyday experience of health, they must begin to take into account the body as individually and socially problematic.

  8. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men

    PubMed Central

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D’Errico, Marcello M.; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30’ post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline. PMID:26529517

  9. Digestive physiological outcomes related to polydextrose and soluble maize fibre consumption by healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Boler, Brittany M Vester; Serao, Mariana C Rossoni; Bauer, Laura L; Staeger, Michael A; Boileau, Thomas W; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate digestive physiological outcomes elicited by functional fibres fed to healthy adult men. A total of twenty-one healthy adult men were utilised in a cross-over design. Each subject received polydextrose (PDX) or soluble maize fibre (SCF) (21 g/d) or no supplemental fibre (no fibre control; NFC) in a snack bar. Periods were 21 d and faeces were collected during the last 5 d of each period. Food intake, including fibre intake, did not differ among treatments. Flatulence (P = 0·001) and distention (P = 0·07) were greatest when subjects consumed PDX or SCF. Reflux was greater (P = 0·04) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. All tolerance scores were low ( < 2·5), indicating only slight discomfort. Faecal ammonia, 4-methylphenol, indole and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased (P < 0·01) when subjects consumed the functional fibre sources compared with NFC. Faecal acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations were lower (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed PDX compared with SCF and NFC. Faecal pH was lower (P = 0·01) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC, while PDX was intermediate. Faecal wet weight was greatest (P = 0·03) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. Faecal dry weight tended to be greater (P = 0·07) when subjects consumed PDX compared with NFC. The functional fibres led to 1·4 and 0·9 g (PDX and SCF, respectively) increases in faecal dry mass per g supplemental fibre intake. Bifidobacterium spp. concentrations were greater (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. These functional fibres appear to be beneficial to gut health while leading to minimal gastrointestinal upset.

  10. Impaired glucose tolerance after brief heat exposure: a randomized crossover study in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Faure, Cécile; Charlot, Keyne; Henri, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    A high demand on thermoregulatory processes may challenge homoeostasis, particularly regarding glucose regulation. This has been understudied, although it might concern millions of humans. The objective of this project was to examine the isolated and combined effects of experimental short-term mild heat exposure and metabolic level on glucoregulation. Two experimental randomized crossover studies were conducted. Ten healthy young men participated in study A, which comprises four sessions in a fasting state at two metabolic levels [rest and exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (O2) for 40 min] in two environmental temperatures (warm: 31°C and control: 22°C). Each session ended with an ad libitum meal, resulting in similar energy intake across sessions. In study B, 12 healthy young men underwent two 3 h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in warm and control environmental temperatures. Venous blood was sampled at several time points. In study A, repeated measure ANOVAs revealed higher postprandial serum glucose and insulin levels with heat exposure. Glycaemia following the OGTT was higher in the warm temperature compared with control. The kinetics of the serum glucose response to the glucose load was also affected by the environmental temperature (temperature-by-time interaction, P=0.030), with differences between the warm and control conditions observed up to 90 min after the glucose load (all P<0.033). These studies provide evidence that heat exposure alters short-term glucoregulation. The implication of this environmental factor in the physiopathology of Type 2 diabetes has yet to be investigated.

  11. Relationship between physical fitness and lifestyle behaviour in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Ortlepp, Jan R; Metrikat, Jens; Albrecht, Marlies; Maya-Pelzer, Peter

    2004-06-01

    There is substantial knowledge about the inverse association of physical fitness and CVD risk factors and CVD mortality. However, physical fitness per se might be influenced by lifestyle conditions such as physical training, smoking and drinking habits. We evaluated the relationship between physical fitness, physical activity, endurance training, smoking and drinking habits and blood pressure, lipids and leukocytes as surrogate cardiovascular risk markers in a large-scale cross-sectional study of healthy young men. A total of 6748 healthy young men were selected during their primary flight medical examination for military flying duties. Physical fitness was assessed by achieved physical working capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per min (PWC170) during cycle ergometry. Parameters such as physical activity, endurance sports, smoking of cigarettes and drinking of alcoholic beverages were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured manually. Fasting cholesterol and triglycerides as well as white blood counts were obtained. Physical activity itself was not related to significant differences in the tested variables, whereas good physical fitness showed a significant association with improved blood pressure and blood lipids (P<0.001) with no detectable threshold. This effect was independent of endurance training, smoking and drinking. Whereas drinking was associated with elevated systolic blood pressure, smoking was associated with markedly increased triglycerides as well as with elevated leukocytes. Physical fitness is associated with improved blood pressure and blood lipids. This effect is independent of participating mainly in endurance or nonendurance sports, of physical activity per se, and it does not depend on smoking and drinking habits. Smoking itself revealed relevant higher inflammation independent of fitness.

  12. Multipathway Modulation of Exercise and Glucose Stress Effects upon GH Secretion in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Olson, Thomas P.; Takahashi, Paul Y.; Miles, John M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Yang, Rebecca J.; Wigham, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exercise evokes pulsatile GH release followed by autonegative feedback, whereas glucose suppresses GH release followed by rebound-like GH release (feedforward escape). Here we test the hypothesis that age, sex steroids, insulin, body composition and physical power jointly determine these dynamic GH responses. Methods This was a prospectively randomized glucose-blinded study conducted in the Mayo Center for Advancing Translational Sciences in healthy men ages 19–77 yr (N = 23). Three conditions, fasting/rest/saline, fasting/exercise/saline and fasting/rest/iv glucose infusions, were used to drive GH dynamics during 10-min blood sampling for 6 hr. Linear correlation analysis was applied to relate peak/nadir GH dynamics to age, sex steroids, insulin, CT-estimated abdominal fat and physical power (work per unit time). Results Compared with the fasting/rest/saline (control) day, fasting/exercise/saline infusion evoked peak GH within 1 h, followed by negative feedback 3–5 h later. The dynamic GH excursion was strongly (R2 = 0.634) influenced by (i) insulin negatively (P = 0.011), (ii) power positively (P = 0.0008), and (iii) E2 positively (P = 0.001). Dynamic glucose-modulated GH release was determined by insulin negatively (P = 0.0039) and power positively (P = 0.0034) [R2 = 0.454]. Under rest/saline, power (P = 0.031) and total abdominal fat (P = 0.012) [R2 = 0.267] were the dominant correlates of GH excursions. Conclusion In healthy men, dynamic GH perturbations induced by exercise and glucose are strongly related to physical power, insulin, estradiol, and body composition, thus suggesting a network of regulatory pathways. PMID:26028283

  13. Age disrupts androgen receptor-modulated negative feedback in the gonadal axis in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Paul Y.; Keenan, Daniel M.; Liu, Peter Y.; Mielke, Kristi L.; Weist, Suanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone (T) exerts negative feedback on the hypothalamo-pituitary (GnRH-LH) unit, but the relative roles of the CNS and pituitary are not established. We postulated that relatively greater LH responses to flutamide (brain-permeant antiandrogen) than bicalutamide (brain-impermeant antiandrogen) should reflect greater feedback via CNS than pituitary/peripheral androgen receptor-dependent pathways. To this end, 24 healthy men ages 20–73 yr, BMI 21–32 kg/m2, participated in a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind crossover study of the effects of antiandrogen control of pulsatile, basal, and entropic (pattern regularity) measurements of LH secretion. Analysis of covariance revealed that flutamide but not bicalutamide 1) increased pulsatile LH secretion (P = 0.003), 2) potentiated the age-related abbreviation of LH secretory bursts (P = 0.025), 3) suppressed incremental GnRH-induced LH release (P = 0.015), and 4) decreased the regularity of GnRH-stimulated LH release (P = 0.012). Furthermore, the effect of flutamide exceeded that of bicalutamide in 1) raising mean LH (P = 0.002) and T (P = 0.017) concentrations, 2) accelerating LH pulse frequency (P = 0.013), 3) amplifying total (basal plus pulsatile) LH (P = 0.002) and T (P < 0.001) secretion, 4) shortening LH secretory bursts (P = 0.032), and 5) reducing LH secretory regularity (P < 0.001). Both flutamide and bicalutamide elevated basal (nonpulsatile) LH secretion (P < 0.001). These data suggest the hypothesis that topographically selective androgen receptor pathways mediate brain-predominant and pituitary-dependent feedback mechanisms in healthy men. PMID:20682842

  14. Oxytocin plasma concentrations after single intranasal oxytocin administration - a study in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gossen, A; Hahn, A; Westphal, L; Prinz, S; Schultz, R T; Gründer, G; Spreckelmeyer, K N

    2012-10-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin has become a subject of great interest in studies investigating human social cognition. Single intranasal administration of the hormone has been reported to have positive behavioral effects, such as increasing trust or facilitating social approach, 45-80 min after administration. However, little is still known about the long-term pharmacokinetics of oxytocin nasal spray application in humans. This study addressed the question how long oxytocin plasma levels remain elevated following nasal spray administration. Another goal was to examine the influence of oxytocin administration on endogenous steroid hormones since such alterations might modulate social behavior via an indirect way. Eight healthy Caucasian men were challenged with a single intranasal application of 26 international units of oxytocin. Changes in oxytocin blood plasma levels, as well as steroid hormone levels of progesterone, testosterone and estradiol were assessed at 5 consecutive time points over a period of 3.5 h (-5, +30, +90, +150, +210 min relative to oxytocin administration). Results gave evidence for a substantial rise of oxytocin plasma levels 30 min after intranasal administration, observed in 7 of 8 participants. Group mean oxytocin plasma level was found to have returned to baseline already 90 min post administration, though in some individuals the plasma levels was still elevated relative to sampling at post 150 min. Steroid hormone analyses yielded a slight augmentation of endogenous testosterone levels 210 min after oxytocin administration. Our data confirms previous findings that oxytocin administered as a nasal spray enters the blood circulation, elevating oxytocin plasma levels for a limited time. Our findings suggest that this time window differs between individuals, but that, for the used dose, it does not extend beyond 150 min post administration. The data further provides preliminary evidence that intranasal oxytocin has an enhancing effect on

  15. Selenium Status Is Positively Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Aging European Men

    PubMed Central

    Beukhof, Carolien M.; Medici, Marco; van den Beld, Annewieke W.; Hollenbach, Birgit; Hoeg, Antonia; Visser, W. Edward; de Herder, Wouter W.; Visser, Theo J.; Schomburg, Lutz; Peeters, Robin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status in a cohort of 387 healthy elderly men (median age 77 yrs; inter quartile range 75–80 yrs) in relation to TFTs and BMD. Se status was determined by measuring both plasma selenoprotein P (SePP) and Se. Results The overall Se status in our population was low normal with only 0.5% (2/387) of subjects meeting the criteria for Se deficiency. SePP and Se levels were not associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) or reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. The T3/T4 and T3/rT3 ratios, reflecting peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone, were not associated with Se status either. SePP and Se were positively associated with total BMD and femoral trochanter BMD. Se, but not SePP, was positively associated with femoral neck and ward's BMD. Multivariate linear analyses showed that these associations remain statistically significant in a model including TSH, FT4, body mass index, physical performance score, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus and number of medication use. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that Se status, within the normal European marginally supplied range, is positively associated with BMD in healthy aging men, independent of thyroid function. Thyroid function tests appear unaffected by Se status in this population. PMID:27055238

  16. Dietary zinc restriction and repletion affects DNA integrity in healthy men123

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Chung, Carolyn S; Bruno, Richard S; Traber, Maret G; Brown, Kenneth H; King, Janet C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Zinc plays an important role in antioxidant defense and the maintenance of cellular DNA integrity. However, no experimental human studies have been performed to examine the role of zinc status on DNA damage. Objective: We evaluated the effects of dietary zinc depletion and repletion on DNA strand breaks, oxidative stress, and antioxidant defenses in healthy men. Design: Nine healthy men with reported mean daily zinc intakes >11 mg/d were recruited. Subjects completed 3 consecutive dietary periods: baseline (days 1 to 13; 11 mg Zn/d), zinc depletion (days 14 to 55; 0.6 mg Zn/d for 1 wk and 4 mg Zn/d for 5 wk), and zinc repletion (days 56 to 83; 11 mg Zn/d for 4 wk with 20 mg supplemental Zn for first 7 d). Blood samples were collected on days 1, 13, 35, 55, and 83. DNA damage in peripheral blood cells, plasma oxidative stress, and antioxidant defense biomarkers were assessed. Results: Dietary zinc depletion (6 wk) was associated with increased DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood cells (day 13 compared with day 55; P < 0.05), changes that were ameliorated by zinc repletion (day 55 compared with day 83; P < 0.05). Plasma zinc concentrations were negatively correlated with DNA strand breaks (r = −0.60, P = 0.006) during the zinc-depletion period. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations, plasma total antioxidant capacity, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity did not change significantly, and plasma F2-isoprostanes were unaffected by dietary period. Conclusions: Changes in dietary zinc intake affected DNA single-strand breaks. Zinc appears to be a critical factor for maintaining DNA integrity in humans. PMID:19515738

  17. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (P<0.05) particularly with HGI meals (P<0.01). Refeeding a high-GI diet led to an impaired basal fat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (P<0.02), especially at 65% CHO intake. Postprandial metabolic flexibility was unaffected by refeeding at 50% CHO but clearly impaired by 65% CHO diet (P<0.05). Impairment in fasting fat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, P<0.05) and body weight (r=0.35; P=0.051). Both higher GI and higher carbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  18. Acute Low-Dose Caffeine Supplementation Increases Electromyographic Fatigue Threshold in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Morse, Jacob J; Pallaska, Gramos; Pierce, Patrick R; Fields, Travis M; Galen, Sujay S; Malek, Moh H

    2016-11-01

    Morse, JJ, Pallaska, G, Pierce, PR, Fields, TM, Galen, SS, and Malek, MH. Acute low-dose caffeine supplementation increases electromyographic fatigue threshold in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3236-3241, 2016-The purpose of this study is to determine whether consumption of a single low-dose caffeine drink will delay the onset of the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles. We hypothesize that the EMGFT values for the caffeine condition will be significantly higher than the EMGFT values for the placebo condition. On separate occasions, 10 physically active men performed incremental single-leg knee-extensor ergometry 1 hour after caffeine (200 mg) or placebo consumption. The EMGFT was determined for each participant for both conditions. The results indicated a significant increase for maximal power output (16%; p = 0.004) and EMGFT (45%; p = 0.004) in the caffeine condition compared with placebo. These findings suggest that acute low-dose caffeine supplementation delays neuromuscular fatigue in the quadriceps femoris muscles.

  19. Back muscle fatigue in healthy men and women studied by electromyography spectral parameters and subjective ratings.

    PubMed

    Elfving, B; Németh, G; Arvidsson, I

    2000-09-01

    To obtain reference data for future studies of patients with low back pain, back muscle fatigue was studied by surface electromyography at L1 and L5 lumbar levels in 55 healthy subjects exerting 80% of maximal voluntary contraction of the back extensors in a sitting position. Reference data were the initial value and rate of decrease (slope) of the median frequency during the contraction. The aim was also to study the effects of contraction time, gender differences, electrode locations and correlations with torque, age and subjective ratings. Initial median frequency was 52 Hz +/- 7.5, with no difference between electrode locations; steeper slopes were found at L5 level (-0.44%/s +/- 0.25) than at L1 (-0.36%/s +/- 0.26). No right-left differences and no gender differences were found for these parameters. A correlation was observed between slope and initial median frequency, higher for men (r approximately -0.7) than for women (r approximately -0.5). Intersubject coefficient of variation for the slope was smallest for the longest (45 seconds) recording time (60-70%), but still much higher than for the initial median frequency (14%). The torque and the subjective ratings of fatigue showed no correlation with the electromyography variables. We conclude that the same reference values can be used for men and women. Owing to the large intersubject range of the slope, the clinical use of this variable may, however, be impeded.

  20. A strategic initiative to foster interprofessional collaboration: A case report using a men's healthy living programme.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Alain P; Jbilou, Jalila

    2016-11-01

    Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) can be challenging, yet it has shown benefits for providers and patients. We examined the existing enablers and barriers to IPC at a local Community Health Center (CHC) and report on the existing types of IPC practice. We also report how implementing a men-sensitive healthy living programme united a team of health professionals/managers in attending to the needs of a population that to date had been largely underserved. A total of 16 employees were interviewed at the CHC. All respondents spoke positively of existing IPC and provided examples of existing collaborative practices. These CHC professionals (clinicians and managers) experienced greater intra- and extra-organisational collaborations as a result of experiencing a community-delivered programme. It also allowed the CHC professionals/managers to rethink the management and structure of collaborative practices and understand the needs and challenges of working with non-traditional partners (men and workplace-based managers). While our findings are context sensitive (case study design), they shed light on how uniting health professionals/managers around a challenging and non-traditional health issue (i.e., improving health in a hard-to-reach population subgroup) can strategically reduce resistance to collaborative practice development by strengthening team cohesion and fostering innovative interactions.

  1. No effect of free fatty acids on adrenocorticotropin and cortisol secretion in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Mai, Knut; Bobbert, Thomas; Kullmann, Volker; Andres, Janin; Bähr, Volker; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Rochlitz, Helmut; Spranger, Jochen; Diederich, Ssven; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2006-08-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) affect anterior pituitary function. However, the effect of FFAs on corticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol in humans is controversial. Thus, we assessed the effect of a pronounced increase in circulating FFA levels induced by infusion of lipid/heparin on ACTH and cortisol secretion in young men. Eight healthy male volunteers who underwent a 10-hour overnight fast were investigated. A 20% lipid/heparin or saline/heparin infusion was given at a rate of 1.5 mL/min for 6 hours. A euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed in 6 subjects 4 hours after the start of infusion. To assess steroid metabolism, we measured ACTH, cortisol, FFAs, and urinary steroids. Lipid infusion increased FFAs (6.06 +/- 0.52 vs 0.70 +/- 0.23 mmol/L; P < .005) and induced insulin resistance (glucose infusion rate, 4.08 +/- 2.15 vs 6.02 +/- 2.60 mg/kg per minute; P < .005). Serum cortisol and plasma ACTH decreased independent of lipid/heparin or saline/heparin infusion. In addition, we found no effect of hyperinsulinemia on ACTH and cortisol levels. There were no differences in urinary free cortisol, urinary free cortisone, 5beta-tetrahydrocortisol, 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol, and tetrahydrocortisone. In conclusion, FFAs had no effect on basal ACTH and cortisol secretion in normal-weight young men. In addition, no alterations in urinary glucocorticoid metabolites were detected, suggesting unchanged cortisol metabolism during lipid infusion.

  2. GH-releasing peptide-2 does not stimulate arginine vasopressin secretion in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kamoi, Kyuzi; Minagawa, Shinichi; Kimura, Keita; Ishizawa, Masahiro; Ohara, Nobumasa; Uemura, Yasuyuki; Tsuchiya, Junpei

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin has a stimulating effect on arginine vasopressin (AVP). However, it is not known whether GHRP-2, a synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist, also has a stimulating effect on AVP release in men. To determine whether the GHRP-2 test is useful for assessing AVP secretion, blood ACTH, GH, FSH, LH, PRL, TSH and AVP levels, as well as glucose, osmolality, sodium and hematocrit, were measured before and 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after an intravenous bolus of 100 microg GHRP-2 in 10 healthy men with and without fasting. Blood pressure was measured at 15-min intervals. AVP secretion was not stimulated by the GHRP-2 test with and without fasting. There were no significant differences in hematocrit, blood pressure and plasma osmolality before and after GFRP-2 injection, although significant (p<0.001) peak blood GH, and ACTH and PRL levels were observed 30 and 15 min after GHRP-2 injection with and without fasting, respectively, and the maximal peaks were significantly (p<0.05) higher with fasting than without fasting. These results suggest that AVP secretion is not stimulated by the GHRP-2 test both with and without fasting, though GH, ACTH and PRL levels were higher with than without fasting.

  3. Intercorrelations of lipoprotein subfractions and their covariation with lifestyle factors in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Eckoldt, Joachim; Winkler, Karl; Bode, Christian J; Schäfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    So far, little is known about the effect of nutrition and lifestyle on the composition of circulating lipoprotein subfractions. In the current study, we measured the correlations among physical activity, nutrient intake, smoking, body-mass index (BMI), and age with the concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins (ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoB) in subfractions of LDL and HDL in 265 healthy working men. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB in small, dense atherogenic LDL particles (sdLDL) correlated negatively (p<0.001) with those of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoA1 in HDL2, respectively. Age correlated positively with sdLDL while increasing BMI correlated with an atherogenic shift of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB from large, buoyant LDL (lbLDL) to sdLDL and decreasing concentrations of HDL2 constituents. Physical activity and alcohol intake correlated negatively with sdLDL constituents and positively with HDL2 components. Consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) correlated with a lower ratio of sdLDL to HDL2 cholesterol. A favorable lipoprotein subfraction profile linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in men was associated with physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and dietary intake of MUFA, which might be exploited in future interventions for prevention of age- and BMI-associated atherogenic shifts of lipoprotein subfractions. PMID:24895480

  4. Trans fatty acid intake is inversely related to total sperm count in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Mendiola, Jaime; Cutillas-Tolín, Ana; López-Espín, José J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2014-03-01

    Is intake of fatty acids related to semen quality among young men? The intake of trans fatty acids is inversely related to total sperm count in healthy young men. Spain has seen an increase in the proportion of calories consumed as fat over the same period that a downward trend in semen quality has been observed. In addition, rodent models suggest that trans fat intake may severely affect testicular function. Cross-sectional study of 209 men recruited between October 2010 and November 2011. A group of 209 healthy young university students 18-23 years of age provided a semen sample and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. The association between intake of fatty acids with semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, motility, morphology and total count) was assessed using multivariate linear regression. Trans fatty acid intake was inversely related to total sperm count after adjusting for potential confounders (P, trend = 0.03). The multivariate adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) total sperm count in increasing quartiles of trans fat intake was 144 (110-190), 113 (87-148), 100 (18-130) and 89 (69-117). There also was an inverse association between cholesterol intake and ejaculate volume (P, trend = 0.04). No other statistically significant relations were observed. The cross-sectional design of the study limits causal inference, we cannot exclude the possibility of unmeasured confounding and there was insufficient statistical power to identify modest associations. The results of this study, together with previous experimental work in rodents and biomarker studies among infertility patients, suggest that intake of trans fatty acids may be related to lower semen quality. Although the data provide further evidence that diet is a modifiable factor that could impact male fertility, it is not known whether the observed differences in sperm count translate into differences in fertility. This work was supported by The Seneca Foundation

  5. Is autonomic support of arterial blood pressure related to habitual exercise status in healthy men?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Pamela Parker; Shapiro, Linda F; Keisling, Gretchen A; Quaife, Robert A; Seals, Douglas R

    2002-01-01

    We determined if the tonic autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribution to arterial blood pressure (BP) maintenance in humans is related to habitual endurance exercise status. Twenty-three healthy young (age 18–31 years) males, 11 endurance exercise-trained and 12 untrained, were studied. Maximal oxygen consumption was higher (P < 0.001) and resting heart rate and body fatness were lower (P < 0.05) in the exercise-trained men. Plasma noradrenaline concentrations and BP decreased from baseline levels in response to ganglionic blockade (intravenous trimethaphan) in both groups (all P < 0.001). The absolute (ΔmmHg: systolic = −35 ± 2 vs. − 32 ± 4; diastolic = −13 ± 2 vs. − 10 ± 2; mean = −21 ± 2 vs. − 17 ± 3) and relative (Δ%: systolic = −35 ± 2 vs. − 31 ± 3; diastolic = −26 ± 3 vs. − 20 ± 3; mean = − 31 ± 2 vs. − 26 ± 3) decreases in BP were not significantly different between the endurance-trained and untrained men. There were no significant group differences in the heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output or systemic vascular resistance (conductance) responses to trimethaphan. Systemic vascular α-adrenergic sensitivity (slope of the increase in mean BP with incremental phenylephrine infusion during ganglionic blockade) also did not differ in the two groups (endurance-trained: 3.2 ± 0.5; untrained: 3.2 ± 0.7 mmHg (ng phenylephrine)−1 (ml plasma)−1). In the pooled sample, the decrease in mean BP during trimethaphan was related to baseline and changes in plasma noradrenaline concentrations (r = 0.58–0.65, P < 0.001) and α-adrenergic sensitivity (r = 0.49, P < 0.02). Our results suggest that the endurance exercise-trained state is not obviously associated with altered ANS support of BP in healthy young men. Basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and α-adrenergic vascular sensitivity are significant physiological correlates of ANS support of BP in this population. PMID:11956356

  6. Lack of effect of exercise time of day on acute energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue K, J M; Fournier, Paul A; Guelfi, Kym J

    2010-08-01

    Although the manipulation of exercise and dietary intake to achieve successful weight loss has been extensively studied, it is unclear how the time of day that exercise is performed may affect subsequent energy intake. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of exercise performed in the morning compared with an equivalent bout of exercise performed in the afternoon on short-term energy intake. Nine healthy male participants completed 3 trials: morning exercise (AM), afternoon exercise (PM), or control (no exercise; CON) in a randomized counterbalanced design. Exercise consisted of 45 min of treadmill running at 75% VO(2peak). Energy intake was assessed over a 26-hr period with the participants eating ad libitum from a standard assortment of food items of known quantity and composition. There was no significant difference in overall energy intake (M ± SD; CON 23,505 ± 6,938 kJ, AM 24,957 ± 5,607 kJ, PM 24,560 ± 5,988 kJ; p = .590) or macronutrient preferences during the 26-hr period examined between trials. Likewise, no differences in energy intake or macronutrient preferences were observed at any of the specific individual meal periods examined (i.e., breakfast, lunch, dinner) between trials. These results suggest that the time of day that exercise is performed does not significantly affect short-term energy intake in healthy men.

  7. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Roca, Manuela; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Vioque, Jesús; Jørgensen, Niels; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (Ptrend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function. PMID:27834316

  8. In psychiatrically healthy individuals, overweight women but not men have lower tryptophan levels

    PubMed Central

    Raheja, Uttam K.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Giegling, Ina; Brenner, Lisa A.; Rovner, Sergio F.; Mohyuddin, Iqra; Weghuber, Daniel; Mangge, Harald; Rujescu, Dan; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in tryptophan (TRP) breakdown in obese individuals have been previously reported. This could be both contributory to, as well as a consequence of, gender differences in mood changes among obese people. To exclude the potential effect of depression on TRP breakdown and its levels in obesity, we replicated analyses in psychiatrically healthy individuals. In 1000 participants, plasma kynurenine (KYN), TRP, and the KYN/TRP ratio were compared between overweight/obese and normal-weight individuals using analysis of covariance, with adjustment for age and gender. Bivariate post hoc tests were also conducted. There were no significant relationships between KYN, TRP, or the KYN/TRP ratio and overall overweight/obese status. However, a significant gender by weight category interaction was identified for TRP only, with overweight/obese women having lower TRP than overweight/obese men (p = 0.02). No gender differences in TRP were found in non-obese participants. Our study in psychiatrically healthy individuals suggested that lower TRP levels in obese women were not secondary to depression, strengthening the possibility that TRP levels could mediate depression in vulnerable women. Thus experimental manipulations of TRP levels could be used to advance theoretical knowledge, prevention, and clinical control of depression in obese women. PMID:26251562

  9. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation has no Impact on Aerobic Capacity of Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Tajmanesh, Milad; Aryaeian, Naheed; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mazaheri, Reza; Kordi, Ramin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the aerobic capacity and anthropometric measurements of humans. Although this effect has been shown in animal studies, human studies have reported controversial results. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, 80 non-trained healthy young men received a 50:50 mixture of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (CLA 4 × 0.8 g day(-1)) ora placebo (PLA; soybean oil) in an 8-week intervention. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), time to exhaustion, weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured. CLA had no effect on VO2 max (p = 0.5) also no change was seen in time to exhaustion (p = 0.51), weight (p = 0.7), BMI (p = 0.7) and WC (p = 0.8) vs PLA. Our results suggest that CLA has no significant effect on VO2 max, time to exhaustion and anthropometric measurements in untrained healthy young male students.

  10. Hostility is related to clusters of T-cell cytokines and chemokines in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Vermetten, Eric; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Geuze, Elbert; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2008-09-01

    Hostility is a risk factor for adverse health outcomes as diverse as cardiovascular disease and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cytokines have been suggested to mediate this relationship. We investigated whether in healthy men a relation existed between hostility and T-cell mitogen-induced cytokines and chemokines. Male Dutch military personnel (n=304) were included before deployment. Eleven cytokines and chemokines were measured in supernatants of T-cell mitogen-stimulated whole blood cultures by multiplex immunoassay. Factor analysis was used to identify clusters of cytokines and chemokines. In a regression analysis hostility was related to the cytokine/chemokine clusters, and the potential risk factors age, BMI, smoking, drinking, previous deployment, early life trauma and depression. Explorative factor analysis showed four functional clusters; a pro-inflammatory factor (IL-2, TNFalpha, IFNgamma), an anti-inflammatory factor (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10), IL-6/chemokine factor (IL-6, MCP-1, RANTES, IP-10), and MIF. Hostility was significantly related to decreased IL-6/chemokine secretion and increased pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. There was an inverse relation between age and hostility scores. Early life trauma and depression were positively and independently related to hostility as well. This study represents a novel way of investigating the relation between cytokines and psychological characteristics. Cytokines/chemokines clustered into functional factors, which were related to hostility in healthy males. Moreover this relation appeared to be independent of reported depression and early trauma.

  11. Exercise-Induced Splanchnic Hypoperfusion Results in Gut Dysfunction in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    van Wijck, Kim; Lenaerts, Kaatje; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Buurman, Wim A.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Splanchnic hypoperfusion is common in various pathophysiological conditions and often considered to lead to gut dysfunction. While it is known that physiological situations such as physical exercise also result in splanchnic hypoperfusion, the consequences of flow redistribution at the expense of abdominal organs remained to be determined. This study focuses on the effects of splanchnic hypoperfusion on the gut, and the relationship between hypoperfusion, intestinal injury and permeability during physical exercise in healthy men. Methods and Findings Healthy men cycled for 60 minutes at 70% of maximum workload capacity. Splanchnic hypoperfusion was assessed using gastric tonometry. Blood, sampled every 10 minutes, was analyzed for enterocyte damage parameters (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) and ileal bile acid binding protein (I-BABP)). Changes in intestinal permeability were assessed using sugar probes. Furthermore, liver and renal parameters were assessed. Splanchnic perfusion rapidly decreased during exercise, reflected by increased gapg-apCO2 from −0.85±0.15 to 0.85±0.42 kPa (p<0.001). Hypoperfusion increased plasma I-FABP (615±118 vs. 309±46 pg/ml, p<0.001) and I-BABP (14.30±2.20 vs. 5.06±1.27 ng/ml, p<0.001), and hypoperfusion correlated significantly with this small intestinal damage (rS = 0.59; p<0.001). Last of all, plasma analysis revealed an increase in small intestinal permeability after exercise (p<0.001), which correlated with intestinal injury (rS = 0.50; p<0.001). Liver parameters, but not renal parameters were elevated. Conclusions Exercise-induced splanchnic hypoperfusion results in quantifiable small intestinal injury. Importantly, the extent of intestinal injury correlates with transiently increased small intestinal permeability, indicating gut barrier dysfunction in healthy individuals. These physiological observations increase our knowledge of splanchnic hypoperfusion sequelae, and may help to

  12. Chronic stress exposure decreases the cortisol awakening response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Zhang, Kan; Buchanan, Tony W; Wu, Jianhui

    2013-11-01

    Academic examination is a major stressor for students in China. Investigation of stress-sensitive endocrine responses to major examination stress serves as a good model of naturalistic chronic psychological stress in an otherwise healthy population. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an endocrine marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to stress. However, it remains unknown how chronic examination stress impacts the CAR in a young healthy population To exclude the influence of sex effects on hormone level, the CAR and psychological stress responses were assessed on two consecutive workdays in 42 male participants during their preparations for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE) and 21 non-exam, age-matched male comparisons. On each day, four saliva samples were collected immediately after awakening, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after awakening. The waking level (S1), the increase within 30 minutes after awakening (R30), the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg), and the area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) were used to quantify the CAR. Psychological stress and anxiety were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Male participants in the exam group had greater perceived stress and anxiety scores relatibe to the non-exam group. Both R30 and AUCi in the exam group were significantly lower than the comparison group and this effect was most pronounced for participants with high levels of perceived stress in the exam group. Perceived stress and anxiety levels were negatively correlated with both R30 and AUCi. Chronic examination stress can lead to the decrease of CAR in healthy young men, possibly due to reduced HPA axis activity under long-term sustained stress.

  13. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    DOE PAGES

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; ...

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvismore » scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the

  14. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body

  15. Effects of Timing of Whey Protein Intake on Appetite and Energy Intake in Healthy Older Men.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Coudert, Zoé; Baqeri, Abdul; Jensen, Caroline; Hausken, Trygve; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2017-10-01

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely to prevent and manage malnutrition in older adults. We previously showed that 30 g whey protein ingestion, 3 hours before a buffet meal, suppressed energy intake in young, but not in older men. Information about the impact of the timing of ingestion of protein drinks on the suppression of energy intake in older adults is lacking. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the timing of whey protein ingestion on appetite and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy older men. In a single blind, randomized design, 16 older men were studied on 5 occasions, on which they consumed a whey protein drink (30 g/120 kcal, 140 mL) 3, 2, 1 hour(s), or immediately before a buffet meal, from which ad libitum energy intake was quantified, and isopalatable noncaloric drinks (∼1 kcal) at the remaining time points. On the control day, noncaloric drinks were ingested at all time points. Perceptions of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms were determined, by visual analog scales, throughout the study days. There was no effect of the timing of protein ingestion on perceptions of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms (P > .05) or energy intake at the buffet meal (3 hours: 888 ± 49 kcal, 2 hours: 879 ± 56 kcal, 1 hours: 909 ± 47 kcal, 0 hour: 892 ± 51 kcal, control: 930 ± 49 kcal, P = .94). Total energy intake (ie, preload + test meal) was higher on the protein days compared with control (82 ± 24 kcal increase, P = .003). In older men, ingestion of 30 g protein increased total energy intake, irrespective of the time of intake in relation to the meal. These observations support the use of "pure" whey protein drinks to increase overall protein and energy intake in older adults at risk of undernutrition. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival Following Radiation and Androgen Suppression Therapy for Prostate Cancer in Healthy Older Men: Implications for Screening Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Loffredo, Marian; Kantoff, Philip W.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has recommended against screening men over 75 for prostate cancer. We examined whether older healthy men could benefit from aggressive prostate cancer treatment. Methods and Materials: 206 men with intermediate to high risk localized prostate cancer randomized to 70 Gy of radiation (RT) or RT plus 6 months of androgen suppression therapy (RT+AST) constituted the study cohort. Within subgroups stratified by Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 comorbidity score and age, Cox multivariable analysis was used to determine whether treatment with RT+AST as compared with RT was associated with a decreased risk of death. Results: Among healthy men (i.e., with mild or no comorbidity), 78 were older than the median age of 72.4 years, and in this subgroup, RT+AST was associated with a significantly lower risk of death on multivariable analysis (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.36 (95% CI=0.13-0.98), p = 0.046, with significantly lower 8-year mortality estimates of 16.5% vs. 41.4% (p = 0.011). Conversely, among men with moderate or severe comorbidity, 24 were older than the median age of 73, and in this subgroup, treatment with RT+AST was associated with a higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.2 (1.3-20.2), p = 0.018). Conclusion: In older men with mild or no comorbidity, treatment with RT+AST was associated with improved survival compared with treatment with RT alone, suggesting that healthy older men may derive the same benefits from prostate cancer treatment as younger men. We therefore suggest that prostate cancer screening recommendations should not be based on strict age cutoffs alone but should also take into account comorbidity.

  17. Acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men: impact on population diversity and function of circulating neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Christoffersson, Gustaf; Vågesjö, Evelina; Pettersson, Ulrika S; Massena, Sara; Nilsson, Emil K; Broman, Jan-Erik; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian; Phillipson, Mia

    2014-10-01

    Lack of sleep greatly affects our immune system. The present study investigates the acute effects of total sleep deprivation on blood neutrophils, the most abundant immune cell in our circulation and the first cell type recruited to sites of infection. Thus, the population diversity and function of circulating neutrophils were compared in healthy young men following one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or after 8h regular sleep. We found that neutrophil counts were elevated after nocturnal wakefulness (2.0 ± 0.2 × 10(9)/l vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 × 10(9)/l, sleep vs. TSD, respectively) and the population contained more immature CD16(dim)/CD62L(bright) cells (0.11 ± 0.040 × 10(9)/l [5.5 ± 1.1%] vs. 0.26 ± 0.020 × 10(9)/l [9.9 ± 1.4%]). As the rise in numbers of circulating mature CD16(bright)/CD62L(bright) neutrophils was less pronounced, the fraction of this subpopulation showed a significant decrease (1.8 ± 0.15 × 10(9)/l [88 ± 1.8%] vs. 2.1 ± 0.12 × 10(9)/l [82 ± 2.8%]). The surface expression of receptors regulating mobilization of neutrophils from bone marrow was decreased (CXCR4 and CD49d on immature neutrophils; CXCR2 on mature neutrophils). The receptor CXCR2 is also involved in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and in line with this, total neutrophils produced less ROS. In addition, following sleep loss, circulating neutrophils exhibited enhanced surface levels of CD11b, which indicates enhanced granular fusion and concomitant protein translocation to the membrane. Our findings demonstrate that sleep loss exerts significant effects on population diversity and function of circulating neutrophils in healthy men. To which extent these changes could explain as to why people with poor sleep patterns are more susceptible to infections warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy is not attenuated by dietary protein supplementation in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Marlou L; Wall, Benjamin T; Nilwik, Rachel; Weerts, Daniëlle H J M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-08-01

    Short successive periods of muscle disuse, due to injury or illness, can contribute significantly to the loss of muscle mass with aging (sarcopenia). It has been suggested that increasing the protein content of the diet may be an effective dietary strategy to attenuate muscle disuse atrophy. We hypothesized that protein supplementation twice daily would preserve muscle mass during a short period of limb immobilization. Twenty-three healthy older (69 ± 1 y) men were subjected to 5 d of one-legged knee immobilization by means of a full-leg cast with (PRO group; n = 11) or without (CON group; n = 12) administration of a dietary protein supplement (20.7 g of protein, 9.3 g of carbohydrate, and 3.0 g of fat) twice daily. Two d prior to and immediately after the immobilization period, single-slice computed tomography scans of the quadriceps and single-leg 1 repetition maximum strength tests were performed to assess muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg muscle strength, respectively. Additionally, muscle biopsies were collected to assess muscle fiber characteristics as well as mRNA and protein expression of selected genes. Immobilization decreased quadriceps' CSAs by 1.5 ± 0.7% (P < 0.05) and 2.0 ± 0.6% (P < 0.05), and muscle strength by 8.3 ± 3.3% (P < 0.05) and 9.3 ± 1.6% (P < 0.05) in the CON and PRO groups, respectively, without differences between groups. Skeletal muscle myostatin, myogenin, and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1) mRNA expression increased following immobilization in both groups (P < 0.05), whereas muscle atrophy F-box/atrogen-1 (MAFBx) mRNA expression increased in the PRO group only (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary protein supplementation (∼20 g twice daily) does not attenuate muscle loss during short-term muscle disuse in healthy older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01588808. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Dietary phosphorus regulates serum fibroblast growth factor-23 concentrations in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Antoniucci, Diana M; Yamashita, Takeyoshi; Portale, Anthony A

    2006-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is important in the regulation of phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism. States of excess circulating FGF-23 are associated with renal phosphate wasting and inappropriately low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] concentrations. Conversely, states of absent or biologically inactive circulating FGF-23 are associated with increased serum phosphorus and 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations. Restriction of the dietary intake of phosphorus increases renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25(OH)(2)D production, whereas the opposite occurs when dietary phosphorus is supplemented. We sought to determine whether serum FGF-23 concentration is regulated by dietary phosphorus and thereby mediates the physiological response of serum 1,25(OH)(2)D to changes in dietary phosphorus. We studied 13 healthy men as inpatients during a 4-wk dietary phosphorus intervention study. Subjects consumed a constant diet that provided 500 mg of phosphorus per day, which was supplemented to achieve three phosphorus intakes, each of 9 d: 1) control = 1500 mg/d; 2) supplemented = 2300 mg/d; 3) restricted = 625 mg/d. Intakes of calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and energy were constant. Serum FGF-23, 1,25(OH)(2)D, phosphorus, and calcium concentrations were measured. Serum FGF-23 concentrations decreased significantly from 30.7 +/- 8.7 pg/ml during phosphorus supplementation to 19.6 +/- 7.0 pg/ml during phosphorus restriction. Serum 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations increased significantly from 29 +/- 10 pg/ml (75 +/- 26 pmol/liter) during phosphorus supplementation to 40 +/- 16 pg/ml (104 +/- 42 pmol/liter) during phosphorus restriction (P < 0.001). Serum 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations varied inversely with those of serum FGF-23 (r = -0.67, P < 0.001). We conclude that in healthy men, changes in dietary phosphorus within the physiological range of intakes regulate serum FGF-23 concentrations and suggest that dietary phosphorus regulation of 1,25(OH)(2)D production is

  20. Different Predictors of Right and Left Ventricular Metabolism in Healthy Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Heiskanen, Marja A.; Leskinen, Tuija; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Virtanen, Kirsi; Pärkkä, Jussi P.; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) plays a crucial role in the outcome of various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies on RV metabolism are sparse although evidence implies it may differ from left ventricular (LV) metabolism. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to determine predictors of RV glucose uptake (GU) and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU) and (2) to compare them to predictors of LV metabolism in healthy middle-aged men. Altogether 28 healthy, sedentary, middle-aged (40–55 years) men were studied. Insulin-stimulated GU and fasting FFAU were measured by positron emission tomography and RV and LV structural and functional parameters by cardiac magnetic resonance. Several parameters related to whole-body health were also measured. Predictors of RV and LV metabolism were determined by pairwise correlation analysis, lasso regression models, and variable clustering using heatmap. RVGU was most strongly predicted by age and moderately by RV ejection fraction (EF). The strongest determinants of RVFFAU were exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake), resting heart rate, LVEF, and whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. When considering LV metabolism, age and RVEF were associated also with LVGU. In addition, LVGU was strongly, and negatively, influenced by whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. LVFFAU was predicted only by LVEF. This study shows that while RV and LV metabolism have shared characteristics, they also have unique properties. Age of the subject should be taken into account when measuring myocardial glucose utilization. Ejection fraction is related to myocardial metabolism, and even so that RVEF may be more closely related to GU of both ventricles and LVEF to FFAU of both ventricles, a finding supporting the ventricular interdependence. However, only RV fatty acid utilization associates with exercise capacity so that better physical fitness in a relatively sedentary population is related with decreased RV fat metabolism

  1. Different Predictors of Right and Left Ventricular Metabolism in Healthy Middle-Aged Men.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Virtanen, Kirsi; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) plays a crucial role in the outcome of various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies on RV metabolism are sparse although evidence implies it may differ from left ventricular (LV) metabolism. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to determine predictors of RV glucose uptake (GU) and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU) and (2) to compare them to predictors of LV metabolism in healthy middle-aged men. Altogether 28 healthy, sedentary, middle-aged (40-55 years) men were studied. Insulin-stimulated GU and fasting FFAU were measured by positron emission tomography and RV and LV structural and functional parameters by cardiac magnetic resonance. Several parameters related to whole-body health were also measured. Predictors of RV and LV metabolism were determined by pairwise correlation analysis, lasso regression models, and variable clustering using heatmap. RVGU was most strongly predicted by age and moderately by RV ejection fraction (EF). The strongest determinants of RVFFAU were exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake), resting heart rate, LVEF, and whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. When considering LV metabolism, age and RVEF were associated also with LVGU. In addition, LVGU was strongly, and negatively, influenced by whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. LVFFAU was predicted only by LVEF. This study shows that while RV and LV metabolism have shared characteristics, they also have unique properties. Age of the subject should be taken into account when measuring myocardial glucose utilization. Ejection fraction is related to myocardial metabolism, and even so that RVEF may be more closely related to GU of both ventricles and LVEF to FFAU of both ventricles, a finding supporting the ventricular interdependence. However, only RV fatty acid utilization associates with exercise capacity so that better physical fitness in a relatively sedentary population is related with decreased RV fat metabolism. To

  2. Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept) study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men. Methods Eight, healthy men (27.1 ± 6.9 yrs old) who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising <150 minutes per week) were randomly assigned to ingest MSM at either 1.5 grams per day or 3.0 grams per day for 30 days (28 days before and 2 days following exercise). Before and after the 28 day intervention period, subjects performed 18 sets of knee extension exercise in an attempt to induce muscle damage (and to be used partly as a measure of exercise performance). Sets 1–15 were performed at a predetermined weight for 10 repetitions each, while sets 16–18 were performed to muscular failure. Muscle soreness (using a 5-point Likert scale), fatigue (using the fatigue-inertia subset of the Profile of Mood States), blood antioxidant status (glutathione and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity [TEAC]), and blood homocysteine were measured before and after exercise, pre and post intervention. Exercise performance (total work performed during sets 16–18 of knee extension testing) was also measured pre and post intervention. Results Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p = 0.080), with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p = 0.073 with 3.0 grams; p = 0.087 for both dosages combined). TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p = 0.035), while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p = 0.007). No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total

  3. Effect of acute salt ingestion upon core temperature in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Ryan, Edward J; Bellar, David M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Williamson, Megan E; Glickman, Ellen L; Blankfield, Robert P

    2011-06-01

    Salt intake may cause conflict for the cardiovascular system as it attempts to simultaneously maintain blood pressure (BP) and temperature homeostasis. Our objective was to determine the effect of a salt and water load vs. a water load upon rectal temperature (Tre) in healthy volunteers. Twenty-two healthy, non-hypertensive Caucasian men enrolled in two trials in which they ingested either salt and body temperature water (SALT), or body temperature water (WATER). BP, Tre, cardiac index, peripheral resistance and urine output were monitored one, 2 and 3 h post-baseline. Changes in the dependent variables were compared between those subjects who were salt sensitive (SS) and those who were salt resistant (SR) at the same time intervals. The percentage change reduction in Tre was greater following SALT compared with WATER at +120 min (-1.1±0.7 vs. -0.6±0.5%, P=0.009) and at +180 min (-1.3±0.8 vs. -0.7±0.6%, P=0.003). The percentage change reduction in Tre was greater in the SR group compared with the SS group at +180 min (-1.6±0.9 vs. -0.9±0.5%, P=0.043). SALT decreased Tre more than WATER. SS individuals maintained temperature homeostasis more effectively than SR individuals following SALT. These results may explain why some individuals are SS while others are SR. If these results are generalizable, it would be possible to account for the role of sodium chloride in the development of SS hypertension.

  4. Consumption of Bing sweet cherries lowers circulating concentrations of inflammation markers in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Darshan S; Rasooly, Reuven; Jacob, Robert A; Kader, Adel A; Mackey, Bruce E

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of consuming sweet cherries on plasma lipids and markers of inflammation in healthy humans. Healthy men and women (n = 18) supplemented their diets with Bing sweet cherries (280 g/d) for 28 d. After a 12-h fast, blood samples were taken before the start of cherry consumption (study d 0 and 7), 14 and 28 d after the start of cherry supplementation (study d 21 and 35), and 28 d after the discontinuation (study d 64) of cherry consumption. After cherries were consumed for 28 d, circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), and NO decreased by 25 (P < 0.05), 21 (P < 0.05), and 18% (P = 0.07) respectively. After the discontinuation of cherry consumption for 28 d (d 64), concentrations of RANTES continued to decrease (P = 0.001), whereas those of CRP and NO did not differ from either d 7 (pre-cherries) or d 35 (post-cherries). Plasma concentrations of IL-6 and its soluble receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 did not change during the study. Cherry consumption did not affect the plasma concentrations of total-, HDL-, LDL-, and VLDL- cholesterol, triglycerides, subfractions of HDL, LDL, VLDL, and their particle sizes and numbers. It also did not affect fasting blood glucose or insulin concentrations or a number of other chemical and hematological variables. Results of the present study suggest a selective modulatory effect of sweet cherries on CRP, NO, and RANTES. Such anti-inflammatory effects may be beneficial for the management and prevention of inflammatory diseases.

  5. Oral nitrate therapy does not affect glucose metabolism in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Henstridge, Darren C; Duffy, Stephen J; Formosa, Melissa F; Ahimastos, Anna A; Thompson, Bruce R; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2009-11-01

    1. Previously, we demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) may be an important mediator of peripheral glucose disposal. The aim of the present study was to determine whether acute oral nitrate therapy improves glucose metabolism in healthy individuals. 2. Healthy men (n = 10), aged between 19 and 46 years, participated in a randomized cross-over placebo-controlled study. During Visit 1, participants received a dose-graded intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; titrated from a dose of 0.5 microg/kg per min to a maximum of 2 microg/kg per min and delivered at a rate of 2 mL/min over 30 min). On Visits 2, 3 and 4, participants received oral extended-release isosorbide mononitrate (120 mg), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (160 mg) and placebo in a randomized Latin square design (one treatment per visit). The main outcome measures were plasma glucose and insulin levels and glucose tolerance determined by an oral glucose tolerance test following the SNP infusion and 3 h after nitrate/placebo administration. Exhaled NO, cGMP and pulmonary blood flow were also measured for 3 h after administration of nitrate/placebo and after SNP infusion. 3. None of the nitrate interventions influenced measures of glucose metabolism. Following SNP infusion, there was no change in plasma glucose (P = 0.42) or insulin (P = 0.25) levels, and the response to a glucose load did not different from baseline (P = 0.46). Similarly, neither of the oral nitrates altered plasma glucose (P = 0.24) or insulin levels (P = 0.90) or glucose tolerance (P = 0.56) compared with placebo. 4. In conclusion, these results indicate that acute oral nitrate therapy does not influence glucose metabolism. Studies using NO donors in a chronic setting are required to clarify the role of NO in mediating peripheral glucose uptake.

  6. Acetylsalicylic acid improves lipid-induced insulin resistance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Möhlig, Matthias; Freudenberg, Madlen; Bobbert, Thomas; Ristow, Michael; Rochlitz, Helmut; Weickert, Martin O; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim

    2006-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a central feature of type 2 diabetes. Salicylates prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance in rodents by interrupting inflammatory pathways. We therefore investigated whether salicylates reduce lipid-induced insulin resistance in humans by affecting inflammatory pathways as reflected by serum adipocytokines. Ten healthy men were included in a crossover intervention study. Four euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps were performed, one without pretreatment, one with prior 2-h lipid infusion, one after pretreatment with 4 g acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and one with ASA pretreatment and prior lipid infusion. Lipid-induced insulin resistance was quantified by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique running at least 2 h. Repeated-measures ANOVA on two factors was used for comparison, and results were Bonferroni adjusted for multiple measurements. ASA effects on serum adipocytokines were addressed by comparing the areas under the curves. Glucose infusion rate (M value) of the control clamp without pretreatment was 6.3 (+/- 0.6) mg/kg.min. ASA pretreatment did not change glucose infusion rates (P = 0.6). Lipid infusion significantly decreased the M value to 4.1 (+/- 0.6) mg/kg.min (P = 0.008). After ASA pretreatment and lipid infusion, the M value was 4.8 (+/- 0.7) mg/kg.min and was significantly improved, compared with the lipid-only clamp (P = 0.036 after Bonferroni's adjustment). General biomarkers of inflammatory processes (IL-6, C-reactive protein), the insulin-sensitizing mediator adiponectin, and circulating adiponectin oligomers were unchanged by ASA pretreatment. ASA pretreatment attenuated lipid-induced insulin resistance in healthy humans. This acute insulin-sensitizing effect of ASA was unrelated to changes of circulating inflammatory markers.

  7. Apple juice consumption reduces plasma low-density lipoprotein oxidation in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Hyson, D; Studebaker-Hallman, D; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies show that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with beneficial effects on human health including reduced risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fruits and their juices contain phytochemicals that inhibit in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and may account, in part, for their protective effect. However, reports of in vivo antioxidant effects from fruit intake are limited. We conducted a human trial to examine the in vivo effect of consumption of apples (both whole and juice) in an unblinded, randomized, crossover design. Healthy men and women added 375 ml of unsupplemented apple juice or 340 g of cored whole apple to their daily diet for 6 weeks, then crossed over to the alternate product for 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and after each dietary period. Compliance was monitored via biweekly 5-day food records, bodyweight checks, and meetings with study personnel. There were no significant differences between groups in intake of dietary fat, cholesterol, total carbohydrate, sugar, or calories throughout the study. Dietary fiber intake increased by 22% with whole apple consumption. Body weight, fasting serum lipid concentration, and other lipoprotein parameters were unchanged. Apple juice consumption increased ex vivo copper (Cu(++))-mediated LDL oxidation lag time by 20% compared with baseline. Apples and apple juice both reduced conjugated diene formation. Moderate apple juice consumption provides in vivo antioxidant activity. In view of the current understanding of CAD, the observed effect on LDL might be associated with reduced CAD risk and supports the inclusion of apple juice in a healthy human diet.

  8. Association between serum total testosterone and Body Mass Index in middle aged healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Muhammad Omar; Ali Khan, Farooq Munfaet; Arshad, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine correlation of serum total testosterone with body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) in healthy adult males. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 nonsmoker healthy males (aged 30-50 years) university employees. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a detailed medical history and clinical examination including BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) calculation. Blood sampling was carried out to measure serum total testosterone (TT) using facilities of Chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) technique in Dow Chemical Laboratory. Independent sample T test was used for mean comparisons of BMI and WHR in between low and normal testosterone groups. (Subjects having < 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in low testosterone group and subjects having ≥ 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in normal testosterone group). Correlation of testosterone with BMI and WHR was analyzed by Pearson Correlation. Results: Mean (± SD) age of the subjects included in this study was 38.7 (± 6.563) years mean (± SD) total testosterone was 15.92 (±6.322)nmol/L. The mean (± SD) BMI, and WHR were 24.95 (±3.828) kg/m2 and 0.946 (±0.0474) respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean values of BMI and WHR for the two groups of testosterone. Significant inverse correlation of serum total testosterone with BMI(r = -0.311, p = 0.000) was recorded in this study. However testosterone was not significantly correlated with waist/hip ratio.(r = -0.126, p = 0.076) Conclusion: Middle age men working at DUHS who have low level of serum total testosterone are more obese than individuals with normal total testosterone level. PMID:26101490

  9. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on respiratory muscle electromyography and dyspnea during exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ramsook, Andrew H; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Schaeffer, Michele R; Wilkie, Sabrina S; Camp, Pat G; Reid, W Darlene; Romer, Lee M; Guenette, Jordan A

    2017-03-02

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has consistently been shown to reduce exertional dyspnea in health and disease; however, the physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. A growing body of literature suggests that dyspnea intensity can largely be explained by an awareness of increased neural respiratory drive, as indirectly measured using diaphragmatic electromyography (EMGdi). Accordingly, we sought to determine if improvements in dyspnea following IMT can be explained by decreases in inspiratory muscle EMG activity. Twenty-five healthy recreationally-active men completed a detailed familiarization visit followed by two maximal incremental cycle exercise tests separated by 5 weeks of randomly assigned pressure threshold IMT or sham control training (SC). The IMT group (n=12) performed 30 inspiratory efforts twice daily against a 30 repetition maximum intensity. The SC group (n=13) performed a daily bout of 60 inspiratory efforts against 10% maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), with no weekly adjustments. Dyspnea intensity was measured throughout exercise using the modified 0-10 Borg scale. Sternocleidomastoid and scalene EMG were measured using surface electrodes whereas EMGdi was measured using a multi-pair esophageal electrode catheter. IMT significantly improved MIP (pre:-138±45 vs. post:-160±43cmH2O, p<0.01) whereas the SC intervention did not. Dyspnea was significantly reduced at the highest equivalent work rate (pre:7.6±2.5 vs. post:6.8±2.9Borg units, p<0.05), but not in the SC group, with no between-group interaction effects. There were no significant differences in respiratory muscle EMG during exercise in either group. Improvements in dyspnea intensity ratings following IMT in healthy humans cannot be explained by changes in the electrical activity of the inspiratory muscles.

  10. Adherence to healthy lifestyle factors and risk of death in men with diabetes mellitus: The Physicians' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yash R; Gadiraju, Taraka V; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2016-11-11

    The relationship between healthy lifestyle factors and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether healthy lifestyle factors are associated with mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. We prospectively studied 1163 men with type 2 diabetes from the Physicians' Health Study. Lifestyle factors consisted of currently not smoking, moderate drinking (1-2 drinks/day), vigorous exercise (1+/week), BMI < 25 kg/m(2), and being in the top 2 quintiles of the alternate healthy eating index-2010 (AHEI-2010). Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mortality. At baseline, average age was 69 years and mean follow up was 9 years. About 22% of study participants had ≤1 healthy lifestyle factor, 37% had two, 29% had three, and 12% had four or more healthy lifestyle factors. An inverse relationship was found between the number of lifestyle factors and total mortality. Compared with participants who had ≤1 healthy lifestyle factor, the risk of death was 42% (95% CI; 19%-58%) lower for those with two healthy lifestyle factors, 41% (95% CI; 18%-58%) lower for those with three, and 44% (95% CI; 12%-64%) lower for those with 4 or more healthy lifestyle factors. Adherence to modifiable healthy lifestyle factors is associated with a lower risk of death among adult men with type 2 diabetes. Our study emphasizes the importance of educating individuals with diabetes to adhere to healthy lifestyle factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenges to healthy eating practices: A qualitative study of non-Hispanic black men living with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Loretta T.; Willig, Amanda L.; Agne, April A.; Locher, Julie L.; Cherrington, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore current dietary practices and perceived barriers to healthy eating in non-Hispanic black men with type 2 diabetes. Methods Four 90-minute focus groups held in September and October, 2011 were led by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion on dietary practices and barriers to healthy eating. Participants were recruited from the diabetes database at a public safety-net health system in Jefferson County, Alabama. Two-independent reviewers (LTL and ALW) performed content analysis to identify major themes using a combined deductive and inductive approach. Results There were 34 male participants aged 18 years and older. Mean years living with diabetes was 9.6 ± 5.9. Sixty-two percent of participants perceived themselves to be in fair or poor health. Participants’ self-reported eating practices did not always relate to hunger. Internal cues to eat included habit and response to emotions; and external cues to eat included media messaging, medication regimens, and work schedules. Men identified multiple barriers to healthy eating including hard-to-break habits, limited resources and availability of food at home and in neighborhood grocery stores, and perceived poor health-care professional communication. Conclusion Non-Hispanic black men acknowledged the importance of healthy eating as part of diabetes self-management, but reported various internal and external challenges that present barriers to healthy eating. Tailored strategies to overcome barriers to healthy eating among non-Hispanic black men should be developed and tested for their impact on diabetes self-management. PMID:27036128

  12. Challenges to Healthy Eating Practices: A Qualitative Study of Non-Hispanic Black Men Living With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Loretta T; Willig, Amanda L; Agne, April A; Locher, Julie L; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore current dietary practices and perceived barriers to healthy eating in non-Hispanic black men with type 2 diabetes. Four 90-minute focus groups held in September and October 2011 were led by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion on dietary practices and barriers to healthy eating. Participants were recruited from the diabetes database at a public safety-net health system in Jefferson County, Alabama. Two-independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a combined deductive and inductive approach. There were 34 male participants aged 18 years and older. Mean years living with diabetes was 9.6 ± 5.9. Sixty-two percent of participants perceived themselves to be in fair or poor health. Participants' self-reported eating practices did not always relate to hunger. Internal cues to eat included habit and response to emotions, and external cues to eat included media messaging, medication regimens, and work schedules. Men identified multiple barriers to healthy eating including hard-to-break habits, limited resources and availability of food at home and in neighborhood grocery stores, and perceived poor communication with health care professionals. Non-Hispanic black men acknowledged the importance of healthy eating as part of diabetes self-management but reported various internal and external challenges that present barriers to healthy eating. Tailored strategies to overcome barriers to healthy eating among non-Hispanic black men should be developed and tested for their impact on diabetes self-management. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Role of obesity on cerebral hemodynamics and cardiorespiratory responses in healthy men during repetitive incremental lifting.

    PubMed

    Cavuoto, Lora A; Maikala, Rammohan V

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify obesity-related differences in systemic physiologic responses and cerebral hemodynamics during physical work to exhaustion. Twenty men, ten who are obese and ten of healthy weight, completed an incremental exercise lifting a box from 25 cm below to 25 cm above knuckle height at 10 lifts/min. The lifting started with a load of 5 kg and was increased by 2 kg every 2 min until participants reached either voluntary fatigue or two of the American College of Sports Medicine endpoints for maximum aerobic capacity. Cardiorespiratory and prefrontal hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously during rest, incremental lifting, and recovery. The non-obese group lifted for ~64 % longer than the obese group. Both groups reached similar peak pulmonary oxygen uptake at the termination of exercise; however, when these responses were expressed relative to their body mass, the obese group had ~60 % reduced oxygen uptake. As the load increased, steady increases in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume responses were observed in both groups up to ~90 % of the lifting trial. In contrast, at higher intensities (near 100 % of the lifting trial), cerebral oxygenation and blood volume decreased in the obese group, whereas it plateaued or slightly increased in the non-obese group, with greatest cerebral oxygen extraction occurring at the cessation of lifting trial. These findings suggest that acute exposure to repetitive lifting exercise decreases cardiorespiratory responses and cerebral hemodynamics in the group who are obese, which may contribute to their reduced lifting capacity.

  14. Aspirin use and risk of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Hayashino, Yasuaki; Hennekens, Charles H.; Kurth, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data on aspirin use and the risk of diabetes are limited. The Physician’s Health Study has accumulated 22 years of follow-up data, including 5 years of randomized data, from 22,071 apparently healthy men. Methods and results At baseline and in yearly follow-up questionnaires, participants self-reported a history of diabetes, aspirin use and various lifestyle factors. To evaluate the association between aspirin use and risk of subsequent diabetes, we used a Cox-proportional hazards model with time-varying regression coefficients. During the 22 follow-up years, 1719 cases of diabetes were reported. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of developing diabetes was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77–0.97) for those who self-selected any aspirin. During the 5 years of randomized treatment, 318 cases of diabetes were observed, with an HR of 0.91 (95%CI, 0.73–1.14) for those randomized to aspirin. Conclusions Our data suggest a small but not significant decrease in the risk of diabetes during 5 years of randomized comparison of 325 mg of aspirin every other day. This trend was continued during 22 years of follow-up, indicating that self-selection of any use of aspirin is associated with a significant, approximately 14% decrease in the risk of diabetes. Decreased risk of type 2 diabetes may be added to the list of the clinical benefits of aspirin. PMID:19233341

  15. Pharmacokinetics of 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) delivery using subdermal implants in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Suvisaari, J; Moo-Young, A; Juhakoski, A; Elomaa, K; Saleh, S I; Lähteenmäki, P

    1999-11-01

    We studied the pharmacokinetics of 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT), a potent synthetic androgen, administered by subdermal implants. The implants contained 112 +/- 4 mg of MENT acetate in a polyethylene vinyl acetate copolymer. MENT acetate released from the implants is rapidly hydrolyzed to MENT in vivo. Fifteen healthy Finnish men were randomized to have either one, two, or four implants inserted in the medial aspect of the upper arm. The implants remained in place for 4 weeks. Blood samples were obtained before implant insertion, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after insertion, and 1 and 2 weeks after removal. Serum MENT concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. The MENT levels attained in each implant group remained at a steady level during the 4 weeks of implant use. The mean steady state MENT concentrations in the one, two, and four implant groups were 0.6, 1.4, and 2.3 nmol/L, respectively. Serum MENT concentrations during implant use were clearly dose dependent; the between-subject effect of implants as well as the differences between each pair of groups were all statistically significant. The release rate of MENT from one, two, and four implants was calculated to be approximately 0.3, 0.8, and 1.3 mg/day, respectively. This study suggests that MENT acetate implants are a promising method for long-term androgen administration in hypogonadism and male contraception.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of table and Port red wine anthocyanins: a crossover trial in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, I; Marques, C; Évora, A; Cruz, L; de Freitas, V; Calhau, C; Faria, A; Mateus, N

    2017-05-24

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of Port and table red wine anthocyanins in healthy men. Volunteers were recruited to drink 250 mL of a table red wine (221 mg of anthocyanins) and 150 mL of young Port red wine (49 mg of anthocyanins). Venous blood was collected from participants at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after wine ingestion. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at 120 min. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites in plasma and urine samples were quantified by HPLC-DAD and tentatively identified by LC-MS. Red wine anthocyanins were detected in their intact forms in both plasma and urine samples, but the glucuronylated metabolites of peonidin and malvidin (PnGlucr and MvGlucr) were the two main derivatives detected after both red wine consumptions. For the first time, and supported by the synthesis of Mv3Glucr, the main pathway followed by Mv3glc after absorption was described and involves anthocyanidin conjugation with glucuronic acid after glucose removal. Despite the lower total content of anthocyanins ingested when volunteers drank Port wine, no differences were observed in the plasma Cmax of MvGlucr and PnGlucr after table and Port red wine consumption. The relative bioavailability of anthocyanins in Port wine was 96.58 ± 5.74%, compared to the anthocyanins present in red wine. In conclusion, both Port and table red wines are good sources of bioavailable anthocyanins.

  17. The Association of ACE Genotypes on Cardiorespiratory Variables Related to Physical Fitness in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Salomão; Pasqua, Leonardo A.; de Araújo, Gustavo; Eduardo Lima-Silva, Adriano; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic power (VO2max), aerobic capacity (RCP), and running efficiency (RE) are important markers of aerobic fitness. However, the influence of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism on these markers has not been investigated in healthy individuals. One hundred and fifty physically active young men (age 25 ± 3 years; height 1.77 ± 0.06 m; body mass 76.6 ± 0.9 kg; VO2max 47.7 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) visited the laboratory on two separate occasions, and performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test to determine VO2max and RCP, and b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km·h-1 and 12 km·h-1) to determine RE. The genotype frequency was II = 21%; ID = 52%; and DD = 27%. There was a tendency for higher VO2max with the ACE II genotype (p = 0.08) compared to DD and ID genotypes. Magnitude based inferences suggested a likely beneficial effect on VO2max with the ACE II genotype. There was no association between genotypes for other variable. These findings suggest that individuals with the ACE II genotype have a tendency towards better values in aerobic power, but not with aerobic capacity or running economy. PMID:27861507

  18. The effects of dopamine agonists on prepulse inhibition in healthy men depend on baseline PPI values.

    PubMed

    Bitsios, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella G; Frangou, Sophia

    2005-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) agonists reliably disrupt prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex in animals but less so in humans despite cross-species similarities in the neural regulation of PPI. This study examines whether individual variation in baseline PPI may account for the inconsistencies in DA agonist-induced PPI disruption in humans. Baseline PPI measures were obtained from 32 healthy adult men. Subjects were subsequently tested in three sessions after ingestion of placebo or active drug in a balanced double-blind design. Seventeen subjects were given 0.05 and 0.1 mg of pergolide (a direct DA agonist) and 15 subjects were given 100 and 200 mg of amantadine (an indirect DA agonist). In each treatment group, subjects were assigned to "high" and "low" PPI subgroups based on the median split of their baseline PPI. Amantadine and pergolide disrupted PPI in high- but not in low-PPI subjects. In contrast, low-PPI subjects showed a trend towards PPI facilitation especially with pergolide. Our results suggest that baseline PPI is an important determinant of the effect of DA agonists on PPI.

  19. Influence of acute stress on response inhibition in healthy men: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Dierolf, Angelika Margarete; Fechtner, Julia; Böhnke, Robina; Wolf, Oliver T; Naumann, Ewald

    2017-02-07

    The current study investigated the influence of acute stress and the resulting cortisol increase on response inhibition and its underlying cortical processes, using EEG. Before and after an acute stressor or a control condition, 39 healthy men performed a go/no-go task while ERPs (N2, P3), reaction times, errors, and salivary cortisol were measured. Acute stress impaired neither accuracy nor reaction times, but differentially affected the neural correlates of response inhibition; namely, stress led to enhanced amplitudes of the N2 difference waves (N2d, no-go minus go), indicating enhanced response inhibition and conflict monitoring. Moreover, participants responding to the stressor with an acute substantial rise in cortisol (high cortisol responders) showed reduced amplitudes of the P3 of the difference waves (P3d, no-go minus go) after the stressor, indicating an impaired evaluation and finalization of the inhibitory process. Our findings indicate that stress leads to a reallocation of cognitive resources to the neural subprocesses of inhibitory control, strengthening premotor response inhibition and the detection of response conflict, while concurrently diminishing the subsequent finalization process within the stream of processing.

  20. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  1. Endocrine correlates of personality traits: a comparison between emotionally stable and emotionally labile healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Adler, L; Wedekind, D; Pilz, J; Weniger, G; Huether, G

    1997-01-01

    An initial sample of 120 healthy young men was screened by a personality questionnaire and 15 subjects each with highest and lowest scores respectively on emotionality (emotionally labile, EL subjects and emotionally stable, ES subjects) were recruited for a study on the relationship between the degree of emotionality and the basal secretion of stress-sensitive hormones during night-time. The nocturnal urinary excretion of cortisol, testosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin was measured over a period of 5 consecutive nights. The average amounts of each hormone excreted per night were not different between the two extreme groups. The variability of the excretion during the 5 nights of cortisol and testosterone, but not of adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin, was significantly higher in EL compared to ES subjects. The larger fluctuations in the nocturnal secretion of these two (and no other) hormones in EL subjects indicate that emotional lability is associated with a more labile regulation of cortisol and testosterone secretion. The observed intraindividual variability of basal stress hormone secretion may contribute to the vast interindividual variability noticed in psychoneuroendocrine stress research, especially in emotionally labile subjects.

  2. Increased impulsivity in response to food cues after sleep loss in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Brandell, Jon; Ros, Olof; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses. Methods Fourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one night of TSD versus normal sleep (8.5 hours). Following each nighttime intervention, hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before performing a go/no-go task. Results Following TSD, participants made significantly more commission errors when they were presented “no-go” food words in the go/no-go task, as compared with their performance following sleep (+56%; P<0.05). In contrast, response time and omission errors to “go” non-food words did not differ between the conditions. Self-reported hunger after TSD was increased without changes in fasting plasma glucose. The increase in hunger did not correlate with the TSD-induced commission errors. Conclusions Our results suggest that TSD impairs cognitive control also in response to food stimuli in healthy young men. Whether such loss of inhibition or impulsiveness is food cue-specific as seen in obesity—thus providing a mechanism through which sleep disturbances may promote obesity development—warrants further investigation. PMID:24839251

  3. Aggression--interactions of serotonin and testosterone in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Kuepper, Yvonne; Alexander, Nina; Osinsky, Roman; Mueller, Eva; Schmitz, Anja; Netter, Petra; Hennig, Juergen

    2010-01-05

    Serotonin (5-HT) and testosterone (T) have both been implicated in the regulation of aggression. Findings in humans however are very inconclusive, with respect to main effects of either system. Animal models implicate T to modulate 5-HT system activity, and furthermore have shown behaviorally relevant interactions of T and 5-HT with respect to aggression. We tested for associations between habitual T-level and 5-HT system activity, as well as behaviorally relevant interactions of T and 5-HT with respect to trait aggression in 48 healthy male and female subjects. 5-HT activity was measured by means of neuroendocrine challenge paradigm with S-citalopram. T-levels were measured in saliva samples. Trait aggression was assessed by self-report measures. T-levels were not associated with indices of central 5-HT activity. Results showed significant interaction effects between 5-HT and T for trait aggression in men only (p<0.05). Trait aggression was significantly higher in the combinations "high T+high cortisol responses" (indicating decreased 5-HT availability), and "low T+low cortisol responses" (indicating increased 5-HT availability), after S-citalopram. Results support the notion of behaviorally relevant interactions between T and 5-HT, with respect to aggression in humans, but also indicate the need for further studies.

  4. B-type natriuretic peptide modulates ghrelin, hunger, and satiety in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blinded study (subject) placebo once and 3.0 pmol/kg/min human BNP-32 once administered as a continuous infusion during 4 h. Circulating concentrations of appetite-regulating peptides were measured hourly. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were evaluated by visual analog scales. BNP inhibited the fasting-induced increase in total and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time (P = 0.043 and P = 0.038, respectively). In addition, BNP decreased the subjective rating of hunger (P = 0.009) and increased the feeling of satiety (P = 0.012) when compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in circulating peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. In summary, our results demonstrate that BNP exerts anorectic effects and reduces ghrelin concentrations in men. These data, taken together with the known cardiovascular properties of ghrelin, support the existence of a heart-gut-brain axis, which could be therapeutically targeted in patients with heart failure and obesity.

  5. Acute and chronic effects of dinner with alcoholic beverages on nitric oxide metabolites in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Sierksma, Aafje; van der Gaag, Martijn S; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2003-07-01

    1. The present study investigated the acute and chronic effect of dinner with alcoholic beverages on serum nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, namely nitrate and nitrite (NOx), in 11 healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men. 2. In a randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over trial, subjects consumed dinner with four glasses of red wine, beer, spirits (Dutch gin) or sparkling mineral water (control) for 3 weeks. At the end of each 3 week period, serum NOx concentrations were measured just before and 1, 5 and 13 h after dinner. 3. Serum NOx concentrations were approximately 50% higher 1 and 5 h after dinner with any beverage compared with just before dinner (P = 0.0001). At 1 h after dinner, the serum NOx concentration was approximately 11% lower after dinner with alcoholic beverages compared with concentrations observed after dinner with water (P = 0.01). The fasted serum NOx concentration (13 h after dinner) was similar to the preprandial concentration and there were no differences in serum NOx concentrations between the alcoholic beverages. 4. Food intake acutely and transiently increased serum NOx concentrations, an effect that was slightly attenuated if combined with alcoholic beverages. Chronic moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on serum NOx concentration.

  6. Excessive caloric intake acutely causes oxidative stress, GLUT4 carbonylation, and insulin resistance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Boden, Guenther; Homko, Carol; Barrero, Carlos A; Stein, T Peter; Chen, Xinhua; Cheung, Peter; Fecchio, Chiara; Koller, Sarah; Merali, Salim

    2015-09-09

    Obesity-linked insulin resistance greatly increases the risk for type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, together known as the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome. How obesity promotes insulin resistance remains incompletely understood. Plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and proinflammatory cytokines, endoplasmic reticulum ( ER) stress, and oxidative stress are all elevated in obesity and have been shown to induce insulin resistance. However, they may be late events that only develop after chronic excessive nutrient intake. The nature of the initial event that produces insulin resistance at the beginning of excess caloric intake and weight gain remains unknown. We show that feeding healthy men with ~6000 kcal/day of the common U.S. diet [~50% carbohydrate (CHO), ~ 35% fat, and ~15% protein] for 1 week produced a rapid weight gain of 3.5 kg and the rapid onset (after 2 to 3 days) of systemic and adipose tissue insulin resistance and oxidative stress but no inflammatory or ER stress. In adipose tissue, the oxidative stress resulted in extensive oxidation and carbonylation of numerous proteins, including carbonylation of GLUT4 near the glucose transport channel, which likely resulted in loss of GLUT4 activity. These results suggest that the initial event caused by overnutrition may be oxidative stress, which produces insulin resistance, at least in part, via carbonylation and oxidation-induced inactivation of GLUT4.

  7. 25(OH) Vitamin D is Associated with Greater Muscle Strength in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Adam S.; Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Pescatello, Linda S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and muscle strength in 419 healthy men and women over a broad age range (20-76 years of age). Methods Isometric and isokinetic strength of the arms and legs was measured using computerized dynamometry and its relation to vitamin D was tested in multivariate models controlling for age, gender, resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max,), physical activity counts, and season of vitamin D measurement. Results Vitamin D was significantly associated with arm and leg muscle strength when controlling for age and gender. When controlling for other covariates listed above, vitamin D remained directly related to both isometric and isokinetic arm strength but only to isometric leg strength. Conclusion These data suggests that there may be a differential effect of vitamin D on upper and lower body strength. The mechanism for this difference remains unclear but could be related to differences in androgenic effects or to differences in vitamin D receptor expression. Our study supports a direct relationship between vitamin D and muscle strength and suggests that vitamin D supplementation be evaluated to determine if it is an effective therapy to preserve muscle strength in adults. PMID:22895376

  8. Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Tok, Duran; Ozenc, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It has been reported that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<35 mg/dL). But in this study, some patients had hypertension that may have affected the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio. This study consisted of 1274 asymptomatic healthy young men. In contrast with the previous study, we investigated the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with controls. Methods: We studied 1274 asymptomatic young males (military personnel screening) who underwent routine health check-up. Of them, 102 subjects had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results: The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher among the men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than that of the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in asymptomatic healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with control participants. PMID:26770725

  9. Single Oral Dose Pharmacokinetics of Decursin and Decursinol Angelate in Healthy Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Hale, Thomas W.; Chee, Wayne; Xing, Chengguo; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH) in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY) in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax) of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax) of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h) and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h). The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h) for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957 PMID:25695490

  10. Multiparametric MR Imaging Depicts Glycosaminoglycan Change in the Achilles Tendon during Ciprofloxacin Administration in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Juras, Vladimir; Winhofer, Yvonne; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Vosshenrich, Jan; Hager, Benedikt; Wolf, Peter; Weber, Michael; Luger, Anton; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques (sodium MR imaging, glycosaminoglycan [GAG] chemical exchange saturation transfer [CEST], and T2* mapping) could be used as potential markers for biochemical changes in the Achilles tendon induced by ciprofloxacin intake. Materials and Methods The ethics committee of the Medical University of Vienna approved the protocol (number 1225/2012), and all patients gave written informed consent. Fourteen ankles from seven men (mean age, 32 years ± 12 [standard deviation]) were included in the study. All patients underwent 7-T MR imaging examinations of the Achilles tendon at baseline and 10 days and 5 months after ciprofloxacin intake. Sodium signal and T2* maps were acquired with the variable echo-time sequence and the GAG CEST values were acquired with a three-dimensional radiofrequency spoiled gradient-recalled-echo sequence. Results The mean sodium signal was significantly decreased by 25% in the whole tendon (from baseline to 10 days after ciprofloxacin intake, 130 arbitrary units [au] ± 8 to 98 au ± 5, respectively; P = .023) and returned to baseline after 5 months (116 au ± 10), as observed also at the tendon insertion (baseline, 10 days after ciprofloxacin intake, and 5 months after ciprofloxacin intake, 134 au ± 8, 105 au ± 5, and 119 au ± 9, respectively; P = .034). The mean GAG CEST value in the whole tendon was parallel to the sodium signal with a decrease from baseline to 10 days after ciprofloxacin intake, 4.74% ± 0.75 to 4.50% ± 0.23, respectively (P = .028) and an increase at 5 months after ciprofloxacin intake to 4.88% ± 1.02. Conclusion In conclusion, this study demonstrates a ciprofloxacin-induced reversible reduction of the normalized sodium MR imaging signal and the GAG CEST effect in the Achilles tendon of healthy volunteers. Changes in sodium MR imaging and GAG CEST in men may reflect a decrease of GAG content in the Achilles tendon after ciprofloxacin intake

  11. Red Blood Cell Volume, Plasma Volume and Total Blood Volume in Healthy Elderly Men and Women Aged 64 to 100

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    had an adeguate oxygen supply to the tissues. The deficiency in red blood cell volume in our elderly subjects was consistent with an adaptive and... ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN AGED 64 TO 100 BY C.R. VALERI, L.E. PIVACEK, H. SIEBENS, and M.D. ALTSCHULE NAVAL BLOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY BOSTON...TITLE (and Submit) RED BLOOD CELL VOLUME, PLASMA VOLUME AND TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME IN HEALTHY ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN AGED 64 TO 100 7. AUTHORf»J C

  12. Testosterone Conversion Blockade Increases Breathing Stability in Healthy Men during NREM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhuri, Susmita; Bascom, Amy; Mohan, David; Diamond, Michael P.; Badr, M. Safwan

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Gender differences in the prevalence of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome may be mediated via male sex hormones. Our objective was to determine the exact pathway for a testosterone-mediated increased propensity for central sleep apnea via blockade of the 5α-reductase pathway of testosterone conversion by finasteride. Design: Randomization to oral finasteride vs. sham, single-center study. Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy young males without sleep apnea Intervention: Hypocapnia was induced via brief nasal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation during stable NREM sleep. Cessation of mechanical ventilation resulted in hypocapnic central apnea or hypopnea. Measurements and Results: The apnea threshold (AT) was defined as the end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) that demarcated the central apnea closest to the eupneic PETCO2. The CO2 reserve was defined as the difference in PETCO2 between eupnea and AT. The apneic threshold and CO2 reserve were measured at baseline and repeated after at a minimum of 1 month. Administration of finasteride resulted in decreased serum dihydrotestosterone. In the finasteride group, the eupneic ventilatory parameters were unchanged; however, the AT was decreased (38.9 ± 0.6 mm Hg vs.37.7 ± 0.9 mm Hg, P = 0.02) and the CO2 reserve was increased (-2.5 ± 0.3 mm Hg vs. -3.8 ± 0.5 mm Hg, P = 0.003) at follow-up, with a significantly lower hypocapnic ventilatory response, thus indicating increased breathing stability during sleep. No significant changes were noted in the sham group on follow-up study. Conclusions: Inhibition of testosterone action via the 5α-reductase pathway may be effective in alleviating breathing instability during sleep, presenting an opportunity for novel therapy for central sleep apnea in selected populations. Citation: Chowdhuri S; Bascom A; Mohan D; Diamond MP; Badr MS. Testosterone conversion blockade increases breathing stability in healthy men during NREM sleep. SLEEP 2013

  13. Satellite cell response to erythropoietin treatment and endurance training in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hansen, Mette; Schjerling, Peter; Farup, Jean

    2016-02-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment may induce myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) expression and prevent apoptosis in satellite cells (SCs) in murine and in vitro models. Endurance training stimulates SC proliferation in vivo in murine and human skeletal muscle. In the present study, we show, in human skeletal muscle, that treatment with an Epo-stimulating agent (darbepoetin-α) in vivo increases the content of MyoD(+) SCs in healthy young men. Moreover, we report that Epo receptor mRNA is expressed in adult human SCs, suggesting that Epo may directly target SCs through ligand-receptor interaction. Moreover, endurance training, but not Epo treatment, increases the SC content in type II myofibres, as well as the content of MyoD(+) SCs. Collectively, our results suggest that Epo treatment can regulate human SCs in vivo, supported by Epo receptor mRNA expression in human SCs. In effect, long-term Epo treatment during disease conditions involving anaemia may impact SCs and warrants further investigation. Satellite cell (SC) proliferation is observed following erythropoitin treatment in vitro in murine myoblasts and endurance training in vivo in human skeletal muscle. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA; darbepoetin-α) treatment and endurance training, separately and combined, on SC quantity and commitment in human skeletal muscle. Thirty-five healthy, untrained men were randomized into four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9), sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9), training-placebo (TP, n = 9) or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). ESA/placebo was injected once weekly and training consisted of ergometer cycling three times a week for 10 weeks. Prior to and following the intervention period, blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2, max) was measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify fibre type specific SCs (Pax7(+)), myonuclei and active SCs (Pax7(+)/MyoD(+)). ESA

  14. Satellite cell response to erythropoietin treatment and endurance training in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hansen, Mette; Schjerling, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Key point Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment may induce myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) expression and prevent apoptosis in satellite cells (SCs) in murine and in vitro models.Endurance training stimulates SC proliferation in vivo in murine and human skeletal muscle.In the present study, we show, in human skeletal muscle, that treatment with an Epo‐stimulating agent (darbepoetin‐α) in vivo increases the content of MyoD+ SCs in healthy young men. Moreover, we report that Epo receptor mRNA is expressed in adult human SCs, suggesting that Epo may directly target SCs through ligand‐receptor interaction.Moreover, endurance training, but not Epo treatment, increases the SC content in type II myofibres, as well as the content of MyoD+ SCs.Collectively, our results suggest that Epo treatment can regulate human SCs in vivo, supported by Epo receptor mRNA expression in human SCs. In effect, long‐term Epo treatment during disease conditions involving anaemia may impact SCs and warrants further investigation. Abstract Satellite cell (SC) proliferation is observed following erythropoitin treatment in vitro in murine myoblasts and endurance training in vivo in human skeletal muscle. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged erythropoiesis‐stimulating agent (ESA; darbepoetin‐α) treatment and endurance training, separately and combined, on SC quantity and commitment in human skeletal muscle. Thirty‐five healthy, untrained men were randomized into four groups: sedentary‐placebo (SP, n = 9), sedentary‐ESA (SE, n = 9), training‐placebo (TP, n = 9) or training‐ESA (TE, n = 8). ESA/placebo was injected once weekly and training consisted of ergometer cycling three times a week for 10 weeks. Prior to and following the intervention period, blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2, max ) was measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify fibre type specific SCs (Pax7+), myonuclei

  15. Sleep Restriction for 1 Week Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Orfeu M.; Pavlova, Milena; Reid, Emily W.; Wang, Wei; Simonson, Donald C.; Adler, Gail K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Short sleep duration is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and an increased risk of diabetes. The effects of sleep restriction on insulin sensitivity have not been established. This study tests the hypothesis that decreasing nighttime sleep duration reduces insulin sensitivity and assesses the effects of a drug, modafinil, that increases alertness during wakefulness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This 12-day inpatient General Clinical Research Center study included 20 healthy men (age 20–35 years and BMI 20–30 kg/m2). Subjects spent 10 h/night in bed for ≥8 nights including three inpatient nights (sleep-replete condition), followed by 5 h/night in bed for 7 nights (sleep-restricted condition). Subjects received 300 mg/day modafinil or placebo during sleep restriction. Diet and activity were controlled. On the last 2 days of each condition, we assessed glucose metabolism by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Salivary cortisol, 24-h urinary catecholamines, and neurobehavioral performance were measured. RESULTS IVGTT-derived insulin sensitivity was reduced by (means ± SD) 20 ± 24% after sleep restriction (P = 0.001), without significant alterations in the insulin secretory response. Similarly, insulin sensitivity assessed by clamp was reduced by 11 ± 5.5% (P < 0.04) after sleep restriction. Glucose tolerance and the disposition index were reduced by sleep restriction. These outcomes were not affected by modafinil treatment. Changes in insulin sensitivity did not correlate with changes in salivary cortisol (increase of 51 ± 8% with sleep restriction, P < 0.02), urinary catecholamines, or slow wave sleep. CONCLUSIONS Sleep restriction (5 h/night) for 1 week significantly reduces insulin sensitivity, raising concerns about effects of chronic insufficient sleep on disease processes associated with insulin resistance. PMID:20585000

  16. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  17. Jaw-opening accuracy is not affected by masseter muscle vibration in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, B; Häggman-Henrikson, B; Wänman, A; Lindkvist, M; Hellström, F

    2014-11-01

    There is a functional integration between the jaw and neck regions with head extension-flexion movements during jaw-opening/closing tasks. We recently reported that trigeminal nociceptive input by injection of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscle altered this integrated jaw-neck function during jaw-opening/closing tasks. Thus, in jaw-opening to a predefined position, the head-neck component increased during pain. Previous studies have indicated that muscle spindle stimulation by vibration of the masseter muscle may influence jaw movement amplitudes, but the possible effect on the integrated jaw-neck function is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of masseter muscle vibration on jaw-head movements during a continuous jaw-opening/closing task to a target position. Sixteen healthy men performed two trials without vibration (Control) and two trials with bilateral masseter muscle vibration (Vibration). Movements of the mandible and the head were registered with a wireless three-dimensional optoelectronic recording system. Differences in jaw-opening and head movement amplitudes between Control and Vibration, as well as achievement of the predefined jaw-opening target position, were analysed with Wilcoxon's matched pairs test. No significant group effects from vibration were found for jaw or head movement amplitudes, or in the achievement of the target jaw-opening position. A covariation between the jaw and head movement amplitudes was observed. The results imply a high stability for the jaw motor system in a target jaw-opening task and that this task was achieved with the head-neck and jaw working as an integrated system.

  18. Safety profile of caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine supplementation in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, T M; Harvey, I C; Alleman, R J

    2013-11-01

    Caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) are widely used alone and in combination with dietary supplements. No investigation has determined the safety profile of chronic intake of caffeine or DMAA, alone or in combination, within the same study design. A total of 50 young and healthy men completed 12 weeks of daily supplementation with either a placebo (n = 11), caffeine at 250 mg day(-1) (n = 14), DMAA at 50 mg day(-1) (n = 13), or caffeine at 250 mg day(-1) + DMAA at 50 mg day(-1) (n = 12). Before and after 6 and 12 weeks of supplementation, the following variables were measured: body mass/composition, resting respiratory rate, blood pressure, 12-lead electrocardiogram, urinalysis, complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, and oxidative stress, inflammatory, and cardiac biomarkers. No interaction effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with little change occurring across time for subjects in any of the four conditions. With the exception of urinary pH (p = 0.05; Pre (6.5 ± 0.1) higher than week 6 (6.1 ± 0.1)) and blood CO2 (p = 0.02; week 12 (25.9 ± 0.3 mmol L(-1)) higher than week 6 (24.8 ± 0.3 mmol L(-1))), no time effect was noted for any other variable (p > 0.05). These data indicate that 12 weeks of daily supplementation with caffeine and DMAA, alone or in combination, does not result in a statistically significant change in any of the measured outcome variables.

  19. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P < 0.001), and those of total IGF-I at B and 24h-SD (P < 0.05). EXT did not influence growth hormone, IGF binding protein 3, BDNF, insulin, and glucose levels. The only effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  20. Within-Day Baseline Variation in Salivary Biomarkers in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Idris, Firman Prathama; Wan, Yunxia; Zhang, Xi; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2017-02-01

    Saliva is an easily accessible sample and offers practical and noninvasive biomarker solutions as an alternative to blood and urine-based diagnostics. Saliva contains a plethora of biomolecules such as nucleic acids, hormones, proteins, and electrolytes. On the other hand, little is known on the extent to which the biomolecules in saliva vary over time within a given person. This baseline information is crucial for future development of robust saliva-based diagnostics. We have collected unstimulated whole mouth saliva from 20 healthy young men at four times during the day, including before and after a meal. We measured the salivary cortisol, testosterone, C-reactive protein (CRP), stability of genomic DNA (gDNA) and DNA methylation levels of APC, P16(INK4a), and PCQAP in these samples. We found that the salivary CRP, DNA methylation, and CD44 gDNA levels did not vary significantly across four time points (p > 0.05) while the salivary cortisol and testosterone levels significantly varied from the morning collection to the afternoon collection (p < 0.05). Furthermore, salivary cortisol levels were significantly affected by eating (p < 0.05). Our study offers a within-person baseline temporal assessment of several clinically relevant biomolecules and diagnostics, and suggests that salivary cortisol and testosterone levels vary over time in a given day whereas CRP and DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and CD44 amplification are stable throughout the day. Future research and clinical applications of salivary biomarkers and diagnostics should take into consideration their temporal variations.

  1. Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Vidotti, Heloisa G.; Mendes, Renata G.; Simões, Rodrigo P.; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Catai, Aparecida M.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE) at different loads in healthy older men. Method Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years) underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Results Parasympathetic indices decreased significantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively) and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower). RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively). In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF) and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF) was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Conclusions Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population. PMID:24675908

  2. Effects of electrical stimulation on VO2 kinetics and delta efficiency in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Perez, M; Lucia, A; Santalla, A; Chicharro, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics and delta efficiency (DE) during gradual exercise. The hypothesis was that ES would attenuate the VO2-workload relation and improve DE. Methods: Fifteen healthy, untrained men (mean (SD) age 22 (5) years) were selected. Ten were electrostimulated on both quadriceps muscles with a frequency of 45–60 Hz, with 12 seconds of stimulation followed by eight seconds recovery for a total of 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. The remaining five subjects were assigned to a control group. A standardised exercise test on a cycle ergometer (ramp protocol, workload increases of 20 W/min) was performed by each subject before and after the experimental period. The slope of the VO2-power output (W) relation (ΔVO2/ΔW) and DE were calculated in each subject at moderate to high intensities (above the ventilatory threshold—that is, from 50–60% to 100% VO2max). Results: The mean (SEM) values for ΔVO2/ΔW and DE had significantly decreased and increased respectively after the six week ES programme (p<0.05; 9.8 (0.2) v 8.6 (0.5) ml O2/W/min respectively and 27.7 (0.9) v 31.5 (1.4)% respectively). Conclusions: ES could be used as a supplementary tool to improve two of the main determinants of endurance capacity, namely VO2 kinetics and work efficiency. PMID:12663356

  3. The acute effect of commercially available pulse powders on postprandial glycaemic response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Liu, Yudan; Smith, Christopher E; Liu, Ting Ting; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L

    2014-12-28

    Whole pulses (beans, peas, chickpeas and lentils) elicit low postprandial blood glucose (BG) responses in adults; however, their consumption in North America is low. One potential strategy to increase the dietary intake of pulses is the utilisation of commercial pulse powders in food products; however, it is unclear whether they retain the biological benefits observed with whole pulses. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of commercially prepared pulse powders on BG response before and after a subsequent meal in healthy young men. Overall, three randomised, within-subject experiments were conducted. In each experiment, participants received whole, puréed and powdered pulses (navy beans in Expt 1; lentils in Expt 2; chickpeas in Expt 3) and whole-wheat flour as the control. All treatments were controlled for available carbohydrate content. A fixed-energy pizza meal (50·2 kJ/kg body weight) was provided at 120 min. BG concentration was measured before (0-120 min) and after (140-200 min) the pizza meal. BG concentration peaked at 30 min in all experiments, and pulse forms did not predict their effect on BG response. Compared with the whole-wheat flour control, navy bean treatments lowered peak BG concentrations (Expt 1, P< 0.05), but not the mean BG concentration over 120 min. The mean BG concentration was lower for all lentil (Expt 2, P= 0.008) and chickpea (Expt 3, P= 0.002) treatments over 120 min. Processing pulses to powdered form does not eliminate the benefits of whole pulses on BG response, lending support to the use of pulse powders as value-added food ingredients to moderate postprandial glycaemic response.

  4. Effects of age and physical activity on the autonomic control of heart rate in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Melo, R C; Santos, M D B; Silva, E; Quitério, R J; Moreno, M A; Reis, M S; Verzola, I A; Oliveira, L; Martins, L E B; Gallo-Junior, L; Catai, A M

    2005-09-01

    The effects of the aging process and an active life-style on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR) were investigated in nine young sedentary (YS, 23 +/- 2.4 years), 16 young active (YA, 22 +/- 2.1 years), 8 older sedentary (OS, 63 +/- 2.4 years) and 8 older active (OA, 61 +/- 1.1 years) healthy men. Electrocardiogram was continuously recorded for 15 min at rest and for 4 min in the deep breathing test, with a breath rate of 5 to 6 cycles/min in the supine position. Resting HR and RR intervals were analyzed by time (RMSSD index) and frequency domain methods. The power spectral components are reported in normalized units (nu) at low (LF) and high (HF) frequency, and as the LF/HF ratio. The deep breathing test was analyzed by the respiratory sinus arrhythmia indices: expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I) and inspiration-expiration difference (deltaIE). The active groups had lower HR and higher RMSSD index than the sedentary groups (life-style condition: sedentary vs active, P < 0.05). The older groups showed lower HFnu, higher LFnu and higher LF/HF ratio than the young groups (aging effect: young vs older, P < 0.05). The OS group had a lower E/I ratio (1.16) and deltaIE (9.7 bpm) than the other groups studied (YS: 1.38, 22.4 bpm; YA: 1.40, 21.3 bpm; OA: 1.38, 18.5 bpm). The interaction between aging and life-style effects had a P < 0.05. These results suggest that aging reduces HR variability. However, regular physical activity positively affects vagal activity on the heart and consequently attenuates the effects of aging in the autonomic control of HR.

  5. Food anticipation and subsequent food withdrawal increase serum cortisol in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ott, Volker; Friedrich, Monique; Prilop, Simon; Lehnert, Hendrik; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2011-07-06

    The anticipation of food intake comprises endocrine changes that according to animal experiments include a rise in HPA axis activity. In humans, HPA axis responses to food anticipation and withdrawal, although of clinical relevance, have not been thoroughly examined. We assessed neuroendocrine and psychological effects of food anticipation and of withholding anticipated food in healthy human subjects. Food anticipation was induced in 14 men at 0800 h by the announcement and subsequent presentation of a breakfast buffet. The expected meal was surprisingly withheld at 1000 h under the pretense of an organizational problem. Fifteen fasted controls were informed at 0800 h that they would remain fasted throughout the experiments. In both groups, hunger, mood and circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, cortisol, ACTH, leptin and ghrelin were assessed. At 1200 h, all subjects were allowed to eat from a plate of cookies. Compared to non-anticipation, food anticipation was associated with a relative increase in serum cortisol levels, an acute drop in plasma glucose and increased self-rated hunger. When anticipated food was withheld, self-rated mood deteriorated and cortisol levels remained elevated, while plasma glucose levels decreased with a delay of 50 min. Other endocrine parameters and cookie intake were comparable between groups. Our results indicate that food anticipation without subsequent food reward increases cortisol levels and reduces blood glucose availability. They support the assumption that dietary restraint, being associated with habitually extended periods of anticipating food that is temporarily withheld, may contribute to the development of overweight by detrimental effects on HPA-axis activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between selective sleep deprivation, nocturnal jaw-muscle activity and pain in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Arima, T; Svensson, P; Rasmussen, C; Nielsen, K D; Drewes, A M; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2001-02-01

    The relationship between nocturnal jaw-muscle activity and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selective slow wave sleep (SWS = non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) stage 3 + 4) deprivation on jaw-muscle activity using a new automatic system. Ten healthy men without signs of symptoms of TMD participated. The subjects slept in the laboratory for six continuous nights including one adjustment night, one baseline night, three nights with experimental sleep deprivation and one recovery night. Polysomnographic recordings of electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) were obtained for recognition of sleep stages and masseter muscle activity. During the three experimental nights, computer-controlled sound stimulation (60--90 dB(A), 1000 Hz) were given as long as the subjects were in SWS. Maximum voluntary occlusal force (MVOF), pain pressure threshold (PPT) and visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess the state of the masseter muscles every morning and evening during the study period. The results showed that the time spent in SWS was significantly decreased during the first sleep deprivation night, but there were no significant effects on nocturnal EMG activity (i.e. the numbers of bruxism episodes per hour of sleep, bruxism bursts per episodes bruxism bursts per hour of sleep), MVOF, VAS or PPT. Furthermore, the automatic system only deprived the SWS in five subjects for the following two nights although the sound stimulation was given at the maximum intensity. These results suggest that deprivation of SWS may not interact immediately with nocturnal jaw-muscle activity and jaw-muscle pain.

  7. Hippocampal-Brainstem Connectivity Associated with Vagal Modulation after an Intense Exercise Intervention in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Herbsleb, Marco; Schumann, Andy; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Gabriel, Holger W.; Wagner, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise leads to increased vagal modulation of the cardiovascular system. A combination of peripheral and central processes has been proposed to underlie this adaptation. However, specific changes in the central autonomic network have not been described in human in more detail. We hypothesized that the anterior hippocampus known to be influenced by regular physical activity might be involved in the development of increased vagal modulation after a 6 weeks high intensity intervention in young healthy men (exercise group: n = 17, control group: n = 17). In addition to the determination of physical capacity before and after the intervention, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous heart rate variability assessment. We detected a significant increase of the power output at the anaerobic threshold of 11.4% (p < 0.001), the maximum power output Pmax of 11.2% (p < 0.001), and VO2max adjusted for body weight of 4.7% (p < 0.001) in the exercise group (EG). Comparing baseline (T0) and post-exercise (T1) values of parasympathetic modulation of the exercise group, we observed a trend for a decrease in heart rate (p < 0.06) and a significant increase of vagal modulation as indicated by RMSSD (p < 0.026) during resting state. In the whole brain analysis, we found that the connectivity pattern of the right anterior hippocampus (aHC) was specifically altered to the ventromedial anterior cortex, the dorsal striatum and to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem. Moreover, we observed a highly significant negative correlation between increased RMSSD after exercise and decreased functional connectivity from the right aHC to DVC (r = −0.69, p = 0.003). This indicates that increased vagal modulation was associated with functional connectivity between aHC and the DVC. In conclusion, our findings suggest that exercise associated changes in anterior hippocampal function might be involved in increased vagal modulation. PMID

  8. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode.

  9. Taurine and magnesium supplementation enhances the function of endothelial progenitor cells through antioxidation in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Katakawa, Mayumi; Fukuda, Noboru; Tsunemi, Akiko; Mori, Mari; Maruyama, Takashi; Matsumoto, Taro; Abe, Masanori; Yamori, Yukio

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial damage is repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are pivotal in preventing cardiovascular diseases and prolonging lifespan. The WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study demonstrated that dietary taurine and magnesium (Mg) intake suppresses cardiovascular diseases. We herein evaluate the effects of taurine and Mg supplementation on EPC function and oxidative stress in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Healthy men received taurine (3 g per day) or Mg (340 mg per day) for 2 weeks. SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were housed with high-salt drinking water (1% NaCl). The SHRs received 3% taurine solution and/or a high-Mg (600 mg per 100 g) diet for 4 weeks. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated to quantify EPC colony formation. Oxidative stress markers in their peripheral blood were evaluated using a free radical analytical system and a thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased free radical levels and TBARS scores in healthy men. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased TBARS scores and free radical levels in SHRs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase component mRNA expression was significantly higher in the renal cortex of salt-loaded SHRs than in WKY rats, in which it was suppressed by taurine and Mg supplementation. Taurine and Mg supplementation increased EPC colony formation in healthy men and improved impaired EPC function in SHRs through antioxidation, indicating that the dietary intake of taurine and Mg may prolong lifespan by preventing the progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Cardio-Respiratory Reference Data in 4631 Healthy Men and Women 20-90 Years: The HUNT 3 Fitness Study

    PubMed Central

    Loe, Henrik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide a large reference material on key cardio-respiratory variables in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20–90 years. Methods Sub maximal and peak levels of cardio-respiratory variables were measured using cardiopulmonary exercise testing during treadmill running. Results The highest peak ventilation among men (141.9±24.5 L·min−1) and women (92.0±16.5 L·min−1) was observed in the youngest age group (20–29 years, sex differences p<0.001) with an average 7% reduction per decade. The highest tidal volumes were observed in the 30–39 and 40–49 year age groups among men (2.94±0.46 L) and women (2.06±0.32 L) (sex differences p<0.001), with a subsequent average 6% reduction per decade. Ventilatory threshold and respiratory compensation point were observed at approximately 77% and 87% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) among men and women, respectively. The best ventilatory efficiency (EqVCO2Than) was observed in the youngest age group (20–29 years) in both men (26.2±2.8) and woman (27.5±2.7) (sex differences p<0.001) with an average 3% deterioration in ventilatory efficiency per decade. Conclusion This is the largest European reference material of cardio-respiratory variables in healthy men and women aged 20–90 years, establishing normal values for, and associations between key cardio-respiratory parameters. This will be useful in clinical decision making when evaluating cardiopulmonary health in similar populations. PMID:25426954

  11. Cardio-respiratory reference data in 4631 healthy men and women 20-90 years: the HUNT 3 fitness study.

    PubMed

    Loe, Henrik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    To provide a large reference material on key cardio-respiratory variables in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years. Sub maximal and peak levels of cardio-respiratory variables were measured using cardiopulmonary exercise testing during treadmill running. The highest peak ventilation among men (141.9±24.5 L·min-1) and women (92.0±16.5 L·min-1) was observed in the youngest age group (20-29 years, sex differences p<0.001) with an average 7% reduction per decade. The highest tidal volumes were observed in the 30-39 and 40-49 year age groups among men (2.94±0.46 L) and women (2.06±0.32 L) (sex differences p<0.001), with a subsequent average 6% reduction per decade. Ventilatory threshold and respiratory compensation point were observed at approximately 77% and 87% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) among men and women, respectively. The best ventilatory efficiency (EqVCO2Than) was observed in the youngest age group (20-29 years) in both men (26.2±2.8) and woman (27.5±2.7) (sex differences p<0.001) with an average 3% deterioration in ventilatory efficiency per decade. This is the largest European reference material of cardio-respiratory variables in healthy men and women aged 20-90 years, establishing normal values for, and associations between key cardio-respiratory parameters. This will be useful in clinical decision making when evaluating cardiopulmonary health in similar populations.

  12. Elevated peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived superoxide production in healthy young black men.

    PubMed

    Deo, Shekhar H; Holwerda, Seth W; Keller, David M; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that blacks exhibit elevations in systemic oxidative stress. However, the source(s) and mechanism(s) contributing to the elevation in oxidative stress remain unclear. Given that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be a major source of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, we tested the hypothesis that young black men demonstrate greater superoxide production and NADPH oxidase expression in PBMCs compared with whites. PBMCs were freshly isolated from whole blood in young normotensive black (n = 18) and white (n = 16) men. Intracellular superoxide production in PBMCs was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence, protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91(phox) (membranous) and p47(phox) (cytosolic) in PBMCs were assessed using Western blot analysis, and plasma protein carbonyls were measured as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Black men showed elevated intracellular superoxide production (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 relative fluorescence units; black men vs. white men, P < 0.05), increased protein expression for gp91(phox) and p47(phox) (e.g., p47(phox): 1.1 ± 0.2, black men vs. 0.4 ± 0.1, white men, P < 0.05) in PBMCs and higher circulating protein carbonyl levels (22 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 2 nmol/ml; black men vs. white men, P < 0.05). Interestingly, a positive family history of hypertension in black men did not further enhance PBMC-derived intracellular superoxide production or NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression. These findings indicate that black men exhibit greater resting PBMC-derived superoxide production and an upregulation of the NADPH oxidase pathway with a possible contribution to increases in systemic oxidative stress.

  13. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  14. Fermented milk improves glucose metabolism in exercise-induced muscle damage in young healthy men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effect of fermented milk supplementation on glucose metabolism associated with muscle damage after acute exercise in humans. Methods Eighteen healthy young men participated in each of the three trials of the study: rest, exercise with placebo, and exercise with fermented milk. In the exercise trials, subjects carried out resistance exercise consisting of five sets of leg and bench presses at 70–100% 12 repetition maximum. Examination beverage (fermented milk or placebo) was taken before and after exercise in double-blind method. On the following day, we conducted an analysis of respiratory metabolic performance, blood collection, and evaluation of muscle soreness. Results Muscle soreness was significantly suppressed by the consumption of fermented milk compared with placebo (placebo, 14.2 ± 1.2 score vs. fermented milk, 12.6 ± 1.1 score, p < 0.05). Serum creatine phosphokinase was significantly increased by exercise, but this increase showed a tendency of suppression after the consumption of fermented milk. Exercise significantly decreased the respiratory quotient (rest, 0.88 ± 0.01 vs. placebo, 0.84 ± 0.02, p < 0.05), although this decrease was negated by the consumption of fermented milk (0.88 ± 0.01, p < 0.05). Furthermore, exercise significantly reduced the absorption capacity of serum oxygen radical (rest, 6.9 ± 0.4 μmol TE/g vs. placebo, 6.0 ± 0.3 μmol TE/g, p < 0.05), although this reduction was not observed with the consumption of fermented milk (6.2 ± 0.3 μmol TE/g). Conclusion These results suggest that fermented milk supplementation improves glucose metabolism and alleviates the effects of muscle soreness after high-intensity exercise, possibly associated with the regulation of antioxidant capacity. PMID:23767790

  15. Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Halberg, Nils; Henriksen, Morten; Söderhamn, Nathalie; Stallknecht, Bente; Ploug, Thorkil; Schjerling, Peter; Dela, Flemming

    2005-12-01

    Insulin resistance is currently a major health problem. This may be because of a marked decrease in daily physical activity during recent decades combined with constant food abundance. This lifestyle collides with our genome, which was most likely selected in the late Paleolithic era (50,000-10,000 BC) by criteria that favored survival in an environment characterized by fluctuations between periods of feast and famine. The theory of thrifty genes states that these fluctuations are required for optimal metabolic function. We mimicked the fluctuations in eight healthy young men [25.0 +/- 0.1 yr (mean +/- SE); body mass index: 25.7 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)] by subjecting them to intermittent fasting every second day for 20 h for 15 days. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (40 mU.min(-1).m(-2)) clamps were performed before and after the intervention period. Subjects maintained body weight (86.4 +/- 2.3 kg; coefficient of variation: 0.8 +/- 0.1%). Plasma free fatty acid and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 347 +/- 18 and 0.06 +/- 0.02 mM, respectively, after overnight fast but increased (P < 0.05) to 423 +/- 86 and 0.10 +/- 0.04 mM after 20-h fasting, confirming that the subjects were fasting. Insulin-mediated whole body glucose uptake rates increased from 6.3 +/- 0.6 to 7.3 +/- 0.3 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) (P = 0.03), and insulin-induced inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis was more prominent after than before the intervention (P = 0.05). After the 20-h fasting periods, plasma adiponectin was increased compared with the basal levels before and after the intervention (5,922 +/- 991 vs. 3,860 +/- 784 ng/ml, P = 0.02). This experiment is the first in humans to show that intermittent fasting increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake rates, and the findings are compatible with the thrifty gene concept.

  16. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls

    PubMed Central

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G.; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T.; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L.; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69–80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18–34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0–180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. PMID:26290103

  17. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.

  18. The healthy Nordic diet predicts muscle strength 10 years later in old women, but not old men.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Rantanen, Taina; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2017-07-01

    a number of nutrients have been found to be associated with better muscle strength and mass; however, the role of the whole diet on muscle strength and mass remains still unknown. to examine whether the healthy Nordic diet predicts muscle strength, and mass 10 years later among men and women. about 1,072 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire during 2001-04. The Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits, vegetables, cereals, ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids, low-fat milk, fish, red meat, total fat and alcohol. Higher scores indicated better adherence to the healthy Nordic diet. Hand grip strength, leg strength (knee extension) and muscle mass were measured during the follow-up, between 2011 and 2013. in women, each 1-unit increase in the NDS was related to 1.83 N greater leg strength (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-3.51; P = 0.034), and 1.44 N greater hand grip strength (95% CI: 0.04-2.84; P = 0.044). Women in the highest quartile of the NDS had on average 20.0 N greater knee extension results, and 14.2 N greater hand grip results than those in the lowest quartile. No such associations were observed among men. The NDS was not significantly related to muscle mass either in men or women. adherence to the healthy Nordic diet seems to protect from weaker muscle strength in old women. Therefore, the healthy Nordic diet may help to prevent disability.

  19. Moving toward a holistic conceptual framework for understanding healthy aging among gay men.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Ompad, Danielle C; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In the last four decades, we have witnessed vast and important transitions in the social, economic, political, and health contexts of the lived experiences of gay men in the United States. This dynamic period, as evidenced most prominently by the transition of the gay rights movement to a civil rights movement, has shifted the exploration of gay men's health from one focusing primarily on HIV/AIDS into a mainstream consideration of the overall health and wellbeing of gay men. Against this backdrop, aging gay men in the United States constitute a growing population, for whom further investigations of health states and health-related disparities are warranted. In order to advance our understanding of the health and wellbeing of aging gay men, we outline here a multilevel, ecosocial conceptual framework that integrates salient environmental, social, psychosocial, and sociodeomgraphic factors into sets of macro-, meso-, and micro-level constructs that can be applied to comprehensively study health states and health care utilization in older gay men.

  20. Reference data for quantitative ultrasound values of calcaneus in 2927 healthy Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zi-Qiang; Liu, Wei; Xu, Cheng-Li; Han, Shao-Mei; Zu, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Guang-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a bone densitometry technique that is rapidly gaining popularity for the assessment of bone status. However, few QUS data are available for men, especially in China. In the present study, a random stratified sample of 2927 Chinese men (10-90 years) was recruited, and bone status was established using measurements by Achilles ultrasonometer. The peak stiffness index (SI) value for Chinese men was 103.0 +/- 20.8, which presented in the age group of 20-24 years. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was significant correlation between SI and age (P < 0.001), and multivariate regression analysis indicated that weight was also an important factor for SI. In addition, in comparison with the normal data of Italian and Japanese males, the SI value for Chinese males in each age group was lower than those of Italians but higher than Japanese, except for the 20-29 years age group. The descending velocity of curves for Chinese men was lower than that of Italian and Japanese men. In conclusion, QUS values of the calcaneus provided by the present study may be used as normal reference values for Chinese men.

  1. Neck muscle cross-sectional area, brain volume and cognition in healthy older men: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Alixe H M; Ferguson, Karen J; Gray, Calum D; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Starr, John M

    2013-02-28

    Two important consequences of the normal ageing process are sarcopenia (the age-related loss of muscle mass and function) and age-related cognitive decline. Existing data support positive relationships between muscle function, cognition and brain structure. However, studies investigating these relationships at older ages are lacking and rarely include a measure of muscle size. Here we test whether neck muscle size is positively associated with cognition and brain structure in older men. We studied 51 healthy older men with mean age 73.8 (sd 1.5) years. Neck muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured from T1-weighted MR-brain scans using a validated technique. We measured multiple cognitive domains including verbal and visuospatial memory, executive functioning and estimated prior cognitive ability. Whole brain, ventricular, hippocampal and cerebellar volumes were measured with MRI. General linear models (ANCOVA) were performed. Larger neck muscle CSA was associated with less whole brain atrophy (t = 2.86, p = 0.01, partial eta squared 17%). Neck muscle CSA was not associated with other neuroimaging variables or current cognitive ability. Smaller neck muscle CSA was unexpectedly associated with higher prior cognition (t = -2.12, p < 0.05, partial eta squared 10%). In healthy older men, preservation of whole brain volume (i.e. less atrophy) is associated with larger muscle size. Longitudinal ageing studies are now required to investigate these relationships further.

  2. Relationships Between Fasting Serum Amylase and Ghrelin or Peptide YY3-36 Levels in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Tak, Young Jin; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Cho, Young Hye

    2016-03-01

    Appetite and carbohydrate metabolism are important contributors to the development of obesity. Recently, low serum amylase was shown to be associated with obesity and metabolic disorder. We investigated the relationship between amylase and ghrelin or peptide YY (PYY) levels in healthy men. Twenty-one men were enrolled in this cross-sectional study; all subjects were asymptomatic with no medical history. Fasting serum amylase, ghrelin, PYY3-36, anthropometry, and nutritional intake were measured. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between amylase and ghrelin or PYY3-36. The mean (SD) age and waist circumference of the subjects were 51.5 (10.9) years and 87.0 (4.4) cm, respectively. Amylase was found to be correlated with waist circumference (r = -0.438, P = 0.054), ghrelin (r = 0.533, P = 0.015), and PYY3-36 (r = -0.511, P = 0.021). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed a negative association between amylase and PYY3-36 (β = -0.428, P = 0.045) but a nonsignificantly positive association between amylase and ghrelin (β = 0.260, P = 0.146). Amylase levels were found to be associated with ghrelin and PYY3-36 in healthy men. Amylase, ghrelin, and PYY3-36 may play a role in obesity; further research is required to identify the underlying mechanism.

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoan Jong; Chung, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Woo Joo; Hong, Young Jin; Choi, Kyong Min; Lee, Jina; Oh, Chi Eun; Welsch, Jo Anne; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Hong, Ki Bae; Dagnew, Alemnew F; Bock, Hans; Dull, Peter M; Odrljin, Tatjana

    2014-11-01

    This phase III placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-CRM vaccination in healthy Korean adolescents and adults. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination against all four meningococcal serogroups. The IgG concentration specific for serogroup W capsular polysaccharide was measured in a subset of subjects in a post-hoc analysis. Adverse reactions were monitored throughout the study. Four hundred and fifty subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM (N=297) or a saline placebo (N=153). MenACWY-CRM induced a good immune response against all four serogroups, with seroprotection rates (hSBA titers ≥8) of 79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Seroresponse rates were high for serogroups A, C, and Y, i.e. 76%, 86%, and 69%, respectively; the rate for serogroup W was 28%. MenACWY-CRM vaccine induced serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups in a majority of subjects regardless of their baseline hSBA titers. MenACWY-CRM was generally well tolerated with most reactions being transient and mild to moderate in severity. Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects) and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107) against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  4. Effect of short term aerobic exercise on fasting and postprandial lipoprotein subfractions in healthy sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Sabaka, Peter; Kruzliak, Peter; Balaz, David; Komornikova, Andrea; Celovska, Denisa; Cammarota, Giovanni; Kusendova, Katarina; Bendzala, Matej; Rodrigo, Luis; Dukat, Andrej; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Dvorakova, Magdalena Chottova; Gaspar, Ludovit

    2015-11-25

    Our goal was to investigate the effect of short term exercise on fasting and postprandial lipoprotein profile. Healthy sedentary men exercised 20 min for four days. The intensity of exercise was modulated to maintain 75-80 % of a calculated HRmax. Before and after the exercise program, fasting and postprandial (4 h after standard meal) concentrations of lipoprotein subfractions were measured by an electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel and total concentrations of TAG, LDL and HDL by enzymatic colorimetric method. After 2 days of rest, fasting and postprandial concentrations of lipoprotein fractions and subfractions were measured to determine a persistency of a changes in the lipoprotein profile. 4 days of physical exercise led to statistically significant decrease of concentration of triacylglycerol in fasting (76.29 ± 20.07, 53.92 ± 10.90, p < 0.05) and postprandial state (139.06 ± 23.72, 96.55 ± 25.21, p < 0.05) VLDL in fasting (21.88 ± 3.87, 18.00 ± 3.93, p < 0.05) and postprandial state (23.88 ± 3.52, 19.25 ± 3.62, p < 0.05), total cholesterol in fasting (162.26 ± 23.38, 148.91 ± 17.72, p < 0.05) and postprandial state (163.73 ± 23.02, 150.08 ± 18.11, p < 0.05). Atherogenic medium LDL decreased also in fasting (9.89 ± 3.27, 6.22 ± 2.55, p < 0.001) and postprandial state (8.88 ± 6.51, 6.88 ± 5.57, p < 0.001). However decrease of large IDL (25.38 ± 3.54, 23.88 ± 3.91, p < 0.05) and large LDL particles (42.89 ± 11.40, 38.67 ± 9.30) was observed only in postprandial state. Total HDL concentration remained unchanged but we observed statistically significant decrease of small HDL particles in fasting (6.11 ± 2.89, 4.22, p < 0.05) and postprandial state (6.44 ± 3.21, 4.56 ± 1.33, p < 0.05). Concentration of these particles are associated with progression of atherosclerosis. All changes of fasting and postprandial lipoprotein

  5. Protein ingestion acutely inhibits insulin-stimulated muscle carnitine uptake in healthy young men1

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Chris E; Nixon, Aline V; Greenhaff, Paul L; Stephens, Francis B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine content represents an appealing intervention in conditions of perturbed lipid metabolism such as obesity and type 2 diabetes but requires chronic l-carnitine feeding on a daily basis in a high-carbohydrate beverage. Objective: We investigated whether whey protein ingestion could reduce the carbohydrate load required to stimulate insulin-mediated muscle carnitine accretion. Design: Seven healthy men [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 23 ± 3] ingested 80 g carbohydrate, 40 g carbohydrate + 40 g protein, or control (flavored water) beverages 60 min after the ingestion of 4.5 g l-carnitine tartrate (3 g l-carnitine; 0.1% 2[H]3-l-carnitine). Serum insulin concentration, net forearm carnitine balance (NCB; arterialized-venous and venous plasma carnitine difference × brachial artery flow), and carnitine disappearance (Rd) and appearance (Ra) rates were determined at 20-min intervals for 180 min. Results: Serum insulin and plasma flow areas under the curve (AUCs) were similarly elevated by carbohydrate [4.5 ± 0.8 U/L · min (P < 0.01) and 0.5 ± 0.6 L (P < 0.05), respectively] and carbohydrate+protein [3.8 ± 0.6 U/L · min (P < 0.01) and 0.4 ± 0.6 L (P = 0.05), respectively] consumption, respectively, compared with the control visit (0.04 ± 0.1 U/L · min and −0.5 ± 0.2 L). Plasma carnitine AUC was greater after carbohydrate+protein consumption (3.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L · min) than after control and carbohydrate visits [2.1 ± 0.2 mmol/L · min (P < 0.05) and 1.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L · min (P < 0.01), respectively]. NCB AUC with carbohydrate (4.1 ± 3.1 μmol) was greater than during control and carbohydrate-protein visits (−8.6 ± 3.0 and −14.6 ± 6.4 μmol, respectively; P < 0.05), as was Rd AUC after carbohydrate (35.7 ± 25.2 μmol) compared with control and carbohydrate consumption [19.7 ± 15.5 μmol (P = 0.07) and 14.8 ± 9.6 μmol (P < 0.05), respectively]. Conclusions: The insulin

  6. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  7. Comparing acceptance- and control-based coping instructions on the cold-pressor pain experiences of healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Edmund; Bond, Frank W; Hanmer, Ruth; Tilston, Jackie

    2005-10-01

    The current study reflects recent developments in psychotherapy by examining the effect of acceptance-based coping instructions, when compared to the opposite, more control/distraction-based instructions, on cold-pressor pain. Since previous research indicates gender differences in how people cope with pain, we also sought to determine whether differences would be found between healthy men and women. As predicted, results indicated that women reported lower pain threshold and tolerance level than did men. Furthermore, the acceptance-based instruction resulted in lower sensory pain reports when compared to the opposite instructions. Finally, for affective pain, acceptance instructions only benefited women. These results suggest that acceptance-based coping may be particular useful in moderating the way in which individuals, especially women, cope with pain.

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of early repolarization pattern in healthy young northeastern Thai men: A correlation study with Brugada electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Makarawate, Pattarapong; Chaosuwannakit, Narumol; Ruamcharoen, Yossavadee; Panthongviriyakul, Aunejit; Pongchaiyakul, Choowong; Tharaksa, Prapapan; Sripo, Temsiri; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-08-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is characterized by J-point elevation with QRS notching or slurring in the terminal portion of the QRS complex. It may be associated with sudden death. Brugada syndrome (BS) is a genetic and fatal disease commonly found in northeastern Thai men. Data on the rate and predictors of ERP in Asian populations are limited. In addition, the correlation between ERP and BS has never been studied in an endemic area of BS. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ERP and its associated factors in young, healthy male Asian subjects. Between June 2011 and May 2012, 282 young, healthy men aged 20-45 years were enrolled at check-up clinics in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Subjects were divided into the ERP and non-ERP groups. There were 29 subjects with ERP (10.3%). The Sokolow-Lyon index was an independent factor for ERP with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.090 (95% CI: 1.027, 1.159). The Brugada ECG pattern was found in 11 (37.9%) subjects in the ERP group. The Brugada ECG pattern (non-type 1) was commonly found in lateral ERP patients. After the placement of high intercostal leads, the Brugada ECG pattern was dramatically increased compared with results obtained during standard ECG lead placement. The ERP rate in young, healthy men from northeastern Thailand was 10.3%. A higher Sokolow-Lyon index was the only independent factor associated with ERP. Subjects with ERP should be examined with high intercostal leads to uncover Brugada ECG.

  9. Splanchnic first pass disappearance of threonine and lysine do not differ in healthy men in the fed state.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Karen P; Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2013-03-01

    We previously showed that the splanchnic bed of neonates takes up a significantly higher amount (43%) of threonine in contrast to lysine (12%). We questioned whether this same pattern applied in adult humans and found no information in the literature. Therefore, our objective in the current study was to determine the difference in splanchnic first pass disappearance of threonine and lysine in adult humans during the fed state. During two 5-d study periods, 6 healthy men received l-[1-(13)C]threonine or l-[1-(13)C]lysine enterally or parenterally randomized to either study d 3 or 5, respectively. The diets were in the form of an amino acid mixture providing a protein intake of 1 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) and an energy intake of 1.5 times the resting energy expenditure. Blood and breath samples were collected at baseline and plateau for amino acid and 11CO(2) enrichment. Splanchnic disappearances in adult males were similar for threonine and lysine. The splanchnic disappearance of threonine as a percentage of intake was 17.9% (8.4 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) in the healthy men compared with 18.5% (11.2 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) for lysine. We conclude that the threonine requirement of the gut of healthy men consuming a liquid formula diet based on free amino acids is similar to the lysine requirement, which is in contrast to our previous findings for neonates.

  10. Prevalence and associated factors of early repolarization pattern in healthy young northeastern Thai men: A correlation study with Brugada electrocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Makarawate, Pattarapong; Chaosuwannakit, Narumol; Ruamcharoen, Yossavadee; Panthongviriyakul, Aunejit; Pongchaiyakul, Choowong; Tharaksa, Prapapan; Sripo, Temsiri; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-01-01

    Background Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is characterized by J-point elevation with QRS notching or slurring in the terminal portion of the QRS complex. It may be associated with sudden death. Brugada syndrome (BS) is a genetic and fatal disease commonly found in northeastern Thai men. Data on the rate and predictors of ERP in Asian populations are limited. In addition, the correlation between ERP and BS has never been studied in an endemic area of BS. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ERP and its associated factors in young, healthy male Asian subjects. Methods Between June 2011 and May 2012, 282 young, healthy men aged 20–45 years were enrolled at check-up clinics in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Subjects were divided into the ERP and non-ERP groups. Results There were 29 subjects with ERP (10.3%). The Sokolow–Lyon index was an independent factor for ERP with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.090 (95% CI: 1.027, 1.159). The Brugada ECG pattern was found in 11 (37.9%) subjects in the ERP group. The Brugada ECG pattern (non-type 1) was commonly found in lateral ERP patients. After the placement of high intercostal leads, the Brugada ECG pattern was dramatically increased compared with results obtained during standard ECG lead placement. Conclusions The ERP rate in young, healthy men from northeastern Thailand was 10.3%. A higher Sokolow–Lyon index was the only independent factor associated with ERP. Subjects with ERP should be examined with high intercostal leads to uncover Brugada ECG. PMID:26336562

  11. Effects of suvorexant, an orexin receptor antagonist, on sleep parameters as measured by polysomnography in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Kennedy, William P; Wilbraham, Darren; Lewis, Nicole; Calder, Nicole; Li, Xiaodong; Ma, Junshui; Yee, Ka Lai; Ermlich, Susan; Mangin, Eric; Lines, Christopher; Rosen, Laura; Chodakewitz, Jeffrey; Murphy, Gail M

    2013-02-01

    Suvorexant (MK-4305) is an orexin receptor antagonist being developed for the treatment of insomnia. This report describes the effects of nighttime administration of suvorexant on polysomnography (PSG) sleep parameters in healthy young men. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-period crossover PSG study, followed by an additional 5(th) period to assess pharmacokinetics. Sleep laboratory. Healthy young men between 18 and 45 years of age (22 enrolled, 19 completed). Periods 1-4: suvorexant (10 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg) or placebo 1 h before nighttime PSG recording. Period 5: suvorexant 10 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg. In Periods 1-4, overnight sleep parameters were recorded by PSG and next-morning residual effects were assessed by psychomotor performance tests and subjective assessments. Statistically significant sleep-promoting effects were observed with all doses of suvorexant compared to placebo. Suvorexant 50 mg and 100 mg significantly decreased latency to persistent sleep and wake after sleep onset time, and increased sleep efficiency. Suvorexant 10 mg significantly decreased wake after sleep onset time. There were no statistically significant effects of suvorexant on EEG frequency bands including delta (slow wave) activity based on power spectral analysis. Suvorexant was well tolerated. There was no evidence of next-day residual effects for suvorexant 10 mg. Suvorexant 50 mg statistically significantly reduced subjective alertness, and suvorexant 100 mg significantly increased reaction time and reduced subjective alertness. There were no statistically significant effects of any suvorexant dose on digit symbol substitution test performance. In Period 5, plasma samples of suvorexant were collected for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The median T(max) was 3 hours and apparent terminal t(½) was 9-13 hours. In healthy young men without sleep disorders, suvorexant promoted sleep with some evidence of residual effects at the highest doses.

  12. A study of the effects of cellular telephone microwave radiation on the auditory system in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Mora, Renzo; Crippa, Barbara; Mora, Francesco; Dellepiane, Massimo

    2006-03-01

    We conducted a study of the effects of mobile cellular telephone microwave radiation on the auditory system in 20 healthy men. After the subjects underwent baseline measurements of transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR), they participated in three sessions of exposure to an electromagnetic field of 900 to 1,800 MHz produced by a cellular phone. Sessions ranged from 15 to 30 minutes in length. TEOAE and ABR were again measured after or during each exposure. Throughout the study, no significant changes in either measurement were noted. We conclude that the use of cellular phones does not alter the auditory system in the short-term.

  13. Guanidinoacetic acid versus creatine for improved brain and muscle creatine levels: a superiority pilot trial in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik; Vranes, Milan

    2016-09-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, we evaluated whether 4-week supplementation with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is superior to creatine in facilitating creatine levels in healthy men (n = 5). GAA (3.0 g/day) resulted in a more powerful rise (up to 16.2%) in tissue creatine levels in vastus medialis muscle, middle-cerebellar peduncle, and paracentral grey matter, as compared with creatine (P < 0.05). These results indicate that GAA as a preferred alternative to creatine for improved bioenergetics in energy-demanding tissues.

  14. Effects of Suvorexant, an Orexin Receptor Antagonist, on Sleep Parameters as Measured by Polysomnography in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Kennedy, William P.; Wilbraham, Darren; Lewis, Nicole; Calder, Nicole; Li, Xiaodong; Ma, Junshui; Yee, Ka Lai; Ermlich, Susan; Mangin, Eric; Lines, Christopher; Rosen, Laura; Chodakewitz, Jeffrey; Murphy, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Suvorexant (MK-4305) is an orexin receptor antagonist being developed for the treatment of insomnia. This report describes the effects of nighttime administration of suvorexant on polysomnography (PSG) sleep parameters in healthy young men. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-period crossover PSG study, followed by an additional 5th period to assess pharmacokinetics. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Healthy young men between 18 and 45 years of age (22 enrolled, 19 completed). Interventions: Periods 1–4: suvorexant (10 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg) or placebo 1 h before nighttime PSG recording. Period 5: suvorexant 10 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg. Measurements and Results: In Periods 1–4, overnight sleep parameters were recorded by PSG and next-morning residual effects were assessed by psychomotor performance tests and subjective assessments. Statistically significant sleep-promoting effects were observed with all doses of suvorexant compared to placebo. Suvorexant 50 mg and 100 mg significantly decreased latency to persistent sleep and wake after sleep onset time, and increased sleep efficiency. Suvorexant 10 mg significantly decreased wake after sleep onset time. There were no statistically significant effects of suvorexant on EEG frequency bands including delta (slow wave) activity based on power spectral analysis. Suvorexant was well tolerated. There was no evidence of next-day residual effects for suvorexant 10 mg. Suvorexant 50 mg statistically significantly reduced subjective alertness, and suvorexant 100 mg significantly increased reaction time and reduced subjective alertness. There were no statistically significant effects of any suvorexant dose on digit symbol substitution test performance. In Period 5, plasma samples of suvorexant were collected for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The median Tmax was 3 hours and apparent terminal t½ was 9–13 hours. Conclusions: In healthy young men without sleep disorders, suvorexant

  15. Contributions of white and brown adipose tissues and skeletal muscles to acute cold-induced metabolic responses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Blondin, Denis P; Labbé, Sébastien M; Phoenix, Serge; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Éric E; Richard, Denis; Carpentier, André C; Haman, François

    2015-02-01

    Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle activation contribute to the metabolic response of acute cold exposure in healthy men even under minimal shivering. Activation of adipose tissue intracellular lipolysis is associated with BAT metabolic response upon acute cold exposure in healthy men. Although BAT glucose uptake per volume of tissue is important, the bulk of glucose turnover during cold exposure is mediated by skeletal muscle metabolic activation even when shivering is minimized. Cold exposure stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), triggering the activation of cold-defence responses and mobilizing substrates to fuel the thermogenic processes. Although these processes have been investigated independently, the physiological interaction and coordinated contribution of the tissues involved in producing heat or mobilizing substrates has never been investigated in humans. Using [U-(13)C]-palmitate and [3-(3)H]-glucose tracer methodologies coupled with positron emission tomography using (11)C-acetate and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, we examined the relationship between whole body sympathetically induced white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis and brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism and mapped the skeletal muscle shivering and metabolic activation pattern during a mild, acute cold exposure designed to minimize shivering response in 12 lean healthy men. Cold-induced increase in whole-body oxygen consumption was not independently associated with BAT volume of activity, BAT oxidative metabolism, or muscle metabolism or shivering intensity, but depended on the sum of responses of these two metabolic tissues. Cold-induced increase in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance rate was strongly associated with the volume of metabolically active BAT (r = 0.80, P = 0.005), total BAT oxidative metabolism (r = 0.70, P = 0.004) and BAT glucose uptake (r = 0.80, P = 0.005), but not muscle glucose metabolism. The total glucose uptake was more than one order of

  16. Treadmill walking in water induces greater respiratory muscle fatigue than treadmill walking on land in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Naghavi, Nooshin; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ota, Akemi; Imai, Daiki; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of walking in water on respiratory muscle fatigue compared with that of walking on land at the same exercise intensity. Ten healthy males participated in 40-min treadmill walking trials on land and in water at an intensity of 60% of peak oxygen consumption. Respiratory function and respiratory muscle strength were evaluated before and after walking trials. Inspiratory muscle strength and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were significantly decreased immediately after walking in water, and expiratory muscle strength was significantly decreased immediately and 5 min after walking in water compared with the baseline. The decreases of inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength were significantly greater compared with that after walking on land. In conclusion, greater inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue was induced by walking in water than by walking on land at the same exercise intensity in healthy young men.

  17. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...

  18. L-arginine supplementation and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in healthy men: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Pahlavani, Naseh; Jafari, Mostafa; Sadeghi, Omid; Rezaei, Masoud; Rasad, Hamid; Rahdar, Hossein Ali; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Context: The effect of L-arginine on risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has mostly focused on western countries. Since cardiovascular diseases is the second cause of death in Iran and, as far as we are aware, there have been no studies about the effect of L-arginine on CVD risk factors, the aim of this trial was to assess the effects of L-arginine supplementation on CVD risk factors in healthy men. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-dose L-arginine supplementation on CVD risk factors (lipid profile, blood sugar and blood pressure) in Iranian healthy men. Design, setting, participants: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial in 56 patients selected from sport clubs at the Isfahan University of Medical Science between November 2013 and December 2013. Interventions: Healthy men received L-arginine supplementation (2000 mg daily) in the intervention group or placebo (2000 mg maltodextrin daily) in the control group for 45 days. Main outcome measure: The primary outcome measures were we measured the levels of fasting blood sugar, blood pressure and lipid profile including triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, LDL and HDL in healthy subjects. It was hypothesized that these measures would be significantly improved in those receiving L–arginine supplementation. at the beginning and end of the study. Results: In this trial, we had complete data for 52 healthy participants with mean age of 20.85±4.29 years. At the end of study, fasting blood sugar (P=0.001) and lipid profile (triglycerideTG (P<0.001), cholesterol (P<0.001), LDL (P=0.04), HDL (P=0.015)) decreased in the L-arginine group but we found no significant change in the placebo group. In addition, the reduction of fasting blood sugar and lipid profile in L-arginine was significant compared with placebo group. No significant changes were found about systolic (P=0.81) and diastolic blood pressure either in L-arginine or placebo group. (P=0.532). Conclusion

  19. Contribution of sympathetic activation to coronary vasodilatation during the cold pressor test in healthy men: effect of ageing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kevin D; Feehan, Robert P; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Gao, Zhaohui

    2013-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important regulator of coronary blood flow. The cold pressor test (CPT) is a powerful sympathoexcitatory stressor. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) CPT-induced sympathetic activation elicits coronary vasodilatation in young adults that is impaired with advancing age and (2) combined α- and β-adrenergic blockade diminishes/abolishes these age-related differences. Vascular responses of the left anterior descending artery to the CPT were determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography before (pre-blockade) and during (post-blockade) systemic co-administration of α- and β-adrenergic antagonists in young (n = 9; 26 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) and older healthy men (n = 9; 66 ± 2 years old). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR; mean arterial pressure/coronary blood velocity) was used as an index of vascular tone. CPT decreased CVR (i.e. coronary vasodilatation occurred) in young ( -33 ± 6%), but not older men ( -3 ± 4%; P < 0.05 vs. young) pre-blockade. Adrenergic blockade abolished CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation in young men ( -33 ± 6% vs. 0 ± 6%, pre-blockade vs. post-blockade, respectively; P < 0.05) such that responses post-blockade mirrored those of older men ( -3 ± 4% vs. 8 ± 9%; both P > 0.05 compared to young pre-blockade). Impaired CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation could not be explained by a reduced stimulus for vasodilatation as group and condition effects persisted when CVR responses were expressed relative to myocardial oxygen demand (rate-pressure product). These data indicate that the normal coronary vascular response to sympathetic activation in young men is pronounced vasodilatation and this effect is lost with age as the result of an adrenergic mechanism. These findings may help explain how acute sympathoexcitation may precipitate angina and coronary ischaemic events, particularly in older adults.

  20. Liver enzymes are associated with hepatic insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and glucagon concentration in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Fabrice; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Laville, Martine; Anderwald, Christian H; Konrad, Thomas; Mari, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley

    2011-06-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms to explain the association between risk of type 2 diabetes and elevated concentrations of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanineaminotransferase (ALT) remain poorly characterized. We explored the association of liver enzymes with peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance, insulin secretion, insulin clearance, and glucagon concentration. We studied 1,309 nondiabetic individuals from the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study; all had a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of insulin secretion and hepatic insulin extraction. The hepatic insulin resistance index was calculated in 393 individuals. In both men and women, plasma concentrations of GGT and ALT were inversely related with insulin sensitivity (M/I) (all P < 0.01). Likewise, the hepatic insulin resistance index was positively correlated with both GGT (r = 0.37, P < 0.0001, men; r = 0.36, P < 0.0001, women) and ALT (r = 0.25, P = 0.0005, men; r = 0.18, P = 0.01, women). These associations persisted in multivariable models. Increased GGT and ALT were significantly associated with higher insulin secretion rates and with both reduced endogenous clearance of insulin and hepatic insulin extraction during the OGTT (P = 0.0005 in men; P = 0.003 in women). Plasma fasting glucagon levels increased over ALT quartiles (men, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 11.2 ± 5.1 vs. 9.3 ± 3.8 pmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0002; women, 9.0 ± 4.3 vs. 7.6 ± 3.1, P = 0.001). In healthy individuals, increased GGT and ALT were biomarkers of both systemic and hepatic insulin resistance with concomitant increased insulin secretion and decreased hepatic insulin clearance. The novel finding of a positive correlation between ALT and fasting glucagon level concentrations warrants confirmation in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Testosterone-induced increase in muscle size in healthy young men is associated with muscle fiber hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Artaza, Jorge; Woodhouse, Linda; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor; Singh, Atam B; Lee, Martin I; Storer, Thomas W; Casaburi, Richard; Shen, Ruoquing; Bhasin, Shalender

    2002-07-01

    Administration of replacement doses of testosterone to healthy hypogonadal men and supraphysiological doses to eugonadal men increases muscle size. To determine whether testosterone-induced increase in muscle size is due to muscle fiber hypertrophy, 61 healthy men, 18-35 yr of age, received monthly injections of a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to suppress endogenous testosterone secretion and weekly injections of 25, 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg testosterone enanthate (TE) for 20 wk. Thigh muscle volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 39 men before and after 20 wk of combined treatment with GnRH agonist and testosterone. Administration of GnRH agonist plus TE resulted in mean nadir testosterone concentrations of 234, 289, 695, 1,344, and 2,435 ng/dl at the 25-, 50-, 125-, 300-, and 600-mg doses, respectively. Graded doses of testosterone administration were associated with testosterone dose and concentration-dependent increase in muscle volume measured by MRI (changes in vastus lateralis volume, -4, +7, +15, +32, and +48 ml at 25-, 50-, 125-, 300-, and 600-mg doses, respectively). Changes in cross-sectional areas of both type I and II fibers were dependent on testosterone dose and significantly correlated with total (r = 0.35, and 0.44, P < 0.0001 for type I and II fibers, respectively) and free (r = 0.34 and 0.35, P < 0.005) testosterone concentrations during treatment. The men receiving 300 and 600 mg of TE weekly experienced significant increases from baseline in areas of type I (baseline vs. 20 wk, 3,176 +/- 186 vs. 4,201 +/- 252 microm(2), P < 0.05 at 300-mg dose, and 3,347 +/- 253 vs. 4,984 +/- 374 microm(2), P = 0.006 at 600-mg dose) muscle fibers; the men in the 600-mg group also had significant increments in cross-sectional area of type II (4,060 +/- 401 vs. 5,526 +/- 544 microm(2), P = 0.03) fibers. The relative proportions of type I and type II

  2. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24–30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30–60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness. PMID:26989456

  3. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness.

    PubMed

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24-30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30-60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  4. Oral Intake of Carboxymethyl-Glucan (CM-G) from Yeast (Saccharomyces uvarum) Reduces Malondialdehyde Levels in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vilma Barbosa da Silva; de Melo, Adma Nadja Ferreira; de Souza, Neyrijane Targino; da Silva, Vânia Maria Barboza; Castro-Gomez, Raul H; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-08-14

    Carboxymethyl-glucan (CM-G) is a water-soluble derivative of β(1 → 3)(1 → 6) glucan, a well-known immunostimulant and antioxidant compound. In this experimental, randomized and placebo-controlled study, the effects of oral CM-G intake over a 60-day period on the peripheral blood, cholesterol, glycemic index and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of healthy men was assessed. The CM-G was obtained from spent brewer's yeast (S. uvarum) with DS 0.8 and molecular weight of 2.2 × 10(5) Da. Following CM-G administration, no changes were observed in red and white blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin and platelet counts, or in cholesterol and glycemic indices. After 30 days of CM-G administration, the MDA levels decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in men receiving CM-G. The results showed for the first time that CM-G may act as an adjuvant in preventing oxidative damage in healthy humans.

  5. Kinesio Taping Does Not Alter Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength and Power in Healthy Nonathletic Men: A Prospective Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Rutkowski, Radosław; Gruszczyński, Jakub; Lewandowski, Jacek; Straburzyński-Lupa, Marcin; Łochyński, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The effects of Kinesio Taping (KT) on muscular performance remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of KT on the maximum concentric and eccentric quadriceps isokinetic strength. Study Design. This is a single-blinded, placebo crossover, repeated measures study. Methods. Maximum isokinetic concentric/eccentric extension torque, work, and power were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer without taping (NT) and with KT or placebo taping (PT) in 17 healthy young men. Repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Results. Testing concentric contractions at 60°/s or 180°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in peak torque (Nm), total work (J), or mean power (W) were noted among the application modes under different conditions. Testing eccentric contractions at 30°/s or 60°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in mentioned parameters were noted, respectively. KT on the quadriceps neither decreased nor increased muscle strength in the participants. Conclusion. KT application onto the skin overlying the quadriceps muscle does not enhance the strength or power of knee extensors in healthy men. PMID:26819953

  6. Kinesio Taping Does Not Alter Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength and Power in Healthy Nonathletic Men: A Prospective Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Rutkowski, Radosław; Gruszczyński, Jakub; Lewandowski, Jacek; Straburzyński-Lupa, Marcin; Łochyński, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Kinesio Taping (KT) on muscular performance remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of KT on the maximum concentric and eccentric quadriceps isokinetic strength. This is a single-blinded, placebo crossover, repeated measures study. Maximum isokinetic concentric/eccentric extension torque, work, and power were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer without taping (NT) and with KT or placebo taping (PT) in 17 healthy young men. Repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Testing concentric contractions at 60°/s or 180°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in peak torque (Nm), total work (J), or mean power (W) were noted among the application modes under different conditions. Testing eccentric contractions at 30°/s or 60°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in mentioned parameters were noted, respectively. KT on the quadriceps neither decreased nor increased muscle strength in the participants. KT application onto the skin overlying the quadriceps muscle does not enhance the strength or power of knee extensors in healthy men.

  7. Acute psychosocial stress and everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men: The impact of cortisol.

    PubMed

    Singer, Nina; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Zänkert, Sandra; Wüst, Stefan; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2017-07-01

    In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives. Results showed that the TSST-exposed group made more altruistic decisions than the non-stress control group, while groups did not differ in decision certainty and emotion ratings. Moreover, in correlational as well as regression analyses, additionally controlling for confounding variables, we observed significant positive associations between cortisol levels and altruistic decision-making. Further analyses revealed that altruistic decisions came along with significantly higher decision certainty and significantly more positive emotion ratings than egoistic decisions. Notably, our data also raise the idea that the personality trait agreeableness plays an important role in everyday moral decision-making. In sum, our findings provide initial evidence that both acute stress exposure and cortisol levels have prosocial effects on everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Erectile dysfunction in fit and healthy young men: psychological or pathological?

    PubMed Central

    Rastrelli, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases with ageing. Nonetheless, complaints of ED even in younger men are becoming more and more frequent. Healthcare professionals working in Sexual Medicine but even those operating in different clinical contexts might be adequately prepared to answer this increasing requirement. ED in younger men is likely to be overlooked and dismissed without performing any medical assessment, even the most basic ones, such as collection of medical history and physical exam. This is due to the widespread assumption that ED in younger individuals is a self-limiting condition, which does not deserve any clinical evaluation or therapy and can be managed only with patient reassurance. However, evidence shows that, in younger subjects, organic, psychological and relational conditions can contribute to the pathogenesis of ED and all these conditions might be evaluated and treated, whenever necessary. Among the organic conditions contributing to the onset of ED, metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors are surprisingly of particular relevance in this age group. In fact, in younger men with ED, even more than in older ones, recognizing CV risk factors or conditions suggestive of cardio-metabolic derangements can help identifying men who, although at low absolute risk due to young age, carry a high relative risk for development of CV events. In this view, the assessment of a possible organic component of ED even in younger individuals acquires a pivotal importance, because it offers the unique opportunity to unearth the presence of CV risk factors, thus allowing effective and high quality preventive interventions. PMID:28217453

  9. Erectile dysfunction in fit and healthy young men: psychological or pathological?

    PubMed

    Rastrelli, Giulia; Maggi, Mario

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases with ageing. Nonetheless, complaints of ED even in younger men are becoming more and more frequent. Healthcare professionals working in Sexual Medicine but even those operating in different clinical contexts might be adequately prepared to answer this increasing requirement. ED in younger men is likely to be overlooked and dismissed without performing any medical assessment, even the most basic ones, such as collection of medical history and physical exam. This is due to the widespread assumption that ED in younger individuals is a self-limiting condition, which does not deserve any clinical evaluation or therapy and can be managed only with patient reassurance. However, evidence shows that, in younger subjects, organic, psychological and relational conditions can contribute to the pathogenesis of ED and all these conditions might be evaluated and treated, whenever necessary. Among the organic conditions contributing to the onset of ED, metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors are surprisingly of particular relevance in this age group. In fact, in younger men with ED, even more than in older ones, recognizing CV risk factors or conditions suggestive of cardio-metabolic derangements can help identifying men who, although at low absolute risk due to young age, carry a high relative risk for development of CV events. In this view, the assessment of a possible organic component of ED even in younger individuals acquires a pivotal importance, because it offers the unique opportunity to unearth the presence of CV risk factors, thus allowing effective and high quality preventive interventions.

  10. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal and orgasm in healthy men and women: a review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stoléru, Serge; Fonteille, Véronique; Cornélis, Christel; Joyal, Christian; Moulier, Virginie

    2012-07-01

    In the last fifteen years, functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal in healthy human subjects. In most studies, subjects have been requested to watch visual sexual stimuli and control stimuli. Our review and meta-analysis found that in heterosexual men, sites of cortical activation consistently reported across studies are the lateral occipitotemporal, inferotemporal, parietal, orbitofrontal, medial prefrontal, insular, anterior cingulate, and frontal premotor cortices as well as, for subcortical regions, the amygdalas, claustrum, hypothalamus, caudate nucleus, thalami, cerebellum, and substantia nigra. Heterosexual and gay men show a similar pattern of activation. Visual sexual stimuli activate the amygdalas and thalami more in men than in women. Ejaculation is associated with decreased activation throughout the prefrontal cortex. We present a neurophenomenological model to understand how these multiple regional brain responses could account for the varied facets of the subjective experience of sexual arousal. Further research should shift from passive to active paradigms, focus on functional connectivity and use subliminal presentation of stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate) in serum is negatively associated with testosterone levels, but not with semen quality, in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Veyrand, Bruno; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Marchand, Philippe; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Le Bizec, Bruno; Jørgensen, Niels

    2013-03-01

    Is exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) associated with testicular function (reproductive hormone levels and semen quality) in healthy men? PFOS levels were significantly negatively associated with serum testosterone (total and calculated free), but not with any other reproductive hormones or semen quality. In animals, some PFCs have endocrine disrupting potential, but few studies have investigated PFCs in relation to human testicular function. Previously, we and others have observed a negative association between serum PFC levels and sperm morphology. The potential associations with reproductive hormones remain largely unresolved. A cross-sectional study of 247 men was conducted during 2008-2009. Healthy men from the general population, median age of 19 years, gave serum and semen samples. Serum samples were analysed for total testosterone (T), estradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and inhibin-B and 14 PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Semen samples were analysed according to the WHO criteria. PFOS levels were negatively associated with testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (FT), free androgen index (FAI) and ratios of T/LH, FAI/LH and FT/LH. Other PFCs were found at lower levels than PFOS and did not exhibit the same associations. PFC levels were not significantly associated with semen quality. PFOS levels in these samples collected in 2008-2009 were lower than in our previous study of men participating in 2003. Results were robust to adjustment for relevant confounders; however, the possibility of chance associations due to multiple testing or effects of uncontrolled confounding cannot be ruled out. Our previous findings of decreased sperm morphology in the most highly PFC exposed men were not replicated, possibly due to a lack of highly exposed individuals; however, a recent independent study also did corroborate such an inverse association. The negative

  12. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  13. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  14. Cardiorespiratory Responses and Prediction of Peak Oxygen Uptake during the Shuttle Walking Test in Healthy Sedentary Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Camila D. C.; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Lage, Vanessa K. S.; Lima, Liliana P.; Fonseca, Sueli F.; de Avelar, Núbia C. P.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Mendonça, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The application of the Shuttle Walking Test (SWT) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and the intensity of this test in healthy participants has rarely been studied. This study aimed to assess and correlate the cardiorespiratory responses of the SWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CEPT) and to develop a regression equation for the prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in healthy sedentary adult men. Methods In the first stage of this study, 12 participants underwent the SWT and the CEPT on a treadmill. In the second stage, 53 participants underwent the SWT twice. In both phases, the VO2 peak, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Results Similar results in VO2 peak (P>0.05), R peak (P>0.05) and predicted maximum HR (P>0.05) were obtained between the SWT and CEPT. Both tests showed strong and significant correlations of VO2 peak (r = 0.704, P = 0.01) and R peak (r = 0.737, P<0.01), as well as the agreement of these measurements by Bland-Altman analysis. Body mass index and gait speed were the variables that explained 40.6% (R2 = 0.406, P = 0.001) of the variance in VO2 peak. The results obtained by the equation were compared with the values obtained by the gas analyzer and no significant difference between them (P>0.05) was found. Conclusions The SWT produced maximal cardiorespiratory responses comparable to the CEPT, and the developed equation showed viability for the prediction of VO2 peak in healthy sedentary men. PMID:25659094

  15. Serum fetuin-A levels and abdominal aortic calcification in healthy men - The STRAMBO study.

    PubMed

    Schoppet, Michael; Rauner, Martina; Benner, Jacqueline; Chapurlat, Roland; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Szulc, Pawel

    2015-10-01

    Vascular calcification results from an imbalance between increased extracellular levels of calcium and phosphate, reduced solubility, and low levels of calcification inhibitors in blood or the vascular wall. Fetuin-A is a major circulating calcification inhibitor. Rodent models of fetuin-A deficit indicate its calcification inhibiting potential. Clinical studies suggest its role as a biomarker in vascular disease. This cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of 974 men aged ≥ 40 years (average 68 years) consisting of men holding health insurance cover with Mutuelle des Travailleurs de la Région Lyonnaise. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) was assessed semi-quantitatively on lateral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine scans. Serum fetuin-A was measured by an immunoassay. After adjustment for confounders (age, lifestyle, body composition, health status, treatment, glomerular filtration rate [GFR], hormones, and cytokines), prevalence of severe AAC (AAC score>4) decreased with increasing fetuin-A levels (OR=0.68 per SD increase, 95% CI: 0.54-0.84, p<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, low fetuin-A and hypertension were each associated with higher odds of AAC>4. Coexistence of low serum fetuin-A levels and heavy smoking, elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels or low serum dickkopf-1 levels were associated with higher odds of AAC>4. Similar results were obtained for 789 men with GFR>60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Similar results were obtained when severe AAC was defined as AAC score >3 or AAC>5. Thus, lower serum fetuin-A levels are associated with severe AAC, suggesting that poor calcification inhibitory potential contributes to vascular calcification, independently of renal impairment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shorter sleep duration is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in healthy white men.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patricia M; Manuck, Stephen B; DiNardo, Monica M; Korytkowski, Mary; Muldoon, Matthew F

    2015-02-01

    Short sleep has been linked to increased risk for type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular disease and acute sleep restriction impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Here, we examined whether indices of glucose metabolism vary with naturally occurring differences in sleep duration. Subjects were midlife, nondiabetic community volunteers (N = 224; mean age 44.5 ± 6.6 y [range: 30-54]; 52% female; 89% white). Laboratory measures of insulin sensitivity (Si) and acute secretion (AIRg), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and disposition index (Di) were obtained from a 180-min, intravenous glucose tolerance test. Shorter self-reported sleep duration (in hours) was associated with lower Si (P = 0.043), although an interaction of sleep duration with participant race (β = -0.81, P = 0.002) showed this association significant only in whites. Moreover, sex-stratified analyses revealed that shorter sleep duration predicted lower Si in white men (β = 0.29, P = 0.003) but not in white women (P = 0.22). Findings were similar for AIRg. The relationship between sleep duration and AIRg was moderated by race as well as sex, such that shorter sleep duration associated with greater insulin release only in white men (β = -0.28, P = 0.004). Sleep duration was unrelated to Sg and Di (P's > 0.05). Our findings suggest that shorter sleep duration may impair insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in nondiabetic white men, possibly contributing to later type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Reduced levels of potential circulating biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in apparently healthy vegetarian men.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Julio Acosta; de Gouveia, Luiza Antoniazzi; Rocha-Penha, Lilliam; Cinegaglia, Naiara; Belo, Vanessa; Castro, Michele Mazzaron de; Sandrim, Valeria Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Several evidences report that a vegetarian diet is protector against cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have demonstrated the circulating profile of cardiovascular biomarkers in vegetarians. Therefore, the aims of the current study were compared the plasma concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 between healthy vegetarian (Veg) and healthy omnivorous (Omn). Using ELISA and multiplexed bead immunoassay, we measured in plasma from 43 Veg and 41 Omn the cardiovascular biomarkers concentrations cited above. We found significant lower concentrations of MPO, MMP-9, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in Veg compared to Omn (all P<0.05). Moreover, MMP-9 concentrations were correlated positively with leukocytes and neutrophils count in both groups (all P<0.05). A vegetarian diet is associated with a healthier profile of cardiovascular biomarkers compared to omnivorous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cordyceps militaris Enhances Cell-Mediated Immunity in Healthy Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Joon; Baik, Hyun Wook; Kim, Sang Jung; Lee, Seong Gyu; Ahn, Hong Yup; Park, Ju Sang; Park, Sang Jong; Jang, Eun Jeong; Park, Sang Woon; Choi, Jin Young; Sung, Ji Hee; Lee, Seung Min

    2015-10-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a mushroom traditionally used for diverse pharmaceutical purposes in East Asia, including China, and has been found to be effective for enhancing immunity through various types of animal testing. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of C. militaris for enhancing cell-mediated immunity and its safety in healthy male adults. Healthy male adults were divided into the experimental group (n = 39), given 1.5 g/day of ethanol treated C. militaris in capsules, and the control group (n = 40), given the same number of identical placebo capsules filled with microcrystalline cellulose and lactose for 4 weeks from February 13 to March 14, 2012; the natural killer (NK) cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation index (PI), and T-helper cell 1 (Th1) cytokine cluster (interferon [IFN]-γ, interleukin [IL]-12, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) were measured, along with stability test, at weeks 0, 2, and 4. The C. militaris group showed a statistically significant greater increase in NK200 (P = .0010), lymphocyte PI (P ≤ .0001), IL-2 (P = .0096), and IFN-γ (P = .0126), compared with the basal level, than the placebo group. There was no statistically significant adverse reaction. C. militaris enhanced the NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation and partially increased Th1 cytokine secretion. Therefore, C. militaris is safe and effective for enhancing cell-mediated immunity of healthy male adults.

  19. In vivo assessment of forearm bone mass and ulnar bending stiffness in healthy men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myburgh, K. H.; Zhou, L. J.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    The cross-sectional bending stiffness EI of the ulna was measured in vivo by mechanical resistance tissue analysis (MRTA) in 90 men aged 19-89 years. MRTA measures the impedance response of low-frequency vibrations to determine EI, which is a reflection of elastic modulus E and moment of inertia I for the whole ulna. EI was compared to conventional estimates of bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW), and BMC/BW, which were all measured by single-photon absorptiometry. Results obtained from the nondominant ulna indicate that BW increases (r = 0.27, p = 0.01) and ulnar BMC/BW decreases (r = -0.31, p < or = 0.005) with age. Neither BMC nor EI declined with age. The single best predictor of EI was BW (r2 = 0.47, p = 0.0001), and further small but significant contributions were made by BMC (r2 = 0.53, p = 0.0001) and grip strength (r2 = 0.55, p = 0.0001). These results suggest that the resistance of older men to forearm fracture is related to age-associated changes in the moment of inertia achieved by redistributing bone mineral farther from the bending axis. We conclude that the in vivo assessment of bone geometry offers important insights to the comprehensive evaluation of bone strength.

  20. Handedness and gender influence blood pressure in young healthy men and women: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rueda, I; Banegas, I; Prieto, I; Wangensteen, R; Segarra, A B; Villarejo, A B; De Gasparo, M; Luna, J D; Vives, F; Ruiz-Bailen, M; Ramirez-Sanchez, M

    2016-01-01

    The type and level of sex steroids influence blood pressure (BP). It has been suggested that functional brain asymmetries may be influenced by sex hormones. In addition, there are inter-arm differences in BP not yet related with handedness. In this study, we hypothesize a possible association between sex hormones, handedness, and inter-arm differences in blood pressure. To analyze this hypothesis, we measured BP in the left and right arm of the left and right handed adult young men and women in menstrual and ovulatory phase and calculated their mean arterial pressure (MAP). Significant differences depending on sex, arm, handedness or phase of the cycle were observed. MAP was mostly higher in men than in women. Remarkably, in women, the highest levels were observed in the left handed in menstrual phase. Interestingly, the level of handedness correlated negatively with MAP measured in the left arm of right-handed women in the ovulatory phase but positively with the MAP measured in the right arm of right-handed women in the menstrual phase. These results may reflect an asymmetrical modulatory influence of sex hormones in BP control.

  1. In vivo assessment of forearm bone mass and ulnar bending stiffness in healthy men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myburgh, K. H.; Zhou, L. J.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    The cross-sectional bending stiffness EI of the ulna was measured in vivo by mechanical resistance tissue analysis (MRTA) in 90 men aged 19-89 years. MRTA measures the impedance response of low-frequency vibrations to determine EI, which is a reflection of elastic modulus E and moment of inertia I for the whole ulna. EI was compared to conventional estimates of bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW), and BMC/BW, which were all measured by single-photon absorptiometry. Results obtained from the nondominant ulna indicate that BW increases (r = 0.27, p = 0.01) and ulnar BMC/BW decreases (r = -0.31, p < or = 0.005) with age. Neither BMC nor EI declined with age. The single best predictor of EI was BW (r2 = 0.47, p = 0.0001), and further small but significant contributions were made by BMC (r2 = 0.53, p = 0.0001) and grip strength (r2 = 0.55, p = 0.0001). These results suggest that the resistance of older men to forearm fracture is related to age-associated changes in the moment of inertia achieved by redistributing bone mineral farther from the bending axis. We conclude that the in vivo assessment of bone geometry offers important insights to the comprehensive evaluation of bone strength.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors have larger impact on endothelial function in self-reported healthy women than men in the HUNT3 Fitness study.

    PubMed

    Skaug, Eli-Anne; Madssen, Erik; Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest that cardiovascular risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have larger effects on the development of cardiovascular disease in women than in men. A recent study in self-reported healthy subjects demonstrated a marked gender difference in endothelial dysfunction that may be an important precursor of manifest cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the association between endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors is different in self-reported healthy women compared to self-reported healthy men. Associations between endothelial function (flow mediated dilation, FMD, of the brachial artery measured by ultrasound), anthropometric variables, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), blood pressure, serum lipids, blood glucose and a questionnaire on general health and lifestyle including smoking status were studied by logistic and linear regression in 2 528 women and 2 211 men aged 20-89 years, free from self-reported cardiovascular disease. In women with hyperglycemia, endothelial dysfunction (FMD ≤0%) occurred twice as frequently as in male counterparts. The presence of the metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and low VO2peak increased the prevalence of endothelial dysfunction more in women than in men. Endothelial dysfunction is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors in self-reported healthy women than in self-reported healthy men. This finding could explain why the metabolic syndrome, and especially hyperglycemia, is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and a worse prognosis in women.

  3. Iron overload accelerates bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women and middle-aged men: a 3-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Ahn, Seong Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Ghi Su

    2012-11-01

    Despite extensive experimental and animal evidence about the detrimental effects of iron and its overload on bone metabolism, there have been no clinical studies relating iron stores to bone loss, especially in nonpathologic conditions. In the present study, we performed a large longitudinal study to evaluate serum ferritin concentrations in relation to annualized changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy Koreans. A total of 1729 subjects (940 postmenopausal women and 789 middle-aged men) aged 40 years or older who had undergone comprehensive routine health examinations with an average 3 years of follow-up were enrolled. BMD in proximal femur sites (ie, the total femur, femur neck, and trochanter) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using the same equipment at baseline and follow-up. The mean age of women and men in this study was 55.8 ± 6.0 years and 55.5 ± 7.8 years, respectively, and serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in men than in women (p < 0.001). The overall mean annualized rates of bone loss in the total femur, femur neck, and trochanter were -1.14%/year, -1.17%/year, and -1.51%/year, respectively, in women, and -0.27%/year, -0.34%/year, and -0.41%/year, respectively, in men. After adjustment for potential confounders, the rates of bone loss in all proximal femur sites in both genders were significantly accelerated in a dose-response fashion across increasing ferritin quartile categories (p for trend = 0.043 to <0.001). Consistently, compared with subjects in the lowest ferritin quartile category, those in the third and/or highest ferritin quartile category showed significantly faster bone loss in the total femur and femur neck in both genders (p = 0.023 to <0.001). In conclusion, these data provide the first clinical evidence that increased total body iron stores could be an independent risk factor for accelerated bone loss, even in healthy populations.

  4. Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among US women and men: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Fung, Teresa T; Barr, R Graham; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-02-03

    To investigate the association between the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010)--a measure of diet quality--and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prospective cohort study. Participants in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, United States. 73,228 female nurses from 1984 to 2000 and 47,026 men from 1986 to 1998, who completed biennial questionnaires. The primary outcome was the self report of newly diagnosed COPD. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, physical activity, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking, second hand tobacco exposure (only in the Nurses' Health Study), race/ethnicity, physician visits, US region, spouse's highest educational attainment (only in the Nurses' Health Study), and menopausal status (only in the Nurses' Health Study). Over the study period, 723 cases of newly diagnosed COPD occurred in women and 167 in men. In the pooled analysis, a significant negative association was seen between the risk of newly diagnosed COPD and fifths of the AHEI-2010: hazard ratios were 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 1.29) for the second fifth, 0.98 (0.80 to 1.18) for the third fifth, 0.74 (0.59 to 0.92) for the fourth fifth, and 0.67 (0.53 to 0.85) for participants who ate the healthiest diet according to the AHEI-2010 (that is, were in the highest fifth), compared with those who ate the less healthy diet (participants in the lowest fifth). Similar findings were observed among ex-smokers and current smokers. A higher AHEI-2010 diet score (reflecting high intakes of whole grains, polyunsaturated fatty acids, nuts, and long chain omega-3 fats and low intakes of red/processed meats, refined grains, and sugar sweetened drinks) was associated with a lower risk of COPD in both women and men. These findings support the importance of a healthy diet in multi-interventional programs to prevent COPD. © Varraso et al 2015.

  5. Green tea extract supplementation gives protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Jówko, Ewa; Sacharuk, Jaroslaw; Balasińska, Bozena; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Charmas, Malgorzata; Charmas, Robert

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a long-term (4-week) green tea extract (GTE) supplementation in combination with strength training on selected blood markers of oxidative stress and muscular damage after a short-term exercise in previously untrained men. We hypothesized that GTE supplementation would elevate antioxidant potential and attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscular damage. Thirty-five male students were exposed to 4 weeks of strength training and received (in a randomized, double-blind design) GTE (n = 17; 640 mg polyphenols/d) or placebo (P; n = 18). Before (term I) and after 4 weeks of strength training and supplementation (term II), students performed a short-term muscular endurance test. Blood samples were collected at rest, 5 minutes after the muscular endurance test, and after 24 hours of recovery. Supplementation with GTE enhanced plasma total polyphenols at rest and 5 minutes after the muscular endurance test. Supplementation also contributed to the rise of resting total antioxidant status in plasma. Throughout the experiment (terms I and II), a reduction in plasma lipid hydroxyperoxides was observed 24 hours after the muscular endurance test. Four weeks of strength training resulted in an increase in plasma lipid hydroxyperoxides at rest, but only in the P group. In term I, the muscular endurance test induced an increase in activity of creatine kinase in plasma after 24 hours of recovery in both the P and GTE groups. In term II, plasma creatine kinase activity after 24 hours of recovery was elevated only in the P group. In conclusion, in previously untrained men, dietary supplementation with GTE (in combination with strength training) enhances the antioxidant defense system in plasma at rest and, in turn, may give protection against oxidative damage induced by both short-term muscular endurance test and long-term strength training.

  6. Cigarette Smoking and the Association with Glomerular Hyperfiltration and Proteinuria in Healthy Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Isseki; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Koh, Hideo; Harita, Nobuko; Nakamura, Yoshiko; Endo, Ginji; Kambe, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kanji

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Glomerular hyperfiltration and albuminuria accompanied by early-stage diabetic kidney disease predict future renal failure. Cigarette smoking has reported to be associated with elevated GFR in cross-sectional studies and with renal deterioration in longitudinal studies. The degree of glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria associated with smoking, which presumably is a phenomenon of early renal damage, has not been investigated in a satisfying manner so far. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 10,118 Japanese men aged 40 to 55 years without proteinuria or renal dysfunction at entry. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for Japanese. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated GFR ≥117.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2, which was the upper 2.5th percentile value of estimated GFR in the total population. Proteinuria was detected using standard dipstick. Results During the 6-year observation period, there were 449 incident cases of glomerular hyperfiltration and 1653 cases of proteinuria. Current smokers had a 1.32-time higher risk for the development of glomerular hyperfiltration and a 1.51-time higher risk for proteinuria than nonsmokers after adjustment for baseline age, body mass index, systolic and diastolic BP, antihypertensive medication, diabetes, alcohol consumption, regular leisure-time physical activity, and estimated GFR. Both daily and cumulative cigarette consumption were associated with an increased risk for glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria in a dose-response manner. Conclusions In middle-aged Japanese men, smoking was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration and dipstick proteinuria. Of importance, past smokers did not exhibit any increased risk for these conditions. PMID:21885794

  7. Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Watanabe, Y; Kumagai, M; Fujimoto, K

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional effects of fish oil, which is rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been reported. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fish oil capsules on the hematological parameters of healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish oil consumption. Over a 4-week period, subjects were administered five fish oil or olive oil (placebo) capsules with every meal (1,260 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 540 mg docosahexaenoic acid/day). There was a 4-week washout period between the treatment phases. The results did not demonstrate a decrease in plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and whole-blood viscosity. Further, no changes in the fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were noted. These results suggested that the supplementation of fish oil might be effective only for those subjects who have a lower level of fish oil consumption.

  8. Chocolate eating in healthy men during experimentally induced sadness and joy.

    PubMed

    Macht, M; Roth, S; Ellgring, H

    2002-10-01

    The study compared influences of qualitatively different emotions on eating. Motivation to eat, affective responses to chocolate and chewing of chocolate were investigated in healthy normal weight males during experimentally induced emotions. Subjects abstained from eating 2 h (n = 24) or 8 h (n = 24) before testing. They received pieces of chocolate after viewing film clips presented to induce anger, fear, sadness and joy. Motivation to eat and most affective responses to eating chocolate were higher after 8 h than after 2 h of deprivation. Sadness and joy affected motivation to eat in opposite directions: joy increased and sadness decreased appetite (p < 0.001). In joy, a higher tendency to eat more chocolate was reported (p < 0.001), and chocolate tasted more pleasant (p < 0.001) and was experienced as more "stimulating" than in sadness (p < 0.01). No effects of deprivation could be found for chewing time and number of chews. Results indicate that the quality of emotions can affect motivation to eat and affective responses to eating chocolate. Our findings on decreased eating responses to sadness in healthy males and the contradictory increased eating responses to sadness reported by others supports two types of emotion-induced changes of eating: emotion-congruent modulation of eating and eating to regulate emotions.

  9. Oxytocin Improves β-Cell Responsivity and Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Klement, Johanna; Ott, Volker; Rapp, Kristina; Brede, Swantje; Piccinini, Francesca; Cobelli, Claudio; Lehnert, Hendrik; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    In addition to its pivotal role in psychosocial behavior, the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin contributes to metabolic control by suppressing eating behavior. Its involvement in glucose homeostasis is less clear, although pilot experiments suggest that oxytocin improves glucose homeostasis. We assessed the effect of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) administered to 29 healthy, fasted male subjects on glucose homeostasis measured by means of an oral glucose tolerance test. Parameters of glucose metabolism were analyzed according to the oral minimal model. Oxytocin attenuated the peak excursion of plasma glucose and augmented the early increases in insulin and C-peptide concentrations in response to the glucose challenge, while slightly blunting insulin and C-peptide peaks. Oral minimal model analyses revealed that oxytocin compared with placebo induced a pronounced increase in β-cell responsivity (PHItotal) that was largely due to an enhanced dynamic response (PHId), and a more than twofold improvement in glucose tolerance (disposition index). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, glucagon, and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were not or were only marginally affected. These results indicate that oxytocin plays a significant role in the acute regulation of glucose metabolism in healthy humans and render the oxytocin system a potential target of antidiabetic treatment. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Acute elevation of endogenous prolactin does not influence glucose homeostasis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Klimes, I; Jurcovicová, J; Jezová, D

    1993-01-01

    The diabetogenic effect of prolactin observed in patients with pathological hyperprolactinaemia was verified in healthy subjects. Plasma prolactin elevation was induced by administration of a dopamine antagonist drug domperidone (Motilium 10 mg orally, 9 subjects) and 2 h later the oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The influence of dopamine receptor stimulation on glucose homeostasis was tested by dopamine infusion (0.3 mg in saline or 20% glucose, 1 g/min for 60 min, 11 subjects). After the blockade of dopamine receptors, a significant and prolonged increase of prolactin concentration was found. However, the levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide either before or after the glucose load were not different from control ones. The decreased number of insulin receptors (1.97 +/- 0.41 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14 pmol per 2.10(9) red blood cells) was compensated by increased affinity (0.51 +/- 0.17 vs 1.00 +/- 0.22 Ke 10(8) mol.-1 per l]) of insulin receptors. The stimulation of dopamine receptors showed a negligible effect on glucose regulation. It may be suggested that an endogenous increase of prolactin concentration in the physiological range does not participate in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects.

  11. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their “spacecraft” after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  12. Sex differences in associations between insulin resistance, heart rate variability, and arterial stiffness in healthy women and men: a physiology study.

    PubMed

    Rannelli, Luke Anthony; MacRae, Jennifer M; Mann, Michelle C; Ramesh, Sharanya; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Rabi, Doreen; Sola, Darlene Y; Ahmed, Sofia B

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes confers greater cardiovascular risk to women than to men. Whether insulin-resistance-mediated risk extends to the healthy population is unknown. Measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment, hemoglobin A1c, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, glucose) were determined in 48 (56% female) healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by spectral power analysis and arterial stiffness was determined using noninvasive applanation tonometry. Both were measured at baseline and in response to angiotensin II infusion. In women, there was a non-statistically significant trend towards increasing insulin resistance being associated with an overall unfavourable HRV response and increased arterial stiffness to the stressor, while men demonstrated the opposite response. Significant differences in the associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular physiological profile exist between healthy women and men. Further studies investigating the sex differences in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in cardiovascular disease are warranted.

  13. Effect of argan and olive oil consumption on the hormonal profile of androgens among healthy adult Moroccan men.

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Jafri, Ali; Driouch, Issam; El Khasmi, Mohammed; Adlouni, Ahmed; Benajiba, Nada; Bamou, Youssef; Saile, Rachid; Benouhoud, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of virgin argan oil (VAO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVO) on the hormonal profile of androgens and anthropometric parameters among healthy adult Moroccan men during a controlled nutritional intervention. The study was carried out on 60 young and healthy male volunteers aged between 23 and 40 years old. During a stabilization period of 2 weeks they consumed butter. The group was then randomized into two categories, the first one consuming VAO and the second EVO for 3 weeks. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) serum concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end of each period. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the two groups (VAO and EVO) during each step of the study. Differences in androgens and anthropometric parameters between the baseline and after 3 weeks of the diet in the VAO and EVO groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. T and LH serum concentrations significantly increased after the intervention period. T levels increased by 19.9% and 17.4% (p < 0.0001), and LH levels by 18.5% (p < 0.007) and 42.6% (p < 0.0001), respectively, for VAO and EVO (p < 0.0001). However, DHEAS serum concentrations, body weight, body mass index, arterial pressure and daily energetic intake did not show any significant variation after the intervention with either argan or olive oils. The results suggest that consumption of AVO and EVO might be the origin of a positive action on the androgen hormonal profile of men.

  14. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation and both alter the gut microbiota of healthy, young men.

    PubMed

    Burton, Kathryn J; Rosikiewicz, Marta; Pimentel, Grégory; Bütikofer, Ueli; von Ah, Ueli; Voirol, Marie-Jeanne; Croxatto, Antony; Aeby, Sébastien; Drai, Jocelyne; McTernan, Philip G; Greub, Gilbert; Pralong, François P; Vergères, Guy; Vionnet, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Probiotic yogurt and milk supplemented with probiotics have been investigated for their role in 'low-grade' inflammation but evidence for their efficacy is inconclusive. This study explores the impact of probiotic yogurt on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, with a parallel study of gut microbiota dynamics. The randomised cross-over study was conducted in fourteen healthy, young men to test probiotic yogurt compared with milk acidified with 2 % d-(+)-glucono-δ-lactone during a 2-week intervention (400 g/d). Fasting assessments, a high-fat meal test (HFM) and microbiota analyses were used to assess the intervention effects. Baseline assessments for the HFM were carried out after a run-in during which normal milk was provided. No significant differences in the inflammatory response to the HFM were observed after probiotic yogurt compared with acidified milk intake; however, both products were associated with significant reductions in the inflammatory response to the HFM compared with the baseline tests (assessed by IL6, TNFα and chemokine ligand 5) (P<0·001). These observations were accompanied by significant changes in microbiota taxa, including decreased abundance of Bilophila wadsworthia after acidified milk (log 2-fold-change (FC)=-1·5, P adj=0·05) and probiotic yogurt intake (FC=-1·3, P adj=0·03), increased abundance of Bifidobacterium species after acidified milk intake (FC=1·4, P adj=0·04) and detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus (FC=7·0, P adj<0·01) and Streptococcus salivarius spp. thermophilus (FC=6·0, P adj<0·01) after probiotic yogurt intake. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation that is associated with a HFM while inducing distinct changes in the gut microbiota of healthy men. These observations could be relevant for dietary treatments that target 'low-grade' inflammation.

  15. Relaxation effects of lavender aromatherapy improve coronary flow velocity reserve in healthy men evaluated by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Yumi; Funabashi, Nobusada; Lee, Kwangho; Toyoda, Tomohiko; Sekine, Tai; Honjo, Sachiko; Hasegawa, Rei; Kawata, Takayuki; Wakatsuki, Yu; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Murakami, Shio; Koike, Kazuo; Daimon, Masao; Komuro, Issei

    2008-09-26

    It has been reported that mental stress is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and impairs coronary circulation. Lavender aromatherapy, one of the most popular complementary treatments, is recognized as a beneficial mental relaxation therapy. However, no study has examined the effect of this therapy on coronary circulation. We aimed to assess the effect of lavender aromatherapy on coronary circulation by measuring coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) with noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE). We enrolled 30 young healthy men (mean age 34+/-4.7 years, range 24-40 years). Coronary flow velocities in the left anterior descending coronary artery were recorded by TTDE at rest and during hyperemia induced with an intravenous infusion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). CFVR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to basal mean diastolic flow velocity. CFVR was assessed at baseline and immediately after lavender aromatherapy (four drops of essential oil diluted with 20 ml of hot water and inhaled for 30 min). Simultaneously, serum cortisol was measured as a marker of stress hormones. To exclude the relaxation effects of rest, the same measurements were repeated in the same volunteers without aromatherapy as a control study. CFVR measurements were obtained in all volunteers (100%). Blood pressure and heart rate responses to ATP infusion were not affected by lavender aromatherapy. Serum cortisol significantly decreased after lavender aromatherapy (8.4+/-3.6 to 6.3+/-3.3, p<0.05), but remained unchanged in controls (9.1+/-3.5 to 8.1+/-3.9, p=ns). In addition, CFVR significantly increased after lavender aromatherapy (3.8+/-0.87 to 4.7+/-0.90, p<0.001), but not in controls (3.9+/-0.8 to 3.9+/-0.8, p=ns). Lavender aromatherapy reduced serum cortisol and improved CFVR in healthy men. These findings suggest that lavender aromatherapy has relaxation effects and may have beneficial acute effects on coronary circulation.

  16. Antioxidant effects of D-004, a lipid extract from the Roystonea regia fruit, on the plasma of healthy men

    PubMed Central

    López, Ernesto; Molina, Vivian; Illnait, José; Oyarzábal, Ambar; Fernández, Lilia C.; Más, Rosa; Gámez, Rafael; Fernández, Julio C.; Jiménez, Sonia; Mesa, Meilis; Hollands, Ivón; Mendoza, Sarahí

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the Roystonea regia fruit that prevents testosterone- and phenylepinephrine-induced prostate hyperplasia in rodents, on plasma oxidative markers in healthy men. We enrolled male volunteers (20–55 years) in good health and without lower urinary tract symptoms. Thirty-four eligible participants were randomized to placebo or D-004 (320 mg) capsules administered daily for 6 weeks. An interim check-up and a final visit were conducted after 3 and 6 weeks of therapy, respectively. Physical examinations were performed at each visit, and laboratory tests were performed at baseline and at treatment completion. Oxidative variables included plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), total hydroxyperoxides (TOH), sulphydryl (SH) groups and total antioxidant status (TAS). We assessed treatment compliance and addressed adverse experiences (AEs) at weeks 3 and 6. At week 6, with D-004, the mean reductions of plasma MDA (26.7%), TOH (18.8%) and SH groups (31.6%), and the mean increase of TAS (35.3%) were significantly different from those of placebo (P < 0.001 for plasma TAS, P < 0.0001 for all other comparisons). D-004 did not differ from the placebo in safety indicators. There were two withdrawals (both in the D-004 group), with one due to dyspepsia (the only AE during the trial). In conclusion, D-004 displayed antioxidant effects on plasma oxidative markers in healthy men, which was consistent with findings from laboratory experimental studies. PMID:19169265

  17. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p < .05). Furthermore, a higher serum insulin concentration was noted after OFI intake at baseline and at t₃₀ (p < .05). In OGTT(EX), blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p < .05). However, insulin values and AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  18. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P.; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R.; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  19. The role of falling leptin levels in the neuroendocrine and metabolic adaptation to short-term starvation in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jean L; Heist, Kathleen; DePaoli, Alex M; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2003-05-01

    To elucidate the role of leptin in regulating neuroendocrine and metabolic function during an acute fast, six to eight healthy, lean men were studied under four separate conditions: a baseline fed state and three 72-hour fasting studies with administration of either placebo, low-dose recombinant-methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin), or replacement-dose r-metHuLeptin designed to maintain serum leptin at levels similar to those in the fed state. Replacement-dose r-metHuLeptin administered during fasting prevents the starvation-induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and, in part, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and IGF-1 binding capacity in serum. Thus, in normal men, the fall in leptin with fasting may be both necessary and sufficient for the physiologic adaptations of these axes, which require leptin levels above a certain threshold for activation. In contrast to findings in mice, fasting-induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, renin-aldosterone, and growth hormone-IGF-1 axes as well as fuel utilization may be independent of leptin in humans. The role of leptin in normalizing several starvation-induced neuroendocrine changes may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of eating disorders and obesity.

  20. Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with isokinetic muscle strength and balance in healthy collegiate men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Hong, Ju; Cha, Jun-Youl; Park, Jung-Min; Eun, Denny; Yoo, Jaehyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-11-01

    There are few studies on the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and balance in the young ages. We investigated the relationship between appendicular skeletal muscle mass, isokinetic muscle strength of lower extremity, and balance among healthy young men using relative skeletal muscle index. Thirty men were grouped according to relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index: higher skeletal muscle group (n = 15) and lower skeletal muscle group (n = 15). Static and dynamic balance abilities were measured using the following: a test where participants stood on one leg with eyes closed, a modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB) with eyes open and eyes closed, a stability test, and limits of stability test. The muscle strength of lower extremities was measured with an isokinetic analyser in hip, knee, and ankle joints. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass were significantly more stable in maintaining dynamic balance than those with lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Moreover, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was positively correlated with dynamic balance ability. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass had stronger strength in the lower extremity, and there were significant differences in the isokinetic torque ratios between groups. From these results, it can be inferred that higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass relates to muscle strength and the alteration in the peak torque ratio of the lower extremity, contributing to the maintenance of balance.

  1. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2016-01-25

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems.

  2. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S K; Tracy, R P; Baer, D J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of stearic acid (STA) on cardiovascular disease risk beyond lipid and lipoprotein risk factors, including hemostasis, are unclear, particularly when compared with unsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of STA with those of oleic acid (OL) on markers of hemostasis. In a randomized crossover study, 50 men consumed six controlled diets for 5 weeks each (39% energy from fat, 15% energy from protein, 46% energy from carbohydrate (CHO)). Fat (8% energy) was replaced across diets by: STA, OL, CHO (control), trans fatty acids (TFAs), TFA/STA and 12:0-16:0 saturated fatty acids. Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasmin alpha-2-antiplasmin complex concentrations were not different between OL and STA (P>0.05). Compared with control, OL increased factor VIIc and PAI-1 (P≤0.05), whereas there were no differences with STA (P>0.05). STA and OL similarly affect markers of hemostasis in healthy men, within the context of a highly controlled diet.

  3. High serum total bilirubin as a protective factor against hip bone loss in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Koh, Jung-Min; Ahn, Seong Hee; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Eun Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Kim, Ghi Su

    2013-06-01

    Bilirubin is known to have a physiologic role as an antioxidant that efficiently scavenges peroxyl radicals and suppresses oxidation, and oxidative stress has detrimental effects on bone metabolism. In the present study, we performed a 3-year longitudinal study of healthy middle-aged men, investigating the association between serum total bilirubin concentrations and annualized changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The study enrolled a total of 917 Korean men aged 40 years or older who had undergone comprehensive routine health examinations with an average follow-up interval of 3 years. BMD at proximal femur sites was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using the same equipment at baseline and follow-up. The overall mean annualized rates of bone loss at the total femur, femoral neck, and trochanter were -0.25 %/year, -0.34 %/year, and -0.44 %/year, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the rates of bone loss at all proximal femur sites were significantly attenuated in a dose-response fashion across increasing bilirubin concentrations (P = 0.006-0.046). Moreover, compared to subjects in the lowest bilirubin quartile category, those in the highest bilirubin quartile category showed significantly less bone loss at all proximal femur sites after adjustment for confounding factors (P = 0.010-0.048). This study provides the first clinical evidence that serum total bilirubin could be a protective marker against future bone loss, especially in subjects without liver diseases.

  4. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    PubMed

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning.

  5. 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) vs testosterone in combination with etonogestrel implants for spermatogenic suppression in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Walton, Melanie J; Kumar, Narender; Baird, David T; Ludlow, Helen; Anderson, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    Testosterone with a progestogen can suppress spermatogenesis for contraception. The synthetic androgen 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) may offer advantages because it is resistant to 5alpha-reduction and is therefore less active at the prostate. This study aimed to investigate MENT implants in combination with etonogestrel on spermatogenesis, gonadotropins, and androgen-dependent tissues in comparison with a testosterone/etonogestrel regimen. Healthy men (n = 29) were recruited and randomized to receive 2 etonogestrel implants with either 600-mg testosterone pellets repeated every 12 weeks or 2 MENT implants for up to 48 weeks. Testosterone concentrations in the testosterone group remained in the normal range. Subjects with 2 MENT implants showed peak MENT levels at 4 weeks with testosterone concentrations of 2 nmol/L. Sperm concentrations fell rapidly to less than 1 x 10(6)/mL at 12 weeks in 8 of 10 subjects in the MENT group and 13 of 16 subjects in the testosterone group with equally suppressed gonadotropins. Thereafter, suppression was not maintained in the MENT group, and 6 men noted loss of libido. Fourteen men completed 48 weeks of testosterone treatment, and all became azoospermic. Hemoglobin concentrations rose, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) fell in both groups. The MENT group showed a fall in prostate-specific antigen with no change in bone mass. MENT with a progestogen can achieve rapid suppression of spermatogenesis similar to testosterone, but this promising result was not sustained due to a decline in MENT release from the implants. This dose of testosterone, compared with previous studies using a lower dose with a higher dose of etonogestrel, had nonreproductive side effects without any increase in spermatogenic suppression. These data indicate the importance of the doses of progestogen and testosterone for optimum spermatogenic suppression while minimizing side effects.

  6. Gonadotrophin and testosterone suppression by 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone acetate administered by subdermal implant to healthy men.

    PubMed

    Noé, G; Suvisaari, J; Martin, C; Moo-Young, A J; Sundaram, K; Saleh, S I; Quintero, E; Croxatto, H B; Lähteenmäki, P

    1999-09-01

    The synthetic androgen 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) is a potent suppressor of gonadotrophin that has several advantages for long term administration to normal or hypoandrogenic men. The aim of this study was to examine MENT serum concentrations following subdermal insertion of MENT acetate (MENT Ac) implants and their effects on gonadotrophins, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), sex hormone-binding globulin, prostate specific antigen and insulin-like growth factor-1 serum concentrations in normal men. A total of 45 healthy men were recruited at three clinics. Each subject received one, two or four implants for 28 days. Serum samples were obtained before insertion and on days 8, 15, 22, 29, 36 and 43 after implant insertion. The average daily dose delivered in vivo by one implant was approximately 500 microg. One, two or four MENT Ac implants produced dose dependent and sustained serum MENT concentrations for the entire duration of treatment of 0.7 +/- 0.1, 1.2 +/- 0.1 and 2.0 +/- 0.1 nmol/l respectively. This treatment induced a dose dependent decrease in gonadotrophin and androgen serum levels. Two and four implants induced maximal suppression that was maintained throughout treatment and was completely reversed after removal of the implants. The mean decreases were 93 +/- 1% for testosterone, 80 +/- 3% for DHT, 97 +/- 1% for luteinizing hormone and 95 +/- 1% for follicle stimulating hormone. No serious adverse reactions were reported by the volunteers and no consistent changes in clinical chemistry and haematology were found. These results indicate that MENT Ac implants are an efficient way of MENT administration and confirm the potent gonadotrophin and androgen suppressive effect of this drug.

  7. A cross-sectional study on sarcopenia using different methods: reference values for healthy Saudi young men.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Shaea A

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this study was to determine reference values for sarcopenia indices using different methods in healthy Saudi young men. Participants included 232 Saudi men aged between 20 and 35 years. The study measured anthropometric indices, blood pressure, hand grip strength, and lean muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed using Inbody 770 and Tanita 980 devices. Using DXA, the mean value of appendicular lean mass divided by the height squared (ALM/ht(2)) was found to be 8.97 ± 1.23 kg/m(2); hand grip strength measured 42.8 ± 7.6 kg. While the differences between DXA and BIA (Tanita) were significant for all parameters, the differences between DXA and Inbody values were significant only for ALM parameters. Inbody sensitivity and specificity values were 73% and 95.9%, respectively. The kappa (P = 0.80) and p values (P < 0.001) showed good agreement between Inbody and DXA, whereas Tanita sensitivity and specificity values were 54.2% and 98.3%, respectively. Bland-Altman plots for differences in lean mass values between Tanita, Inbody, and DXA methods showed very high bias for Tanita and DXA, with significant differences (P < 0.001). The cut-off values for sarcopenia indices for Saudi young men are different from those of other ethnicities. The use of tailored cut-off reference values instead of a general cut-off for BIA devices is recommended.

  8. Biochemical and anthropometric effects of a weight loss dietary supplement in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cameron G; Canale, Robert E; Alleman, Rick J; Reed, Jacob P; Bloomer, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    We have recently noted an acute increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol, as well as resting metabolic rate, when men and women ingested the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ in a single dose. We have also noted a reduction in appetite when subjects were treated with this supplement for 14 consecutive days. It is possible that such findings may favor body weight and fat loss over time. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of this dietary supplement on weight loss and associated markers using an eight week intervention. Exercise-trained subjects were randomly assigned in double blind manner to ingest either the dietary supplement (n = 16; aged 22.8 ± 0.7) or a placebo (n = 16; 22.5 ± 0.5) every day for eight weeks. Body weight, body composition, skinfold thickness, serum lipids, and appetite were measured as the primary outcome variables. As measures of supplement safety, a complete blood count and comprehensive metabolic panel were performed, and resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured (pre and post intervention). No interactions or main effects were noted for our primary outcome measures (P > 0.05). However, when comparing pre and post intervention values for the supplement, significant decreases were noted in appetite, body weight, body fat percentage, and skinfold thickness (P < 0.05), while increases were noted for total and HDL-C, as well as for resting heart rate (P < 0.05). No changes were noted for placebo from pre to post intervention (P > 0.05), with the exception of an increase in HDL-C (P < 0.05). Blood pressure and bloodborne safety variables were not differently impacted by supplement or placebo (P > 0.05), with the exception of monocytes, for which an interaction effect was noted (P = 0.04). These data indicate that the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ may assist in weight and body fat loss in a sample of exercise-trained men and women. The supplement does not result in any adverse

  9. Biochemical and Anthropometric Effects of a Weight Loss Dietary Supplement in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Cameron G.; Canale, Robert E.; Alleman, Rick J.; Reed, Jacob P.; Bloomer, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We have recently noted an acute increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol, as well as resting metabolic rate, when men and women ingested the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ in a single dose. We have also noted a reduction in appetite when subjects were treated with this supplement for 14 consecutive days. It is possible that such findings may favor body weight and fat loss over time. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of this dietary supplement on weight loss and associated markers using an eight week intervention. Methods: Exercise-trained subjects were randomly assigned in double blind manner to ingest either the dietary supplement (n = 16; aged 22.8 ± 0.7) or a placebo (n = 16; 22.5 ± 0.5) every day for eight weeks. Body weight, body composition, skinfold thickness, serum lipids, and appetite were measured as the primary outcome variables. As measures of supplement safety, a complete blood count and comprehensive metabolic panel were performed, and resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured (pre and post intervention). Results: No interactions or main effects were noted for our primary outcome measures (P > 0.05). However, when comparing pre and post intervention values for the supplement, significant decreases were noted in appetite, body weight, body fat percentage, and skinfold thickness (P < 0.05), while increases were noted for total and HDL-C, as well as for resting heart rate (P < 0.05). No changes were noted for placebo from pre to post intervention (P > 0.05), with the exception of an increase in HDL-C (P < 0.05). Blood pressure and bloodborne safety variables were not differently impacted by supplement or placebo (P > 0.05), with the exception of monocytes, for which an interaction effect was noted (P = 0.04). Conclusion: These data indicate that the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ may assist in weight and body fat loss in a sample of exercise-trained men and women. The

  10. Bumetanide and frusemide: a comparison of dose-response curves in healthy men.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, L E; McInnes, G T; Hettiarachchi, J; Shelton, J; Scott, P

    1978-01-01

    1 Log dose-responses for the loop diuretics bumetanide and frusemide in healthy subjects deviated significantly from parallelism as regards urine volume and sodium excretion. Ignoring the nonparallelism the best estimate of natriuretic potency (bumetanide: frusemide) was 46:1 in the bumetanide dose range 0.5-2 mg. 2 For a given natriuresis the urinary potassium excretion following bumetanide was significantly lower than that for frusemide within this dose range. 3 The data illustrate the limitations of studies comparing diuretics at a single dose level. Extrapolation of the observed log dose-response curves provides one possible explanation for the relative potency (bumetanide: frusemide) of 20:1 reported when the drugs are used at high dosage in patients with renal failure. PMID:656269

  11. Coffee consumption attenuates short-term fructose-induced liver insulin resistance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Lecoultre, Virgile; Carrel, Guillaume; Egli, Léonie; Binnert, Christophe; Boss, Andreas; MacMillan, Erin L; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Darimont, Christian; Tappy, Luc

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental data have suggested that chlorogenic acid, which is a polyphenol contained in green coffee beans, prevents diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We assessed whether the consumption of chlorogenic acid-rich coffee attenuates the effects of short-term fructose overfeeding, dietary conditions known to increase intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCLs), and blood triglyceride concentrations and to decrease hepatic insulin sensitivity in healthy humans. Effects of 3 different coffees were assessed in 10 healthy volunteers in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. IHCLs, hepatic glucose production (HGP) (by 6,6-d2 glucose dilution), and fasting lipid oxidation were measured after 14 d of consumption of caffeinated coffee high in chlorogenic acid (C-HCA), decaffeinated coffee high in chlorogenic acid, or decaffeinated coffee with regular amounts of chlorogenic acid (D-RCA); during the last 6 d of the study, the weight-maintenance diet of subjects was supplemented with 4 g fructose · kg(-1) · d(-1) (total energy intake ± SD: 143 ± 1% of weight-maintenance requirements). All participants were also studied without coffee supplementation, either with 4 g fructose · kg(-1) · d(-1) (high fructose only) or without high fructose (control). Compared with the control diet, the high-fructose diet significantly increased IHCLs by 102 ± 36% and HGP by 16 ± 3% and decreased fasting lipid oxidation by 100 ± 29% (all P < 0.05). All 3 coffees significantly decreased HGP. Fasting lipid oxidation increased with C-HCA and D-RCA (P < 0.05). None of the 3 coffees significantly altered IHCLs. Coffee consumption attenuates hepatic insulin resistance but not the increase of IHCLs induced by fructose overfeeding. This effect does not appear to be mediated by differences in the caffeine or chlorogenic acid content. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00827450.

  12. Uroflow nomogram for healthy, 15-40 year old Indian men

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Naveen Diwanand; Mulay, Abhirudra Ramkrishna; Satav, Vikram Pramod; Mane, Deepak Anandrao; Sabale, Vilas Pandurang; Kankalia, Sharad Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uroflowmetry is the objective method of measuring rate of urine flow. Nomograms are required to observe the change in flow rates at different voided volumes (VVs) and the use of which overcomes the limitation of referencing flow rates to any single VV. The purpose of the present study was to construct the Indian uroflow nomogram for adult healthy males between 15-40 years of age. Methods: A total of 1000 healthy males between 15 and 40 years of age were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were any urinary symptoms or urological intervention. Parameters analyzed statistically were age, peak flow rate (Qmax), average flow rate (Qavg), and VV. A nomogram was drawn for the fitted regression model. Results: The mean age was 27.26 ± 6.71 years. The mean Qmax, Qavg, and VV were 24.32 ± 3.50 ml/s, 9.45 ± 2.55 ml/s, and 420.93 ± 97.89 ml, respectively. The correlation between flow rates and VV was statistically significant, indicating that the higher the VV, the higher the flow rates. A negative significant correlation of Qmax with age was seen in our study. We observed a decline of Qmax by 1 ml/s/decade. The relationship of Qmax with VV is in linear progression up to 600 ml, and then it becomes a plateau and with higher VV it declined. Conclusion: Qmax exhibits significant correlation with VV and age. A nomogram was constructed to attain normal reference values of flow rate over different VVs. PMID:27843212

  13. Physiological effects of hydrogen sulfide inhalation during exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Y; Singh, M

    1991-11-01

    Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is prevalent in a variety of industries. H2S when inhaled 1) is oxidized into a sulfate or a thiosulfate by oxygen bound to hemoglobin and 2) suppresses aerobic metabolism by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase (c and aa3) activity in the electron transport chain. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of oral inhalation of H2S on the physiological responses during graded cycle exercise performed to exhaustion in healthy male subjects. Sixteen volunteers were randomly exposed to 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0, and 5.0 ppm H2S on four separate occasions. Compared with the control values, the results indicated that the heart rate and expired ventilation were unaffected as a result of the H2S exposures during submaximal and maximal exercise. The oxygen uptake had a tendency to increase, whereas carbon dioxide output had a tendency to decrease as a result of the H2S exposures, but only the 5.0 ppm exposure resulted in a significantly higher maximum oxygen uptake. Blood lactate concentrations increased significantly during submaximal and maximal exercise as a result of the 5.0 ppm exposure. Despite these large increases in lactate concentration, the maximal power output of the subjects was not significantly altered as a result of the 5.0 ppm H2S exposure. It was concluded that healthy young male subjects could safely exercise at their maximum metabolic rates while breathing 5.0 ppm H2S without experiencing a significant reduction in their maximum physical work capacity during short-term incremental exercise.

  14. Baseline values of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters predict response to acute hypoxia in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, V N; Krivoschekov, S G; Divert, V E; Komlyagina, T G; Consedine, N S

    2017-02-28

    The majority of the available works have studied distinct hypoxic responses of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. This study examines how these systems interact while responding to hypoxia and whether baseline metrics moderate reactions to a hypoxic challenge. Central hemodynamic, aortic wave reflection, and gas exchange parameters were measured in 27 trained young men before and after 10-min normobaric isocapnic hypoxia (10 % O2). Associations were assessed by correlation and multiple regression analyses. Hypoxic changes in the parameters of pulse wave analysis such as augmentation index (-114 %, p=0.007), pulse pressure amplification (+6 %, p=0.020), time to aortic reflection wave (+21 %, p<0.001) report on the increase in arterial distensibility. Specifically, initially compliant arteries blunt the positive cardiac chronotropic response to hypoxia and facilitate the myocardial workload. The degree of blood oxygen desaturation is directly correlated with both baseline values and hypoxic responses of aortic and peripheral blood pressures. The hypoxia-induced gain in ventilation (VE), while controlling for basal VE and heart rate (HR), is inversely associated with deltaHR and deltasystolic blood pressure. The study suggests that cardiovascular and respiratory systems mutually supplement each other when responding to hypoxic challenge.

  15. ABCA1 gene variants regulate postprandial lipid metabolism in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Fuentes, Francisco; Marin, Carmen; Gómez-Luna, Purificación; Camargo, Antonio; Parnell, Laurence D; Ordovas, Jose Maria; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Objective Genetic variants of ABCA1, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, have been linked to altered atherosclerosis progression and fasting lipid concentration, mainly high density lipoproteins (HDL) and Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), but results from different studies have been inconsistent. Methods and results In order to further characterize the effects of ABCA1 variants in human postprandial lipid metabolism, we studied the influence of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [i27943 (rs2575875); i48168 (rs4149272); R219K (rs2230806)] in the postprandial lipemia of 88 normolipidemic young men, who were given a fatty meal. For i27943 and i48168 SNPs, fasting and postprandial values of APOA1 were higher, and postprandial lipemia was much lower in homozygotes for the major alleles, for total triglycerides in plasma, and large-triglyceride rich lipoproteins (TRL) triglycerides. These persons also showed higher APOA1/APOB ratio. Major allele homozygotes for i48168 and i27943 showed additionally higher HDL and lower postprandial Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). Conclusions Our work shows that major allele homozygotes for ABCA1 SNPs i27943 and i48168 have a lower postprandial response as compared to minor allele carriers. This finding may further characterize the role of ABCA1 in lipid metabolism. PMID:20185793

  16. Normalization of visceral adiposity is required to normalize plasma apolipoprotein B levels in response to a healthy eating/physical activity lifestyle modification program in viscerally obese men.

    PubMed

    Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Arsenault, Benoit J; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about how visceral adipose tissue (VAT) influences circulating apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels, which reflect atherogenic risk. We have examined the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on plasma apoB levels in viscerally obese men and compared post-intervention levels to those of a reference group of lean healthy men. Fasting plasma apoB levels were measured in 107 non-diabetic, viscerally obese men, before and after a 1-year lifestyle intervention program aiming at improving nutritional and physical activity/exercise habits. After the intervention, subjects significantly decreased their volume of VAT (Δ = -26 ± 18%, p < 0.0001) measured by computed tomography and significantly, but modestly reduced their fasting apoB levels (Δ = -3 ± 14%, p = 0.04). When compared to the reference group, men in the intervention group still had higher apoB levels suggesting that they did not "normalize" their apoB concentrations to the level of the healthy non-obese reference men. To further explore the relationship between VAT and apoB, men in the intervention group were stratified according to quartiles of VAT achieved after the intervention. Only men of the lowest quartile of VAT (corresponding to 844 ± 42 cm(3), similar to the value of the reference group; 809 ± 52 cm(3) of VAT) showed plasma apoB levels which were similar to those of the reference group (0.98 ± 0.21 vs. 0.99 ± 0.24 g/L, NS, for lowest VAT quartile and reference group, respectively). These results suggest that, in order to "normalize" apoB levels in response to a lifestyle modification program, viscerally obese dyslipidemic men need to achieve levels of VAT similar to healthy non-obese men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Whole Body Creatine and Protein Kinetics in Healthy Men and Women: Effects of creatine and amino acid supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Kalhan, Satish C; Gruca, Lourdes; Marczewski, Susan; Bennett, Carole; Kummitha, China

    2015-01-01

    Creatine kinetics were measured in young healthy subjects, eight males and seven females, age 20–30 years, after an overnight fast on creatine free diet. Whole body turnover of glycine and its appearance in creatine was quantified using [1-13C] glycine and the rate of protein turnover was quantified using L-ring [2H5] phenylalanine. The creatine pool size was estimated by the dilution of a bolus [C2H3] creatine. Studies were repeated following a five days supplement creatine 21g.day−1 and following supplement amino acids 14.3 g.day−1. Creatine caused a ten folds increase in the plasma concentration of creatine and a 50% decrease in the concentration of guanidinoacetic acid. Plasma amino acids profile showed a significant decrease in glycine, glutamine and taurine and a significant increase in citrulline, valine, lysine and cysteine. There was a significant decrease in the rate of appearance of glycine, suggesting a decrease in de-novo synthesis (p=0.006). The fractional and absolute rate of synthesis of creatine was significantly decreased by supplemental creatine. Amino acid supplement had no impact on any of the parameters. Creatine supplement caused a significant decrease in the rate of synthesis of creatine. This is the first detailed analysis of creatine kinetics and the effects of creatine supplement in healthy young men and women. These methods can be applied for the analysis of creatine kinetics in different physiological states. PMID:26480831

  18. Impact of single-dose nandrolone decanoate on gonadotropins, blood lipids and HMG CoA reductase in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gårevik, N; Börjesson, A; Choong, E; Ekström, L; Lehtihet, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to study the effect and time profile of a single dose of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on gonadotropins, blood lipids and HMG CoA reductase [3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR)] in healthy men. Eleven healthy male participants aged 29-46 years were given a single dose of 150 mg ND as an intramuscular dose of Deca Durabol®, Organon. Blood samples for sex hormones, lipids and HMGCR mRNA analysis were collected prior to ND administration day 0, 4 and 14. A significant suppression of luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was seen after 4 days. Total testosterone and bioavailable testosterone level decreased significantly throughout the observed study period. A small but significant decrease in sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was seen after 4 days but not after 14 days. Total serum (S)-cholesterol and plasma (P)-apolipoprotein B (ApoB) increased significantly after 14 days. In 80% of the individuals, the HMGCR mRNA level was increased 4 days after the ND administration. Our results show that a single dose of 150 mg ND increases (1) HMGCR mRNA expression, (2) total S-cholesterol and (3) P-ApoB level. The long-term consequences on cardiovascular risk that may appear in users remain to be elucidated.

  19. Whole body creatine and protein kinetics in healthy men and women: effects of creatine and amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kalhan, Satish C; Gruca, Lourdes; Marczewski, Susan; Bennett, Carole; Kummitha, China

    2016-03-01

    Creatine kinetics were measured in young healthy subjects, eight males and seven females, age 20-30 years, after an overnight fast on creatine-free diet. Whole body turnover of glycine and its appearance in creatine was quantified using [1-(13)C] glycine and the rate of protein turnover was quantified using L-ring [(2)H5] phenylalanine. The creatine pool size was estimated by the dilution of a bolus [C(2)H3] creatine. Studies were repeated following a five days supplement creatine 21 g.day(-1) and following supplement amino acids 14.3 g day(-1). Creatine caused a ten-fold increase in the plasma concentration of creatine and a 50 % decrease in the concentration of guanidinoacetic acid. Plasma amino acids profile showed a significant decrease in glycine, glutamine, and taurine and a significant increase in citrulline, valine, lysine, and cysteine. There was a significant decrease in the rate of appearance of glycine, suggesting a decrease in de-novo synthesis (p = 0.006). The fractional and absolute rate of synthesis of creatine was significantly decreased by supplemental creatine. Amino acid supplement had no impact on any of the parameters. This is the first detailed analysis of creatine kinetics and the effects of creatine supplement in healthy young men and women. These methods can be applied for the analysis of creatine kinetics in different physiological states.

  20. Rapid clinical induction of bupropion hydroxylation by metamizole in healthy Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Hu, Dong-Li; Wang, Dan; Fan, Lan; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2012-01-01

    AIMS This study aimed to investigate the effect of metamizole on bupropion hydroxylation related to different CYP2B6 genotype groups in healthy volunteers. METHODS Sixteen healthy male volunteers (6 CYP2B6*1/*1, 6 CYP2B6*1/*6 and 4 CYP2B6*6/*6) received orally administered bupropion alone and during daily treatment with metamizole 1500 mg day–1 (500 mg tablet taken three times daily) for 4 days. Serial blood samples were obtained up to 48 h after each bupropion dose. RESULTS After metamizole treatment relative to bupropion alone, the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence interval (CI) of the AUC(0,∞) ratio of 4-hydroxybupropion over bupropion were 1.99 (1.57, 2.55) for the CYP2B6*1/*1 group, 2.15 (1.53, 3.05) for the CYP2B6*1/*6 group and 1.86 (1.36, 2.57) for the CYP2B6*6/*6 group. The GMRs and 90% CI of bupropion were 0.695 (0.622, 0.774) for AUC(0,∞) and 0.400 (0.353, 0.449) for Cmax, respectively. The corresponding values for 4-hydroxybupropion were 1.43 (1.28, 1.53) and 2.63 (2.07, 2.92). The t1/2 value was significantly increased for bupropion and decreased for 4-hydroxybupropion. The tmax values of bupropion and 4-hydroxybupropion were both significantly decreased. The mean percentage changes in pharmacokinetic parameters among the CYP2B6 genotype groups were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS Oral administration of metamizole for 4 days significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of both bupropion and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxybupropion, and significantly increased the CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation in all of the subjects. Cautions should be taken when metamizole is co-administered with CYP2B6 substrate drugs. PMID:22519658

  1. Tart cherry juice decreases oxidative stress in healthy older men and women.

    PubMed

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Davies, Sean S; Stock, Anthoney A; Su, Yali; Heward, Christopher B; Roberts, L Jackson; Harman, S Mitchell

    2009-10-01

    Compared with young adults, older adults have significantly impaired capacities to resist oxidative damage when faced with acute stress such as ischemia/reperfusion. This impairment likely contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older adults in response to acute trauma, infections, and the susceptibility to diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Consumption of foods high in polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have been associated with improved health, but the mechanisms contributing to these salutary effects remain to be fully established. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of tart cherry juice containing high levels of anthocyanins improves the capacity of older adults to resist oxidative damage during acute oxidative stress. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 volunteers [6 men and 6 women; age 69 +/- 4 y (61-75 y)] consumed in random order either tart cherry juice or placebo (240 mL twice daily for 14 d) separated by a 4-wk washout period. The capacity to resist oxidative damage was measured as the changes in plasma F(2)-isoprostane levels in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) before and after each treatment. The tart cherry juice intervention reduced the I/R-induced F(2)-isoprostane response (P < 0.05), whereas placebo had no significant effect. The tart cherry juice intervention also reduced basal urinary excretion of oxidized nucleic acids (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine) (P < 0.05) but not urinary excretion of isoprostanes. These data suggest that consumption of tart cherry juice improves antioxidant defenses in vivo in older adults as shown by an increased capacity to constrain an oxidative challenge and reduced oxidative damage to nucleic acids.

  2. Tart Cherry Juice Decreases Oxidative Stress in Healthy Older Men and Women1–3

    PubMed Central

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Davies, Sean S.; Stock, Anthoney A.; Su, Yali; Heward, Christopher B.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Harman, S. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Compared with young adults, older adults have significantly impaired capacities to resist oxidative damage when faced with acute stress such as ischemia/reperfusion. This impairment likely contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older adults in response to acute trauma, infections, and the susceptibility to diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Consumption of foods high in polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have been associated with improved health, but the mechanisms contributing to these salutary effects remain to be fully established. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of tart cherry juice containing high levels of anthocyanins improves the capacity of older adults to resist oxidative damage during acute oxidative stress. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 volunteers [6 men and 6 women; age 69 ± 4 y (61–75 y)] consumed in random order either tart cherry juice or placebo (240 mL twice daily for 14 d) separated by a 4-wk washout period. The capacity to resist oxidative damage was measured as the changes in plasma F2-isoprostane levels in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) before and after each treatment. The tart cherry juice intervention reduced the I/R-induced F2-isoprostane response (P < 0.05), whereas placebo had no significant effect. The tart cherry juice intervention also reduced basal urinary excretion of oxidized nucleic acids (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine) (P < 0.05) but not urinary excretion of isoprostanes. These data suggest that consumption of tart cherry juice improves antioxidant defenses in vivo in older adults as shown by an increased capacity to constrain an oxidative challenge and reduced oxidative damage to nucleic acids. PMID:19692530

  3. Multicomponent supplement containing Chlorella decreases arterial stiffness in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Otsuki, Takeshi; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Kono, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella, a unicellular green alga, contains various antioxidants and other nutrients such as amino acids and fiber. Previous studies have reported that supplementation with multiple antioxidants reduces arterial stiffness, a well-established cardiovascular risk factor. We investigated the effects of Chlorella intake on arterial stiffness using a single-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study design. Fourteen young men took placebo or Chlorella tablets for four weeks, with a 12-week washout period between trials, in a randomized order. Before and after each trial, blood pressure, heart rate, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, an index of arterial stiffness, were measured. Treatment compliance was comparable between the two groups. There were no differences in blood pressure and heart rate before and after supplementation in both the placebo and Chlorella groups. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity decreased after Chlorella intake (before vs after intake; 11.6 ± 0.2 vs 11.1 ± 0.1 m/s, p = 0.01), but not after placebo intake (11.4 ± 0.2 vs 11.4 ± 0.2 m/s, p = 0.98). Multicomponent analysis of the Chlorella-containing tablet detected nutrients that can reduce arterial stiffness, such as antioxidant vitamins, arginine, potassium, calcium, and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that intake of a Chlorella-containing multicomponent supplement can decrease arterial stiffness. PMID:24249971

  4. The Lichfield bone study: the skeletal response to exercise in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I.; Kehoe, Anthony; James, Laurence E.; Payne, John R.; Skipworth, James R.; Puthucheary, Zudin A.; Drenos, Fotios; Pennell, Dudley J.; Loosemore, Mike; World, Michael; Humphries, Steve E.; Haddad, Fares S.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2012-01-01

    The skeletal response to short-term exercise training remains poorly described. We thus studied the lower limb skeletal response of 723 Caucasian male army recruits to a 12-wk training regime. Femoral bone volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging, bone ultrastructure by quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip. Left hip BMD increased with training (mean ± SD: 0.85 ± 3.24, 2.93 ± 4.85, and 1.89 ± 2.85% for femoral neck, Ward's area, and total hip, respectively; all P < 0.001). Left calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation rose 3.57 ± 0.5% (P < 0.001), and left and right femoral cortical volume by 1.09 ± 4.05 and 0.71 ± 4.05%, respectively (P = 0.0001 and 0.003), largely through the rise in periosteal volume (0.78 ± 3.14 and 0.59 ± 2.58% for right and left, respectively, P < 0.001) with endosteal volumes unchanged. Before training, DXA and QUS measures were independent of limb dominance. However, the dominant femur had higher periosteal (25,991.49 vs. 2,5572 mm3, P < 0.001), endosteal (6,063.33 vs. 5,983.12 mm3, P = 0.001), and cortical volumes (19,928 vs. 19,589.56 mm3, P = 0.001). Changes in DXA, QUS, and magnetic resonance imaging measures were independent of limb dominance. We show, for the first time, that short-term exercise training in young men is associated not only with a rise in human femoral BMD, but also in femoral bone volume, the latter largely through a periosteal response. PMID:22114178

  5. Fish oil fatty acids improve postprandial vascular reactivity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Armah, Christopher K; Jackson, Kim G; Doman, Izzy; James, Lewis; Cheghani, Farah; Minihane, Anne M

    2008-06-01

    Chronic fish oil intervention had been shown to have a positive impact on endothelial function. Although high-fat meals have often been associated with a loss of postprandial vascular reactivity, studies examining the effects of fish oil fatty acids on vascular function in the postprandial phase are limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of the addition of fish oil fatty acids to a standard test meal on postprandial vascular reactivity. A total of 25 men received in a random order either a placebo oil meal (40 g of mixed fat; fatty acid profile representative of the U.K. diet) or a fish oil meal (31 g of mixed fat and 9 g of fish oil) on two occasions. Vascular reactivity was measured at baseline (0 h) and 4 h after the meal by laser Doppler iontophoresis, and blood samples were taken for the measurement of plasma lipids, total nitrite, glucose and insulin. eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) and NADPH oxidase gene expression were determined in endothelial cells after incubation with TRLs (triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins) isolated from the plasma samples taken at 4 h. Compared with baseline, sodium nitroprusside (an endothelium-independent vasodilator)-induced reactivity (P=0.024) and plasma nitrite levels (P=0.001) were increased after the fish oil meal. In endothelial cells, postprandial TRLs isolated after the fish oil meal increased eNOS and decreased NADPH oxidase gene expression compared with TRLs isolated following the placebo oil meal (P

  6. Exaggerated natriuresis during clamping of systemic NO supply in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Jane A; Rasmussen, Mona S; Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F; Bie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    NO (nitric oxide) may be involved in fluid homoeostasis. We hypothesized that increases in NO synthesis contribute to acute, saline-induced natriuresis, which, therefore, should be blunted when NO availability is stabilized. Young men were studied during simultaneous infusions of L-NAME [NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; bolus of 750 μg·kg⁻¹ of body weight and 8.3 μg·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ of body weight] and SNP (sodium nitroprusside), the latter at a rate preventing L-NAME from increasing total peripheral resistance ('NO-clamping'). Slow volume expansion (saline, 20 μmol of NaCl·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ of body weight for 3 h) was performed with and without concomitant NO-clamping. NO-clamping itself decreased RPF (renal plasma flow; P~0.02) and tended to decrease arterial blood pressure [MABP (mean arterial blood pressure)]. Volume expansion markedly decreased the plasma levels of renin, AngII (angiotensin II) and aldosterone (all P<0.001), while MABP (oscillometry), heart rate, cardiac output (impedance cardiography), RPF (by p-aminohippurate), GFR [glomerular filtration rate; by using 51Cr-labelled EDTA] and plasma [Na+] and [K+] remained constant. Volume expansion increased sodium excretion (P<0.02) at constant filtered load, but more so during NO-clamping than during control (+184% compared with 52%; P<0.0001). Urinary nitrate/nitrite excretion increased during volume expansion; plasma cGMP and plasma vasopressin were unchanged. The results demonstrate that NO-clamping augments sodium excretion in response to volume expansion at constant MABP and GFR, reduced RPF and decreased renin system activity, a response termed hypernatriuresis. The results indicate that mediator(s) other than MABP, RPF, GFR and renin system activity contribute significantly to the homoeostatic response to saline loading, but the specific mechanisms of hypernatriuresis remain obscure.

  7. Safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects of the selective androgen receptor modulator, GSK2881078, in healthy men and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard V; Walker, Ann C; Andrews, Susan; Turnbull, Philip; Wald, Jeffrey A; Magee, Mindy H

    2017-10-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) induce anabolic effects on muscle without the adverse effects of androgenic steroids. In this first-in-human study, we report the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics of the SARM GSK2881078. In Part A, healthy young men (n = 10) received a single dose of study drug (0 mg, 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg GSK2881078 or matching-placebo). In Part B, repeat-dose cohorts in men (n = 65) were 0.05 mg, 0.2 mg then 0.08 mg, 0.24 mg, 0.48 mg, 0.75 mg, or placebo; in women (n = 24) they were 0.24 mg, 0.35 mg, or placebo (7 days for 0.5 mg, 14 days for other doses). PK analysis showed dose-proportional increases in exposure and a long >100-h half-life. No significant effects on vital signs, electrocardiograms, cardiac telemetry or standard clinical laboratory studies were observed. A dose-response effect was observed on lowering both high-density lipoprotein and sex hormone-binding globulin. In females at 0.35 mg, differences from placebo were -0.518 (95% confidence interval: -0.703, -0.334) mmol l(-1) and -39.1 (-48.5, -29.7) nmol l(-1) , respectively. Women showed greater sensitivity to these parameters at lower doses than men. Drug-related adverse events (AEs) were mild. One woman developed a drug rash and was withdrawn. Two men had elevated creatine phosphokinase after physical exertion during follow-up. A serious AE occurred in a subject on placebo. These data demonstrate pharmacodynamic effects with acceptable tolerability and support further clinical evaluation of this SARM. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Design Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. Settings General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. Participants The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18–84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Measures Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable ‘healthy lifestyle behaviour’. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. Results The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Conclusions Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the

  9. Factor analysis of regional cerebral glucose metabolic rates in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Z; Camargo, E E; Sostre, S; Shafique, I; Sadzot, B; Links, J M; Dannals, R F; Wagner, H N

    1992-01-01

    Cerebral glucose utilization measured with fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose is characterized by considerable variability both among different persons and for the same person examined on different occasions. The goal of this study was to explore whether some regions of the brain were more variable than others with respect to glucose utilization and whether there was a pattern in their covariance. The global and regional cerebral utilization of glucose was measured in 12 healthy young volunteers on 3 or 4 occasions. In all, 24 regions were examined. The interrelation of the glucose utilization rates of the brain regions was investigated by factor analysis of the metabolic rates. Some 70% of the total variance was attributable to only 1 factor, while 80% of the total variance could be attributed to 2 factors. Regions making up the first factor were the frontal and temporal cortex, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and putamen. These regions are functionally related to the limbic system. Regions of the second factor were the parietal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, regions more clearly related to sensory and motor functions. The 2-factor pattern was highly reproducible, being found with different algorithms for factor extraction and rotation. Under resting conditions, the variance of cerebral metabolism seems to be primarily related to regions which are closely involved with the limbic system. Cortical regions involved primarily in motor and sensory functions have less influence on the variance.

  10. [Sleep structure instability in healthy men under conditions of 105-day isolation experiment "Mars-105"].

    PubMed

    Kovrov, G V; Posokhov, S I; Posokhov, S S; Zavalko, I M; Ponomareva, I P

    2013-01-01

    Night-to-night stability of falling asleep and duration of wakefulness in the sleep was studied in six healthy male subjects under conditions of 105-day isolation experiment "Mars-105". Polysomnography records were carried out in each subject during five nights taken in regular intervals within the experiment. Three subjects demonstrated high stability of falling asleep and wakefulness in sleep (group I), whereas in the remaining three subjects stability of these characteristics was low (group [I). Delta-sleep was shown to be deepened in subjects of group II (significant prevalence of stage 4 (47.3 min) over stage 3 (32.9 min)). In subjects of group I, the duration of stage 3 was 44.9 min and that of stage 4 was 26.6 min. We suggest that night-to-night instability of falling asleep and duration of wakefulness in sleep in combination with delta sleep is the special individual form of sleep adaptation to conditions of chronic isolation stress.

  11. Yellow mustard bran attenuates glycaemic response of a semi-solid food in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Lett, Aron M; Thondre, Pariyarath S; Rosenthal, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0059, respectively) were all significantly lower with the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the attenuation of postprandial glycaemic response following the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran to a soup.

  12. Cytokine Changes following Acute Ethanol Intoxication in Healthy Men: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Skulberg, Andreas; Skulberg, Knut Ragnvald; Aass, Hans Christian D.; Bramness, Jørgen G.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a known modulator of the innate immune system. Owing to the absence of human studies, alcohol's effect on circulating cytokine profile remains unclear. We investigated the effect of acute high dose alcohol consumption on systemic cytokine release. After an overnight fasting, alcohol-experienced healthy male volunteers (N = 20) aged 25–45 years were given oral ethanol in the form of vodka (4.28 mL/kg) which they drank over a period of 30 minutes reaching peak blood alcohol concentration of 0.12% (SD 0.028). Blood samples were obtained prior to alcohol intake as well as 2, 7, and 12 hours thereafter. Serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and TNF-α were determined by the multibead-based assay. Baseline cytokine levels were not related to BMI, hepatic parameters, electrolytes, glucose, or morning cortisol levels. Within 2 hours of alcohol intake, levels of IL-1Ra were elevated and remained so throughout the assessment period (p for trend = 0.015). In contrast, the levels of the chemokine MCP-1 dropped acutely followed by steadily increasing levels during the observation period (p < 0.001). The impact of sustained elevated levels of MCP-1 even after the clearance of blood alcohol content deserves attention. PMID:28090151

  13. [Psychological and physiological effects of a 5-week ergometer training in healthy young men (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Myrtek, M; Villinger, U

    1976-09-24

    40 healthy male students were randomly assigned to either the exercise or control group. The latter was asked not to alter their common physical activity while the exercise group trained three times weekly on the bicycle ergometer for 15 minutes with a constant heart rate of 140bpm. At the beginning and after five weeks physiological data comprising cardiovascular and pulmonary responses at rest and under submaximal ergometric exercise were assessed. Additional data included psychological achievement tests, self reports of personality dimensions and frequency of physical complaints. Results indicated a marked increase in physical fitness for the training group improving the work load from 158 watt to 197 watt at constant heart rate. At rest and especially at submaximal work load there was an improvement of the economy of the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Contrary to these findings there were no changes or impairment in the psychological achievement tests, measuring concentration. Compared with the control group self reports of personality dimensions did not change except for a tendency to more extrovert behavior in the exercise group. Unexpectedly, the frequency of physical complaints did not decrease. The reason for this discrepancy is discussed.

  14. Creatine supplementation does not enhance submaximal aerobic training adaptations in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    Reardon, T F; Ruell, P A; Fiatarone Singh, M A; Thompson, C H; Rooney, K B

    2006-10-01

    The benefits of dietary creatine supplementation on muscle performance are generally related to an increase in muscle phosphocreatine content. However, creatine supplementation may benefit endurance sports through increased glycogen re-synthesis following exercise. This study investigated the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle glycogen content, submaximal exercise fuel utilisation and endurance performance following 4 weeks of endurance training. Thirteen healthy, physically active, non-vegetarian subjects volunteered to take part and completed the study. Subjects were supplemented with either creatine monohydrate (CREAT, n = 7) or placebo-maltodextrin (CON, n = 6). Submaximal fuel utilisation and endurance performance were assessed before and after a 4 week endurance training program. Muscle biopsies were also collected before and following training for assessment of muscle creatine and glycogen content. Training increased quadriceps glycogen content to the same degree (approximately 20%) in both groups (P = 0.04). There was a significant training effect on submaximal fuel utilisation and improved endurance performance. However, there was no significant treatment effect of creatine supplementation. Creatine supplementation does not effect metabolic adaptations to endurance training.

  15. Cortisol administration acutely reduces threat-selective spatial attention in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Hermans, Erno J; van Honk, Jack

    2010-03-03

    There is mounting evidence that single administrations of glucocorticoids may acutely reduce human fear. We previously reported that administration of cortisol acutely reduced non-spatial selective attention to fearful faces and likewise reduced preferential processing of fearful faces in a spatial working memory task. Here we report the acute effects of 40 mg cortisol (administered in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design) on a different experimental task for measuring threat-selective attention. Twenty healthy young males had to localize a target which was presented in a peripheral location that was either gazed at or not by a preceding dynamic happy or fearful face. This reliable method has been used repeatedly to demonstrate fear-driven selective attention. Present results showed that after placebo, as usual, the fearful gaze cues caused stronger orienting of attention than happy faces. Cortisol abolished this typical anxious response pattern, but only in low anxious participants. These data provide evidence that cortisol acutely influences also spatial threat-selective attention. Possible neuroendocrine mechanisms are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of rebaudioside A and stevioside after single oral doses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, A; Boileau, A C; Winkler, P C; Compton, J C; Prakash, I; Jiang, X; Mandarino, D A

    2008-07-01

    This randomized, double-blind, cross-over study assessed the comparative pharmacokinetics of steviol and steviol glucuronide following single oral doses of rebaudioside A and stevioside in healthy adult male subjects. Steviol glucuronide appeared in the plasma of all subjects after administration of rebaudioside A or stevioside, with median tmax values of 12.0 and 8.00h post-dose, respectively. Steviol glucuronide was eliminated from the plasma, with similar t1/2 values of approximately 14h for both compounds. Administration of rebaudioside A resulted in a significantly (approximately 22%) lower steviol glucuronide geometric mean Cmax value (1472ng/mL) than administration of stevioside (1886ng/mL). The geometric mean AUC0-t value for steviol glucuronide after administration of rebaudioside A (30,788ngh/mL) was approximately 10% lower than after administration of stevioside (34,090ngh/mL). Steviol glucuronide was excreted primarily in the urine of the subjects during the 72h collection period, accounting for 59% and 62% of the rebaudioside A and stevioside doses, respectively. No steviol glucuronide was detected in feces. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that rebaudioside A and stevioside underwent similar metabolic and elimination pathways in humans with steviol glucuronide excreted primarily in the urine and steviol in the feces. No safety concerns were noted as determined by reporting of adverse events, laboratory assessments of safety or vital signs.

  17. Importance of physical fitness on predictive effect of body mass index and weight gain on incident atrial fibrillation in healthy middle-age men.

    PubMed

    Grundvold, Irene; Skretteberg, Per Torger; Liestøl, Knut; Gjesdal, Knut; Erikssen, Gunnar; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Arnesen, Harald; Erikssen, Jan; Bodegard, Johan

    2012-08-01

    The incidence of both atrial fibrillation (AF) and obesity is increasing in the community, and lifestyle intervention is recommended. We aimed to test whether the predictive effect of body mass index (BMI) and weight change from age 25 years to midlife on incident AF were influenced by physical fitness. In 1972 to 1975, 2,014 healthy middle-age men conducted a bicycle exercise electrocardiographic test as a part of a cardiovascular survey program, defining physical fitness as work performed divided by body weight. During 35 years of follow-up, 270 men developed AF, documented by scrutiny of the health files in all Norwegian hospitals. Risk estimation was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models and tested for age-adjusted physical fitness above and below the median. The mean BMI of 24.6 kg/m(2) defined a lean baseline cohort. The men with a baseline BMI of ≥28 kg/m(2) (11%) compared to a BMI <28 kg/m(2) had a 1.68-fold risk of AF (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.40) and men reporting weight gain of ≥10 kg (24%) compared to weight loss (11%) of 1.66-fold (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.89), respectively. The dichotomy into men with age-adjusted physical fitness above and below the median, demonstrated statistically significant risk associations only for men with low fitness. The overall risk of AF was reduced by 23% in the fit men. In conclusion, within our lean baseline cohort of healthy middle-age men, a BMI of ≥28 kg/m(2) and weight gain of ≥10 kg from age 25 to midlife were long-term predictors of incident AF in men with physical fitness below the population median. The fit men had an overall slightly reduced risk of AF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heat transfer and loss by whole-body hyperthermia during severe lower-body heating are impaired in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Brazaitis, Marius; Paulauskas, Henrikas; Eimantas, Nerijus; Obelieniene, Diana; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2017-10-01

    Most studies demonstrate that aging is associated with a weakened thermoregulation. However, it remains unclear whether heat transfer (for heat loss) from the lower (uncompensable) to the upper (compensable) body during passively-induced severe lower-body heating is delayed or attenuated with aging. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate heat transfer from uncompensable to compensable body areas in young men and healthy older men during passively-induced whole-body hyperthermia with a demonstrated post-heating change in core body (rectal; Tre) temperature. Nine healthy older men and eleven healthy young men (69±6 vs. 21±1 years old, mean±SD, P<0.05) participated in passively-induced severe lower-body heating in water at approximately 43°C. Despite a similar increment in Tre (approximately 2.5°C) in both groups, the heating rate was significantly lower in older men than in young men (1.69±0.12 vs. 2.47±0.29°C/h, respectively; P<0.05). The temperature increase in calf muscle and calf skin (uncompensable areas) was significantly higher in older men than in young men (5.10±0.18 vs. 3.99±0.14°C; P<0.05 and 9.92±0.22 vs. 7.65±0.33°C; P<0.05, respectively). However, the temperature increase in back skin and forearm skin (compensable areas) was significantly lower in older men than in young men (0.76±0.63 vs. 2.83±0.68°C; P<0.05 and 0.39±0.76 vs. 2.73±0.5°C; P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, a post-warming increase in Tre of approximately 0.2°C was observed only in older men (P<0.05). In conclusion, older men whose lower extremities were immersed showed greater accumulation and storage of heat in the skin and deep muscles than young men, and this was associated with a greater heat-transfer delay and subsequent inertia in the increased core body (Tre) temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inverse association between excessive alcohol drinking and cardiometabolically healthy status in middle-aged men with and without overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2017-08-25

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between drinking and metabolically healthy status in men with normal weight, overweight and obesity. The subjects were Japanese men aged from 35 to 60 years (n=31781) and they were divided by daily amount of drinking (g ethanol) into light (< 22), moderate (≥22 and <44), heavy (≥44 and <66) and very heavy (≥66) drinkers. Metabolically healthy subjects were defined as those without hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. The percentage of metabolically healthy subjects was much lower in the overweight (BMI≥25 and <30) and obese (BMI≥30) groups than in the normal weight group (BMI≥18.5 and <25) and was much lower in the obese group than in the overweight group. In each of the normal weight and overweight groups, percentages of metabolically healthy subjects were significantly lower in heavy and very heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and were marginally significantly higher in light drinkers than in nondrinkers. The above associations between drinking and metabolically healthy status were confirmed by logistic regression analysis. In the obese group, the percentage of metabolically healthy subjects was significantly lower in regular drinkers (including all drinker categories) than in nondrinkers, and metabolically healthy subjects were rare (0.56%) among regular drinkers. Regardless of absence and presence of overweight or obesity, excessive alcohol drinking is inversely associated with metabolically healthy status and should be avoided for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-08-01

    To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993-1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular outcomes. A total of 20,951 men and women were included in EPIC-Norfolk analysis (mean follow-up 11.3±2.8 years, median 11.9 years). The percentage of participants with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the highest and lowest quintile of chocolate consumption was 9.7% and 13.8%, and the respective rates for stroke were 3.1% and 5.4%. The multivariate-adjusted HR for CHD was 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.01) for those in the top quintile of chocolate consumption (16-99 g/day) versus non-consumers of chocolate intake. The corresponding HR for stroke and cardiovascular disease (cardiovascular disease defined by the sum of CHD and stroke) were 0.77 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.97). The propensity score matched estimates showed a similar trend. A total of nine studies with 157,809 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Higher compared to lower chocolate consumption was associated with significantly lower CHD risk (five studies; pooled RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.92), stroke (five studies; pooled RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), composite cardiovascular adverse outcome (two studies; pooled RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.05), and cardiovascular mortality (three studies; pooled RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83). Cumulative evidence suggests that higher chocolate intake is associated with a lower risk of future cardiovascular events, although residual confounding cannot be excluded. There does not appear to be any evidence to say that chocolate should be avoided in those who are concerned about

  1. Impaired postprandial endothelial function depends on the type of fat consumed by healthy men.

    PubMed

    Berry, Sarah E E; Tucker, Sally; Banerji, Radhika; Jiang, Benyu; Chowienczyk, Phillip J; Charles, Sonia M; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2008-10-01

    Postprandial lipemia impairs endothelial function possibly via an oxidative stress mechanism. A stearic acid-rich triacylglycerol (TAG) (shea butter) results in a blunted postprandial increase in plasma TAG compared with an oleic acid-rich TAG; however, its acute effects on endothelial function and oxidative stress are unknown. A randomized crossover trial (n = 17 men) compared the effects of 50 g fat, rich in stearic acid [shea butter blend (SA)] or oleic acid [high oleic sunflower oil (HO)], on changes in endothelial function [brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD)], arterial tone [pulse wave analysis (PWA), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV(c-f))], and oxidative stress (plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha) at fasting and 3 h following the test meals. The postprandial increase in plasma TAG was lower (66% lower incremental area under curve) following the SA meal [28.3 (9.7, 46.9)] than after the HO meal [83.4 (57.0, 109.8); P < 0.001] (geometric means with 95% CI, arbitary units). Following the HO meal, there was a decrease in FMD [-3.0% (-4.4, -1.6); P < 0.001] and an increase in plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha [10.4ng/L (3.8, 16.9); P = 0.005] compared with fasting values, but no changes followed the SA meal. The changes in 8-isoprostane F2alpha and FMD differed between meals and were 14.0 ng/L (6.4, 21.6; P = 0.001) and 1.75% (0.10, 3.39; P = 0.02), respectively. The reductions in PWA and PWV c-f did not differ between meals. This study demonstrates that a stearic acid-rich fat attenuates the postprandial impairment in endothelial function compared with an oleic acid-rich fat and supports the hypothesis that postprandial lipemia impairs endothelial function via an increase in oxidative stress.

  2. Effects of milk ingestion on prolonged exercise capacity in young, healthy men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason K W; Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M; Watson, Phillip

    2008-04-01

    The effects of fluid intake during prolonged exercise have been extensively studied but at present there exists little information on the effects of milk-based drinks on the response to prolonged exercise. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of milk-based drinks on exercise capacity. Eight healthy males (age 24 +/- 4 y, height 1.76 +/- 0.04 m, mass 68.9 +/- 9.5 kg, body fat 12.5 +/- 2.4%, peak oxygen consumption 4.3 +/- 0.6 L/min) exercised to volitional exhaustion at 70% peak oxygen consumption on four occasions. Subjects ingested 1.5 mL/kg body mass of plain water, a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution, low-fat (0.1%) milk, or low-fat (0.1%) milk with added glucose before and every 10 min during exercise. The effect of the drink on exercise capacity and the cardiovascular, metabolic, and thermoregulatory responses to prolonged exercise were examined. Exercise time to exhaustion was not significantly influenced by the drink ingested (P = 0.19), but there was a tendency for subjects to exercise longer when the carbohydrate-electrolyte (110.6, range 82.0-222.7 min), milk (103.3, range 85.7-228.5 min), or milk plus glucose (102.8, range 74.3-167.1 min) was ingested compared with water (93.3, range 82.4-192.3 min). The solution ingested did not influence the cardiovascular, metabolic, or thermoregulatory response to exercise. The results of this study suggest that although the low-fat milk-based fluids did not enhance exercise capacity over that seen with the ingestion of plain water, the effect was comparable to that observed with a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage.

  3. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  4. Acute Pain Speeds Skin Barrier Recovery in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jennifer E.; Song, Sunmi; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Psychological stress is known to impair skin barrier recovery, but little is known about the impact of pain on skin healing processes. Our primary goals were to examine the degree to which acute pain affects recovery from skin barrier disruption, and the potential mediating impact of cortisol and catecholamines. Methods Healthy non-smokers aged 18-43 (N=53, 65% women) underwent a 3-minute cold pressor pain stimulus to their foot. Tape-stripping of forearm skin occurred at two separate locations: before (site 1) and after (site 2) the pain stimulus. Transepidural water loss (TEWL) was assessed at baseline (pre-stripping), immediately post-stripping, and at 75 minutes to determine skin barrier recovery. Cortisol and catecholamine responses were obtained from multiple saliva and plasma samples, respectively. Results Contrary to expectations, greater pain was associated with faster skin barrier recovery, even after controlling for demographics, mood, anxiety, and other factors. Those who reported higher pain showed faster recovery at site 2 compared to a) individuals who experienced lower pain; and b) their own recovery at site 1. Greater increase in norepinephrine (but not in cortisol) was also associated with faster recovery at site 2, and mediated the impact of pain on recovery. Discussion Results bolster evidence that acute pain can affect immune-related processes. It is possible that acute pain may speed recovery from dermal abrasions, although pain is likely to impair recovery from more severe wounds. As pain is an important potential target for clinical intervention, further investigation of pain, stress, and healing processes is warranted. PMID:23148814

  5. Evaluation of penile erection rigidity in healthy men using virtual touch tissue quantification

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaozhi; Ji, Ping; Mao, Hongwei; Wu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to describe the shear wave velocity (SWV) values of the penis by virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) and to examine the clinical usefulness of this procedure in evaluation of the rigidity changes in penile erection. Patients and methods. VTTQ was performed in 37 healthy volunteers. In the course of erection, SWV values of glans penis, corpus penis and radix penis were quantified and grades of erection were documented. The SWV values at different grades of erection were compared. Results The axial and radial SWV values of glans penis, corpus penis and radix penis all significantly decreased from Grade 0 to Grade 4 of erection. At Grade 4, they were less than one-third of that at Grade 0 (axial direction: 0.79 ± 0.13 vs. 2.79 ± 0.32 for glans penis, P<0.001; 0.77 ± 0.19 vs. 2.84 ± 0.30 for corpus penis, P<0.001 and 0.76 ± 0.15 vs. 2.81 ± 0.34 for radix penis, P<0.001; radial direction: 0.82 ± 0.15 vs. 2.83 ± 0.31 for glans penis, P<0.001; 0.79 ± 0.18 vs. 2.81 ± 0.27 for corpus penis, P<0.001 and 0.81 ± 0.16 vs. 2.82 ± 0.33 for radix penis, P<0.001). Conclusions VTTQ can provide numerical measurements of penile rigidity and can effectively and sensitively indicate the axial and radial rigidity changes in penile erection, which provide a new approach to assessing the erectile function. PMID:23077447

  6. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Iranian healthy blood donor men.

    PubMed

    Khedmat, Hossein; Fallahian, Farahnaz; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Attarchi, Zohre; Alaeddini, Farshid; Holisaz, Mohammad Taghi; Pourali, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Shahin; Zarei, Nasrin

    2007-02-14

    To determine serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and to assess their correlation with demographic and clinical findings in healthy blood donors. This cross-sectional study was performed in 934 male blood donors, aged 18 to 68 years, who consecutively attended Tehran blood transfusion service in 2006. All participants were seronegative for HBV or HCV infections, non alcohol users, and all underwent a standard interview and anthropometric tests. Clinical and biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, and GGT activities were determined. Patients taking drugs known to cause hepatic fat deposition were excluded. For AST, ALT, and GGT variables, we used 33.33 and 66.66 percentiles, so that each of them was divided into three tertiles. Mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities were 25.26 +/- 12.58 U/L (normal range 5-35 U/L), 33.13 +/- 22.98 (normal range 5-35 U/L), and 25.11 +/- 18.32 (normal range 6-37 U/L), respectively. By univariate analyses, there were significant associations between increasing AST, ALT, or GGT tertiles and age, body weight, body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences (P<0.05). By multiple linear regression analyses, ALT was found to be positively correlated with dyslipidemia (B=6.988, P=0.038), whereas ALT and AST were negatively correlated with age. AST, ALT, and GGT levels had positive correlation with family history of liver disease (B=15.763, P<0.001), (B=32.345, P<0.001), (B=24.415, P<0.001), respectively. Although we did not determine the cutoffs of the upper normal limits for AST, ALT, and GGT levels, we would suggest screening asymptomatic patients with dyslipidemia and also subjects with a family history of liver disease.

  7. Influence of Rhodiola rosea on the heat acclimation process in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Timpmann, Saima; Hackney, Anthony C; Tamm, Maria; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Unt, Eve; Ööpik, Vahur

    2017-09-05

    The adaptogen Rhodiola rosea (RR) may mitigate stress responses and have beneficial effects on endurance capacity (EC) and mental performance. Heat acclimation (HA) improves EC in the heat, but the potential impact of RR on the HA process is unknown. Therefore, our intent was to determine would RR impact positively on the efficacy of the HA process. Twenty male subjects (age 22.5 ± 3.0 years) completed two EC tests involving walking (6 km·h -1) until volitional exhaustion in a climate chamber (air temperature, 42°C; relative humidity, 18%) before (H1) and after (H2) an 8-day HA period. One group (SHR; n=10) ingested standardised extract SHR-5 of RR (a single daily dose of 432 mg), while a second group (PLC; n=10) administered a placebo prior to each HA session. Efficacy of HA was evaluated on the basis of changes that occurred from H1 to H2 in the time to exhaustion (TTE), exercise heart rate (HR), core and skin temperatures (Tc, Tsk), stress hormones, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), fatigue (RPF) and thermal sensation (TS). HA significantly increased TTE (133.1 ± 44.1 min in H1; 233.4 ± 59.8 min in H2; p < 0.0001) and decreased (p < 0.0001) HR, Tc, Tsk, stress hormones as well as RPE, RPF and TS. However, the magnitude of all these changes was similar (p > 0.05) in the SHR and PLC groups. These results suggest that the use of RR during HA has no beneficial performance, physiological or perceptual effects in young healthy males.

  8. Effects of sleep fragmentation on appetite and related hormone concentrations over 24 h in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-02-28

    In addition to short sleep duration, reduced sleep quality is also associated with appetite control. The present study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation, independent of sleep duration, on appetite profiles and 24 h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance regulation. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, BMI 24·4 (sd 1·9) kg/m²) completed a 24 h randomised crossover study in which sleep (23.30-07.30 hours) was either fragmented or non-fragmented. Polysomnography was used to determine rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time (TST). Blood samples were taken at baseline and continued hourly for the 24 h period to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and melatonin concentrations. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured. Visual analogue scales were used to score appetite-related feelings. Sleep fragmentation resulted in reduced REM sleep (69·4 min compared with 83·5 min; P< 0·05) and preservation of SWS without changes in TST. In fragmented v. non-fragmented sleep, glucose concentrations did not change, while insulin secretion was decreased in the morning, and increased in the afternoon (P< 0·05), and GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were lower (P< 0·05). After dinner, desire-to-eat ratings were higher after fragmented sleep (P< 0·05). A single night of fragmented sleep, resulting in reduced REM sleep, induced a shift in insulin concentrations, from being lower in the morning and higher in the afternoon, while GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were decreased. These results may lead to increased food intake and snacking, thus contributing to a positive energy balance.

  9. Effect of Acute Hypoxia on Post-Exercise Parasympathetic Reactivation in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Al Haddad, Hani; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Buchheit, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this study we assessed the effect of acute hypoxia on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation inferred from heart rate (HR) recovery (HRR) and HR variability (HRV) indices. Ten healthy males participated in this study. Following 10 min of seated rest, participants performed 5 min of submaximal running at the speed associated with the first ventilatory threshold (Sub) followed by a 20-s all-out supramaximal sprint (Supra). Both Sub and Supra runs were immediately followed by 15 min of seated passive recovery. The resting and exercise sequence were performed in both normoxia (N) and normobaric hypoxia (H; FiO2 = 15.4%). HRR indices (e.g., heart beats recovered in the first minute after exercise cessation, HRR60s) and vagal-related HRV indices [i.e., natural logarithm of the square root of the mean of the sum of the squared differences between adjacent normal R–R intervals (Ln rMSSD)] were calculated for both conditions. Difference in the changes between N and H for all HR-derived indices were also calculated for both Sub and Supra. HRR60s was greater in N compared with H following Sub only (60 ± 14 vs. 52 ± 19 beats min−1, P = 0.016). Ln rMSSD was greater in N compared with H (post Sub: 3.60 ± 0.45 vs. 3.28 ± 0.44 ms in N and H, respectively, and post Supra: 2.66 ± 0.54 vs. 2.65 ± 0.63 ms, main condition effect P = 0.02). When comparing the difference in the changes, hypoxia decreased HRR60s (−14.3% ± 17.2 vs. 5.2% ± 19.3; following Sub and Supra, respectively; P = 0.03) and Ln rMSSD (−8.6% ± 7.0 vs. 2.0% ± 13.3, following Sub and Supra, respectively; P = 0.08, Cohen’s effect size = 0.62) more following Sub than Supra. While hypoxia may delay parasympathetic reactivation following submaximal exercise, its effect is not apparent following supramaximal exercise. This may suggest that the effect of blood O2 partial pressure on parasympathetic reactivation is limited

  10. Time of Day Differences in Neural Reward Functioning in Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jamie E M; Hughes, Matthew E; Rossell, Susan L; Johnson, Sheri L; Murray, Greg

    2017-09-13

    Reward function appears to be modulated by the circadian system, but little is known about the neural basis of this interaction. Previous research suggests that the neural reward response may be different in the afternoon; however, the direction of this effect is contentious. Reward response may follow the diurnal rhythm in self-reported positive affect, peaking in the early afternoon. An alternative is that daily reward response represents a type of prediction error, with neural reward activation relatively high at times of day when rewards are unexpected (i.e., early and late in the day). The present study measured neural reward activation in the context of a validated reward task at 10.00 h, 14.00 h, and 19.00 h in healthy human males. A region of interest BOLD fMRI protocol was used to investigate the diurnal waveform of activation in reward-related brain regions. Multilevel modeling found, as expected, a highly significant quadratic time-of-day effect focusing on the left putamen (p < 0.001). Consistent with the "prediction error" hypothesis, activation was significantly higher at 10.00 h and 19.00 h compared with 14.00 h. It is provisionally concluded that the putamen may be particularly important in endogenous priming of reward motivation at different times of day, with the pattern of activation consistent with circadian-modulated reward expectancies in neural pathways (i.e., greater activation to reward stimuli at unexpected times of day). This study encourages further research into circadian modulation of reward and underscores the methodological importance of accounting for time of day in fMRI protocols.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This is one of the first studies to use a repeated-measures imaging procedure to explore the diurnal rhythm of reward activation. Although self-reported reward (most often operationalized as positive affect) peaks in the afternoon, the present findings indicate that neural activation is lowest at this time. We conclude that the

  11. Effects of exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide on exercise performance and myocardial perfusion in young healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Adir, Y.; Merdler, A.; Ben, H; Front, A.; Harduf, R.; Bitterman, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), as commonly measured in atmospheric urban air pollution and certain occupational environments, on exercise performance and myocardial perfusion in young healthy men, and the possible need for tighter restrictions on ambient concentrations of CO. METHODS: 15 young, healthy non-smoking men, 18-35 years old, were exposed blindly and randomly to air or to a mixture of CO and air, followed by an exercise treadmill test with thallium heart scintigraphy. Blood was drawn for determination of carboxyhaemoglobin before and at the end of the exposure, and for lactic and pyruvic acid at the beginning and the end of the exercise test. The main outcome measures include the duration of the exercise test, the maximal effort expressed in metabolic equivalent units (METs), the mean plasma lactic to pyruvic acid ratio at the end of the ergometry, ECG changes in the exercise test, and perfusion deficits in thallium heart scintigraphy. RESULTS: At the end of exposure to CO, the mean (SD) blood carboxyhaemoglobin concentration rose from 0.59% (0.08%) to 5.12% (0.65%) (p < 0.0001). At the end of the exercise period, the mean (SD) plasma lactate/pyruvate ratio, which reflects the level of anaerobic metabolism (69.9 (5.9) after air and 75.9 (7.0) after CO), was not significantly different between the two experimental groups. Exercise induced electrocardiographic changes were noted in only one subject after exposure to CO. No arrhythmias were detected in any of the subjects. Significant differences were found in the mean duration of the exercise test (p = 0.0012) and the METs (p = 0.0001). The mean adjusted difference of exercise duration between exposure to air and CO was 1.52 minutes 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.73 to 2.32 minutes. The mean adjusted difference of METs between exposure to air and CO was 2.04 95% CI 1.33 to 2.76. The models for duration of exercise and METs showed no

  12. Are Healthy Diets that follow The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) associated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in men and women?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2005 DGA is a government promulgated healthy dietary pattern to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, including osteoporosis. We examined whether a diet consistent with the DGA was associated with higher BMD in men and women of the Framingham Offspring Study (FOS). We developed an index to measur...

  13. THE HEALTHY MEN STUDY: A MODEL APPROACH FOR EXAMINING POTENTIAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Healthy Men Study (HMS) is a prospective multisite community study on drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and male reproductive health. We are testing whether exposure to DBPs in drinking water may be associated with altered semen quality, a hypothesis derived from...

  14. THE HEALTHY MEN STUDY: A MODEL APPROACH FOR EXAMINING POTENTIAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Healthy Men Study (HMS) is a prospective multisite community study on drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and male reproductive health. We are testing whether exposure to DBPs in drinking water may be associated with altered semen quality, a hypothesis derived from...

  15. Comparable fMRI activity with differential behavioural performance on mental rotation and overt verbal fluency tasks in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Halari, Rozmin; Sharma, Tonmoy; Hines, Melissa; Andrew, Chris; Simmons, Andy; Kumari, Veena

    2006-02-01

    To explicate the neural correlates of sex differences in visuospatial and verbal fluency tasks, we examined behavioural performance and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) regional brain activity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during a three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation task and a compressed sequence overt verbal fluency task in a group of healthy men (n=9) and women (n=10; tested during the low-oestrogen phase of the menstrual cycle). Men outperformed women on the mental rotation task, and women outperformed men on the verbal fluency task. For the mental rotation task, men and women activated areas in the right superior parietal lobe and the bilateral middle occipital gyrus in association with the rotation condition. In addition, men activated the left middle temporal gyrus and the right angular gyrus. For verbal fluency, men activated areas in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, thalamus, left parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral lingual gyrus, and women activated areas in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and left caudate. Despite observing task related activation in the hypothesised areas in men and women, no areas significantly differentiated the two sexes. Our results demonstrate comparable brain activation in men and women in association with mental rotation and verbal fluency function with differential performance, and provide support for sex differences in brain-behaviour relationships.

  16. The effect of short-term fasting on liver and skeletal muscle lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism in healthy women and men

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Jeannie; Satapati, Santhosh; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2012-01-01

    Fasting promotes triglyceride (TG) accumulation in lean tissues of some animals, but the effect in humans is unknown. Additionally, fasting lipolysis is sexually dimorphic in humans, suggesting that lean tissue TG accumulation and metabolism may differ between women and men. This study investigated lean tissue TG content and metabolism in women and men during extended fasting. Liver and muscle TG content were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy during a 48-h fast in healthy men and women. Whole-body and hepatic carbohydrate, lipid, and energy metabolism were also evaluated using biochemical, calorimetric, and stable isotope tracer techniques. As expected, postabsorptive plasma fatty acids (FAs) were higher in women than in men but increased more rapidly in men with the onset of early starvation. Concurrently, sexual dimorphism was apparent in lean tissue TG accumulation during the fast, occurring in livers of men but in muscles of women. Despite differences in lean tissue TG distribution, men and women had identical fasting responses in whole-body and hepatic glucose and oxidative metabolism. In conclusion, TG accumulated in livers of men but in muscles of women during extended fasting. This sexual dimorphism was related to differential fasting plasma FA concentrations but not to whole body or hepatic utilization of this substrate. PMID:22140269

  17. The effect of short-term fasting on liver and skeletal muscle lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism in healthy women and men.

    PubMed

    Browning, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Jeannie; Satapati, Santhosh; Burgess, Shawn C

    2012-03-01

    Fasting promotes triglyceride (TG) accumulation in lean tissues of some animals, but the effect in humans is unknown. Additionally, fasting lipolysis is sexually dimorphic in humans, suggesting that lean tissue TG accumulation and metabolism may differ between women and men. This study investigated lean tissue TG content and metabolism in women and men during extended fasting. Liver and muscle TG content were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy during a 48-h fast in healthy men and women. Whole-body and hepatic carbohydrate, lipid, and energy metabolism were also evaluated using biochemical, calorimetric, and stable isotope tracer techniques. As expected, postabsorptive plasma fatty acids (FAs) were higher in women than in men but increased more rapidly in men with the onset of early starvation. Concurrently, sexual dimorphism was apparent in lean tissue TG accumulation during the fast, occurring in livers of men but in muscles of women. Despite differences in lean tissue TG distribution, men and women had identical fasting responses in whole-body and hepatic glucose and oxidative metabolism. In conclusion, TG accumulated in livers of men but in muscles of women during extended fasting. This sexual dimorphism was related to differential fasting plasma FA concentrations but not to whole body or hepatic utilization of this substrate.

  18. Effects of growth hormone and/or sex steroid administration on whole-body protein turnover in healthy aged women and men.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Blackman, Marc R; Herreman, Karen; Pabst, Katharine M; Harman, S Mitchell; Caballero, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    Aging is associated with reduced activities of the growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and sex steroid axes, and with decreased lean body mass and protein synthesis. Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, we studied the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone, sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate [T] in men), or GH plus sex hormone on protein turnover in healthy men (n=60) and women (n=43), aged 65 to 88 years (mean, 71+/-4.4 years). Growth hormone administration significantly increased IGF-I levels in both sexes, more markedly in men. Sex steroid administration increased the levels of estrogen and testosterone in women and men, respectively (P=.05). Protein turnover was measured before and after the 26-week treatment period by means of a primed, constant l-[1-(13)C]leucine infusion. In men, GH plus T administration increased leucine flux from 80.2+/-2.8 to 93.6+/-4.2 micromol.h-1.kg-1 (P=.02). Leucine oxidation did not change significantly after hormone treatment in either sex. Growth hormone treatment led to nonsignificant upward trends in nonoxidative leucine disposal in men (9.1+/-5.2 mol.h-1.kg-1) and women (7.6+/-7.1 mol.h-1.kg-1). Among all groups combined, changes in nonoxidative leucine disposal were directly related to those of serum IGF-I level (r=0.248, P<.02). Whole-body protein turnover increased in GH plus T-treated men (0.6+/-0.2 g protein.kg-1.d-1; P<.01). These data suggest that low-dose GH administration increases protein synthesis in healthy aged women and men, and that the coadministration of testosterone plus GH enhances this effect in elderly men.

  19. Left ventricular twist mechanics during incremental cycling and knee extension exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Alexander; Hough, John; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Richards, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics in response to incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercises. Twenty-six healthy male participants (age = 30.42 ± 6.17 years) were used to study peak twist mechanics at rest and during incremental semi-supine cycling at 30 and 60% work rate maximum (W max) and during short duration (15 s contractions) isometric knee extension at 40 and 75% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). LV twist increased from rest to 30% W max (13.21° ± 4.63° to 20.04° ± 4.76°, p < 0.001) then remained unchanged. LV systolic and diastolic twisting velocities progressively increased with exercise intensity during cycling from rest to 60% W max (twisting, 88.21° ± 20.51° to 209.05° ± 34.56° s(-1), p < 0.0001; untwisting, -93.90 (29.62)° to -267.31 (104.30)° s(-1), p < 0.0001). During the knee extension exercise, LV twist remained unchanged with progressive intensity (rest 13.40° ± 4.80° to 75% MVC 16.77° ± 5.54°, p > 0.05), whilst twisting velocity increased (rest 89.15° ± 21.77° s(-1) to 75% MVC 124.32° ± 34.89° s(-1), p < 0.01). Untwisting velocity remained unchanged from rest [-90.60 (27.19)° s(-1)] to 40% MVC (p > 0.05) then increased from 40 to 75% MVC [-98.44 (43.54)° s(-1) to -138.42 (73.29)° s(-1), p < 0.01]. Apical rotations and rotational velocities were greater than basal during all conditions and intensities (all p < 0.01). Cycling increased LV twist to 30% W max which then remained unchanged thereafter, whereas twisting velocities showed further increases to greater intensities. A novel finding is that LV twist was unaffected by incremental knee extension, yet systolic and diastolic twisting velocities augmented with isometric exercise.

  20. Ingestion of Wheat Protein Increases In Vivo Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Healthy Older Men in a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Gorissen, Stefan Hm; Horstman, Astrid Mh; Franssen, Rinske; Crombag, Julie Jr; Langer, Henning; Bierau, Jörgen; Respondek, Frederique; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2016-09-01

    Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis and the capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis after food intake. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response is modulated by the amount, source, and type of protein consumed. It has been suggested that plant-based proteins are less potent in stimulating postprandial muscle protein synthesis than animal-derived proteins. However, few data support this contention. We aimed to assess postprandial plasma amino acid concentrations and muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of a substantial 35-g bolus of wheat protein hydrolysate compared with casein and whey protein. Sixty healthy older men [mean ± SEM age: 71 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 25.3 ± 0.3] received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]-phenylalanine and ingested 35 g wheat protein (n = 12), 35 g wheat protein hydrolysate (WPH-35; n = 12), 35 g micellar casein (MCas-35; n = 12), 35 g whey protein (Whey-35; n = 12), or 60 g wheat protein hydrolysate (WPH-60; n = 12). Plasma and muscle samples were collected at regular intervals. The postprandial increase in plasma essential amino acid concentrations was greater after ingesting Whey-35 (2.23 ± 0.07 mM) than after MCas-35 (1.53 ± 0.08 mM) and WPH-35 (1.50 ± 0.04 mM) (P < 0.01). Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates increased after ingesting MCas-35 (P < 0.01) and were higher after ingesting MCas-35 (0.050% ± 0.005%/h) than after WPH-35 (0.032% ± 0.004%/h) (P = 0.03). The postprandial increase in plasma leucine concentrations was greater after ingesting Whey-35 than after WPH-60 (peak value: 580 ± 18 compared with 378 ± 10 μM, respectively; P < 0.01), despite similar leucine contents (4.4 g leucine). Nevertheless, the ingestion of WPH-60 increased myofibrillar protein synthesis rates above basal rates (0.049% ± 0.007%/h; P = 0.02). The myofibrillar protein synthetic response to the ingestion of 35 g casein is greater than after an

  1. Yellow maize with high β-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A in healthy Zimbabwean men1234

    PubMed Central

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Siwela, Andrew H; Grusak, Michael A; Russell, Robert M; Tang, Guangwen

    2011-01-01

    Background: The bioconversion efficiency of yellow maize β-carotene to retinol in humans is unknown. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the vitamin A value of yellow maize β-carotene in humans. Design: High β-carotene–containing yellow maize was grown in a hydroponic medium with 23 atom% 2H2O during grain development. Yellow maize β-carotene showed the highest abundance of enrichment as [2H9]β-carotene. Eight healthy Zimbabwean men volunteered for the study. On day 1 after a fasting blood draw, subjects consumed 300 g yellow maize porridge containing 1.2 mg β-carotene, 20 g butter, and a 0.5-g corn oil capsule. On day 8, fasting blood was drawn, and subjects consumed 1 mg [13C10]retinyl acetate in a 0.5-g corn oil capsule and 300 g white maize porridge with 20 g butter. Thirty-six blood samples were collected from each subject over 36 d. Concentrations and enrichments of retinol and β-carotene in labeled doses and serum were determined with the use of HPLC, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: The area under the curve (AUC) of retinol from 1.2 mg yellow maize β-carotene was 72.9 nmol · d, and the AUC of retinol from 1 mg retinyl acetate 13C10 was 161.1 nmol · d. The conversion factor of yellow maize β-carotene to retinol by weight was 3.2 ± 1.5 to 1. Conclusion: In 8 healthy Zimbabwean men, 300 g cooked yellow maize containing 1.2 mg β-carotene that was consumed with 20.5 g fat showed the same vitamin A activity as 0.38 mg retinol and provided 40–50% of the adult vitamin A Recommended Dietary Allowance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00636038. PMID:21715509

  2. Protein Ingestion before Sleep Increases Overnight Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Healthy Older Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kouw, Imre Wk; Holwerda, Andrew M; Trommelen, Jorn; Kramer, Irene Fleur; Bastiaanse, Jacqueline; Halson, Shona L; Wodzig, Will Kwh; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2017-08-30

    Background: The loss of skeletal muscle mass with aging has been attributed to the blunted anabolic response to protein intake. Presleep protein ingestion has been suggested as an effective strategy to compensate for such anabolic resistance.Objective: We assessed the efficacy of presleep protein ingestion on dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics and overnight muscle protein synthesis rates in older men.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel design, 48 older men (mean ± SEM age: 72 ± 1 y) ingested 40 g casein (PRO40), 20 g casein (PRO20), 20 g casein plus 1.5 g leucine (PRO20+LEU), or a placebo before sleep. Ingestion of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine- and l-[1-(13)C]-leucine-labeled protein was combined with intravenous l-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine and l-[1-(13)C]-leucine infusions during sleep. Muscle and blood samples were collected throughout overnight sleep.Results: Exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased after protein ingestion, but to a greater extent in PRO40 than in PRO20 and PRO20+LEU (P < 0.05). Overnight myofibrillar protein synthesis rates (based on l-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine) were 0.033% ± 0.002%/h, 0.037% ± 0.003%/h, 0.039% ± 0.002%/h, and 0.044% ± 0.003%/h in placebo, PRO20, PRO20+LEU, and PRO40, respectively, and were higher in PRO40 than in placebo (P = 0.02). Observations were similar based on l-[1-(13)C]-leucine tracer (placebo: 0.047% ± 0.004%/h and PRO40: 0.058% ± 0.003%/h, P = 0.08). More protein-derived amino acids (l-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine) were incorporated into myofibrillar protein in PRO40 than in PRO20 (0.033 ± 0.002 and 0.019 ± 0.002 MPE, respectively, P < 0.001) and tended to be higher than in PRO20+LEU (0.025 ± 0.002 MPE, P = 0.06).Conclusions: Protein ingested before sleep is properly digested and absorbed throughout the night, providing precursors for myofibrillar protein synthesis during sleep in healthy older men. Ingestion of 40 g protein before sleep increases myofibrillar

  3. Reference ranges for testosterone in men generated using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in a community-based sample of healthy nonobese young men in the Framingham Heart Study and applied to three geographically distinct cohorts.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Shalender; Pencina, Michael; Jasuja, Guneet Kaur; Travison, Thomas G; Coviello, Andrea; Orwoll, Eric; Wang, Patty Y; Nielson, Carrie; Wu, Frederick; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Labrie, Fernand; Vesper, Hubert; Zhang, Anqi; Ulloor, Jagadish; Singh, Ravinder; D'Agostino, Ralph; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2011-08-01

    Reference ranges are essential for partitioning testosterone levels into low or normal and making the diagnosis of androgen deficiency. We established reference ranges for total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) in a community-based sample of men. TT was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in nonobese healthy men, 19-40 yr old, in the Framingham Heart Study Generation 3; FT was calculated. Values below the 2.5th percentile of reference sample were deemed low. We determined the association of low TT and FT with physical dysfunction, sexual symptoms [European Male Aging Study (EMAS) only], and diabetes mellitus in three cohorts: Framingham Heart Study generations 2 and 3, EMAS, and the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. In a reference sample of 456 men, mean (sd), median (quartile), and 2.5th percentile values were 723.8 (221.1), 698.7 (296.5), and 348.3 ng/dl for TT and 141. 8 (45.0), 134.0 (60.0), and 70.0 pg/ml for FT, respectively. In all three samples, men with low TT and FT were more likely to have slow walking speed, difficulty climbing stairs, or frailty and diabetes than those with normal levels. In EMAS, men with low TT and FT were more likely to report sexual symptoms than men with normal levels. Men with low TT and FT were more likely to have at least one of the following: sexual symptoms (EMAS only), physical dysfunction, or diabetes. Reference ranges generated in a community-based sample of men provide a rational basis for categorizing testosterone levels as low or normal. Men with low TT or FT by these criteria had higher prevalence of physical dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, and diabetes. These reference limits should be validated prospectively in relation to incident outcomes and in randomized trials.

  4. Differential responses of circulating amylin to high-fat vs. high-carbohydrate meal in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Eller, Lindsay K; Ainslie, Philip N; Poulin, Marc J; Reimer, Raylene A

    2008-06-01

    The success of an amylin analogue in weight loss trials has generated interest in amylin as a physiological satiety signal. Little is known about how plasma amylin responds to macronutrients. This study examined the effects of a high-carbohydrate meal (CHO), a high-fat meal (FAT) or a continued fast (FAST) on amylin concentrations and correlations among other satiety hormones and measures of appetite. In a randomized, crossover design, 10 healthy males consumed a meal high in carbohydrate or fat or continued fasted. Blood samples and subjective hunger scores were obtained at baseline and 30, 90 and 210 min postprandial. After CHO, amylin, insulin and C-peptide were greater and des-acyl ghrelin lower compared to FAT (P < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) was greater for amylin and insulin and lower for des-acyl ghrelin following CHO. Subjective satiety and fullness were higher for CHO and FAT than FAST at 30 and 90 min but only for CHO at 210 min (P < 0.01). Hunger and desire to eat were lower for CHO and FAT than FAST at 30 and 90 min but only for CHO at 210 min (P < 0.005). Amylin was negatively correlated to hunger, desire to eat, and nausea and positively related to satiety and insulin. Des-acyl ghrelin was negatively associated with C-peptide, insulin and GLP-1 and satiety. CHO enhances amylin and suppresses des-acyl ghrelin to a greater extent than FAT in healthy men. The mechanisms responsible for these changes and their implications in the physiology of satiety remain to be elucidated.

  5. Caffeinated coffee consumption impairs blood glucose homeostasis in response to high and low glycemic index meals in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Moisey, Lesley L; Kacker, Sita; Bickerton, Andrea C; Robinson, Lindsay E; Graham, Terry E

    2008-05-01

    The ingestion of caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight) and a 75-g oral glucose load has been shown to elicit an acute insulin-insensitive environment in healthy and obese individuals and in those with type 2 diabetes. In this study we investigated whether a similar impairment in blood glucose management exists when coffee and foods typical of a Western diet were used in a similar protocol. Ten healthy men underwent 4 trials in a randomized order. They ingested caffeinated (5 mg/kg) coffee (CC) or the same volume of decaffeinated coffee (DC) followed 1 h later by either a high or low glycemic index (GI) cereal (providing 75 g of carbohydrate) mixed meal tolerance test. CC with the high GI meal resulted in 147%, 29%, and 40% greater areas under the curve for glucose (P < 0.001), insulin (NS), and C-peptide (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with the values for DC. Similarly, with the low GI treatment, CC elicited 216%, 44%, and 36% greater areas under the curve for glucose (P < 0.001), insulin (P < 0.01), and C-peptide (P < 0.01), respectively. Insulin sensitivity was significantly reduced (40%) with the high GI treatment after CC was ingested compared with DC; with the low GI treatment, CC ingestion resulted in a 29% decrease in insulin sensitivity, although this difference was not significant. The ingestion of CC with either a high or low GI meal significantly impairs acute blood glucose management and insulin sensitivity compared with ingestion of DC. Future investigations are warranted to determine whether CC is a risk factor for insulin resistance.

  6. Lack of effect of supplementation with EPA or DHA on platelet-monocyte aggregates and vascular function in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Cottin, S C; Alsaleh, A; Sanders, T A B; Hall, W L

    2016-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oil are postulated to have favourable effects on platelet, endothelial and vascular function. We investigated whether EPA has differential effects on in vivo platelet aggregation and other markers of cardiovascular risk compared to DHA. Following a 2 wk run-in taking encapsulated refined olive oil, 48 healthy young men were randomly allocated using a parallel design to receive EPA-rich (3.1 g EPA/d) or DHA-rich (2.9 g DHA/d) triglyceride concentrates or refined olive oil (placebo), for a total supplementary lipid intake of 5 g/d. The specified primary outcome was change in platelet monocyte aggregates (PMA); secondary outcomes were capillary density, augmentation index, digital pulse volume measurements, 24 h ambulatory BP, plasma 8-isoprostanes-F2α. Changes in the proportions of DHA and EPA in erythrocytes and non-esterified fatty acid composition indicated compliance to the intervention. There was no significant treatment effect on PMA (P = 0.382); mean changes (%) (95% CI) were placebo -0.5 (-2.0, 1.04), EPA 0.4 (-0.8, 1.6), DHA 0.3 (-1.5, 2.0). R-QUICKI, an index of insulin sensitivity, was greater following EPA compared to placebo (P < 0.05). No other significant differences were noted. Neither EPA- nor DHA-rich fish oil supplementation influence platelet-monocyte aggregation or several markers of vascular function after 6 wk in healthy young males. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01735357. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impaired Postural Control in Healthy Men at Moderate Altitude (1630 M and 2590 M): Data from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Clark, Ross A.; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intact postural control is essential for safe performance of mountain sports, operation of machinery at altitude, and for piloting airplanes. We tested whether exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at moderate altitude impairs the static postural control of healthy subjects. Methods In 51 healthy men, median age 24 y (quartiles 20;28), static control was evaluated on a balance platform in Zurich, 490 m, and during a 4-day sojourn in Swiss mountain villages at 1630 m and 2590 m, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Total center of pressure path length (COPL) and sway amplitude measured in two directions by a balance platform, and pulse oximetry were recorded. Data were compared between altitudes. Results Median (quartiles) COPL during standing on both legs with eyes open at 490 m and in the evenings on the first and second days at 1630 and 2590 m, respectively were: 50 (45;57), 55 (48;62), 56 (49;61), 53 (47;59), 54 (48;60) cm, P<0.001 ANOVA. Corresponding arterial oxygen saturation was 97% (96;97), 95% (94;96), 95%(94;96), 92%(90;93), 93%(91;93), P<0.001. Anterior-posterior sway amplitudes were larger at 1630 and 2590 m compared to 490 m, P<0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that higher altitudes (1630 and 2590m) were independently associated with increased COPL when controlled for the order of altitude exposure and age (P=0.001). Conclusions Exposure to 1630 and 2590m was associated with impaired static postural control even when visual references were available. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948. PMID:25723529

  8. Sex hormones and adipokines in healthy pre-menopausal, post-menopausal and elderly women, and in age-matched men: data from the Brisighella Heart study.

    PubMed

    Cicero, A F G; Magni, P; Lentini, P; Ruscica, M; Dozio, E; Strollo, F; Borghi, C

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormones and adipokines seem to differently interact in both genders at different ages. To comparatively evaluate the serum level of adipokines and sex hormones in healthy non-pharmacologically treated premenopausal women, post-menopausal women, and elderly women, and in age-matched men. From the historical cohort of the Brisighella Heart Study we selected 199 adult healthy subjects (males: 89; females: 110), aged 62.5±12.4 yr. Men and women included in the age-class subgroups were matched for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, fasting plasma glucose, plasma lipids. Leptin did not differ among various age classes in men, while pre-menopausal women displayed significantly lower serum leptin than post-menopausal women (-6.7 ± 2.2 pg/ml, p=0.036). Post-menopausal women had significantly greater serum leptin when compared with age-matched men (+13.1 ± 2.0 pg/ml, p<0.001); the same was observed for elderly women when compared with elderly men (+11.2 ± 2.3 pg/ml, p<0.001). At any age, women had significantly lower serum testosterone/estrone ratio than age-matched men (p<0.01). Serum DHEAS was inversely proportional to age in both genders. The main predictors of adiponectin level are age in men (p=0.027) and BMI in women (p=0.003). The main predictors of leptin level are BMI and the testosterone/estrone ratio in both sexes (p<0.05). The testosterone/estrone ratio is also the main predictor of ghrelin levels in women (p=0.006). Sex hormones and adipokines show specific interactions in the two genders and in different age-classes in a representative sample of adult healthy subjects.

  9. The Effect of Short-Term Dietary Fructose Supplementation on Gastric Emptying Rate and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Adora M. W.; McLaughlin, John; Maughan, Ronald J.; Gilmore, William; Evans, Gethin H.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the 13C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in accelerated gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. No differences in GIP, GLP-1, or insulin incremental area under curve (iAUC) were found between control and supplement trials for either fructose or glucose ingestion. However, a trend for lower ghrelin iAUC was observed for FS compared to FC. In addition, a trend of lower GHR concentration was observed at 45 min for FS compared to FC and GHR concentration for GS was greater than GC at 10 min. The accelerated gastric emptying rate of fructose following short-term supplementation with fructose may be partially explained by subtle changes in delayed postprandial ghrelin suppression. PMID:28287413

  10. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-01-29

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00-21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00-05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe--as compared to moderate--sleep restriction.

  11. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calcium (Ca) - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish) and Atlantic cod (lean fish) in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Methods Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3). Results Mean Ca absorption (± SEE) from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 ± 1.7%, 22.5 ± 1.7% and 27.4 ± 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3), respectively. Conclusion We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements. PMID:20646299

  12. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design.

    PubMed

    Malde, Marian K; Bügel, Susanne; Kristensen, Mette; Malde, Ketil; Graff, Ingvild E; Pedersen, Jan I

    2010-07-20

    Calcium (Ca) - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish) and Atlantic cod (lean fish) in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3). Mean Ca absorption (+/- SEE) from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 +/- 1.7%, 22.5 +/- 1.7% and 27.4 +/- 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3), respectively. We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements.

  13. Effect of fat free mass on serum and plasma BDNF concentrations during exercise and recovery in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Gilder, M; Ramsbottom, R; Currie, J; Sheridan, B; Nevill, A M

    2014-02-07

    Exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor into the circulation; however, little is known about the changes in serum and plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations and factors influencing brain derived neurotrophic factor during exercise and recovery. Serum (n=23) and plasma (n=10) brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations were measured in healthy young men at rest, during steady-rate and after exercise to determine the maximum aerobic power. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in blood during exercise and recovery, with one between-subject factor (a median split on: age, height, body mass, fat free mass, body mass index and aerobic fitness), and one within-subject factor (time). Serum brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations increased in response to exercise and declined rapidly in recovery. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor had a greater proportional increase relative to exhaustive exercise compared with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and was slower to return to near baseline values. There was a significant group-by-time interaction indicating a greater release and faster recovery for serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in high- compared with low-fat free mass individuals.

  14. Free cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase levels during a six-hour-water immersion in healthy young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohleder, N.; Wirth, D.; Fraßl, W.; Kowoll, R.; Schlemmer, M.; Vogler, S.; Kirsch, K. A.; Kirschbaum, C.; Gunga, H.-C.

    2005-08-01

    Limited data are available on the response of stress systems to microgravity. Increased activity of stress systems is reported during space flight, but unchanged or decreased activity during simulated microgravity. We here investigated the impact of head-out water immersion on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system.Eight healthy young men were exposed to a six-hour water immersion in a thermo neutral bath and a control condition. Saliva samples were taken before, during, and after interventions to assess cortisol as an index for HPA axis activity, and salivary α-amylase as an index for SAM system activity.Cortisol levels uniformly decreased during both conditions. Amylase levels increased during both conditions, but were significantly lower during the first half of water immersion compared to the control condition.In conclusion, the HPA axis is not influenced by simulated microgravity, while SAM system activity shows initial decreases during water immersion.

  15. Effect of heat exposure and exercise on food intake regulation: A randomized crossover study in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Faure, Cécile; Charlot, Keyne; Henri, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    The effect of physical activity on food intake regulation may be moderated by environmental temperature. The aim of the study was to determine the single and combined effects of metabolic activity and temperature on energy intake and its hormonal regulation. A randomized crossover study was conducted in the laboratory. Ten healthy and physically active young Afro-Caribbean men participated in four experimental sessions (rest at 22°C and 31°C and cycling at 60% of their maximal oxygen uptake at 22°C and 31°C, all for 40 min). Each test period was followed by a 30-min recovery period and then an ad libitum meal. The main outcome measures were energy balance, subjective appetite, and plasma pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK) and ghrelin concentrations. Relative energy intake was significantly decreased whereas plasma PP was increased in the exercise conditions (p=0.004 and p=0.002, respectively). Postprandial levels of CCK were elevated only in the rest conditions. Exposure to heat induced a decrease in plasma ghrelin (p=0.031). Exercise induced a short-term energy deficit. However, modifications in the hormonal regulation of food intake in response to short-term heat or heat and exercise exposure seem to be minor and did not induce changes in energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157233. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The Effect of Short-Term Dietary Fructose Supplementation on Gastric Emptying Rate and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Yau, Adora M W; McLaughlin, John; Maughan, Ronald J; Gilmore, William; Evans, Gethin H

    2017-03-10

    This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the (13)C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in accelerated gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. No differences in GIP, GLP-1, or insulin incremental area under curve (iAUC) were found between control and supplement trials for either fructose or glucose ingestion. However, a trend for lower ghrelin iAUC was observed for FS compared to FC. In addition, a trend of lower GHR concentration was observed at 45 min for FS compared to FC and GHR concentration for GS was greater than GC at 10 min. The accelerated gastric emptying rate of fructose following short-term supplementation with fructose may be partially explained by subtle changes in delayed postprandial ghrelin suppression.

  17. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P < 0.0001) respectively; however, the relative intake of fluid to food (mL/kcal) increased (P < 0.0001). Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P < 0.001) and diet cola (P < 0.0001). Baseline thirst correlated positively with both fluid (r = 0.28; P < 0.001) and food (r = 0.16; P < 0.05) intakes at the meal, whereas baseline appetite associated positively only with mealtime food intake (r = 0.23; P<0.01). In conclusion, mealtime fluid and food intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective slow wave sleep but not rapid eye movement sleep suppression impairs morning glucose tolerance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Nina; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Hyzy, Franziska; Richter, Annekatrin; Friedrich, Alexia; Benedict, Christian; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2013-10-01

    Shortened nocturnal sleep impairs morning glucose tolerance. The underlying mechanism of this effect is supposed to involve a reduced fraction of slow wave sleep (SWS). However, it remains unanswered if impaired glucose tolerance occurs due to specific SWS reduction or a general disturbance of sleep. Sixteen healthy men participated in three experimental conditions in a crossover design: SWS suppression, rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep disturbance, and regular sleep. Selective sleep stage disturbance was performed by means of an acoustic tone (532Hz) with gradually rising sound intensity. Blood concentrations of glucoregulatory parameters were measured upon an oral glucose tolerance test the next morning. Our data show that morning plasma glucose and serum insulin responses were significantly increased after selective SWS suppression. Moreover, SWS suppression reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity up to 20%, as determined by Matsuda Index. Contrastingly, disturbed REM-sleep did not affect glucose homeostasis. We conclude that specifically SWS reduction is critically involved in the impairment of glucose tolerance associated with disturbed sleep. Therefore, glucose metabolism in subjects predisposed to reduced SWS (e.g. depression, aging, obstructive sleep apnea, pharmacological treatment) should be thoroughly monitored.

  19. Diurnal salivary cortisol in relation to perceived stress at home and at work in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Sjörs, Anna; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the association between diurnal salivary cortisol profile and perceived stress at work and at home. Healthy participants (N=180, 52% women) collected saliva cortisol samples immediately after waking up, 15 min later, 30 min later, and at 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00. The area under the cortisol awakening curve with respect to ground (AUCgCAR) and increase (AUCiCAR), and diurnal slope between 9:00 and 21:00 were analyzed. Perceived stress at work and at home was measured with the Stress-Energy Questionnaire. Participants reporting stress at home had significantly lower AUCgCAR and a flatter diurnal slope. When performing separate analyses for men and women, this association was only significant among women. Perceived stress at work was not associated with any cortisol measure. This study highlights the importance of stress outside the workplace. The sex differences may indicate an increased vulnerability to non-work stress in women.

  20. Effect of sodium alginate addition to chocolate milk on glycemia, insulin, appetite and food intake in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, D; Goff, H D; Berengut, S; Kubant, R; Anderson, G H

    2014-05-01

    Sodium alginate reduces appetite and glycemia, when consumed in water- and sugar-based drinks. But, its effects when added to other commonly consumed beverages have not been reported. Because chocolate milk (CM) is criticized for raising blood glucose more than unflavored milk, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of adding a strong-gelling sodium alginate to CM on glycemia, insulinemia, appetite and food intake. In a randomized crossover design, 24 men (22.9±0.4 years; 22.5±0.3 kg/m(2)) were provided with isovolumetric (325 ml) treatments of CM, 1.25% alginate CM, 2.5% alginate CM or 2.5% alginate solution. Sodium alginate had a ratio of 0.78:1 of mannuronic acid (M) to guluronic acid (G) residues, and was block distributed. Treatments were standardized for lactose, sucrose and calcium content, and provided 120 min before an ad libitum pizza meal during which food intake was measured. Appetite and blood glucose and insulin were measured at baseline and at intervals pre- and post-meal. Addition of 2.5% alginate to CM reduced peak glucose concentrations, at 30 min, by an average of 6% and 13% compared with 1.25% alginate CM (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.02-1.08; P=0.037) and CM alone (95% CIs: 0.49-1.55; P=0.000) respectively. Insulin peaks at 30 min were lower by 46% after 2.5% alginate CM relative to CM (95% CIs: 3.49-31.78; P=0.009). Pre-meal appetite was attenuated dose dependently by alginate addition to CM; CM with 2.5% alginate reduced mean appetite by an average of 134% compared with CM alone (95% CIs: 8.87-18.98; P=0.000). However, total caloric intake at the pizza meal did not differ among treatments. The addition of a strong-gelling sodium alginate to CM decreases pre-meal glycemia, insulinemia and appetite, but not caloric intake at a meal 2 h later, in healthy adult men.

  1. Repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise increase circulating cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA without development of tolerance in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Robert; Walczak, Konrad; Kosielski, Piotr; Meissner, Pawel; Budlewski, Tomasz; Padula, Gianluca; Nowak, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Acute single strenuous exercise increases circulating cell free DNA (cf DNA). We tested whether three repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced the cf DNA response without development of tolerance in healthy men. Eleven average-trained men (age 34.0±5.2 years, body mass index 26.2±3.1 kg/m2, maximal oxygen consumption-VO2max 49.6±4.5 ml/kg*min) performed three treadmill exercise tests to exhaustion at speed corresponding to 70% VO2max separated by 72 hours of resting. Blood was collected before and after each bout of exercise for determination of cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (cf n-DNA, cf mt-DNA) by real-time PCR, selected markers of muscle damage, and blood cell count. Each bout induced the increase (p<0.05) in plasma cf n-DNA: from 3.4±1.4 to 38.5±27.5, from 4.1±3.3 to 48.5±26.2, and 3.1±1.6 to 53.8±39.9 ng/mL after the first, second, and third exercise, respectively. In a congruent way, cf mt-DNA rose significantly after the second (from 229±216 to 450±228*103 GE/mL) and third bout of exercise (from 173±120 to 462±314*103 GE/mL). Pre-exercise cf mt-DNA decreased (p<0.05) by 2-times (from 355±219 before the first bout to 173±120*103 GE/mL before the third bout) over the study period and were accompanied by significant increase in white blood cells, platelets, creatine kinase, creatinine and lactate after each bout. However, the exercise induced percentage increment of cf n-DNA was always many times higher than corresponding increments of the afore-mentioned markers at any occasion. Repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced remarkable increase in circulating cf n-DNA without signs of tolerance development. Baseline cf mt-DNA decreased in response to series of strenuous exercise. Since percentage increments of cf n-DNA in response to exercise were many times higher than those observed for other markers, measurement of circulating cf n-DNA could be a sensitive tool for monitoring acute exercise effects in human body.

  2. Impact of Male Hormonal Contraception on Prostate Androgens and Androgen Action in Healthy Men: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Lin, Daniel W.; Amory, John K.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Marck, Brett T.; Nelson, Peter S.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Bremner, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Male hormonal contraception (MHC) combines hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis blockade with exogenous androgen delivery to maintain extragonadal androgen end-organ effects. Concern exists that MHC may adversely impact prostate health. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the molecular impact of MHC on intraprostatic androgen concentrations and androgen action. Design: This was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: 32 healthy men aged 25–55 yr participated in the study. Intervention: Interventions included placebo, daily transdermal testosterone (T) (T-gel), T-gel + depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (T+DMPA), or T-gel + dutasteride daily (T+D) for 12 wk, and prostate biopsy during treatment wk 10. Main Outcome Measures: Serum and prostate androgen concentrations and prostate epithelial-cell gene expression were measured. Results: Thirty men completed the study. Serum T levels were significantly increased in T-gel and T+D groups compared with baseline (P < 0.05) but were decreased with the addition of DMPA. Intraprostatic androgens were no different from placebo with T-gel treatment. Addition of DMPA to T resulted in 40% lower intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration (P = 0.0273 vs. placebo), whereas combining dutasteride with T resulted in a 90% decrease in intraprostatic DHT (P = 0.0012), 11-fold increased intraprostatic T (P = 0.0011), and 7-fold increased intraprostatic androstenedione (P = 0.0011). Significant differences in global or androgen-regulated prostate epithelial-cell gene expression were not observed. Androgen-regulated gene expression correlated with epithelial-cell androgen receptor and prostatic DHT in placebo, T-gel, and T+DMPA arms and with T and androstenedione levels in the T+D arm. Conclusions: MHC regimens do not markedly alter gene expression in benign prostate epithelium, suggesting they may not alter risk

  3. Healthy lifestyle factors in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease among men: benefits among users and nonusers of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications.

    PubMed

    Chiuve, Stephanie E; McCullough, Marjorie L; Sacks, Frank M; Rimm, Eric B

    2006-07-11

    Healthy lifestyle choices such as eating a prudent diet, exercising regularly, managing weight, and not smoking may substantially reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by improving lipids, blood pressure, and other risk factors. The burden of CHD that could be avoided through adherence to these modifiable lifestyle factors has not been assessed among middle-aged and older US men, specifically men taking medications for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. We prospectively monitored 42 847 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 40 to 75 years of age and free of disease in 1986. Lifestyle factors were updated through self-reported questionnaires. Low risk was defined as (1) absence of smoking, (2) body mass index <25 kg/m2, (3) moderate-to-vigorous activity > or = 30 min/d, (4) moderate alcohol consumption (5 to 30 g/d), and (5) the top 40% of the distribution for a healthy diet score. Over 16 years, we documented 2183 incident cases of CHD (nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD). In multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, men who were at low risk for 5 lifestyle factors had a lower risk of CHD (relative risk: 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.09, 0.19) compared with men who were at low risk for no lifestyle factors. Sixty-two percent (95% CI: 49%, 74%) of coronary events in this cohort may have been prevented with better adherence to these 5 healthy lifestyle practices. Among men taking medication for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia, 57% (95% CI: 32%, 79%) of all coronary events may have been prevented with a low-risk lifestyle. Compared with men who did not make lifestyle changes during follow-up, those who adopted > or = 2 additional low-risk lifestyle factors had a 27% (95% CI: 7%, 43%) lower risk of CHD. A majority of CHD events among US men may be preventable through adherence to healthy lifestyle practices, even among those taking medications for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia.

  4. Effects of immobilisation and caloric restriction on antioxidant parameters and T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, S.; Arendt, B. M.; Boese, A.; Juschus, M.; Schaefer, S.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Goerlich, R.

    Background: Astronauts are exposed to oxidative stress due to radiation and microgravity, which might impair immune functions. Effects of hypocaloric nutrition as often observed in astronauts on oxidative stress and immune functions are not clear. We investigated, if microgravity, simulated by 6 Head-down tilt (HDT) and caloric restriction (-25%, fat reduced) with adequate supply of micronutrients affect DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes, antioxidant parameters in plasma, and T-cell apoptosis. Material & Methods: 10 healthy male non-smokers were subjected to 4 different interventions (normocaloric diet or caloric restriction (CR) in upright position (UP) or HDT) for 14 days each (cross-over). DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes (Comet Assay), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and uric acid in plasma were measured before, after 5, 10, and 13 days of intervention, and after 2 days recovery. T-cell apoptosis (Annexin V binding test) was assessed before and after intervention. Results: Preliminary results show that only endogenous, but not ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks were reduced by CR compared to normocaloric diet. In upright position, endogenous DNA strand breaks decreased continuously during CR, reaching significance after recovery. During HDT, caloric restriction seems to counteract a temporary increase in DNA strand breaks observed in subjects receiving normocaloric diet. TEAC was reduced during HDT compared to UP in subjects under caloric restriction. An increase in plasma uric acid related to intervention occurred only after 5 days HDT in CR vs. normocaloric diet. T-cell apoptosis was not affected by any kind of intervention. Conclusion: Neither HDT nor CR with sufficient supply of micronutrients seem to induce oxidative stress or T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men. In contrast, CR might prevent endogenous DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes. As DNA-damage is a risk factor for carcinogenesis, protective effects of energy reduction are

  5. Endocrine Determinants of Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion during a Weight Cycle in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Karschin, Judith; Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Müller, Manfred J.; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Objective Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL) of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear. Methods In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2) followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF), 3wks of caloric restriction (CR) containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO) and 2wks of refeeding (RF) with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI), insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose) and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion) were assessed. Results IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05). Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05) whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05) and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only). After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant. Conclusion Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and

  6. Association of self-reported familial history of cardiometabolic disease with metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy urban Colombian men.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortegón, Milton F; Arbeláez, Alejandra; Mosquera, Mildrey; Méndez, Fabian; Pradilla, Alberto; Aguilar-de Plata, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Evidence about the relationship between familial history (FH) of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Latin American populations is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of FH of CMD and of dyslipidemia and obesity with MetS in healthy men. One-hundred-twenty one individuals were recruited. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by a trained researcher using standard techniques. Glycemia and lipid profile were determined by colorimetric assays. A survey to record personal data and family antecedents in siblings, aunts/uncles, parents, and grandparents was conducted by trained interviewers. Individuals having three or more familial antecedents were associated with high triglycerides level even after adjusting by age, sedentarism, fat and carbohydrates intake, and alcohol consumption. After adjusting for the same variables, FH of dyslipidemia and hypertension was also associated with high triglycerides levels and elevated waist circumference, respectively. The FH of stroke was associated with high blood pressure after adjusting for the rest of familial antecedents, and with MetS in all adjustment models. the findings of association of this study together with the previous reports are evidence of the importance of hereditary component as independent predictor of cardiovascular risk factors and its clustering, as well as of possible specific association patterns between FH of CMD and MetS depending on evaluated population in terms of ethnic groups and geographic region. Further studies are required in other populations, as well as exploration of genetic markers of CMD regarding to MetS. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Short-Term Exposure to Ozone Does Not Impair Vascular Function or Affect Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Barath, Stefan; Langrish, Jeremy P.; Blomberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, yet the role of individual pollutants remains unclear. In particular, there is uncertainty regarding the acute effect of ozone exposure on cardiovascular disease. In these studies, we aimed to determine the effect of ozone exposure on vascular function, fibrinolysis, and the autonomic regulation of the heart. Thirty-six healthy men were exposed to ozone (300 ppb) and filtered air for 75min on two occasions in randomized double-blind crossover studies. Bilateral forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography before and during intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators 2–4 and 6–8h after each exposure. Heart rhythm and heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during and 24h after exposure. Compared with filtered air, ozone exposure did not alter heart rate, blood pressure, or resting FBF at either 2 or 6h. There was a dose-dependent increase in FBF with all vasodilators that was similar after both exposures at 2–4h. Ozone exposure did not impair vasomotor or fibrinolytic function at 6–8h but rather increased vasodilatation to acetylcholine (p = .015) and sodium nitroprusside (p = .005). Ozone did not affect measures of HRV during or after the exposure. Our findings do not support a direct rapid effect of ozone on vascular function or cardiac autonomic control although we cannot exclude an effect of chronic exposure or an interaction between ozone and alternative air pollutants that may be responsible for the adverse cardiovascular health effects attributed to ozone. PMID:23872581

  8. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable. PMID:26834381

  9. Infant milk fat droplet size and coating affect postprandial responses in healthy adult men: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, S; van de Heijning, B J M; Acton, D; Mensink, R P

    2017-09-01

    Fat droplets in human milk (HM) are larger and surrounded by a phospholipid membrane compared with infant milk formulas (IMF). Since the physical structure of fat droplets might affect digestion and postprandial metabolism, an IMF was developed more mimicking HM lipid structure than current IMF. A randomised, double-blind, crossover study was performed in 29 fasted healthy men (aged 18-25 years, BMI: 18-25 kg/m(2)) to compare 5-hour postprandial responses after consumption of an experimental IMF (Concept, Nuturis) with a current IMF (Control). Postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations tended to increase faster after intake of Concept IMF (P=0.054), but peaked 3 h after intakes at similar concentrations. ApoB48 increased steadily and peaked 3 h after consumption. Increases in plasma glucose concentrations were comparable, but peak concentrations were reached faster after consumption of Concept IMF (P<0.05). Peak insulin concentrations were higher and reached earlier after intake of Concept IMF, causing a sharper decremental glucose rebound (P<0.05) and an earlier time to nadir in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations (P<0.01). Changes in plasma amino acids (AA), apoB100 and apoA1 were comparable. The incremental or decremental areas under-the-curve did not differ between Concept and Control IMF. Satiety scores and changes in the satiety hormones ghrelin and peptide YY were comparable, while cholecystokinin responses were earlier and higher after consumption of Control IMF (P<0.05). This proof-of-concept study suggests that fats and carbohydrates from the Concept IMF with larger and phospholipid-coated fat droplets are more rapidly absorbed than those from the current IMF.

  10. Effects of a growth hormone-releasing hormone analog on endogenous GH pulsatility and insulin sensitivity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Takara L; Chen, Cindy Y; Branch, Karen L; Makimura, Hideo; Grinspoon, Steven K

    2011-01-01

    Strategies to augment pulsatile GH may be beneficial in patients with excess visceral adiposity, in whom GH secretion is reduced. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a novel GHRH (GHRH(1-44)) analog, tesamorelin, on endogenous GH pulsatility and insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Thirteen males (mean age 45 ± 3 yr and body mass index 27.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)) received tesamorelin 2 mg sc once daily for 2 wk, with assessment made at baseline, after 2 wk of treatment, and after 2 wk of withdrawal. The primary end point was change in mean overnight GH as determined by overnight frequent sampling. Secondary end points included insulin-stimulated glucose uptake as measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp; IGF-I; and GH secretion parameters, including pulse area, pulse frequency, and basal secretion. Tesamorelin treatment increased mean overnight GH (change +0.5 ± 0.1 μg/liter, P = 0.004), average log(10) GH peak area (change +0.4 ± 0.1 log(10) μg/liter, P = 0.001), and basal GH secretion (change +0.008 ± 0.003 μg/liter · min, P = 0.008). IGF-I increased by 181 ± 22 μg/liter (P < 0.0001). Neither fasting glucose (P = 0.93) nor insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (P = 0.61) was significantly affected by tesamorelin. Once-daily short-term treatment with a GHRH(1-44) analog, tesamorelin, augments basal and pulsatile GH secretion. Moreover, although tesamorelin significantly increases IGF-I, peripheral insulin-stimulated glucose uptake appears to be preserved.

  11. Investigation of the effect on photosensitivity following multiple oral dosing of two different hypericum extracts in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hans-Ulrich; Schürer, Michael; Bässler, Dagmar; Weiser, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The naphthodiantrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, ingredients of hypericum extracts, are known as potent photosensitizers that may cause phototoxic effects in grazing animals after excessive ingestion of hypericum species and in some cases in higher concentrations of hypericum extracts oder pure hypericin in humans as well. Therefore, the objective of the present studies was to investigate the effect of two different hypericum extracts (STW 3, STW 3-VI) on photosensitivity with respect to minimal erythema dose (MED) after 14 days treatment. Both open, multiple-dose, one-phase studies were conducted in 20 healthy men, receiving one tablet per day. MED values were determined prior to hypericum extract administration (baseline) and after 14 days treatment using an erythem tester emitting a light very similar to sun light (main emission spectrum: 285-350 nm). Skin reactions with respect to MED were evaluated 12 h, 24 h (primary endpoint), 48 h and 7 days after irradiation. All volunteers reached steady-state of hypericin/pseudohypericin plasma concentrations before study day 14, when the irradiation under treatment conditions took place. In all subjects MED was measurable under baseline and under hypericum treatment conditions. With respect to the primary endpoint, in both studies, mean MED (24 h) were not significantly different between baseline and after 14 days hypericum treatment. However, individually photosensitivity of the skin could increase under treatment conditions, just as well photosensitivity could decrease or remain unchanged. There were no clinically relevant changes in the laboratory parameters, the vital signs, physical findings and other observations related to safety during the examinations. In one study (STW 3), two adverse events were reported, both described as hypersensitivity to light in mild Intensity. The two studies showed that treatment with the two hypericum extracts under steady state and under prescribed conditions were safe

  12. Association of cigarette smoking with reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy adult men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Chen, Yi-Ling; Kantaria, Khyati N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in 192 healthy men 20-65 years old, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Exposure to cigarette smoking was classified three ways based on: 1) smoking status (yes vs. no); 2) the number of cigarettes per day (0, 1-10, > 10); and 3) pack-years (0, 1-10, 11-20, > 20). Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and total estradiol (TE) were measured. Semen quality, including concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology, were assessed. Mean levels of smoking, semen quality, and hormones were compared using the multiple linear regression, while controlling for possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), cadmium levels in seminal plasma, and alcohol consumption. Current smokers, who smoked 10 cigarettes per day, had a lower mean percentage of normal morphology (3.2% and 5.5% in nonsmokers, P = 0.040), and a higher mean level of TT (454.7 pmol/L and 439.8 pmol/L in nonsmokers, P = 0.048), as compared with nonsmokers. Also, current smokers at > 20 pack-year had a lower percentage of normal morphology and a lower mean level of TT as compared with nonsmokers; no significant difference was observed in LH, FSH, sperm concentration, vitality, and motility between smokers and nonsmokers based on the number of cigarette per day and the pack-year. Sperm vitality statistically correlated with FSH (β = -0.36 P = 0.015) and TE (β = 0.35, P = 0.018), while motility statistically correlated with TT (β = 0.228, P = 0.045). Normal morphology did not statistically correlated with all reproductive hormones.

  13. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable.

  14. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men

    PubMed Central

    Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E’) to late (A’) diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E’/A’) and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  15. Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Gayoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Jang-Ho; Lee, Hoon-Sang; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD). We took blood samples periodically until 240 min after alcohol consumption, and we investigated the blood profiles, alcohol levels, and acetaldehyde levels. We also measured anthropometric parameters, expiratory air-alcohol levels, and hangover symptoms. The plasma alcohol concentrations within the RGD group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min (p = 0.002), 45 min (p = 0.016), and 60 min (p = 0.009); the areas under the response curves revealed a positive effect of RGD (p = 0.051). Furthermore, the expiratory alcohol concentration was significantly lower after 30 min (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.065), and the areas under the response curves (p = 0.058) likewise revealed a positive effect of RGD. The plasma acetaldehyde level was significantly elevated at 120 min (p = 0.020), but the areas under the response curves showed a similar trend (p = 0.054). While the plasma acetaldehyde concentration slightly increased, the RGD showed positive effects on hangover symptoms. Considering the reduction of plasma alcohol levels, expiratory concentrations, and hangover severity, we conclude that red ginseng relieves the symptoms of alcohol hangover.

  16. The Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Effects of LGD-4033, a Novel Nonsteroidal Oral, Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Basaria, Shehzad; Collins, Lauren; Dillon, E. Lichar; Orwoll, Katie; Storer, Thomas W.; Miciek, Renee; Ulloor, Jagadish; Zhang, Anqi; Eder, Richard; Zientek, Heather; Gordon, Gilad; Kazmi, Syed; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Background. Concerns about potential adverse effects of testosterone on prostate have motivated the development of selective androgen receptor modulators that display tissue-selective activation of androgenic signaling. LGD-4033, a novel nonsteroidal, oral selective androgen receptor modulator, binds androgen receptor with high affinity and selectivity. Objectives. To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects of ascending doses of LGD-4033 administered daily for 21 days on lean body mass, muscle strength, stair-climbing power, and sex hormones. Methods. In this placebo-controlled study, 76 healthy men (21–50 years) were randomized to placebo or 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg LGD-4033 daily for 21 days. Blood counts, chemistries, lipids, prostate-specific antigen, electrocardiogram, hormones, lean and fat mass, and muscle strength were measured during and for 5 weeks after intervention. Results. LGD-4033 was well tolerated. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. Frequency of adverse events was similar between active and placebo groups. Hemoglobin, prostate-specific antigen, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, or QT intervals did not change significantly at any dose. LGD-4033 had a long elimination half-life and dose-proportional accumulation upon multiple dosing. LGD-4033 administration was associated with dose-dependent suppression of total testosterone, sex hormone–binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. follicle-stimulating hormone and free testosterone showed significant suppression at 1.0-mg dose only. Lean body mass increased dose dependently, but fat mass did not change significantly. Hormone levels and lipids returned to baseline after treatment discontinuation. Conclusions. LGD-4033 was safe, had favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and increased lean body mass even during this short period without change in prostate-specific antigen. Longer randomized trials should

  17. The safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects of LGD-4033, a novel nonsteroidal oral, selective androgen receptor modulator, in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad; Collins, Lauren; Dillon, E Lichar; Orwoll, Katie; Storer, Thomas W; Miciek, Renee; Ulloor, Jagadish; Zhang, Anqi; Eder, Richard; Zientek, Heather; Gordon, Gilad; Kazmi, Syed; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Bhasin, Shalender

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about potential adverse effects of testosterone on prostate have motivated the development of selective androgen receptor modulators that display tissue-selective activation of androgenic signaling. LGD-4033, a novel nonsteroidal, oral selective androgen receptor modulator, binds androgen receptor with high affinity and selectivity. Objectives. To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects of ascending doses of LGD-4033 administered daily for 21 days on lean body mass, muscle strength, stair-climbing power, and sex hormones. In this placebo-controlled study, 76 healthy men (21-50 years) were randomized to placebo or 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg LGD-4033 daily for 21 days. Blood counts, chemistries, lipids, prostate-specific antigen, electrocardiogram, hormones, lean and fat mass, and muscle strength were measured during and for 5 weeks after intervention. LGD-4033 was well tolerated. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. Frequency of adverse events was similar between active and placebo groups. Hemoglobin, prostate-specific antigen, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, or QT intervals did not change significantly at any dose. LGD-4033 had a long elimination half-life and dose-proportional accumulation upon multiple dosing. LGD-4033 administration was associated with dose-dependent suppression of total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. follicle-stimulating hormone and free testosterone showed significant suppression at 1.0-mg dose only. Lean body mass increased dose dependently, but fat mass did not change significantly. Hormone levels and lipids returned to baseline after treatment discontinuation. LGD-4033 was safe, had favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and increased lean body mass even during this short period without change in prostate-specific antigen. Longer randomized trials should evaluate its efficacy in improving physical function

  18. Short-term exposure to ozone does not impair vascular function or affect heart rate variability in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Barath, Stefan; Langrish, Jeremy P; Lundbäck, Magnus; Bosson, Jenny A; Goudie, Colin; Newby, David E; Sandström, Thomas; Mills, Nicholas L; Blomberg, Anders

    2013-10-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, yet the role of individual pollutants remains unclear. In particular, there is uncertainty regarding the acute effect of ozone exposure on cardiovascular disease. In these studies, we aimed to determine the effect of ozone exposure on vascular function, fibrinolysis, and the autonomic regulation of the heart. Thirty-six healthy men were exposed to ozone (300 ppb) and filtered air for 75min on two occasions in randomized double-blind crossover studies. Bilateral forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography before and during intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators 2-4 and 6-8h after each exposure. Heart rhythm and heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during and 24h after exposure. Compared with filtered air, ozone exposure did not alter heart rate, blood pressure, or resting FBF at either 2 or 6h. There was a dose-dependent increase in FBF with all vasodilators that was similar after both exposures at 2-4h. Ozone exposure did not impair vasomotor or fibrinolytic function at 6-8h but rather increased vasodilatation to acetylcholine (p = .015) and sodium nitroprusside (p = .005). Ozone did not affect measures of HRV during or after the exposure. Our findings do not support a direct rapid effect of ozone on vascular function or cardiac autonomic control although we cannot exclude an effect of chronic exposure or an interaction between ozone and alternative air pollutants that may be responsible for the adverse cardiovascular health effects attributed to ozone.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kelley, D S; Taylor, P C; Nelson, G J; Schmidt, P C; Ferretti, A; Erickson, K L; Yu, R; Chandra, R K; Mackey, B E

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as triacylglycerol on the fatty acid composition, eicosanoid production, and select activities of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). A 120-d study with 11 healthy men was conducted at the Metabolic Research Unit of Western Human Nutrition Reach Center. Four subjects (control group) were fed the stabilization diet throughout the study; the remaining seven subjects were fed the basal diet for the first 30 d, followed by 6 g DHA/d for the next 90 d. DHA replaced an equivalent amount of linoleic acid; the two diets were comparable in their total fat and all other nutrients. Both diets were supplemented with 20 mg D alpha-tocopherol acetate per day. PBMNC fatty acid composition and eicosanoid production were examined on day 30 and 113; immune cell functions were tested on day 22, 30, 78, 85, 106, and 113. DHA feeding increased its concentration from 2.3 to 7.4 wt% in the PBMNC total lipids, and decreased arachidonic acid concentration from 19.8 to 10.7 wt%. It also lowered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production, in response to lipopolysaccharide, by 60-75%. Natural killer cell activity and in vitro secretion of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly reduced by DHA feeding. These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.

  20. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men.

    PubMed

    Krzemiński, K; Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E') to late (A') diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E'/A') and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E' ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect.

  1. Myosin content of single muscle fibers following short-term disuse and active recovery in young and old healthy men.

    PubMed

    Hvid, Lars G; Brocca, Lorenza; Ørtenblad, Niels; Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Kjaer, Michael; Bottinelli, Roberto; Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    Short-term disuse and subsequent recovery affect whole muscle and single myofiber contractile function in young and old. While the loss and recovery of single myofiber specific force (SF) following disuse and rehabilitation has been shown to correlate with alterations in myosin concentrations in young, it is unknown whether similar relationships exist in old. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 14days lower limb disuse followed by 28days of active recovery on single muscle fiber myosin content in old (68yrs) and young (24yrs) recreationally physically active healthy men. Following disuse, myosin content decreased (p<0.05) in MHC 1 (young -28%, old -19%) and 2a fibers (young -23%, old -32%). In old, myosin content decreased more (p<0.05) in MHC 2a vs 1 fibers. Following recovery, myosin content increased (p<0.05) and returned to pre-disuse levels for both young and old in both fiber types, with MHC 2a fibers demonstrating an overshooting in young (+31%, p<0.05) but not old. Strong correlations were observed between myosin content and single fiber SF in both young and old, with greater slope steepness in MHC 2a vs 1 fibers indicating an enhanced intrinsic contractile capacity of MHC 2a fibers. In conclusion, adaptive changes in myofiber myosin content appear to occur rapidly following brief periods of disuse (2wks) and after subsequent active recovery (4wks) in young and old, which contribute to alterations in contractile function at the single muscle fiber level. Changes in myosin content appear to occur independently of age, while influenced by fiber type (MHC isoform) in young but not old. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of eating marine- or vegetable-fed farmed trout on the human plasma proteome profiles of healthy men.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Maria L; Lametsch, René; Bügel, Susanne; Jessen, Flemming; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-02-28

    Most human intervention studies have examined the effects on a subset of risk factors, some of which may require long-term exposure. The plasma proteome may reflect the underlying changes in protein expression and activation, and this could be used to identify early risk markers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of regular fish intake on the plasma proteome. We recruited thirty healthy men aged 40 to 70 years, who were randomly allocated to a daily meal of chicken or trout raised on vegetable or marine feeds. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 weeks of intervention, and after the removal of the twelve most abundant proteins, plasma proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots < 66 kDa with a pI > 4·3 visualised by silver staining were matched by two-dimensional imaging software. Within-subject changes in spots were compared between the treatment groups. Differentially affected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight/time of flight MS and the human Swiss-Prot database. We found 23/681 abundant plasma protein spots, which were up- or down-regulated by the dietary treatment (P < 0·05, q < 0·30), and eighteen of these were identified. In each trout group, ten spots differed from those in subjects given the chicken meal, but only three of these were common, and only one spot differed between the two trout groups. In both groups, the affected plasma proteins were involved in biological processes such as regulation of vitamin A and haem transport, blood fibrinolysis and oxidative defence. Thus, regular fish intake affects the plasma proteome, and the changes may indicate novel mechanisms of effect.

  3. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  4. Cortisol responses to mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Endrighi, Romano; Venuraju, Shreenidhi M; Lahiri, Avijit; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The mechanisms are incompletely understood, although dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis might be involved. We examined the association between cortisol responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Participants were 466 healthy men and women (mean age = 62.7±5.6 yrs), without history or objective signs of CHD, drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. At the baseline assessment salivary cortisol was measured in response to mental stressors, consisting of a 5-min Stroop task and a 5-min mirror tracing task. CAC was measured at baseline and at 3 years follow up using electron beam computed tomography. CAC progression was defined as an increase >10 Agatston units between baseline and follow up. 38.2% of the sample demonstrated CAC progression over the 3 years follow up. There was considerable variation in the cortisol stress response, with approximately 40% of the sample responding to the stress tasks with an increase in cortisol of at least 1 mmol/l. There was an association between cortisol stress reactivity (per SD) and CAC progression (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.02-1.60) after adjustments for age, sex, pre-stress cortisol, employment grade, smoking, resting systolic BP, fibrinogen, body mass index, and use of statins. There was no association between systolic blood pressure reactivity and CAC progression (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.85-1.24). Other independent predictors of CAC progression included age, male sex, smoking, resting systolic blood pressure, and fibrinogen. Results demonstrate an association between heightened cortisol reactivity to stress and CAC progression. These data support the notion that cortisol reactivity, an index of HPA function, is one of the possible mechanisms through which psychosocial stress may influence the risk of CHD.

  5. The glycemic response does not reflect the in vivo starch digestibility of fiber-rich wheat products in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Eelderink, Coby; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C W; Wang, Hongwei; Schepers, Marianne; Preston, Tom; Boer, Theo; Vonk, Roel J; Schierbeek, Henk; Priebe, Marion G

    2012-02-01

    Starchy food products differ in the rate of starch digestion, which can affect their metabolic impact. In this study, we examined how the in vivo starch digestibility is reflected by the glycemic response, because this response is often used to predict starch digestibility. Ten healthy male volunteers [age 21 ± 0.5 y, BMI 23 ± 0.6 kg/m² (mean ± SEM)] participated in a cross-over study, receiving three different meals: pasta with normal wheat bran (PA) and bread with normal (CB) or purple wheat bran (PBB). Purple wheat bran was added in an attempt to decrease the rate of starch digestion. The meals were enriched in ¹³C and the dual isotope technique was applied to calculate the rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE). The ¹³C-isotopic enrichment of glucose in plasma was measured with GC/combustion/isotope ratio MS (IRMS) and liquid chromatography/IRMS. Both IRMS techniques gave similar results. Plasma glucose concentrations [2-h incremental AUC (iAUC)] did not differ between the test meals. The RaE was similar after consumption of CB and PBB, showing that purple wheat bran in bread does not affect in vivo starch digestibility. However, the iAUC of RaE after men consumed PA was less than after they consumed CB (P < 0.0001) despite the similar glucose response. To conclude, the glycemic response does not always reflect the in vivo starch digestibility. This could have implications for intervention studies in which the glycemic response is used to characterize test products.

  6. A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole induces significant cardiac autonomic responses in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Cristiane M; Navega, Marcelo T; Abreu, Luiz C; Ferreira, Celso; Cardoso, Marco A; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ribeiro, Vivian L; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Flexible poles can provide rapid eccentric and concentric muscle contractions. Muscle vibration is associated with a "tonic vibration reflex” that is stimulated by a sequence of rapid muscle stretching, activation of the muscle spindles and stimulation of a response that is similar to the myotatic reflex. Literature studies analyzing the acute cardiovascular responses to different exercises performed with this instrument are lacking. We investigated the acute effects of exercise with flexible poles on the heart period in healthy men. METHOD: The study was performed on ten young adult males between 18 and 25 years old. We evaluated the heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains. The subjects remained at rest for 10 min. After the rest period, the volunteers performed the exercises with the flexible poles. Immediately after the exercise protocol, the volunteers remained seated at rest for 30 min and their heart rate variability was analyzed. RESULTS: The pNN50 was reduced at 5-10 and 15-20 min after exercise compared to 25-30 min after exercise (p = 0.0019), the SDNN was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to at rest and 0-10 min after exercise (p = 0.0073) and the RMSSD was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-15 min after exercise (p = 0.0043). The LF in absolute units was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-20 min after exercise (p = 0.0184). CONCLUSION: A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole reduced the heart rate variability and parasympathetic recovery was observed approximately 30 min after exercise. PMID:25318090

  7. In vivo lumbar erector spinae oxygenation and blood volume measurements in healthy men during seated whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Maikala, Rammohan V; Bhambhani, Yagesh N

    2006-09-01

    Exposure to whole-body vibration is implicated as one of the occupational risk factors for lower back disorders; however, its influence on the lumbar muscle physiology is still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of backrest support and hand grip contractions on lumbar muscle oxygenation and blood volume responses during seated whole-body vibration using continuous dual-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Thirteen healthy men were exposed to frequencies of 3, 4.5 and 6 Hz on a vibration simulator, in randomized order on separate days. Each day the duration of the protocol was 30 min. During the fifth minute of vibration 'with' and 'without' backrest support, participants performed maximal rhythmic hand grip contractions for 1 min. In general, erector spinae oxygenation and blood volume showed a trend to decrease with vibration exposure compared to the control condition. However, these responses were not influenced by the change in vibration frequency (P > 0.05). Sitting without backrest resulted in a greater decrease in oxygenation (by 27%, P = 0.02) and blood volume (by 11%, P = 0.05) than with backrest, implying a deficiency in oxygen supply owing to the sitting posture. Compared to the vibration-only condition, hand grip work decreased both oxygenation (by 22%, P = 0.003) and blood volume responses (by 13%, P = 0.04), suggesting that postural load due to prolonged sitting combined with physical activity during vibration might further burden paraspinal muscles. The influence of adipose tissue thickness of the lumbar muscle on optically derived oxygenation and blood volume changes was inconclusive.

  8. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (β-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6–3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0–7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  9. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-12-30

    To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18-84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable 'healthy lifestyle behaviour'. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  10. Age-stratified cut-off points for the nocturnal penile tumescence measurement using Nocturnal Electrobioimpedance Volumetric Assessment (NEVA(®) ) in sexually active healthy men.

    PubMed

    Tok, A; Eminaga, O; Burghaus, L; Herden, J; Akbarov, I; Engelmann, U; Wille, S

    2016-08-01

    The current nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) measurement is based on standard cut-off levels defined regardless of age. This study was conducted to provide age-stratified cut-off points for NPT measurement. Forty sexually active healthy men between 20 and 60 years old were enrolled and divided equally into four groups defined by age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-60 years.). None of the candidates had sexual dysfunction or sleep disturbance or used supportive medication to enhance sexual function. Erectile function was evaluated by using the 5-item version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5). NPT was observed using the nocturnal electrobioimpedance volumetric assessment (NEVA(®) ). The NPT values of healthy men aged 20-60 years varied from 268.7% to 202.3%. The NPT differed significantly between age groups (P < 0.0009); however, no significant differences between men aged 30-39 and 40-49 (P = 0.593) were observed. Age was weakly associated with IIEF-5 scores (P = 0.004), whereas a strong and negative correlation between age and NPT (P < 0.0001) was found. IEF-5 scores were not significantly associated with NPT (P = 0.95). Therefore, the standard values for NPT testing should be considered in the evaluation of the nocturnal penile activity of men of all ages. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    PubMed Central

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. Methods We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was used as the statistical model. Results During 53,302 person-years of observation, 571 participants were hospitalized for infection. Similarly, during 26,125 person-years of observation, 7,276 participants filled a prescription of antimicrobials. LGI was associated with increased risk of hospital-based treatment for infection only among men (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–2.34) and specifically infections were abscesses and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Similarly, LGI was associated with the overall use of antimicrobials among men, and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin and broad-spectrum antimicrobials for treatment of urinary tract infections. The difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Conclusions In a large cohort of healthy individuals, LGI was associated with an increased risk of infection among healthy male blood donors. PMID:27701463

  12. Effects of DHEA administration on episodic memory, cortisol and mood in healthy young men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Alhaj, Hamid A; Massey, Anna E; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2006-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to enhance cognition in rodents, although there are inconsistent findings in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHEA administration in healthy young men on episodic memory and its neural correlates utilising an event-related potential (ERP) technique. Twenty-four healthy young men were treated with a 7-day course of oral DHEA (150 mg b.d.) or placebo in a double blind, random, crossover and balanced order design. Subjective mood and memory were measured using visual analogue scales (VASs). Cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva samples. ERPs were recorded during retrieval in an episodic memory test. Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to identify brain regions involved in the cognitive task. DHEA administration led to a reduction in evening cortisol concentrations and improved VAS mood and memory. Recollection accuracy in the episodic memory test was significantly improved following DHEA administration. LORETA revealed significant hippocampal activation associated with successful episodic memory retrieval following placebo. DHEA modified ERPs associated with retrieval and led to a trend towards an early differential activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). DHEA treatment improved memory recollection and mood and decreased trough cortisol levels. The effect of DHEA appears to be via neuronal recruitment of the steroid sensitive ACC that may be involved in pre-hippocampal memory processing. These findings are distinctive, being the first to show such beneficial effects of DHEA on memory in healthy young men.

  13. Unusually low prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples from infertile men and healthy controls: a prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Plecko, Vanda; Zele-Starcevic, Lidija; Tripkovic, Vesna; Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana; Plesko, Sanja; Marekovic, Ivana; Jensen, Jorgen Skov

    2014-08-25

    To detect Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples of infertile men and men without any signs of infection in order to investigate whether M. genitalium and other genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp) are found more often in urine samples of infertile men than in asymptomatic controls and to determine resistance to macrolides. The study included first void urine samples taken from 145 infertile men and 49 men with no symptoms of urethritis. M. genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were detected by commercial PCR. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by microscopy and culture. M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp were detected by culture. M. genitalium was detected by in-house conventional and real-time PCR. Two M. genitalium positive samples were found among samples obtained from infertile men. All asymptomatic men were M. genitalium negative. Macrolide resistance was not found in either of the two positive samples. In comparison with reported data, an unusually low prevalence of M. genitalium was found in infertile men. The reasons for this unexpected result are not known; possibly, local demographic and social characteristics of the population influenced the result. Further studies to investigate M. genitalium in infertile and other groups of patients are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. No difference between high-fructose and high-glucose diets on liver triacylglycerol or biochemistry in healthy overweight men.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard D; Stephenson, Mary C; Crossland, Hannah; Cordon, Sally M; Palcidi, Elisa; Cox, Eleanor F; Taylor, Moira A; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Macdonald, Ian A

    2013-11-01

    Diets high in fructose have been proposed to contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We compared the effects of high-fructose and matched glucose intake on hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration and other liver parameters. In a double-blind study, we randomly assigned 32 healthy but centrally overweight men to groups that received either a high-fructose or high-glucose diet (25% energy). These diets were provided during an initial isocaloric period of 2 weeks, followed by a 6-week washout period, and then again during a hypercaloric 2-week period. The primary outcome measure was hepatic level of TAG, with additional assessments of TAG levels in serum and soleus muscle, hepatic levels of adenosine triphosphate, and systemic and hepatic insulin resistance. During the isocaloric period of the study, both groups had stable body weights and concentrations of TAG in liver, serum, and soleus muscle. The high-fructose diet produced an increase of 22 ± 52 μmol/L in the serum level of uric acid, whereas the high-glucose diet led to a reduction of 23 ± 25 μmol/L (P < .01). The high-fructose diet also produced an increase of 0.8 ± 0.9 in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, whereas the high-glucose diet produced an increase of only 0.1 ± 0.7 (P = .03). During the hypercaloric period, participants in the high-fructose and high-glucose groups had similar increases in weight (1.0 ± 1.4 vs 0.6 ± 1.0 kg; P = .29) and absolute concentration of TAG in liver (1.70% ± 2.6% vs 2.05% ± 2.9%; P = .73) and serum (0.36 ± 0.75 vs 0.33 ± 0.38 mmol/L; P = .91), and similar results in biochemical assays of liver function. Body weight changes were associated with changes in liver biochemistry and concentration of TAGs. In the isocaloric period, overweight men who were on a high-fructose or a high-glucose diet did not develop any significant changes in hepatic concentration of TAGs or serum levels of liver enzymes. However, in the

  15. Try to be healthy, but don't forgo your masculinity: deconstructing men's health discourse in the media.

    PubMed

    Gough, Brendan

    2006-11-01

    The emergence of discourse around men's health has been evident now for at least 10 years across academic, policy and media texts. However, recent research has begun to question some of the assumptions presented concerning masculinity and men's health, particularly within popular media representations. The present paper builds on previous research by interrogating the construction of men's health presented in a recent special feature of a UK national newspaper (The Observer, November 27, 2005). The dataset was subjected to intensive scrutiny using techniques from discourse analysis. Several inter-related discursive patterns were identified which drew upon essentialist notions of masculinity, unquestioned differences between men and women, and constructions of men as naïve, passive and in need of dedicated help. The implications of such representations for health promotion are discussed.

  16. Cortisol Responses to Mental Stress and the Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Endrighi, Romano; Venuraju, Shreenidhi M.; Lahiri, Avijit; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The mechanisms are incompletely understood, although dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis might be involved. We examined the association between cortisol responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods and Results Participants were 466 healthy men and women (mean age = 62.7±5.6 yrs), without history or objective signs of CHD, drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. At the baseline assessment salivary cortisol was measured in response to mental stressors, consisting of a 5-min Stroop task and a 5-min mirror tracing task. CAC was measured at baseline and at 3 years follow up using electron beam computed tomography. CAC progression was defined as an increase >10 Agatston units between baseline and follow up. 38.2% of the sample demonstrated CAC progression over the 3 years follow up. There was considerable variation in the cortisol stress response, with approximately 40% of the sample responding to the stress tasks with an increase in cortisol of at least 1 mmol/l. There was an association between cortisol stress reactivity (per SD) and CAC progression (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.02–1.60) after adjustments for age, sex, pre-stress cortisol, employment grade, smoking, resting systolic BP, fibrinogen, body mass index, and use of statins. There was no association between systolic blood pressure reactivity and CAC progression (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.85–1.24). Other independent predictors of CAC progression included age, male sex, smoking, resting systolic blood pressure, and fibrinogen. Conclusion Results demonstrate an association between heightened cortisol reactivity to stress and CAC progression. These data support the notion that cortisol reactivity, an index of HPA function, is one of the possible mechanisms through which psychosocial stress may

  17. Influence of oxygen concentration on T cell proliferation and susceptibility to apoptosis in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Waskowska, Agnieszka; Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Daca, Agnieszka; Henc, Izabella; Brandberg, Fredrik; Mazurek, Paula; Brzustewicz, Edyta; Witkowski, Jacek M; Bryl, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Much of what we know about the functioning of human T lymphocytes is based on the experiments carried out in atmospheric oxygen (O₂) concentrations, which are significantly higher than those maintained in blood. Interestingly, the gender differences in the activity of T cells and their susceptibility to apoptosis under different O₂ conditions have not yet been described. The aim of the study was to compare two main markers of lymphocyte function: proliferation capacity and ability to produce cytokines as well as their susceptibility to apoptosis under two different O₂ concentrations, between men and women. 25 healthy volunteers, both males (13) and females (12) were recruited to the study (mean age 25.48 ± 5.51). By using cytometry proliferation parameters of human CD4+ CD28+ cells or CD8+CD28+ cells in response to polyclonal stimulation of the TCR/CD3 complex at atmospheric (21%) and physiological (10%) O₂ concentrations using our modified dividing cell tracking technique (DCT) were analyzed as well as the percentages of apoptotic cells. We also determined the levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17A using Cytometric Bead Array Flex system in cell culture supernatants. CD4+CD28+ and CD8+CD28+ cells from the whole study group were characterized by shorter time required to enter the first (G1) phase of the first cell cycle at 21% compared to 10% O₂. Both T cell populations performed significantly more divisions at 21% O₂. The percentages of dividing cells were also significantly higher at atmospheric O₂. Interestingly, data analysis by gender showed that male lymphocytes had similar proliferative parameters at both O₂ concentrations while female lymphocytes proliferate more efficiently (note from the author: we cannot say that lymphocytes proliferate faster, rather more effectively, because cells perform more divisions, which gives more percentage of offspring cells) at 21% oxygen. Compared to males, the female CD4+ cells showed increased

  18. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p < 0.001; peak insulin level: 370.4 ± 66.5 vs. 109.6 ± 21.5 pmol/l; t(14) = 4.563, p < 0.001) followed by a sharp decline in glycaemia to a nadir of 3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l (vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l at the corresponding time in the control condition; t(14) = -3.972, p = 0.001) after stopping the infusion. Despite this wide glycemic fluctuation in the glucose infusion condition subjective feelings of hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety.

  19. Serum prostate-specific antigen is better correlated to body surface area than body mass index in a population of healthy Korean men.

    PubMed

    Song, Miho; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Song, Yun Seob; Kim, Yongbae

    2010-06-01

    It has been suggested that the larger vascular volume among obese men causes a dilution effect, decreasing the concentration of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, plasma volume is proportional to body surface area (BSA) rather than to body mass index (BMI). We determined whether serum PSA level is better correlated to BSA than BMI in a population of ostensibly healthy Korean men. Data from 2604 men who visited our health promotion center were evaluated. All men underwent anthropometric measurements, digital rectal examination, serum PSA determination, and transrectal ultrasound examination. The correlation between serum PSA and other parameters was statistically analyzed. The mean age was 49.9 years and the mean serum PSA level was 1.14 ng/mL. The multivariate analysis revealed that the serum PSA was positively correlated with age, prostate volume, and negatively correlated with BSA only and not with BMI. In addition, BSA, rather than BMI, was the significant factor in predicting the prostate volume. Our results suggest that men with larger BSA (rather than BMI), have larger prostate volumes, and lower serum PSA.

  20. The relationships between plasma adrenomedullin and endothelin-1 concentrations and Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular function during static exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Krzemiński, Krzysztof; Pawłowska-Jenerowicz, Wiesława

    2012-06-01

    Our previous study showed a significant relationships between static exercise-induced changes in plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) and those in endothelin-1 (ET-1), noradrenaline (NA) and pre-ejection period/left ventricular ejection time ratio (PEP/LVET) in older healthy men. It is hypothesized that ADM, ET-1, NA and adrenaline (A) may function as endogenous regulators of cardiac function by modulating myocardial contractility during static exercise. The present study was undertaken to assess the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma ADM, ET-1, NA, A concentrations and those in ascending aortic blood flow peak velocity (PV) and mean acceleration (MA) measured by Doppler echocardiography in 24 healthy older men during two 3-min bouts of handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, performed alternately with each hand without any break between the bouts. Plasma ADM, ET-1, NA and A as well as heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), PV and MA were determined. During handgrip, plasma ADM, ET-1, NA and A as well as HR, BP increased, whereas PV and MA decreased. The increases in plasma ADM correlated positively with those in ET-1, NA and diastolic BP, and correlated negatively with changes in PV (r= -0.68) and MA (r= -0.62). The increases in plasma ET-1 correlated positively with those in NA and BPs and correlated negatively with changes in PV (r= -0.67) and MA (r= -0.60). The results of this study suggest that in healthy older men the exercise-induced changes in plasma ADM, ET 1 and catecholamines are related to alterations in left ventricular contractile state and may co-operatively counteract age-related deterioration of cardiac performance in men.

  1. Kegel Exercises for Men: Understand the Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Kegel exercises for men can help improve bladder control and possibly improve sexual performance. ... 13, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/mens-health/in-depth/kegel-exercises-for-men/ ...

  2. 'It is safe to use if you are healthy': A discursive analysis of men's online accounts of ephedrine use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Grogan, Sarah; Gough, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Ephedrine use in sport is a common practice among men. Less well understood is men's use of ephedrine as a slimming aid. Arguably fuelled by the 'war on obesity' and the drive for muscularity, the Internet has become awash with claims presenting ephedrine as safe. The use of this psychoactive substance can have acute health implications such as tachycardia, arrhythmias and cardiovascular disease. Given the tension between health risk and ephedrine-induced weight loss, how men justify their use of ephedrine becomes an important question. In particular, we wished to analyse how male users talked to others about ephedrine in discussions linked to an online version of a popular men's magazine. Because we were particularly interested in how men accounted for their ephedrine use, we used discourse analysis to examine their posts. In analysing the data, we noted that a 'community of practice' was constructed online categorising legitimate (and barred) users, emphasising the benefits of ephedrine and downplaying health-defeating side effects. Our analysis has clear implications for engaging men who use ephedrine in health promotion interventions.

  3. Effects of caffeine and stress on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in healthy men and women with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jeanette M; Rodrigues, Isabella M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2013-12-01

    The connection between caffeine and its potentially detrimental effects on blood markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are controversial. Most studies have focused on cholesterol as a putative mediator of the caffeine-CVD relationship. Other blood markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen have been understudied. We examined the effects of caffeine and psychological stress on these CVD markers in healthy, young men and women with a confirmed family history of hypertension. A total of 52 normotensive, healthy adults (26 men and 26 women) aged 18-29 years (21.4 ± 0.3) participated in a laboratory session to examine stress reactivity following caffeine consumption. All participants had normal cholesterol levels. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate, serum cortisol and CRP and plasma fibrinogen were collected. Men and women administered caffeine displayed an additional increase in systolic BP and cortisol response to the stressor (p < 0.05). Stress interacted with caffeine and sex to alter cortisol, fibrinogen and systolic BP but not CRP levels. These results may shed light on sex-specific pathways that associate caffeine with CVD.

  4. Lack of relationships between cumulative methylprednisolone dose and bone mineral density in healthy men and postmenopausal women with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Dubois, E F; Wagemans, M F; Verdouw, B C; Zwinderman, A H; Van Boxtel, C J; Dekhuijzen, P N R; Schweitzer, D H

    2003-02-01

    The medical use of glucocorticoids (GCs) is related to low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the cumulative dose of GC is not related to BMD outcome. The study was cross-sectional in design and included healthy individuals with chronic low back pain resistant to conventional treatments. In two steroid-naive subjects cortisol and methylprednisolone (MP) concentrations were serially assessed after a single MP depot injection (160 mg epidurally). Furthermore, in 14 men and 14 postmenopausal women, previously treated with multiple epidural MP depots, endocrine parameters were analysed in relation to BMD outcomes. The minimal cumulative MP dose received by all 28 subjects was 3 g. In the two steroid-naive subjects, cortisol concentrations were completely suppressed for at least 6 days and partly recovered over the course of 30 days. During this period, MP concentrations remained detectable in plasma. In the 28 subjects, the cumulative MP dose received was 7.76+/-4.23 g in the men and 8.50+/-3.13 g in the women (mean+/-1SD). None of the men had osteoporosis, but osteopenia was prevalent in 78.5% according to WHO criteria extrapolated to men. Half of the women had osteoporosis and half of them had osteopenia. The body mass index (BMI) and endogenous oestradiol levels of the men were not related to BMD outcomes. Univariate linear relationships in women were found between BMI and spinal ( r 0.62; P=0.02) and total hip BMD ( r 0.61; P=0.03), but not femoral neck BMD. In women, relationships were also found between the total and, for protein binding-corrected oestradiol levels, and spinal BMD ( r 0.70; P=0.01 and r 0.72; P=0.01, respectively) and total hip BMD ( r 0.53; P=0.08 and r 0.56; P=0.05, respectively). No significance was observed between endogenous oestradiol levels and the BMD of the femoral neck. The administration of a single MP depot injection (160 mg) resembled a systemic low peak dose GC exposure. The administration of

  5. Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet exerts favorable effects on metabolic parameters, intima-media thickness, and cardiovascular risks in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Yu; Li, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Lin, Jin-Rong; Yan, Bing; Yu, Ya-Xin; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Can-Dong; Li, Wei-Hua

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether the Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet has protective effects on metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD). One hundred sixty-nine healthy Chinese lacto-vegetarians and 126 healthy omnivore men aged 21-76 years were enrolled. Anthropometric indexes, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, pancreatic β cell function, and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries were assessed and compared. Cardiovascular risk points and probability of developing CVD in 5-10 years in participants aged 24-55 years were calculated. Compared with omnivores, lacto-vegetarians had remarkably lower body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, γ-glutamyl transferase, serum creatinine, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, as well as lower total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. Vegetarians also had higher homeostasis model assessment β cell function and insulin secretion index and thinner carotid IMT than the omnivores did. These results corresponded with lower cardiovascular risk points and probability of developing CVD in 5-10 years in vegetarians 24-55 years old. In healthy Chinese men, the lacto-vegetarian diet seems to exert protective effects on blood pressure, lipid profiles, and metabolic parameters and results in significantly lower carotid IMT. Lower CVD risks found in vegetarians also reflect the beneficial effect of the Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet.

  6. The effect of sex on immune cells in healthy aging: Elderly women have more robust natural killer lymphocytes than do elderly men.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Ahmad; Presnell, Steven R; Peterson, Charlotte A; Thomas, D Travis; Lutz, Charles T

    2016-06-01

    Immune gender differences have been reported, but are little studied in elderly humans. We compared monocyte and lymphocyte subsets, along with soluble immune mediators in healthy men and women over the age of 70. We also measured natural killer (NK) lymphocyte cytotoxic granule exocytosis, chemokine synthesis, and cytokine synthesis in response to a variety of stimuli. Elderly women had significantly more circulating B cells than men, whereas men had more CD4 central memory T cells and higher monocyte levels. Plasma adiponectin levels were higher in women, plasma retinol-binding protein 4 levels were higher in men, but there were no significant gender differences in C-reactive protein, IL-15, or sphingosine-1-phosphate. Women had a higher ratio of immature CD56(bright) NK cells to mature CD56(dim) NK cells, indicating a gender difference in NK cell maturation in the elderly. Comparing sexes, female mature NK cells had more vigorous cytotoxic granule responses to K562 leukemia cells and IFN-γ responses to NKp46 crosslinking. Moreover, female NK cells were more likely to produce MIP-1β in response to a variety of stimuli. These data show that gender influences NK cell activity in elderly humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of phylogenetic groups, sequence type ST131, and virulence-associated traits among Escherichia coli isolates from men with pyelonephritis or cystitis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kudinha, T; Johnson, J R; Andrew, S D; Kong, F; Anderson, P; Gilbert, G L

    2013-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI), which are mostly caused by Escherichia coli, are an important public health problem worldwide. Although men experience diverse UTI syndromes, there have been relatively few molecular-epidemiological studies of UTI pathogenesis in men. We studied the distribution of 22 E. coli virulence factor (VF) genes, major phylogenetic groups, sequence type ST131, and UTI-associated O antigens among 101 pyelonephritis, 153 cystitis and 135 fecal healthy control E. coli isolates from men aged 30-70 years in a regional area of NSW, Australia. Overall, the studied traits exhibited a prevalence gradient across these groups, highest in pyelonephritis, intermediate in cystitis, and lowest among fecal isolates. Differences in virulence gene prevalence between cystitis and pyelonephritis isolates were limited to eight genes. The UTI-associated O antigens were also distributed widely, but types O6, O25 and O75 were significantly associated with pyelonephritis. The ST131 clonal group, which accounted for 13% of isolates overall (22% of group B2 isolates), likewise exhibited a significant descending prevalence gradient from pyelonephritis (36%), through cystitis (8%), to fecal (0%) isolates. These findings contribute to better understanding of the pathogenesis of UTIs in men and identify specific VF genes and O types, and a prominent clonal group (ST131), as being important in UTI pathogenesis in this population. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  8. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Melnikovova, Ingrid; Fait, Tomas; Kolarova, Michaela; Fernandez, Eloy C.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day) for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits. PMID:26421049

  9. How to be a healthy homosexual: HIV health promotion and the social regulation of gay men in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Health promotion has arisen as the main response to the problem of HIV prevention among gay men. Using the linked concepts of governmentality and health promotion as a neoliberal disciplinary technology, this article argues that health promotion in the time of AIDS has contributed to new forms of social regulation and governance for gay men. This article presents an analysis of data from a study of U.K. HIV health promotion for gay men (interviews with health promoters and analyses of health promotion materials). This analysis of health promotion is helpful in describing an emerging form of governance dependent on incentive rather than censure (censure, pathology and "cure" are how we traditionally describe the use of medical knowledge in the regulation of homosexuality).

  10. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Activity in the Brain Does Not Contribute to Systemic Interconversion of Cortisol and Cortisone in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Scott; Marshall, Ian; Andrews, Peter; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) catalyses regeneration of cortisol in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, making a substantial contribution to circulating cortisol as demonstrated in humans by combining stable isotope tracer infusion with arteriovenous sampling. In the brain, 11βHSD1 is a potential therapeutic target implicated in age-associated cognitive dysfunction. We aimed to quantify brain 11βHSD1 activity, both to assess its contribution to systemic cortisol/cortisone turnover and to develop a tool for measuring 11βHSD1 in dementia and following administration of 11βHSD1 inhibitors. Design, Setting, and Participants: With ethical approval and informed consent, 8 healthy men aged 38.1 years (sd 16.5) underwent an ECG-gated phase-contrast magnetic resonance scan to quantify internal jugular vein blood flow and were infused with 1,2 [2H]2-cortisone and 9,11,12,12 [2H]4-cortisol for 3 h before samples were obtained from the internal jugular vein and an arterialized hand vein. Steroids were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Main Outcome Measures and Results: Steady state tracer enrichments were achieved and systemic indices of cortisol/cortisone interconversion were consistent with previous studies in healthy men. However, there was no measurable release or production of cortisol, 9,12,12 [2H]3-cortisol or cortisone into the internal jugular vein. Conclusions: Although cerebral 11βHSD1 reductase activity may be greater in cognitively impaired patients, in healthy men any contribution of 11βHSD1 in the brain to systemic cortisol/cortisone turnover is negligible. The influence of 11βHSD1 in the brain is likely confined to subregions, notably the hippocampus. Alternative approaches are required to quantify pharmacodynamics effects of 11βHSD1 inhibitors in the human brain. PMID:25393644

  11. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the brain does not contribute to systemic interconversion of cortisol and cortisone in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Alixe H M; Semple, Scott; Marshall, Ian; Andrews, Peter; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R

    2015-02-01

    11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) catalyses regeneration of cortisol in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, making a substantial contribution to circulating cortisol as demonstrated in humans by combining stable isotope tracer infusion with arteriovenous sampling. In the brain, 11βHSD1 is a potential therapeutic target implicated in age-associated cognitive dysfunction. We aimed to quantify brain 11βHSD1 activity, both to assess its contribution to systemic cortisol/cortisone turnover and to develop a tool for measuring 11βHSD1 in dementia and following administration of 11βHSD1 inhibitors. With ethical approval and informed consent, 8 healthy men aged 38.1 years (sd 16.5) underwent an ECG-gated phase-contrast magnetic resonance scan to quantify internal jugular vein blood flow and were infused with 1,2 [(2)H]2-cortisone and 9,11,12,12 [(2)H]4-cortisol for 3 h before samples were obtained from the internal jugular vein and an arterialized hand vein. Steroids were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Steady state tracer enrichments were achieved and systemic indices of cortisol/cortisone interconversion were consistent with previous studies in healthy men. However, there was no measurable release or production of cortisol, 9,12,12 [(2)H]3-cortisol or cortisone into the internal jugular vein. Although cerebral 11βHSD1 reductase activity may be greater in cognitively impaired patients, in healthy men any contribution of 11βHSD1 in the brain to systemic cortisol/cortisone turnover is negligible. The influence of 11βHSD1 in the brain is likely confined to subregions, notably the hippocampus. Alternative approaches are required to quantify pharmacodynamics effects of 11βHSD1 inhibitors in the human brain.

  12. The HAT TRICK programme for improving physical activity, healthy eating and connectedness among overweight, inactive men: study protocol of a pragmatic feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Hunt, Kate; Sharp, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Kayla M; Price, Ryley; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2017-09-06

    Physical activity, healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer and with improved mental health. Despite these benefits, many men do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and have poor eating behaviours. Many health promotion programmes hold little appeal to men and consequently fail to influence men's health practices. HAT TRICK was designed as a 12-week face-to-face, gender-sensitised intervention for overweight and inactive men focusing on physical activity, healthy eating and social connectedness and was delivered in collaboration with a major junior Canadian ice hockey team (age range 16-20 years). The programme was implemented and evaluated to assess its feasibility. This article describes the intervention design and study protocol of HAT TRICK. HAT TRICK participants (n=60) were men age 35 years, residing in the Okanagan Region of British Columbia, who accumulate 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity a week, with a body mass index of >25 kg/m(2) and a pant waist size of >38'. Each 90 min weekly session included targeted health education and theory-guided behavioural change techniques, as well as a progressive (ie, an increase in duration and intensity) group physical activity component. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months and included the following: objectively measured anthropometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, as well as self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep habits, risk of depression, health-related quality of life and social connectedness. Programme feasibility data (eg, recruitment, satisfaction, adherence, content delivery) were assessed at 12 weeks via interviews and self-report. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia Okanagan Behavioural Research Ethics Board (reference no H

  13. Age and sex effects on the association between body composition and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese men and women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qun; Zhu, Ying Xiao; Zhang, Mei Xue; Li, Lin Hui; Du, Ping Yan; Zhu, Min Han

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have examined the relationships between body composition and bone mineral density (BMD), but little attention has been given to how these relationships vary by age and sex. The aim of this study was to investigate the distributions of lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), and BMD and the correlation between body composition and BMD in Chinese men and women of different ages. In total, the body compositions of 1,475 men and 1,534 women aged 20 to 96 years were analyzed. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured the BMD of the spine, femur, and total body and the LM, FM, and percentage of body fat (Fat %). The population was divided into groups based on age and sex: young, premenopausal, and postmenopausal women and young, middle-aged, and older men. The correlations between BMD and variables of body composition were investigated using the Pearson correlation test and multiple regression analysis. The peak BMD values of the spine, femur, and total body are observed in women aged 30 to 39, 20 to 29, and 30 to 39 years, respectively, and in men aged 20 to 29 years at all sites. The peak LM, FM, and Fat % values were observed at age 40 to 49, 60 to 69, and 70 to 79 years in women, respectively, and at 40 to 49, 70 to 79, and 70 to 79 years in men, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between LM and BMD of all sites (r = 0.253-0.591, P < 0.01) in all groups. However, FM was significantly correlated to BMD only in postmenopausal women and older men (r = 0.089-0.336, P < 0.01). Fat % negatively correlated to BMD in young people (r = -0.169 to -0.366, P < 0.05). When stepwise regression models were analyzed, LM remained the strongest predictor of total body, spine, and femur BMD (standardized coefficients = 0.264-0.637, P < 0.001) in Chinese men and women of different ages. We believe that LM is the strongest predictor of BMD at all ages for Chinese men and women, even though positive correlations between FM and BMD existed in

  14. The healthy men study: an evaluation of exposure to disinfection by-products in tap water and sperm quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Chlorination of drinking water generates disinfection by-products (DBPs), which have been shown to disrupt spermatogenesis in rodents at high doses, suggesting that DBPs could pose a reproductive risk to men. In this study we assessed DBP exposure and testicular toxic...

  15. The healthy men study: an evaluation of exposure to disinfection by-products in tap water and sperm quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Chlorination of drinking water generates disinfection by-products (DBPs), which have been shown to disrupt spermatogenesis in rodents at high doses, suggesting that DBPs could pose a reproductive risk to men. In this study we assessed DBP exposure and testicular toxic...

  16. Vitamin C status is related to proinflammatory responses and impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy, college-aged lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Matos, Manuel D; Kawiecki, Diana; Ballard, Kevin; Guo, Yi; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2011-05-01

    Vitamin C supplementation has been suggested to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. However, no studies have examined the relationship between vitamin C status and vascular dysfunction in lean and obese individuals in the absence of supplementation. We examined whether vascular function is interrelated with vitamin C status and inflammation in healthy, college-aged lean and obese men with no history of dietary supplementation. A cross-sectional study was conducted during winter 2008 in lean and obese men aged 21±3 years (n=8/group). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured to determine vascular endothelial function. Plasma antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and thiols), inflammatory proteins (C-reactive protein [CRP], myeloperoxidase [MPO], and cytokines), and cellular adhesion molecules were measured. Participants also completed 3-day food records on the days preceding their vascular testing. Group differences were evaluated by t tests, and correlation coefficients were determined by linear regression. FMD was 21% lower (P<0.05) in obese men. They also had 51% lower vitamin C intakes and 38% lower plasma vitamin C concentrations. Obese men had greater plasma concentrations of CRP, MPO, inflammatory cytokines, and cellular adhesion molecules. Participants' CRP and MPO were each inversely related (P<0.05) to FMD (r=-0.528 and -0.625) and plasma vitamin C (r=-0.646 and -0.701). These data suggest that low vitamin C status is associated with proinflammatory responses and impaired vascular function in lean and obese men. Additional study is warranted to determine whether improving dietary vitamin C intakes from food attenuate vascular dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Effects of Constant-Angle and Constant-Torque Static Stretching on Passive Stiffness of the Posterior Hip and Thigh Muscles in Healthy, Young and Old Men.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Ty B

    2017-07-24

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of constant-angle (CA) and constant-torque (CT) static stretching on passive stiffness of the posterior hip and thigh muscles in healthy, young and old men. Fifteen young (25±3 years) and 15 old (71±4 years) men underwent 2 passive straight-leg raise (SLR) assessments before and after 8 min of CA and CT stretching using an isokinetic dynamometer. Passive stiffness was calculated during each SLR as the slope of the final 10% of the angle-torque curve. The results indicated that passive stiffness decreased from pre- to post-stretching for both treatments (P≤0.001-0.002) and age groups (P≤0.001-0.046); however, greater decreases were observed for the CT than the CA stretching (P=0.045) and for the old than the young men (P<0.001). In addition, baseline stiffness was greater for the old compared to the younger men (P=0.010) and was also negatively related (r=-0.721;P<0.001) to the changes in stiffness from pre- to post-stretching. These findings suggest that holding stretches at a constant tension may be a more effective strategy for altering passive stiffness of the posterior hip and thigh muscles. The greater stretch-induced stiffness decreases observed for the older men provide support that acute static stretching may be particularly effective for reducing stiffness in the elderly. As a result, it may be advantageous to prescribe static stretching prior to exercise for older adults, as this may be used to elicit substantial declines in passive stiffness, which could help reduce the risk of subsequent injury events in this population.

  18. "Healthy Men" and High Mortality: Contributions from a Population-Based Study for the Gender Paradox Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Tássia Fraga; Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Background Inequalities between men and women in morbidity and mortality show a contrast, which has been called gender paradox. Most studies evaluating this paradox were conducted in high-income countries and, until now, few investigations have been performed in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of inequalities between adult men and women in several dimensions: demographic and socioeconomic, health behaviors, morbidity, use of health services and mortality. Methods The data were obtained from population-based household survey carried out in Campinas (Campinas Health Survey 2008/09) corresponding to 957 people, and data from the Mortality Information System (MIS) between 2009 and 2011. Prevalences and prevalence ratios were analyzed in order to verify the differences between men and women regarding socioeconomic and demographic variables, health behaviors, morbidities and consultations in the last two weeks. Mortality rates and the ratio between coefficients considering the underlying causes of death were calculated. Results Women had a greater disadvantage in socioeconomic indicators, chronic diseases diagnosed by a health professional and referred health problems as well as make more use of health services, while men presented higher frequency of most unhealthy behaviors and excessive mortality for all causes investigated. Conclusions The findings contribute to the discussion of gender paradox and demonstrate the need to employ health actions that consider the differences between men and women in the various health dimensions analyzed. The premature male mortality from preventable causes was outstanding, making clear the need for more effective prevention and health promotion directed to this segment of the population. PMID:26641245

  19. Acute changes in substrate oxidation do not affect short-term food intake in healthy boys and men.

    PubMed

    Hunschede, Sascha; El Khoury, Dalia; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Smith, Christopher; Thomas, Scott; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-02-01

    The acute relationship between substrate oxidation as measured by respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and food intake (FI) has not been defined. The purpose of the study was to determine acute relationships between RER, modified by exercise and a glucose load, and FI and net energy balance (NEB) in physically active normal-weight boys and men. In a crossover design, 15 boys (aged 9-12 years) and 15 men (aged 20-30 years) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions: (i) water and rest, (ii) glucose-drink and rest, (iii) water and exercise, and (iv) glucose-drink and exercise. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine RER, energy expenditure, and carbohydrate and fat oxidation. Subjective appetite and blood glucose were also measured. RER was higher after glucose (0.91 ± 0.01) compared with water (0.87 ± 0.01) (p < 0.0001), and after exercise (0.91 ± 0.01) compared with rest (0.88 ± 0.01) (p = 0.0043) in men (0.91 ± 0.01) compared with boys (0.88 ± 0.01) (p = 0.0002). FI (kcal·m(-2)) did not differ between boys and men. Glucose (582 ± 24 kcal·m(-2)) reduced FI compared with water (689 ± 25 kcal·m(-2)) (p < 0.0001), and further decreased FI when combined with exercise (554 ± 34 kcal·m(-2)) (p = 0.0303). NEB was reduced with exercise (573 ± 25 kcal·m(-2)) compared with the sedentary condition (686 ± 24 kcal·m(-2)) (p < 0.0001), but was higher after the glucose drink (654 ± 27 kcal·m(-2)) compared with water (605 ± 25 kcal·m(-2)) (p = 0.0267). No correlations were found between RER and FI or NEB in boys and men, except in the control condition of resting with water. In conclusion, the short-term modification of substrate oxidation by glucose and/or exercise in normal weight and active boys and men did not affect FI and NEB.

  20. Daily consumption of an aqueous green tea extract supplement does not impair liver function or alter cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jan; George, Trevor W; Lodge, John K; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana M; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Minihane, Anne Marie; Rimbach, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Regular consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) is thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but has also been associated with liver toxicity. The present trial aimed to assess the safety and potential CVD health beneficial effects of daily GTP consumption. We conducted a placebo-controlled parallel study to evaluate the chronic effects of GTP on liver function and CVD risk biomarkers in healthy men. Volunteers (treatment: n = 17, BMI 26.7 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2), age 41 +/- 9 y; placebo, n = 16, BMI 25.4 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2), age 40 +/- 10 y) consumed for 3 wk 6 capsules per day (2 before each principal meal) containing green tea extracts (equivalent to 714 mg/d GTP) or placebo. At the beginning and end of the intervention period, we collected blood samples from fasting subjects and measured vascular tone using Laser Doppler Iontophoresis. Biomarkers of liver function and CVD risk (including blood pressure, plasma lipids, and asymmetric dimethylarginine) were unaffected by GTP consumption. After treatment, the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol was significantly reduced in participants taking GTP capsules compared with baseline. Endothelial-dependent and -independent vascular reactivity did not significantly differ between treatments. In conclusion, the present data suggests that the daily consumption of high doses of GTP by healthy men for 3 wk is safe but without effects on CVD risk biomarkers other than the total:HDL cholesterol ratio.

  1. The HAT TRICK programme for improving physical activity, healthy eating and connectedness among overweight, inactive men: study protocol of a pragmatic feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Hunt, Kate; Sharp, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Kayla M; Price, Ryley; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity, healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer and with improved mental health. Despite these benefits, many men do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and have poor eating behaviours. Many health promotion programmes hold little appeal to men and consequently fail to influence men’s health practices. HAT TRICK was designed as a 12-week face-to-face, gender-sensitised intervention for overweight and inactive men focusing on physical activity, healthy eating and social connectedness and was delivered in collaboration with a major junior Canadian ice hockey team (age range 16–20 years). The programme was implemented and evaluated to assess its feasibility. This article describes the intervention design and study protocol of HAT TRICK. Methods and analysis HAT TRICK participants (n=60) were men age 35 years, residing in the Okanagan Region of British Columbia, who accumulate 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity a week, with a body mass index of >25 kg/m2 and a pant waist size of >38’. Each 90 min weekly session included targeted health education and theory-guided behavioural change techniques, as well as a progressive (ie, an increase in duration and intensity) group physical activity component. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months and included the following: objectively measured anthropometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, as well as self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep habits, risk of depression, health-related quality of life and social connectedness. Programme feasibility data (eg, recruitment, satisfaction, adherence, content delivery) were assessed at 12 weeks via interviews and self-report. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British

  2. Effects of supplementation with branched chain amino acids and ornithine aspartate on plasma ammonia and central fatigue during exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, Tomasz; Dabrowski, Jan; Hilgier, Wojciech; Ziemba, Andrzej; Krzeminski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed only slight improvement in central fatigue, measured indirectly by psychomotor performance, after branched chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation during various efforts in healthy men. It is hypothesised that hyperammonaemia resulting from amino acids metabolism may attenuate their beneficial effect on psychomotor performance; therefore, the L-ornithine L-aspartate (OA) as an ammonia decreasing agent was used. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral BCAA + OA supplementation to reduce plasma ammonia concentration and enhance psychomotor performance during exhaustive exercise in healthy men. Eleven endurance-trained men (mean age 32.6 ± 1.9 years) performed two sessions (separated by one week) of submaximal cycloergometer exercise for 90 minutes at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by graded exercise until exhaustion with randomised, double-blind supplementation with a total of 16 g BCAA and 12 g OA (BCAA + OA trial) or flavoured water (placebo trial). Before exercise, during both efforts and after 20 minutes of recovery multiple choice reaction time (MCRT), perceived exertion, heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured and venous blood samples were taken for plasma leucine, valine, isoleucine, ornithine, aspartate, free tryptophan (fTRP), ammonia, lactate and glucose determination. After ingestion, during both efforts and after 20 minutes of recovery the plasma concentrations of all supplemented amino acids were significantly increased, while the fTRP/BCAA ratio decreased in the BCAA + OA trial more than in the placebo trial. At the end of graded exercise plasma fTRP was lower and MCRT shorter in BCAA + OA than in the placebo trial (p < 0.05). At the end of prolonged exercise the plasma ammonia concentration was higher in BCAA + OA than in placebo trial (p < 0.05). Decreases in plasma ammonia during recovery were significantly higher in BCAA + OA than in the placebo trial. Plasma ammonia positively

  3. A 5-day high-fat, high-calorie diet impairs insulin sensitivity in healthy, young South Asian men but not in Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Leontine E H; van Schinkel, Linda D; Guigas, Bruno; Streefland, Trea C M; Jonker, Jacqueline T; van Klinken, Jan B; van der Zon, Gerard C M; Lamb, Hildo J; Smit, Johannes W A; Pijl, Hanno; Meinders, A Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2014-01-01

    South Asians (SAs) develop type 2 diabetes at a younger age and lower BMI compared with Caucasians (Cs). The underlying cause is still poorly understood but might result from an innate inability to adapt to the Westernized diet. This study aimed to compare the metabolic adaptation to a high-fat, high-calorie (HFHC) diet between both ethnicities. Twelve healthy, young lean male SAs and 12 matched Cs underwent a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with skeletal muscle biopsies and indirect calorimetry before and after a 5-day HFHC diet. Hepatic triglyceride content (HTG) and abdominal fat distribution were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. At baseline, SAs had higher insulin clamp levels than Cs, indicating reduced insulin clearance rate. Despite the higher insulin levels, endogenous glucose production was comparable between groups, suggesting lower hepatic insulin sensitivity in SAs. Furthermore, a 5-day HFHC diet decreased the insulin-stimulated (nonoxidative) glucose disposal rate only in SA. In skeletal muscle, no significant differences were found between groups in insulin/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, metabolic gene expression, and mitochondrial respiratory chain content. Furthermore, no differences in (mobilization of) HTG and abdominal fat were detected. We conclude that HFHC feeding rapidly induces insulin resistance only in SAs. Thus, distinct adaptation to Western food may partly explain their propensity to develop type 2 diabetes.

  4. Differential effect of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype on emotional recognition abilities in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth M; Stadelmann, Edith; Kohler, Christian G; Brensinger, Colleen M; Nolan, Karen A; Oberacher, Herbert; Parson, Walther; Pitterl, Florian; Niederstätter, Harald; Kemmler, Georg; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Marksteiner, Jos