Science.gov

Sample records for atorvastatin-treated healthy men

  1. Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... of potassium from fruits, vegetables, fish and milk. Energy Foods Since men have more muscle and are ... 000 to 2,800 calories per day. Your energy needs depend on your height, weight and activity ...

  2. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  3. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis and Muscular Fitness in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Muscle strength can define the general muscular fitness (MF) measurable through hand-grip strength (HG), which is a factor that relates to the health of people of different ages. In this study we evaluated the muscle strength together with a bioimpedance electric analysis in 223 healthy Colombian adult subjects. The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) was conducted to determine the resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PhA). We classified the subjects into three groups (for tertiles), obtaining lower values of R and Xc in subjects with lower HG, plus a high correlation between PhA and HG. An increase in the level of PhA is associated with a high level of MF in a sample of healthy Latin American adult men. The BIVA’s parameters and PhA are a potentially effective preventive measure to be integrated into routine screening in the clinical setting. PMID:27384579

  4. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis and Muscular Fitness in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Muscle strength can define the general muscular fitness (MF) measurable through hand-grip strength (HG), which is a factor that relates to the health of people of different ages. In this study we evaluated the muscle strength together with a bioimpedance electric analysis in 223 healthy Colombian adult subjects. The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) was conducted to determine the resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PhA). We classified the subjects into three groups (for tertiles), obtaining lower values of R and Xc in subjects with lower HG, plus a high correlation between PhA and HG. An increase in the level of PhA is associated with a high level of MF in a sample of healthy Latin American adult men. The BIVA's parameters and PhA are a potentially effective preventive measure to be integrated into routine screening in the clinical setting. PMID:27384579

  5. Testosterone and reward prediction-errors in healthy men and men with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Morris, R W; Purves-Tyson, T D; Weickert, C Shannon; Rothmond, D; Lenroot, R; Weickert, T W

    2015-11-01

    Sex hormones impact reward processing, which is dysfunctional in schizophrenia; however, the degree to which testosterone levels relate to reward-related brain activity in healthy men and the extent to which this relationship may be altered in men with schizophrenia has not been determined. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses in the striatum during reward prediction-errors and hormone assays to measure testosterone and prolactin in serum. To determine if testosterone can have a direct effect on dopamine neurons, we also localized and measured androgen receptors in human midbrain with immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. We found correlations between testosterone and prediction-error related activity in the ventral striatum of healthy men, but not in men with schizophrenia, such that testosterone increased the size of positive and negative prediction-error related activity in a valence-specific manner. We also identified midbrain dopamine neurons that were androgen receptor immunoreactive, and found that androgen receptor (AR) mRNA was positively correlated with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in human male substantia nigra. The results suggest that sex steroid receptors can potentially influence midbrain dopamine biosynthesis, and higher levels of serum testosterone are linked to better discrimination of motivationally-relevant signals in the ventral striatum, putatively by modulation of the dopamine biosynthesis pathway via AR ligand binding. However, the normal relationship between serum testosterone and ventral striatum activity during reward learning appears to be disrupted in schizophrenia. PMID:26232868

  6. Cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Teruo; Yoshida, Hideyo; Takahashi, Hidekatsu; Kawai, Makoto

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the longitudinal impact of smoking cessation and relapse on the exercise habits of apparently healthy Japanese men, 750 subjects presenting for a checkup at a metropolitan health center were surveyed annually for 7 years. Exercise was dichotomously classified as none or any. Subjects were grouped in two categories: 98 smokers who ceased smoking during the second year of the study, matched with 196 continuing smokers and 196 men who had never smoked; and 52 relapsed smokers (including 2 new smokers) who did not smoke at baseline or at Year 1 but smoked from Year 2 to final follow-up, matched with 104 continuing smokers and 104 never-smokers. Based on self-reported responses to questionnaires, exercise was consistently less prevalent among smokers who did not quit than among never-smokers throughout the study. Habitual exercise in subjects who had quit smoking increased during the follow-up (any exercise: 42.9% at baseline increased to 51% at final follow-up, p for longitudinal trend = .115). Habitual exercise in matched never-smokers did not change during the study and decreased significantly among persistent smokers (p = .025). Habitual exercise in relapsed smokers decreased during the follow-up (any exercise: 50.0% at baseline declined to 32.7% at final follow-up, p = .007), but habitual exercise in matched persistent smokers and never-smokers did not change. We conclude that smoking and sedentary lifestyle coexist continuously, that smoking cessation is associated with increased habitual exercise among healthy men, and that relapse is associated with reduced habitual exercise, suggesting that cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits.

  7. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  8. Governing the healthy male citizen: men, masculinity and popular health in Men's Health magazine.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Recent commentators have noted the potential of newer neo-liberal discourses of health care to position responsibility for the management of well-being with the individual. Often promoted through the inculcation of risk avoidance and management, such discourses are played out in myriad settings, including the popular media. Magazines are one such media site in which diverse exhortations for the achievement of health, well-being and the perfectible body are made, and Bunton [1997. Popular health, advanced liberalism and good housekeeping magazine. In A. Petersen & Bunton R. (Eds.) Foucault, health and medicine (pp. 223-247). London: Routledge] has identified 'magazine medicine' as a significant manifestation of more dedifferentiated models of health care. Recent discussions have placed men's health high on research and policy agendas, with a concomitant interest in more popular realms. The UK magazine Men's Health (MH) is indicative of these trends, and represents a site at which discourses of men, health and masculinity are constructed. Typically reflecting neo-liberal models of health, here men are constructed as active and entrepreneurial citizens able to maintain their own health and well-being through the judicious management of risk in contexts appropriate to dominant discourses of hegemonic masculinity. Data which resulted from a critical discourse analysis of a 2-year sample (21 issues) of MH are considered and findings related to medicalisation, individualisation and risk discussed. It is suggested that magazine texts such as MH reflect newer individualised models of health care and neo-liberal strategies of health governance premised upon constructing a healthy male citizen, willing and able to take responsibility for their own well-being.

  9. STABLE VARIANTS OF SPERM ANEUPLOIDY AMONG HEALTHY MEN SHOW ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GERMINAL AND SOMATIC ANEUPLOIDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable variants of sperm aneuploidy among healthy men show associations between germinal and somatic aneuploidy

    The purpose of this study was to identify healthy men who reproducibly produced increased frequencies of sperm with numerical chromosomal abnormalities and to d...

  10. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system.

  11. Cold pressor test improves fear extinction in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Antov, Martin I; Melicherová, Ursula; Stockhorst, Ursula

    2015-04-01

    Fear extinction is an important paradigm to study the neural basis of anxiety and trauma- and stressor-related disorders and for modeling features of extinction learning and exposure-based psychotherapy. To date the effects of acute stress on extinction learning in humans are not well understood. Models of stress effects on emotional memory suggest that learning during the so-called first wave of the stress response will be enhanced. The first wave includes (among others) increases of noradrenaline in the brain and increased sympathetic tone, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the periphery while the second wave includes genomic glucocorticoid-actions. The cold pressor test (CPT) is a valid way to induce the first wave of the stress response. We thus hypothesized that the CPT will facilitate extinction. In a 2-day fear-conditioning procedure with 40 healthy men, using differential skin conductance responses as a measure of conditioned fear, we placed the CPT versus a control procedure prior to extinction training on Day 1. We tested for extinction learning on Day 1 and extinction retrieval on Day 2. During extinction training (Day 1) only the CPT-group showed a significant reduction in differential responding. This was still evident on Day 2, where the CPT group had less differential responding during early trials (retrieval) and a higher extinction retention index. This is the first human study to show that a simple procedure, triggering the first-wave stress response--the CPT--can effectively enhance fear extinction in humans.

  12. Effect of simulated dives on diastolic function in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Jochen; Tetzlaff, Kay; Axmann, Detlef; Niess, Andreas M; Burgstahler, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Scuba diving may elicit acute changes to human cardiovascular function. Environmental stresses such as immersion, cold, and venous gas microbubbles all have been shown to contribute to right ventricular overload and impaired left ventricular filling after single dives. We investigated cardiac function after simulated dry chamber dives. Twenty male divers [mean age 31 years, standard deviation (SD) 8 years, mean body mass index 26 kgm(-2) (SD 3 kgm(-2))] participated in the study. All subjects had normal ECG, stress-ECG, and transthoracic echocardiography at rest. Echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function [E/A-ratio, deceleration time (DT), isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), E/e'-ratio] was performed directly prior to and 20 and 80 min after two simulated dry hyperbaric chamber dives (maximal pressure 600 kPa, duration 60 min) that were conducted within 1 week. DT statistically significantly decreased from 163 ms (SD 14 ms) to 125 ms (SD 15 ms) 20 min after the dive (p < 0.0001), whereas 80 min after decompression these changes tended to return to baseline [146 ms (SD 14 ms); p = 0.06]. There was no statistically significant change in heart rate, E/A-ratio or E/e'-ratio after 20 or 80 min compared to baseline. These changes could be reproduced after the second dry chamber dive. No gas microbubbles were detectable during or after decompression from either dive. Simulated hyperbaric dry chamber dives were associated with a transient decrease in deceleration time in healthy men. Factors other than immersion, cold, or nitrogen microbubbles may contribute to acute changes in cardiac function after single scuba dives.

  13. STABLE VARIANTS OF SPERM ANEUPLOIDY AMONG HEALTHY MEN SHOW ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GERMINAL AND SOMATIC ANEUPLOIDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract.

    Our objective was to identify men who consistently produced high frequencies of sperm with numerical chromosomal abnormalities (stable variants) and to determine whether healthy men with normal semen quality vary with respect to the incidence of sperm aneuploidy ...

  14. Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.

    Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

  15. Men's Health--Is There a "Popular Press" Potential?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Angela; Parry-Langdon, Nina; Roberts, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of health messages delivered to males and females through the "popular" media of magazines that have a health content, and to consider the potential for "popular" magazines to play a role in communicating health promotion messages to men. Design: A qualitative approach that subscribes to content analysis of a sample…

  16. Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Inversely Associated with Arterial Stiffness in Metabolically Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwon, Nayeon; Yoon, So Ra

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that lower proportion of serum phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is inversely associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular function in metabolically healthy men. To elucidate it, we first compared serum phospholipid free fatty acid (FA) compositions and cardiovascular risk parameters between healthy men (n = 499) and male patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, n = 111) (30-69 years) without metabolic syndrome, and then further-analyzed the association of serum phospholipid DHA composition with arterial stiffness expressed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) in metabolically healthy men. Basic parameters, lipid profiles, fasting glycemic status, adiponectin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and LDL particle size, and serum phospholipid FA compositions were significantly different between the two subject groups. Serum phospholipid DHA was highly correlated with most of long-chain FAs. Metabolically healthy men were subdivided into tertile groups according to serum phospholipid DHA proportion: lower (< 2.061%), middle (2.061%-3.235%) and higher (> 3.235%). Fasting glucose, insulin resistance, hs-CRP and ba-PWVs were significantly higher and adiponectin and LDL particle size were significantly lower in the lower-DHA group than the higher-DHA group after adjusted for confounding factors. In metabolically healthy men, multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that serum phospholipid DHA mainly contributed to arterial stiffness (β′-coefficients = -0.127, p = 0.006) together with age, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride (r = 0.548, p = 0.023). Lower proportion of serum phospholipid DHA was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men. It suggests that maintaining higher proportion of serum phospholipid DHA may be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk including arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men. PMID:27482523

  17. Metabolically Healthy Obesity Is Not Associated with Food Intake in White or Black Men1234

    PubMed Central

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, PK

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. Objective: We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status–metabolic health phenotypes. Methods: Men (n = 4855) aged ≥45 y with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. Results: MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P < 0.001), whereas HOMA-IR–defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower red meat intake (P < 0.0001) compared with healthy normal weight in multivariable-adjusted analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical confounders. However, results were attenuated and became nonsignificant after further adjustment for BMI. Healthy and unhealthy overweight, defined by both criteria, were associated with lower whole grain bread intake (P < 0.001) in all models. Among black men, weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were not associated with food intake in all models. Conclusion: Healthy obesity in men is not associated with

  18. Heart Rate and Risk of Cancer Death in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Jouven, Xavier; Escolano, Sylvie; Celermajer, David; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Bingham, Annie; Hermine, Olivier; Desnos, Michel; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Marijon, Eloi; Ducimetière, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background Data from several previous studies examining heart-rate and cardiovascular risk have hinted at a possible relationship between heart-rate and non-cardiac mortality. We thus systematically examined the predictive value of heart-rate variables on the subsequent risk of death from cancer. Methods In the Paris Prospective Study I, 6101 asymptomatic French working men aged 42 to 53 years, free of clinically detectable cardiovascular disease and cancer, underwent a standardized graded exercise test between 1967 and 1972. Resting heart-rate, heart-rate increase during exercise, and decrease during recovery were measured. Change in resting heart-rate over 5 years was also available in 5139 men. Mortality including 758 cancer deaths was assessed over the 25 years of follow-up. Findings There were strong, graded and significant relationships between all heart-rate parameters and subsequent cancer deaths. After adjustment for age and tobacco consumption and, compared with the lowest quartile, those with the highest quartile for resting heart-rate had a relative risk of 2.4 for cancer deaths (95% confidence interval: 1.9–2.9, p<0.0001) This was similar after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and was observed for the commonest malignancies (respiratory and gastrointestinal). Similarly, significant relationships with cancer death were observed between poor heart rate increase during exercise, poor decrease during recovery and greater heart-rate increase over time (p<0.0001 for all). Interpretation Resting and exercise heart rate had consistent, graded and highly significant associations with subsequent cancer mortality in men. PMID:21826196

  19. Effects of Music on Cardiovascular Responses in Men with Essential Hypertension Compared with Healthy Men Based on Introversion and Extraversion

    PubMed Central

    Namdar, Hossein; Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Sabourimoghaddam, Hassan; Sadeghi, Babak; Ezzati, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. Methods: One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and extravert healthy subjects (each group with 25 samples with age range 31-50). Baseline blood pressure and heart rate of each subject was recorded without any stimulus. Then subjects were exposed to slow-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. After15 minute break, and a little cognitive task for distraction, subjects were exposed to fast-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded again. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) test showed that extravert patient subjects obtained greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert patients (P= 0.035, and P= 0.033 respectively). And extravert healthy subjects obtained greater reduction in heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert healthy subjects (P= 0.036). However, there are no significant differences between introvert and extravert groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting fast-beat music. Conclusion: Based on our results, introvert subjects experience negative emotions more than extravert subjects and negative emotions cause less change in blood pressure in these subjects compared with extravert subjects. PMID:25320667

  20. Cardiac arrhythmias during exercise testing in healthy men.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, E. F.; Owen, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Clinically healthy male executives who participate in a long-term physical conditioning program have demonstrated cardiac arrhythmia during and after periodic ergometric testing at submaximal and maximal levels. In 1,385 tests on 248 subjects, it was found that 34% of subjects demonstrated an arrhythmia at some time and 13% of subjects developed arrhythmia on more than one test. Premature systoles of ventricular origin were most common, but premature systoles of atrial origin, premature systoles of junctional origin, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular block, wandering pacemaker, and pre-excitation were also seen. Careful post-test monitoring and pulse rate regulated training sessions are suggested for such programs.

  1. Enhanced emotional empathy after psychosocial stress in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.

  2. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Joseph L; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 IU of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min before and 30, 60, and 90 min after dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indication of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson's r=0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  3. Seminal gold content in healthy fertile men in India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vinod; Rai, Anurag; Misra, Samir; Singh, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Since centuries Ayurveda, mentions the role of gold in the treatment of male infertility ‘Swarna Bhasma’ (Ash of gold) has been used with good results by Ayurvedic practitioners in the treatment of infertility. Hence, a study was planned to estimate gold in whole semen by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Materials and Methods: Whole semen from 11 healthy males of proved fertility from Lucknow (India) was analyzed for gold content by Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry at wavelength 242.8 nm with Hollow Cathode Gold Lamp. Prior to analysis, all the samples were subjected to digestion procedure, achieved by treating them with mixture of concentrated Nitric acid and concentrated Perchloric acid in 6: 1 ratio. Observation: On analysis all semen samples were found to contain gold ranging from 0.36 to 1.98 μg/ml with a mean value of 0.88 μg/ml and a standard deviation of 0.51 μg/ml. Conclusion: In the present study, gold was estimated after complete digestion (oxidation of organic matters; hence, whatever amount of gold detected, denotes the levels in seminal plasma as well as the sperm itself) in whole semen (seminal plasma and sperm). It seems that the hypothesis made for presence of gold in sperm might be true. However, the literature available in this connection is very scanty and further studies are needed for scientific documentation of gold in male infertility. PMID:21170210

  4. Safety Measures of L-Carnitine L-Tartrate Supplementation in Healthy Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Martyn R.; Volek, Jeff S.; Gomez, Ana L.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; French, Duncan N.; Sharman, Matthew J.; Kraemer, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of ingesting the dietary supplement L- CARNIPURE on liver and renal function and blood hematology among healthy men. Analysis of blood samples indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the L-CARNIPURE and placebo conditions for any variables examined, suggesting there are no safety concerns…

  5. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  6. Relation between vertical facial morphology and jaw muscle activity in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Graziano; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Antinori, Marco; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to quantitatively analyze the relation between the activity of masticatory muscles and the inclination of the mandibular plane in a group of 73 healthy white men aged 20-36 years. The three-dimensional coordinates of soft-tissue landmarks gnathion and left and right gonion were digitized using an electromagnetic computerized instrument, the orientation of mandibular plane relative to the true vertical was computed and projected on the anatomical sagittal plane. The electromyographic (EMG) potentials of left and right masseter and temporalis anterior during maximum voluntary teeth clenching were recorded, and the mean EMG amplitude calculated. Two groups of men with opposite facial morphology were then selected: all men with a steep mandibular plane (higher than the mean plus one standard deviation) entered a first group (10 'long face' subjects), while all men with a relatively more horizontal mandibular plane (lower than the mean minus one standard deviation) entered a second group (13 'short face' subjects). Mean EMG potentials computed in the two groups were compared by using Student's t -test for independent samples. All the EMG potentials recorded during maximum voluntary clench in the 'long face' men were lower than that recorded in the 'short face' men, with statistically significant differences for all four analyzed muscles (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a non-invasive three-dimensional method confirmed that facial morphology and muscular function are significantly related, at least in men with a sound stomatognathic apparatus.

  7. The Healthy Young Men's Study: Sampling Methods to Recruit a Random Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Ford, Wesley L; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Iverson, Ellen; Lopez, Donna

    2009-10-01

    Recruiting a scientifically sound cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is an enduring research challenge. The few cohort studies that have been conducted to date on YMSM have relied on non-probability sampling methods to construct their cohorts. While these studies have provided valuable information about HIV risk behaviors among YMSM, their generalizability to broader YMSM populations is limited.In this paper the authors describe a venue-based sampling methodology used to recruit a large and diverse cohort of YMSM from public venues in Los Angeles County. Venue-based sampling is a multi-stage, probability sampling design that uses standard outreach techniques and standard survey methods to systematically enumerate, sample, and survey hard-to-reach populations. The study design allowed the authors to estimate individual, familial and interpersonal psychosocial factors associated with HIV risk and health seeking behaviors for a cohort of YMSM with known properties. Study participants completed an extensive baseline survey and over a two year period will complete four follow-up surveys at six-month intervals. The baseline survey was administered in both English and Spanish.

  8. Ageing and endurance training effects on quantity and quality of pulmonary vascular bed in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that in healthy individuals, peak oxygen consumption is associated with a greater pulmonary capillary blood volume and a more distensible pulmonary circulation. Our cross-sectional study suggests that, in healthy men aged 20 to 60 years (n = 63), endurance sport practice (vigorous-intensity domain of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) is associated with better quantity (pulmonary capillary blood volume) and quality (slope of increase in lung diffusion for carbon monoxide on exercise) of the pulmonary vascular bed, partly counterbalancing the deleterious effects of ageing, which remains to be demonstrated in a prospective longitudinal design. PMID:24460636

  9. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort.

    PubMed

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Nielsen, Lene Buch-Krogh; Højlund, Kurt; Brøsen, Kim

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions: A: baseline; B: after 21 days of treatment with St. John's wort; and C: at least 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was ingested. Plasma glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test and used for estimation of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) as well as indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. We found that treatment with St. John's wort increased total and incremental glucose AUC and 2-hr plasma glucose levels. Surprisingly, this effect was sustained and even further increased 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was taken. No effect on indices of insulin sensitivity was seen, but indices of insulin secretion were reduced even after adjustment for insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study indicates that long-term treatment with St. John's wort may impair glucose tolerance by reducing insulin secretion in young, healthy men. The unregulated use of this over-the-counter drug might be a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Circadian rhythms of circulating NK cells in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.

    PubMed

    Bourin, P; Mansour, I; Doinel, C; Roué, R; Rouger, P; Levi, F

    1993-08-01

    Antiviral immunity involves NK cells, which circulate rhythmically every 24 hours. We have investigated circadian and 12-hour rhythms in the peripheral count of circulating NK cells in 15 men infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 13 healthy controls. We analyzed three phenotypes using double-labeling with monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry assessment: CD3- CD16+, CD3-CD57+, and CD2+CD3-. A statistical validation of time-dependent differences was achieved if significance (p < 0.05) was validated both with analysis of variance and cosinor. The circadian rhythm had a similar asymmetric waveform for the three phenotypes and is homogeneous on an individual basis. The circulating NK cell count peaked in the early morning and was low at night. A circadian rhythm and a circahemidian harmonic characterized all phenotypes in healthy subjects. We considered two groups of HIV-infected men: those who were asymptomatic (eight) and those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (seven). Circadian changes in NK cell count were similar in both subgroups and in healthy controls. The circadian pattern was also consistent among individual patients. Asymptomatic HIV-infected men (early-stage disease) exhibited more pronounced 12-hour rhythmicity than did patients with AIDS or controls. The circulation of NK cells does not appear to share the same synchronizer(s) as other circulating T- or B-lymphocyte subsets. Thus, HIV infection gradually abolished circadian rhythmicity in circulating T and B cells, whereas it did not disturb that in NK cells.

  11. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Chrzczanowicz, Jacek; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD) aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax). Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37 ± 0.28 versus 1.27 ± 0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P < 0.05) but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA). Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass) and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations. PMID:26451234

  12. Mirtazapine Provokes Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep in Young Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Stephany; Kloiber, Stefan; Dose, Tatjana; Lucae, Susanne; Holsboer, Florian; Schaaf, Ludwig; Hennings, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent evidence suggests that certain antidepressants are associated with an increase of periodic leg movements (PLMS) that may disturb sleep. So far, this has been shown in patients clinically treated for depression and in cross-sectional studies for various substances, but not mirtazapine. It is unclear whether antidepressants induce the new onset of PLMS or only increase preexisting PLMS, and whether this is a general property of the antidepressant or only seen in depressed patients. We report here the effect of mirtazapine on PLMS in young healthy men. Design: Open-labeled clinical trial (NCT00878540) including a 3-week preparatory phase with standardized food, physical activity, and sleep-wake behavior, and a 10-day experimental inpatient phase with an adaptation day, 2 baseline days, and 7 days with mirtazapine. Setting: Research institute. Participants: Twelve healthy young (20-25 years) men. Interventions: Seven days of nightly intake (22:00) of 30 mg mirtazapine. Measurements and results: Sleep was recorded on 2 drug-free baseline nights, the first 2 drug nights, and the last 2 drug nights. Eight of the 12 subjects showed increased PLMS after the first dose of mirtazapine. Frequency of PLMS was highest on the first drug night and attenuated over the course of the next 6 days. Three subjects reported transient restless legs symptoms. Conclusions: Mirtazapine provoked PLMS in 67% of young healthy males. The effect was most pronounced in the first days. The possible role of serotonergic, noradrenergic and histaminergic mechanisms in mirtazapine-induced PLMS is discussed. Citation: Fulda S; Kloiber S; Dose T; Lucae S. Mirtazapine provokes periodic leg movements during sleep in young healthy men. SLEEP 2013;36(5):661-669. PMID:23633748

  13. Effects of Ylang-Ylang aroma on blood pressure and heart rate in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da-Jung; Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Although the Ylang-Ylang aroma (YYA) has used as a general method for enhancing sedative effect, there was a little report on the efficacy of YYA on heart function using the electrocardiogram (EKG). Therefore, identifying of the effects of YYA on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) is important in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of YYA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of YYA on BP and HR in healthy men. Twenty-nine men took part in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: Ylang-Ylang group (YYG, n= 15) and control group (CG, n= 14). Physiological parameters recorded were BP by using a sphygmomanometer and HR by using an EKG. The present results demonstrated that inhalation of YYA significantly decreased the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Inhalation of YYA also significantly decreased the HRs in 10 leads, except in lead I and aVR. This indicates that the HRs recorded in lead I and aVR were less sensitive or obtuse compared to those in the 10 other leads. Therefore, such a result reveals that it is necessary to be aware of the terms regarding the position. In the present results, YYA caused a reduction of HR and BP, and a relief of the arousal level in healthy men. The present results show a sedative effect of YYA, and this study provides some evidences for the usage of YYA in medicinal agent. PMID:24278868

  14. Resting heart rate predicts metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy non-obese Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2014-02-01

    Autonomic nervous dysfunction is considered to be one of the mechanisms of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study is to investigate whether resting heart rate, a marker of autonomic nervous dysfunction, is a predictor of MetS in apparently healthy non-obese [body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m(2)] Japanese men. This is an observational study through 3 years in apparently healthy Japanese 1,265 men and 793 women without MetS and with no history of cardiovascular disease and no use of antihypertensive, antidiabetic, or antihyperlipidemic medication at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident MetS were calculated for each 1 SD increase in heart rate stratified by gender and obesity. Incidence of MetS for each tertile of heart rate and HRs of MetS for the highest tertile (T3) compared with the lowest tertile (T1) were calculated stratified by gender and obesity. The HRs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of MetS for each 1 SD increase in heart rate were 1.319 (1.035-1.681) (p = 0.025) in non-obese men, 1.172 (0.825-1.665) (p = 0.377) in obese men, 1.115 (0.773-1.608) (p = 0.560) in non-obese women, and 1.401 (0.944-2.078) (p = 0.094) in obese women adjusted for BMI, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. The HRs (95% CIs) of MetS for T3 were 2.138 (1.071-4.269) (p = 0.031) in non-obese men and 1.341 (0.565-3.180) (p = 0.506) in obese men adjusted for pre-existing five components of MetS, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. In conclusion, an increase in resting heart rate was a significant predictor of MetS in non-obese Japanese men.

  15. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  16. Bicycle Riding: Impact on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Esther; Kam, Sin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, reports in the mass media have implicated that bicycle riding increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and prostatic diseases. So, we evaluate the impact of bicycle riding on erectile function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy general men. Methods From 26 June 2010 to 20 July 2010, we investigate degree of LUTS (voiding and storage symptoms), using International Continence Society-male Questionnaire (ICS-mQ) and erectile function using International Index of Erectile Function-5 Questionnaire (IIEF-5) in 5 work places (personnel of public office, hospital, university, etc.) of which bicycle riding club members were doing active club activities. Respondents, who participated in club activities for 6 months and longer, were classified as the bicycle club (142 men; age, 44.02±8.56). Ones who do not ride bicycles were classified as the control group (83 men; age, 42.13±7.85). People who were having the history of urological and other chronic diseases (diabetes, vascular disease, heart disease, etc) were excluded from both groups. Results Bicycle club is not significantly associated with increased prevalence of LUTS (bicycle club, 2.1 to 57.7% control, 4.8 to 73.5%) and erectile dysfunction (bicycle club, 46.1% control, 55.4%). The total mean score (storage/voiding/erectile function) of bicycle club (13.93±1.95/11.14±3.49/20.46±5.30) were not significantly different from control (14.35±2.49/11.52±3.38/20.40±4.07) (P=0.190 to 0.968). Conclusions These results suggested that bicycle riding as exercise or hobby has no negative effect on LUTS and erectile function in healthy general men, although this research data were limited to the questionnaire analysis. PMID:21811700

  17. Circadian rhythms of circulating NK cells in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.

    PubMed

    Bourin, P; Mansour, I; Doinel, C; Roué, R; Rouger, P; Levi, F

    1993-08-01

    Antiviral immunity involves NK cells, which circulate rhythmically every 24 hours. We have investigated circadian and 12-hour rhythms in the peripheral count of circulating NK cells in 15 men infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 13 healthy controls. We analyzed three phenotypes using double-labeling with monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry assessment: CD3- CD16+, CD3-CD57+, and CD2+CD3-. A statistical validation of time-dependent differences was achieved if significance (p < 0.05) was validated both with analysis of variance and cosinor. The circadian rhythm had a similar asymmetric waveform for the three phenotypes and is homogeneous on an individual basis. The circulating NK cell count peaked in the early morning and was low at night. A circadian rhythm and a circahemidian harmonic characterized all phenotypes in healthy subjects. We considered two groups of HIV-infected men: those who were asymptomatic (eight) and those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (seven). Circadian changes in NK cell count were similar in both subgroups and in healthy controls. The circadian pattern was also consistent among individual patients. Asymptomatic HIV-infected men (early-stage disease) exhibited more pronounced 12-hour rhythmicity than did patients with AIDS or controls. The circulation of NK cells does not appear to share the same synchronizer(s) as other circulating T- or B-lymphocyte subsets. Thus, HIV infection gradually abolished circadian rhythmicity in circulating T and B cells, whereas it did not disturb that in NK cells. PMID:8403073

  18. Relation Between Change in Renal Function and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Atorvastatin-Treated Patients (from the Treating to New Targets [TNT] Study).

    PubMed

    Shepherd, James; Breazna, Andrei; Deedwania, Prakash C; LaRosa, John C; Wenger, Nanette K; Messig, Michael; Wilson, Daniel J

    2016-04-15

    Statins may have nephroprotective as well as cardioprotective effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study (NCT00327691), patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were randomized to atorvastatin 10 or 80 mg/day and followed for 4.9 years. The relation between intrastudy change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline and the risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVEs, defined as CHD death, nonfatal non-procedure-related myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or fatal or nonfatal stroke) was assessed among 9,500 patients stratified by renal function: improving (change in eGFR more than +2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), stable (-2 to +2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), and worsening (less than -2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Compared with patients with worsening renal function (1,479 patients, 15.6%), the rate of MCVEs was 28% lower in patients with stable renal function (2,241 patients, 23.6%) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60 to 0.87; p = 0.0005) and 64% lower in patients with improving renal function (5,780 patients, 60.8%; HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.43; p <0.0001). For each 1 ml/min/1.73 m(2) increase in eGFR, the absolute reduction in the rate of MCVEs was 2.7% (HR 0.973; 95% CI 0.967 to 0.980; p <0.0001). An absolute MCVE rate reduction per 1 ml/min/1.73 m(2) increase in eGFR of 2.0% was reported with atorvastatin 10 mg and 3.3% with atorvastatin 80 mg. In conclusion, intrastudy stabilization or increase in eGFR in atorvastatin-treated patients with CHD from the TNT study was associated with a reduced rate of MCVEs. Statin-treated CHD patients with progressive renal impairment are at high risk for future cardiovascular events.

  19. Sleep loss reduces diurnal rhythm amplitude of leptin in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Mullington, J M; Chan, J L; Van Dongen, H P A; Szuba, M P; Samaras, J; Price, N J; Meier-Ewert, H K; Dinges, D F; Mantzoros, C S

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of sleep loss on the diurnal rhythm of circulating leptin levels. An indwelling forearm catheter was used to sample blood at 90-min intervals for a total of 120 h, which included 88 h of sustained sleeplessness, in 10 healthy men. The diurnal amplitude of leptin was reduced during total sleep deprivation and returned toward normal during the period of recovery sleep. This finding provides evidence that sleep influences the nocturnal leptin profile, and may have implications for the understanding of the role of sleep in metabolic regulation and the aetiologies of obesity and the night eating syndrome.

  20. Cortisol and GH secretory dynamics, and their interrelationships, in healthy aged women and men.

    PubMed

    Gusenoff, J A; Harman, S M; Veldhuis, J D; Jayme, J J; St Clair, C; Münzer, T; Christmas, C; O'Connor, K G; Stevens, T E; Bellantoni, M F; Pabst, K; Blackman, M R

    2001-04-01

    We studied 130 healthy aged women (n = 57) and men (n = 73), age 65-88 yr, with age-related reductions in insulin-like growth factor I and gonadal steroid levels to assess the interrelationships between cortisol and growth hormone (GH) secretion and whether these relationships differ by sex. Blood was sampled every 20 min from 8:00 PM to 8:00 AM; cortisol was measured by RIA and GH by immunoradiometric assay, followed by deconvolution analyses of hormone secretory parameters and assessment of approximate entropy (ApEn) and cross-ApEn. Cortisol mass/burst, cortisol production rate, and mean and integrated serum cortisol concentrations (P < 0.0005), and overnight basal GH secretion (P < 0.05), were elevated in women vs. men. Integrated cortisol concentrations were directly related to most measures of GH secretion in women (P < 0.01) and with mean and integrated GH concentrations in men (P < 0.05). Integrated GH concentrations were directly related to mean and integrated cortisol levels in women (P < 0.005) and men (P < 0.05), with no sex differences. There were no sex differences in cortisol or GH ApEn values; however, the cross-ApEn score was greater in women (P < 0.05), indicating reduced GH-cortisol pattern synchrony in aged women vs. men. There were no significant relationships of integrated cortisol secretion with GH ApEn, or vice versa, in either sex. Thus postmenopausal women appear to maintain elevated cortisol production in patterns that are relatively uncoupled from those of GH, whereas mean hormone outputs remain correlated.

  1. Cognitive performance effects of low zinc (Zn) intakes in healthy adult men

    SciTech Connect

    Penland, J.G. )

    1991-03-15

    A battery of tasks assessing sensory-motor skills and cognitive performance was administered to 14 healthy men participating in a 7-month, live-in metabolic study of Zn nutrition. Following a 33-day equilibration period, during which Zn intake was approximately 10 mg/2,500 kcal/day, all subjects were fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 mg Zn/day during each of four consecutive 35-day depletion periods administered in a random, double-blind manner. The study concluded with a 35-day repletion period providing 10 mg Zn/day. When contrasted with performance during the Zn repletion period, measures of response time and/or error on 10 of the 15 tasks administered showed a significant negative relationship to dietary Zn intake. Two sensory-motor tasks, two attention tasks, three perceptual tasks, two memory tasks, and one spatial task showed impaired performance with the low Zn intakes. However, there were few differences among the four depletion periods to support a dose effect of dietary Zn. Results suggest that even marginally low Zn intakes may have a negative effect on psychological and behavioral function in otherwise healthy young adult men.

  2. Determination of the safety of leucine supplementation in healthy elderly men.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Betina; Gilbert, Erin; Turki, Abrar; Madden, Kenneth; Elango, Rajavel

    2016-07-01

    Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), has been shown to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and thus has been proposed to prevent age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia). Therefore, leucine supplementation may have potential benefits in elderly populations to preserve muscle mass. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for leucine intake in young men has recently been determined to be 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1), and increases in blood ammonia concentrations were seen at intake levels above 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1); the UL for leucine in elderly is unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the safety of leucine supplementation in healthy elderly men. Six healthy elderly men (72.2 ± 3.5 years) received graded stepwise increases in leucine intakes ranging from 50 to 750 mg kg(-1) day(-1), on eight separate study days. Plasma and urinary biochemical variables, including blood ammonia, and an oral primed-continuous protocol of L-1-(13)C-Leucine was performed. Blood ammonia concentrations above normal values (35 µmol/L) were observed at leucine intakes >550 mg kg(-1) day(-1). Leucine oxidation measured as a F(13)CO2 (rate of label tracer oxidation) increased with increasing leucine intakes and started to plateau after 450 mg kg(-1) day(-1). Two-phased linear regression analysis of the F(13)CO2 data revealed a breakpoint of 431 mg kg(-1) day(-1) (R (2) = 0.73), suggesting that the upper limit to oxidize leucine was reached at that point. Taking the data together the upper limit for leucine intake in healthy elderly could be set similar to young men at 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1) or ~35 g/day for an individual weighing 70 kg. PMID:27138628

  3. The impact of dietary fat composition on serum leptin concentrations in healthy nonobese men and women.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Mario; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Fobker, Manfred; Buyken, Anette; Posny, Nicole; Schulte, Helmut; Assmann, Gerd; Wahrburg, Ursel

    2002-11-01

    The recently discovered hormone leptin is primarily secreted by adipose tissue and serves as an internal signal indicating the size of body fat stores. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the dietary fatty acid composition on serum leptin concentrations. Therefore, serum leptin levels were measured by RIA in healthy nonobese men (n = 30) and women (n = 25). First, all participants received a baseline high-fat diet, rich in saturated fat, for 2 wk and were then randomly assigned to one of three high-fat dietary treatments, which contained refined olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, n = 19), rapeseed oil [rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), n = 17], or sunflower oil (rich in n-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids, n = 19) as the principal source of fat for 4 wk. On the rapeseed oil diet, serum leptin concentrations increased slightly in men [+0.25 ng/ml, T(9) = -2.778, P = 0.021], but decreased distinctly in women [-4.70 ng/ml, T(6) = 5.083, P = 0.002]. Both the olive oil and the sunflower oil diet did not affect serum leptin concentrations. Thus, it is proposed that serum leptin levels were affected by the high amount of alpha-linolenic acid in rapeseed oil. However, questions remain as to why this diet differently affected serum leptin in men and women.

  4. Sex steroid levels temporarily increase in response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Billig, Håkan; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2012-06-01

    It is well known that acute psychosocial stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and levels of sex steroids are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of sex steroids in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50 years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. Concentrations of androgens were measured with high specificity LC-MS/MS method; concentrations of cortisol, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined using immunoassays. In both men and women we observed significantly elevated levels of testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione and sex hormone binding globulin along with significantly increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as a response to the stressor. Thus, even though the HPG axis and the production of sex steroids may be inhibited during prolonged periods of stress, the sex steroid levels may increase in the initial phase of acute psychosocial stress.

  5. Endothelial dysfunction in young healthy men is associated with aspirin resistance.

    PubMed

    Doroszko, Adrian; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Janus, Agnieszka; Jakubowski, Maciej; Turek, Aleksandra; Ilnicka, Paulina; Szuba, Andrzej; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between endothelial dysfunction and aspirin response in a young healthy population (102 men aged 18-40). Initial concentrations of the NO pathway metabolites (ADMA, l-arginine, SDMA), cardiovascular risk markers, oxidative stress markers (MDA, thiol index), sICAM1, sVCAM1, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, VEGF, thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1α and arachidonate-induced platelet aggregation (to separate aspirin resistant from sensitive group) were measured. Flow-mediated-vasodilation (FMD) was measured before and after intravenous infusion of 16.0 g of l-arginine. Measurements were repeated following aspirin administration (75 mg/24 h) for 4 days. Both groups were homogenous regarding demographic and biochemical characteristics reflecting cardiovascular risk. Aspirin resistant subjects were characterized by lower baseline FMD and higher FMD following aspirin and l-arginine treatment, as compared to aspirin sensitive control. MDA and nitrotyrosine were greater, whereas thiol index was lower in aspirin resistant men. The sICAM1, sVCAM1, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin and VEGF levels were similar in the analyzed groups. Thromboxane in aspirin resistant subjects was greater both at baseline and following aspirin therapy. However, a significant decrease following aspirin treatment was present in both groups. Aspirin resistance in young men is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which could be due to oxidative stress resulting from lipid peroxidation. PMID:25697550

  6. Low-density-lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M; Dreon, D M

    1995-08-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein responses to reduced dietary fat intake were investigated in relation to differences in distribution of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46% fat) and low-fat (24% fat) diets in random order for 6 wk each. With high-fat diets, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL (pattern A), whereas the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). With low-fat diets, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men with pattern A with both diets (stable A group), men in the stable B group (n = 18) had significantly greater reductions in plasma LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and mass of mid-sized (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subfractions. In both the stable A and change groups, there was a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, suggestive of change in LDL composition with minimal change in particle number, and consistent with the observation of reduced plasma LDL cholesterol without reduced apolipoprotein B. Stable B subjects had significantly greater increases in the largest very-low-density-lipoprotein subfraction with the low-fat diet than the stable A group, and also had greater decreases in the high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subclass HDL3 but smaller reductions in HDL2. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in plasma lipoprotein response to a low-fat diet.

  7. Hormone replacement therapy and physical function in healthy older men. Time to talk hormones?

    PubMed

    Giannoulis, Manthos G; Martin, Finbarr C; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Umpleby, A Margot; Sonksen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Improving physical function and mobility in a continuously expanding elderly population emerges as a high priority of medicine today. Muscle mass, strength/power, and maximal exercise capacity are major determinants of physical function, and all decline with aging. This contributes to the incidence of frailty and disability observed in older men. Furthermore, it facilitates the accumulation of body fat and development of insulin resistance. Muscle adaptation to exercise is strongly influenced by anabolic endocrine hormones and local load-sensitive autocrine/paracrine growth factors. GH, IGF-I, and testosterone (T) are directly involved in muscle adaptation to exercise because they promote muscle protein synthesis, whereas T and locally expressed IGF-I have been reported to activate muscle stem cells. Although exercise programs improve physical function, in the long-term most older men fail to comply. The GH/IGF-I axis and T levels decline markedly with aging, whereas accumulating evidence supports their indispensable role in maintaining physical function integrity. Several studies have reported that the administration of T improves lean body mass and maximal voluntary strength in healthy older men. On the other hand, most studies have shown that administration of GH alone failed to improve muscle strength despite amelioration of the detrimental somatic changes of aging. Both GH and T are anabolic agents that promote muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy but work through separate mechanisms, and the combined administration of GH and T, albeit in only a few studies, has resulted in greater efficacy than either hormone alone. Although it is clear that this combined approach is effective, this review concludes that further studies are needed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of combined hormone replacement therapy in older men before the medical rationale of prescribing hormone replacement therapy for combating the sarcopenia of aging can be established.

  8. Shorter Sleep Duration is Associated with Decreased Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy White Men

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patricia M.; Manuck, Stephen B.; DiNardo, Monica M.; Korytkowski, Mary; Muldoon, Matthew F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Short sleep has been linked to increased risk for type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular disease and acute sleep restriction impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Here, we examined whether indices of glucose metabolism vary with naturally occurring differences in sleep duration. Design and Measures: Subjects were midlife, nondiabetic community volunteers (N = 224; mean age 44.5 ± 6.6 y [range: 30–54]; 52% female; 89% white). Laboratory measures of insulin sensitivity (Si) and acute secretion (AIRg), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and disposition index (Di) were obtained from a 180-min, intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results: Shorter self-reported sleep duration (in hours) was associated with lower Si (P = 0.043), although an interaction of sleep duration with participant race (β = −0.81, P = 0.002) showed this association significant only in whites. Moreover, sex-stratified analyses revealed that shorter sleep duration predicted lower Si in white men (β = 0.29, P = 0.003) but not in white women (P = 0.22). Findings were similar for AIRg. The relationship between sleep duration and AIRg was moderated by race as well as sex, such that shorter sleep duration associated with greater insulin release only in white men (β = −0.28, P = 0.004). Sleep duration was unrelated to Sg and Di (P's > 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that shorter sleep duration may impair insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in nondiabetic white men, possibly contributing to later type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Citation: Wong PM, Manuck SB, DiNardo MM, Korytkowski M, Muldoon MF. Shorter sleep duration is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in healthy white men. SLEEP 2015;38(2):223–231. PMID:25325485

  9. Immunological and Mass Spectrometric Assays of SHBG: Consistent and Inconsistent Metabolic Associations in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Bondar, Olga P.; Dyer, Roy B.; Trushin, Sergey A.; Klee, Eric W.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Klee, George G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: SHBG concentrations correlate inconsistently with metabolic parameters. Hypothesis: SHBG assay platforms contribute to nonuniformities according to the literature. Design: The design of the study was a noninterventional quantification of SHBG by two immuno- and two mass spectrometric assays and abdominal visceral fat by computed tomography scan. Setting: The study was conducted at the Center for Translational Science Activities. Participants: Healthy men (n = 120) aged 18–80 years with a body mass index of 20–43 kg/m2 participated I the study. Outcomes: Outcomes of the study included a correlation of log SHBG with age, metabolic surrogates [body mass index, albumin, glucose, insulin, abdominal (total and visceral) fat, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index], sex steroids (estrone, 17β-estradiol, T, and dihydrotestosterone by mass spectrometry), and adipocytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12, TNF-α, and adiponectin). Results: By univariate regression, age (P < 10−4), dihydrotestosterone (P < 10−4), T (P ≤ .00022), and adiponectin (P ≤ .0084) were positive correlates, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index were negative correlates (P ≤ .0060) of SHBG in all four assays. Stepwise multivariate analysis unveiled that age and T together could explain 38.1%–52.5% of the statistical variance in SHBG in all assays (P < 10−11). Multivariate regression without sex steroids unveiled that age (P < 10−5) and insulin (P < 10−3) are jointly associated with SHBG levels in the four assays with overall R2 = 0.215–0.293 and P < 10−6. In one immunological SHBG assay each, abdominal visceral fat and adiponectin were weak multivariates also. Conclusion: Immunological and mass spectrometric SHBG assays yield both consistent and inconsistent correlations with key metabolic variables in healthy men, thereby potentially explaining earlier inconsistencies in the literature. PMID:24203061

  10. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthy weight maintenance in college men.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer R; White, Adrienne A; Greaney, Mary L

    2009-06-01

    Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age = 20.3 +/- 1.7 years) completed an online survey, including the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Three face-to-face and 3 online synchronous groups were conducted using a 15-question discussion guide to identify weight maintenance issues around eating, physical activity, and body perceptions. Weight satisfaction decreased with increase in both dietary restraint and disinhibition. Number of attempts to lose weight was positively associated with BMI (r [44] = .465, P = .01) and dietary restraint (r [44] = .515, P = .01). Findings from both focus group formats were similar. Motivators (sports performance/fitness, self-esteem, attractiveness, long-term health) were similar for eating healthfully and being physically active; however, more motivators to be physically active than to eat healthfully emerged. Enablers for eating healthfully included liking the taste, availability of healthful foods, using food rules to guide intake, having a habit of healthful eating, and internal drive/will. Barriers to healthful eating included fat in dairy foods, fruit and vegetable taste, and quick spoilage. Barriers to being physically active included lack of time/time management, obligations, being lazy, and girlfriends. Results may be used to inform future obesity prevention interventions.

  11. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men

    PubMed Central

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D’Errico, Marcello M.; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30’ post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline. PMID:26529517

  12. Selenium Status Is Positively Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Aging European Men

    PubMed Central

    Beukhof, Carolien M.; Medici, Marco; van den Beld, Annewieke W.; Hollenbach, Birgit; Hoeg, Antonia; Visser, W. Edward; de Herder, Wouter W.; Visser, Theo J.; Schomburg, Lutz; Peeters, Robin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status in a cohort of 387 healthy elderly men (median age 77 yrs; inter quartile range 75–80 yrs) in relation to TFTs and BMD. Se status was determined by measuring both plasma selenoprotein P (SePP) and Se. Results The overall Se status in our population was low normal with only 0.5% (2/387) of subjects meeting the criteria for Se deficiency. SePP and Se levels were not associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) or reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. The T3/T4 and T3/rT3 ratios, reflecting peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone, were not associated with Se status either. SePP and Se were positively associated with total BMD and femoral trochanter BMD. Se, but not SePP, was positively associated with femoral neck and ward's BMD. Multivariate linear analyses showed that these associations remain statistically significant in a model including TSH, FT4, body mass index, physical performance score, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus and number of medication use. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that Se status, within the normal European marginally supplied range, is positively associated with BMD in healthy aging men, independent of thyroid function. Thyroid function tests appear unaffected by Se status in this population. PMID:27055238

  13. Multipathway Modulation of Exercise and Glucose Stress Effects upon GH Secretion in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Olson, Thomas P.; Takahashi, Paul Y.; Miles, John M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Yang, Rebecca J.; Wigham, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exercise evokes pulsatile GH release followed by autonegative feedback, whereas glucose suppresses GH release followed by rebound-like GH release (feedforward escape). Here we test the hypothesis that age, sex steroids, insulin, body composition and physical power jointly determine these dynamic GH responses. Methods This was a prospectively randomized glucose-blinded study conducted in the Mayo Center for Advancing Translational Sciences in healthy men ages 19–77 yr (N = 23). Three conditions, fasting/rest/saline, fasting/exercise/saline and fasting/rest/iv glucose infusions, were used to drive GH dynamics during 10-min blood sampling for 6 hr. Linear correlation analysis was applied to relate peak/nadir GH dynamics to age, sex steroids, insulin, CT-estimated abdominal fat and physical power (work per unit time). Results Compared with the fasting/rest/saline (control) day, fasting/exercise/saline infusion evoked peak GH within 1 h, followed by negative feedback 3–5 h later. The dynamic GH excursion was strongly (R2 = 0.634) influenced by (i) insulin negatively (P = 0.011), (ii) power positively (P = 0.0008), and (iii) E2 positively (P = 0.001). Dynamic glucose-modulated GH release was determined by insulin negatively (P = 0.0039) and power positively (P = 0.0034) [R2 = 0.454]. Under rest/saline, power (P = 0.031) and total abdominal fat (P = 0.012) [R2 = 0.267] were the dominant correlates of GH excursions. Conclusion In healthy men, dynamic GH perturbations induced by exercise and glucose are strongly related to physical power, insulin, estradiol, and body composition, thus suggesting a network of regulatory pathways. PMID:26028283

  14. Effect of antioxidant intake on sperm chromatin stability in healthy nonsmoking men.

    PubMed

    Silver, Elana W; Eskenazi, Brenda; Evenson, Donald P; Block, Gladys; Young, Suzanne; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress is detrimental to sperm function and a significant factor in the etiology of male infertility. This report examines the association between dietary and supplementary intake of the antioxidants vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene and sperm chromatin integrity. Eighty-seven healthy male volunteers donated semen samples, completed food-frequency questionnaires, and provided information about their sociodemographic characteristics, medical and reproductive histories, and lifestyle habits. Sperm chromatin integrity was measured using the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and related parameters, obtained from the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). SCSA measures the susceptibility of sperm DNA to acid-induced denaturation in situ. After adjusting for age and duration of abstinence, there was no dose-response association between any DFI outcome and any antioxidant intake measure. Non-dose-related associations were found between beta-carotene intake and both the standard deviation of DFI (SD DFI) and the percent of immature sperm. Participants with moderate, but not high, beta-carotene intake had an increase in SD DFI compared with participants with low intake (adjusted means 206.7 and 180.5, respectively; P = .03), as well as an increase in the percentage of immature sperm (adjusted means 6.9% and 5.0%, respectively; P = .04). If antioxidant intake in the range studied is indeed beneficial for fertility in healthy men, it does not appear to be mediated through the integrity of sperm chromatin. The results of this study do not preclude possible beneficial effects of high antioxidant intake on sperm chromatin integrity for men with fertility problems.

  15. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthy weight maintenance in college men.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer R; White, Adrienne A; Greaney, Mary L

    2009-06-01

    Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age = 20.3 +/- 1.7 years) completed an online survey, including the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Three face-to-face and 3 online synchronous groups were conducted using a 15-question discussion guide to identify weight maintenance issues around eating, physical activity, and body perceptions. Weight satisfaction decreased with increase in both dietary restraint and disinhibition. Number of attempts to lose weight was positively associated with BMI (r [44] = .465, P = .01) and dietary restraint (r [44] = .515, P = .01). Findings from both focus group formats were similar. Motivators (sports performance/fitness, self-esteem, attractiveness, long-term health) were similar for eating healthfully and being physically active; however, more motivators to be physically active than to eat healthfully emerged. Enablers for eating healthfully included liking the taste, availability of healthful foods, using food rules to guide intake, having a habit of healthful eating, and internal drive/will. Barriers to healthful eating included fat in dairy foods, fruit and vegetable taste, and quick spoilage. Barriers to being physically active included lack of time/time management, obligations, being lazy, and girlfriends. Results may be used to inform future obesity prevention interventions. PMID:19628102

  16. Digestive physiological outcomes related to polydextrose and soluble maize fibre consumption by healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Boler, Brittany M Vester; Serao, Mariana C Rossoni; Bauer, Laura L; Staeger, Michael A; Boileau, Thomas W; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate digestive physiological outcomes elicited by functional fibres fed to healthy adult men. A total of twenty-one healthy adult men were utilised in a cross-over design. Each subject received polydextrose (PDX) or soluble maize fibre (SCF) (21 g/d) or no supplemental fibre (no fibre control; NFC) in a snack bar. Periods were 21 d and faeces were collected during the last 5 d of each period. Food intake, including fibre intake, did not differ among treatments. Flatulence (P = 0·001) and distention (P = 0·07) were greatest when subjects consumed PDX or SCF. Reflux was greater (P = 0·04) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. All tolerance scores were low ( < 2·5), indicating only slight discomfort. Faecal ammonia, 4-methylphenol, indole and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased (P < 0·01) when subjects consumed the functional fibre sources compared with NFC. Faecal acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations were lower (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed PDX compared with SCF and NFC. Faecal pH was lower (P = 0·01) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC, while PDX was intermediate. Faecal wet weight was greatest (P = 0·03) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. Faecal dry weight tended to be greater (P = 0·07) when subjects consumed PDX compared with NFC. The functional fibres led to 1·4 and 0·9 g (PDX and SCF, respectively) increases in faecal dry mass per g supplemental fibre intake. Bifidobacterium spp. concentrations were greater (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. These functional fibres appear to be beneficial to gut health while leading to minimal gastrointestinal upset. PMID:21736814

  17. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  18. Assessment of Fat distribution and Bone quality with Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) in Healthy Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Aisen; Di, Wenjuan; Sheng, Yunlu; Cheng, Peng; Qi, Hanmei; Liu, Juan; Yu, Jing; Ding, Guoxian; Cai, Jinmei; Lai, Bin

    2016-04-26

    Whether fat is beneficial or detrimental to bones is still controversial, which may be due to inequivalence of the fat mass. Our objective is to define the effect of body fat and its distribution on bone quality in healthy Chinese men. A total of 228 men, aged from 38 to 89 years, were recruited. BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were assessed by MRI. In the Pearson correlation analysis, lumbar spine BMD exhibited positive associations with total and all regional fat depots, regardless of the fat distribution. However, the correlation disappeared with adjusted covariables of age, BMI, HDL-C, and HbA1c%. TBS was negatively correlated with fat mass. In multiple linear regression models, android fat (and not gynoid, trunk, or limbs fat) showed significant inverse association with TBS (β = -0.611, P < 0.001). Furthermore, visceral fat was described as a pathogenic fat harmful to TBS, even after adjusting for age and BMI (β = -0.280, P = 0.017). Our findings suggested that body fat mass, especially android fat and visceral fat, may have negative effects on bone microstructure; whereas body fat mass contributes to BMD through mechanical loading.

  19. The effect of selenium supplementation on DTH skin responses in healthy North American men.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Wayne Chris; Hwang, Amie; Alkan, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is essential for immune system development and function in animals. However, the exact functions of Se in the human immune system and the achievable health benefits from Se supplementation remain unclear. To test whether an increased intake of dietary Se affects immune function, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial of Se supplementation in healthy free-living men. Forty-two men were administered 300microg of Se a day as high-Se Baker's yeast, or low-Se yeast for 48 weeks. Serum immunoglobulins, differential complete blood counts and lymphocyte sub-populations were measured every 6 weeks. Tests of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin responses to mumps, candida, trychophyton, tuberculin-purified protein, and tetanus were performed at baseline and at the end of 48 weeks of treatment. Supplementation increased blood Se concentration by 50%. Surprisingly, consumption of the low-Se yeast induced anergy in DTH skin responses and increased counts of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes expressing both subunits of the high affinity interleukin-2 receptor (IL2R). DTH skin responses and IL2R+ cells did not change in the high-Se group, suggesting Se supplementation blocked induction of DTH anergy. There were no differences between groups in quality of life indicators, number of days sick, other leukocyte phenotypes, serum immunoglobulins, or complement factors. These results suggest that Se plays a role in immunotolerization, a cell-mediated process involved in many aspects of immune function.

  20. Phthalate Excretion Pattern and Testicular Function: A Study of 881 Healthy Danish Men

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Background: In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function. Objectives: We aimed to provide estimates of the effects of phthalate exposure on reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy men. Methods: A total of 881 men gave urine, serum, and semen samples. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin-B; semen quality; and urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), were assessed. The proportions of DEHP and DiNP excreted as their respective primary metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP)] were calculated and expressed as percentages (%MEHP and %MiNP, respectively). Results: The free androgen index was 15% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): –23, –8%] for men in the highest %MiNP quartile compared to the lowest quartile (p < 0.001) after adjusting for confounders, and 9% lower (95% CI: –16, –1%) in the highest %MEHP quartile (p = 0.02). %MEHP and %MiNP were negatively associated with the ratio of testosterone/LH and testosterone/FSH. %MEHP was negatively associated with total testosterone, free testosterone, and ratio of testosterone/E2. %MiNP was positively associated with SHBG. There was little evidence of associations between urinary phthalate metabolites or sums of phthalates with reproductive hormones or semen quality Conclusion: Our data suggest that both testosterone production and pituitary–hypothalamic feedback may be compromised in individuals excreting a high proportion of primary metabolites of long-chained phthalates relative to the proportion of secondary metabolites. PMID:22832070

  1. Response to pentagastrin after acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion in healthy men: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, N; Zedkova, L; Sanghera, G; Leyton, M; Le Mellédo, J M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of the acute depletion of the catecholamine precursors phenylalanine and tyrosine on mood and pentagastrin-induced anxiety. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind controlled multiple crossover study. SETTING: University department of psychiatry. PARTICIPANTS: 6 healthy male volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: 3 treatments were compared: pretreatment with a nutritionally balanced amino acid mixture, followed 5 hours later by a bolus injection of normal saline placebo; pretreatment with a balanced amino acid mixture, followed by a bolus injection of pentagastrin (0.6 microgram/kg); and pretreatment with an amino acid mixture without the catecholamine precursors phenylalanine or tyrosine, followed by pentagastrin (0.6 microgram/kg). OUTCOME MEASURES: Scores on the panic symptom scale, a visual analogue scale for anxiety, the Borg scale of respiratory exertion and the Profile of Mood States Elation-Depression Scale. RESULTS: Pentagastrin produced the expected increases in anxiety symptoms, but there was no significant or discernible influence of acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion on anxiety or mood. CONCLUSIONS: These pilot data do not support further study using the same design in healthy men. Under these study conditions, phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion may have larger effects on dopamine than noradrenaline. Alternative protocols to assess the role of catecholamines in mood and anxiety are proposed. PMID:11394194

  2. Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women.

    PubMed

    Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal. PMID:15527924

  3. Calcium regulating hormones in healthy elderly men: relation to intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Ravaglia, G; Forti, P; Maioli, F; Scali, R C; Boschi, F; Pratelli, L; Pizzoferrato, A

    1994-12-01

    Aged male subjects often have osteoporosis and it has been suggested that the cause is an age-related lack of vitamin D. We evaluated the calcium regulating endocrine mechanism in healthy aged males in order to verify this hypothesis. We studied serum levels of PTH and 1,25(OH)2D in relation to intestinal calcium absorption, radial bone mass density (BMD) and osteocalcin plasma levels in 30 healthy elderly men (61-88 yr.). 1,25(OH)2D levels and calcium absorption, assessed by oral strontium test, did not change with age with respect to a young control group. PTH was higher (p < 0.02) in the elderly than in the control group, and correlated positively with nephrogenous cAMP levels (p < 0.01; r = 0.65). Radial BMD (measured by single photon absorptiometry) was lower (p < 0.01) in elderly than in young subjects and negatively correlated with age (p < 0.01; r = -0.45). Osteocalcin levels, used as a mark of bone turnover, were unchanged. The data suggest that decreased 1,25(OH)2D levels are not a feature of normal male aging. Senile hyperparathyroidism could compensate for impairments in endogenous metabolism of vitamin D in elderly males and maintain calcium absorption at an efficient level, without increasing bone turnover. PMID:7748532

  4. Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women.

    PubMed

    Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal.

  5. Chronic stress exposure decreases the cortisol awakening response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Zhang, Kan; Buchanan, Tony W; Wu, Jianhui

    2013-11-01

    Academic examination is a major stressor for students in China. Investigation of stress-sensitive endocrine responses to major examination stress serves as a good model of naturalistic chronic psychological stress in an otherwise healthy population. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an endocrine marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to stress. However, it remains unknown how chronic examination stress impacts the CAR in a young healthy population To exclude the influence of sex effects on hormone level, the CAR and psychological stress responses were assessed on two consecutive workdays in 42 male participants during their preparations for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE) and 21 non-exam, age-matched male comparisons. On each day, four saliva samples were collected immediately after awakening, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after awakening. The waking level (S1), the increase within 30 minutes after awakening (R30), the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg), and the area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) were used to quantify the CAR. Psychological stress and anxiety were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Male participants in the exam group had greater perceived stress and anxiety scores relatibe to the non-exam group. Both R30 and AUCi in the exam group were significantly lower than the comparison group and this effect was most pronounced for participants with high levels of perceived stress in the exam group. Perceived stress and anxiety levels were negatively correlated with both R30 and AUCi. Chronic examination stress can lead to the decrease of CAR in healthy young men, possibly due to reduced HPA axis activity under long-term sustained stress.

  6. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body

  7. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    DOE PAGES

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvismore » scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the

  8. Survival Following Radiation and Androgen Suppression Therapy for Prostate Cancer in Healthy Older Men: Implications for Screening Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Loffredo, Marian; Kantoff, Philip W.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has recommended against screening men over 75 for prostate cancer. We examined whether older healthy men could benefit from aggressive prostate cancer treatment. Methods and Materials: 206 men with intermediate to high risk localized prostate cancer randomized to 70 Gy of radiation (RT) or RT plus 6 months of androgen suppression therapy (RT+AST) constituted the study cohort. Within subgroups stratified by Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 comorbidity score and age, Cox multivariable analysis was used to determine whether treatment with RT+AST as compared with RT was associated with a decreased risk of death. Results: Among healthy men (i.e., with mild or no comorbidity), 78 were older than the median age of 72.4 years, and in this subgroup, RT+AST was associated with a significantly lower risk of death on multivariable analysis (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.36 (95% CI=0.13-0.98), p = 0.046, with significantly lower 8-year mortality estimates of 16.5% vs. 41.4% (p = 0.011). Conversely, among men with moderate or severe comorbidity, 24 were older than the median age of 73, and in this subgroup, treatment with RT+AST was associated with a higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.2 (1.3-20.2), p = 0.018). Conclusion: In older men with mild or no comorbidity, treatment with RT+AST was associated with improved survival compared with treatment with RT alone, suggesting that healthy older men may derive the same benefits from prostate cancer treatment as younger men. We therefore suggest that prostate cancer screening recommendations should not be based on strict age cutoffs alone but should also take into account comorbidity.

  9. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy is not attenuated by dietary protein supplementation in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Marlou L; Wall, Benjamin T; Nilwik, Rachel; Weerts, Daniëlle H J M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-08-01

    Short successive periods of muscle disuse, due to injury or illness, can contribute significantly to the loss of muscle mass with aging (sarcopenia). It has been suggested that increasing the protein content of the diet may be an effective dietary strategy to attenuate muscle disuse atrophy. We hypothesized that protein supplementation twice daily would preserve muscle mass during a short period of limb immobilization. Twenty-three healthy older (69 ± 1 y) men were subjected to 5 d of one-legged knee immobilization by means of a full-leg cast with (PRO group; n = 11) or without (CON group; n = 12) administration of a dietary protein supplement (20.7 g of protein, 9.3 g of carbohydrate, and 3.0 g of fat) twice daily. Two d prior to and immediately after the immobilization period, single-slice computed tomography scans of the quadriceps and single-leg 1 repetition maximum strength tests were performed to assess muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg muscle strength, respectively. Additionally, muscle biopsies were collected to assess muscle fiber characteristics as well as mRNA and protein expression of selected genes. Immobilization decreased quadriceps' CSAs by 1.5 ± 0.7% (P < 0.05) and 2.0 ± 0.6% (P < 0.05), and muscle strength by 8.3 ± 3.3% (P < 0.05) and 9.3 ± 1.6% (P < 0.05) in the CON and PRO groups, respectively, without differences between groups. Skeletal muscle myostatin, myogenin, and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1) mRNA expression increased following immobilization in both groups (P < 0.05), whereas muscle atrophy F-box/atrogen-1 (MAFBx) mRNA expression increased in the PRO group only (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary protein supplementation (∼20 g twice daily) does not attenuate muscle loss during short-term muscle disuse in healthy older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01588808.

  10. Effect of acute salt ingestion upon core temperature in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Ryan, Edward J; Bellar, David M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Williamson, Megan E; Glickman, Ellen L; Blankfield, Robert P

    2011-06-01

    Salt intake may cause conflict for the cardiovascular system as it attempts to simultaneously maintain blood pressure (BP) and temperature homeostasis. Our objective was to determine the effect of a salt and water load vs. a water load upon rectal temperature (Tre) in healthy volunteers. Twenty-two healthy, non-hypertensive Caucasian men enrolled in two trials in which they ingested either salt and body temperature water (SALT), or body temperature water (WATER). BP, Tre, cardiac index, peripheral resistance and urine output were monitored one, 2 and 3 h post-baseline. Changes in the dependent variables were compared between those subjects who were salt sensitive (SS) and those who were salt resistant (SR) at the same time intervals. The percentage change reduction in Tre was greater following SALT compared with WATER at +120 min (-1.1±0.7 vs. -0.6±0.5%, P=0.009) and at +180 min (-1.3±0.8 vs. -0.7±0.6%, P=0.003). The percentage change reduction in Tre was greater in the SR group compared with the SS group at +180 min (-1.6±0.9 vs. -0.9±0.5%, P=0.043). SALT decreased Tre more than WATER. SS individuals maintained temperature homeostasis more effectively than SR individuals following SALT. These results may explain why some individuals are SS while others are SR. If these results are generalizable, it would be possible to account for the role of sodium chloride in the development of SS hypertension.

  11. B-type natriuretic peptide modulates ghrelin, hunger, and satiety in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Vila, Greisa; Grimm, Gabriele; Resl, Michael; Heinisch, Birgit; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Clodi, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Chronic heart failure is accompanied by anorexia and increased release of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking heart failure and appetite regulation remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of intravenous BNP administration on appetite-regulating hormones and subjective ratings of hunger and satiety in 10 healthy volunteers. Participants received in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-blinded study (subject) placebo once and 3.0 pmol/kg/min human BNP-32 once administered as a continuous infusion during 4 h. Circulating concentrations of appetite-regulating peptides were measured hourly. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were evaluated by visual analog scales. BNP inhibited the fasting-induced increase in total and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time (P = 0.043 and P = 0.038, respectively). In addition, BNP decreased the subjective rating of hunger (P = 0.009) and increased the feeling of satiety (P = 0.012) when compared with placebo. There were no significant changes in circulating peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. In summary, our results demonstrate that BNP exerts anorectic effects and reduces ghrelin concentrations in men. These data, taken together with the known cardiovascular properties of ghrelin, support the existence of a heart-gut-brain axis, which could be therapeutically targeted in patients with heart failure and obesity.

  12. Effects of tumor necrosis factor on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, T; Romijn, J A; Endert, E; Sauerwein, H P

    1993-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated as a mediator of many diseases associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) function. To assess the effects of TNF on the HPT axis, we performed a saline-controlled cross-over study in six healthy men, sequentially measuring serum concentrations of gonadotropins, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) after a bolus intravenous injection of recombinant human TNF (50 micrograms/m2). TNF induced an early and transient increase in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels from 6.0 +/- 1.0 to a maximum of 8.0 +/- 1.0 U/L after 30 minutes (P < .005), whereas the concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) remained unchanged. The increase in LH concentrations was followed by a transient decrease in serum testosterone levels from 18.2 +/- 0.3 to 9.1 +/- 1.2 nmol/L after 4 hours (P < .0001). Remarkably, LH levels had returned to control values when the testosterone level reached its nadir. SHBG levels were not affected by TNF. Our results suggest that TNF affects the HPT axis at multiple levels and may be involved either directly or indirectly in the decrease in circulating testosterone concentrations in systemic illnesses.

  13. Daily loss of calcium and sodium from the skin of two healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Carr, T. E. F.; Harrison, G. E.; Nolan, J.

    1973-01-01

    1. The daily losses from the skin of Ca and Na have been measured for two healthy men. The losses included Ca and Na in exfoliated skin cells as well as in insensible perspiration. The daily output of Ca in urine was also measured. 2. In five measurements, the total daily skin loss of Ca ranged from 8·0 to 21·1 mg with mean values of 16·7 and 10·8 mg for the two subjects. The total daily skin loss of Na under the same conditions ranged from 45 to 146 mg with mean values of 97 and 77 mg respectively. 3. The ratio of the daily skin loss to the urinary excretion of Ca was 6·8 and 3·4%. 4. There was no correlation between the daily skin loss of Ca and atmospheric humidity. 5. In the last experiment, the fraction of the total skin loss of Ca due to fluid secretion was assessed by giving an I.V. dose of 47Ca to each subject. The values derived for this fraction were 0·37 and 0·38. PMID:4778144

  14. The Effects of Passive Cycling Exercise for 30 min on Cardiorespiratory Dynamics in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Sayuri; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the incidence rate of cardiovascular disease is attributed to high daily sitting time, while a drop in risk of cardiovascular disease comes from a decrease in daily sitting time, rather than an increase in physical activity levels. Although short-duration passive exercise increases energy expenditure and blood flow, few studies have reported on the responses of cardiorespiratory dynamics to long-duration passive exercise. The purpose of this study was to consider the effect of long-duration passive exercise for 20 min on cardiorespiratory and muscle oxygen dynamics. Eight healthy men continuously performed passive exercise using a cycle ergometer for 20 min at 50 rpm. Changes in oxygen uptake, cardiac output and muscle oxygenation were measured during passive cycling exercise. The oxygen uptake at 1 min after the start of passive exercise was significantly increased, compared to resting level, but subsequently returned to the same as resting level. Cardiac output showed no change during passive cycling exercise. Tissue oxygen saturation increased after the start of passive exercise and subsequently maintained steady state. These results suggest that the effect of increases in energy expenditure was not maintained by passive exercise for 20 min. In addition, it is likely that passive cycling exercise for 20 min has an effect on peripheral circulation, although the exercise seems to have no effect on central circulation.

  15. Increased impulsivity in response to food cues after sleep loss in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Brandell, Jon; Ros, Olof; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses. Methods Fourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one night of TSD versus normal sleep (8.5 hours). Following each nighttime intervention, hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before performing a go/no-go task. Results Following TSD, participants made significantly more commission errors when they were presented “no-go” food words in the go/no-go task, as compared with their performance following sleep (+56%; P<0.05). In contrast, response time and omission errors to “go” non-food words did not differ between the conditions. Self-reported hunger after TSD was increased without changes in fasting plasma glucose. The increase in hunger did not correlate with the TSD-induced commission errors. Conclusions Our results suggest that TSD impairs cognitive control also in response to food stimuli in healthy young men. Whether such loss of inhibition or impulsiveness is food cue-specific as seen in obesity—thus providing a mechanism through which sleep disturbances may promote obesity development—warrants further investigation. PMID:24839251

  16. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making under Ambiguous and Risky Conditions in Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Cano-López, Irene; Cano-López, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Acute stress and decision making (DM) interact in life - although little is known about the role of ambiguity and risk in this interaction. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of acute stress on DM under various conditions. Thirty-one young healthy men were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental and control. DM processes were evaluated before and after an experimental session. For the experimental group, the session consisted of an acute stress battery; and the protocol was similar for the control group but the instructions were designed to minimize acute stress. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded 30 minutes before the DM tasks and during the experimental session. Cortisol, glucose, mood responses, and personality factors were also assessed. Acute stress was found to enhance disadvantageous decisions under ambiguous conditions (F(1, 29) = 4.16, p = .05, η2 p = .13), and this was mainly explained by the stress induced cortisol response (26.1% of variance, F(1, 30) = 11.59, p = .002). While there were no significant effects under risky conditions, inhibition responses differed between groups (F(1, 29) = 4.21, p = .05, η2 p = .13) and these differences were explained by cardiovascular and psychological responses (39.1% of variance, F(3, 30) = 7.42, p < .001). Results suggest that DM tasks could compete with cognitive resources after acute stress and could have implications for intervention in acute stress effects on DM in contexts such as addiction or eating disorders. PMID:27644414

  17. Glucagon-like peptide 1 induces natriuresis in healthy subjects and in insulin-resistant obese men.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, Jean-Pierre; Tschopp, Stefan; Bock, Andreas; Zehnder, Carlos E; Huber, Andreas R; Kreyenbuehl, Monika; Gutmann, Heike; Drewe, Jürgen; Henzen, Christoph; Goeke, Burkhard; Beglinger, Christoph

    2004-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide (GLP-1) is involved in satiety control and glucose homeostasis. Animal studies suggest a physiological role for GLP-1 in water and salt homeostasis. This study's aim was to define the effects of GLP-1 on water and sodium excretion in both healthy and obese men. Fifteen healthy subjects and 16 obese men (mean body mass index, 36 kg/m2) were examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to demonstrate the effects of a 3-h infusion of GLP-1 on urinary sodium excretion, urinary output, and the glomerular filtration rate after an i.v. 9.9-g salt load. Infusion of GLP-1 evoked a dose-dependent increase in urinary sodium excretion in healthy subjects (from 74 +/- 8 to 143 +/- 18 mmol/180 min, P = 0.0013). In obese men, there was a significant increase in urinary sodium excretion (from 59 to 96 mmol/180 min, P = 0.015), a decrease in urinary H+ secretion (from 1.1 to 0.3 pmol/180 min, P = 0.013), and a 6% decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (from 151 +/- 8 to 142 +/- 8 ml/min, P = 0.022). Intravenous infusions of GLP-1 enhance sodium excretion, reduce H+ secretion, and reduce glomerular hyperfiltration in obese men. These findings suggest an action at the proximal renal tubule and a potential renoprotective effect.

  18. Exogenous testosterone alone or with finasteride does not improve measurements of cognition in healthy older men with low serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Camille; Goldstein, Felicia C; Tenover, J Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Testosterone (T) levels decline as men age, but it is unclear whether this has an effect on cognition. Some studies indicate that lower T levels are associated with memory loss; thus, maintaining a higher T level could have positive effects on aspects of cognitive function. Concerns exist, however, about the effect of T therapy on the prostate in older men. We hypothesized that T replacement in older men with low T levels would improve aspects of cognitive function and that the addition of finasteride would not affect the T-induced cognitive improvements. Healthy men, 65 to 83 years of age, with baseline total T below 350 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 regimens: 200 mg of T every 2 weeks by intramuscular injection with placebo pill daily (T-only), 200 mg of T every 2 weeks by intramuscular injection with 5 mg of finasteride daily (T+F), or placebo injections and pills (placebo). Sixty-nine men completed baseline cognitive testing; 65 completed at least 4 months, and 46 completed all 36 months of the study. Participants were given a battery of cognitive evaluations at baseline, 4 months, and 36 months, along with measurement of serum hormone levels. Serum total T, bioavailable T, and estradiol levels in the T-only and T+F groups significantly increased throughout the treatment period, whereas these hormone levels did not change in the placebo group. Only minimally significant differences were seen among the 3 groups in any evaluation of cognitive performance, either in the short-term (4 months) or the long-term (36 months) analysis. These results indicate that T replacement, whether given alone or in combination with finasteride, for 36 months in healthy older men without cognitive impairment at baseline has no clinically significant effect on tests of cognitive function. Further studies are warranted to determine whether hormone replacement in men with preexisting cognitive impairment is beneficial. PMID:17609296

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors and total serum antioxidant capacity in healthy men and in men with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Chrzczanowicz, Jacek; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Whether the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is related to a decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has not yet been completely clarified. We assessed TAC of blood serum in a group of 163 men with CHD aged 34.8-77.0 years and in 163 age-matched peers without CHD. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: ferric reducing ability of serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. In the CHD group, multivariate analysis revealed that uric acid (UA), triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure contributed independently to the TAC-FRAS variance. TAC-DPPH was favorably predicted by UA concentration, but negatively so by current smoking and glucose levels. In men without CHD, UA was the only independent determinant of both TAC-FRAS and TAC-DPPH. Presence of CHD was not an independent predictor of TAC-observed between-group differences (higher TAC in CHD patients) disappeared after adjustment for other confounders. We conclude that UA is the main determinant of TAC of blood serum in men. TAC is not directly influenced by age or CHD but is related to several indices of overweight/obesity and laboratory measures of metabolic syndrome, especially in patients with CHD.

  20. Single Oral Dose Pharmacokinetics of Decursin and Decursinol Angelate in Healthy Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Hale, Thomas W.; Chee, Wayne; Xing, Chengguo; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH) in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY) in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax) of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax) of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h) and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h). The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h) for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957 PMID:25695490

  1. Multiparametric MR Imaging Depicts Glycosaminoglycan Change in the Achilles Tendon during Ciprofloxacin Administration in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Juras, Vladimir; Winhofer, Yvonne; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Vosshenrich, Jan; Hager, Benedikt; Wolf, Peter; Weber, Michael; Luger, Anton; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques (sodium MR imaging, glycosaminoglycan [GAG] chemical exchange saturation transfer [CEST], and T2* mapping) could be used as potential markers for biochemical changes in the Achilles tendon induced by ciprofloxacin intake. Materials and Methods The ethics committee of the Medical University of Vienna approved the protocol (number 1225/2012), and all patients gave written informed consent. Fourteen ankles from seven men (mean age, 32 years ± 12 [standard deviation]) were included in the study. All patients underwent 7-T MR imaging examinations of the Achilles tendon at baseline and 10 days and 5 months after ciprofloxacin intake. Sodium signal and T2* maps were acquired with the variable echo-time sequence and the GAG CEST values were acquired with a three-dimensional radiofrequency spoiled gradient-recalled-echo sequence. Results The mean sodium signal was significantly decreased by 25% in the whole tendon (from baseline to 10 days after ciprofloxacin intake, 130 arbitrary units [au] ± 8 to 98 au ± 5, respectively; P = .023) and returned to baseline after 5 months (116 au ± 10), as observed also at the tendon insertion (baseline, 10 days after ciprofloxacin intake, and 5 months after ciprofloxacin intake, 134 au ± 8, 105 au ± 5, and 119 au ± 9, respectively; P = .034). The mean GAG CEST value in the whole tendon was parallel to the sodium signal with a decrease from baseline to 10 days after ciprofloxacin intake, 4.74% ± 0.75 to 4.50% ± 0.23, respectively (P = .028) and an increase at 5 months after ciprofloxacin intake to 4.88% ± 1.02. Conclusion In conclusion, this study demonstrates a ciprofloxacin-induced reversible reduction of the normalized sodium MR imaging signal and the GAG CEST effect in the Achilles tendon of healthy volunteers. Changes in sodium MR imaging and GAG CEST in men may reflect a decrease of GAG content in the Achilles tendon after ciprofloxacin intake

  2. A high eating frequency is associated with an overall healthy lifestyle in middle-aged men and women and reduced likelihood of general and central obesity in men.

    PubMed

    Holmbäck, Isabel; Ericson, Ulrika; Gullberg, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2010-10-01

    The role of eating frequency in obesity development is debated. Therefore, we investigated the association between eating frequency, BMI and waist circumference (WC), as well as how eating frequency is related to diet composition and lifestyle factors. A subsample (aged 47-68 years) of men (n 1355) and women (n 1654) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort was used for the present cross-sectional study. The daily eating frequency was calculated based on the number of self-reported eating occasions during an ordinary day. Regression analysis and ANOVA examined the associations between eating frequency, BMI and WC, while adjusting for potential confounders. The energy percentage (E%) from carbohydrates as well as relative fibre intake (g/MJ) increased with higher eating frequency; while E% from fat, protein and alcohol decreased. A low daily eating frequency was associated with smoking, higher alcohol consumption, and lower leisure-time physical activity. Eating three or fewer meals per d was also associated with increased likelihood of general and central obesity in men when adjusting for total energy intake, lifestyle and dietary factors. However, results did not reach statistical significance among women. The present study suggests that a high daily eating frequency is associated with a healthy lifestyle and dietary pattern in both men and women, and a reduced likelihood of general and central obesity in men. There is a need for prospective studies investigating the association between eating frequency, diet and body composition.

  3. Influence of GLP-1 on Myocardial Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Men during Normo- or Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Gejl, Michael; Lerche, Susanne; Mengel, Annette; Møller, Niels; Bibby, Bo Martin; Smidt, Kamille; Brock, Birgitte; Søndergaard, Hanne; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Gjedde, Albert; Holst, Jens Juul; Hansen, Søren Baarsgaard; Rungby, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may provide beneficial cardiovascular effects, possibly due to enhanced myocardial energetic efficiency by increasing myocardial glucose uptake (MGU). We assessed the effects of GLP-1 on MGU in healthy subjects during normo- and hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods We included eighteen healthy men in two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over studies. MGU was assessed with GLP-1 or saline infusion during pituitary-pancreatic normo- (plasma glucose (PG): 4.5 mM, n = 10) and hypoglycemic clamps (PG: 3.0 mM, n = 8) by positron emission tomography with 18fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) as tracer. Results In the normoglycemia study mean (± SD) age was 25±3 years, and BMI was 22.6±0.6 kg/m2 and in the hypoglycemia study the mean age was 23±2 years with a mean body mass index of 23±2 kg/m2. GLP-1 did not change MGU during normoglycemia (mean (+/− SD) 0.15+/−0.04 and 0.16+/−0.03 µmol/g/min, P = 0.46) or during hypoglycemia (0.16+/−0.03 and 0.13+/−0.04 µmol/g/min, P = 0.14). However, the effect of GLP-1 on MGU was negatively correlated to baseline MGU both during normo- and hypoglycemia, (P = 0.006, r2 = 0.64 and P = 0.018, r2 = 0.64, respectively) and changes in MGU correlated positively with the level of insulin resistance (HOMA 2IR) during hypoglycemia, P = 0.04, r2 = 0.54. GLP-1 mediated an increase in circulating glucagon levels at PG levels below 3.5 mM and increased glucose infusion rates during the hypoglycemia study. No differences in other circulating hormones or metabolites were found. Conclusions While GLP-1 does not affect overall MGU, GLP-1 induces changes in MGU dependent on baseline MGU such that GLP-1 increases MGU in subjects with low baseline MGU and decreases MGU in subjects with high baseline MGU. GLP-1 preserves MGU during hypoglycemia in insulin resistant subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov registration numbers: NCT00418288

  4. What are the main barriers to healthy eating among families? A qualitative exploration of perceptions and experiences of Tehranian men.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Maryam; Amiri, Parisa; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-06-01

    Despite women playing a pivotal role in shaping nutritional patterns in their families, it is the men whose ideas and preferences, after children, influence the selection and consumption of daily foods among Iranian families. This study focused on exploring the main barriers to healthy eating as experienced by male participants of the Tehran Lipid Glucose Study (TLGS). A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing participants' experiences and their perceptions regarding these barriers. Participants were 98 men, aged 25-65 years, selected and recruited from the TGLS cohort. Data collection was conducted through fourteen semi-structured focus group discussions, between 2008 and 2009. All interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. The most important barriers to healthy eating were: (i) Personal factors, which included two subthemes--lack of knowledge and personal taste, (ii) Communication and modeling included two subthemes--other individuals and media/advertisements; (iii) Modernization included two subthemes--nutrition transition and women's role; and (iv) Lack of access to healthy foods, which included four subthemes--Inadequate confidence, perceived risk, high cost and time limitations. Appropriate attention and prioritized policy-making to modify the socio-environmental barriers to healthy eating were explored in the current study, along with effective educational programs that could help to promote healthy eating among Iranian families.

  5. What are the main barriers to healthy eating among families? A qualitative exploration of perceptions and experiences of Tehranian men.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Maryam; Amiri, Parisa; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-06-01

    Despite women playing a pivotal role in shaping nutritional patterns in their families, it is the men whose ideas and preferences, after children, influence the selection and consumption of daily foods among Iranian families. This study focused on exploring the main barriers to healthy eating as experienced by male participants of the Tehran Lipid Glucose Study (TLGS). A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing participants' experiences and their perceptions regarding these barriers. Participants were 98 men, aged 25-65 years, selected and recruited from the TGLS cohort. Data collection was conducted through fourteen semi-structured focus group discussions, between 2008 and 2009. All interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. The most important barriers to healthy eating were: (i) Personal factors, which included two subthemes--lack of knowledge and personal taste, (ii) Communication and modeling included two subthemes--other individuals and media/advertisements; (iii) Modernization included two subthemes--nutrition transition and women's role; and (iv) Lack of access to healthy foods, which included four subthemes--Inadequate confidence, perceived risk, high cost and time limitations. Appropriate attention and prioritized policy-making to modify the socio-environmental barriers to healthy eating were explored in the current study, along with effective educational programs that could help to promote healthy eating among Iranian families. PMID:25725485

  6. Hippocampal-Brainstem Connectivity Associated with Vagal Modulation after an Intense Exercise Intervention in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Herbsleb, Marco; Schumann, Andy; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Gabriel, Holger W.; Wagner, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise leads to increased vagal modulation of the cardiovascular system. A combination of peripheral and central processes has been proposed to underlie this adaptation. However, specific changes in the central autonomic network have not been described in human in more detail. We hypothesized that the anterior hippocampus known to be influenced by regular physical activity might be involved in the development of increased vagal modulation after a 6 weeks high intensity intervention in young healthy men (exercise group: n = 17, control group: n = 17). In addition to the determination of physical capacity before and after the intervention, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous heart rate variability assessment. We detected a significant increase of the power output at the anaerobic threshold of 11.4% (p < 0.001), the maximum power output Pmax of 11.2% (p < 0.001), and VO2max adjusted for body weight of 4.7% (p < 0.001) in the exercise group (EG). Comparing baseline (T0) and post-exercise (T1) values of parasympathetic modulation of the exercise group, we observed a trend for a decrease in heart rate (p < 0.06) and a significant increase of vagal modulation as indicated by RMSSD (p < 0.026) during resting state. In the whole brain analysis, we found that the connectivity pattern of the right anterior hippocampus (aHC) was specifically altered to the ventromedial anterior cortex, the dorsal striatum and to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem. Moreover, we observed a highly significant negative correlation between increased RMSSD after exercise and decreased functional connectivity from the right aHC to DVC (r = −0.69, p = 0.003). This indicates that increased vagal modulation was associated with functional connectivity between aHC and the DVC. In conclusion, our findings suggest that exercise associated changes in anterior hippocampal function might be involved in increased vagal modulation. PMID

  7. Incretin and islet hormonal responses to fat and protein ingestion in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Carr, Richard D; Larsen, Marianne O; Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Jelic, Katarina; Lindgren, Ola; Deacon, Carolyn F; Ahrén, Bo

    2008-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) regulate islet function after carbohydrate ingestion. Whether incretin hormones are of importance for islet function after ingestion of noncarbohydrate macronutrients is not known. This study therefore examined integrated incretin and islet hormone responses to ingestion of pure fat (oleic acid; 0.88 g/kg) or protein (milk and egg protein; 2 g/kg) over 5 h in healthy men, aged 20-25 yr (n=12); plain water ingestion served as control. Both intact (active) and total GLP-1 and GIP levels were determined as was plasma activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Following water ingestion, glucose, insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels and DPP-4 activity were stable during the 5-h study period. Both fat and protein ingestion increased insulin, glucagon, GIP, and GLP-1 levels without affecting glucose levels or DPP-4 activity. The GLP-1 responses were similar after protein and fat, whereas the early (30 min) GIP response was higher after protein than after fat ingestion (P<0.001). This was associated with sevenfold higher insulin and glucagon responses compared with fat ingestion (both P<0.001). After protein, the early GIP, but not GLP-1, responses correlated to insulin (r(2)=0.86; P=0.0001) but not glucagon responses. In contrast, after fat ingestion, GLP-1 and GIP did not correlate to islet hormones. We conclude that, whereas protein and fat release both incretin and islet hormones, the early GIP secretion after protein ingestion may be of primary importance to islet hormone secretion.

  8. Effects of electrical stimulation on VO2 kinetics and delta efficiency in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Perez, M; Lucia, A; Santalla, A; Chicharro, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics and delta efficiency (DE) during gradual exercise. The hypothesis was that ES would attenuate the VO2-workload relation and improve DE. Methods: Fifteen healthy, untrained men (mean (SD) age 22 (5) years) were selected. Ten were electrostimulated on both quadriceps muscles with a frequency of 45–60 Hz, with 12 seconds of stimulation followed by eight seconds recovery for a total of 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. The remaining five subjects were assigned to a control group. A standardised exercise test on a cycle ergometer (ramp protocol, workload increases of 20 W/min) was performed by each subject before and after the experimental period. The slope of the VO2-power output (W) relation (ΔVO2/ΔW) and DE were calculated in each subject at moderate to high intensities (above the ventilatory threshold—that is, from 50–60% to 100% VO2max). Results: The mean (SEM) values for ΔVO2/ΔW and DE had significantly decreased and increased respectively after the six week ES programme (p<0.05; 9.8 (0.2) v 8.6 (0.5) ml O2/W/min respectively and 27.7 (0.9) v 31.5 (1.4)% respectively). Conclusions: ES could be used as a supplementary tool to improve two of the main determinants of endurance capacity, namely VO2 kinetics and work efficiency. PMID:12663356

  9. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode. PMID:26501683

  10. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P < 0.001), and those of total IGF-I at B and 24h-SD (P < 0.05). EXT did not influence growth hormone, IGF binding protein 3, BDNF, insulin, and glucose levels. The only effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age. PMID:27560704

  11. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode.

  12. Jaw-opening accuracy is not affected by masseter muscle vibration in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, B; Häggman-Henrikson, B; Wänman, A; Lindkvist, M; Hellström, F

    2014-11-01

    There is a functional integration between the jaw and neck regions with head extension-flexion movements during jaw-opening/closing tasks. We recently reported that trigeminal nociceptive input by injection of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscle altered this integrated jaw-neck function during jaw-opening/closing tasks. Thus, in jaw-opening to a predefined position, the head-neck component increased during pain. Previous studies have indicated that muscle spindle stimulation by vibration of the masseter muscle may influence jaw movement amplitudes, but the possible effect on the integrated jaw-neck function is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of masseter muscle vibration on jaw-head movements during a continuous jaw-opening/closing task to a target position. Sixteen healthy men performed two trials without vibration (Control) and two trials with bilateral masseter muscle vibration (Vibration). Movements of the mandible and the head were registered with a wireless three-dimensional optoelectronic recording system. Differences in jaw-opening and head movement amplitudes between Control and Vibration, as well as achievement of the predefined jaw-opening target position, were analysed with Wilcoxon's matched pairs test. No significant group effects from vibration were found for jaw or head movement amplitudes, or in the achievement of the target jaw-opening position. A covariation between the jaw and head movement amplitudes was observed. The results imply a high stability for the jaw motor system in a target jaw-opening task and that this task was achieved with the head-neck and jaw working as an integrated system.

  13. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  14. The acute effect of commercially available pulse powders on postprandial glycaemic response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Liu, Yudan; Smith, Christopher E; Liu, Ting Ting; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L

    2014-12-28

    Whole pulses (beans, peas, chickpeas and lentils) elicit low postprandial blood glucose (BG) responses in adults; however, their consumption in North America is low. One potential strategy to increase the dietary intake of pulses is the utilisation of commercial pulse powders in food products; however, it is unclear whether they retain the biological benefits observed with whole pulses. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of commercially prepared pulse powders on BG response before and after a subsequent meal in healthy young men. Overall, three randomised, within-subject experiments were conducted. In each experiment, participants received whole, puréed and powdered pulses (navy beans in Expt 1; lentils in Expt 2; chickpeas in Expt 3) and whole-wheat flour as the control. All treatments were controlled for available carbohydrate content. A fixed-energy pizza meal (50·2 kJ/kg body weight) was provided at 120 min. BG concentration was measured before (0-120 min) and after (140-200 min) the pizza meal. BG concentration peaked at 30 min in all experiments, and pulse forms did not predict their effect on BG response. Compared with the whole-wheat flour control, navy bean treatments lowered peak BG concentrations (Expt 1, P< 0.05), but not the mean BG concentration over 120 min. The mean BG concentration was lower for all lentil (Expt 2, P= 0.008) and chickpea (Expt 3, P= 0.002) treatments over 120 min. Processing pulses to powdered form does not eliminate the benefits of whole pulses on BG response, lending support to the use of pulse powders as value-added food ingredients to moderate postprandial glycaemic response.

  15. Safety profile of caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine supplementation in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, T M; Harvey, I C; Alleman, R J

    2013-11-01

    Caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) are widely used alone and in combination with dietary supplements. No investigation has determined the safety profile of chronic intake of caffeine or DMAA, alone or in combination, within the same study design. A total of 50 young and healthy men completed 12 weeks of daily supplementation with either a placebo (n = 11), caffeine at 250 mg day(-1) (n = 14), DMAA at 50 mg day(-1) (n = 13), or caffeine at 250 mg day(-1) + DMAA at 50 mg day(-1) (n = 12). Before and after 6 and 12 weeks of supplementation, the following variables were measured: body mass/composition, resting respiratory rate, blood pressure, 12-lead electrocardiogram, urinalysis, complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, and oxidative stress, inflammatory, and cardiac biomarkers. No interaction effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with little change occurring across time for subjects in any of the four conditions. With the exception of urinary pH (p = 0.05; Pre (6.5 ± 0.1) higher than week 6 (6.1 ± 0.1)) and blood CO2 (p = 0.02; week 12 (25.9 ± 0.3 mmol L(-1)) higher than week 6 (24.8 ± 0.3 mmol L(-1))), no time effect was noted for any other variable (p > 0.05). These data indicate that 12 weeks of daily supplementation with caffeine and DMAA, alone or in combination, does not result in a statistically significant change in any of the measured outcome variables.

  16. Mechanism of action of whole milk and its components on glycemic control in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Kubant, Ruslan; Akhavan, Tina; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-11-01

    Milk reduces post-meal glycemia when consumed either before or within an ad libitum meal. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of each of the macronutrient components and their combination with whole milk on postprandial glycemia, glucoregulatory and gastrointestinal hormones and gastric emptying in healthy young men. In a randomized, crossover study, 12 males consumed beverages (500 ml) of whole milk (3.25% M.F.) (control), a simulated milk beverage based on milk macronutrients, complete milk protein (16 g), lactose (24 g) or milk fat (16 g). Whole and simulated milk was similar in lowering postprandial glycemia and slowing gastric emptying while increasing insulin, C-peptide, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but simulated milk resulted in higher (41%) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and lower (43%) ghrelin areas under the curve (AUC) than whole milk (P=.01 and P=.04, respectively). Whole and simulated milk lowered glucose (P=.0005) more than predicted by the sum of AUCs for their components. Adjusted for energy content, milks produced lower glucose and hormone responses than predicted from the sum of their components. The effect of protein/kcal on the AUCs was higher than fat/kcal for insulin, C-peptide, insulin secretion rate, GLP-1, CCK and paracetamol (P<.0001), but similar to lactose except for CCK and paracetamol, which were lower. The response in PYY and ghrelin was similar per unit of energy for each macronutrient. In conclusion, milk lowers postprandial glycemia by both insulin and insulin-independent mechanisms arising from interactions among its macronutrient components and energy content.

  17. Bioavailability and nutritional effects of carotenoids from organically and conventionally produced carrots in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Bub, Achim; Briviba, Karlis; Seifert, Stephanie; Kunz, Clemens; Watzl, Bernhard

    2009-06-01

    It has been hypothesised that organically grown vegetables are healthier than conventionally produced ones due to a higher content of phytochemicals. However, few data from controlled human studies exist. The aim of the present study was to compare the carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity of organically and conventionally produced carrots under defined conditions. Furthermore, a human intervention study was conducted to compare bioavailability, plasma antioxidant capacity, endogenous DNA strand breaks and immune parameters in healthy men ingesting carrots from different agricultural systems. Thirty-six volunteers consumed either organically or conventionally produced blanched carrots (200 g/d; 2 weeks) or no carrots in a double-blind, randomised intervention study. No statistically significant differences were observed in the total carotenoid contents (121 (sd 7) microg/g organic v. 116 (sd 13) microg/g conventional) and the antioxidant capacities (0.43 (sd 0.08) mumol Trolox equivalents/g organic v. 0.32 (sd 0.07) mumol Trolox equivalents/g conventional) of the carrots administered to the volunteers. Intake of organically or conventionally produced carrots significantly increased (P < 0.001) plasma alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations in both intervention groups without differences in plasma carotenoid concentrations. Consumption of carrots did not lead to significant changes in the plasma antioxidant status, endogenous DNA strand breaks and parameters of the immune system in all groups. Therefore, these results indicate that the agricultural system has neither an effect on the carotenoid content, the antioxidant capacity of carrots, nor on the bioavailability of carotenoids and on antioxidant, antigenotoxic and immunological effects as assessed in a human intervention study.

  18. Complexity of heartbeat interval series in young healthy trained and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Platisa, Mirjana M; Mazic, Sanja; Nestorovic, Zorica; Gal, Vera

    2008-04-01

    The origin of heart rate variability (HRV) is largely in parasympathetic activity. The direct influence of sympathetic activity and other control mechanisms, especially at an increased HR, is not well understood. The objectives of the study were to investigate the influence of increasing HR on the properties of heartbeat interval (RR) series in young healthy subjects. ECG was recorded in 9 trained and 11 untrained young men during supine rest, standing, incremental running exercise and relaxation. During exercise, a breath-to-breath gas exchange was monitored. The RR time series analysis included the spectral analysis, detrended fluctuations analysis method and sample entropy (SampEn) calculation. During exercise, spectral powers were reduced dramatically in both groups. The dependence of short-term scaling exponent (alpha(1)) on the RR included a characteristic maximum, while SampEn for the same value of the RR had a minimum. The value of HR corresponding to the maximum of alpha(1) and minimum of SampEn (IHR) corresponded to the intrinsic HR obtained by an autonomic blockade. In trained subjects, the curves alpha(1) versus RR and SampEn versus RR were moved toward larger RR, compared with control. For HR values higher than IHR, alpha(1) decreased and SampEn increased. These results reveal that the complexity of the heart rhythm above intrinsic HR decreases with an increase in HR. We suggest that at the highest HR intrinsic heart control is reflected in the heart rhythm. We point out the possibility of developing a new non-invasive method for the determination of intrinsic HR from the curve alpha(1) versus RR.

  19. [Autonomic, cardio- and hemodynamic indices of healthy men, representatives of the native and nonnative population of Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Veber, V R; Gaevskiĭ, Iu G; Karibaev, K R

    1985-01-01

    Healthy men, representatives of the indigenous population and newcomers, have some differences on the part of the vegetative and cardiovascular system. The newcomers mostly show coronary atherosclerosis and predominance of the tone of the ergotropic system. The cardio- and hemodynamic differences manifest by more pronounced shifts on making orthostatic and exercise tests, by an appreciable rise of myocardial contractility and energy expenditure for blood translocation.

  20. Elevated peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived superoxide production in healthy young black men.

    PubMed

    Deo, Shekhar H; Holwerda, Seth W; Keller, David M; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that blacks exhibit elevations in systemic oxidative stress. However, the source(s) and mechanism(s) contributing to the elevation in oxidative stress remain unclear. Given that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be a major source of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, we tested the hypothesis that young black men demonstrate greater superoxide production and NADPH oxidase expression in PBMCs compared with whites. PBMCs were freshly isolated from whole blood in young normotensive black (n = 18) and white (n = 16) men. Intracellular superoxide production in PBMCs was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence, protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91(phox) (membranous) and p47(phox) (cytosolic) in PBMCs were assessed using Western blot analysis, and plasma protein carbonyls were measured as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Black men showed elevated intracellular superoxide production (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 relative fluorescence units; black men vs. white men, P < 0.05), increased protein expression for gp91(phox) and p47(phox) (e.g., p47(phox): 1.1 ± 0.2, black men vs. 0.4 ± 0.1, white men, P < 0.05) in PBMCs and higher circulating protein carbonyl levels (22 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 2 nmol/ml; black men vs. white men, P < 0.05). Interestingly, a positive family history of hypertension in black men did not further enhance PBMC-derived intracellular superoxide production or NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression. These findings indicate that black men exhibit greater resting PBMC-derived superoxide production and an upregulation of the NADPH oxidase pathway with a possible contribution to increases in systemic oxidative stress.

  1. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  2. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls

    PubMed Central

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G.; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T.; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L.; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69–80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18–34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0–180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. PMID:26290103

  3. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.

  4. Estimation of risk for diabetes according to the metabolically healthy status stratified by degree of obesity in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Park, Sung Keun; Ye, Sungmin; Choi, Joong-Myung; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Sun Yong; Shin, Ju-Young; Park, Jai Hyung; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Ko, Taeg Su

    2015-12-01

    Although obesity is clearly identified as a risk factor for diabetes, the relationship between diabetes and metabolically healthy status of obesity is less clear. This study was aimed to evaluate the incidental risk of diabetes according to metabolically healthy status of obesity. 31,834 Korean men without diabetes categorized into six groups according to their metabolically healthy status stratified by degree of obesity were followed up for 5 years: metabolically healthy normal weight (MH-NW), metabolically healthy overweight (MH-OW), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MU-NW), metabolically unhealthy overweight (MU-OW), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to measure the risk for diabetes according to their categories. While overall incidence was 9.0 %, incidence of diabetes was in proportion to the degree of obesity and metabolically healthy status (MH-NW: 6.3 %, MH-OW: 7.5 %, MHO: 9.2 %, MU-NW: 11.8 %, MU-OW: 14.9 %, MUO: 20.1 %). When MH-NW was set as reference, the adjusted HRs (95 % CI) for diabetes of the MH-OW, MHO, MU-NW, MU-OW, MUO compared to MH-NW were 1.18 (1.06-1.32), 1.58 (1.03-2.41), 1.81 (1.61-2.04), 2.36 (2.11-2.63), and 3.47 (2.84-4.24), respectively. In conclusion, risk for diabetes was in proportion to the degree of obesity in both metabolically healthy and unhealthy group. Metabolically healthy status was more significant determinant for incident diabetes than obesity itself.

  5. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is positively associated with hypertension in apparently healthy Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Oda, E; Kawai, R

    2011-01-01

    Among five components of metabolic syndrome, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is unique because it is not significantly associated with blood pressure. This study looks at cross-sectional relationships between HDL cholesterol and hypertension using medical check-up data from 1803 apparently healthy Japanese men aged 49.9 +/- 9.0 years, and 1150 Japanese women aged 49.5 +/- 9.0 years. Pearson's correlation coefficients between systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and HDL cholesterol were -0.01 (ns)/-0.01 (ns) in men and -0.04 (ns)/-0.01 (ns) in women. The standardised partial regression coefficient of HDL cholesterol for SBP/DBP (mmHg) controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were 0.15 (P < 0.0001)/0.15 (P < 0.0001) in men and 0.10 (P < 0.0001)/0.12 (P < 0.0001) in women. The odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of a 1 mg/dL increment of HDL cholesterol for hypertension controlling for age, BMI, FPG, triglycerides, hs-CRP, LDL cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, exercise status, drinking status, and smoking status was 1.03 (1.02-1.04; P < 0.001) in men and 1.03 (1.01-1.05; P = 0.002) in women. Thus, HDL cholesterol was independently positively associated with hypertension in apparently healthy Japanese men and women. PMID:21473259

  6. Even for Men At High Risk, Healthy Living May Help Prevent Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Great Britain's age threshold for free screening. Mathematical models revealed that nearly a quarter of men between ... material," and questioned the reliability of the mathematical model the team used for their investigation. "I would ...

  7. Increased risk for spondylitis stigmata in apparently healthy HL-AW27 men.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L M; Mittal, K K; Schmid, F R; Rogers, L F; Cohen, K L

    1976-01-01

    Evidence for ankylosing spondylitis was sought by clinical, radiologic, and ophthalmologic examination in HL-A W27-positive men, aged 18 or older, selected from a tissue-donor population. Back pain of 3 months' duration or longer (P less than 0.05), back stiffness, restricted lumbar flexion and chest expansion, sacroiliac erosions (P less than 0.05) and sclerosis, and ophthalmologic sequels of anterior uveitis were found more often in the 24 men of the W27 group than in a control group of 31 men lacking this antigen. Based upon accepted criteria, 3 W27 persons had definite spondylitis and an additional 3 W27 persons and one control subject had findings strongly suggestive of spondylitis (P less than 0.05). This striking frequency, if extrapolated to the general population, would place approximately 1 of 4 W27-positive men at risk for this disease.

  8. Body mass index is more strongly associated with hypertension than waist circumference in apparently healthy Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is associated with hypertension. However, it is controversial which obesity index, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC), is more strongly associated with hypertension. We compared the cross-sectional associations of BMI and WC with hypertension. Logistic regressions using hypertension as a dependent variable and age, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking status, drinking status, and physical activity as independent variables were performed using data from apparently healthy 1,803 Japanese men aged 49.9 ± 9.0 and 1,150 women aged 49.5 ± 9.0 excluding subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease, or with antidiabetic, antihypertensive and/or antihyperlipidemic medications. The odds ratio [95% confidence interval] of 1 kg/m² increase in BMI and that of 1 cm increase in WC for diagnosing hypertension were 1.23 [1.11-1.36] (p < 0.0001) and 0.99 [0.95-1.02] (p = 0.4) in men and 1.35 [1.16-1.58] (p < 0.0001) and 0.97 [0.91-1.03] (p = 0.4) in women, respectively. Thus, BMI, but not WC, was independently associated with hypertension in apparently healthy Japanese men and women. PMID:20556442

  9. Moving toward a holistic conceptual framework for understanding healthy aging among gay men.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Ompad, Danielle C; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In the last four decades, we have witnessed vast and important transitions in the social, economic, political, and health contexts of the lived experiences of gay men in the United States. This dynamic period, as evidenced most prominently by the transition of the gay rights movement to a civil rights movement, has shifted the exploration of gay men's health from one focusing primarily on HIV/AIDS into a mainstream consideration of the overall health and wellbeing of gay men. Against this backdrop, aging gay men in the United States constitute a growing population, for whom further investigations of health states and health-related disparities are warranted. In order to advance our understanding of the health and wellbeing of aging gay men, we outline here a multilevel, ecosocial conceptual framework that integrates salient environmental, social, psychosocial, and sociodeomgraphic factors into sets of macro-, meso-, and micro-level constructs that can be applied to comprehensively study health states and health care utilization in older gay men.

  10. Moving toward a holistic conceptual framework for understanding healthy aging among gay men.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Ompad, Danielle C; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In the last four decades, we have witnessed vast and important transitions in the social, economic, political, and health contexts of the lived experiences of gay men in the United States. This dynamic period, as evidenced most prominently by the transition of the gay rights movement to a civil rights movement, has shifted the exploration of gay men's health from one focusing primarily on HIV/AIDS into a mainstream consideration of the overall health and wellbeing of gay men. Against this backdrop, aging gay men in the United States constitute a growing population, for whom further investigations of health states and health-related disparities are warranted. In order to advance our understanding of the health and wellbeing of aging gay men, we outline here a multilevel, ecosocial conceptual framework that integrates salient environmental, social, psychosocial, and sociodeomgraphic factors into sets of macro-, meso-, and micro-level constructs that can be applied to comprehensively study health states and health care utilization in older gay men. PMID:25492304

  11. Prevalence of dieting among working men and women: the healthy worker project.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, R W; Adlis, S A; Forster, J L

    1991-01-01

    Examined dieting to lose weight in a population of 2,107 men and 2,540 women employed in 32 worksites in the upper Midwest. Lifetime prevalence of this behavior was estimated to be 47% in men and 75% in women, and point prevalence was reported as 13% and 25% in men and women, respectively. Lifetime prevalence of participation in organized weight-loss programs was 6% in men and 31% in women; current prevalence was 1% in men and 6% in women. The strongest correlate of dieting behavior was relative body weight. In logistic regression analyses, dieting tended to be associated positively with education and occupational status and, in men only, was more prevalent among those with a history of hypertension. Dieters reported lower food intakes than nondieters, but the two groups did not differ consistently in reported physical activity. Overall, dieting appears to be a pervasive behavioral U.S. phenomenon that may contribute in part to population differences in the prevalence of obesity.

  12. Change in postprandial substrate oxidation after a high-fructose meal is related to body mass index in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Smeraglio, Anne C; Kennedy, Emily K; Horgan, Angela; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gillingham, Melanie B

    2013-06-01

    Oral fructose decreases fat oxidation and increases carbohydrate oxidation in obese subjects, but the metabolic response to fructose in lean individuals is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a single fructose-rich mixed meal on substrate oxidation in young healthy nonobese men. We hypothesized that a decrease in fat oxidation and an increase in carbohydrate oxidation would be observed after a fructose-rich mixed meal compared with a glucose-rich mixed meal. Twelve healthy, normal weight to overweight, aged 23 to 31 years participated in a double-blind, crossover study. Each participant completed 2 study visits, eating a mixed meal containing 30% of the calories from either fructose or glucose. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin as well as gas exchange by indirect calorimetry were measured intermittently for 7 hours. Serum insulin was higher after a fructose mixed meal, but plasma glucose, plasma leptin, and serum triglycerides were not different. Mean postprandial respiratory quotient and estimated fat oxidation did not differ between the fructose and glucose meals. The change in fat oxidation between the fructose- and glucose-rich meals negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI; r = -0.59 [P = .04] and r = -0.59 [P = .04] at the 4- and 7-hour time points, respectively). In healthy nonobese men, BMI correlates with altered postprandial fat oxidation after a high-fructose mixed meal. The metabolic response to a high-fructose meal may be modulated by BMI.

  13. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  14. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raul M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  15. Protein ingestion acutely inhibits insulin-stimulated muscle carnitine uptake in healthy young men1

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Chris E; Nixon, Aline V; Greenhaff, Paul L; Stephens, Francis B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine content represents an appealing intervention in conditions of perturbed lipid metabolism such as obesity and type 2 diabetes but requires chronic l-carnitine feeding on a daily basis in a high-carbohydrate beverage. Objective: We investigated whether whey protein ingestion could reduce the carbohydrate load required to stimulate insulin-mediated muscle carnitine accretion. Design: Seven healthy men [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 23 ± 3] ingested 80 g carbohydrate, 40 g carbohydrate + 40 g protein, or control (flavored water) beverages 60 min after the ingestion of 4.5 g l-carnitine tartrate (3 g l-carnitine; 0.1% 2[H]3-l-carnitine). Serum insulin concentration, net forearm carnitine balance (NCB; arterialized-venous and venous plasma carnitine difference × brachial artery flow), and carnitine disappearance (Rd) and appearance (Ra) rates were determined at 20-min intervals for 180 min. Results: Serum insulin and plasma flow areas under the curve (AUCs) were similarly elevated by carbohydrate [4.5 ± 0.8 U/L · min (P < 0.01) and 0.5 ± 0.6 L (P < 0.05), respectively] and carbohydrate+protein [3.8 ± 0.6 U/L · min (P < 0.01) and 0.4 ± 0.6 L (P = 0.05), respectively] consumption, respectively, compared with the control visit (0.04 ± 0.1 U/L · min and −0.5 ± 0.2 L). Plasma carnitine AUC was greater after carbohydrate+protein consumption (3.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L · min) than after control and carbohydrate visits [2.1 ± 0.2 mmol/L · min (P < 0.05) and 1.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L · min (P < 0.01), respectively]. NCB AUC with carbohydrate (4.1 ± 3.1 μmol) was greater than during control and carbohydrate-protein visits (−8.6 ± 3.0 and −14.6 ± 6.4 μmol, respectively; P < 0.05), as was Rd AUC after carbohydrate (35.7 ± 25.2 μmol) compared with control and carbohydrate consumption [19.7 ± 15.5 μmol (P = 0.07) and 14.8 ± 9.6 μmol (P < 0.05), respectively]. Conclusions: The insulin

  16. Low dietary copper increases fecal free radical production, fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity and cytotoxicity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cindy D

    2003-02-01

    One possible dietary factor that may increase susceptibility to colon cancer is inadequate copper intake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low and adequate copper intakes on copper nutriture and putative risk factors for colon cancer susceptibility in healthy men. Seventeen healthy free-living nonsmoking men aged 21-52 y completed a 13-wk controlled feeding study in a randomized crossover design. The basal diet contained 0.59 mg Cu/13.65 MJ. After a 1-wk equilibration period in which the men consumed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cu/d, they were randomly assigned to receive either the basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg Cu/d for 6 wk. After the first dietary period, the men immediately began to consume the other level of Cu for the last 6 wk. They collected their feces during the equilibration period and during the last 2 wk of the two dietary periods for free radical and fecal water analysis. Low dietary copper significantly (P < 0.01) increased fecal free radical production and fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity. Low dietary copper significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased fecal water copper concentrations but did not affect fecal water volume, pH, iron or zinc concentrations. In contrast to the fecal analysis, hematological indicators of copper status were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. These results suggest that low dietary copper adversely affects fecal free radical production and fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity, which are putative risk factors for colon cancer.

  17. Muscle Size Not Density Predicts Variance in Muscle Strength and Neuromuscular Performance in Healthy Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Gerrits, Tom A J; Horan, Sean A; Beck, Belinda R

    2016-06-01

    Weeks, BK, Gerrits, TAJ, Horan, SA, and Beck, BR. Muscle size not density predicts variance in muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in healthy adult men and women. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1577-1584, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived measures of muscle area and density and markers of muscle strength and performance in men and women. Fifty-two apparently healthy adults (26 men, 26 women; age 33.8 ± 12.0 years) volunteered to participate. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR-800; Norland Medical Systems, Inc., Trumbull, CT, USA) was used to determine whole body and regional lean and fat tissue mass, whereas pQCT (XCT-3000; Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany) was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and muscle density of the leg, thigh, and forearm. Ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor strengths were examined using isokinetic dynamometry, and grip strength was examined with dynamometry. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was used as an index of neuromuscular performance. Thigh, forearm, and leg MCSA strongly predicted variance in knee extensor (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and grip strength (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and weakly predicted variance in ankle plantar flexor strength (R = 0.20, p < 0.001), respectively, whereas muscle density was only a weak predictor of variance in knee extensor strength (R = 0.18, p < 0.001). Thigh and leg MCSA accounted for 79 and 69% of the variance in impulse generated from a maximal vertical jump (p < 0.001), whereas thigh muscle density predicted only 18% of the variance (p < 0.002). In conclusion, we found that pQCT-derived muscle area is more strongly related to strength and neuromuscular performance than muscle density in adult men and women.

  18. Postprandial hyperglycemia impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy men by inducing lipid peroxidation and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Noh, Sang K; Ballard, Kevin D; Matos, Manuel E; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and increases future cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that postprandial hyperglycemia would decrease vascular function in healthy men by inducing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine (ADMA:arginine), a biomarker that is predictive of reduced NO biosynthesis. In a randomized, cross-over design, healthy men (n = 16; 21.6 ± 0.8 y) ingested glucose or fructose (75 g) after an overnight fast. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose and insulin, antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), inflammatory proteins, arginine, and ADMA were measured at regular intervals during the 3-h postprandial period. Baseline FMD did not differ between trials (P > 0.05). Postprandial FMD was reduced following the ingestion of glucose only. Postprandial MDA concentrations increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose compared to fructose. Plasma arginine decreased and the ratio of ADMA:arginine increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose. Inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules were unaffected by the ingestion of either sugar. Postprandial AUC(0-3 h) for FMD and MDA were inversely related (r = -0.80; P < 0.05), suggesting that hyperglycemia-induced lipid peroxidation suppresses postprandial vascular function. Collectively, these findings suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia in healthy men reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing lipid peroxidation independent of inflammation. Postprandial alterations in arginine and ADMA:arginine also suggest that acute hyperglycemia may induce VED by decreasing NO bioavailability through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Additional work is warranted to define whether inhibiting lipid peroxidation and restoring arginine metabolism would mitigate hyperglycemia-mediated decreases in vascular function. PMID:21940510

  19. Postprandial hyperglycemia impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy men by inducing lipid peroxidation and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Noh, Sang K; Ballard, Kevin D; Matos, Manuel E; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and increases future cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that postprandial hyperglycemia would decrease vascular function in healthy men by inducing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine (ADMA:arginine), a biomarker that is predictive of reduced NO biosynthesis. In a randomized, cross-over design, healthy men (n = 16; 21.6 ± 0.8 y) ingested glucose or fructose (75 g) after an overnight fast. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose and insulin, antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), inflammatory proteins, arginine, and ADMA were measured at regular intervals during the 3-h postprandial period. Baseline FMD did not differ between trials (P > 0.05). Postprandial FMD was reduced following the ingestion of glucose only. Postprandial MDA concentrations increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose compared to fructose. Plasma arginine decreased and the ratio of ADMA:arginine increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose. Inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules were unaffected by the ingestion of either sugar. Postprandial AUC(0-3 h) for FMD and MDA were inversely related (r = -0.80; P < 0.05), suggesting that hyperglycemia-induced lipid peroxidation suppresses postprandial vascular function. Collectively, these findings suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia in healthy men reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing lipid peroxidation independent of inflammation. Postprandial alterations in arginine and ADMA:arginine also suggest that acute hyperglycemia may induce VED by decreasing NO bioavailability through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Additional work is warranted to define whether inhibiting lipid peroxidation and restoring arginine metabolism would mitigate hyperglycemia-mediated decreases in vascular function.

  20. Guanidinoacetic acid versus creatine for improved brain and muscle creatine levels: a superiority pilot trial in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik; Vranes, Milan

    2016-09-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, we evaluated whether 4-week supplementation with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is superior to creatine in facilitating creatine levels in healthy men (n = 5). GAA (3.0 g/day) resulted in a more powerful rise (up to 16.2%) in tissue creatine levels in vastus medialis muscle, middle-cerebellar peduncle, and paracentral grey matter, as compared with creatine (P < 0.05). These results indicate that GAA as a preferred alternative to creatine for improved bioenergetics in energy-demanding tissues. PMID:27560540

  1. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P < .005) to DEXA total and abdominal fat and MRI visceral fat in both genders. Log IAUPGH was inversely related to visceral fat in women (P < .005) and men (P < .0001), but was not significantly related to total fat in either gender. In women, log IAUPGH was related inversely to total and LDL cholesterol and positively to HDL cholesterol (P < .008). In men, log IAUPGH was inversely related to total cholesterol and triglycerides (P < .005). In women, HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P < .005). In men, triglycerides were positively related (P < .001) to the WHR and DEXA abdominal and MRI visceral fat. Multivariate regression revealed log IAUPGH, but not DEXA total body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P < .001 for women and P = .01 for men) and LDL (P < .007 and P = .05) cholesterol in both sexes and of HDL cholesterol (P < .005) and triglycerides (P < .03) in women. Log IAUPGH, but not DEXA abdominal fat, was related to total (P < .005 and P < .03) and LDL (P < .03 and P = .05) cholesterol in both genders and to HDL in women (P < .05). Log IAUPGH, but not

  2. Contribution of sympathetic activation to coronary vasodilatation during the cold pressor test in healthy men: effect of ageing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kevin D; Feehan, Robert P; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Gao, Zhaohui

    2013-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important regulator of coronary blood flow. The cold pressor test (CPT) is a powerful sympathoexcitatory stressor. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) CPT-induced sympathetic activation elicits coronary vasodilatation in young adults that is impaired with advancing age and (2) combined α- and β-adrenergic blockade diminishes/abolishes these age-related differences. Vascular responses of the left anterior descending artery to the CPT were determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography before (pre-blockade) and during (post-blockade) systemic co-administration of α- and β-adrenergic antagonists in young (n = 9; 26 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) and older healthy men (n = 9; 66 ± 2 years old). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR; mean arterial pressure/coronary blood velocity) was used as an index of vascular tone. CPT decreased CVR (i.e. coronary vasodilatation occurred) in young ( -33 ± 6%), but not older men ( -3 ± 4%; P < 0.05 vs. young) pre-blockade. Adrenergic blockade abolished CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation in young men ( -33 ± 6% vs. 0 ± 6%, pre-blockade vs. post-blockade, respectively; P < 0.05) such that responses post-blockade mirrored those of older men ( -3 ± 4% vs. 8 ± 9%; both P > 0.05 compared to young pre-blockade). Impaired CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation could not be explained by a reduced stimulus for vasodilatation as group and condition effects persisted when CVR responses were expressed relative to myocardial oxygen demand (rate-pressure product). These data indicate that the normal coronary vascular response to sympathetic activation in young men is pronounced vasodilatation and this effect is lost with age as the result of an adrenergic mechanism. These findings may help explain how acute sympathoexcitation may precipitate angina and coronary ischaemic events, particularly in older adults.

  3. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...

  4. Response to luteinizing releasing hormone, thyrotrophic releasing hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin administration in healthy men at different risks for prostatic cancer and in prostatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hill, P; Wynder, E L; Garbaczewski, L; Garnes, H; Walker, A R

    1982-05-01

    A comparative study of the pituitary and testicular response to luteinizing releasing hormone (LHRH), thyrotrophic releasing hormone (TRH), and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was carried out in (a) low-risk young South African black men and high-risk North American black men for prostatic cancer and (b) healthy elderly South African men and South African black men with prostatic cancer. A comparable HCG response occurred in young South African and North American black men, while a greater release of prolactin, but a lesser release of luteinizing hormone in response to LHRH:TRH occurred in South African black men. The response to HCG was comparable in elderly and young South African black men, although the prolactin release in response to TRH was greater in elderly men. A more prolonged release of luteinizing hormone was evident in men with prostatic cancer. Higher estradiol and estrone but lower androstenedione levels occurred in men with prostatic cancer. Data suggest that, in the elderly South African black men with prostatic cancer, estrogen metabolism is modified and that either the estrogen level or the higher estrogen:androgen levels modify the pituitary response to LHRH:TRH. A Western diet enhanced the changes in hormone profiles evident in black South African men with prostatic cancer. PMID:6802486

  5. What a man wants: understanding the challenges and motivations to physical activity participation and healthy eating in middle-aged Australian men.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma; Mummery, W Kerry

    2012-11-01

    Little attention has been paid to the physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviors of middle-aged men; thus, the aim of this study was to gather information and gain insight into the PA and nutrition behaviors of these men. Six focus group sessions were undertaken with middle-aged men (N = 30) from regional Australia to explore the challenges and motivations to PA participation and healthy eating. Men had a good understanding of PA and nutrition; however, this was sometimes confounded by inconsistent media messages. Work commitments and family responsibilities were barriers to PA, while poor cooking skills and abilities were barriers to healthy eating. Disease prevention, weight management, and being a good role model were motivators for PA and healthy eating. By understanding what a man wants, PA and nutrition interventions can be designed and delivered to meet the needs of this hard-to-reach population.

  6. Forced respiration during the deeper water immersion causes the greater inspiratory muscle fatigue in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Naghavi, Nooshin; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ota, Akemi; Imai, Daiki; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of water immersion at different water depths on respiratory function and the effect of inspiratory load breathing (ILB) during water immersion at different water depths on respiratory muscle strength evaluated by maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures (PImax and PEmax, respectively). [Subjects] Eight healthy men participated randomly in three trials. [Methods] All sessions were conducted with the participants in a sitting position immersed in a water bath. We evaluated respiratory function, PImax and PEmax during submersion at three different levels of water depth (umbilicus; 4th-rib; or clavicle, CL) and after subsequent 15-min ILB. [Results] Decreases in vital capacity and expiratory reserve volume from baseline by water immersion were significantly greater in the CL trial than those in the other trials. In the CL trial, PImax was immediately reduced after ILB compared to that at baseline, and the reduction was significantly greater than those in the other trials. PEmax was not affected by ILB in any of the trials. [Conclusion] Forced respiration during deeper water immersion caused greater inspiratory muscle fatigue in healthy young men. PMID:27064401

  7. Oral Intake of Carboxymethyl-Glucan (CM-G) from Yeast (Saccharomyces uvarum) Reduces Malondialdehyde Levels in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vilma Barbosa da Silva; de Melo, Adma Nadja Ferreira; de Souza, Neyrijane Targino; da Silva, Vânia Maria Barboza; Castro-Gomez, Raul H; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-08-14

    Carboxymethyl-glucan (CM-G) is a water-soluble derivative of β(1 → 3)(1 → 6) glucan, a well-known immunostimulant and antioxidant compound. In this experimental, randomized and placebo-controlled study, the effects of oral CM-G intake over a 60-day period on the peripheral blood, cholesterol, glycemic index and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of healthy men was assessed. The CM-G was obtained from spent brewer's yeast (S. uvarum) with DS 0.8 and molecular weight of 2.2 × 10(5) Da. Following CM-G administration, no changes were observed in red and white blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin and platelet counts, or in cholesterol and glycemic indices. After 30 days of CM-G administration, the MDA levels decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in men receiving CM-G. The results showed for the first time that CM-G may act as an adjuvant in preventing oxidative damage in healthy humans.

  8. Kinesio Taping Does Not Alter Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength and Power in Healthy Nonathletic Men: A Prospective Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Rutkowski, Radosław; Gruszczyński, Jakub; Lewandowski, Jacek; Straburzyński-Lupa, Marcin; Łochyński, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The effects of Kinesio Taping (KT) on muscular performance remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of KT on the maximum concentric and eccentric quadriceps isokinetic strength. Study Design. This is a single-blinded, placebo crossover, repeated measures study. Methods. Maximum isokinetic concentric/eccentric extension torque, work, and power were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer without taping (NT) and with KT or placebo taping (PT) in 17 healthy young men. Repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Results. Testing concentric contractions at 60°/s or 180°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in peak torque (Nm), total work (J), or mean power (W) were noted among the application modes under different conditions. Testing eccentric contractions at 30°/s or 60°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in mentioned parameters were noted, respectively. KT on the quadriceps neither decreased nor increased muscle strength in the participants. Conclusion. KT application onto the skin overlying the quadriceps muscle does not enhance the strength or power of knee extensors in healthy men. PMID:26819953

  9. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24–30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30–60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness. PMID:26989456

  10. Quality of life is not negatively affected by diet and exercise intervention in healthy men with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hellénius, M L; Dahlöf, C; Aberg, H; Krakau, I; de Faire, U

    1995-02-01

    Health-related quality of life was assessed in a diet and exercise intervention study among 157 healthy men aged 35-60 years (mean +/- s.d.; 46.2 +/- 5.0) with moderately raised cardiovascular risk factors. The men were randomized to four groups, diet (D, n = 40), exercise (E, n = 39), diet plus exercise (DE, n = 39), and no active intervention (controls (C) n = 39). Quality of life was measured with two self-administered questionnaires; Subjective Symptoms Assessment Profile and Minor Symptom Evaluation Profile, at baseline and after 1.5, 3 and 6 months. Cardiovascular risk factors were investigated at baseline and after 6 months. As a result of changes in dietary habits and physical exercise in the three intervention groups, several important cardiovascular risk factors were significantly reduced. The quality of life/well-being did not differ between the four groups and did not change significantly in any of the groups during the study. There was, however, a tendency towards fewer gastrointestinal symptoms in group D and fewer cardiac symptoms in group DE. We conclude that advice on lifestyle changes in the form of diet and exercise reduce risk factors in middle-aged men without negative effects on their quality of life.

  11. Effect of mildly attenuated heart rate response during treadmill exercise testing on cardiovascular outcome in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Maor, Elad; Kopel, Eran; Sidi, Yechezkel; Goldenberg, Ilan; Segev, Shlomo; Kivity, Shaye

    2013-11-01

    Attenuated heart rate (HR) response during exercise is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome. The acceptable value for HR response is 85% of the age-predicted maximal HR (APMHR). This study hypothesized that mild attenuation of HR response during exercise among healthy subjects is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study population comprised 10,323 healthy men and women without known cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes mellitus who underwent a yearly screening program and were followed up during a mean period of 4.3 years. Participants were grouped to 3 tertiles based on the percentage of their APMHR reached at the baseline stress test. The primary end point was the occurrence of CVD or cerebrovascular disease. A total of 1,015 incident cases of CVD occurred during follow-up. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the CVD risk of subjects who reached 60% to 96% of their APMHR was 35% greater compared with those who reached their APMHR (p = 0.001). A subgroup analysis among subjects who reached 85% of their APMHR showed that even mildly attenuated heart response (in the range of 85% to 96% APMHR) was independently associated with 36% increase in CVD risk (p <0.001). In conclusion, attenuated HR response during exercise is a powerful and independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up among healthy men and women. The prognostic implications of attenuated HR response in this population are apparent even with a minor decrease of the maximal HR to <96% of the APMHR.

  12. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  13. [Effects of jogging on mental well-being and seasonal mood variations: a randomized study with healthy women and men].

    PubMed

    Suter, E; Marti, B; Tschopp, A; Wanner, H U

    1991-08-31

    The long-term effect of jogging on mental well-being and seasonal mood variation was examined in a randomized, controlled intervention study with healthy, middle-aged, sedentary, non-smoking, white collar subjects. 17 women and 39 men were allocated to jog 2 h/week for 4 months, whereas 16 women and 22 men served as controls. After 4 months, there was a partial cross-over with the controls now taking up jogging. After 8 study months, all 38 subjects of the second jogging intervention as well as 10 women and 30 men of the first 4-month jogging period were re-examined for the second time. All participants in the second re-examination were mailed a survey questionnaire one year after beginning of the study (response rate 83%). Despite varying adherence for the exercise regimen, the 4-month "net effects" (i.e. effect in exercise group minus effect in control group) showed a significant improvement in physical fitness (endurance capacity, resting heart rate) in men, but not in women. Among the mood scales assessed, "anger" showed a marginally significant effect in men (relative decrease; p = 0.05) and "calmness" a significant effect in women (relative increase; p = 0.02); after exclusion of 4 non-compliers from analysis in women, also "vigor" (relative increase; p = 0.03) and "depressiveness" (relative decrease; p = 0.02) were significantly improved after jogging. In women, the number of kilometers run was significantly correlated with an improvement in mental well-being (Pearson's r = 0.32 with change in 4 "positive" mood scales and r = 0.57 with change in 4 "negative" mood scales). Changes in endurance capacity were not significantly related to changes in mental well-being. However, in both women and men these mental effects of jogging were superposed by clear seasonal variations in mood, i.e. by a deterioration of mental well-being during the winter months and by a slow "remission" during summer. Taking jogging-induced and seasonal effects on mood together, the

  14. Cordyceps militaris Enhances Cell-Mediated Immunity in Healthy Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Joon; Baik, Hyun Wook; Kim, Sang Jung; Lee, Seong Gyu; Ahn, Hong Yup; Park, Ju Sang; Park, Sang Jong; Jang, Eun Jeong; Park, Sang Woon; Choi, Jin Young; Sung, Ji Hee; Lee, Seung Min

    2015-10-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a mushroom traditionally used for diverse pharmaceutical purposes in East Asia, including China, and has been found to be effective for enhancing immunity through various types of animal testing. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of C. militaris for enhancing cell-mediated immunity and its safety in healthy male adults. Healthy male adults were divided into the experimental group (n = 39), given 1.5 g/day of ethanol treated C. militaris in capsules, and the control group (n = 40), given the same number of identical placebo capsules filled with microcrystalline cellulose and lactose for 4 weeks from February 13 to March 14, 2012; the natural killer (NK) cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation index (PI), and T-helper cell 1 (Th1) cytokine cluster (interferon [IFN]-γ, interleukin [IL]-12, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) were measured, along with stability test, at weeks 0, 2, and 4. The C. militaris group showed a statistically significant greater increase in NK200 (P = .0010), lymphocyte PI (P ≤ .0001), IL-2 (P = .0096), and IFN-γ (P = .0126), compared with the basal level, than the placebo group. There was no statistically significant adverse reaction. C. militaris enhanced the NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation and partially increased Th1 cytokine secretion. Therefore, C. militaris is safe and effective for enhancing cell-mediated immunity of healthy male adults. PMID:26284906

  15. Neuromuscular performance and bone structural characteristics in young healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Heinonen, A; Komi, P V; Linnamo, V

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass and strength have been shown to be important factors in bone strength. Low muscular force predisposes to falling especially among elderly. Regular exercise helps to prevent falls and resulting bone fractures. Better understanding of muscle function and its importance on bone properties may thus add information to fracture prevention. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone strength and muscular force production. Twenty-young men [24 (2) years] and 20 [24 (3) years] women served as subjects. Bone compressive (BSI(d)) and bending strength indices (50 Imax) were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at tibial mid-shaft and at distal tibia. Ankle plantarflexor muscle volume (MV) was estimated from muscle thickness measured with ultrasonography. Neuromuscular performance was evaluated from the measurements of maximal ground reaction force (GRF) in bilateral jumping and of eccentric maximal voluntary ankle plantarflexor torque (MVC). Specific tension (ST) of the plantarflexors was calculated by dividing the MVC with the muscle volume. Activation level (AL) was measured with superimposed twitch method. Distal tibia BSI(d) and tibial mid-shaft 50 Imax correlated positively with GRF, MVC and MV in men (r = 0.45-0.67, P < 0.05). Tibial mid-shaft 50 Imax and neuromuscular performance variables were correlated in women (r = 0.46-0.59, P < 0.05), whereas no correlation was seen in distal tibia. In the regression analysis, MV and ST could explain 64% of the variance in tibial mid-shaft bone strength and 41% of the variation in distal tibia bone strength. The study emphasizes that tibial strength is related to maximal neuromuscular performance. In addition, tibial mid-shaft seems to be more dependent on the neuromuscular performance, than distal tibia. In young adults, the association between bone adaptation and neuromuscular performance seems to be moderate and also site and loading specific.

  16. Ankle Dorsiflexion Among Healthy Men With Different Qualities of Lower Extremity Movement

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi; Spitzer, Elad; Finestone, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity movement patterns have been implicated as a risk factor for various knee disorders. Ankle-dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) has previously been associated with a faulty movement pattern among healthy female participants. Objective: To determine the association between ankle DF ROM and the quality of lower extremity movement during the lateral step-down test among healthy male participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Training facility of the Israel Defense Forces. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-five healthy male Israeli military recruits (age = 19.7 ± 1.1 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.4 cm, mass = 72.0 ± 7.6 kg). Intervention(s): Dorsiflexion ROM was measured in weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing conditions using a fluid-filled inclinometer and a universal goniometer, respectively. Lower extremity movement pattern was assessed visually using the lateral step-down test and classified categorically as good or moderate. All measurements were performed bilaterally. Main Outcome Measure(s): Weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing DF ROM were more limited among participants with moderate quality of movement than in those with good quality of movement on the dominant side (P = .01 and P = .02 for weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing DF, respectively). Non–weight-bearing DF demonstrated a trend toward a decreased range among participants with moderate compared with participants with good quality of movement on the nondominant side (P = .03 [adjusted P = .025]). Weight-bearing DF was not different between participants with good and moderate movement patterns on the nondominant side (P = .10). Weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing ankle DF ROM correlated significantly with the quality of movement on both sides (P < .01 and P < .05 on the dominant and nondominant side, respectively). Conclusions: Ankle DF ROM was associated with quality of movement among healthy male participants. The association seemed weaker in

  17. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p < .05). Furthermore, a higher serum insulin concentration was noted after OFI intake at baseline and at t₃₀ (p < .05). In OGTT(EX), blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p < .05). However, insulin values and AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  18. Effect of argan and olive oil consumption on the hormonal profile of androgens among healthy adult Moroccan men.

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Jafri, Ali; Driouch, Issam; El Khasmi, Mohammed; Adlouni, Ahmed; Benajiba, Nada; Bamou, Youssef; Saile, Rachid; Benouhoud, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of virgin argan oil (VAO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVO) on the hormonal profile of androgens and anthropometric parameters among healthy adult Moroccan men during a controlled nutritional intervention. The study was carried out on 60 young and healthy male volunteers aged between 23 and 40 years old. During a stabilization period of 2 weeks they consumed butter. The group was then randomized into two categories, the first one consuming VAO and the second EVO for 3 weeks. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) serum concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end of each period. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the two groups (VAO and EVO) during each step of the study. Differences in androgens and anthropometric parameters between the baseline and after 3 weeks of the diet in the VAO and EVO groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. T and LH serum concentrations significantly increased after the intervention period. T levels increased by 19.9% and 17.4% (p < 0.0001), and LH levels by 18.5% (p < 0.007) and 42.6% (p < 0.0001), respectively, for VAO and EVO (p < 0.0001). However, DHEAS serum concentrations, body weight, body mass index, arterial pressure and daily energetic intake did not show any significant variation after the intervention with either argan or olive oils. The results suggest that consumption of AVO and EVO might be the origin of a positive action on the androgen hormonal profile of men.

  19. Renal extraction and acute effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on central and renal hemodynamics in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Asmar, Ali; Simonsen, Lene; Asmar, Meena; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J; Frandsen, Erik; Moro, Cedric; Jonassen, Thomas; Bülow, Jens

    2015-04-15

    The present experiments were performed to elucidate the acute effects of intravenous infusion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 on central and renal hemodynamics in healthy men. Seven healthy middle-aged men were examined on two different occasions in random order. During a 3-h infusion of either GLP-1 (1.5 pmol·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) or saline, cardiac output was estimated noninvasively, and intraarterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured continuously. Renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, and uptake/release of hormones and ions were measured by Fick's Principle after catheterization of a renal vein. Subjects remained supine during the experiments. During GLP-1 infusion, both systolic blood pressure and arterial pulse pressure increased by 5±1 mmHg (P=0.015 and P=0.002, respectively). Heart rate increased by 5±1 beats/min (P=0.005), and cardiac output increased by 18% (P=0.016). Renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate as well as the clearance of Na⁺ and Li⁺ were not affected by GLP-1. However, plasma renin activity decreased (P=0.037), whereas plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide were unaffected. Renal extraction of intact GLP-1 was 43% (P<0.001), whereas 60% of the primary metabolite GLP-1 9-36amide was extracted (P=0.017). In humans, an acute intravenous administration of GLP-1 leads to increased cardiac output due to a simultaneous increase in stroke volume and heart rate, whereas no effect on renal hemodynamics could be demonstrated despite significant extraction of both the intact hormone and its primary metabolite. PMID:25670826

  20. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S K; Tracy, R P; Baer, D J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of stearic acid (STA) on cardiovascular disease risk beyond lipid and lipoprotein risk factors, including hemostasis, are unclear, particularly when compared with unsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of STA with those of oleic acid (OL) on markers of hemostasis. In a randomized crossover study, 50 men consumed six controlled diets for 5 weeks each (39% energy from fat, 15% energy from protein, 46% energy from carbohydrate (CHO)). Fat (8% energy) was replaced across diets by: STA, OL, CHO (control), trans fatty acids (TFAs), TFA/STA and 12:0-16:0 saturated fatty acids. Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasmin alpha-2-antiplasmin complex concentrations were not different between OL and STA (P>0.05). Compared with control, OL increased factor VIIc and PAI-1 (P≤0.05), whereas there were no differences with STA (P>0.05). STA and OL similarly affect markers of hemostasis in healthy men, within the context of a highly controlled diet.

  1. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P.; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R.; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  2. The role of falling leptin levels in the neuroendocrine and metabolic adaptation to short-term starvation in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jean L; Heist, Kathleen; DePaoli, Alex M; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2003-05-01

    To elucidate the role of leptin in regulating neuroendocrine and metabolic function during an acute fast, six to eight healthy, lean men were studied under four separate conditions: a baseline fed state and three 72-hour fasting studies with administration of either placebo, low-dose recombinant-methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin), or replacement-dose r-metHuLeptin designed to maintain serum leptin at levels similar to those in the fed state. Replacement-dose r-metHuLeptin administered during fasting prevents the starvation-induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and, in part, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and IGF-1 binding capacity in serum. Thus, in normal men, the fall in leptin with fasting may be both necessary and sufficient for the physiologic adaptations of these axes, which require leptin levels above a certain threshold for activation. In contrast to findings in mice, fasting-induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, renin-aldosterone, and growth hormone-IGF-1 axes as well as fuel utilization may be independent of leptin in humans. The role of leptin in normalizing several starvation-induced neuroendocrine changes may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of eating disorders and obesity.

  3. Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with isokinetic muscle strength and balance in healthy collegiate men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Hong, Ju; Cha, Jun-Youl; Park, Jung-Min; Eun, Denny; Yoo, Jaehyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-11-01

    There are few studies on the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and balance in the young ages. We investigated the relationship between appendicular skeletal muscle mass, isokinetic muscle strength of lower extremity, and balance among healthy young men using relative skeletal muscle index. Thirty men were grouped according to relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index: higher skeletal muscle group (n = 15) and lower skeletal muscle group (n = 15). Static and dynamic balance abilities were measured using the following: a test where participants stood on one leg with eyes closed, a modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB) with eyes open and eyes closed, a stability test, and limits of stability test. The muscle strength of lower extremities was measured with an isokinetic analyser in hip, knee, and ankle joints. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass were significantly more stable in maintaining dynamic balance than those with lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Moreover, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was positively correlated with dynamic balance ability. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass had stronger strength in the lower extremity, and there were significant differences in the isokinetic torque ratios between groups. From these results, it can be inferred that higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass relates to muscle strength and the alteration in the peak torque ratio of the lower extremity, contributing to the maintenance of balance.

  4. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2016-01-25

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems.

  5. Effects of an outdoor bicycle-based intervention in healthy rural Indian men with normal and low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Madsen, C; Mogensen, P; Thomas, N; Christensen, D L; Bygbjerg, I C; Mohan, V; Inbakumari, M; Nadig, S V; Alex, R; Geetanjali, F S; Westgate, K; Brage, S; Vaag, A; Grunnet, L G

    2015-02-01

    Physical inactivity and low birth weight (LBW) may lead to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The extent to which LBW individuals may benefit from physical exercise training when compared with those with normal birth weight (NBW) controls is uncertain. We assessed the impact of an outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day. Fasting blood samples, intravenous glucose tolerance tests and bioimpedance body composition assessment were carried out. Physical activity was measured using combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring during the first and the last week of the intervention. Following the exercise intervention, the LBW group displayed an increase in physical fitness [55.0 ml (O2)/kg min (52.0-58.0)-57.5 ml (O2)/kg min (54.4-60.5)] level and total fat-free mass [10.9% (8.0-13.4)-11.4% (8.0-14.6)], as well as a corresponding decline in the ratio of total fat mass/fat-free mass. In contrast, an increase in total fat percentage as well as total fat mass was observed in the NBW group. After intervention, fasting plasma insulin levels, homoeostasis model assessments (HOMA) of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion (HOMA-IS), improved to the same extent in both the groups. In summary, young men born with LBW in rural India benefit metabolically from exercise training to an extent comparable with NBW controls. PMID:25514893

  6. Effects of an outdoor bicycle-based intervention in healthy rural Indian men with normal and low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Madsen, C; Mogensen, P; Thomas, N; Christensen, D L; Bygbjerg, I C; Mohan, V; Inbakumari, M; Nadig, S V; Alex, R; Geetanjali, F S; Westgate, K; Brage, S; Vaag, A; Grunnet, L G

    2015-02-01

    Physical inactivity and low birth weight (LBW) may lead to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The extent to which LBW individuals may benefit from physical exercise training when compared with those with normal birth weight (NBW) controls is uncertain. We assessed the impact of an outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day. Fasting blood samples, intravenous glucose tolerance tests and bioimpedance body composition assessment were carried out. Physical activity was measured using combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring during the first and the last week of the intervention. Following the exercise intervention, the LBW group displayed an increase in physical fitness [55.0 ml (O2)/kg min (52.0-58.0)-57.5 ml (O2)/kg min (54.4-60.5)] level and total fat-free mass [10.9% (8.0-13.4)-11.4% (8.0-14.6)], as well as a corresponding decline in the ratio of total fat mass/fat-free mass. In contrast, an increase in total fat percentage as well as total fat mass was observed in the NBW group. After intervention, fasting plasma insulin levels, homoeostasis model assessments (HOMA) of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion (HOMA-IS), improved to the same extent in both the groups. In summary, young men born with LBW in rural India benefit metabolically from exercise training to an extent comparable with NBW controls.

  7. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their “spacecraft” after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  8. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity.

  9. Influence of regular exercise on gastric emptying in healthy men: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Tanaka, Kentaro; Mori, Hideki; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), including functional dyspepsia (FD), are common chronic disorders even in the younger population. Physical activity is advocated for patients with FGIDs, although the evidence is insufficient. We investigated the association between the intensity of regular exercise and gastric emptying to determine the effect of physical activity on dyspeptic symptoms. Thirty healthy individuals were selected and divided into three groups (low, moderate, and high) using the index of total exercise intensity in a week. Gastric emptying was evaluated by the 13C-acetate breath test. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, dyspeptic symptoms, stool forms, scores of anxiety and depression, and scores of sleep quality were also compared. Baseline scores of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality were not different among the three groups. Gastric emptying was significantly faster in low-intensity exercise group than the moderate-intensity exercise group. Although the presence of loose stool and alcohol consumption were also associated with the intensity of regular exercise, these variables were not confounders. In conclusion, the intensity of regular exercise was independently associated with gastric emptying in healthy individuals. These baseline data would be useful for consideration of an optimal exercise intervention for the treatment of FD.

  10. Acute elevation of endogenous prolactin does not influence glucose homeostasis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Klimes, I; Jurcovicová, J; Jezová, D

    1993-01-01

    The diabetogenic effect of prolactin observed in patients with pathological hyperprolactinaemia was verified in healthy subjects. Plasma prolactin elevation was induced by administration of a dopamine antagonist drug domperidone (Motilium 10 mg orally, 9 subjects) and 2 h later the oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The influence of dopamine receptor stimulation on glucose homeostasis was tested by dopamine infusion (0.3 mg in saline or 20% glucose, 1 g/min for 60 min, 11 subjects). After the blockade of dopamine receptors, a significant and prolonged increase of prolactin concentration was found. However, the levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide either before or after the glucose load were not different from control ones. The decreased number of insulin receptors (1.97 +/- 0.41 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14 pmol per 2.10(9) red blood cells) was compensated by increased affinity (0.51 +/- 0.17 vs 1.00 +/- 0.22 Ke 10(8) mol.-1 per l]) of insulin receptors. The stimulation of dopamine receptors showed a negligible effect on glucose regulation. It may be suggested that an endogenous increase of prolactin concentration in the physiological range does not participate in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects. PMID:8130181

  11. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  12. Assessment of pulmonary function in local healthy Nepalese men of Dharan and it's anthropometric correlation.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Rajesh; Sinha, Meenakshi; Paudel, Bishnu Hari; Bhattacharya, Soumya

    2007-09-01

    Healthy non smoking male subjects (n = 150) aged 18-40 years were subjected to pulmonary function testing to establish linear multiple regression model. Pulmonary parameters were considered as independent variables and physical parameters (age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) and anthropometric parameters (skin fold thickness (SFT), mid arm circumference and abdominal girth) were taken as dependent variables. This study was undertaken to determine correlation coefficients between dependent variables and different pulmonary independent variables and to derive regression equations or prediction formulae in order to find out the expected normal values for the different lung function tests in a given individual. Present study revealed that the upper body fat distribution, as reflected by biceps skin fold thickness and mid arm circumference, is a significant predicator of ventilatory function.

  13. Plasma antioxidant status in healthy smoking and non-smoking men.

    PubMed

    Goraca, A; Skibska, B

    2005-01-01

    Human serum contains many different antioxidants which may be important in the maintenance of an antioxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lipid peroxidation and total plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy smoking and non-smoking young and elderly subjects. Plasma concetrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were detected by HPLC. Additionally, in the in vitro experiments, the effects of exogenous compounds (ascorbic acid, uric acid, Trolox) on total ferric reducing activity of plasma were tested. We demonstrated that total antioxidant capacity of plasma obtained from healthy non-smoking young subjects was significantly higher than plasma antioxidant capacity of smoking elderly subjects. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (p < 0.001) in young non-smoking volunteers was lower than that in young smokers. The concentration of TBARS in elderly non-smoking volunteers was lower than in elderly smokers. Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were significantly lower in elderly smokers than in elderly non-smokers of same age. No difference in plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were found in 22-year-old smoking and non-smoking subjects. In vitro addition of ascorbic acid, uric acid, or Trolox to plasma samples significantly increased their total antioxidant capacity. Decrease of FRAP values and increase of TBARS concentra-' tions is a significant physiologic condition of aging process. Supplementation of antioxidants could be useful for the enhancement of plasma antioxidant status (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref: 35).

  14. The effects of dietary selenium on the immune system in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, W C; Kelley, D S; Taylor, P C

    2001-09-01

    Eleven men were fed foods naturally high or low in selenium for 120 d. Selenium intake was stabilized at 47 microg/d for 21 d, then changed to either 13 or 297 microg/d for 99 d, leading to significantly different blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase concentrations. Serum immunoglobulins, complement components, and primary antibody responses to influenza vaccine were unchanged. Antibody titers against diphtheria vaccine were 2.5-fold greater after reinoculation in the high selenium group. White blood cell counts decreased in the high-selenium group and increased in the low-selenium group, resulting primarily from changes in granulocytes. Apparent increases in cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and activated T-cells in the high-selenium group only approached statistical significance. Lymphocyte counts increased on d 45 in the high-selenium group. In vitro proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in autologous serum in response to pokeweed mitogen was stimulated in the high-selenium group by d 45 and remained elevated throughout the study, whereas proliferation in the low selenium group did not increase until d 100. This study indicates that the immune-enhancing properties of selenium in humans are the result, at least in part, of improved activation and proliferation of B-lymphocytes and perhaps enhanced T-cell function.

  15. Importance of physical fitness on predictive effect of body mass index and weight gain on incident atrial fibrillation in healthy middle-age men.

    PubMed

    Grundvold, Irene; Skretteberg, Per Torger; Liestøl, Knut; Gjesdal, Knut; Erikssen, Gunnar; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Arnesen, Harald; Erikssen, Jan; Bodegard, Johan

    2012-08-01

    The incidence of both atrial fibrillation (AF) and obesity is increasing in the community, and lifestyle intervention is recommended. We aimed to test whether the predictive effect of body mass index (BMI) and weight change from age 25 years to midlife on incident AF were influenced by physical fitness. In 1972 to 1975, 2,014 healthy middle-age men conducted a bicycle exercise electrocardiographic test as a part of a cardiovascular survey program, defining physical fitness as work performed divided by body weight. During 35 years of follow-up, 270 men developed AF, documented by scrutiny of the health files in all Norwegian hospitals. Risk estimation was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models and tested for age-adjusted physical fitness above and below the median. The mean BMI of 24.6 kg/m(2) defined a lean baseline cohort. The men with a baseline BMI of ≥28 kg/m(2) (11%) compared to a BMI <28 kg/m(2) had a 1.68-fold risk of AF (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.40) and men reporting weight gain of ≥10 kg (24%) compared to weight loss (11%) of 1.66-fold (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.89), respectively. The dichotomy into men with age-adjusted physical fitness above and below the median, demonstrated statistically significant risk associations only for men with low fitness. The overall risk of AF was reduced by 23% in the fit men. In conclusion, within our lean baseline cohort of healthy middle-age men, a BMI of ≥28 kg/m(2) and weight gain of ≥10 kg from age 25 to midlife were long-term predictors of incident AF in men with physical fitness below the population median. The fit men had an overall slightly reduced risk of AF.

  16. Serum from patients with erectile dysfunction inhibits circulating angiogenic cells from healthy men: relationship with cardiovascular risk, endothelial damage and circulating angiogenic modulators.

    PubMed

    Pelliccione, F; D'Angeli, A; Filipponi, S; Falone, S; Necozione, S; Barbonetti, A; Francavilla, F; Francavilla, S

    2012-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an early manifestation of arteriosclerosis associated with endothelial damage/dysfunction and to a blunted ability of cultured mononuclear circulating cells (MNCs) to differentiate circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), putatively involved in endothelial damage repair. Here we explored effects of human serum (HS) from patients with ED and cardiovascular risk factors (VRFs) but no clinical atherosclerosis, on cultured MNCs of healthy men to differentiate CACs and to form colonies. Effect of HS on number of CACS and of colony forming units (CFUs) was correlated with circulating markers of endothelial damage and with angiogenic modulators. MNCs from healthy men were cultured in standard conditions or with 20% HS from 35 patients with ED and from 10 healthy men. CACs were identified after 7 days of culture by uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein with concomitant binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I. CFUs were counted after 5 days of culture. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays assessed plasmatic soluble (s) form of E-selectin, Endothelin (ET)-1, tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)(165) and sVEGF receptor (R)-1. The number of CACs and of CFUs from healthy men was reduced after culturing MNCs with HS compared to standard medium. The inhibitory effect was significantly higher with HS from ED patients with higher or lower VRF exposure compared to healthy men. Inhibition was positively correlated with VRFs exposure, with ED severity, with common carotid artery intima media thickness measured using B-mode ultrasound, and to a lesser extent with plasmatic sE-Selectin, sET-1 and sVEGFR-1. Dysfunction of cells involved in vascular homoeostasis is induced by soluble factors still unknown and already present in a very initial systemic vascular disease in men with ED and VRFs. PMID:22394130

  17. The Lichfield bone study: the skeletal response to exercise in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I.; Kehoe, Anthony; James, Laurence E.; Payne, John R.; Skipworth, James R.; Puthucheary, Zudin A.; Drenos, Fotios; Pennell, Dudley J.; Loosemore, Mike; World, Michael; Humphries, Steve E.; Haddad, Fares S.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2012-01-01

    The skeletal response to short-term exercise training remains poorly described. We thus studied the lower limb skeletal response of 723 Caucasian male army recruits to a 12-wk training regime. Femoral bone volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging, bone ultrastructure by quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip. Left hip BMD increased with training (mean ± SD: 0.85 ± 3.24, 2.93 ± 4.85, and 1.89 ± 2.85% for femoral neck, Ward's area, and total hip, respectively; all P < 0.001). Left calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation rose 3.57 ± 0.5% (P < 0.001), and left and right femoral cortical volume by 1.09 ± 4.05 and 0.71 ± 4.05%, respectively (P = 0.0001 and 0.003), largely through the rise in periosteal volume (0.78 ± 3.14 and 0.59 ± 2.58% for right and left, respectively, P < 0.001) with endosteal volumes unchanged. Before training, DXA and QUS measures were independent of limb dominance. However, the dominant femur had higher periosteal (25,991.49 vs. 2,5572 mm3, P < 0.001), endosteal (6,063.33 vs. 5,983.12 mm3, P = 0.001), and cortical volumes (19,928 vs. 19,589.56 mm3, P = 0.001). Changes in DXA, QUS, and magnetic resonance imaging measures were independent of limb dominance. We show, for the first time, that short-term exercise training in young men is associated not only with a rise in human femoral BMD, but also in femoral bone volume, the latter largely through a periosteal response. PMID:22114178

  18. Acute exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields increases interleukin-6 in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Selmaoui, Brahim; Lambrozo, Jacques; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda; Haus, Erhard; Touitou, Yvan

    2011-12-01

    Some epidemiologic studies have suggested that extremely low frequency magnetic fields might affect human health and, in particular, that the incidence of certain types of cancer might increase among individuals living or working in environments exposed to such fields. This study is part of a broad study we conducted in humans. The study presented here was designed to look for possible effects of acute exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields (10 μT) on the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) production. Thirty-two young men (20-30 years old) were divided into two groups (sham-exposed or control group and exposed group) of 16 subjects each. All subjects participated in two 24-h experiments to evaluate the effects of both continuous and intermittent (1 h "off" and 1 h "on" with the field switched "on" and "off" every 15 s) exposure to linearly polarized magnetic fields. The subjects were exposed to the magnetic field from 2300 to 0800 while recumbent. Blood samples were collected during each session at 11:00, 17:00, 22:00, 01:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 08:00. Results showed that exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields (10 μT) significantly increases IL-6 when subjects were exposed to an intermittent magnetic field. However, no effect has been observed on interleukin IL-1β, IL-2, IL-1RA, and IL-2R.

  19. Tart Cherry Juice Decreases Oxidative Stress in Healthy Older Men and Women1–3

    PubMed Central

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Davies, Sean S.; Stock, Anthoney A.; Su, Yali; Heward, Christopher B.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Harman, S. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Compared with young adults, older adults have significantly impaired capacities to resist oxidative damage when faced with acute stress such as ischemia/reperfusion. This impairment likely contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older adults in response to acute trauma, infections, and the susceptibility to diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Consumption of foods high in polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have been associated with improved health, but the mechanisms contributing to these salutary effects remain to be fully established. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of tart cherry juice containing high levels of anthocyanins improves the capacity of older adults to resist oxidative damage during acute oxidative stress. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 volunteers [6 men and 6 women; age 69 ± 4 y (61–75 y)] consumed in random order either tart cherry juice or placebo (240 mL twice daily for 14 d) separated by a 4-wk washout period. The capacity to resist oxidative damage was measured as the changes in plasma F2-isoprostane levels in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) before and after each treatment. The tart cherry juice intervention reduced the I/R-induced F2-isoprostane response (P < 0.05), whereas placebo had no significant effect. The tart cherry juice intervention also reduced basal urinary excretion of oxidized nucleic acids (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine) (P < 0.05) but not urinary excretion of isoprostanes. These data suggest that consumption of tart cherry juice improves antioxidant defenses in vivo in older adults as shown by an increased capacity to constrain an oxidative challenge and reduced oxidative damage to nucleic acids. PMID:19692530

  20. Electrocardiographic changes in healthy men during continuous low-level carbon monoxide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.M.; Smith, D.J.

    1980-02-01

    In separate experiments, six groups of young, healthy, nonsmoking human subjects lived in a closed-environment exposure chamber for 18 days during the middle 8 of which they were exposed continuously to 50, 15, or 0 (control) parts per million by volume (ppM) of carbon monoxide (CO) in air. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded from each subject during the control, exposure, and recovery periods. P-Wave changes were clearly seen in 6 of 15 subjects at 50 ppM, and in 3 of 15 at 15 ppM, but in none of 14 at 0 ppM; in addition one subject showed marked S-T changes at 15 ppM. Review of a pilot study at 75 ppM CO revealed significant ECG changes in seven of the ten subjects. It is postulated that the changes were caused by a specific toxic effect of CO on atrial pacemaking or conducting tissue in a dose-response relationship.

  1. Digital arterial responsiveness to cold in healthy men, vibration white finger and primary Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M

    1993-08-01

    Finger systolic pressure (FSP) was measured during a standardized cold test in 291 healthy male subjects divided into five age groups. The age groups showed no difference in the change in FSP (FSP%) after cold provocation at 15 and 10 degrees C. In the entire population, the lower normal limits of FSP% were estimated as 76% at 15 degrees C and 63% at 10 degrees C. When a discriminating threshold of FSP%10 degrees < 60% was applied to the results of the cold test of 31 referents, 65 chain saw workers with or without vibration-induced white finger (VWF), and 20 male patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (PRP), the sensitivity of the test to detect digital vasospasm was 84% for VWF and 95% for PRP. In the chain-saw worker group, the positive and negative predictive values of the cold test were 94%. Therefore the measurement of FSP during cold provocation can be considered a useful laboratory test to confirm Raynaud's symptoms objectively in both groups and individuals.

  2. [Sleep structure instability in healthy men under conditions of 105-day isolation experiment "Mars-105"].

    PubMed

    Kovrov, G V; Posokhov, S I; Posokhov, S S; Zavalko, I M; Ponomareva, I P

    2013-01-01

    Night-to-night stability of falling asleep and duration of wakefulness in the sleep was studied in six healthy male subjects under conditions of 105-day isolation experiment "Mars-105". Polysomnography records were carried out in each subject during five nights taken in regular intervals within the experiment. Three subjects demonstrated high stability of falling asleep and wakefulness in sleep (group I), whereas in the remaining three subjects stability of these characteristics was low (group [I). Delta-sleep was shown to be deepened in subjects of group II (significant prevalence of stage 4 (47.3 min) over stage 3 (32.9 min)). In subjects of group I, the duration of stage 3 was 44.9 min and that of stage 4 was 26.6 min. We suggest that night-to-night instability of falling asleep and duration of wakefulness in sleep in combination with delta sleep is the special individual form of sleep adaptation to conditions of chronic isolation stress.

  3. Effects of sleep fragmentation on appetite and related hormone concentrations over 24 h in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-02-28

    In addition to short sleep duration, reduced sleep quality is also associated with appetite control. The present study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation, independent of sleep duration, on appetite profiles and 24 h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance regulation. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, BMI 24·4 (sd 1·9) kg/m²) completed a 24 h randomised crossover study in which sleep (23.30-07.30 hours) was either fragmented or non-fragmented. Polysomnography was used to determine rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time (TST). Blood samples were taken at baseline and continued hourly for the 24 h period to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and melatonin concentrations. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured. Visual analogue scales were used to score appetite-related feelings. Sleep fragmentation resulted in reduced REM sleep (69·4 min compared with 83·5 min; P< 0·05) and preservation of SWS without changes in TST. In fragmented v. non-fragmented sleep, glucose concentrations did not change, while insulin secretion was decreased in the morning, and increased in the afternoon (P< 0·05), and GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were lower (P< 0·05). After dinner, desire-to-eat ratings were higher after fragmented sleep (P< 0·05). A single night of fragmented sleep, resulting in reduced REM sleep, induced a shift in insulin concentrations, from being lower in the morning and higher in the afternoon, while GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were decreased. These results may lead to increased food intake and snacking, thus contributing to a positive energy balance.

  4. Moderate Amounts of Fructose Consumption Impair Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Aeberli, Isabelle; Hochuli, Michel; Gerber, Philip A.; Sze, Lisa; Murer, Stefanie B.; Tappy, Luc; Spinas, Giatgen A.; Berneis, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Adverse effects of hypercaloric, high-fructose diets on insulin sensitivity and lipids in human subjects have been shown repeatedly. The implications of fructose in amounts close to usual daily consumption, however, have not been well studied. This study assessed the effect of moderate amounts of fructose and sucrose compared with glucose on glucose and lipid metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nine healthy, normal-weight male volunteers (aged 21–25 years) were studied in this double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial. All subjects consumed four different sweetened beverages (600 mL/day) for 3 weeks each: medium fructose (MF) at 40 g/day, and high fructose (HF), high glucose (HG), and high sucrose (HS) each at 80 g/day. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with [6,6]-2H2 glucose labeling were used to measure endogenous glucose production. Lipid profile, glucose, and insulin were measured in fasting samples. RESULTS Hepatic suppression of glucose production during the clamp was significantly lower after HF (59.4 ± 11.0%) than HG (70.3 ± 10.5%, P < 0.05), whereas fasting glucose, insulin, and C-peptide did not differ between the interventions. Compared with HG, LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly higher after MF, HF, and HS, and free fatty acids were significantly increased after MF, but not after the two other interventions (P < 0.05). Subjects’ energy intake during the interventions did not differ significantly from baseline intake. CONCLUSIONS This study clearly shows that moderate amounts of fructose and sucrose significantly alter hepatic insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism compared with similar amounts of glucose. PMID:22933433

  5. THE HEALTHY MEN STUDY: A MODEL APPROACH FOR EXAMINING POTENTIAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Healthy Men Study (HMS) is a prospective multisite community study on drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and male reproductive health. We are testing whether exposure to DBPs in drinking water may be associated with altered semen quality, a hypothesis derived from...

  6. High serum vitamin D levels reduce the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in healthy men independent of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Baek, Ki Hyun; Lee, Won-Young; Kang, Moo Il; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Woo; Oh, Ki Won

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest an association of vitamin D with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We analyzed the association of serum vitamin D level assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 {25(OH)D3 } with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in apparently healthy men. We performed a cross-sectional study of 6,567 Korean men who participated in a health screening program, evaluating the association of serum 25(OH)D3 levels with the risk of NAFLD assessed by abdominal ultrasonogram. Of the participants, 43.6% had NAFLD and 21.1% had metabolic syndrome. Age, serum calcium, and aspartate aminotransferase levels showed weak but significant positive correlations with 25(OH)D3 level; total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting insulin level showed weak but significant negative correlations with 25(OH)D3 level. The mean 25(OH)D3 level was significantly lower in participants with NAFLD than in those without (38.7 ± 9.0 vs. 39.7 ± 9.7 nmol/L, p < 0.001). When participants were divided into tertiles based on mean 25(OH)D3 level, the proportion with NAFLD significantly increased as mean 25(OH)D3 level decreased (40.0, 45.0 and 45.9%, p for linear trend < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses with NAFLD as the dependent variable showed that the tertiles with lower 25(OH)D3 levels had a significantly increased risk for NAFLD compared with the highest tertile, even after adjusting for body mass index and metabolic syndrome (OR 1.247 and 1.408 vs. the highest tertile, p < 0.001). Thus, participants with higher serum 25(OH)D3 showed a significantly reduced risk for NAFLD compared with the low 25(OH)D3 groups, independent of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  7. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P < 0.001; effect size = 1.19) after dietary NO3(-) intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.63) after dietary NO3(-) intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5 ± 0.9 vs. 13.1 ± 0.8 rad/s; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3(-) intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women.

  8. Impaired Postural Control in Healthy Men at Moderate Altitude (1630 M and 2590 M): Data from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Clark, Ross A.; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intact postural control is essential for safe performance of mountain sports, operation of machinery at altitude, and for piloting airplanes. We tested whether exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at moderate altitude impairs the static postural control of healthy subjects. Methods In 51 healthy men, median age 24 y (quartiles 20;28), static control was evaluated on a balance platform in Zurich, 490 m, and during a 4-day sojourn in Swiss mountain villages at 1630 m and 2590 m, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Total center of pressure path length (COPL) and sway amplitude measured in two directions by a balance platform, and pulse oximetry were recorded. Data were compared between altitudes. Results Median (quartiles) COPL during standing on both legs with eyes open at 490 m and in the evenings on the first and second days at 1630 and 2590 m, respectively were: 50 (45;57), 55 (48;62), 56 (49;61), 53 (47;59), 54 (48;60) cm, P<0.001 ANOVA. Corresponding arterial oxygen saturation was 97% (96;97), 95% (94;96), 95%(94;96), 92%(90;93), 93%(91;93), P<0.001. Anterior-posterior sway amplitudes were larger at 1630 and 2590 m compared to 490 m, P<0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that higher altitudes (1630 and 2590m) were independently associated with increased COPL when controlled for the order of altitude exposure and age (P=0.001). Conclusions Exposure to 1630 and 2590m was associated with impaired static postural control even when visual references were available. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948. PMID:25723529

  9. Body fat distribution and cortisol metabolism in healthy men: enhanced 5beta-reductase and lower cortisol/cortisone metabolite ratios in men with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Westerbacka, Jukka; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Vehkavaara, Satu; Häkkinen, Anna-Maija; Andrew, Ruth; Wake, Deborah J; Seckl, Jonathan R; Walker, Brian R

    2003-10-01

    In Cushing's syndrome, cortisol causes fat accumulation in specific sites most likely to be associated with insulin resistance, notably in omental adipose and also perhaps in the liver. In idiopathic obesity, cortisol-metabolizing enzymes may play a key role in determining body fat distribution. Increased regeneration of cortisol from cortisone within adipose by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 (11HSD1) has been proposed to cause visceral fat accumulation, whereas decreased hepatic 11HSD1 may protect the liver from glucocorticoid excess. Increased inactivation of cortisol by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases in the liver may drive compensatory activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hence increasing adrenal androgens and 'android' central obesity. This study aimed to examine relationships between these enzymes and detailed measurements of body fat distribution. Twenty-five healthy men (age, 22-57 yr; body mass index, 20.6-35.6 kg/m(2)) were recruited from occupational health services. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, and cross-sectional abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans. Liver fat content was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was measured in a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Cortisol metabolites were measured in a 24-h urine sample by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vivo hepatic 11HSD1 activity was measured by generation of plasma cortisol after an oral dose of cortisone. In vitro 11HSD1 activity and mRNA were measured in 18 subjects who consented to provide abdominal sc adipose biopsies. Indices of obesity (body mass index, whole-body percentage fat, waist/hip ratio) were associated with higher urinary excretion of 5alpha- and 5beta-reduced cortisol metabolites (for percentage fat, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and increased adipose 11HSD1 activity (P < 0.05). Liver fat accumulation was associated with a selective increase in

  10. Effects of GH and/or sex steroid administration on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in healthy aged women and men.

    PubMed

    Münzer, T; Harman, S M; Hees, P; Shapiro, E; Christmas, C; Bellantoni, M F; Stevens, T E; O'Connor, K G; Pabst, K M; St Clair, C; Sorkin, J D; Blackman, M R

    2001-08-01

    Aging is associated with reduced GH, IGF-I, and sex steroid axis activity and with increased abdominal fat. We employed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, noncross-over design to study the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone (20 microg/kg BW), sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate in men), or GH + sex hormone on total abdominal area, abdominal sc fat, and visceral fat in 110 healthy women (n = 46) and men (n = 64), 65-88 yr old (mean, 72 yr). GH administration increased IGF-I levels in women (P = 0.05) and men (P = 0.0001), with the increment in IGF-I levels being higher in men (P = 0.05). Sex steroid administration increased levels of estrogen and testosterone in women and men, respectively (P = 0.05). In women, neither GH, hormone replacement therapy, nor GH + hormone replacement therapy altered total abdominal area, sc fat, or visceral fat significantly. In contrast, in men, administration of GH and GH + testosterone enanthate decreased total abdominal area by 3.9% and 3.8%, respectively, within group and vs. placebo (P = 0.05). Within-group comparisons revealed that sc fat decreased by 10% (P = 0.01) after GH, and by 14% (P = 0.0005) after GH + testosterone enanthate. Compared with placebo, sc fat decreased by 14% (P = 0.05) after GH, by 7% (P = 0.05) after testosterone enanthate, and by 16% (P = 0.0005) after GH + testosterone enanthate. Compared with placebo, visceral fat did not decrease significantly after administration of GH, testosterone enanthate, or GH + testosterone enanthate. These data suggest that in healthy older individuals, GH and/or sex hormone administration elicits a sexually dimorphic response on sc abdominal fat. The generally proportionate reductions we observed in sc and visceral fat, after 6 months of GH administration in healthy aged men, contrast with the disproportionate reduction of visceral fat reported after a similar period of GH treatment of nonelderly GH

  11. Mental stress-induced increase in blood pressure is not related to baroreflex sensitivity in middle-aged healthy men.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, J P; Cerutti, C; Quelin, P; Laville, M; Gustin, M P; Paultre, C Z; Ducher, M

    2000-04-01

    The baroreflex that acts to blunt blood pressure (BP) variations through opposite variations in heart rate should limit the BP increase produced by an emotional challenge. However, relations between baroreflex sensitivity and BP reactivity induced by a psychological stress in a large group of adults have never been firmly established. In 280 healthy men, rest (10 minutes) and stress (5 minutes) BP and heart rate were recorded beat to beat by a blood pressure monitor. The mental stress was elicited by a well-standardized computerized version of a word color conflict stress test (Stroop Color Test). Rest and stress baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by the cross-spectral analysis of BP and heart rate and by the sequence method. The stress-induced increase in systolic BP (22.4+/-0.1 mm Hg) was not correlated with resting baroreflex sensitivity but was slightly correlated (r=0.2, P<0.001) with BP variability assessed either by standard deviation or by mid-frequency band spectral power. Our results suggested that a centrally mediated sympathetic stimulation overcame cardiac autonomic regulation and emphasized the role of the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the pressure response at the onset of the stressing stimulation. During the sustained sympathoexcitatory phase, the cardiac baroreflex blunts BP variations but at a lower sensitivity.

  12. Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Watanabe, Y; Kumagai, M; Fujimoto, K

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional effects of fish oil, which is rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been reported. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fish oil capsules on the hematological parameters of healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish oil consumption. Over a 4-week period, subjects were administered five fish oil or olive oil (placebo) capsules with every meal (1,260 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 540 mg docosahexaenoic acid/day). There was a 4-week washout period between the treatment phases. The results did not demonstrate a decrease in plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and whole-blood viscosity. Further, no changes in the fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were noted. These results suggested that the supplementation of fish oil might be effective only for those subjects who have a lower level of fish oil consumption. PMID:19255890

  13. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calcium (Ca) - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish) and Atlantic cod (lean fish) in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Methods Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3). Results Mean Ca absorption (± SEE) from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 ± 1.7%, 22.5 ± 1.7% and 27.4 ± 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3), respectively. Conclusion We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements. PMID:20646299

  14. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-01-29

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00-21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00-05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe--as compared to moderate--sleep restriction.

  15. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W.; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00–21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00–05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe—as compared to moderate—sleep restriction. PMID:26840322

  16. A comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of FSK0808 versus reference filgrastim after repeated subcutaneous administration in healthy Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Matsuguma, Kyoko; Matsuki, Shunji; Sakamoto, Kei; Shiramoto, Masanari; Nakagawa, Misato; Kimura, Miyuki; Irie, Shin; Kaneko, Daiki; Ohnishi, Akihiro

    2015-03-01

    FSK0808, a biosimilar of filgrastim, is a recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor developed by Fuji Pharmaceuticals and Mochida Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy Japanese men, comparing the number of CD34-positive cells (CD34(+) cells) after repeated subcutaneous administration of either FSK0808 or the reference filgrastim (Gran(®) ). As primary endpoints, we compared the maximum number of CD34(+) cells (CD34(+)  Cmax ) and the time to reach CD34(+) Cmax (CD34(+) tmax ). As secondary endpoints, we compared the area under the curve for the number of CD34(+) cells over time at the 410 hours time point (CD34(+) AUC0-410 ), the parameters used to calculate the pharmacodynamic index of the absolute neutrophil count, and the pharmacokinetic parameters. Regarding the CD34(+) Cmax and the CD34(+) AUC0-410 values, the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the differences between the mean values for each drug was within the range of log(0.8)-log(1.25). With respect to the differences in the median values between drugs, the ratio against the reference filgrastim median value in the 95% CI was within the range of ± 0.2 for the CD34(+) tmax value. From these results, we considered that these drugs display equivalent pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:27128214

  17. The development of essential fatty acid deficiency in healthy men fed fat-free diets intravenously and orally.

    PubMed

    Wene, J D; Connor, W E; DenBesten, L

    1975-07-01

    The hypothesis that clinical and biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA) might occur from the feeding of eucaloric, fat-free diets was tested in two experiments in healthy men. In Study I, eight men were given fat-free, eucaloric diets containing 80% of calories as glucose and 20% as amino acid hydrolysates by a constant drip over a 24-h period. The diets were fed in succession for periods of 2 wk each, either through a superior vena cava catheter or via a nasogastric tube. EFA deficiency was detected by decreases in linoleic acid and by the appearance of 5, 8, 11-eicosatrienoic acid in lipid fractions of plasma. Linoleic acid decreased significantly during 2 wk of the fat-free diet given intravenously from 48.8 to 9.8% (percent of total fatty acids) in cholesterol esters, from 21.2 to 3.2% in phospholipids, from 9.6 to 2.0% in free fatty acids, and from 14.1 to 2.6% in triglycerides. Eicosatrienoic acid, normally undetectable, appeared 0.6% in cholesterol esters, 2.5% in phospholipids, 0.2% in free fatty acids, and 2.3% in triglycerides. EFA deficiency occurred similarly during the nasogastric feeding. In Study II a subject received the same diet continuously by the nasogastric route for 10 days followed by a 24-h fast. He was then given the fat-free diet intermittently in three meals per day for 3 days. Finally, he was repleted with a diet containing 2.6% linoleic acid. By the 3rd day of the continuous nasogastric feeding, linoleic acid had fallen significantly and eicosatrienoic acid had appeared in plasma lipid fractions as in Study I. These findings were accentuated by day 10. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition did not change. Free fatty acid outflow from adipose tissue was presumably suppressed during the 10 days of continuous feeding. With increased free fatty acid outflow during fasting and intermittent feeding, linoleic acid rose and eicosatrienoic acid decreased. After 13 days of repletion with dietary linoleic acid, the EFA deficiency

  18. Healthy Men - Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Organization (PSO) Program Quality Measure Tools & Resources Tools & Resources Value Surveys on Patient Safety Culture Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture Nursing Home Survey ...

  19. Effects of immobilisation and caloric restriction on antioxidant parameters and T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, S.; Arendt, B. M.; Boese, A.; Juschus, M.; Schaefer, S.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Goerlich, R.

    Background: Astronauts are exposed to oxidative stress due to radiation and microgravity, which might impair immune functions. Effects of hypocaloric nutrition as often observed in astronauts on oxidative stress and immune functions are not clear. We investigated, if microgravity, simulated by 6 Head-down tilt (HDT) and caloric restriction (-25%, fat reduced) with adequate supply of micronutrients affect DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes, antioxidant parameters in plasma, and T-cell apoptosis. Material & Methods: 10 healthy male non-smokers were subjected to 4 different interventions (normocaloric diet or caloric restriction (CR) in upright position (UP) or HDT) for 14 days each (cross-over). DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes (Comet Assay), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and uric acid in plasma were measured before, after 5, 10, and 13 days of intervention, and after 2 days recovery. T-cell apoptosis (Annexin V binding test) was assessed before and after intervention. Results: Preliminary results show that only endogenous, but not ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks were reduced by CR compared to normocaloric diet. In upright position, endogenous DNA strand breaks decreased continuously during CR, reaching significance after recovery. During HDT, caloric restriction seems to counteract a temporary increase in DNA strand breaks observed in subjects receiving normocaloric diet. TEAC was reduced during HDT compared to UP in subjects under caloric restriction. An increase in plasma uric acid related to intervention occurred only after 5 days HDT in CR vs. normocaloric diet. T-cell apoptosis was not affected by any kind of intervention. Conclusion: Neither HDT nor CR with sufficient supply of micronutrients seem to induce oxidative stress or T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men. In contrast, CR might prevent endogenous DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes. As DNA-damage is a risk factor for carcinogenesis, protective effects of energy reduction are

  20. Endocrine Determinants of Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion during a Weight Cycle in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Karschin, Judith; Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Müller, Manfred J.; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Objective Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL) of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear. Methods In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2) followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF), 3wks of caloric restriction (CR) containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO) and 2wks of refeeding (RF) with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI), insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose) and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion) were assessed. Results IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05). Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05) whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05) and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only). After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant. Conclusion Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and

  1. Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Gayoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Jang-Ho; Lee, Hoon-Sang; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD). We took blood samples periodically until 240 min after alcohol consumption, and we investigated the blood profiles, alcohol levels, and acetaldehyde levels. We also measured anthropometric parameters, expiratory air-alcohol levels, and hangover symptoms. The plasma alcohol concentrations within the RGD group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min (p = 0.002), 45 min (p = 0.016), and 60 min (p = 0.009); the areas under the response curves revealed a positive effect of RGD (p = 0.051). Furthermore, the expiratory alcohol concentration was significantly lower after 30 min (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.065), and the areas under the response curves (p = 0.058) likewise revealed a positive effect of RGD. The plasma acetaldehyde level was significantly elevated at 120 min (p = 0.020), but the areas under the response curves showed a similar trend (p = 0.054). While the plasma acetaldehyde concentration slightly increased, the RGD showed positive effects on hangover symptoms. Considering the reduction of plasma alcohol levels, expiratory concentrations, and hangover severity, we conclude that red ginseng relieves the symptoms of alcohol hangover.

  2. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  3. Association of cigarette smoking with reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy adult men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Chen, Yi-Ling; Kantaria, Khyati N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in 192 healthy men 20-65 years old, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Exposure to cigarette smoking was classified three ways based on: 1) smoking status (yes vs. no); 2) the number of cigarettes per day (0, 1-10, > 10); and 3) pack-years (0, 1-10, 11-20, > 20). Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and total estradiol (TE) were measured. Semen quality, including concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology, were assessed. Mean levels of smoking, semen quality, and hormones were compared using the multiple linear regression, while controlling for possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), cadmium levels in seminal plasma, and alcohol consumption. Current smokers, who smoked 10 cigarettes per day, had a lower mean percentage of normal morphology (3.2% and 5.5% in nonsmokers, P = 0.040), and a higher mean level of TT (454.7 pmol/L and 439.8 pmol/L in nonsmokers, P = 0.048), as compared with nonsmokers. Also, current smokers at > 20 pack-year had a lower percentage of normal morphology and a lower mean level of TT as compared with nonsmokers; no significant difference was observed in LH, FSH, sperm concentration, vitality, and motility between smokers and nonsmokers based on the number of cigarette per day and the pack-year. Sperm vitality statistically correlated with FSH (β = -0.36 P = 0.015) and TE (β = 0.35, P = 0.018), while motility statistically correlated with TT (β = 0.228, P = 0.045). Normal morphology did not statistically correlated with all reproductive hormones.

  4. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and food effect of LB30870, a novel direct thrombin inhibitor, after single oral doses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kim, John; Lee, Sung-Hack; Boyce, Malcolm; Warrington, Steve; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Yoon, Suk Kyoon; Park, Hee Dong; Kim, Aeri

    2015-01-01

    1. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and food effect of LB30870, a new selective thrombin inhibitor, were studied in 16 healthy men. 2. A double-blind, placebo-controlled single ascending dose study was done at oral doses of 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg under fasting conditions. An open, randomized, balanced cross-over food effect study was done at 60 mg dose. Plasma and urinary concentrations were measured up to 48 h post-dose. Coagulation and thrombin activity markers were measured at selected time points. 3. Cmax of LB30870 was at 1.3-3.0 h post-dose with a mean apparent terminal half-life (t1/2) of 2.8-4.1 h. AUC after doses above 15 mg appeared greater than dose-proportional. In fed state, AUC showed 80% reduction relative to fasting condition. 4. At doses 60 and 120 mg, peak activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively, from baseline. The aPTT and international normalized ratio (INR) were concentration-dependent, with less within-individual variability than ecarin clotting time (ECT), prothrombin time (PT), or thrombin time (TT). 5. Single oral doses of LB30870 up to 240 mg were well tolerated. The food effect must be overcome if LB30870 is to be used as an oral anti-coagulant. PMID:25673087

  5. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable.

  6. The effects of eating marine- or vegetable-fed farmed trout on the human plasma proteome profiles of healthy men.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Maria L; Lametsch, René; Bügel, Susanne; Jessen, Flemming; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-02-28

    Most human intervention studies have examined the effects on a subset of risk factors, some of which may require long-term exposure. The plasma proteome may reflect the underlying changes in protein expression and activation, and this could be used to identify early risk markers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of regular fish intake on the plasma proteome. We recruited thirty healthy men aged 40 to 70 years, who were randomly allocated to a daily meal of chicken or trout raised on vegetable or marine feeds. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 weeks of intervention, and after the removal of the twelve most abundant proteins, plasma proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots < 66 kDa with a pI > 4·3 visualised by silver staining were matched by two-dimensional imaging software. Within-subject changes in spots were compared between the treatment groups. Differentially affected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight/time of flight MS and the human Swiss-Prot database. We found 23/681 abundant plasma protein spots, which were up- or down-regulated by the dietary treatment (P < 0·05, q < 0·30), and eighteen of these were identified. In each trout group, ten spots differed from those in subjects given the chicken meal, but only three of these were common, and only one spot differed between the two trout groups. In both groups, the affected plasma proteins were involved in biological processes such as regulation of vitamin A and haem transport, blood fibrinolysis and oxidative defence. Thus, regular fish intake affects the plasma proteome, and the changes may indicate novel mechanisms of effect.

  7. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men.

    PubMed

    Krzemiński, K; Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E') to late (A') diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E'/A') and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E' ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  8. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable. PMID:26834381

  9. Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Gayoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Jang-Ho; Lee, Hoon-Sang; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD). We took blood samples periodically until 240 min after alcohol consumption, and we investigated the blood profiles, alcohol levels, and acetaldehyde levels. We also measured anthropometric parameters, expiratory air-alcohol levels, and hangover symptoms. The plasma alcohol concentrations within the RGD group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min (p = 0.002), 45 min (p = 0.016), and 60 min (p = 0.009); the areas under the response curves revealed a positive effect of RGD (p = 0.051). Furthermore, the expiratory alcohol concentration was significantly lower after 30 min (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.065), and the areas under the response curves (p = 0.058) likewise revealed a positive effect of RGD. The plasma acetaldehyde level was significantly elevated at 120 min (p = 0.020), but the areas under the response curves showed a similar trend (p = 0.054). While the plasma acetaldehyde concentration slightly increased, the RGD showed positive effects on hangover symptoms. Considering the reduction of plasma alcohol levels, expiratory concentrations, and hangover severity, we conclude that red ginseng relieves the symptoms of alcohol hangover. PMID:24458173

  10. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men

    PubMed Central

    Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E’) to late (A’) diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E’/A’) and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  11. The effects of eating marine- or vegetable-fed farmed trout on the human plasma proteome profiles of healthy men.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Maria L; Lametsch, René; Bügel, Susanne; Jessen, Flemming; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-02-28

    Most human intervention studies have examined the effects on a subset of risk factors, some of which may require long-term exposure. The plasma proteome may reflect the underlying changes in protein expression and activation, and this could be used to identify early risk markers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of regular fish intake on the plasma proteome. We recruited thirty healthy men aged 40 to 70 years, who were randomly allocated to a daily meal of chicken or trout raised on vegetable or marine feeds. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 weeks of intervention, and after the removal of the twelve most abundant proteins, plasma proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots < 66 kDa with a pI > 4·3 visualised by silver staining were matched by two-dimensional imaging software. Within-subject changes in spots were compared between the treatment groups. Differentially affected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight/time of flight MS and the human Swiss-Prot database. We found 23/681 abundant plasma protein spots, which were up- or down-regulated by the dietary treatment (P < 0·05, q < 0·30), and eighteen of these were identified. In each trout group, ten spots differed from those in subjects given the chicken meal, but only three of these were common, and only one spot differed between the two trout groups. In both groups, the affected plasma proteins were involved in biological processes such as regulation of vitamin A and haem transport, blood fibrinolysis and oxidative defence. Thus, regular fish intake affects the plasma proteome, and the changes may indicate novel mechanisms of effect. PMID:25622825

  12. The Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Effects of LGD-4033, a Novel Nonsteroidal Oral, Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Basaria, Shehzad; Collins, Lauren; Dillon, E. Lichar; Orwoll, Katie; Storer, Thomas W.; Miciek, Renee; Ulloor, Jagadish; Zhang, Anqi; Eder, Richard; Zientek, Heather; Gordon, Gilad; Kazmi, Syed; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Background. Concerns about potential adverse effects of testosterone on prostate have motivated the development of selective androgen receptor modulators that display tissue-selective activation of androgenic signaling. LGD-4033, a novel nonsteroidal, oral selective androgen receptor modulator, binds androgen receptor with high affinity and selectivity. Objectives. To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects of ascending doses of LGD-4033 administered daily for 21 days on lean body mass, muscle strength, stair-climbing power, and sex hormones. Methods. In this placebo-controlled study, 76 healthy men (21–50 years) were randomized to placebo or 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg LGD-4033 daily for 21 days. Blood counts, chemistries, lipids, prostate-specific antigen, electrocardiogram, hormones, lean and fat mass, and muscle strength were measured during and for 5 weeks after intervention. Results. LGD-4033 was well tolerated. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. Frequency of adverse events was similar between active and placebo groups. Hemoglobin, prostate-specific antigen, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, or QT intervals did not change significantly at any dose. LGD-4033 had a long elimination half-life and dose-proportional accumulation upon multiple dosing. LGD-4033 administration was associated with dose-dependent suppression of total testosterone, sex hormone–binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. follicle-stimulating hormone and free testosterone showed significant suppression at 1.0-mg dose only. Lean body mass increased dose dependently, but fat mass did not change significantly. Hormone levels and lipids returned to baseline after treatment discontinuation. Conclusions. LGD-4033 was safe, had favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and increased lean body mass even during this short period without change in prostate-specific antigen. Longer randomized trials should

  13. A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole induces significant cardiac autonomic responses in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Cristiane M; Navega, Marcelo T; Abreu, Luiz C; Ferreira, Celso; Cardoso, Marco A; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ribeiro, Vivian L; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Flexible poles can provide rapid eccentric and concentric muscle contractions. Muscle vibration is associated with a "tonic vibration reflex” that is stimulated by a sequence of rapid muscle stretching, activation of the muscle spindles and stimulation of a response that is similar to the myotatic reflex. Literature studies analyzing the acute cardiovascular responses to different exercises performed with this instrument are lacking. We investigated the acute effects of exercise with flexible poles on the heart period in healthy men. METHOD: The study was performed on ten young adult males between 18 and 25 years old. We evaluated the heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains. The subjects remained at rest for 10 min. After the rest period, the volunteers performed the exercises with the flexible poles. Immediately after the exercise protocol, the volunteers remained seated at rest for 30 min and their heart rate variability was analyzed. RESULTS: The pNN50 was reduced at 5-10 and 15-20 min after exercise compared to 25-30 min after exercise (p = 0.0019), the SDNN was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to at rest and 0-10 min after exercise (p = 0.0073) and the RMSSD was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-15 min after exercise (p = 0.0043). The LF in absolute units was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-20 min after exercise (p = 0.0184). CONCLUSION: A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole reduced the heart rate variability and parasympathetic recovery was observed approximately 30 min after exercise. PMID:25318090

  14. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    PubMed Central

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. Methods We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was used as the statistical model. Results During 53,302 person-years of observation, 571 participants were hospitalized for infection. Similarly, during 26,125 person-years of observation, 7,276 participants filled a prescription of antimicrobials. LGI was associated with increased risk of hospital-based treatment for infection only among men (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–2.34) and specifically infections were abscesses and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Similarly, LGI was associated with the overall use of antimicrobials among men, and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin and broad-spectrum antimicrobials for treatment of urinary tract infections. The difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Conclusions In a large cohort of healthy individuals, LGI was associated with an increased risk of infection among healthy male blood donors. PMID:27701463

  15. Unusually low prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples from infertile men and healthy controls: a prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Plecko, Vanda; Zele-Starcevic, Lidija; Tripkovic, Vesna; Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana; Plesko, Sanja; Marekovic, Ivana; Jensen, Jorgen Skov

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect Mycoplasma genitalium in urine samples of infertile men and men without any signs of infection in order to investigate whether M. genitalium and other genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp) are found more often in urine samples of infertile men than in asymptomatic controls and to determine resistance to macrolides. Methods The study included first void urine samples taken from 145 infertile men and 49 men with no symptoms of urethritis. M. genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were detected by commercial PCR. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by microscopy and culture. M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp were detected by culture. M. genitalium was detected by in-house conventional and real-time PCR. Results Two M. genitalium positive samples were found among samples obtained from infertile men. All asymptomatic men were M. genitalium negative. Macrolide resistance was not found in either of the two positive samples. Conclusions In comparison with reported data, an unusually low prevalence of M. genitalium was found in infertile men. The reasons for this unexpected result are not known; possibly, local demographic and social characteristics of the population influenced the result. Further studies to investigate M. genitalium in infertile and other groups of patients are needed. PMID:25157184

  16. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p < 0.001; peak insulin level: 370.4 ± 66.5 vs. 109.6 ± 21.5 pmol/l; t(14) = 4.563, p < 0.001) followed by a sharp decline in glycaemia to a nadir of 3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l (vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l at the corresponding time in the control condition; t(14) = -3.972, p = 0.001) after stopping the infusion. Despite this wide glycemic fluctuation in the glucose infusion condition subjective feelings of hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety.

  17. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p < 0.001; peak insulin level: 370.4 ± 66.5 vs. 109.6 ± 21.5 pmol/l; t(14) = 4.563, p < 0.001) followed by a sharp decline in glycaemia to a nadir of 3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l (vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l at the corresponding time in the control condition; t(14) = -3.972, p = 0.001) after stopping the infusion. Despite this wide glycemic fluctuation in the glucose infusion condition subjective feelings of hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety. PMID

  18. The effect of short-term use of testosterone enanthate on muscular strength and power in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Shane; Weatherby, Robert P; Deakin, Glen B; Meir, Rudi A; Coutts, Rosanne A; Zhou, Shi; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M

    2007-05-01

    Use of testosterone enanthate has been shown to significantly increase strength within 6-12 weeks of administration (2, 9), however, it is unclear if the ergogenic benefits are evident in less than 6 weeks. Testosterone enanthate is classified as a prohibited substance by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and its use may be detected by way of the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio (16). The two objectives of this study were to establish (a) if injection of 3.5 mg.kg(-1) testosterone enanthate once per week could increase muscular strength and cycle sprint performance in 3-6 weeks; and (b) if the WADA-imposed urinary T/E ratio of 4:1 could identify all subjects being administered 3.5 mg.kg(-1) testosterone enanthate. Sixteen healthy young men were match-paired and were assigned randomly in a double-blind manner to either a testosterone enanthate or a placebo group. All subjects performed a structured heavy resistance training program while receiving either testosterone enanthate (3.5 mg.kg(-1)) or saline injections once weekly for 6 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength measures and 10-second cycle sprint performance were monitored at the pre (week 0), mid (week 3), and post (week 6) time points. Body mass and the urinary T/E ratio were measured at the pre (week 0) and post (week 6) time points. When compared with baseline (pre), 1RM bench press strength and total work during the cycle sprint increased significantly at week 3 (p < 0.01) and week 6 (p < 0.01) in the testosterone enanthate group, but not in the placebo group. Body mass at week 6 was significantly greater than at baseline in the testosterone enanthate group (p < 0.01), but not in the placebo group. Despite the clear ergogenic effects of testosterone enanthate in as little as 3 weeks, 4 of the 9 subjects in the testosterone enanthate group ( approximately 44%) did not test positive to testosterone under current WADA urinary T/E ratio criteria.

  19. Effects of caffeine and stress on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in healthy men and women with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jeanette M; Rodrigues, Isabella M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2013-12-01

    The connection between caffeine and its potentially detrimental effects on blood markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are controversial. Most studies have focused on cholesterol as a putative mediator of the caffeine-CVD relationship. Other blood markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen have been understudied. We examined the effects of caffeine and psychological stress on these CVD markers in healthy, young men and women with a confirmed family history of hypertension. A total of 52 normotensive, healthy adults (26 men and 26 women) aged 18-29 years (21.4 ± 0.3) participated in a laboratory session to examine stress reactivity following caffeine consumption. All participants had normal cholesterol levels. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate, serum cortisol and CRP and plasma fibrinogen were collected. Men and women administered caffeine displayed an additional increase in systolic BP and cortisol response to the stressor (p < 0.05). Stress interacted with caffeine and sex to alter cortisol, fibrinogen and systolic BP but not CRP levels. These results may shed light on sex-specific pathways that associate caffeine with CVD. PMID:23504818

  20. Effects of caffeine and stress on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in healthy men and women with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jeanette M; Rodrigues, Isabella M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2013-12-01

    The connection between caffeine and its potentially detrimental effects on blood markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are controversial. Most studies have focused on cholesterol as a putative mediator of the caffeine-CVD relationship. Other blood markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen have been understudied. We examined the effects of caffeine and psychological stress on these CVD markers in healthy, young men and women with a confirmed family history of hypertension. A total of 52 normotensive, healthy adults (26 men and 26 women) aged 18-29 years (21.4 ± 0.3) participated in a laboratory session to examine stress reactivity following caffeine consumption. All participants had normal cholesterol levels. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate, serum cortisol and CRP and plasma fibrinogen were collected. Men and women administered caffeine displayed an additional increase in systolic BP and cortisol response to the stressor (p < 0.05). Stress interacted with caffeine and sex to alter cortisol, fibrinogen and systolic BP but not CRP levels. These results may shed light on sex-specific pathways that associate caffeine with CVD.

  1. 'It is safe to use if you are healthy': A discursive analysis of men's online accounts of ephedrine use.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Grogan, Sarah; Gough, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Ephedrine use in sport is a common practice among men. Less well understood is men's use of ephedrine as a slimming aid. Arguably fuelled by the 'war on obesity' and the drive for muscularity, the Internet has become awash with claims presenting ephedrine as safe. The use of this psychoactive substance can have acute health implications such as tachycardia, arrhythmias and cardiovascular disease. Given the tension between health risk and ephedrine-induced weight loss, how men justify their use of ephedrine becomes an important question. In particular, we wished to analyse how male users talked to others about ephedrine in discussions linked to an online version of a popular men's magazine. Because we were particularly interested in how men accounted for their ephedrine use, we used discourse analysis to examine their posts. In analysing the data, we noted that a 'community of practice' was constructed online categorising legitimate (and barred) users, emphasising the benefits of ephedrine and downplaying health-defeating side effects. Our analysis has clear implications for engaging men who use ephedrine in health promotion interventions.

  2. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Melnikovova, Ingrid; Fait, Tomas; Kolarova, Michaela; Fernandez, Eloy C.; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day) for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits. PMID:26421049

  3. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Melnikovova, Ingrid; Fait, Tomas; Kolarova, Michaela; Fernandez, Eloy C; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20-40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day) for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits. PMID:26421049

  4. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study.

    PubMed

    LeCheminant, James D; Christenson, Ed; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A

    2013-12-14

    Few experimental data are available to support the notion that reducing night-time eating changes total daily energy intake (EI) or body weight in healthy adults. The present study primarily examined the short-term effect of night eating restriction (NER) on daily EI in healthy young men. It secondarily examined body weight and moods associated with NER. Using a cross-over design, twenty-nine men (20·9 (sd 2·5) years; 24·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m²) initiated a 2-week NER intervention (elimination of EI from 19.00 to 06.00 hours) and a 2-week control condition, counterbalanced and separated by a 1-week washout period. EI and macronutrient intake were assessed using computerised, multiple-pass 24 h food recalls, body weight via a digital scale and mood using the Profile of Mood States survey. Of the twenty-nine participants, twenty-seven (93 %) completed all aspects of the study. During the NER condition, the participants consumed less total energy per d than during the control condition (10 125 v. 11 146 kJ/d; F= 6·41; P= 0·018). During the NER condition, no energy was reported consumed between 19.00 and 06.00 hours; however, during the control condition, the energy intake of participants was 2920 (sd 1347) kJ/d between 19.00 and 06.00 hours. There was a significant difference in weight change between the NER (-0·4 (sd 1·1) kg) and control (+0·6 (sd 0·9) kg) conditions (F= 22·68; P< 0·001). Differences in total mood score or mood subscales between the NER and control conditions were not apparent (P>0·05). These findings provide support for NER decreasing short-term EI in healthy young men.

  5. Consumption of wholemeal rye bread increases serum concentrations and urinary excretion of enterolactone compared with consumption of white wheat bread in healthy Finnish men and women.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, K S; Mazur, W M; Liukkonen, K H; Uehara, M; Poutanen, K S; Adlercreutz, H C; Mykkänen, H M

    2000-12-01

    Rye is an important source of plant lignans in Finland. In the present crossover trial we wanted to study the effect of rye bread as part of the usual diet on serum and urine enterolactone (ENL) concentrations in healthy volunteers. Eighteen men aged 43 (sem 2.0) years and twenty-one women aged 43 (sem 1.6) years consumed wholemeal rye bread and white wheat bread in random order for 4 weeks. The bread periods were separated by a 4 week wash-out period. The breads provided at least 20% of the daily energy intake. The mean intakes of rye bread were 219 (sem 14.6) and 162 (sem 5.3) g/d and those of wheat bread were 200 (sem 9.6) and 153 (sem 5.8) g/d for men and women respectively. Blood samples were collected from all subjects and three 24 h urine samples were collected from ten men and twelve women at the end of both bread periods for the determination of serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL. The mean serum ENL concentrations in both men and women at the beginning of baseline period and at the end of the rye-bread period remained constant and were significantly higher than those at the end of the wheat-bread period. Correspondingly, daily urinary ENL excretion increased significantly during the rye-bread period compared with the wheat-bread period and was 5- and 10-fold higher in men and women respectively in comparison with the amount of plant lignan precursors measured in the rye bread. These data indicate the presence of other precursors for ENL in rye which are not detected by the current method of measuring plant lignans in food. The possible role of fibre in enhancement of the formation of mammalian lignans from their plant precursors in the gut also remains to be determined.

  6. Vitamin C status is related to proinflammatory responses and impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy, college-aged lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Matos, Manuel D; Kawiecki, Diana; Ballard, Kevin; Guo, Yi; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2011-05-01

    Vitamin C supplementation has been suggested to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. However, no studies have examined the relationship between vitamin C status and vascular dysfunction in lean and obese individuals in the absence of supplementation. We examined whether vascular function is interrelated with vitamin C status and inflammation in healthy, college-aged lean and obese men with no history of dietary supplementation. A cross-sectional study was conducted during winter 2008 in lean and obese men aged 21±3 years (n=8/group). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured to determine vascular endothelial function. Plasma antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and thiols), inflammatory proteins (C-reactive protein [CRP], myeloperoxidase [MPO], and cytokines), and cellular adhesion molecules were measured. Participants also completed 3-day food records on the days preceding their vascular testing. Group differences were evaluated by t tests, and correlation coefficients were determined by linear regression. FMD was 21% lower (P<0.05) in obese men. They also had 51% lower vitamin C intakes and 38% lower plasma vitamin C concentrations. Obese men had greater plasma concentrations of CRP, MPO, inflammatory cytokines, and cellular adhesion molecules. Participants' CRP and MPO were each inversely related (P<0.05) to FMD (r=-0.528 and -0.625) and plasma vitamin C (r=-0.646 and -0.701). These data suggest that low vitamin C status is associated with proinflammatory responses and impaired vascular function in lean and obese men. Additional study is warranted to determine whether improving dietary vitamin C intakes from food attenuate vascular dysfunction.

  7. The healthy men study: an evaluation of exposure to disinfection by-products in tap water and sperm quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Chlorination of drinking water generates disinfection by-products (DBPs), which have been shown to disrupt spermatogenesis in rodents at high doses, suggesting that DBPs could pose a reproductive risk to men. In this study we assessed DBP exposure and testicular toxic...

  8. "Healthy Men" and High Mortality: Contributions from a Population-Based Study for the Gender Paradox Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Tássia Fraga; Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Background Inequalities between men and women in morbidity and mortality show a contrast, which has been called gender paradox. Most studies evaluating this paradox were conducted in high-income countries and, until now, few investigations have been performed in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of inequalities between adult men and women in several dimensions: demographic and socioeconomic, health behaviors, morbidity, use of health services and mortality. Methods The data were obtained from population-based household survey carried out in Campinas (Campinas Health Survey 2008/09) corresponding to 957 people, and data from the Mortality Information System (MIS) between 2009 and 2011. Prevalences and prevalence ratios were analyzed in order to verify the differences between men and women regarding socioeconomic and demographic variables, health behaviors, morbidities and consultations in the last two weeks. Mortality rates and the ratio between coefficients considering the underlying causes of death were calculated. Results Women had a greater disadvantage in socioeconomic indicators, chronic diseases diagnosed by a health professional and referred health problems as well as make more use of health services, while men presented higher frequency of most unhealthy behaviors and excessive mortality for all causes investigated. Conclusions The findings contribute to the discussion of gender paradox and demonstrate the need to employ health actions that consider the differences between men and women in the various health dimensions analyzed. The premature male mortality from preventable causes was outstanding, making clear the need for more effective prevention and health promotion directed to this segment of the population. PMID:26641245

  9. Gln27Glu polymorphism of the beta2 adrenergic receptor gene in healthy Japanese men is associated with the change of fructosamine level caused by exercise.

    PubMed

    Kahara, Toshio; Hayakawa, Tetsuo; Nagai, Yukihiro; Shimizu, Akiko; Takamura, Toshinari

    2004-06-01

    Adrenaline plays a major role in the maintenance of blood glucose level by promoting glycogenolysis during prolonged exercise predominantly via the beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR). Because beta2ARs are mainly present in the muscle and liver, beta2AR gene polymorphism may affect changes in glucose metabolism caused by exercise. We, therefore, investigated the effect of beta2AR gene polymorphism on glucose metabolism in healthy Japanese men. The study group consisted of 124 unrelated healthy Japanese men who were aged 21-69 years (mean +/- S.D.: 45.3+/-11.7). They participated in an exercise program which was defined as low-moderate intensity at 20-60min per day, 2-3 days per week for 3 months. The genotype of Gln27Gln was detected in 109 subjects (87.9%), of Gln27Glu in 15 subjects (12.1%) and of Glu27Glu in none, and that of Arg16Arg, Arg16Gly and Gly16Gly in 32 (25.8%), 79 (63.7%) and 13 subjects (10.5%), respectively. There was no association between these polymorphisms and the metabolic characteristics at baseline. The change in fructosamine level as a result of exercise showed that the carrier of the Glu allele had a better response to exercise than the non-carrier. In conclusion, Gln27Glu polymorphism was associated with the change in fructosamine level resulting from exercise, but not Arg16Gly polymorphism.

  10. Is the intention to quit smoking influenced by other heart-healthy lifestyle habits in 30- to 60-year-old men?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M N; Béland, F; Otis, J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether the intention to quit smoking was associated with other lifestyle habits healthy for the heart, namely a low-fat diet and regular exercise, using variables suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Self-administered postal questionnaires were sent to 3,200 men 30 to 60 years of age residing in Laval, Quebec. With a response rate of 70.9%, 671 respondents (29.6%) were smokers. A significant proportion (43%) had all three risk behaviors--smoking, a high-fat diet, and sedentariness, and 42% had two--smoking and one of the other behaviors. The remaining had a single risk behavior, namely smoking. Regression analysis suggested that a healthy diet and exercise had no significant influence on the intention to quit smoking. However, men who had a stronger intention to quit smoking than others had a more favorable attitude toward the behavior, a stronger perception of approval in achieving it on the part of important referents, stronger perceived behavioral control, and were among those who smoked fewer cigarettes per day, but had made more attempts to quit. These results can assist in designing better heart-health intervention programs for this high-risk population.

  11. Parabens in urine, serum and seminal plasma from healthy Danish men determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Parabens are used as anti-microbial preservatives in a range of consumer products, especially in cosmetics. In vitro and animal studies have shown weak estrogenic and other endocrine disrupting effects of parabens, including reduced testosterone levels in exposed male rats. The knowledge of paraben exposure, distribution and excretion in humans is limited. In this study we determined the concentration of five parabens; methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben in urine, serum and seminal plasma samples from 60 healthy Danish men. To conduct the study a sensitive and specific method using LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of the five parabens was developed for all three different matrices. Highest concentrations of the parabens were found in urine, wherein methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl- and n-butyl parabens were measurable in 98%, 80%, 98% and 83% of the men, respectively. Benzyl paraben was only measurable in urine from 7% of the men. Methyl- and n-propyl parabens were also measurable in the majority of serum and seminal plasma samples, whereas the other parabens could only be detected in some of the samples. In all the three matrices significant correlations between the parabens were seen. Furthermore, urinary paraben concentrations correlate to the paraben concentrations in both serum and seminal plasma.

  12. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Methods Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. Trial Registration NCT: NCT01343342 PMID:23398686

  13. Variation in the UCP2-UCP3 gene cluster predicts the development of type 2 diabetes in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Gable, David R; Stephens, Jefferey W; Cooper, Jackie A; Miller, George J; Humphries, Steve E

    2006-05-01

    The impact of the UCP2 -866G>A and UCP3 -55C>T variants on prospective risk of type 2 diabetes was examined over 15 years in 2,936 healthy middle-aged men (mean age 56 years). Conversion to diabetes (n = 169) was associated with higher BMI, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and C-reactive protein. The hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes of a BMI >30 kg/m(2) was 3.96 (95% CI 2.87-5.47). Homozygosity for the UCP2A or UCP3T alleles accelerated the onset of diabetes, with significant differences in risk of diabetes at 10 years (HR [95% CI] UCP2AA vs. GA+GG 1.94 [1.18-3.19], P = 0.009; UCP3TT vs. CC+ CT 2.06 [1.06-3.99], P = 0.03) but less so at 15 years (UCP2AA 1.42 [0.92-2.19], P = 0.1; UCP3TT 1.57 [0.87-2.04], P = 0.13). Men who were homozygous for both UCP2AA and UCP3TT (1.5% of men) had a risk for diabetes at 10 years of 4.20 (1.70-10.37), P = 0.002. These genotype effects were additive with obesity, and men with a BMI >30 kg/m(2) and this genotype combination had a 10-year risk of diabetes of 19.23 [5.63-63.69], P < 0.0001. Functional promoter variants UCP2 and UCP3 increase the prospective risk of diabetes. Although the mechanism of the UCP2 effect is likely to be caused by increased expression in the pancreas and subsequent reduced insulin secretion, the mechanism of the UCP3 effect is currently unknown. Both effects are exacerbated by obesity.

  14. Acute Exposure to Stress Improves Performance in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Spatial Learning Tasks in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,…

  15. Differential Age-related Changes in Bone Geometry between the Humerus and the Femur in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Allen, Matti D; McMillan, S Jared; Klein, Cliff S; Rice, Charles L; Marsh, Greg D

    2012-04-01

    Muscle pull and weight-bearing are key mechanical determinants of bone geometry which is an important feature of bone strength that declines with adult aging. However, the relative importance of these determinants in young and old adults has not been evaluated systematically. To differentiate the influence of each type of mechanical loading we compared humeral and femoral bone shaft geometry and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the arm and thigh muscles in young and old men. Contiguous transverse MRI (Siemens 1.5T) scans of the arm and thigh were made in 10 young men (21.9 ± 1.0 years) and 10 old men (78.1 ± 4.9 years). Image analysis yielded total (TA), cortical (CA) and medullary (MA) CSA of the humeral and femoral shafts, as well as muscle CSA of the corresponding regions of the arm and thigh. Humeral CA was significantly greater in the young, whereas humeral and femoral MA were significantly greater in the older group. Significant correlations were found between arm muscle CSA and humeral CA (r = 0.73); between thigh muscle CSA and femoral CA (r = 0.69); and between body mass and femoral CA (r = 0.63) and TA (r = 0.55). Moderate correlations between muscle CSA and CA suggest that muscle pull is an important determinant of bone geometry. The significant difference observed between young and old in humeral, but not femoral CA, and the correlation between body mass and femoral, but not humeral cortical area, suggests that weight-bearing attenuates bone loss associated with adult aging.

  16. Excessive dietary phosphorus intake impairs endothelial function in young healthy men: a time- and dose-dependent study.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Tamae; Shuto, Emi; Ogawa, Mariko; Ohya, Miho; Nakanishi, Misaki; Masuda, Masashi; Katsumoto, Misaki; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Sakai, Tohru; Takeda, Eiji; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Taketani, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus (P) has been speculated to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we performed a double-blinded crossover study to investigate the time- and dose-dependent effects of dietary P intake on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were given meals containing 400, 800, and 1,200 mg P (P400, P800, and P1200 meals, respectively) with at least 7 days between doses. There were no differences in nutritional composition among the experimental diets except for P content. Blood biochemistry data and flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) of the brachial artery were measured while fasted, at 0 h, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h after meal ingestion, and the next morning while fasted. The P800 and P1200 meals significantly increased serum P levels at 1-4 h after ingestion. A significant decrease in %FMD was observed between 1-4 h,while the P400 meal did not affect %FMD. We observed no differences among meals in serum P levels or %FMD the next morning. A significant negative correlation was observed between %FMD and serum P. These results indicate that excessive dietary P intake can acutely impair endothelial function in healthy people.

  17. Determinants of Aspirin Metabolism in Healthy Men and Women: Effects of Dietary Inducers of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Saracino, Misty R.; Makar, Karen W.; Thomas, Sushma S.; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Levy, Lisa; Schwarz, Yvonne; Bigler, Jeannette; Potter, John D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Interindividual variation in aspirin (ASA) metabolism is attributed to concomitant use of drugs or alcohol, urine pH, ethnicity, sex, and genetic variants in UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). Little is known about the effects of diet. Methods We evaluated cross-sectionally whether urinary excretion of ASA and its metabolites [salicylic acid (SA), salicyluric acid (SUA) phenolic glucuronide (SUAPG), salicylic acid acyl glucuronide (SAAG) and salicylic acid phenolic glucuronide (SAPG)] differed by UGT1A6 genotype and dietary factors shown to induce UGT. Following oral treatment with 650 mg ASA, urine was collected over 8 h in 264 men and 264 women (21–45 years old). Results There were statistically significant differences in metabolites excreted between sexes and ethnicities. Men excreted more SUA; women more ASA (p = 0.03), SA, SAAG and SAPG (p ≤ 0.001 for all). Compared to Caucasians, Asians excreted more ASA, SA and SAAG, and less SUA and SUAPG (p ≤ 0.03 for all); African-Americans excreted more SAAG and SAPG and less SUA (p ≤ 0.04). There was no effect of UGT1A6 genotypes. Increased ASA and decreased SUAPG excretion was observed with increased servings of vegetables (p = 0.008), specifically crucifers (p = 0.05). Conclusion Diet may influence the pharmacokinetics of ASA, but effects may be through modulation of glycine conjugation rather than glucuronidation. PMID:21625173

  18. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C; Castillo, S

    2002-12-01

    This study was a 12-week double blind placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with placebo. The study aimed to demonstrate if effect of Maca on subjective report of sexual desire was because of effect on mood or serum testosterone levels. Men aged 21-56 years received Maca in one of two doses: 1,500 mg or 3,000 mg or placebo. Self-perception on sexual desire, score for Hamilton test for depression, and Hamilton test for anxiety were measured at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. An improvement in sexual desire was observed with Maca since 8 weeks of treatment. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were not different in men treated with Maca and in those treated with placebo (P:NS). Logistic regression analysis showed that Maca has an independent effect on sexual desire at 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, and this effect is not because of changes in either Hamilton scores for depression or anxiety or serum testosterone and oestradiol levels. In conclusion, treatment with Maca improved sexual desire.

  19. Effects of soy or milk protein during a high-fat feeding challenge on oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipids in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Christina G; Brown, Blakely D; Dufner, Danielle; Thorland, William G

    2006-03-01

    Soy isoflavones may impede atherogenic processes associated with cardiovascular disease. Research suggests that the postprandial generation of TG-rich remnants contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current study was to determine if 39 g soy (85 mg aglycone isoflavones, treatment) compared with 40 g milk protein (0 mg aglycone isoflavones, control) in combination with a high-fat meal can modify postprandial, atherogenic-associated events and biomarkers for oxidative stress, inflammation, and thrombosis. Fifteen healthy men (20-47 yr) participated in a double-blind cross-over meal-challenge study occurring on two nonconsecutive days. The study meals consisted of two high-fat apple muffins consumed with either a soy or milk shake (229 mL, 41% fat, 41% carbohydrate, and 18% protein). Blood samples were obtained at baseline (fasted) and hours two, four, and six postprandial. Plasma TG significantly increased in both treatment and control meal challenges compared with baseline. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between treatment (soy) and control (milk) for ex vivo copper-induced LDL oxidation, serum C-reactive protein, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum fibrinogen, or plasma lipids (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, TG). IL-6-concentrations significantly decreased as a function of time during either meal challenge (P = 0.005). These data suggest that consumption of soy or milk protein in conjunction with a high-fat meal does not acutely modify postprandial oxidative stress, inflammation, or plasma lipid concentrations in young, healthy men.

  20. Associations between pQCT-based fat and muscle area and density and DXA-based total and leg soft tissue mass in healthy women and men

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Thiebaud, Robert S; Chen, Zhaojing; Karabulut, Murat; Kim, So Jung; Bemben, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) can be used for muscle and fat area and density assessments. These may independently influence muscle and fat mass measurements from Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Objective To determine associations between pQCT-derived soft tissue density and area measures and DXA-derived soft tissue mass. Methods Linear regression models were developed based on BMI and calf fat and muscle cross-sectional area (FCSA and MCSA) and density measured by pQCT in healthy women (n=76) and men (n=82) aged 20–59 years. Independent variables for these models were leg and total bone-free lean mass (BFLM) and fat mass (FM) measured by DXA. Results Sex differences (p<0.01) were found in both muscle (Mean±SE: Women: 78.6±0.4; Men: 79.9 ± 0.2 mg/cm3) and fat (Women: 0.8±0.4 Men: 9.1±0.6 mg/cm3) density. BMI, fat density, and age (R2=0.86, p<0.01) best accounted for the variability in total FM. FCSA, BMI, and fat density explained the variance in leg FM (R2=0.87, p<0.01). MCSA and muscle density explained the variance in total (R2=0.65, p<0.01) and leg BFLM (R2=0.70, p<0.01). Conclusion Calf muscle and fat area and density independently predict lean and fat tissue mass. PMID:25524966

  1. High Protein Pasta is Not More Satiating than High Fiber Pasta at a Lunch Meal, Nor Does it Decrease Mid-Afternoon Snacking in Healthy Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Korczak, Renee; Timm, Derek; Ahnen, Rylee; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-09-01

    This study compared satiety after high protein pasta (16 g protein, 6 g fiber), high fiber pasta (11 g protein, 8 g fiber) or control pasta (11 g protein, 6 g fiber) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Participants were 36 healthy and men and women from the University of Minnesota campus. Fasted men and women ate calorie controlled, but macronutrient different pastas at 12:00 pm along with 500 mL of water. The primary outcome was satiety assessed by Visual Analogue Scales at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min daily after consuming the pastas. Secondary outcomes were calories consumed at an ad libitum snack at 3:00 pm, calories from food intake, gastrointestinal tolerance, and palatability. No differences were found among the pasta treatments for satiety, snacking, or gastrointestinal tolerance. Men ate significantly more calories for the rest of the (P = 0.007) after the high protein pasta versus the high fiber pasta (1701 ± 154 compared with 1083 ± 154) with control pasta being intermediate to the other treatments. No significant differences were found for gastrointestinal tolerance, but the palatability ratings showed the high protein pasta was less tasty (P = 0.03) and less pleasant (P = 0.01) than the other 2 pastas. Satisfaction was positively associated with pleasantness and negatively associated with aftertaste. Our results do not support the idea that high protein or high fiber pasta produces a greater satiety response compared to pasta with lower amounts of either nutrient. It is likely that since pasta is already a very satiating food, the subjects were unable to differentiate between the 3 conditions. PMID:27474885

  2. High Protein Pasta is Not More Satiating than High Fiber Pasta at a Lunch Meal, Nor Does it Decrease Mid-Afternoon Snacking in Healthy Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Korczak, Renee; Timm, Derek; Ahnen, Rylee; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-09-01

    This study compared satiety after high protein pasta (16 g protein, 6 g fiber), high fiber pasta (11 g protein, 8 g fiber) or control pasta (11 g protein, 6 g fiber) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Participants were 36 healthy and men and women from the University of Minnesota campus. Fasted men and women ate calorie controlled, but macronutrient different pastas at 12:00 pm along with 500 mL of water. The primary outcome was satiety assessed by Visual Analogue Scales at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min daily after consuming the pastas. Secondary outcomes were calories consumed at an ad libitum snack at 3:00 pm, calories from food intake, gastrointestinal tolerance, and palatability. No differences were found among the pasta treatments for satiety, snacking, or gastrointestinal tolerance. Men ate significantly more calories for the rest of the (P = 0.007) after the high protein pasta versus the high fiber pasta (1701 ± 154 compared with 1083 ± 154) with control pasta being intermediate to the other treatments. No significant differences were found for gastrointestinal tolerance, but the palatability ratings showed the high protein pasta was less tasty (P = 0.03) and less pleasant (P = 0.01) than the other 2 pastas. Satisfaction was positively associated with pleasantness and negatively associated with aftertaste. Our results do not support the idea that high protein or high fiber pasta produces a greater satiety response compared to pasta with lower amounts of either nutrient. It is likely that since pasta is already a very satiating food, the subjects were unable to differentiate between the 3 conditions.

  3. Genetic Variations in the Androgen Receptor Are Associated with Steroid Concentrations and Anthropometrics but Not with Muscle Mass in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    De Naeyer, Hélène; Bogaert, Veerle; De Spaey, Annelies; Roef, Greet; Vandewalle, Sara; Derave, Wim; Taes, Youri; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship between serum testosterone (T) levels, muscle mass and muscle force in eugonadal men is incompletely understood. As polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) gene cause differences in androgen sensitivity, no straightforward correlation can be observed between the interindividual variation in T levels and different phenotypes. Therefore, we aim to investigate the relationship between genetic variations in the AR, circulating androgens and muscle mass and function in young healthy male siblings. Design 677 men (25–45 years) were recruited in a cross-sectional, population-based sibling pair study. Methods Relations between genetic variation in the AR gene (CAGn, GGNn, SNPs), sex steroid levels (by LC-MS/MS), body composition (by DXA), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (by pQCT), muscle force (isokinetic peak torque, grip strength) and anthropometrics were studied using linear mixed-effect modelling. Results Muscle mass and force were highly heritable and related to age, physical activity, body composition and anthropometrics. Total T (TT) and free T (FT) levels were positively related to muscle CSA, whereas estradiol (E2) and free E2 (FE2) concentrations were negatively associated with muscle force. Subjects with longer CAG repeat length had higher circulating TT, FT, and higher E2 and FE2 concentrations. Weak associations with TT and FT were found for the rs5965433 and rs5919392 SNP in the AR, whereas no association between GGN repeat polymorphism and T concentrations were found. Arm span and 2D:4D finger length ratio were inversely associated, whereas muscle mass and force were not associated with the number of CAG repeats. Conclusions Age, physical activity, body composition, sex steroid levels and anthropometrics are determinants of muscle mass and function in young men. Although the number of CAG repeats of the AR are related to sex steroid levels and anthropometrics, we have no evidence that these variations in the AR gene also

  4. Termination of dobutamine infusion causes transient rebound left heart diastolic dysfunction in healthy elderly women but not in men: a cardiac magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T; Madsen, Per L; Engstrøm, Thomas; Vejlstrup, Niels G

    2013-10-01

    Men and women are known to react differently to stress. Thus, stress cardiomyopathy almost solely strikes women. Stress cardiomyopathy is suggested to relate to sex differences in catecholamine reaction. Left heart function during dobutamine stress is well described, but sex-specific inotropic and lusitropic response to abrupt termination of dobutamine stress is not. We aimed to investigate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) function during and after dobutamine stress. We enrolled 20 healthy elderly subjects (60-70 yr, 10 females) and measured their LV and LA volumes throughout the cardiac cycle by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at rest, during dobutamine stress (15 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), 15 min after termination (T15), and 30 min after termination (T30) of dobutamine stress. We calculated LV ejection fractions, LV stroke volumes, LV peak filling rates, and LA passive, active, and conduit volumes. Sex differences were not observed at rest or during dobutamine stress. Compared with prestress values, at T15 a rebound decrease in LV peak filling rate was observed in women (-22 ± 3%, P < 0.001) but not in men. This was reflected in reduced LA passive emptying volume (-40 ± 3%, P < 0.001) and a corresponding increase in LA active emptying volume (36 ± 2%, P < 0.001). At T30 there were no differences between the sexes. We conclude that dobutamine causes greater stress to the female heart. This is revealed after termination of dobutamine stress where the left heart recovers in men, whereas women experience rebound LV stiffening with reduced diastolic relaxation. This is the first report of a sex-specific transient rebound phenomenon in cardiovascular response to catecholamines.

  5. Total deposition of ultrafine particles in the lungs of healthy men and women: experimental and theoretical results

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Inhaled ultrafine particles (UFP) may induce greater adverse respiratory effects than larger particles occurring in the ambient atmosphere. Due to this potential of UFP to act as triggers for diverse lung injuries medical as well as physical research has been increasingly focused on the exact deposition behavior of the particles in lungs of various probands. Main purpose of the present study was the presentation of experimental and theoretical data of total, regional, and local UFP deposition in the lungs of men and women. Methods Both experiments and theoretical simulations were carried out by using particle sizes of 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 µm [number median diameters (NMD)]. Inhalation of UFP took place by application of predefined tidal volumes (500, 750, and 1,000 mL) and respiratory flow rates (150, 250, 375, and 500 mL·s−1). For male subjects a functional residual capacity (FRC) of 3,911±892 mL was measured, whereas female probands had a FRC of 3,314±547 mL. Theoretical predictions were based on (I) a stochastic model of the tracheobronchial tree; (II) particle transport computations according to a random walk algorithm; and (III) empirical formulae for the description of UFP deposition. Results Total deposition fractions (TDF) are marked by a continuous diminution with increasing particle size. Whilst particles measuring 0.04 µm in size deposit in the respiratory tract by 40–70%, particles with a size of 0.10 µm exhibit deposition values ranging from 20% to 45%. Except for the largest particles studied here TDF of female probands are higher than those obtained for male probands. Differences between experimental and theoretical results are most significant for 0.10 µm particles, but never exceed 20%. Predictions of regional (extrathoracic, tracheobronchial, alveolar) UFP deposition show clearly that females tend to develop higher tracheobronchial and alveolar deposition fractions than males. This discrepancy is also confirmed by

  6. Seasonal differences in finger skin temperature and microvascular blood flow in healthy men and women are exaggerated in women with primary Raynaud's phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Gardner–medwin, J M; Macdonald, I A; Taylor, J Y; Riley, P H; Powell, R J

    2001-01-01

    Aims Patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (PRP) have more severe symptoms in the winter. The aetiology of this is more complex than simply increased vasoconstriction in response to the immediate ambient temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in skin temperature (Tsk), microvascular blood flow and responses to endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilators in healthy controls, and women with PRP under identical environmental temperatures but in different seasons. Methods Ten women with PRP were compared with age matched women (10) and men (10). Finger skin responses were recorded immediately on arrival, after stabilizing in a temperature regulated laboratory at 22–24 °C, and at matched warm (35 °C) and cold (15 °C) Tsk in the winter and summer. Baseline red blood cell flux (r.b.c. flux), and the change in flux in response to iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were recorded by laser Doppler fluxmetry at the warm and cold Tsk. Results Arrival Tsk were significantly cooler for all subjects during the winter (mean seasonal difference −2.6 °C, P < 0.0001), and markedly colder in subjects with PRP (mean seasonal difference −3.5 °C, P < 0.0005). Statistically significant seasonal differences persisted in all subjects at stable Tsk despite an identical laboratory temperature (mean difference 1.3 °C, P < 0.0001). To achieve comparable controlled finger Tsk a significantly colder local environment was required for male controls (mean of −2.1 °C, P < 0.0001), and a significantly warmer environment for subjects with PRP (mean of +2.4 °C, P < 0.0001) compared with female controls. This needed to be warmer in the winter, by a mean of 2.4 °C, than the summer for all subjects. Vasodilatation in response to ACh, but not SNP, was significantly smaller (P < 0.0001) in the PRP group compared with the female controls for all visits, with most of this difference arising in the winter visits (P < 0

  7. Differential effects of short-term fasting on pulsatile thyrotropin, gonadotropin, and alpha-subunit secretion in healthy men--a clinical research center study.

    PubMed

    Samuels, M H; Kramer, P

    1996-01-01

    In healthy subjects, short term fasting suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, with decreased serum levels of TSH and LH. However, effects of fasting on pulsatile release of TSH, LH, FSH, and alpha-subunit are less clear. Eleven healthy young men each underwent two 2-day studies: a baseline study during normal caloric intake and a fasting study during 56 h of caloric deprivation. During the final 24 h of each study, blood samples were drawn every 15 min for measurement of serum TSH, LH, FSH, and alpha-subunit pulses. Fifty-six hours of fasting caused a 50% suppression of mean TSH levels and TSH pulse amplitude, without altering TSH pulse frequency. Nocturnal TSH pulse amplitude decreased by 60%, with abolition of the usual nocturnal TSH surge. Fasting suppressed mean LH levels and LH pulse amplitude by 30%, without affecting LH pulse frequency. In contrast, mean FSH levels only decreased by 13%, without changes in FSH pulse parameters, whereas mean alpha-subunit levels and pulse amplitude decreased by 20%. These data show that short term fasting has a greater suppressive effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis than on the HPG axis. Within the HPG axis, FSH is more resistant to fasting-induced suppression than LH, implying discordant regulation of the two gonadotropins during nutritional deprivation. alpha-Subunit suppression during fasting appears to parallel that seen for LH.

  8. Circadian pattern of sleep, energy expenditure, and body temperature of young healthy men during the intermittent fasting of Ramadan.

    PubMed

    BaHammam, Ahmed; Alrajeh, Mohammad; Albabtain, Mohammad; Bahammam, Salman; Sharif, Munir

    2010-04-01

    We hypothesize that factors other than a sudden shift in eating habits contribute to delay of circadian rhythms during Ramadan. We assessed circadian changes during a baseline period (BL, 1 week before Ramadan), the first week (R1), and the second week (R2), of Ramadan, in six healthy Muslim young adults using portable armband physiological and activity sensor devices. All participants lived in an unconstrained environment and showed delayed sleep phase syndrome, so that they normally slept during the day and ate at night. During Ramadan, there was a further delay in the acrophase of skin temperature during Ramadan, indicating a shift in the circadian pattern of body temperature. Additionally, there was a delay in the peak of energy expenditure during R1 and R2. These results support our hypothesis that in addition to sudden shift in meal times, other factors may affect the sleep pattern and circadian rhythms during Ramadan.

  9. Reproducibility of near-infrared spectroscopy parameters measured during brachial artery occlusion and reactive hyperemia in healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Sébastien; Gayda, Mathieu; Gremeaux, Vincent; Juneau, Martin; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Nigam, Anil

    2012-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive technique evaluating microvascular function. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of NIRS parameters during reactive hyperemia induced by a 5 min brachial artery occlusion. Twenty-four healthy young males (mean 34+/-8 years old) had two microvascular function evaluations by NIRS over a 7 to 30-day period (mean 16+/-10 days). Intra-subject and inter-observer reproducibility were evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), and standard error of measurement (SEM%) for every parameter. Mean NIRS parameters did not differ between both evaluations. Reproducibility was greatest for muscle oxygen consumption (ICC: 0.84; CV: 6.51% SEM: 7.11%), time to basal O2Hb (ICC: 0.63, CV: 20.04%, SEM 27.22%), time to maximal O2Hb (ICC: 0.71; CV: 15.61% SEM: 19.27%), peak of O2Hb (ICC: 0.63, CV: 6.68%, SEM 8.53%), time to maximal tHb (ICC: 0.73, CV: 19,61%, SEM 24.56%) and area under the O2Hb and tHb curves (ICC: 0.68, CV: 16.15%, SEM 22.93% and ICC: 0.62, CV: 18.59%, SEM 26.64%, respectively). Moreover, inter-observer reproducibility ranged from excellent to perfect (ICC from 0.85 to 1.00) for every parameter. NIRS parameters during reactive hyperemia are highly reproducible which enables their repeated measurement to study microvascular function in healthy subjects.

  10. Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    de Roos, Nicole M; Schouten, Evert G; Scheek, Leo M; van Tol, Arie; Katan, Martijn B

    2002-12-01

    A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, suggesting that trans fats have stronger adverse effects than saturated fats. To investigate this further, we measured the activity of serum paraoxonase (PON1) in serum samples of the same volunteers after consumption of both diets. PON1 protects lipoproteins from oxidative damage, and higher PON1 activity appears to be related to lower cardiovascular disease risk. PON1 activity (mean +/- SD) was 195.9 +/- 108.9 U/L after 4 weeks of consuming a diet with 22.9% of energy (en%) from saturated fat and 184.5 +/- 99.3 U/L when 9.3 en% from saturated fat was replaced by trans fat (P =.006). Thus, replacement of dietary saturated fat by trans fat not only decreased serum HDL-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, but also decreased the activity of serum paraoxonase. Whether the changes in serum paraoxonase activity caused the changes in endothelial function needs to be further investigated.

  11. A Fit-Fat Index for Predicting Incident Diabetes in Apparently Healthy Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Susumu S; Lee, I-Min; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Ridouane, Yassine; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Blair, Steven N

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of combined cardiorespiratory fitness and waist-to-height ratio in the form of a fit-fat index on incident diabetes risk. Additionally, the independent predictive performance of cardiorespiratory fitness, waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index also were estimated and compared. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of 10,381 men who had a normal electrocardiogram and no history of major chronic disease at baseline from 1979 to 2005. Random survival forest models and traditional Cox proportional hazards models were used to predict diabetes at 5-, 10-, and 15-year incidence horizons. Results Overall, 4.8% of the participants developed diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for incidence risk demonstrated good discrimination using random survival forest models across fitness and fatness measures; Cox models were poor to fair. The differences between fitness and fatness measures across horizons were clinically negligible. Smoothed random survival forest estimates demonstrated the impact of each fitness and fatness measure on incident diabetes was intuitive and graded. Conclusions Although fitness and fatness measures showed a similar discriminative ability in predicting incident diabetes, unique to the study was the ability of the fit-fat index to demonstrate a better indication of incident risk when compared to fitness or fatness alone. A single index combining cardiorespiratory fitness and waist-to-height ratio may be more useful because it can indicate improvements in either or both of the measures. PMID:27340824

  12. Diet-induced changes in serum transaminase and triglyceride levels in healthy adult men. Role of sucrose and excess calories.

    PubMed

    Porikos, K P; Van Itallie, T B

    1983-10-01

    Serum transaminase levels were measured as part of a study on the physiologic control of food intake. Twenty-one men, 15 nonobese and six obese, were housed on a metabolic ward for 30 days where they received ad libitum a baseline diet of conventional foods containing 25 to 30 percent of total calories as sucrose for 18 days and a calorically diluted diet containing less than 10 percent sucrose for 12 days. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels rose significantly when subjects consumed the baseline diet and returned to their original levels on the calorically diluted aspartame-sweetened diet. Markedly abnormal transaminase levels developed in two subjects on the baseline diet and they had to be discharged from the study. Correlations between various components of the diet and enzyme changes suggested that both surplus calories and a high sucrose intake played a role in the elevation of enzyme levels. Serum triglyceride levels also showed a significant reduction when the subjects were switched from the baseline to the calorically diluted diet. In a second study designed to test systematically the role of sucrose on SGPT and SGOT levels and on serum triglyceride levels, six nonobese subjects received a carefully controlled liquid diet, relatively high in linoleic acid content, containing 50 percent of total calories as either sucrose or maltose. In comparison with the first study, sucrose had a smaller but still significant effect on the levels of both enzymes, but there was no significant effect on triglyceride levels.

  13. A Dose-Response Study of the Effects of Dietary Cholesterol on Fasting and Postprandial Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Henry N.; Karmally, Wahida; Siddiqui, Maliha; Holleran, Steve; Tall, Alan R.; Rumsey, Steven C.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Blaner, William S.; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Despite many previous studies, controversy remains concerning the effects of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In addition, the focus of previous studies has been fasting lipid and lipoprotein concentrations; there are no published studies with postprandial measurements. We studied the effects of four levels of dietary cholesterol intake on fasting lipid, lipoprotein, and apoprotein levels, as well as postprandial lipid levels, in a group of young, healthy men who were otherwise eating a low-fat, American Heart Association step 1 diet. Twenty young, healthy men completed a randomized, four-way crossover design study to test the effects of an American Heart Association step 1 diet containing 0, 1, 2, or 4 eggs per day. Dietary cholesterol ranged from 128 to 858 mg cholesterol per day. Each diet was eaten for 8 weeks, with a break between diets. Three fasting blood samples were obtained at the end of each diet period. In addition, blood samples were obtained just before and 2, 4, and 6 hours after ingestion of a standard lunch containing the various amounts of egg cholesterol. We also obtained blood 4 and 8 hours after the subjects ingested a standard, high-fat formula. Fasting plasma total cholesterol concentrations increased by 1.47 mg/dL (0.038 mmol/L) for every 100 mg dietary cholesterol added to the diet (P <.001). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increased in parallel. Responsiveness varied but appeared to be normally distributed. Fasting plasma apoprotein B concentrations increased approximately 10% between the 0- and 4-egg diets and were correlated with changes in total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Although there was a trend toward a greater response in men with an apoprotein E4 allele, this was not statistically significant. Fasting plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels were higher only on the 4-egg diet, and changes in cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels between the 0- and 4-egg diets correlated with

  14. Muscle Strength, Power, and Morphologic Adaptations After 6 Weeks of Compound vs. Complex Training in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Gloumis, Giorgos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Blazevich, Anthony J; Zaras, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of compound vs. complex resistance training on strength, high-speed movement performance, and muscle composition. Eighteen young men completed compound (strength and power sessions on alternate days) or complex training (strength and power sets within a single session) 3 times per week for 6 weeks using bench press, leg press, Smith machine box squat, and jumping exercises. Pre- and posttraining, jumping and throwing performance and maximum bench press, leg press, and Smith machine box squat strength were evaluated. The architecture of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Vastus lateralis morphology was assessed from muscle biopsies. Jumping (4 ± 3%) and throwing (9 ± 8%) performance increased only with compound training (p < 0.02). Bench press (5 vs. 18%), leg press (17 vs. 28%), and Smith machine box squat (27 vs. 35%) strength increased after both compound and complex training. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicle angle and gastrocnemius fascicle angle were increased with both compound and complex training. Gastrocnemius fascicle length decreased only after complex training (-11.8 ± 9.4%, p = 0.006). Muscle fiber cross-sectional areas increased only after complex training (p ≤ 0.05). Fiber type composition was not affected by either intervention. These results suggest that short-term strength and power training on alternate days is more effective for enhancing lower-limb and whole-body power, whereas training on the same day may induce greater increases in strength and fiber hypertrophy.

  15. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject's capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12-R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject's age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject's performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject's capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741

  16. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J.; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1–R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12–R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (Clinical

  17. The acute effects of different whole body vibration amplitudes on the endocrine system of young healthy men: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Marco; Leiper, John; Erskine, Julie; Milroy, Mark; Bell, Steve

    2006-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as an alternative form of exercise producing adaptive responses similar to that of resistance training. Very limited information is available on the effects of different vibration parameters on anabolic hormones. In this study, we compared the acute effects of different WBV amplitudes on serum testosterone (T) and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Nine healthy young recreationally active adult males (age 22 +/- 2 years, height 181 +/- 6.3 cm, weight 77.4 +/- 9.5 kg) voluntarily participated in this randomized controlled (cross-over design) study. The subjects performed 20 sets of 1 min each of WBV exercise in the following conditions: Non-vibration condition (control), low amplitude vibration [low (30 Hz, 1.5 mm peak-to-peak amplitude)] and high amplitude vibration [high (30 Hz, 3 mm peak-to-peak amplitude)]. Blood samples were collected before, after 10 sets, at the end (20th set) and after 24 h of the exercise bout. WBV exercise did not produce significant changes in serum T and IGF-1 either with low or high amplitude when compared with the control condition. The results of this study demonstrate that a single session of WBV exposure with a frequency of 30 Hz and amplitudes of 1.5 and 3 mm does not noticeably alter serum T and IGF-1 levels.

  18. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time. PMID:25297618

  19. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time.

  20. Dose-response study of healthy, heavily exercising men exposed to ozone at concentrations near the ambient air quality standard

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L.; Shamoo, D.A.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.; Venet, T.G.; Fischer, D.A.; Hackney, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    Twenty-four healthy, well-conditioned young adult male volunteers, free of asthma or clinical respiratory allergies, were exposed to purified air containing ozone (O3) at 0.16, 0.14, 0.12, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.00 part per million (ppm). Exposures were separated by 2-week intervals, occurred in random order, and lasted 2 hours each. Temperature was 32 +/- 1/sup 0/C and relative humidity was 38 +/- 3%, simulating Los Angeles area smog conditions. Subjects exercised 15 minutes of each half hour, attaining ventilation rates averaging 68 L/min (approximately 35 L/min per m2 body surface area). Lung function was measured pre-exposure and after 1 hr and 2 hr of exposure. Airway responsiveness to a cold-air challenge was measured immediately following the 2-hr exposure. Symptoms were recorded before, during, and for one-week periods following exposures. For the group as a whole, no meaningful untoward effects were found except for a mild typical respiratory irritant response after 2 hr exposure to 0.16 ppm O3. Two individual subjects showed possible responses at 0.14 ppm, and one of them also at 0.12 ppm. In comparison to some previous investigations, this study showed generally less response to O3. The comparative lack of response may relate to the favorable clinical status of the subjects, the pattern of exercise during exposure, or some other factor not yet identified.

  1. Caloric expenditure of aerobic, resistance, or combined high-intensity interval training using a hydraulic resistance system in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Paul H; Tai, Chih-Yin; Carson, Laura R; Joy, Jordan M; Mosman, Matt M; McCann, Tyler R; Crona, Kevin P; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-03-01

    Although exercise regimens vary in content and duration, few studies have compared the caloric expenditure of multiple exercise modalities with the same duration. The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure of single sessions of resistance, aerobic, and combined exercise with the same duration. Nine recreationally active men (age: 25 ± 7 years; height: 181.6 ± 7.6 cm; weight: 86.6 ± 7.5 kg) performed the following 4 exercises for 30 minutes: a resistance training session using 75% of their 1-repetition maximum (1RM), an endurance cycling session at 70% maximum heart rate (HRmax), an endurance treadmill session at 70% HRmax, and a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on a hydraulic resistance system (HRS) that included repeating intervals of 20 seconds at maximum effort followed by 40 seconds of rest. Total caloric expenditure, substrate use, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Caloric expenditure was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater when exercising with the HRS (12.62 ± 2.36 kcal·min), compared with when exercising with weights (8.83 ± 1.55 kcal·min), treadmill (9.48 ± 1.30 kcal·min), and cycling (9.23 ± 1.25 kcal·min). The average HR was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater with the HRS (156 ± 9 b·min), compared with that using weights (138 ± 16 b·min), treadmill (137 ± 5 b·min), and cycle (138 ± 6 b·min). Similarly, the average RPE was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher with the HRS (16 ± 2), compared with that using weights (13 ± 2), treadmill (10 ± 2), and cycle (11 ± 1). These data suggest that individuals can burn more calories performing an HIIT session with an HRS than spending the same amount of time performing a steady-state exercise session. This form of exercise intervention may be beneficial to individuals who want to gain the benefits of both resistance and cardiovascular training but have limited time to dedicate to exercise.

  2. Comparison of physiological reactions and physiological strain in healthy men under heat stress in dry and steam heat saunas.

    PubMed

    Pilch, W; Szygula, Z; Palka, T; Pilch, P; Cison, T; Wiecha, S; Tota, L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the paper was to follow up major physiological reactions, provoked by heat stress during dry and wet sauna baths. A physical strain index and subjective estimation of heat comfort of subjects who had not taken sauna baths before was also evaluated. Ten healthy males aged 25-28 underwent a dry sauna bath and then after a one-month break they underwent a steam sauna bath. Each time, they entered the sauna chamber 3 times for 15 minutes with five-minute breaks. During breaks they cooled their bodies with a cold shower and then rested in a sitting position. Before and after the baths, body mass and blood pressure were measured. Rectal temperature and heart rate were monitored during the baths. The physiological strain index (PSI) and cumulative heat strain index (CHSI) were calculated. Subjects assessed heat comfort by Bedford's scale. Greater body mass losses were observed after the dry sauna bath compared to the wet sauna (-0.72 vs. -0.36 kg respectively). However, larger increases in rectal temperature and heart rate were observed during the wet sauna bath (38.8% and 21.2% respectively). Both types of sauna baths caused elevation of systolic blood pressure, but changes were greater after the dry one. Diastolic pressure was reduced similarly. Subjective feelings of heat comfort as well as PSI (4.83 ± 0.29 vs. 5.7 ± 0.28) and CHSI (76.3 ± 18.4 vs. 144.6 ± 21.7) were greater during the wet sauna bath. It can be concluded that due to high humidity and reduction of thermoregulation mechanisms, the wet sauna is more stressful for the organism than the dry sauna, where the temperature is higher with low humidity. Both observed indexes (PSI and CHSI) could be appropriate for objective assessment of heat strain during passive heating of the organism.

  3. Physiological and functional evaluation of healthy young and older men and women: design of the European MyoAge study.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Maier, Andrea B; Seppet, Enn; Seynnes, Olivier R; Sipilä, Sarianna; Bottinelli, Roberto; Barnouin, Yoann; Bijlsma, Astrid Y; Gapeyeva, Helena; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Meskers, Carel G; Pääsuke, Mati; Sillanpää, Elina; Stenroth, Lauri; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Narici, Marco V; Jones, David A

    2013-06-01

    Within the European multi-centre MyoAge project, one workpackage was designed to investigate the contribution of age-related changes to muscle mass, contractile characteristics and neural control in relation to reductions in mobility in older age. The methodology has been described here. Test centres were located in Manchester, UK; Paris, France; Leiden, The Netherlands; Tartu, Estonia and Jyväskylä, Finland. In total, 182 young (18-30 years old, 52.2 % female) and 322 older adults (69-81 years old, 50 % female) have been examined. The participants were independent living, socially active and free from disease that impaired mobility levels. The older participants were selected based on physical activity levels, such that half exceeded current recommended physical activity levels and the other half had lower physical activity levels than is recommended to maintain health. Measurements consisted of blood pressure; anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging); lung function; standing balance and cognitive function (CANTAB). Mobility was assessed using the Timed Up and Go, a 6 min walk, activity questionnaires and accelerometers to monitor habitual daily activities. Muscle strength, power, fatigue and neural activation were assessed using a combination of voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Fasting blood samples and skeletal muscle biopsies were collected for detailed examination of cell and molecular differences between young and older individuals. The results from this study will provide a detailed insight into "normal, healthy" ageing, linking whole-body function to the structure and function of the neuromuscular system and the molecular characteristics of skeletal muscle. PMID:23722256

  4. Appetite, appetite hormone and energy intake responses to two consecutive days of aerobic exercise in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jessica A; King, James A; McFarlane, Ewan; Baker, Luke; Bradley, Chloe; Crouch, Nicole; Hill, David; Stensel, David J

    2015-09-01

    Single bouts of exercise do not cause compensatory changes in appetite, food intake or appetite regulatory hormones on the day that exercise is performed. It remains possible that such changes occur over an extended period or in response to a higher level of energy expenditure. This study sought to test this possibility by examining appetite, food intake and appetite regulatory hormones (acylated ghrelin, total peptide-YY, leptin and insulin) over two days, with acute bouts of exercise performed on each morning. Within a controlled laboratory setting, 15 healthy males completed two, 2-day long (09:00-16:00) experimental trials (exercise and control) in a randomised order. On the exercise trial participants performed 60 min of continuous moderate-high intensity treadmill running (day one: 70.1 ± 2.5% VO2peak, day two: 70.0 ± 3.2% VO2max (mean ± SD)) at the beginning of days one and two. Across each day appetite perceptions were assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite regulatory hormones were measured from venous blood samples. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes were determined from meals provided two and six hours into each day and from a snack bag provided in-between trial days. Exercise elicited a high level of energy expenditure (total = 7566 ± 635 kJ across the two days) but did not produce compensatory changes in appetite or energy intake over two days (control: 29,217 ± 4006 kJ; exercise: 28,532 ± 3899 kJ, P > 0.050). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal any main effects for acylated ghrelin or leptin (all P > 0.050). However a significant main effect of trial (P = 0.029) for PYY indicated higher concentrations on the exercise vs. control trial. These findings suggest that across a two day period, high volume exercise does not stimulate compensatory appetite regulatory changes.

  5. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This study explored whether increased red blood cell (RBC) swelling and/or plasma or urine amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge might be informative about relative chronic hyperosmotic stress in free-living men. Five healthy men (20–25 years) with baseline total water intake below 2 L/day participated in an 8-week clinical study: four 2-week periods in a U-shaped A-B-C-A design. Intake of drinking water was increased by +0.8 ± 0.3 L/day in period 2, and +1.5 ± 0.3 L/day in period 3, and returned to baseline intake (0.4 ± 0.2 L/day) in period 4. Each week, fasting blood and urine were collected after a 750 mL bolus of drinking water, following overnight water restriction. The periods of higher water intake were associated with significant decreases in RBC deformability (index of cell swelling), plasma histidine, urine arginine, and urine glutamic acid. After 4 weeks of higher water intake, four out of five participants had ½ maximal RBC deformability below 400 mmol/kg; plasma histidine below 100 μmol/L; and/or undetectable urine arginine and urine glutamic acid concentrations. Work is warranted to pursue RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge as possible biomarkers of chronic cell hydration. PMID:24303184

  6. Effects of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) extract on plasma androgen concentrations in healthy men and women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Jennifer L; DeVane, C Lindsay; Lewis, John G; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Ruan, Ying; Chavin, Kenneth D; Markowitz, John S

    2005-10-01

    St John's wort extract (SJW; Hypericum perforatum L.) is taken extensively as a putative herbal antidepressant. It has been shown to induce the activity of cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and to increase the clearance of numerous drugs and steroids such as cortisol and ethinyl estradiol. This study was conducted to determine if SJW exposure also alters the concentrations of circulating androgenic steroid hormones. The study was conducted using healthy volunteers (6M, 6F) studied before and after a 14-day treatment period with a SJW preparation previously demonstrated to induce the activity of CYP3A4. Plasma concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and the combined concentrations of androsterone sulfate (AoS) and epiandrosterone sulfate (epiAoS) were measured by immunoassay methods. The results of analysis demonstrated that SJW did not significantly alter the majority of the androgens studied (p > 0.05) although the combined concentrations of the 5alpha-reduced steroids, AoS and epiAoS, significantly declined following treatment in all subjects (p = 0.02), and in males (p = 0.04). Furthermore, the testosterone to DHT ratio was increased in both men and women. Although the latter increase did not reach statistical significance, it is also consistent with the possible inhibition of 5alpha-reductase by SJW. It is concluded that despite significant induction of CYP3A4, short term administration of SJW does not significantly alter the concentrations of most circulating androgens in men and women but may produce a dimunition in some of the circulating 5alpha-reduced androgens.

  7. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This study explored whether increased red blood cell (RBC) swelling and/or plasma or urine amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge might be informative about relative chronic hyperosmotic stress in free-living men. Five healthy men (20-25 years) with baseline total water intake below 2 L/day participated in an 8-week clinical study: four 2-week periods in a U-shaped A-B-C-A design. Intake of drinking water was increased by +0.8 ± 0.3 L/day in period 2, and +1.5 ± 0.3 L/day in period 3, and returned to baseline intake (0.4 ± 0.2 L/day) in period 4. Each week, fasting blood and urine were collected after a 750 mL bolus of drinking water, following overnight water restriction. The periods of higher water intake were associated with significant decreases in RBC deformability (index of cell swelling), plasma histidine, urine arginine, and urine glutamic acid. After 4 weeks of higher water intake, four out of five participants had ½ maximal RBC deformability below 400 mmol/kg; plasma histidine below 100 μmol/L; and/or undetectable urine arginine and urine glutamic acid concentrations. Work is warranted to pursue RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge as possible biomarkers of chronic cell hydration. PMID:24303184

  8. "Omics" of Selenium Biology: A Prospective Study of Plasma Proteome Network Before and After Selenized-Yeast Supplementation in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Indu; Karagoz, Kubra; Fogle, Rachel L; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Zea, Arnold H; Arga, Kazim Y; Stanley, Anne E; Hawkes, Wayne C; Sinha, Raghu

    2016-04-01

    Low selenium levels have been linked to a higher incidence of cancer and other diseases, including Keshan, Chagas, and Kashin-Beck, and insulin resistance. Additionally, muscle and cardiovascular disorders, immune dysfunction, cancer, neurological disorders, and endocrine function have been associated with mutations in genes encoding for selenoproteins. Selenium biology is complex, and a systems biology approach to study global metabolomics, genomics, and/or proteomics may provide important clues to examining selenium-responsive markers in circulation. In the current investigation, we applied a global proteomics approach on plasma samples collected from a previously conducted, double-blinded placebo controlled clinical study, where men were supplemented with selenized-yeast (Se-Yeast; 300 μg/day, 3.8 μmol/day) or placebo-yeast for 48 weeks. Proteomic analysis was performed by iTRAQ on 8 plasma samples from each arm at baseline and 48 weeks. A total of 161 plasma proteins were identified in both arms. Twenty-two proteins were significantly altered following Se-Yeast supplementation and thirteen proteins were significantly changed after placebo-yeast supplementation in healthy men. The differentially expressed proteins were involved in complement and coagulation pathways, immune functions, lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Reconstruction and analysis of protein-protein interaction network around selected proteins revealed several hub proteins. One of the interactions suggested by our analysis, PHLD-APOA4, which is involved in insulin resistance, was subsequently validated by Western blot analysis. Our systems approach illustrates a viable platform for investigating responsive proteomic profile in 'before and after' condition following Se-Yeast supplementation. The nature of proteins identified suggests that selenium may play an important role in complement and coagulation pathways, and insulin resistance. PMID:27027327

  9. Effects of body composition and exercise capacity on glucose tolerance, insulin, and lipoprotein lipids in healthy older men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal intervention study.

    PubMed

    Coon, P J; Bleecker, E R; Drinkwater, D T; Meyers, D A; Goldberg, A P

    1989-12-01

    The relationships of age, body composition, and physical conditioning status to glucose tolerance, insulin, and lipoprotein levels were examined in 77 healthy, nonsmoking white male volunteers, aged 46 to 73 years with no evidence of coronary artery or endocrine-metabolic disease. The men had a wide range of body fat (13% to 39%), indexed as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, 0.84 to 1.08), and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max, 17 to 48 mL/kg.min). Multiple regression analysis with age, VO2max, WHR, and percent body fat as independent variables demonstrated that fasting plasma insulin, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were independently related to both percent body fat and WHR. In contrast, fasting plasma glucose levels and insulin responses during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) correlated independently with percent body fat, and glucose responses to OGTT correlated only with WHR. Although fasting plasma TG and HDL-C correlated with glucose and insulin levels, in multiple regression analyses only percent body fat and WHR were the significant independent variables. Fasting total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol values were not related to these variables. To test the effects of weight loss and exercise training on these relationships, 20 obese men of comparable age, percent body fat, WHR, and VO2max were randomly assigned to weight loss or aerobic exercise training programs. A 12% +/- 3% loss in body weight (P less than .01, mean +/- SD) resulted in a 19% +/- 9% decline in body fat (P less than .01) with no change in fat free mass, WHR, or VO2max.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Abdominal hollowing and lateral abdominal wall muscles' activity in both healthy men & women: An ultrasonic assessment in supine and standing positions.

    PubMed

    Manshadi, Farideh Dehghan; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Azghani, Mahmood Reza; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Abdominal Hollowing (AH) maneuver on External Oblique (EO), Internal Oblique (IO) and Transversus Abdominis (TrA) muscles in both healthy men and women during the two postures of supine and upright standing. The study was conducted on 43 asymptomatic volunteers (22 males and 21 females) aged 19-44 (27.8±6.4) years. Rehabilitative Ultrasonic Imaging (RUSI) was simultaneously performed to measure muscle thickness in both rest and during AH maneuvers while activation of the TrA during AH was controlled by Pressure Biofeedback (PBF) device. Mixed-model ANOVA with repeated measures design, and Pearson correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Muscle thickness of all muscles was significantly higher for male subjects (F>6.2, p<0.017). The interaction effect of gender and muscle status was significant only for IO (F=7.458, p=0.009) indicating that AH maneuver increased the thickness of IO in men. Interaction effect of posture and muscle status on muscular thickness indicated that changing position only affects the resting thickness of TrA (F=5.617, p=0.023). Standing posture significantly affected the TrA contraction ratio (t=3.122, p=0.003) and TrA preferential activation ratio (t=2.76, p=0.008). There was no relationship between age and muscle thickness (r=0.262, p=0.09). The PBF has been introduced as a clinical and available device for monitoring TrA activity, while RUSI showed that both TrA and IO muscles had activated after AH maneuver. We recommend performing further investigations using electromyography and RUSI simultaneously at more functional postures such as upright standing.

  11. Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Schwarz, Jessica; Blokker, Britt A; Siebelink, Els; Kok, Frans J; Afman, Lydia A; Tomé, Daniel; Mensink, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a parallel control group was performed. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were assigned to either the control diet [n = 10; 27.8 energy percent (en%) fat, 16.9 en% protein, 55.3 en% carbohydrates] for 4 wk or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet (n = 17; >2 MJ/d) crossover trial with 2 periods of 2 wk, with either high-protein (HP) (37.7 en% fat, 25.7 en% protein, 36.6 en% carbohydrates) or normal-protein (NP) (39.4 en% fat, 15.4 en% protein, 45.2 en% carbohydrates) content. Measurements were performed after 2 wk of run-in (baseline), 2 wk of intervention (period 1), and 4 wk of intervention (period 2). A trend toward lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations during the HP condition compared with the NP condition was observed (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04% vs. 0.51 ± 0.08%, P = 0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.07, for HP and NP, respectively). Fat mass was significantly lower (10.6 ± 1.72 vs. 10.9 ± 1.73 kg; P = 0.02) with the HP diet than with the NP diet, whereas fat-free mass was higher (55.7 ± 2.79 vs. 55.2 ± 2.80 kg; P = 0.003). This study indicated that an HP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet affects lipid metabolism. It tends to lower the IHL and circulating TG concentrations and significantly lowers fat mass and increases fat-free mass compared with an NP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet. This trail was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01354626.

  12. Variable profile of individual heart rate responses to cold water immersion apnea in healthy late adolescent men.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Tomasz H; Musiał, Paweł; Cwikałowska, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Holding breath combined with immersion of face in cool water induces diving reflex consisting in bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and preferential redistribution of blood to the vital organs. The individual responses are variable, highly expressed in young children to weaken with age. Detailed assessment of the cardiac response to diving in late adolescents who are mostly prone to unexpected diving experiments and related complications are of practical importance. The study was performed to the investigate the heart rate (HR) response to controlled breath-hold diving in cold water in young healthy late adolescents aged 17.5 - 20.4. Twenty volunteers performed a procedure consisting in immersion of face in cold water during possibly long breath-holding. Beat-to-beat HR was assessed from the continuous ECG recording. Average diving time (tD) was 77.5±10.5 s, ranging from 61.7 to 95.4 s. Apnea and face immersion induced a biphasic response: an increase in HR was followed by its gradual decrease to reach a final limit of the response 47.7±9.0 beats/min at 55.2±16.1 s of dive. Within a variable time course of the evoked responses, two patterns of the HR decrease were distinguished: monoexponential decay functions fitted best for 8 (40%) subjects with a constant rate τ 31.3±11.4 s-1, whereas the 60% majority displayed a two phase negative chronotropic effect with constant rates: τ1 10.3±4.2 s-1 and τ1 25.5±10.1 s-1. The initial, anticipatory excitation influenced the HR response: the higher was the initial HR increase, the more pronounced was bradycardia. Disturbances of heart rhythm were observed in majority of subjects: supraventricular ectopic beats (40%), ventricular beats (20%), I-degree AV block (30%), II-degree Mobitz I block (15%), junctional rhythm (60%). In one case pair of ventricular ectopic beats looked severe and the trial was rapidly terminated. In conclusion, the unquestionable potency of late adolescents towards diving challenges

  13. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, P.L.; Coimbra, S.; Favarato, D.; Albuquerque, C.; Mochiduky, R.I.; Rochitte, C.E.; Hojaij, E.; Gonsalves, C.R.L.; Laurindo, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW) consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9±7.3 years (means±SD)], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0), 1-25, 26-49, and ≥50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4±362.2 vs 122.0±370.3; P<0.01). However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9±387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0±305.0 (P<0.0001). HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9±10.9 vs 39.5±9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001), while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6±18.2 vs 118.4±29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02). Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative. PMID:25003545

  14. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence.

    PubMed

    Luz, P L da; Coimbra, S; Favarato, D; Albuquerque, C; Mochiduky, R I; Rochitte, C E; Hojaij, E; Gonsalves, C R L; Laurindo, F R

    2014-08-01

    Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW) consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9 ± 7.3 years (means ± SD)], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0), 1-25, 26-49, and ≥ 50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4 ± 362.2 vs 122.0 ± 370.3; P<0.01). However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9 ± 387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0 ± 305.0 (P<0.0001). HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9 ± 10.9 vs 39.5 ± 9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001), while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6 ± 18.2 vs 118.4 ± 29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02). Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative. PMID:25003545

  15. Polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein B and E genes and their relationship to plasma lipid variables in healthy Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Evans, A E; Zhang, W; Moreel, J F; Bard, J M; Ricard, S; Poirier, O; Tiret, L; Fruchart, J C; Cambien, F

    1993-09-01

    In this study we have analysed the apolipoprotein (Apo) E polymorphism and polymorphisms of the ApoB gene, including the ApoB/XbaI and ApoB/4311 diallelic polymorphisms and a hypervariable region (HVR) situated in the 3' region of the gene (ApoB/3'HVR), in a sample of healthy male subjects from Taiyuan (northern People's Republic of China). In comparison to Caucasian populations, in the Chinese sample, the XbaI2 allele (presence of cutting site; frequency 6.1%; and 95% confidence interval, 3.3-8.9) and the long HVR alleles (9.4%; 6.0-12.8) were rare, whereas the ApoB/4311 (Ser) allele (70.8%; 65.4-76.2) and the 34-repeat allele of the HVR (HVR34; 62.4%; 56.8-68.0) were frequent. In subjects having none, one, or two HVR34 alleles, the mean levels of plasma triglycerides were 2.32 +/- 1.44 (SD), 1.45 +/- 0.74, and 1.75 +/- 1.07 g/l, respectively (P < 0.007). Similar trends were observed for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, LpE:B, and LpCIII:B. The frequencies of the ApoE alleles were similar to those reported in other populations of Asian origin; E2 (7.4%; 4.2-10.6), E3 (84.4%; 80.2-88.6), and E4 (8.2%; 5.0-11.4). Individuals carrying the E2 allele had a lower mean level of ApoB than E33 individuals: 0.87 +/- 0.16 and 1.00 +/- 0.22 g/l, respectively (P < 0.007). Individuals carrying the E4 allele had higher levels of ApoE than E33 individuals: 0.140 +/- 0.084 and 0.094 +/- 0.052 g/l, respectively (P < 0.004); similar trends were observed for VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LpE:B, and LpCIII:B. The ApoB/HVR34 and ApoE/E4 polymorphisms accounted for 10% to 15% of the variability of the plasma levels of VLDL cholesterol, ApoE, triglycerides, LpE:B, and LpCIII:B. Several lipid variables appeared to be favourably affected by specific forms of ApoB and ApoE that are particularly frequent in this Chinese population.

  16. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence.

    PubMed

    Luz, P L da; Coimbra, S; Favarato, D; Albuquerque, C; Mochiduky, R I; Rochitte, C E; Hojaij, E; Gonsalves, C R L; Laurindo, F R

    2014-08-01

    Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW) consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9 ± 7.3 years (means ± SD)], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0), 1-25, 26-49, and ≥ 50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4 ± 362.2 vs 122.0 ± 370.3; P<0.01). However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9 ± 387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0 ± 305.0 (P<0.0001). HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9 ± 10.9 vs 39.5 ± 9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001), while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6 ± 18.2 vs 118.4 ± 29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02). Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative.

  17. Effects of hPTH(1-34) Infusion on Circulating Serum Phosphate, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D, and FGF23 Levels in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann M.; Henao, Maria P.; Dere, Melissa E.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.

    2009-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) promotes phosphaturia and suppresses 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] production. PTH also promotes phosphaturia, but, in contrast, stimulates 1,25(OH)2D production. The relationship between FGF23 and PTH is unclear, and the acute effect of pharmacologically dosed PTH on FGF23 secretion is unknown. Twenty healthy men were infused with human PTH(1-34) [hPTH(1-34)] at 44 ng/kg/h for 24 h. Compared with baseline, FGF23, 1,25(OH)2D, ionized calcium (iCa), and serum N-telopeptide (NTX) increased significantly over the 18-h hPTH(1-34) infusion (p < 0.0001), whereas serum phosphate (PO4) transiently increased and then returned to baseline. FGF23 increased from 35 ± 10 pg/ml at baseline to 53 ± 20 pg/ml at 18 h (p = 0.0002); 1,25(OH)2D increased from 36 ± 16 pg/ml at baseline to 80 ± 33 pg/ml at 18 h (p < 0.0001); iCa increased from 1.23 ± 0.03 mM at baseline to 1.46 ± 0.05 mM at hour 18 (p < 0.0001); and NTX increased from 17 ± 4 nM BCE at baseline to 28 ± 8 nM BCE at peak (p < 0.0001). PO4 was 3.3 ± 0.6 mg/dl at baseline, transiently rose to 3.7 ± 0.4 mg/dl at hour 6 (p = 0.016), and then returned to 3.4 ± 0.5 mg/dl at hour 12 (p = 0.651). hPTH(1-34) infusion increases endogenous 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23 within 18 h in healthy men. Whereas it is possible that the rise in PO4 contributed to the observed increase in FGF23, the increase in 1,25(OH)2D was more substantial and longer sustained than the change in serum phosphate. Given prior data that suggest that neither PTH nor calcium stimulate FGF23 secretion, these data support the assertion that 1,25(OH)2D is a potent physiologic stimulator of FGF23 secretion. PMID:19419295

  18. Acute effects of a single warm-water bath on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in healthy men: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimodozono, Megumi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Ninomiya, Koji; Miyata, Ryuji; Ogata, Atsuko; Etoh, Seiji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2012-09-01

    To preliminarily assess the acute effects of a single warm -water bath (WWB) on serum adipokine activity, we measured serum adiponectin, leptin and other metabolic profiles before, immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB in seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 39.7 ± 6.0 years; mean body mass index, 21.6 ± 1.8 kg/m2). The subjects were immersed in tap water at 41°C for 10 minutes. Two weeks later, the same subjects underwent a single WWB with a bath additive that included inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (WWB with ISCO2) by the same protocol as for the first WWB. Leptin levels significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water and ISCO2 (both P < 0.05), and remained significantly higher than those at baseline even 30 minutes after WWB with tap water ( P < 0.05). Adiponectin levels showed a slight, but not significant, increase both immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB with tap water or ISCO2. Some parameters, such as serum total cholesterol, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water or ISCO2 (all P < 0.05), but they all returned to the baseline levels 30 minutes after bathing under both conditions. The sublingual temperature rose significantly after 10 minutes of WWB with tap water (0.96 ± 0.16°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01) and after the same duration of WWB with ISCO2 (1.24 ± 0.34°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a single WWB at 41°C for 10 minutes may modulate leptin and adiponectin profiles in healthy men.

  19. A whole-grain-rich diet reduces urinary excretion of markers of protein catabolism and gut microbiota metabolism in healthy men after one week.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Pere-Trépat, Emma; Montoliu, Ivan; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Collino, Sebastiano; Moco, Sofia; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Cléroux, Marilyn; Guy, Philippe A; Breton, Isabelle; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Thorimbert, Anita; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Tornier, Lionel; Bebuis, Aude; Bruce, Stephen J; Beaumont, Maurice; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcher-blinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet based on RGs. Seventeen healthy adult participants (11 female, 6 male) consumed a controlled diet based on either WG-rich or RG-rich foods for 2 wk, followed by the other diet after a 5-wk washout period. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. The metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and fecal water were measured using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (plasma only). After 1 wk of intervention, the WG diet led to decreases in urinary excretion of metabolites related to protein catabolism (urea, methylguanadine), lipid (carnitine and acylcarnitines) and gut microbial (4-hydroxyphenylacetate, trimethylacetate, dimethylacetate) metabolism in men compared with the same time point during the RG intervention. There were no differences between the interventions after 2 wk. Urinary urea, carnitine, and acylcarnitine were lower at wk 1 of the WG intervention relative to the RG intervention in all participants. Fecal water short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate were relatively greater after the WG diet compared to the RG diet. Although based on a small population and for a short time period, these observations suggest that a WG diet may affect protein metabolism. PMID:23616503

  20. A whole-grain-rich diet reduces urinary excretion of markers of protein catabolism and gut microbiota metabolism in healthy men after one week.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Pere-Trépat, Emma; Montoliu, Ivan; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Collino, Sebastiano; Moco, Sofia; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Cléroux, Marilyn; Guy, Philippe A; Breton, Isabelle; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Thorimbert, Anita; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Tornier, Lionel; Bebuis, Aude; Bruce, Stephen J; Beaumont, Maurice; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcher-blinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet based on RGs. Seventeen healthy adult participants (11 female, 6 male) consumed a controlled diet based on either WG-rich or RG-rich foods for 2 wk, followed by the other diet after a 5-wk washout period. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. The metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and fecal water were measured using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (plasma only). After 1 wk of intervention, the WG diet led to decreases in urinary excretion of metabolites related to protein catabolism (urea, methylguanadine), lipid (carnitine and acylcarnitines) and gut microbial (4-hydroxyphenylacetate, trimethylacetate, dimethylacetate) metabolism in men compared with the same time point during the RG intervention. There were no differences between the interventions after 2 wk. Urinary urea, carnitine, and acylcarnitine were lower at wk 1 of the WG intervention relative to the RG intervention in all participants. Fecal water short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate were relatively greater after the WG diet compared to the RG diet. Although based on a small population and for a short time period, these observations suggest that a WG diet may affect protein metabolism.

  1. Gating of the vertex somatosensory and auditory evoked potential P50 and the correlation to skin conductance orienting response in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Arnfred, S M; Eder, D N; Hemmingsen, R P; Glenthøj, B Y; Chen, A C

    2001-04-15

    A defect in auditory evoked potential (AEP) P50 gating supports the theory of information-processing deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship between gating of the mid-latency evoked potentials (EP) in the somatosensory and the auditory modalities has not been studied together before. In schizophrenia, we might expect the processing deficits to act on multiple modalities. We have examined the gating of median nerve somatosensory EP (SEP) following paired stimulation identical to the AEP P50 gating paradigm using interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 500, 750 and 1000 ms and the correlation of gating to the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in 20 healthy men. We measured mid-latency vertex components (SEP: P50, N65, P85 and N100; AEP: P30, N45, P50 and N80). The gating was most pronounced at ISI 500 ms where the SEP P50 and N100 gating were 0.59 and 0.37, respectively, as compared to a gating of 0.61 in P30, 0.33 in P50 and 0.45 in N80 in the AEP. Repetition effects in the two modalities were not correlated. AEP P50 gating was correlated to skin conductance level (SCL). The combination of recording repetition effects on the mid-latency EP in two modalities could provide a method for investigating if deficits of information processing in schizophrenia are cross-modal.

  2. Use of T-RFLP and seven restriction enzymes to compare the faecal microbiota of obese and lean Japanese healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Osaki, T; Oikawa, S

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota of 92 healthy Japanese men was measured following consumption of identical meals for 3 days; terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms were then used to analyse the DNA content of their faeces. The obtained operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were further analysed using seven restriction enzymes: 516f-BslI and -HaeIII, 27f-MspI and -AluI, and 35f-HhaI, -MspI and -AluI. Subjects were classified by their body mass index (BMI) as lean (<18.5) or obese (>25.0). OTUs were then analysed using data mining software. Pearson correlation coefficients on data mining results indicated only a weak relationship between BMI and OTU diversity. Specific OTUs attributed to lean and obese subjects were further examined by data mining with six groups of enzymes and closely related accession numbers for lean and obese subjects were successfully narrowed down. 16S rRNA sequences showed Bacillus spp., Erysipelothrix spp. and Holdemania spp. to be present among 30 bacterial candidates related to the lean group. Fifteen candidates were classified Firmicutes, one was classified as Chloroflexi, and the others were not classified. 45 Microbacteriaceae, 11 uncultured Actinobacterium, and 3 other families were present among the 119 candidate OTUs related to obesity. We conclude that the presence of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria may be related to the BMI of the subject.

  3. A High Antioxidant Spice Blend Attenuates Postprandial Insulin and Triglyceride Responses and Increases Some Plasma Measures of Antioxidant Activity in Healthy, Overweight Men123

    PubMed Central

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Teeter, Danette L.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; West, Sheila G.

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the potential of dietary antioxidants to attenuate in vivo oxidative stress, but little characterization of the time course of plasma effects exists. Culinary spices have demonstrated potent in vitro antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine whether adding 14 g of a high antioxidant spice blend to a 5060-kJ (1200 kcal) meal exerted significant postprandial effects on markers of plasma antioxidant status and metabolism. Healthy overweight men (n = 6) consumed a control and spiced meal in a randomized crossover design with 1 wk between testing sessions. Blood was sampled prior to the meal and at 30-min intervals for 3.5 h (total of 8 samples). Mixed linear models demonstrated a treatment × time interaction (P < 0.05) for insulin and TG, corresponding with 21 and 31% reductions in postprandial levels with the spiced meal, respectively. Adding spices to the meal significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power, such that postprandial increases following the spiced meal were 2-fold greater than after the control meal (P = 0.009). The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma also was increased by spices (P = 0.02). There were no treatment differences in glucose, total thiols, lipophilic ORAC, or total ORAC. The incorporation of spices into the diet may help normalize postprandial insulin and TG and enhance antioxidant defenses. PMID:21697300

  4. The acute effect of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on cognitive performance and mood in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Downey, Luke A; Croft, Kevin D; Scholey, Andrew; Stough, Con; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Ward, Natalie C; Puddey, Ian B; Swinny, Ewald; Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-05-01

    Flavonoids and nitrate in a fruit and vegetable diet may be protective against cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline through effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. The circulating NO pool is increased via distinct pathways by dietary flavonoids and nitrate. Our aim was to investigate the acute effects of apples, rich in flavonoids, and spinach, rich in nitrate, independently and in combination on NO status, cognitive function and mood in a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial with healthy men and women (n = 30). The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach and apple + spinach) were compared. Endpoints included plasma nitric oxide status (determined by measuring S-nitrosothiols + other nitroso species (RXNO)), plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite, urinary nitrate and nitrite as well as cognitive function (determined using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery) and mood. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher plasma RXNO. A significant increase in plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as urinary nitrate and nitrite was observed with spinach and apple + spinach compared to control. No significant effect was observed on cognitive function or mood. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augmented NO status acutely with no concomitant improvements or deterioration in cognitive function and mood.

  5. A Single Dose of Prednisolone as a Modulator of Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin and Insulin Sensitivity Post-Exercise in Healthy Young Men: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Stepto, Nigel K; Jerums, George; Parker, Lewan; McConell, Glenn K; Anderson, Mitchell; Garnham, Andrew; Hare, David L; Ebeling, Peter R; Seeman, Ego

    2016-01-01

    Background Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) increases insulin sensitivity in mice. In humans, data are supportive, but the studies are mostly cross-sectional. Exercise increases whole-body insulin sensitivity, in part via ucOC, while acute glucocorticoid treatment suppresses ucOC in humans and mice. Objectives A single dose of prednisolone reduces the rise in ucOC produced by exercise, which partly accounts for the failed increase in insulin sensitivity following exercise. Methods Healthy young men (n=12) aged 18 to 40 years will be recruited. Initial assessments will include analysis of fasting blood, body composition, aerobic power (VO2peak), and peak heart rate. Participants will then be randomly allocated, double-blind, to a single dose of 20 mg of prednisolone or placebo. The two experimental trials will involve 30 minutes of interval exercise (90%-95% peak heart rate), followed by 3 hours of recovery and 2 hours of euglycaemic- hyperinsulinaemic clamp (insulin clamp). Seven muscle biopsies and blood samples will be obtained at rest, following exercise and post-insulin clamps. Results The study is funded by the National Heart Foundation of Australia and Victoria University. Enrollment has already commenced and data collection will be completed in 2016. Conclusion If the hypothesis is confirmed, the study will provide novel insights into the potential role of ucOC in insulin sensitivity in human subjects and will elucidate pathways involved in exercise-induced insulin sensitivity. PMID:27259402

  6. Cocoa flavanol intake improves endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in healthy men and women: a randomised, controlled, double-masked trial: the Flaviola Health Study.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Roberto; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Heuel, Jan; Falk, David; Schuler, Dominik; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Cocoa flavanol (CF) intake improves endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. We investigated the effects of CF on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in low risk, healthy, middle-aged individuals without history, signs or symptoms of CVD. In a 1-month, open-label, one-armed pilot study, bi-daily ingestion of 450 mg of CF led to a time-dependent increase in endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)) that plateaued after 2 weeks. Subsequently, in a randomised, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01799005), 100 healthy, middle-aged (35-60 years) men and women consumed either the CF-containing drink (450 mg) or a nutrient-matched CF-free control bi-daily for 1 month. The primary end point was FMD. Secondary end points included plasma lipids and blood pressure, thus enabling the calculation of Framingham Risk Scores and pulse wave velocity. At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %). CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l). By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD. In healthy individuals, regular CF intake improved accredited cardiovascular surrogates of cardiovascular risk, demonstrating that dietary flavanols have the potential to maintain cardiovascular health even in low-risk subjects.

  7. Cocoa flavanol intake improves endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in healthy men and women: a randomised, controlled, double-masked trial: the Flaviola Health Study.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Roberto; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Heuel, Jan; Falk, David; Schuler, Dominik; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Cocoa flavanol (CF) intake improves endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. We investigated the effects of CF on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in low risk, healthy, middle-aged individuals without history, signs or symptoms of CVD. In a 1-month, open-label, one-armed pilot study, bi-daily ingestion of 450 mg of CF led to a time-dependent increase in endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)) that plateaued after 2 weeks. Subsequently, in a randomised, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01799005), 100 healthy, middle-aged (35-60 years) men and women consumed either the CF-containing drink (450 mg) or a nutrient-matched CF-free control bi-daily for 1 month. The primary end point was FMD. Secondary end points included plasma lipids and blood pressure, thus enabling the calculation of Framingham Risk Scores and pulse wave velocity. At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %). CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l). By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD. In healthy individuals, regular CF intake improved accredited cardiovascular surrogates of cardiovascular risk, demonstrating that dietary flavanols have the potential to maintain cardiovascular health even in low-risk subjects. PMID:26348767

  8. The Karlsruhe Metabolomics and Nutrition (KarMeN) Study: Protocol and Methods of a Cross-Sectional Study to Characterize the Metabolome of Healthy Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, Anita; Dörr, Claudia; Bandt, Susanne; Rist, Manuela; Roth, Alexander; Hummel, Eva; Kulling, Sabine; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Watzl, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background The human metabolome is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A precondition to identify such biomarkers is the comprehensive understanding of the composition and variability of the metabolome of healthy humans. Sample handling aspects have an important impact on the composition of the metabolome; therefore, it is crucial for any metabolomics study to standardize protocols on sample collection, preanalytical sample handling, storage, and analytics to keep the nonbiological variability as low as possible. Objective The main objective of the KarMeN study is to analyze the human metabolome in blood and urine by targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS], GC×GC-MS, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [LC-MS/MS], and1H nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] spectroscopy) and to determine the impact of sex, age, body composition, diet, and physical activity on metabolite profiles of healthy women and men. Here, we report the outline of the study protocol with special regard to all aspects that should be considered in studies applying metabolomics. Methods Healthy men and women, aged 18 years or older, were recruited. In addition to a number of anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body composition), clinical (blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood and urine clinical chemistry) and functional parameters (lung function, arterial stiffness), resting metabolic rate, physical activity, fitness, and dietary intake were assessed, and 24-hour urine, fasting spot urine, and plasma samples were collected. Standard operating procedures were established for all steps of the study design. Using different analytical techniques (LC-MS, GC×GC-MS,1H NMR spectroscopy), metabolite profiles of urine and plasma were determined. Data will be analyzed using univariate and multivariate as well as predictive modeling methods. Results The project was funded in 2011 and enrollment was

  9. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention.

  10. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0–2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  11. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  12. Men: Stay Healthy at 50+

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Organization (PSO) Program Quality Measure Tools & Resources Tools & Resources Value Surveys on Patient Safety Culture Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture Nursing Home Survey ...

  13. Comparison of Sodium Chloride Tablets-Induced, Sodium Chloride Solution-Induced, and Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Fluid Balance Responses in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Félix A; Asselin, Audrey; Goulet, Eric D B

    2016-10-01

    Savoie, FA, Asselin, A, and Goulet, EDB. Comparison of sodium chloride tablets-induced, sodium chloride solution-induced, and glycerol-induced hyperhydration on fluid balance responses in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2880-2891, 2016-Sodium chloride solution-induced hyperhydration (NaCl-SolIH) is a powerful strategy to increase body water before exercise. However, NaCl-SolIH is associated with an unpleasant salty taste, potentially dissuading some athletes from using it and coaches from recommending it. Therefore, we evaluated the hyperhydrating potential of sodium chloride tablets-induced hyperhydration (NaCl-TabIH), which bypasses the palatability issue of NaCl-SolIH without sacrificing sodium chloride content, and compared it to NaCl-SolIH and glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH). Sixteen healthy males (age: 21 ± 2 years; fat-free mass (FFM): 65 ± 6 kg) underwent three, 3-hour long passive hyperhydration protocols during which they drank, over the first 60 minutes, 30-ml·kg FFM of an artificially sweetened solution. During NaCl-TabIH, participants swallowed 7.5, 1 g each, sodium chloride tablets with every liter of solution. During NaCl-SolIH, an equal quantity of sodium chloride tablets was dissolved in each liter of solution. With GIH, the glycerol concentration was 46.7 g·L. Urine production, fluid retention, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma volume, and perceptual variables were monitored throughout the trials. Total fluid intake was 1948 ± 182 ml. After 3 hour, there were no significant differences among treatments for hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma volume changes. Fluid retention was significantly greater with NaCl-SolIH (1150 ± 287 ml) than NaCl-TabIH (905 ± 340 ml) or GIH (800 ± 211 ml), with no difference between NaCl-TabIH and GIH. No differences were found among treatments for perceptual variables. NaCl-TabIH and GIH are equally effective, but inferior than NaCl-SolIH. NaCl-TabIH represents an alternative to hyperhydration induced

  14. Comparison of Sodium Chloride Tablets-Induced, Sodium Chloride Solution-Induced, and Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Fluid Balance Responses in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Félix A; Asselin, Audrey; Goulet, Eric D B

    2016-10-01

    Savoie, FA, Asselin, A, and Goulet, EDB. Comparison of sodium chloride tablets-induced, sodium chloride solution-induced, and glycerol-induced hyperhydration on fluid balance responses in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2880-2891, 2016-Sodium chloride solution-induced hyperhydration (NaCl-SolIH) is a powerful strategy to increase body water before exercise. However, NaCl-SolIH is associated with an unpleasant salty taste, potentially dissuading some athletes from using it and coaches from recommending it. Therefore, we evaluated the hyperhydrating potential of sodium chloride tablets-induced hyperhydration (NaCl-TabIH), which bypasses the palatability issue of NaCl-SolIH without sacrificing sodium chloride content, and compared it to NaCl-SolIH and glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH). Sixteen healthy males (age: 21 ± 2 years; fat-free mass (FFM): 65 ± 6 kg) underwent three, 3-hour long passive hyperhydration protocols during which they drank, over the first 60 minutes, 30-ml·kg FFM of an artificially sweetened solution. During NaCl-TabIH, participants swallowed 7.5, 1 g each, sodium chloride tablets with every liter of solution. During NaCl-SolIH, an equal quantity of sodium chloride tablets was dissolved in each liter of solution. With GIH, the glycerol concentration was 46.7 g·L. Urine production, fluid retention, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma volume, and perceptual variables were monitored throughout the trials. Total fluid intake was 1948 ± 182 ml. After 3 hour, there were no significant differences among treatments for hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma volume changes. Fluid retention was significantly greater with NaCl-SolIH (1150 ± 287 ml) than NaCl-TabIH (905 ± 340 ml) or GIH (800 ± 211 ml), with no difference between NaCl-TabIH and GIH. No differences were found among treatments for perceptual variables. NaCl-TabIH and GIH are equally effective, but inferior than NaCl-SolIH. NaCl-TabIH represents an alternative to hyperhydration induced

  15. Effects of acute and chronic interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill on upper limb vascular mechanics in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Reid, Steph M; Smith, Alan R; Zamir, Mair; Lemon, Peter W R; Laughlin, M Harold; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill, where the hands grip the handle bars, engages lower and upper limb skeletal muscle, but little is known regarding the effects of this exercise modality on the upper limb vasculature. We tested the hypotheses that an acute bout of sprint exercise and 6 weeks of training induces brachial artery (BA) and forearm vascular remodeling, favoring a more compliant system. Before and following a single bout of exercise as well as 6 weeks of training three types of vascular properties/methodologies were examined in healthy men: (1) stiffness of the entire upper limb vascular system (pulse wave velocity (PWV); (2) local stiffness of the BA; and (3) properties of the entire forearm vascular bed (determined by a modified lumped parameter Windkessel model). Following sprint exercise, PWV declined (P < 0.01), indices of BA stiffness did not change (P ≥ 0.10), and forearm vascular bed compliance increased and inertance and viscoelasticity decreased (P ≤ 0.03). Following manually propelled treadmill training, PWV remained unchanged (P = 0.31), indices of BA stiffness increased (P ≤ 0.05) and forearm vascular bed viscoelasticity declined (P = 0.02), but resistance, compliance, and inertance remained unchanged (P ≥ 0.10) compared with pretraining values. Sprint exercise induced a more compliant forearm vascular bed, without altering indices of BA stiffness. These effects were transient, as following training the forearm vascular bed was not more compliant and indices of BA stiffness increased. On the basis of these data, we conclude that adaptations to acute and chronic sprint exercise on a manually propelled treadmill are not uniform along the arterial tree in upper limb. PMID:27405970

  16. Effects of variations in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster on different parameters of postprandial lipid metabolism in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Ruano, Juan; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Fuentes, Francisco; Criado-Garcia, Juan; Parnell, Laurence D; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster encodes important regulators of fasting lipids, but the majority of lipid metabolism takes place in the postprandial state and knowledge about gene regulation in this state is scarce. With the aim of characterizing possible regulators of lipid metabolism, we studied the effects of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) during postprandial lipid metabolism. Eighty-eight healthy young men were genotyped for APOA1 -2630 (rs613808), APOA1 -2803 (rs2727784), APOA1 -3012 (rs11216158), APOC3 -640 (rs2542052), APOC3 -2886 (rs2542051), APOC3 G34G (rs4520), APOA4 N147S (rs5104), APOA4 T29T (rs5092), and A4A5_inter (rs1263177) and were fed a saturated fatty acid-rich meal (1g fat/kg of weight with 60% fat, 15% protein and 25% carbohydrate). Serial blood samples were extracted for 11 h after the meal. Total cholesterol and fractions [HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, trifacylglycerols (TGs) in plasma, TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) (large TRLs and small TRLs), apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B] were determined. APOA1 -2803 homozygotes for the minor allele and A4A5_inter carriers showed a limited degree of postprandial lipemia. Carriers of the rare alleles of APOA4 N147S and APOA4 T29T had lower APOA1 plasma concentration during this state. APOC3 -640 was associated with altered TG kinetics but not its magnitude. We have identified new associations between SNPs in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and altered postprandial lipid metabolism.

  17. Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-09-01

    Despite the recent studies on structural and functional adaptations of the right ventricle (RV) to exercise training, adaptations of its metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on RV glucose and fat metabolism. Twenty-eight untrained, healthy 40-55 yr-old-men were randomized into HIIT (n = 14) and MICT (n = 14) groups. Subjects performed six supervised cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 wk (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak O2 uptake). Primary outcomes were insulin-stimulated RV glucose uptake (RVGU) and fasted state RV free fatty acid uptake (RVFFAU) measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary outcomes were changes in RV structure and function, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance. RVGU decreased after training (-22% HIIT, -12% MICT, P = 0.002 for training effect), but RVFFAU was not affected by the training (P = 0.74). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, respectively, increased +5 and +7% for HIIT and +4 and +8% for MICT (P = 0.002 and 0.005 for training effects, respectively), but ejection fraction mildly decreased (-2% HIIT, -4% MICT, P = 0.034 for training effect). RV mass and stroke volume remained unaltered. None of the observed changes differed between the training groups (P > 0.12 for group × training interaction). Only 2 wk of physical training in previously sedentary subjects induce changes in RV glucose metabolism, volumes, and ejection fraction, which precede exercise-induced hypertrophy of RV. PMID:27448554

  18. Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-09-01

    Despite the recent studies on structural and functional adaptations of the right ventricle (RV) to exercise training, adaptations of its metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on RV glucose and fat metabolism. Twenty-eight untrained, healthy 40-55 yr-old-men were randomized into HIIT (n = 14) and MICT (n = 14) groups. Subjects performed six supervised cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 wk (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak O2 uptake). Primary outcomes were insulin-stimulated RV glucose uptake (RVGU) and fasted state RV free fatty acid uptake (RVFFAU) measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary outcomes were changes in RV structure and function, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance. RVGU decreased after training (-22% HIIT, -12% MICT, P = 0.002 for training effect), but RVFFAU was not affected by the training (P = 0.74). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, respectively, increased +5 and +7% for HIIT and +4 and +8% for MICT (P = 0.002 and 0.005 for training effects, respectively), but ejection fraction mildly decreased (-2% HIIT, -4% MICT, P = 0.034 for training effect). RV mass and stroke volume remained unaltered. None of the observed changes differed between the training groups (P > 0.12 for group × training interaction). Only 2 wk of physical training in previously sedentary subjects induce changes in RV glucose metabolism, volumes, and ejection fraction, which precede exercise-induced hypertrophy of RV.

  19. Plasma Free Amino Acid Responses to Intraduodenal Whey Protein, and Relationships with Insulin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Energy Intake in Lean Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hutchison, Amy T; Soenen, Stijn; Steinert, Robert E; Clifton, Peter M; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-01-04

    This study determined the effects of increasing loads of intraduodenal (ID) dairy protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with serum insulin, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and energy intake. Sixteen healthy men had concentrations of AAs, GLP-1 and insulin measured in response to 60-min ID infusions of hydrolysed whey protein administered, in double-blinded and randomised order, at 2.1 (P2.1), 6.3 (P6.3) or 12.5 (P12.5) kJ/min (encompassing the range of nutrient emptying from the stomach), or saline control (C). Energy intake was quantified immediately afterwards. Compared with C, the concentrations of 19/20 AAs, the exception being cysteine, were increased, and this was dependent on the protein load. The relationship between AA concentrations in the infusions and the area under the curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0-60 min) of each AA profile was strong for essential AAs (R² range, 0.61-0.67), but more variable for non-essential (0.02-0.54) and conditional (0.006-0.64) AAs. The AUC0-60 min for each AA was correlated directly with the AUC0-60 min of insulin (R² range 0.3-0.6), GLP-1 (0.2-0.6) and energy intake (0.09-0.3) (p < 0.05, for all), with the strongest correlations being for branched-chain AAs, lysine, methionine and tyrosine. These findings indicate that ID whey protein infused at loads encompassing the normal range of gastric emptying increases plasma concentrations of 19/20 AAs in a load-dependent manner, and provide novel information on the close relationships between the essential AAs, leucine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, and the conditionally-essential AA, tyrosine, with energy intake, insulin and GLP-1.

  20. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  1. Long-Term Impact of Preterm Birth on Exercise Capacity in Healthy Young Men: A National Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Svedenkrans, Jenny; Henckel, Ewa; Kowalski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of survivors of preterm birth are growing into adulthood today. Long-term health-effects of prematurity are still poorly understood, but include increased risk for diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. To test if reduced physical fitness may be a link in the causal chain of preterm birth and diseases in later life, the association of preterm birth and adult exercise capacity was investigated. The hypothesis was that preterm birth contributes independently of other risk factors to lower physical fitness in adulthood. Methods and Findings Population-based national cohort study of all males conscripting for military service in 1993–2001 and born in Sweden 1973–1983, n = 218,820. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Conscript Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Population and Housing Census 1990. Primary outcome was the results from maximal exercise test (Wmax in Watt) performed at conscription. Association to perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors, other co-variates and confounders were analysed. General linear modelling showed that preterm birth predicted low Wmax in a dose-response related pattern, with 25 Watt reduction in Wmax for the lowest gestational ages, those born ≤27 weeks. Low birth weight for gestational age also independently predicted low Wmax compared to normal and high birth weight (32 Watt reduction for those with a birth weight Standard Deviation Score <2). Low parental education was significantly associated with reduced Wmax (range 17 Watt), as well as both low and high current BMI, with severe obesity resulting in a 16 Watt deficit compared to Wmax top performance. Conclusion Being born preterm as well as being born small for gestational age predicts low exercise capacity in otherwise healthy young men. The effect size of being born preterm equal or exceed that of other known risk factors for unfitness in adults, such as low parental education and overweight. PMID:24324639

  2. Muscle-specific glucose and free fatty acid uptake after sprint interval and moderate-intensity training in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Saunavaara, Virva; Kirjavainen, Anna; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2015-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sprint interval training (SIT) causes larger improvements in glucose and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU) in lower and upper body muscles than moderate-intensity training (MIT). Twenty-eight healthy, untrained, middle-aged men were randomized into SIT (n = 14, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling/4 min recovery) and MIT groups [n = 14, 40-60 min cycling at 60% of peak O2 uptake (V̇o2 peak)] and completed six training sessions within 2 wk. Pre- and postmeasurements included V̇o2 peak, whole body (M-value), muscle-specific insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU), and fasting FFAU measured with positron emission tomography in thigh [quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstrings] and upper body (deltoids, biceps, and triceps brachii) muscles. V̇o2 peak and M-value improved significantly by 6 and 12% in SIT, and 3 and 8% in MIT, respectively,. GU increased significantly only in the QF, and there was no statistically significant difference between the training modes. GU increased in all four heads of QF in response to SIT, but only in the vasti muscles in response to MIT, whereas in rectus femoris the response was completely lacking. Training response in FFAU in QF was smaller and nonsignificant, but it also differed between the training modes in the rectus femoris. In conclusion, SIT and MIT increased insulin-stimulated GU only in the main working muscle QF and not in the upper body muscles. In addition, the biarticular rectus femoris did not respond to moderate-intensity training, reflecting most probably poor activation of it during moderate-intensity cycling. PMID:25767035

  3. Effects of acute and chronic interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill on upper limb vascular mechanics in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Reid, Steph M; Smith, Alan R; Zamir, Mair; Lemon, Peter W R; Laughlin, M Harold; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill, where the hands grip the handle bars, engages lower and upper limb skeletal muscle, but little is known regarding the effects of this exercise modality on the upper limb vasculature. We tested the hypotheses that an acute bout of sprint exercise and 6 weeks of training induces brachial artery (BA) and forearm vascular remodeling, favoring a more compliant system. Before and following a single bout of exercise as well as 6 weeks of training three types of vascular properties/methodologies were examined in healthy men: (1) stiffness of the entire upper limb vascular system (pulse wave velocity (PWV); (2) local stiffness of the BA; and (3) properties of the entire forearm vascular bed (determined by a modified lumped parameter Windkessel model). Following sprint exercise, PWV declined (P < 0.01), indices of BA stiffness did not change (P ≥ 0.10), and forearm vascular bed compliance increased and inertance and viscoelasticity decreased (P ≤ 0.03). Following manually propelled treadmill training, PWV remained unchanged (P = 0.31), indices of BA stiffness increased (P ≤ 0.05) and forearm vascular bed viscoelasticity declined (P = 0.02), but resistance, compliance, and inertance remained unchanged (P ≥ 0.10) compared with pretraining values. Sprint exercise induced a more compliant forearm vascular bed, without altering indices of BA stiffness. These effects were transient, as following training the forearm vascular bed was not more compliant and indices of BA stiffness increased. On the basis of these data, we conclude that adaptations to acute and chronic sprint exercise on a manually propelled treadmill are not uniform along the arterial tree in upper limb.

  4. Contributions of upper gut hormones and motility to the energy intake-suppressant effects of intraduodenal nutrients in healthy, lean men - a pooled-data analysis.

    PubMed

    Schober, Gudrun; Lange, Kylie; Steinert, Robert E; Hutchison, Amy T; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Landrock, Maria F; Horowitz, Michael; Seimon, Radhika V; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-09-01

    We have previously identified pyloric pressures and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations as independent determinants of energy intake following administration of intraduodenal lipid and intravenous CCK. We evaluated in healthy men whether these parameters also determine energy intake in response to intraduodenal protein, and whether, across the nutrients, any predominant gastrointestinal (GI) factors exist, or many factors make small contributions. Data from nine published studies, in which antropyloroduodenal pressures, GI hormones, and GI /appetite perceptions were measured during intraduodenal lipid or protein infusions, were pooled. In all studies energy intake was quantified immediately after the infusions. Specific variables for inclusion in a mixed-effects multivariable model for determination of independent predictors of energy intake were chosen following assessment for collinearity, and within-subject correlations between energy intake and these variables were determined using bivariate analyses adjusted for repeated measures. In models based on all studies, or lipid studies, there were significant effects for amplitude of antral pressure waves, premeal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and time-to-peak GLP-1 concentrations, GLP-1 AUC and bloating scores (P < 0.05), and trends for basal pyloric pressure (BPP), amplitude of duodenal pressure waves, peak CCK concentrations, and hunger and nausea scores (0.05 < P ≤ 0.094), to be independent determinants of subsequent energy intake. In the model including the protein studies, only BPP was identified as an independent determinant of energy intake (P < 0.05). No single parameter was identified across all models, and effects of the variables identified were relatively small. Taken together, while GI mechanisms contribute to the regulation of acute energy intake by lipid and protein, their contribution to the latter is much less. Moreover, the effects are likely to reflect small, cumulative

  5. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake. PMID:26394259

  6. Contributions of upper gut hormones and motility to the energy intake-suppressant effects of intraduodenal nutrients in healthy, lean men - a pooled-data analysis.

    PubMed

    Schober, Gudrun; Lange, Kylie; Steinert, Robert E; Hutchison, Amy T; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Landrock, Maria F; Horowitz, Michael; Seimon, Radhika V; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-09-01

    We have previously identified pyloric pressures and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations as independent determinants of energy intake following administration of intraduodenal lipid and intravenous CCK. We evaluated in healthy men whether these parameters also determine energy intake in response to intraduodenal protein, and whether, across the nutrients, any predominant gastrointestinal (GI) factors exist, or many factors make small contributions. Data from nine published studies, in which antropyloroduodenal pressures, GI hormones, and GI /appetite perceptions were measured during intraduodenal lipid or protein infusions, were pooled. In all studies energy intake was quantified immediately after the infusions. Specific variables for inclusion in a mixed-effects multivariable model for determination of independent predictors of energy intake were chosen following assessment for collinearity, and within-subject correlations between energy intake and these variables were determined using bivariate analyses adjusted for repeated measures. In models based on all studies, or lipid studies, there were significant effects for amplitude of antral pressure waves, premeal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and time-to-peak GLP-1 concentrations, GLP-1 AUC and bloating scores (P < 0.05), and trends for basal pyloric pressure (BPP), amplitude of duodenal pressure waves, peak CCK concentrations, and hunger and nausea scores (0.05 < P ≤ 0.094), to be independent determinants of subsequent energy intake. In the model including the protein studies, only BPP was identified as an independent determinant of energy intake (P < 0.05). No single parameter was identified across all models, and effects of the variables identified were relatively small. Taken together, while GI mechanisms contribute to the regulation of acute energy intake by lipid and protein, their contribution to the latter is much less. Moreover, the effects are likely to reflect small, cumulative

  7. The retention and distribution by healthy young men of stable isotopes of selenium consumed as selenite, selenate or hydroponically-grown broccoli are dependent on the isotopic form.

    PubMed

    Finley, J W

    1999-04-01

    Twenty-seven healthy young men were randomly assigned to diets that supplied low (32.6 microg/d) or high (226.5 microg/d) levels of selenium for a 105-d study. After consuming the diets for 85 d, subjects were fed a test meal that contained 74Se in the form of selenite or selenate and 82Se incorporated into hydroponically-raised broccoli. Urine, fecal and blood samples were collected daily. Isotope absorption was not different (P > 0.05) for selenate and Se in broccoli; Se absorption from selenite was highly variable and was not included in statistical analyses. Significantly more isotope was absorbed by subjects fed the high Se diet (P = 0. 015). Urinary isotope excretion was greater when selenate was fed than when broccoli was fed (P = 0.0001), and consequently more Se from broccoli (as compared to selenate) was retained (59.2 +/- 2.4 and 36.4 +/- 4.6% for Se in broccoli and selenate, respectively; P = 0.0001). Despite the higher retention, less isotope from broccoli than from selenate was present in the plasma. Plasma proteins separated by gel permeation chromatography showed that most of the isotopes were distributed between two medium molecular weight peaks. Less isotope was found in plasma proteins of subjects fed the high Se diet, but the form of Se had no effect on isotope distribution. These results show that dietary Se intake alters the retention of stable isotopes of Se and that humans retain and distribute Se from broccoli in a different manner than Se from inorganic salts.

  8. Acute interleukin-6 infusion increases IGFBP-1 but has no short-term effect on IGFBP-3 proteolysis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Pihl, S; Carlsson-Skwirut, C; Berg, U; Ekström, K; Bang, P

    2006-01-01

    Human conditions of elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transgenic mice overexpressing IL-6 have increased proteolytic degradation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3. In addition, IL-6 alters the hepatic expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the IGFBPs in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether moderately elevated IL-6 levels have short-term effects on circulating IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 proteolysis in vivo. Healthy men received a 3-h IL-6 (n = 6) or saline (n = 6) infusion and blood samples were collected prior to and up to 8 h after the start of infusion. Free IGF-I, total IGF-I, IGFBP-1, insulin and cortisol were measured using immunoassays. Serum IGFBP-3 proteolysis was analyzed by Western immunoblot and by in vitro degradation of (125)I-IGFBP-3. We found that IL-6 concentrations reaching approximately 100 pg/ml significantly increased IGFBP-1 after the end of infusion in the absence of changes in insulin. In addition, plasma levels of cortisol were increased in response to IL-6 during and after infusion compared to saline. There was no effect of IL-6 on IGFBP-3 proteolysis, total IGF-I or free dissociable IGF-I. These data suggest that moderately elevated levels of IL-6 such as in the post-operative state or after exercise may contribute to increased levels of IGFBP-1. Although this study does not exclude that high levels and/or prolonged exposure to IL-6 may induce IGFBP-3 proteolysis in sepsis or chronic inflammatory disease, it suggests that IL-6 released from exercising skeletal muscle is not directly involved in proteolysis of circulating IGFBP-3.

  9. Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of dietary triacylglycerols does not affect insulin secretion or glucose homeostasis in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, A; Teng, K-T; Berry, S E; Sanders, T A B

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. Subjects/Methods: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20–50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose. Results: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0–2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25052227

  10. Effect of whole-body mild-cold exposure on arterial stiffness and central haemodynamics: a randomised, cross-over trial in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    King, Sibella G; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Wass, Jezreel; Shing, Cecilia M; Adams, Murray J; Davies, Justin E; Sharman, James E; Williams, Andrew D

    2013-05-01

    Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk and mortality, but little is known about the effect of air temperature changes on these variables. Our study investigated the effect of exposure to whole-body mild-cold on measures of arterial stiffness (aortic and brachial PWV), and on central haemodynamics [including augmented pressure (AP), AIx], and aortic reservoir components [including reservoir and excess pressures (P ex)]. Sixteen healthy volunteers (10 men, age 43 ± 19 years; mean ± SD) were randomised to be studied under conditions of 12 °C (mild-cold) and 21 °C (control) on separate days. Supine resting measures were taken at baseline (ambient temperature) and after 10, 30, and 60 min exposure to each experimental condition in a climate chamber. There was no significant change in brachial blood pressure between mild-cold and control conditions. However, compared to control, AP [+2 mmHg, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.36-4.36; p = 0.01] and AIx (+6 %, 95 % CI 1.24-10.1; p = 0.02) increased, and time to maximum P ex (a component of reservoir function related to timing of peak aortic in-flow) decreased (-7 ms, 95 % CI -15.4 to 2.03; p = 0.01) compared to control. Yet there was no significant change in aortic PWV (+0.04 m/s, 95 % CI -0.47 to 0.55; p = 0.87) or brachial PWV (+0.36 m/s; -0.41 to 1.12; p = 0.35) between conditions. We conclude that mild-cold exposure increases central haemodynamic stress and alters timing of peak aortic in-flow without differentially affecting arterial stiffness.

  11. Supplementation of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols in healthy men protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Noh, Sang K; Ballard, Kevin D; Park, Hea Jin; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress responses, impairs vascular endothelial function (VEF) and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) would protect against vascular dysfunction that is otherwise caused by postprandial hyperglycemia by decreasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses, and improving nitric oxide (NO•) homeostasis. In a randomized, crossover study, healthy men (n=15; 21.8 ± 0.8 years) completed a fasting oral glucose challenge (75 g) with or without prior supplementation of γ-TmT (5 days). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose, insulin, antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), inflammatory proteins, arginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were measured at regular intervals during a 3-h postprandial period. Supplementation of γ-TmT increased (P<.05) plasma γ-T by threefold and γ-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman by more than ninefold without affecting α-T, glucose, arginine or ADMA. Baseline FMD, MDA, arginine and ADMA were unaffected by γ-TmT (P>.05). Postprandial FMD decreased 30%-44% (P<.05) following glucose ingestion, but was maintained with γ-TmT. Supplementation of γ-TmT also attenuated postprandial increases in MDA that occurred following glucose ingestion. Plasma arginine decreased (P<.05) in both trials to a similar extent regardless of γ-TmT supplementation. However, the ratio of ADMA/arginine increased time-dependently in both trials (P<.05), but to a lesser extent following γ-TmT supplementation (P<.05). Inflammatory proteins were unaffected by glucose ingestion or γ-TmT. Collectively, these findings support that short-term supplementation of γ-TmT maintains VEF during postprandial hyperglycemia possibly by attenuating lipid peroxidation and disruptions in NO• homeostasis, independent of inflammation.

  12. Plasma Free Amino Acid Responses to Intraduodenal Whey Protein, and Relationships with Insulin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Energy Intake in Lean Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Hutchison, Amy T.; Soenen, Stijn; Steinert, Robert E.; Clifton, Peter M.; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the effects of increasing loads of intraduodenal (ID) dairy protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with serum insulin, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and energy intake. Sixteen healthy men had concentrations of AAs, GLP-1 and insulin measured in response to 60-min ID infusions of hydrolysed whey protein administered, in double-blinded and randomised order, at 2.1 (P2.1), 6.3 (P6.3) or 12.5 (P12.5) kJ/min (encompassing the range of nutrient emptying from the stomach), or saline control (C). Energy intake was quantified immediately afterwards. Compared with C, the concentrations of 19/20 AAs, the exception being cysteine, were increased, and this was dependent on the protein load. The relationship between AA concentrations in the infusions and the area under the curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0–60 min) of each AA profile was strong for essential AAs (R2 range, 0.61–0.67), but more variable for non-essential (0.02–0.54) and conditional (0.006–0.64) AAs. The AUC0–60 min for each AA was correlated directly with the AUC0–60 min of insulin (R2 range 0.3–0.6), GLP-1 (0.2–0.6) and energy intake (0.09–0.3) (p < 0.05, for all), with the strongest correlations being for branched-chain AAs, lysine, methionine and tyrosine. These findings indicate that ID whey protein infused at loads encompassing the normal range of gastric emptying increases plasma concentrations of 19/20 AAs in a load-dependent manner, and provide novel information on the close relationships between the essential AAs, leucine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, and the conditionally-essential AA, tyrosine, with energy intake, insulin and GLP-1. PMID:26742062

  13. Translational neurophysiological markers for activity of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) modulator JNJ-40411813: Sleep EEG correlates in rodents and healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, A; de Boer, P; Lavreysen, H; Huysmans, H; Sinha, V; Raeymaekers, L; Van De Casteele, T; Cid, J M; Van Nueten, L; Macdonald, G J; Kemp, J A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2016-04-01

    Alterations in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) have been suggested as valid translational efficacy markers: activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) was shown to increase REM latency and to decrease REM duration. The present paper addresses the effects on vigilance states of the mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) JNJ-40411813 at different circadian times in rats and after afternoon dosing in humans. Due to its dual mGluR2 PAM/serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor antagonism in rodents, mGlu2R specificity of effects was studied in wild-type (WT) and mGluR2 (-/-) mice. 5-HT2A receptor occupancy was determined in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). Tolerance development was examined in rats after chronic dosing. EEG oscillations and network connectivity were assessed using multi-channel EEG. In rats, JNJ-40411813 increased deep sleep time and latency of REM onset but reduced REM time when administered 2 h after 'lights on' (CT2): this was sustained after chronic dosing. At CT5 similar effects were elicited, at CT10 only deep sleep was enhanced. Withdrawal resulted in baseline values, while re-administration reinstated drug effects. Parieto-occipital cortical slow theta and gamma oscillations were correlated with low locomotion. The specificity of functional response was confirmed in WT but not mGluR2 (-/-) mice. A double-blind, placebo-controlled polysomnographic study in healthy, elderly subjects showed that 500 mg of JNJ-40411813 consistently increased deep sleep time, but had no effect on REM parameters. This deep sleep effect was not explained by 5-HT2A receptor binding, as in the PET study even 700 mg only marginally displaced the tracer. JNJ-40411813 elicited comparable functional responses in rodents and men if circadian time of dosing was taken into account. These findings underscore the translational potential of sleep mechanisms in evaluating mGluR2 therapeutics when administered at the appropriate circadian time.

  14. Wheat rolls fortified with microencapsulated L-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid or equimolar folic acid increase blood folate concentrations to a similar extent in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Green, Timothy J; Liu, Yazheng; Dadgar, Samira; Li, Wangyang; Böhni, Ruth; Kitts, David D

    2013-06-01

    Mandatory folic acid fortification of grains such as wheat flour has been introduced in several countries to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. There are concerns, however, that folic acid could mask the hematologic signs of vitamin B-12 deficiency and lead to other adverse health outcomes in the population. Calcium L-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (L-5-MTHF), a synthetic form of reduced folate, should not mask vitamin B-12 deficiency and may be safer than folic acid. Unfortunately, L-5-MTHF is not stable in most food matrices such as bread. Microencapsulation of L-5-MTHF with sodium ascorbate and a modified starch is effective at preventing loss of the vitamin during baking and storage. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of wheat rolls fortified with microencapsulated L-5-MTHF or equimolar folic acid compared with wheat rolls containing no added folate (placebo) at increasing blood folate concentrations during 16 wk. Healthy men and women aged 18-45 y (n = 45) were randomly assigned to consume wheat rolls that contained L-5-MTHF (452 μg/d), the molar equivalent of folic acid (400 μg/d), or placebo. At 16 wk, the mean (95% CI) erythrocyte folate was 0.48 (0.27, 0.71) and 0.37 (0.17, 0.57) μmol/L higher in the L-5-MTHF (P < 0.001) and folic acid wheat roll (P = 0.001) groups, respectively, than in the placebo group. Likewise, the mean plasma folate was 23 (12, 34) and 23 (12, 34) nmol/L higher in the L-5-MTHF (P < 0.001) and folic acid wheat roll (P < 0.001) groups, respectively, than in the placebo group. There were no significant differences in blood folate concentrations between the L-5-MTHF and folic acid wheat roll groups. Both microencapsulated L-5-MTHF and folic acid-fortified wheat rolls increased blood folate concentrations compared with placebo.

  15. Effects of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling and swim exercise on post-exertional blood pressure in healthy young untrained and triathlon-trained men and women.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Robert; Notarius, Catherine; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Aerobic exercises such as running, walking and cycling are known to elicit a PEH (post-exercise hypotensive) response in both trained and UT (untrained) subjects. However, it is not known whether swim exercise produces a similar effect in normotensive individuals. The complex acute physiological responses to water immersion suggest swimming may affect BP (blood pressure) differently than other forms of aerobic exercises. We tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of swimming would fail to elicit a PEH BP response compared with an equivalent bout of stationary cycling, regardless of training state. We studied 11 UT and ten triathlon-trained young healthy normotensive [SBP/DBP (systolic BP/diastolic BP) <120/80 mmHg)] men and women (age 23±1 years) who underwent 30 min of intensity-matched cycling and swimming sessions to assess changes in BP during a 75-min seated recovery. CO (cardiac output), SV (stroke volume), TPR (total peripheral resistance), HR (heart rate), HRV (HR variability) and core and skin temperature were also assessed. In UT subjects, PEH was similar between cycling (-3.1±1 mmHg) and swimming (-5.8±1 mmHg), with the greater magnitude of PEH following swimming, reflecting a significant fall in SV between modalities (P<0.05). Trained individuals did not exhibit a PEH response following swimming (0.3±1 mmHg), yet had a significant fall in SBP at 50 min post-cycling exercise (-3.7±1 mmHg) (P<0.05). The absence of PEH after swimming in the trained group may reflect a higher cardiac sympathetic outflow [as indicated by the LF (low-frequency) spectral component of HRV) (25 and 50 min) (P<0.05)] and a slower return of vagal tone, consistent with a significant increase in HR between modalities at all time points (P<0.05). These results suggest that training may limit the potential for an effective post-exertional hypotensive response to aerobic swimming.

  16. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation. PMID:26864994

  17. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation.

  18. Men, food, and prostate cancer: gender influences on men's diets.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Lawrence W; Chapman, Gwen E; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2011-03-01

    Although healthy eating might enhance long-term survival, few men with prostate cancer make diet changes to advance their well-being. Men's typically poor diets and uninterest in self-health may impede nutrition interventions and diet change. Food choice behavior is complex involving many determinants, including gender, which can shape men's health practices, diets, and prostate cancer experiences. Developing men-centered prostate cancer nutrition interventions to engage men (and where appropriate their partners) in promoting healthy diets can afford health benefits. This article presents an overview and synthesis of current knowledge about men's food practices and provides an analysis of diet and diet change behaviors for men with prostate cancer. Masculinity and gender relations theory are discussed in the context of men's food practices, and suggestions for future applications to nutrition and prostate cancer research and diet interventions are made. PMID:20798140

  19. Men, food, and prostate cancer: gender influences on men's diets.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Lawrence W; Chapman, Gwen E; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2011-03-01

    Although healthy eating might enhance long-term survival, few men with prostate cancer make diet changes to advance their well-being. Men's typically poor diets and uninterest in self-health may impede nutrition interventions and diet change. Food choice behavior is complex involving many determinants, including gender, which can shape men's health practices, diets, and prostate cancer experiences. Developing men-centered prostate cancer nutrition interventions to engage men (and where appropriate their partners) in promoting healthy diets can afford health benefits. This article presents an overview and synthesis of current knowledge about men's food practices and provides an analysis of diet and diet change behaviors for men with prostate cancer. Masculinity and gender relations theory are discussed in the context of men's food practices, and suggestions for future applications to nutrition and prostate cancer research and diet interventions are made.

  20. Low Exercise Capacity Increases the Risk of Low Cognitive Function in Healthy Young Men Born Preterm: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Svedenkrans, Jenny; Kowalski, Jan; Norman, Mikael; Bohlin, Kajsa

    2016-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a risk factor for decreased exercise capacity and impaired cognitive functions in later life. The objective of this study was to disentangle the associations between preterm birth, physical fitness and cognitive performance in young adulthood. Methods This population-based cohort study included 218,802 young men born in Sweden 1973–1983. Data on birth characteristics was obtained from the Medical Birth Register and linked to exercise capacity assessed by ergometer cycling and cognitive tests performed at conscription for military service in 1993–2001. Cognitive performance was assessed using stanine (STAndard NINE) scores. The results were adjusted for socioeconomic factors. Results Exercise capacity was positively associated with cognitive performance across all gestational ages. The sub-group of men who were born extremely preterm (gestational age <28 weeks) and had low exercise capacity exhibited the lowest odds ratio (OR = 0.26, 95%CI:0.09–0.82) of having a cognitive function above the mean stanine score (2.9) for men born at term with normal birth weight. Men born extremely preterm with a high exercise capacity had similar or even higher ORs for cognitive function (OR = 0.59; 95% CI:0.35–0.99) than men born at term with low Wmax (OR = 0.57; 95% CI:0.55–0.59). Conclusions Physical fitness is associated with higher cognitive function at all gestational ages, also in young men born extremely preterm. Targeting early physical exercise may be a possible intervention to enhance cognitive performance and educational achievements in populations at risk, such as childhood and adult survivors of preterm birth. PMID:27548612

  1. Mechanisms subserving the physiological nocturnal relative hypoprolactinemia of healthy older men: dual decline in prolactin secretory burst mass and basal release with preservation of pulse duration, frequency, and interpulse interval--a General Clinical Research Center study.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, A; Mulligan, T; Veldhuis, J D

    1999-03-01

    Increasing age is accompanied by decrements in randomly obtained, fasting, or frequently sampled serum PRL concentrations. The precise neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying such relative hypoprolactinemia in aging are incompletely understood. In the present study, we sampled blood at 2.5-min intervals overnight in 11 young (aged 21-34 yr) and 8 older (aged 62-72 yr) healthy men for subsequent chemiluminescence-based assay of serum PRL concentrations. The mean (+/- SEM) serum PRL concentration was significantly reduced at 4.3 +/- 0.78 microg/L in older men compared with 9.5 +/- 1.2 microg/L in young volunteers (P = 0.0049). PRL concentrations correlated with serum testosterone (r = 0.473; P = 0.041), dehydroepiandrosteroen sulfate (r = +0.455, P = 0.05), and insulin-like growth factor I (r = 0.494; P = 0.032) levels. Deconvolution analysis was used to evaluate combined pulsatile and basal modes of PRL secretion. In older men, discrete PRL secretory bursts were marked by a significantly (2.4-fold) attenuated mass of hormone secreted per burst (amount of PRL secreted per unit distribution volume), viz. 1.6 +/- 0.23 (older) vs. 3.9 +/- 0.57 microg/L (young; P < 0.01). In contrast, PRL secretory burst frequency, interpulse interval, and pulse duration were invariant of age. Concomitantly, basal PRL secretion was reduced by 2-fold in older subjects, namely to 0.00030 +/- 0.00027 (older) vs. 0.00065 +/- 0.0002 microg/L/min (young; P < 0.01). The amount of total PRL secretion that was pulsatile averaged 82 +/- 5.3% in young and 99 +/- 0.13% in older men (P = 0.012), indicating preferential loss of the basal mode of PRL release in aging. Assuming that basal PRL secretion mirrors functional pituitary lactotroph cell secretory mass, whereas pulsatile PRL release reflects effective (net) intermittent hypothalamic drive to responsive lactotroph cells, then our results suggest both an attrition in lactotroph cell mass and an impoverishment of net positive hypothalamic (agonistic

  2. Variation in levels of serum inhibin B, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in monthly samples from healthy men during a 17-month period: possible effects of seasons.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2003-02-01

    To obtain information on the scale of the intraindividual variation in testicular hormone, blood samples for inhibin B determination were collected monthly in 27 healthy male volunteers during a 17-month period. In addition, the traditional reproductive hormones FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, and SHBG were measured. The intraindividual variation in inhibin B over the study period was, on the average, 10%, corresponding to the assay variation of the inhibin B assay, indicating that most of the observed day to day variation in inhibin B levels in men could be explained by assay variation. A seasonal variation was observed in LH and testosterone levels, but not in the levels of the other hormones. The seasonal variation in testosterone levels could be explained by the variation in LH levels. The seasonal variation in LH levels seemed to be related to the mean air temperature during the month before blood sampling, but not to the length of daylight or the hours of sunshine. In conclusion, our data showed that day to day levels of inhibin B are relatively constant in men and do not seem to be influenced by seasonal factors. In contrast, we found a seasonal variation in LH and testosterone levels in men. The peak levels of both LH and testosterone were observed during June-July, with minimum levels present during winter-early spring. Air temperature, rather than light exposure, seems to be a possible climatic variable explaining the seasonal variation in LH levels.

  3. Non-Smoking Tobacco Affects Endothelial Function in Healthy Men in One of the Largest Health Studies Ever Performed; The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway; HUNT3

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral tobacco (snuff) is taking a large market share in Scandinavia, especially with young users. However, long-term health effects are unknown. Small studies show association between snuff and reduced endothelial function, representing an early stage of vascular injury that often precedes manifest cardiovascular disease by several years. We therefore determined the associations between snuff and endothelial function in a large sample of healthy Norwegian men. Methods and Design In the Fitness substudy of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Aerobic fitness was measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). A cross-sectional design including 1 592 self-reported healthy men compared these observations with records of present tobacco use, standard cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status, using general linear models. Results FMD was lower in snuff users (FMD: 4.12%, 3.63, 4.61) compared to non-users (FMD: 4.52%, 4.27, 4.78) after adjustment for age (difference: -0.57%, -1.12, -0.01). After further adjustment for potential confounders, FMD still tended to be lower in snuff users than in non-users (difference: -0.53%, -1.09, 0.02). This difference was even more pronounced in the inactive snuff users (-0.83%, -1.59, -0.06) and in the low fit snuff users (-0.74%, CI -0.55, 0.079). Conclusions Oral tobacco is associated with a tendency towards reduced endothelial function, indicating vascular changes that precede cardiovascular disease. The strongest associations were found in men with low physical activity or reduced aerobic fitness. PMID:27490361

  4. Marked disparity between trabecular and cortical bone loss with age in healthy men. Measurement by vertebral computed tomography and radial photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, D.E.; Orwoll, E.S.; Jones, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    To define age-related changes in bone mineral content in normal men, we measured radial (proximal and distal) and vertebral bone mineral content in 62 men aged 30 to 92 years. Radial bone mineral content (largely cortical bone) was measured by single photon absorptiometry, and trabecular vertebral content (T12, L1 to L3) by computed tomography. Radial bone mineral content fell gradually (2% to 3.4% per decade) with age, but vertebral trabecular content fell more rapidly (12% per decade). Body size was not associated with the rate of bone loss from the distal radial and vertebral sites, but men with lower surface areas lost bone more rapidly at the predominantly cortical proximal radial site. The fact that radial cortical bone mineral content falls much less rapidly than vertebral trabecular content with age and is also associated with surface area indicates that trabecular and cortical bone compartments may be independently modulated. Age-related bone loss should not be considered a homogeneous process.

  5. Antibody Persistence at 1 and 4 Years Following a Single Dose of MenAfriVac or Quadrivalent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Healthy Subjects Aged 2–29 Years

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Aldiouma; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Findlow, Helen; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Elie, Cheryl; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Parulekar, Varsha; Diarra, Bou; Cheick Haidara, Fadima; Diallo, Fatoumata; Tapia, Milagritos; Akinsola, Adebayo K.; Adegbola, Richard A.; Bavdekar, Ashish; Juvekar, Sanjay; Chaumont, Julie; Martellet, Lionel; Marchetti, Elisa; LaForce, Marc F.; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Enwere, Godwin C.; Tang, Yuxiao; Borrow, Ray; Carlone, George; Viviani, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mass vaccination campaigns of the population aged 1–29 years with 1 dose of group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) in African meningitis belt countries has resulted in the near-disappearance of MenA. The vaccine was tested in clinical trials in Africa and in India and found to be safe and highly immunogenic compared with the group A component of the licensed quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY). Antibody persistence in Africa and in India was investigated. Methods. A total of 900 subjects aged 2–29 years were followed up for 4 years in Senegal, Mali, and The Gambia (study A). A total of 340 subjects aged 2–10 years were followed up for 1 year in India (study B). In study A, subjects were randomized in a 2:1 ratio, and in study B a 1:1 ratio to receive either PsA-TT or PsACWY. Immunogenicity was evaluated by measuring MenA serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) with rabbit complement and by a group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. In both studies, substantial SBA decay was observed at 6 months postvaccination in both vaccine groups, although more marked in the PsACWY group. At 1 year and 4 years (only for study A) postvaccination, SBA titers were relatively sustained in the PsA-TT group, whereas a slight increasing trend, more pronounced among the youngest, was observed in the participants aged <18 years in the PsACWY groups. The SBA titers were significantly higher in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group at any time point, and the majority of subjects in the PsA-TT group had SBA titers ≥128 and group A–specific IgG concentrations ≥2 µg/mL at any point in time in both the African and Indian study populations. Conclusions. Four years after vaccination with a single dose of PsA-TT vaccine in Africa, most subjects are considered protected from MenA disease. Clinical Trials Registration. PsA-TT-003 (ISRCTN87739946); PsA-TT-003a (ISRCTN46335400). PMID

  6. Short-term intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu contributes to prevention and/or improvement in metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men: a non-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is now widely appreciated as a cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as visceral obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. To date, incidence of metabolic syndrome is continuously increasing worldwide. In addition, low vegetable consumption has recently become a serious issue in Japan. Furthermore, Japan is facing a shortfall in places offering food that can help prevent metabolic syndrome in the first place. Our study is designed to influence these developments. We conducted a non-randomized controlled trial by offering a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu to middle-aged men in a workplace cafeteria. This menu was designed to prevent and reduce metabolic syndrome. Methods This intervention study took the form of a non-randomized controlled trial. Participants chose the control or intervention group. The control group consumed their habitual lunches without restriction and only nutrient contents were assessed. The intervention group received a Japanese-style healthy lunch at a workplace cafeteria for 3 months. The participants worked in offices at a city hall and mostly had low levels of physical activity. Data of 35 males (control group: 7 males, intervention group: 28 males, mean age: 47.2 ± 7.9 years) were collected and analyzed. Results We obtained an effective outcome by demonstrating that ongoing intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch decreased blood pressure and serum lipids and increased plasma ghrelin levels. The results grew more pronounced as intake of Japanese-style healthy lunches increased in frequency. Conclusions This study presents new empirical data as a result of an original intervention program undertaken in Japan. A Japanese-style healthy lunch menu containing many vegetables consumed can help prevent and/or improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:24673894

  7. Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal weight middle-aged men and women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unresolved issue in the field of diet and health is if and how changes in meal frequency affect energy metabolism in humans. We therefore evaluated the influence of reduced meal frequency without a reduction in energy intake on glucose metabolism in normal weight healthy male and female subjects...

  8. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  9. Effect of a diet enriched with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids on levels of low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy women and men.

    PubMed

    Mensink, R P; Katan, M B

    1989-08-17

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to lower the serum cholesterol level more effectively than monounsaturated fatty acids. It is unclear whether the difference--if any--is due to a lowering of the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We therefore placed 31 women and 27 men on a mixed natural diet rich in saturated fat (19.3 percent of their daily energy intake from saturated fat, 11.5 percent from monounsaturated fat, and 4.6 percent from polyunsaturated fat) for 17 days. For the next 36 days, they received a mixed diet with the same total fat content, but enriched with olive oil and sunflower oil ("monounsaturated-fat diet": 12.9 percent saturated fat, 15.1 percent monounsaturated fat, and 7.9 percent polyunsaturated fat) or with sunflower oil alone ("polyunsaturated-fat diet": 12.6 percent saturated fat, 10.8 percent monounsaturated fat, and 12.7 percent polyunsaturated fat). The serum LDL cholesterol level decreased by 17.9 percent in those on the monounsaturated-fat diet and by 12.9 percent in those on the polyunsaturated-fat diet (95 percent confidence interval for the difference between the effects of the two unsaturated-fat diets, -9.9 percent to 0.0 percent). In men, the HDL cholesterol level fell slightly but not significantly with both diets. In women, the HDL cholesterol level did not change with either. We conclude that a mixed diet rich in monounsaturated fat was as effective as a diet rich in (n-6)polyunsaturated fat in lowering LDL cholesterol. Both diets lowered the level of HDL cholesterol slightly in men but not in women.

  10. Middle-aged and older Chinese men and women in Singapore who smoke have less healthy diets and lifestyles than nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Can-Lan; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C

    2005-10-01

    Although studies in Western populations have shown that smokers have decreased dietary intakes of antioxidants and other health-related nutrients, this has not been established in oriental populations. This study aimed to identify differences in dietary and lifestyle characteristics between current, former, and never-smokers among middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore. The subjects, 45-74 y old, were participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort that enrolled 63,257 (27,959 men and 35,298 women) Chinese in Singapore between 1993 and 1998. Data on current dietary habits (using a validated, semiquantitative FFQ) and other lifestyle factors were collected through face-to-face interviews. Mean daily intakes of various nutrients were estimated using a food composition table that was specifically developed for this population. The current smoking rates were 36% in men and 6% in women; an additional 22% of men and 3% of women were former smokers. In both sexes, current smokers were less educated, had lower BMI, led a more sedentary lifestyle, and drank more alcohol and coffee than those who never smoked. Current smokers had dose-dependent decreases in the intakes of a wide range of antioxidants, vitamins, fiber, and calcium, but increases in the intakes of cholesterol and nitrosamines compared with people who never smoked. Former smokers had dietary intakes that either were similar to never-smokers or intermediate between current and never-smokers. Our results are consistent with findings among Western populations, and suggest that the unhealthy diet and lifestyle in smokers occur across diverse cultures.

  11. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  12. Identification of anaerobic threshold by analysis of heart rate variability during discontinuous dynamic and resistance exercise protocols in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Archiza, Bruno; Dos Santos, Daniel Augusto; Bonjorno, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Claudio Ricardo; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine anaerobic threshold (AT) during discontinuous dynamic and resistive exercise protocols by analysing of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood lactate (BL) in healthy elderly subjects and compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic variables obtained from these two forms of exercise. Fourteen elderly (70 ± 4 years) apparently healthy males underwent the following tests: (i) incremental ramp test on cycle ergometer, (ii) one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press at 45°, (iii) a discontinuous exercise test on a cycle ergometer (DET-C) protocol and (iv) a resistance exercise leg press (DET-L) protocol. Heart rate, blood pressure and BL were obtained during each increment of exercise intensity. No significant differences (P>0·05) were found between methods of AT determination (BL and HRV) nor the relative intensity corresponding to AT (30% of maximum intensity) between the types of exercise (DET-C and DET-L). Furthermore, no significant differences (P>0·05) were found between the DET-C and DET-L in relation to HRV, however, the DET-L provided higher values of systolic blood pressure and BL (P<0·05) from the intensity corresponding to AT. We conclude that HRV was effective in determination of AT, and the parasympathetic modulation responses obtained during dynamic and resistive exercise protocols were similar when compared at the same relative intensity. However, DET-L resulted in higher values of blood pressure and BL at workloads beyond AT.

  13. The effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on lipid peroxidation in healthy young men while controlling for diet and sleep: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Alzoghaibi, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We hypothesized that if we control for lifestyle changes during Ramadan, Ramadan Islamic intermittent fasting (IF) reduces oxidative stress. This study was conducted to examine the effect of Islamic IF during and outside of Ramadan on the circadian changes in lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) during and outside while controlling for potential confounders. METHODS: Serum MDA concentration was measured in eight healthy male volunteers at baseline (BL), after fasting for 1 week before Ramadan (BL fasting), and during Ramadan. Blood samples were drawn at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00. The participants were admitted to the sleep laboratory and monitored for 24 h on the day of the measurements. In the laboratory, each participant received meals of fixed compositions and caloric contents based on their ideal body weights. Light exposure, physical activity, and total sleep duration were uniformly maintained during the three study periods. RESULTS: The participants had a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years and a mean body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2. No significant changes were observed in MDA levels and blood glucose during BL, BL fasting, or Ramadan. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, under conditions of fixed sleep-wake schedules and caloric intake, Ramadan IF does not alter serum MDA levels in healthy subjects. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26933456

  14. Alcohol administration attenuates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in healthy men at low genetic risk for alcoholism, but not in high-risk subjects.

    PubMed

    Mick, Inge; Spring, Konstanze; Uhr, Manfred; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2013-09-01

    Acute alcohol challenge studies in rodents and naturalistic observations in drinking alcoholics suggest that alcohol stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. The literature on respective studies in healthy volunteers is more inconsistent, suggesting differential alcohol effects depending on dosage, recent drinking history, family history of alcoholism and alcohol-induced side effects. These papers and the putative pharmacologic mechanisms underlying alcohol effects on the HPA system are reviewed here and compared with a new study, in which we investigated how secretion of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol is affected by ingestion of 0.6 g/kg ethanol in 33 young healthy socially drinking males with a paternal history of alcoholism (PHP) versus 30 family history negative (FHN) males. Alcohol and placebo were administered in a 2-day, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design with randomized administration sequence. After administration of placebo, ACTH and cortisol decreased steadily over 130 minutes. In FHN subjects, secretion of both hormones was even more attenuated after alcohol, resulting in significantly lower levels compared with placebo. In PHP subjects, no alcohol effect on hormone secretion could be detected. The ratio of cortisol to ACTH secretion, each expressed as area under the secretion curve, was significantly increased by alcohol in FHN and PHP participants. These results argue against HPA stimulation being a mechanism that promotes the transition from moderate to dependent drinking. The fact that alcohol-induced HPA suppression was not detected in PHP males is consistent with the general concept that subjects at high risk for alcoholism exhibit less-pronounced alcohol effects.

  15. Effects of long-term head-down-tilt bed rest and different training regimes on the coagulation system of healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Thomas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Matteucci-Gothe, Raffaella; Sottara, Elke; Griesmacher, Andrea; Belavý, Daniel L; Felsenberg, Dieter; Werner, Andreas; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Immobility plus preexisting chronic disease or acute trauma can activate the coagulation system, thus increasing the risk for thromboembolic events. The effects of long-term bed-rest immobility and microgravity on the coagulation system of healthy persons (e.g., during crewed Mars missions) have not yet been studied. The main objective of the second Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2) “Coagulation Part” was to investigate adaptations of the hemostatic system during long-term bed rest (60 days) under simulated microgravity (6° head-down-tilt [6°HDT]) and after mobilization in three different volunteer groups (randomly assigned to CTR= inactive control group; RE= resistive exercise only group; and RVE= resistive exercise with whole-body vibration group). In 24 males (aged 21–45 years), before, during, and after long-term bed rest, key parameters of coagulation were measured from venous blood samples: D-dimer (DD), thrombin–antithrombin III complex (TAT), and prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 (PT-F1 + 2). Additionally, modified rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM®) analysis was performed. Times of exploratory analyses were as follows: baseline data collection 2 days before bed rest (BDC-2); eight different days of 6°HDT bed rest (HDT1–HDT60), and two different days after reambulation (R + 3 and R + 6). We found significant changes in DD, TAT, and PT-F1 + 2 over the total time course, but no consistent effect of physical interventions (RE, RVE) on these parameters. Notably, no parameter reached levels indicative of intravascular thrombin formation. All ROTEM® parameters remained within the normal range and no pathological traces were found. Sixty days of 6°HDT bed rest are not associated with pronounced activation of the coagulation system indicative of intravascular thrombus formation in healthy volunteers independent of the training type during the bed rest. PMID:24400137

  16. Metabolic responses to high-fat or low-fat meals and association with sympathetic nervous system activity in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Narumi; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2005-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the metabolic and sympathetic responses to a high-fat meal in humans. Fourteen young men (age: 23.6 +/- 0.5 y, BMI: 21.3 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) were examined for energy expenditure and fat oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry for 3.5 h after a high-fat (70%, energy from fat) or an isoenergetic low-fat (20% energy from fat) meal served in random order. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). After the high-fat meal, increases in thermoregulatory SNS activity (very low-frequency component of HRV, 0.007-0.035 Hz, 577.4+/-45.9 vs. 432.0+/-49.3 ms2, p<0.05) and fat oxidation (21.0+/-5.3 vs. 13.3+/-4.3 g, p<0.001) were greater than those after the low-fat meal. However, thermic effects of the meal (TEM) were lower after the high-fat meal than after the low-fat meal (27.5+/-11.2 vs. 36.1+/-10.9 kcal, p<0.05). In conclusion, the high-fat meal can stimulate thermoregulatory SNS and lipolysis, but resulted in lower TEM, suggesting that a high proportion of dietary fat intake, even with a normal daily range of calories, may be a potent risk factor for further weight gain.

  17. Applying Data Mining to Classify Age by Intestinal Microbiota in 92 Healthy Men Using a Combination of Several Restriction Enzymes for T-RFLP Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshio; Osaki, Takako; Oikawa, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota was measured following consumption of identical meals for 3 days in 92 Japanese men, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used to analyze their feces. The obtained operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the subjects' ages were classified by using Data mining (DM) software that compared these data with continuous data and for 5 partitions for age divided at 5 years intervals between the ages of 30 and 50. The DM provided Decision trees in which the selected OTUs were closely related to the ages of the subjects. DM was also used to compare the OTUs from the T-RFLP data with seven restriction enzymes (two enzymes of 516f-BslI and 516f-HaeIII, two enzymes of 27f-MspI and 27f-AluI, three enzymes of 35f-HhaI, 35f-MspI and 35f-AluI) and their various combinations. The OTUs delivered from the five enzyme-digested partitions were analyzed to classify their age clusters. For use in future DM processing, we discussed the enzymes that were effective for accurate classification. We selected two OTUs (HA624 and HA995) that were useful for classifying the subject's ages. Depending on the 16S rRNA sequences of the OTUs, Ruminicoccus obeum clones 1-4 were present in 18 of 36 bacterial candidates in the older age group-related OTU (HA624). On the other hand, Ruminicoccus obeum clones 1-33 were present in 65 of 269 candidates in the younger age group-related OUT (HA995).

  18. A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Active Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety of MenAfriVac in Healthy Malians

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Milagritos D.; Sow, Samba O.; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Diallo, Fatoumata; Doumbia, Moussa; Enwere, Godwin C.; Paranjape, Gandhali; Hervé, Jacques; Bouma, Enricke; Parulekar, Varsha; Martellet, Lionel; Chaumont, Julie; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Tang, Yuxiao; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Hartmann, Katharina; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background. A safe, affordable, and highly immunogenic meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was developed to control epidemic group A meningitis in Africa. Documentation of the safety specifications of the PsA-TT vaccine was warranted, with sufficient exposure to detect potential rare vaccine-related adverse reactions. Methods. This phase 3, double-blind, randomized, active controlled clinical study was designed to evaluate the safety—primarily vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs)—up to 3 months after administration of a single dose of the PsA-TT vaccine to subjects aged 1–29 years in Mali. Safety outcomes were also compared to those following a single dose of a licensed meningococcal ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY). Results. No vaccine-related SAEs occurred during the 3 months of follow-up of 4004 subjects vaccinated with a single dose of PsA-TT. When compared to PsACWY (1996 subjects), tenderness at the injection site appeared to be more frequent in the PsA-TT group. However, rates of local induration, systemic reactions, adverse events (AEs), and SAEs were similar in both groups, and unsolicited AEs and SAEs were all unrelated to the study vaccines. Conclusions. The study confirmed on a large scale the excellent safety profile of a single dose of PsA-TT when administered to its entire target population of 1–29 years of age. Clinical Trials Registration. PACTR ATMR201003000191317. PMID:26553682

  19. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). Following the pizza meal (155 min), yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in FI or appetite. This trial supports the use of pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  20. Comparison of gait of young men and elderly men.

    PubMed

    Blanke, D J; Hageman, P A

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the free-speed gait characteristics of healthy young men with those of healthy elderly men. Data collection consisted of high-speed cinematography resulting in synchronized front and side views of 24 healthy male volunteers, 12 between 20 and 32 years of age and 12 between 60 and 74 years of age. Young men were recruited to match the elderly men on the basis of right-leg length. Each subject participated in three filmed trials of free-speed ambulation down a 14-m walkway. The processed film was analyzed for eight gait characteristics. Differences in characteristics between the two groups were examined using a correlated t test (p less than .01). No significant differences were observed between the groups for step and stride length, velocity, ankle range of motion, vertical and horizontal excursions of the center of gravity, and pelvic obliquity; however, the younger men demonstrated a significantly larger stride width than the elderly men (p less than .01). The results suggest that the two populations of healthy adult men have similar gait characteristics. PMID:2913584

  1. Effects of pomegranate juice supplementation on pulse wave velocity and blood pressure in healthy young and middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Anthony; Hamadeh, Hiba; Leung, Wing Chi; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2012-09-01

    Pomegranate juice may improve cardiovascular risk because of its content of antioxidant polyphenols. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled parallel study to examine the effect of pomegranate juice on pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure (BP) and plasma antioxidant status (ferric reducing power; FRAP) in 51 healthy adults (30-50 years). Participants consumed 330 ml/day of pomegranate juice or control drink for four weeks. Measurements were made at baseline and at four weeks. There was no effect of the intervention on PWV (P = 0.694) and plasma FRAP (P = 0.700). However, there was a significant fall in systolic blood pressure (-3.14 mmHg, P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-2.33 mmHg P < 0.001) and mean arterial pressure (-2.60 mmHg, P < 0.001). Change in weight was similar in the two groups over the intervention period (P = 0.379). The fall in BP was not paralleled by changes in concentration of serum angiotensin converting enzyme. We conclude that pomegranate juice supplementation has benefits for BP in the short term, but has no effect on PWV. The mechanism for the effect is uncertain.

  2. Increased anxiety induced by listening to unpleasant music during stress exposure is associated with reduced blood pressure and ACTH responses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Jezova, Daniela; Hlavacova, Natasa; Makatsori, Aikaterini; Duncko, Roman; Loder, Ingrid; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety and the neuroendocrine response to stress stimuli is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of an acute increase in state anxiety to neuroendocrine activation under stress conditions. To do so, it was necessary to find a stress condition of the same character and intensity with and without a rise in state anxiety. We decided to examine the effects of listening to music on anxiety and to apply a new methodological approach. A group of 14 healthy volunteers participated in a counterbalanced crossover design study. The stress procedure consisted of mental (Stroop test, mental arithmetic) and physical (handgrip exercise) tasks combined with listening to music played forward (pleasant) or backwards (unpleasant). The results confirmed our hypothesis, namely the condition with listening to unpleasant music was anxiogenic, while the other was not. In case of increased state anxiety, the rise in ACTH concentrations in response to mental challenge and the increase in systolic blood pressure induced by handgrip exercise was reduced compared to the situation with unchanged anxiety. Concentrations of testosterone, oxytocin, vasopressin and aldosterone were slightly increased in response to the stress paradigm accompanied with increased anxiety. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that an acute increase in state anxiety contributes to neuroendocrine activation under stress conditions. Moreover, the results show that listening to music may both positively and negatively influence the perception of stress and the level of anxiety, which might have functional consequences.

  3. PH Measurements of the Brain Using Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31PMRS) in Healthy Men – Comparison of Two Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cichocka, Monika; Kozub, Justyna; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intracellular pH provides information on homeostatic mechanisms in neurons and glial cells. The aim of this study was to define pH of the brain of male volunteers using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31PMRS) and to compare two methods of calculating this value. Material/Methods In this study, 35 healthy, young, male volunteers (mean age: 25 years) were examined by 31PMRS in 1.5 T MR system (Signa Excite, GE). The FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2. Volume of interest (VOI) was selected depending on the size of the volunteers’ brain (11–14 cm3, mean 11.53 cm3). Raw data were analyzed using SAGE (GE) software. Results Based on the chemical shift of peaks in the 31PMRS spectrum, intracellular pH was calculated using two equations. In both methods the mean pH was slightly alkaline (7.07 and 7.08). Results were compared with a t-test. Significant difference (p<0.05) was found between these two methods. Conclusions The 31PMRS method enables non-invasive in vivo measurements of pH. The choice of the calculation method is crucial for computing this value. Comparing the results obtained by different teams can be done in a fully credible way only if the calculations were performed using the same formula. PMID:26692912

  4. Evaluation of the effect of wheat aleurone-rich foods on markers of antioxidant status, inflammation and endothelial function in apparently healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Hamill, Lesley L; Keaveney, Edel M; Strain, J J; Parker, Michael J; Welch, Robert W

    2012-11-14

    Observational data show an inverse association between the consumption of whole-grain foods, and inflammation and related diseases. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, whole grains, and in particular the aleurone layer, contain a wide range of components with putative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the effects of a diet high in wheat aleurone on plasma antioxidants status, markers of inflammation and endothelial function. In this parallel, participant-blinded intervention, seventy-nine healthy, older, overweight participants (45-65 years, BMI>25 kg/m²) incorporated either aleurone-rich cereal products (27 g aleurone/d), or control products balanced for fibre and macronutrients, into their habitual diets for 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and on day 29. Results showed that, compared to control, consumption of aleurone-rich products provided substantial amounts of micronutrients and phytochemicals which may function as antioxidants. Additionally, incorporating these products into a habitual diet resulted in significantly lower plasma concentrations of the inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (P = 0·035), which is an independent risk factor for CVD. However, no changes were observed in other markers of inflammation, antioxidant status or endothelial function. These results provide a possible mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of longer-term whole-grain intake. However, it is unclear whether this effect is owing to a specific component, or a combination of components in wheat aleurone.

  5. Evaluation of the gastrointestinal tolerability of corn starch fiber, a novel dietary fiber, in two independent randomized, double-blind, crossover studies in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Crincoli, Christine M; Garcia-Campayo, Vicenta; Rihner, Marisa O; Nikiforov, Andrey I; Liska, DeAnn; van de Ligt, Jennifer L G

    2016-11-01

    Two independent clinical studies were conducted to compare the gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability of corn starch fiber, a novel dietary fiber, at up to 50 g/day (single-dose study) or 90 g/day (multiple-serving study) with a negative control (no fiber) and a positive control (50 or 90 g polydextrose, for single- and multiple-serving studies, respectively) in generally healthy study volunteers. Flatulence and borborygmus were the primary symptoms reported at the higher doses of corn starch fiber and for the positive control interventions. Bowel movements were increased over 48 h with corn starch fiber at 90 g. Thresholds for mild GI effects were established at 30 g as a single dose and 60 g as multiple servings spread over the day. Other than moderate abdominal pain and mild increased appetite in one subject at 90-g corn starch fiber, no test article-related adverse events were reported.

  6. The effect of a short-term and long-term whole-body vibration in healthy men upon the postural stability.

    PubMed

    Piecha, Magdalena; Juras, Grzegorz; Król, Piotr; Sobota, Grzegorz; Polak, Anna; Bacik, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to establish the short-term and long-term effects of whole-body vibration on postural stability. The sample consisted of 28 male subjects randomly allocated to four comparative groups, three of which exercised on a vibration platform with parameters set individually for the groups. The stabilographic signal was recorded before the test commenced, after a single session of whole-body vibration, immediately after the last set of exercises of the 4-week whole-body vibration training, and one week after the training ended. The subjects were exposed to vibrations 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Long-term vibration training significantly shortened the rambling and trembling paths in the frontal plane. The path lengths were significantly reduced in the frontal plane one week after the training end date. Most changes in the values of the center of pressure (COP) path lengths in the sagittal and frontal plane were statistically insignificant. We concluded that long-term vibration training improves the postural stability of young healthy individuals in the frontal plane.

  7. The effect of endurance training and subsequent physical inactivity on glycaemic control after oral glucose load and physical exercise in healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikova, Zofia; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Vigas, Milan; Koska, Juraj

    2007-02-01

    Physical inactivity during space flight has a profound effect on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training (ET) may improve a negative effect of subsequent -6∘ head-down bed rest (HDBR) on glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy males completed the study consisting of 6 weeks lasting ET followed by 6 days HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pre-training VO2max and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO2max by 11%. ET significantly lowered while HDBR had no effect on fasting and OGTT plasma glucose levels. ET had no effect while HDBR was followed by an augmentation of insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT. Insulin sensitivity tended to increase after ET and to decrease during HDBR, however, mostly without statistical significance. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response to exercise were elevated after HDBR only. Our study shows that antecedent physical training could ameliorate a negative effect of simulated microgravity on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism.

  8. 60 Days of Head-down Bedrest Differentially Alters Venous Function in Lower and Upper Body Between Healthy Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westby, Christian M.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of orthostatic intolerance after space flight is disproportionally higher in female compared to male crewmembers (83% vs. 20%). Experimental and human data suggest that the loss of orthostatic tolerance is due, at least in part, to microgravity-induced changes in venous compliance and that these changes are specific to the lower body. It is unknown however, whether the changes in venous compliance are different between males and females after space flight, and whether this is related to the disparity in orthostatic intolerance between the sexes. Using 6deg head-down bed rest (BR) as a model of space flight, we tested the following hypotheses; 1) females, compared to males, would experience a greater increase in venous compliance in dorsal foot veins as an effect of BR and 2) no differences in venous compliance would be found in dorsal hand veins between sexes and across BR days. Using 2-D ultrasound, dorsal hand (DHV) and foot vein (DFV) responses (diameter; expressed as sq mm) to 40 mmHg of congestion pressure (compliance) and to intravenous infusion of phenylephrine (PE; 3160ng/min) were determined in 10 females and 16 males before and after 60 days of BR. The relation between changes in vein diameter (in response to pressure and PE), sex, limb, and BR days were determined using a mixed-effect linear regression. It was found that after 60 days of BR, DFV dilator response to pressure was significantly greater in females and significantly less in males compared to pre-BR. As expected, there were no differences in DHV dilator response between sexes nor was there a significant difference between pre and post measures within groups. Notably, the venoconstrictor response to infusions of PE in the DHV and DFV where similar between sexes and across BR days. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that after 60 days of BR, dorsal foot veins are more compliant in women and less compliant in men. Moreover, the changes in lower body vein compliance in females do

  9. Impact of Reduced Meal Frequency Without Caloric Restriction on Glucose Regulation in Healthy, Normal Weight Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Olga; Martin, Bronwen; Stote, Kim S.; Golden, Erin; Maudsley, Stuart; Najjar, Samer S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K.; Longo, Dan L.; Rumpler, William V.; Baer, David J.; Egan, Josephine; Mattson, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the field of diet and health is if and how changes in meal frequency affect energy metabolism in humans. We therefore evaluated the influence of reduced meal frequency without a reduction in energy intake on glucose metabolism in normal weight healthy male and female subjects. The study was a randomized cross-over design, with 2 eight-week treatment periods (with an intervening 11 week off-diet period) in which subjects consumed all of their calories for weight maintenance distributed in either 3 meals or 1 meal per day (consumed between 17:00 and 21:00). Energy metabolism was evaluated at designated time points throughout the study by performing morning oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and measuring levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Subjects consuming 1 meal/d exhibited higher morning fasting plasma glucose levels, greater and more sustained elevations of plasma glucose concentrations and a delayed insulin response in the OGTT compared to subjects consuming 3 meal/d. Levels of ghrelin were elevated in response to the 1 meal/d regimen. Fasting levels of insulin, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and BDNF were not significantly affected by meal frequency. Subjects consuming a single large daily meal exhibit elevated fasting glucose levels, and impaired morning glucose tolerance associated with a delayed insulin response, during a 2 month diet period compared to those consuming 3 meals/day. The impaired glucose tolerance was reversible and was not associated with alterations in the levels of adipokines or BDNF. PMID:17998028

  10. Immediate recall influences the effects of pre-encoding stress on emotional episodic long-term memory consolidation in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-05-01

    The stress-associated activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis influences memory. Several studies have supported the notion that post-learning stress enhances memory consolidation, while pre-retrieval stress impairs retrieval. Findings regarding the effects of pre-encoding stress, in contrast, have been rather inconsistent. In the current two studies, the impact of an immediate retrieval task on these effects was explored. In the first study, 24 healthy young male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition before viewing positive, negative, and neutral photographs, which were accompanied by a brief narrative. Immediate as well as delayed (24 h later) free recall was assessed. Stress was expected to enhance emotional long-term memory without affecting immediate recall performance. Stress caused a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations but had no significant effects on immediate or delayed retrieval performance, even though a trend toward poorer memory of the stress group was apparent. Based on these findings, the second experiment tested the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of stress on emotional long-term memory performance might be abolished by an immediate recall test. In the second study (n = 32), the same design was used, except for the omission of the immediate retrieval test. This time stressed participants recalled significantly more negative photographs compared to the control group. The present study indicates that an immediate retrieval attempt of material studied after stress exposure can prevent or even reverse the beneficial effects of pre-encoding stress on emotional long-term memory consolidation.

  11. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  12. Central nervous system effects of the interaction between risperidone (single dose) and the 5-HT6 antagonist SB742457 (repeated doses) in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Liem-Moolenaar, Marieke; Rad, Mandana; Zamuner, Stefano; Cohen, Adam F; Lemme, Francesca; Franson, Kari L; van Gerven, Joop M A; Pich, Emilio Merlo

    2011-01-01

    AIM Several lines of evidence suggest a possible role of 5-HT6receptor antagonists in cognitive dysfunction of schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone, are currently used in these disorders. Therefore, the pharmacological interactions between the 5-HT6 antagonist SB-742457 and risperidone were investigated in the light of possible co-medication. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover design was used to study the interaction between multiple doses SB-742457 50 mg and a single dose risperidone 2 mg in 18 healthy subjects. RESULTS Treatment was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was somnolence in 83% during the combination vs. 50% of subjects after risperidone, 32% after placebo and 11% after SB-742457. Combination treatment produced a statistically significant increase in the maximum plasma concentration of risperidone and had no effect on SB-742457 pharmacokinetics. Risperidone decreased saccadic peak velocity, finger tapping, adaptive tracking, subjective alertness, delayed word recognition and body sway and increased electroencephalogram (EEG) theta power and prolactin. The only pharmacodynamic interaction of risperidone and SB-742457 was an increase of absolute EEG alpha (ratio = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.40, P = 0.0004) and beta power (ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27, P = 0.016). No significant effects of SB-742457 alone were found. CONCLUSION The pharmacokinetic interactions between SB-742457 and risperidone detected in this study were not clinically relevant. The increase in EEG alpha and beta power is incompatible with enhanced risperidone activity, but could point to mild arousing effects of the combination. Most pharmacodynamic changes of risperidone are consistent with previously reported data. The potential cognitive effects of SB-742457 remain to be established. PMID:21223356

  13. Structure modification of a milk protein-based model food affects postprandial intestinal peptide release and fullness in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Kristiina R; Karhunen, Leila J; Vuori, Elisa; Lille, Martina E; Karhu, Toni; Jurado-Acosta, Alicia; Laaksonen, David E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Niskanen, Leo K; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2011-12-01

    Physico-chemical and textural properties of foods in addition to their chemical composition modify postprandial metabolism and signals from the gastrointestinal tract. Enzymatic cross-linking of protein is a tool to modify food texture and structure without changing nutritional composition. We investigated the effects of structure modification of a milk protein-based model food and the type of milk protein used on postprandial hormonal, metabolic and appetitive responses. Healthy males (n 8) consumed an isoenergetic and isovolumic test product containing either whey protein (Wh, low-viscous liquid), casein (Cas, high-viscous liquid) or Cas protein cross-linked with transglutaminase (Cas-TG, rigid gel) in a randomised order. Blood samples were drawn for plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY analysis for 4 h. Appetite was assessed at concomitant time points. Cas and Wh were more potent in lowering postprandial glucose than Cas-TG during the first hour. Insulin concentrations peaked at 30 min, but the peaks were more pronounced for Cas and Wh than for Cas-TG. The increase in CCK was similar for Cas and Wh in the first 15 min, whereas for Cas-TG, the CCK release was significantly lower, but more sustained. The feeling of fullness was stronger after the consumption of Cas-TG than after the consumption of Cas and Wh. The present results suggest that food structure is more effective in modulating the postprandial responses than the type of dairy protein used. Modification of protein-based food structure could thus offer a possible tool for lowering postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations and enhancing postprandial fullness.

  14. More men than women make mucosal IgA antibodies to Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18: a study of oral HPV and oral HPV antibodies in a normal healthy population

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Dianne J; Sampson, Candice; Jeftha, Anthea; Dhaya, Dherendra; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Denny, Lynette; Rybicki, Edward P; Van Der Walt, Eric; Stephen, Lawrence XG; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Background We have previously shown the high prevalence of oral anti-human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) antibodies in women with HPV-associated cervical neoplasia. It was postulated that the HPV antibodies were initiated after HPV antigenic stimulation at the cervix via the common mucosal immune system. The present study aimed to further evaluate the effectiveness of oral fluid testing for detecting the mucosal humoral response to HPV infection and to advance our limited understanding of the immune response to HPV. Methods The prevalence of oral HPV infection and oral antibodies to HPV types 16, 18 and 11 was determined in a normal, healthy population of children, adolescents and adults, both male and female, attending a dental clinic. HPV types in buccal cells were determined by DNA sequencing. Oral fluid was collected from the gingival crevice of the mouth by the OraSure method. HPV-16, HPV-18 and HPV-11 antibodies in oral fluid were detected by virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As a reference group 44 women with cervical neoplasia were included in the study. Results Oral HPV infection was highest in children (9/114, 7.9%), followed by adolescents (4/78, 5.1%), and lowest in normal adults (4/116, 3.5%). The predominant HPV type found was HPV-13 (7/22, 31.8%) followed by HPV-32 (5/22, 22.7%). The prevalence of oral antibodies to HPV-16, HPV-18 and HPV-11 was low in children and increased substantially in adolescents and normal adults. Oral HPV-16 IgA was significantly more prevalent in women with cervical neoplasia (30/44, 68.2%) than the women from the dental clinic (18/69, 26.1% P = 0.0001). Significantly more adult men than women displayed oral HPV-16 IgA (30/47 compared with 18/69, OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.09–12.1, P < 0.001) and HPV-18 IgA (17/47 compared with 13/69, OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.97–6.2, P = 0.04). Conclusion The increased prevalence of oral HPV antibodies in adolescent individuals compared with children was attributed to the

  15. Programmes to reach men.

    PubMed

    Charnock, D; Gordon, G

    1990-01-01

    Sex education should be oriented toward men and their role in healthy sex practices. By promoting condom usage as a contraceptive method and a preventive method against sexually transmitted diseases, family planning programs could effectively involve men in practicing safe sex. Some misconceptions among men about this contraceptive barrier include decreased sexual sensations during intercourse, partners being offended, and disruption of sexual intercourse. To increase their usage, programs must focus on creating a positive image of the condom. Advantages include no side-effects, easy use, and protection against unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Proper condom use should be emphasized to increase its usage among men. Condoms could be made more accessible through vending machines or community-based distribution centers. Male sex and contraceptive knowledge may be further enhanced by employing males counselors to train man in contraceptive and preventive measures. 2 organizations which have effectively involved men in promoting safe sex are The Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) and The Family Planning Association of Nepal (FPAN). PPAG integrates sex and health education with recreation. FPAN promotes condom usage through health and social services, media, and condom dispensers. Through condom usage, men become more responsible sexual partners.

  16. Effects of Moderate-to-Severe Impairment of the Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and of Proteinuria on the Central Hemodynamics and Arterial Stiffness in Middle-Aged Healthy Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Odaira, Mari; Matsumoto, Chisa; Yamada, Jiko; Yoshida, Masanobu; Shiina, Kazuki; Yamashina, Akira

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of moderate-to-severe impairment of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: 15 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and of proteinuria on the central hemodynamics and the pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 2244 middle-aged healthy Japanese men who were not receiving any medications for cardiovascular diseases or cardiovascular risk factors. The adjusted value of the radial augmentation index was higher in the subjects with proteinuria than in those without proteinuria. On the other hand, this value was similar between the subjects with and without moderate-to-severe impairment of the eGFR. Not only proteinuria but also moderate-to-severe impairment of the eGFR was associated with increase in the adjusted value of the brachial-ankle PWV. Thus, proteinuria was found to be an independent risk factor for abnormal central hemodynamics and increased stiffness of the large- to middle-sized arteries, while moderate-to-severe impairment of the eGFR was associated with an increase of the arterial stiffness, but not with abnormality of the central hemodynamics. PMID:21423551

  17. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  18. Men: Stay Healthy at Any Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Organization (PSO) Program Quality Measure Tools & Resources Tools & Resources Value Surveys on Patient Safety Culture Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture Nursing Home Survey ...

  19. Prostate Cancer Treatments: Different Choices for Different Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160953.html Prostate Cancer Treatments: Different Choices for Different Men Survival rates are all high, ... prove that "watchful waiting" is always the best choice. Men who were otherwise largely healthy and chose ...

  20. [Evaluation of the influence of exposure to tobacco smoke on the concentration of the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in the population of healthy men and non-pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Szumska, Magdalena; Krystyna, Tyrpien; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Długaszek, Michal; Krywult, Anna; Czubilińska, Justyna; Gawlik, Kaja

    2013-01-01

    The chemical variety of tobacco smoke components induces a multidirectional, not yet fully understood effects on living organisms, including both those actively and passively exposed. The chemical compounds present in tobacco smoke, due to its heterogeneous structure and properties undergo different biotransformation processes. Some components of tobacco smoke (for example, carbon monoxide) have an immediate effect on the body, in this case due to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin, and nicotine contained in the tobacco smoke also has direct influence on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, lifestyle imposed by the highly developed society, including a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet cause, that we are exposed to the factors associated with the formation of the so-called lifestyle diseases, like atherosclerosis and cancer. Pregnancy-Associated-PlasmaProtein A (PAPP-A) is a high-molecular zinc-binding metalloproteinase that was first detected in the serum of pregnant women as a protein produced by trophoblasts of properly developing fetus. In the blood of pregnant women PAPP-A exists as heterotetrameric complex (htPAPP-A) consisting of two subunits of PAPP-A. It can also be detected in men and women who are not pregnant but this time labeled PAPP-A is present as a homodimer (dPAPP-A, "free PAPP-A") consisting of two identical subunits devoid of proMBP protein. Recently a growing interest in determining the concentration of PAPP-A as a marker of oxidative stress and atherosclerotic processes is observed, because the increased levels of PAPP-Awere detected in people with a history of cardiovascular incident. PAPP-A is present on the early stages of atherosclerotic plaque instability when it is still possible to prevent a myocardial damage. The influence of smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke on concentrations of PAPP-A is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of PAPP-A levels in the population of healthy young

  1. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  2. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  3. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A.; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K. Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and…

  4. PlanHab: the combined and separate effects of 16 days of bed rest and normobaric hypoxic confinement on circulating lipids and indices of insulin sensitivity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth J; Debevec, Tadej; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor; Macdonald, Ian A

    2016-04-15

    PlanHab is a planetary habitat simulation study. The atmosphere within future space habitats is anticipated to have reduced Po2, but information is scarce as to how physiological systems may respond to combined exposure to moderate hypoxia and reduced gravity. This study investigated, using a randomized-crossover design, how insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and circulating lipids were affected by 16 days of horizontal bed rest in normobaric normoxia [NBR: FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 (0.3) mmHg], horizontal bed rest in normobaric hypoxia [HBR: FiO2 = 0.141 (0.004); PiO2 = 90.0 (0.4) mmHg], and confinement in normobaric hypoxia combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (HAMB). A mixed-meal tolerance test, with arterialized-venous blood sampling, was performed in 11 healthy, nonobese men (25-45 yr) before (V1) and on the morning ofday 17of each intervention (V2). Postprandial glucose and c-peptide response were increased at V2 of both bed rest interventions (P< 0.05 in each case), with c-peptide:insulin ratio higher at V2 in HAMB and HBR, both in the fed and fasted state (P< 0.005 in each case). Fasting total cholesterol was reduced at V2 in HAMB [-0.47 (0.36) mmol/l;P< 0.005] and HBR [-0.55 (0.41) mmol/l;P< 0.005]. Fasting HDL was lower at V2 in all interventions, with the reduction observed in HBR [-0.30 (0.21) mmol/l] greater than that measured in HAMB [-0.13 (0.14) mmol/l;P< 0.005] and NBR [-0.17 (0.15) mmol/l;P< 0.05]. Hypoxia did not alter the adverse effects of bed rest on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance but appeared to increase insulin clearance. The negative effect of bed rest on HDL was compounded in hypoxia, which may have implications for long-term health of those living in future space habitats. PMID:26769956

  5. Soft-tissue facial characteristics of attractive Chinese men compared to normal men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Li, Junfang; He, Hong; Huang, Na; Tang, Youchao; Wang, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the facial characteristics of attractive Chinese men with those of reference men. Materials and Methods: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks were collected in 40 healthy reference men and in 40 “attractive” men, soft tissue facial angles, distances, areas, and volumes were computed and compared using analysis of variance. Results: When compared with reference men, attractive men shared several similar facial characteristics: relatively large forehead, reduced mandible, and rounded face. They had a more acute soft tissue profile, an increased upper facial width and middle facial depth, larger mouth, and more voluminous lips than reference men. Conclusions: Attractive men had several facial characteristics suggesting babyness. Nonetheless, each group of men was characterized by a different development of these features. Esthetic reference values can be a useful tool for clinicians, but should always consider the characteristics of individual faces. PMID:26221357

  6. Street Men, Family Men: Race and Men's Extended Family Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisian, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    Disorganization theories postulate that black men have largely abandoned their familial roles. Using the NSFH data, this article refutes the hypothesis of black men's familial disengagement by focusing on extended family integration. Black men are more likely than white men to live with or near extended kin, as well as to frequently see kin in…

  7. Status of men's health in Canada.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, S Larry

    2014-07-01

    Men are more likely to die of cancer, heart disease, or diabetes at younger ages than women - a reality that is compounded by the reluctance of men to use healthcare services. In addition to reduced life expectancy, men can also expect to live fewer healthy years than their female counterparts. As gynecologists and obstetricians have led the women's health movement in addressing gender-specific gaps in care, urologists are well-poised to take on a leadership role to advocate for, and address, men's health initiatives. PMID:25243037

  8. Working towards Men's Health: Findings from the Sefton Men's Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve; McCullagh, Jo; Hacking, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a health improvement initiative aimed at enhancing the health of men in deprived areas. Design: A healthy lifestyle programme was undertaken with men to increase their health knowledge, and encourage behaviour modification and access to health improvement services. A peer mentoring programme was implemented and a training…

  9. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K Allen

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and whether religiously targeted and tailored health promotion materials will influence screening outcome. We used an integrated theoretical approach to explore participants' perceptions of CRC risk and prevention and how promotion messages should be developed and socially marketed by the church. Six focus groups were conducted with men from predominately AA churches in the Midwest. Themes from focus group discussions showed participants lacked knowledge about CRC, feared cancer diagnosis, and feared the procedure for screening. Roles of masculinity and the mistrust of physicians were also emergent themes. Participants did perceive the church as a trusted marketer of CRC but believed that promotional materials should be cosponsored and codeveloped by reputable health organizations. Employing the church as a social marketer of CRC screening promotion materials may be useful in guiding health promotions and addressing barriers that are distinct among African American men.

  10. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K Allen

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and whether religiously targeted and tailored health promotion materials will influence screening outcome. We used an integrated theoretical approach to explore participants' perceptions of CRC risk and prevention and how promotion messages should be developed and socially marketed by the church. Six focus groups were conducted with men from predominately AA churches in the Midwest. Themes from focus group discussions showed participants lacked knowledge about CRC, feared cancer diagnosis, and feared the procedure for screening. Roles of masculinity and the mistrust of physicians were also emergent themes. Participants did perceive the church as a trusted marketer of CRC but believed that promotional materials should be cosponsored and codeveloped by reputable health organizations. Employing the church as a social marketer of CRC screening promotion materials may be useful in guiding health promotions and addressing barriers that are distinct among African American men. PMID:26424748

  11. Plasma obestatin levels in men with chronic atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Yuan; Kuang, Hong-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ma, Zhi-Bin; Nie, Hao-Jie; Guo, Hong

    2008-10-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered active peptide isolated from the stomach. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the modification of plasma obestatin levels in men with chronic atrophic gastritis. Men older than 65 years undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were included. All patients with chronic atrophic gastritis underwent multiple biopsies. Fasting plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels were examined in 50 men with chronic atrophic gastritis and 50 healthy men. Plasma obestatin levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. Plasma ghrelin levels and ghrelin to obestatin ratio was decreased in men with chronic atrophic gastritis. There was a significant relationship between atrophy and decreased obestatin. A negative correlation was found between circulating obestatin levels and body mass index (BMI) in healthy subjects, but not in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. The data indicated that chronic atrophic gastritis influenced plasma obestatin levels as well as ghrelin to obestatin ratio in elderly men.

  12. The relation of the XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor gene and the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene to peak bone mass and bone turnover rate among young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, Ville-Valtteri; Piippo, Kirsi; Välimäki, Stiina; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kontula, Kimmo; Välimäki, Matti J

    2005-12-01

    The genes coding for estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) and androgen receptors (AR) are potential candidates for the regulation of bone mass and turnover, which may contribute to both the achievement of peak bone mass and bone loss after completion of growth. The present study was aimed at elucidating the role of two restriction fragment lengths (XbaI and PvuII) polymorphisms of the ER gene and the CAG repeat polymorphism of the AR gene as determinants of peak bone mass in men; special attention was paid to the interaction between serum free estradiol (E2) levels and the XbaI and PvuII genotypes. A cross-sectional study, with data on lifestyle factors collected retrospectively, was performed in 234 young men, aged 18.3 to 20.6 years. Of the men, 184 were recruits of the Finnish Army and 50 were men of similar age who had postponed their military service for reasons not related to health. Bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and scan area were measured in the lumbar spine and upper femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The bone turnover rate was assessed by measuring serum type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) as well as urinary excretion of type I collagen aminoterminal telopeptide (NTX). After adjusting for age, height, weight, exercise, smoking, calcium and alcohol intake, BMC, scan area and BMD at all measurement sites were similar for the different XbaI and PvuII genotypes of the ER and independent of the number of the CAG repeats of the AR gene. No association was found between free E2 levels and bone parameters among any genotype group of the XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms. Except for urinary NTX, which showed a tendency to higher values for the xx (P=0.08) and pp (P=0.10) genotypes of the ER, bone turnover markers were not related to the genotypes studied. Our study does not support the view that the XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of the ER gene and the CAG polymorphism of the AR

  13. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  14. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  15. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  16. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  17. Men Learning through Life (and Men's Sheds)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    This "Futures" column shares insights about men's learning beyond work, based on several decades of research in men's learning in international community contexts. The article focuses' particularly on men who want and need to learn to re-create and broaden their identities beyond their working lives. This practice, well established in…

  18. [The experience of men with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Anne-Marie; De Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne

    2015-01-01

    Many studies show that men make specific lifestyle choices. However, regarding high blood pressure (HBP), guidelines are without distinction for gender. The purpose of this project is to explore the men's experience with HBP. Using a phenomenological design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten men living with HBP to explore beliefs and perceptions of men living with HBP. The main framework used is the health belief model. Two themes emerged: the meaning given to HBP (an unavoidable disease, the trivialization of HBP et HBP as synonymous of stress) and the management of this illness (the notion of control, the paradox of knowing about what to do and implementation of healthy lifestyle, relationship with health professionals). These results bring a better understanding of the experience of men with hypertension. PMID:26333268

  19. Men can cook! Development, implementation, and evaluation of a senior men's cooking group.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heather H; Gibbs, Aime; Wong, Sharon; Vanderkooy, Patricia D; Hedley, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on the process and outcome evaluation of a community-based nutrition and cooking education program for senior men. As part of Evergreen Action Nutrition, a community-organized, nutrition education program, a registered dietitian led a Men's Cooking Group in a seniors' recreation facility. Written questionnaires were completed by most of the men (n = 19) at the beginning and end of the evaluation year, and ten men participated in personal key informant interviews. The majority of participants gained cooking confidence, increased their cooking activities at home, developed healthy cooking skills, and improved cooking variety through the program. The men also identified social benefits to the program. Overall, this preliminary evaluation suggests that community-based nutrition and cooking education for older men is a beneficial nutrition education activity.

  20. Slight chronic elevation of C-reactive protein is associated with lower aerobic fitness but does not impair meal-induced stimulation of muscle protein metabolism in healthy old men.

    PubMed

    Buffière, Caroline; Mariotti, François; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Migné, Carole; Meunier, Nathalie; Hercberg, Serge; Cano, Noel; Rémond, Didier; Duclos, Martine; Dardevet, Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Ageing impairs the muscle anabolic effect of food intake, which may explain muscle loss and an increased risk of sarcopenia. Ageing is also associated with low grade inflammation (LGI), which has been negatively correlated with muscle mass and strength. In rodents, the muscle anabolic resistance observed during ageing and sarcopenia has been ascribed to the development of the LGI. We aimed to investigate this relationship in humans. We studied protein metabolism and physical fitness in healthy elderly volunteers with slight chronic C-reactive protein. Two groups of healthy elderly volunteers were selected on the presence (or not) of a chronic, slight, elevation of CRP (Control: <1; CRP+: >2 mg l(-1) and <10 mg l(-1) , for 2 months). Body composition, short performance battery test, aerobic fitness and muscle strength were assessed. Whole body and muscle protein metabolism and the splanchnic extraction of amino acids were assessed using [(13) C]leucine and [(2) H]leucine infusion. The anabolic effect of food intake was measured by studying the volunteers both at the post-absorptive and post-prandial states. Slight chronic CRP elevation resulted in neither an alteration of whole body, nor skeletal muscle protein metabolism at both the post-absorptive and the post-prandial states. However, CRP+ presented a reduction of physical fitness, increased abdominal fat mass and post-prandial insulin resistance. Plasma cytokines (interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor α) and markers of endothelial inflammation (intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule, selectins) were similar between groups. An isolated elevated CRP in healthy older population does not indicate an impaired skeletal muscle anabolism after food intake, nor an increased risk of skeletal muscle wasting. We propose that a broader picture of LGI (notably with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines) is required to impact muscle metabolism and mass. However, an isolated chronic CRP

  1. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p < 0.0001). Decreases in abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, DSAT and SSAT, respectively). Adipose tissue areas at midthigh also decreased (-18%, -18%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total, deep, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, respectively). A reduction (-9%, p < 0.0001) in low-attenuation muscle area and an increase (+1%, p < 0.05) in normal-attenuation muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) or SSAT (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). Although absolute changes in DSAT were greater than changes in SSAT, relative changes in both depots were similar, independent of changes in visceral adipose tissue. The 1-year lifestyle modification program therefore improved the body fat distribution pattern and midthigh muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  2. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  3. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  4. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  5. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  6. Slight chronic elevation of C-reactive protein is associated with lower aerobic fitness but does not impair meal-induced stimulation of muscle protein metabolism in healthy old men

    PubMed Central

    Buffière, Caroline; Mariotti, François; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Migné, Carole; Meunier, Nathalie; Hercberg, Serge; Cano, Noel; Rémond, Didier; Duclos, Martine; Dardevet, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Ageing impairs the muscle anabolic effect of food intake, which may explain muscle loss and an increased risk of sarcopenia. Ageing is also associated with low grade inflammation (LGI), which has been negatively correlated with muscle mass and strength. In rodents, the muscle anabolic resistance observed during ageing and sarcopenia has been ascribed to the development of the LGI. We aimed to investigate this relationship in humans. We studied protein metabolism and physical fitness in healthy elderly volunteers with slight chronic C-reactive protein. Two groups of healthy elderly volunteers were selected on the presence (or not) of a chronic, slight, elevation of CRP (Control: <1; CRP+: >2 mg l−1 and <10 mg l−1, for 2 months). Body composition, short performance battery test, aerobic fitness and muscle strength were assessed. Whole body and muscle protein metabolism and the splanchnic extraction of amino acids were assessed using [13C]leucine and [2H]leucine infusion. The anabolic effect of food intake was measured by studying the volunteers both at the post-absorptive and post-prandial states. Slight chronic CRP elevation resulted in neither an alteration of whole body, nor skeletal muscle protein metabolism at both the post-absorptive and the post-prandial states. However, CRP+ presented a reduction of physical fitness, increased abdominal fat mass and post-prandial insulin resistance. Plasma cytokines (interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor α) and markers of endothelial inflammation (intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule, selectins) were similar between groups. An isolated elevated CRP in healthy older population does not indicate an impaired skeletal muscle anabolism after food intake, nor an increased risk of skeletal muscle wasting. We propose that a broader picture of LGI (notably with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines) is required to impact muscle metabolism and mass. However, an isolated chronic CRP

  7. The First Look at Fatherhood: For Men Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Health, Des Moines.

    Directed at men planning to become fathers, this booklet offers recommendations on how men can increase their chances of producing physically and mentally healthy babies. A number of precautions can be taken both before and after conception. Potential effects of alcohol abuse, drug use and abuse, smoking, and toxic chemicals encountered in the…

  8. A metered intake of milk following exercise and thermal dehydration restores whole-body net fluid balance better than a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or water in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Seery, Suzanne; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions. A metered replacement volume of M, CE or W equivalent to 150 % of the BM loss was then consumed within 2-3 h. NFB was subsequently measured for 5 h from commencement of rehydration. A higher overall NFB in M than CE (P=0·001) and W (P=0·006) was observed, with no difference between CE and W (P=0·69). After 5 h, NFB in M remained positive (+117 (sd 122) ml) compared with basal, and it was greater than W (-539 (sd 390) ml, P=0·011) but not CE (-381 (sd 460) ml, P=0·077, d=1·6). Plasma osmolality (Posm) and K remained elevated above basal in M compared with CE and W. The change in Posm was associated with circulating pre-provasopressin (r s 0·348, P<0·001), a biomarker of arginine vasopressin, but could not account fully for the augmented NFB in M compared with CE and W. These data suggest that a metered approach to fluid ingestion acts in synergy with the nutrient composition of M in the restoration of NFB following exercise and thermal dehydration. PMID:27477047

  9. A metered intake of milk following exercise and thermal dehydration restores whole-body net fluid balance better than a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or water in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Seery, Suzanne; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions. A metered replacement volume of M, CE or W equivalent to 150 % of the BM loss was then consumed within 2-3 h. NFB was subsequently measured for 5 h from commencement of rehydration. A higher overall NFB in M than CE (P=0·001) and W (P=0·006) was observed, with no difference between CE and W (P=0·69). After 5 h, NFB in M remained positive (+117 (sd 122) ml) compared with basal, and it was greater than W (-539 (sd 390) ml, P=0·011) but not CE (-381 (sd 460) ml, P=0·077, d=1·6). Plasma osmolality (Posm) and K remained elevated above basal in M compared with CE and W. The change in Posm was associated with circulating pre-provasopressin (r s 0·348, P<0·001), a biomarker of arginine vasopressin, but could not account fully for the augmented NFB in M compared with CE and W. These data suggest that a metered approach to fluid ingestion acts in synergy with the nutrient composition of M in the restoration of NFB following exercise and thermal dehydration.

  10. Variations in HDL-carried miR-223 and miR-135a concentrations after consumption of dietary trans fat are associated with changes in blood lipid and inflammatory markers in healthy men - an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Desgagné, Véronique; Guay, Simon-Pierre; Guérin, Renée; Corbin, François; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoit; Bouchard, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    A high consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have many cardioprotective properties and transport functional microRNAs (miRNAs) to recipient cells. We hypothesized that dietary TFAs modify the HDL-carried miRNA profile, therefore modulating its cardioprotective properties. We assessed whether consumption of dietary TFAs modifies HDL-carried miR-223-3p and miR-135a-3p concentration and the inter-relationship between diet-induced changes in HDL-carried miRNA concentration and CVD risk markers. In a double blind, randomized, crossover, controlled study, 9 men were fed each of 3 experimental isoenergetic diets: 1) High in industrial TFA (iTFA; 3.7% energy); 2) High in TFA from ruminants (rTFA; 3.7% energy); 3) Low in TFA (control; 0.8% energy) for 4 weeks each. HDLs were isolated by ultracentrifugation and miRNAs were quantified by RT-qPCR. Variations in HDL-miR-223-3p concentration were negatively correlated with variations in HDL-cholesterol after the iTFA diet (rs = 0.82; P = 0.007), and positively correlated with variations in C-reactive protein concentration after the rTFA diet (rs = 0.75; P = 0.020). Variations in HDL-miR-135a-3p concentration were positively correlated with variations in total triglyceride (TG) concentration following the iTFA diet (rs = -0.82; P = 0.007), and with variations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-TG concentration following the rTFA diet (rs = 0.83; P = 0.005), compared to the control diet. However, the consumption of dietary TFAs has no significant unidirectional impact on HDL-carried miR-223-3p and miR-135a-3p concentrations. Our results suggest that the variability in the HDL-carried miRNAs response to TFA intake, by being associated with variations in CVD risk factors, might reflect physiological changes in HDL functions. PMID:27099924

  11. Variations in HDL-carried miR-223 and miR-135a concentrations after consumption of dietary trans fat are associated with changes in blood lipid and inflammatory markers in healthy men - an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Desgagné, Véronique; Guay, Simon-Pierre; Guérin, Renée; Corbin, François; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoit; Bouchard, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    A high consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have many cardioprotective properties and transport functional microRNAs (miRNAs) to recipient cells. We hypothesized that dietary TFAs modify the HDL-carried miRNA profile, therefore modulating its cardioprotective properties. We assessed whether consumption of dietary TFAs modifies HDL-carried miR-223-3p and miR-135a-3p concentration and the inter-relationship between diet-induced changes in HDL-carried miRNA concentration and CVD risk markers. In a double blind, randomized, crossover, controlled study, 9 men were fed each of 3 experimental isoenergetic diets: 1) High in industrial TFA (iTFA; 3.7% energy); 2) High in TFA from ruminants (rTFA; 3.7% energy); 3) Low in TFA (control; 0.8% energy) for 4 weeks each. HDLs were isolated by ultracentrifugation and miRNAs were quantified by RT-qPCR. Variations in HDL-miR-223-3p concentration were negatively correlated with variations in HDL-cholesterol after the iTFA diet (rs = 0.82; P = 0.007), and positively correlated with variations in C-reactive protein concentration after the rTFA diet (rs = 0.75; P = 0.020). Variations in HDL-miR-135a-3p concentration were positively correlated with variations in total triglyceride (TG) concentration following the iTFA diet (rs = -0.82; P = 0.007), and with variations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-TG concentration following the rTFA diet (rs = 0.83; P = 0.005), compared to the control diet. However, the consumption of dietary TFAs has no significant unidirectional impact on HDL-carried miR-223-3p and miR-135a-3p concentrations. Our results suggest that the variability in the HDL-carried miRNAs response to TFA intake, by being associated with variations in CVD risk factors, might reflect physiological changes in HDL functions.

  12. Vitamin B-6 restriction tends to reduce the red blood cell glutathione synthesis rate without affecting red blood cell or plasma glutathione concentrations in healthy men and women123

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Yvonne; O'Rourke, Bruce; Gilbert, Lesa R; Keeling, Christine; Matthews, Dwight E; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Background: Glutathione plays various protective roles in the human body. Vitamin B-6 as pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) is required as the coenzyme in the formation of glutathione precursors. Despite this obligatory role of PLP, previous studies from this laboratory showed that vitamin B-6 deficiency caused elevated glutathione concentrations in rat liver and human plasma. Objective: Our aim was to determine the effect of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency (plasma PLP 20–30 nmol/L) on the rate of red blood cell (RBC) glutathione synthesis. Design: We measured plasma and RBC glutathione concentrations and the fractional and absolute synthesis rates of RBC glutathione using the stable-isotope-labeled glutathione precursor [1,2-13C2]glycine in 13 healthy volunteers aged 21–39 y. Results: Dietary vitamin B-6 restriction did not significantly affect the glutathione concentration in plasma (6.9 ± 1.9 compared with 6.7 ± 1.1 μmol/L) or RBCs (2068 ± 50 compared with 2117 ± 48 μmol/L). For RBC glutathione, the mean fractional synthesis rates were 54 ± 5%/d and 43 ± 4%/d (P = 0.10), and the absolute synthesis rates were 1116 ± 100 and 916 ± 92 μmol · L−1 · d−1 (P = 0.14) before and after vitamin B-6 restriction, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency tended to decrease mean RBC glutathione synthesis with no effect on RBC glutathione concentration, but the responses varied widely among individuals. Because the cysteine concentration in plasma and RBC did not change during vitamin B-6 restriction, we conclude that the effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency on glutathione synthesis are not caused by altered precursor concentrations. PMID:19515736

  13. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia.

  14. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  15. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  16. Men's aesthetic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anthony M

    2014-12-01

    Cosmetic dermatology is continuing to see a dramatic increase in both procedures performed and technological advancements. Men's aesthetic dermatology is burgeoning with more men seeking cosmetic consultations and intervention. Whether it is targeted cosmeceuticals for men or male-specific procedures, dermatologists must be aware of this evolving demographic and understand the biological, anatomical, and psychological aspects that separate this cohort from their female counterparts. Cosmetic dermatology has moved beyond just applying the same techniques used for females onto males. The use of our cosmetic toolbox can differ for men in terms of technique and dosage. This article will review the state of men's aesthetic dermatology with. PMID:25830252

  17. Managing type 2 diabetes in men.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Richard

    2012-06-01

    The growing epidemic of T2DM requires intervention to assist patients who have been diagnosed to better manage the disease, to reduce the risk of developing the disease in those who have not yet been diagnosed, and to manage the associated complications. In addition to individualizing interventions based on a patient's needs, concerns, and capabilities, taking gender into account is necessary. In otherwise healthy people, several independent factors appear to pose a higher risk of T2DM in men relative to women, including systolic hypertension, regular smoking, and alcohol intake ≥ 40 g/d. At the same time, men achieve greater risk reduction from moderate daily alcohol intake and a diet high in fish and seafood, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and magnesium. Once diagnosed with T2DM, men generally fare better than women regarding the risk for CVD; they also have a better prognosis after MI and a lower risk of death overall from CVD. Possible independent risk factors for CVD in men with T2DM that are especially important may include hypertension, poor glycemic control, and low HDL-C levels. Psychosocial complications, such as depression, are less likely in men with T2DM. However, men expend less effort coping, are less likely to utilize healthcare services, and are less informed about treatment options. Although men have a lower expectation of the benefit of self-management, they find support from family and friends more helpful than do women, but they are fearful of losing control of their disease. Taking these gender differences into account should prove helpful as family care physicians work with men to reduce their risk of developing T2DM and in helping men diagnosed with T2DM to better self-manage their disease. PMID:22670243

  18. Thermal maps of young women and men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  19. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  20. The Healthy Living Project: An Individually Tailored, Multidimensional Intervention for HIV-Infected Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Kirshenbaum, Sheri B.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Remien, Robert H.; Morin, Stephen F.

    2005-01-01

    The NIMH Healthy Living Project (HLP), a randomized behavioral intervention trial for people living with HIV, enrolled 943 individuals, including women, heterosexual men, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men from Los Angeles, Milwaukee, New York, and San Francisco. The intervention, which is based on qualitative formative research…

  1. Osteoporosis in Men

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Sundeep; Amin, Shreyasee; Orwoll, Eric

    2008-01-01

    With the aging of the population, there is a growing recognition that osteoporosis and fractures in men are a significant public health problem, and both hip and vertebral fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in men. Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous clinical entity: whereas most men experience bone loss with aging, some men develop osteoporosis at a relatively young age, often for unexplained reasons (idiopathic osteoporosis). Declining sex steroid levels and other hormonal changes likely contribute to age-related bone loss, as do impairments in osteoblast number and/or activity. Secondary causes of osteoporosis also play a significant role in pathogenesis. Although there is ongoing controversy regarding whether osteoporosis in men should be diagnosed based on female- or male-specific reference ranges (because some evidence indicates that the risk of fracture is similar in women and men for a given level of bone mineral density), a diagnosis of osteoporosis in men is generally made based on male-specific reference ranges. Treatment consists both of nonpharmacological (lifestyle factors, calcium and vitamin D supplementation) and pharmacological (most commonly bisphosphonates or PTH) approaches, with efficacy similar to that seen in women. Increasing awareness of osteoporosis in men among physicians and the lay public is critical for the prevention of fractures in our aging male population. PMID:18451258

  2. Young addicted men hormone profile detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Paweł; Wasiewicz, Piotr; Leszczyńska, Bożena; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2010-09-01

    Hormone parameters were determined in the serum of young addicted men in order to compare them with those obtained from the group of healthy subjects. Three groups were investigated which were named opiates, mixed and control group. Statistical and data mining methods were applied to obtain significant differences. R package was used for all computation. The determination of hormones parameters provide important information relative to impact of addiction.

  3. Getting on Track: Physical Activity and Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... online physical activity and nutrition trackers for this purpose. See the "Additional Resources" section at the end ... Information Strategic Plans & Reports Advisory & Coordinating Committees Research Areas Jobs at NIDDK FAQs Visit Us News NIDDK ...

  4. The Healthy Men Study, a Partnership Exploring Associations between Drinking

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the chlorination of public drinking water supplies has provided enormous public health benefits, toxicity test data regarding resultant disinfection by-products (DBPs) have raised new health concerns. Data in rats, produced by EPA and others, indicate that exposure to DB...

  5. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  6. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  7. Eating disorders in men.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Damon B; Williams, Jeffrey

    2016-09-22

    Eating disorders are traditionally thought of as a problem specific to women, but evidence suggests the disorders also occur in men. Identifying the problem and referring patients for treatment can be difficult. Understanding the nuances of these disorders and realizing the incidence in men is important, as it is often overlooked as a differential diagnosis. PMID:27552690

  8. What Do Men Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Definitions of the male role are changing as more men seek fulfillment in family life, redefine success, or attempt to balance family and career. Corporate structure no longer fits the lives of many men, but employers continue to resist change. (SK)

  9. Lost Men on Campus. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Elizabeth Redden, author of the "Inside Higher Ed" article, "Lost Men on Campus," succinctly articulated the growing concerns about many college men at postsecondary institutions. Her review of results and issues presented at the "ND Conference on College Men" highlighted decreased rates of enrollment for men, underrepresentation of men in campus…

  10. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  11. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  12. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40-80 years) with prediabetes (PD) and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males' Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively). In men with PD aged 40-59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60-80 years), only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic patients as compared to healthy men, while the severity of depressive symptoms was higher only in middle-aged men with PD. Hormonal determinants of andropausal and depressive symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients, but endocrine tests are necessary in all men with PD.

  13. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I

    MedlinePlus

    Wermer syndrome; MEN I ... MEN I is caused by a defect in a gene that carries the code for a protein called menin. ... your provider if you notice symptoms of MEN I or have a family history of this condition.

  14. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  15. Healthy option preferences of rural restaurant customers.

    PubMed

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Snetselaar, Linda; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Hradek, Christine; Sepulveda, Marisol

    2010-11-01

    In preparation for an intervention study in three rural Iowa restaurants, 250 customers were surveyed regarding their interest in dietary change, perceptions of the restaurant, and interest in healthy options. Customers were ages 18 to 88, with a mean age of 52, and 53% were women. Most agreed that the restaurant offers healthy meals. Options customers stated they were most likely to order if available included meat that is baked or broiled, whole-wheat bread, fresh fruit or steamed vegetables, and regular salad dressing on the side. They were least interested in low-fat sour cream, low-fat salad dressing, low-fat milk, low-calorie dessert, and holding high-fat ingredients. Women were more likely to indicate interest in healthy options than were men. Interest in several options was also positively associated with age. Increasing the healthy options in restaurants may be especially effective in changing the dietary intake of women and older adults.

  16. Antisperm protein targets in azoospermia men

    PubMed Central

    Zangbar, Mohammad-Sadegh Soltani; Keshtgar, Sara; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of couples that meet the definition of infertility at reproductive ages is increasing worldwide. One of the most known conditions of infertility in males is azoospermia, defined as complete absence of spermatozoa in the semen. Azoospermia manifests in two forms, namely obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia. Although the presence of antisperm antibody (ASA) has been reported in 88% of the patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA), interestingly, there is no data regarding ASA targets in OA individuals. AIM: The present study aimed to identify sperm antibody targets in a group of OA men. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study was carried out on 27 OA infertile men and 27 healthy fertile age-matched males as cases and controls, respectively. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sperm proteome was separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis technique, transferred onto the polyvinylidene fluoride membrane, and blotted with the sera of a group of OA men. Then, it was compared with the membranes blotted with the sera of a group of healthy fertile men. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry was used to identify the different blotted spots and finally the results of the mass analysis were confirmed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS: The results indicated that OA patients might produce antibody against two sperm proteins, Tektin-2 and triose phosphate isomerase. Moreover, the expressions of the two targeted proteins were confirmed at RNA level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study revealed two functionally important sperm proteins as antibody targets in azoospermic men. PMID:27110078

  17. Osteoporosis in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... formation. Because it requires daily injections and is expensive, doctors usually prescribe it only for men with ... wine, or a single measure of spirits) • Quit smoking. If you already have osteoporosis, you should take ...

  18. [Men and family planning].

    PubMed

    Vieira, J G

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs since their beginnings have focused exclusively on women. The importance of male participation in family planning has not been recognized. Today's society demands greater understanding and empathy between spouses, if they are to meet the new and difficult challenges of modern life. Incorporation of men into family planning programs is needed because of the deteriorating live conditions of a large segment of the population and the accelerating decomposition of social structures. Persuading men to participate in family planning should strengthen the couple and increase the probability that decisions about family size will be responsible. Strategies should be designed to interest men in family planning and increase their awareness of their role in fathering happy children who enter the world in more just and humane conditions. Such strategies must combat sex role socialization that begins in infancy. The assignment of responsibility for family planning to the woman excludes men from what should be a fundamental role.

  19. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  20. For Men Only

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, A. Victor, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Central Piedmont Community College has developed a course designed to help men take an objective look at themselves and their circumstances, develop an awareness of alternate points of view, and learn processes for goal setting and lifestyle planning. (DC)

  1. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  2. Gum Disease and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... health is another way to reduce this risk. IMPOTENCE Men with periodontal disease, especially those younger than ... than 70, are at increased risk of developing impotence, according to research. Researchers believe that inflammation may ...

  3. Osteoporosis in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... talk to their doctor about having a bone mineral density (BMD) test. Men should also be tested ... tests. The doctor may also order a bone mineral density test. This test can identify osteoporosis, determine ...

  4. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods. PMID:12293534

  5. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.

  6. Suicide in young men.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Alexandra; Krysinska, Karolina; Osborn, David; King, Michael

    2012-06-23

    Suicide is second to only accidental death as the leading cause of mortality in young men across the world. Although suicide rates for young men have fallen in some high-income and middle-income countries since the 1990s, wider mortality measures indicate that rates remain high in specific regions, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups within those nations where rates have fallen, and that young men account for a substantial proportion of the economic cost of suicide. High-lethality methods of suicide are preferred by young men: hanging and firearms in high-income countries, pesticide poisoning in the Indian subcontinent, and charcoal-burning in east Asia. Risk factors for young men include psychiatric illness, substance misuse, lower socioeconomic status, rural residence, and single marital status. Population-level factors include unemployment, social deprivation, and media reporting of suicide. Few interventions to reduce suicides in young men have been assessed. Efforts to change help-seeking behaviour and to restrict access to frequently used methods hold the most promise.

  7. Do Men Really Fear Nurturing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. O.; And Others

    Despite recent research showing men capable of nurturing behavior, most men remain reluctant to care for children. Some researchers have suggested that men are fearful of nurturing as a result of traditional sex role socialization while others have suggested an increased role of external factors in explaining the lack of men in child care (pay,…

  8. Health Information Needs of Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To understand the views of men and service providers concerning the health information needs of men. Design: A men's health programme was implemented aimed at developing new health information resources designed for use by local organizations with men in socially disadvantaged groups. Research was carried out at the scoping stage…

  9. Sex Differences in Cognition in Healthy Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Cynthia A.; Winicki, Jessica M.; Schretlen, David J.; Gower, Emily W.; Turano, Kathleen A.; Muñoz, Beatriz; Keay, Lisa; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance have been attributed to factors, such as sex hormones or sexual dimorphisms in brain structure, that change with normal aging. The current study examined sex differences in patterns of cognitive test performance in healthy elderly individuals. Cognitive test scores of 957 men and women (age 67–89), matched for overall level of cognitive test performance, age, education, and depression scale score, were compared. Men and women were indistinguishable on tests of auditory divided attention, category fluency, and executive functioning. In contrast, women performed better than men on tests of psychomotor speed and verbal learning and memory, whereas men outperformed women on tests of visuoconstruction and visual perception. Our finding that the pattern of sex differences in cognition observed in young adults is observed in old age has implications for future studies of both healthy elderly individuals and of those with cognitive disorders. PMID:22670852

  10. Systematic investigation of cellular response and pleiotropic effects in atorvastatin-treated liver cells by MS-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haopeng; Chen, Weixuan; Tang, George X; Smeekens, Johanna M; Wu, Ronghu

    2015-03-01

    For decades, statins have been widely used to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG Co-A reductase (HMGCR). It is well-known that statins have pleiotropic effects including improving endothelial function and inhibiting vascular inflammation and oxidation. However, the cellular responses to statins and corresponding pleiotropic effects are largely unknown at the proteome level. Emerging mass spectrometry-based proteomics provides a unique opportunity to systemically investigate protein and phosphoprotein abundance changes as a result of statin treatment. Many lipid-related protein abundances were increased in HepG2 cells treated by atorvastatin, including HMGCR, FDFT, SQLE, and LDLR, while the abundances of proteins involved in cellular response to stress and apoptosis were decreased. Comprehensive analysis of protein phosphorylation demonstrated that several basic motifs were enriched among down-regulated phosphorylation sites, which indicates that kinases with preference for these motifs, such as protein kinase A and protein kinase C, have attenuated activities. Phosphopeptides on a group of G-protein modulators were up-regulated, which strongly suggests that cell signal rewiring was a result of the effect of protein lipidation by the statin. This work provides a global view of liver cell responses to atorvastatin at the proteome and phosphoproteome levels, which provides insight into the pleiotropic effects of statins.

  11. Cardiovascular Control in Men and Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi

    Women, primarily young women, have a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance than agematched men. This difference is especially dramatic in the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS, also called Chronic Orthostatic Intolerance, in which patients are unable to stand or remain upright for prolonged periods of time due to intolerable light headedness, weakness, and near-syncope). However, the mechanisms underlying this gender difference are still not completely understood. It is likely that certain gender-specific factors such as the normal menstrual cycle, differences in some hormonal levels which may affect the neurohumoral regulation of blood pressure, or physical characteristics such as a smaller and less "distensible" heart may influence orthostatic blood pressure control. The authors review what has been done on the effects of gender and the menstrual cycle on sympathetic neural control of hemodynamics during shortand long-term orthostasis in healthy young individuals and in female patients with POTS. In addition, the role of cardiac size and function, a non-neural mechanism, in gender differences in orthostatic tolerance is also reviewed. It is suggested that sympathetic neural control and vasoconstrictor responses during orthostasis are comparable between healthy men and women, and are enhanced but not impaired in POTS patients. There is a gender-specific difference in cardiac size even in the healthy population, while this difference is exaggerated in female patients with POTS.

  12. Aging and masculinity: portrayals in men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Hurd Clarke, Laura; Bennett, Erica V; Liu, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Textual and visual representations of age are instructive as they suggest ideals towards which individuals should strive and influence how we perceive age. The purpose of our study was to investigate textual and visual representations of later life in the advertisements and interest stories of six widely read North American male-oriented magazines (namely, Esquire, GQ, Maxim, Men's Health, Men's Journal, and Zoomer). Through a content analysis and a visual textual analysis, we examined how older men were depicted in the magazine images and accompanying texts. Our findings revealed that older men were largely absent, and when portrayed, were positively depicted as experienced and powerful celebrities or as healthy and happy unknown individuals. The magazine advertisements and interest stories collectively required individuals to engage in consumer culture in order to achieve age and masculinity ideals and stave off the transition from the Third Age to the Fourth Age. We consider our findings in relation to theorizing about ageism, age relations, the Third and Fourth Ages, and idealized aging masculinity. PMID:25456619

  13. Aging and masculinity: portrayals in men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Hurd Clarke, Laura; Bennett, Erica V; Liu, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Textual and visual representations of age are instructive as they suggest ideals towards which individuals should strive and influence how we perceive age. The purpose of our study was to investigate textual and visual representations of later life in the advertisements and interest stories of six widely read North American male-oriented magazines (namely, Esquire, GQ, Maxim, Men's Health, Men's Journal, and Zoomer). Through a content analysis and a visual textual analysis, we examined how older men were depicted in the magazine images and accompanying texts. Our findings revealed that older men were largely absent, and when portrayed, were positively depicted as experienced and powerful celebrities or as healthy and happy unknown individuals. The magazine advertisements and interest stories collectively required individuals to engage in consumer culture in order to achieve age and masculinity ideals and stave off the transition from the Third Age to the Fourth Age. We consider our findings in relation to theorizing about ageism, age relations, the Third and Fourth Ages, and idealized aging masculinity.

  14. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  15. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  16. [Men's health policy].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eduardo; Gomes, Romeu; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Moura, Erly Catarina de; Carvalho, Sarah de Araújo; Silva, Simione Fátima Cesar da

    2012-12-01

    The paper discusses the articulation among epidemiological information systems, scientific production and men's health policies. Three secondary sources were used: data from the Ministry of Health (Mortality and Hospital Information Systems, Surveillance of Protection and Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases through Telephone Survey), papers published in SciELO, and documents of the Ministry of Health regarding men's health. The results indicate that, in terms of morbidity and mortality, men are more exposed to risks than women. In the scientific production, studies focus predominantly on injuries and diseases that affect exclusively the male population, to the detriment of other health-related aspects. Legal documents highlight the epidemiological panorama of male morbidity and mortality and the policy-making methodology. Researchers need to expand the use of data from the epidemiological information systems of the Ministry of Health and to incorporate the gender relational perspective critically.

  17. [Young men's views on health and health promotion].

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, E; Pietilä, A M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to describe views on health and health promotion of young men. A survey was made of a sample of 150 selected from a group of men aged under 30 years whose employment placed them within the scope of the government service occupational health scheme. The results presented here are derived from a questionnaire that had a response rate of 70%. The results show that these men had a broad outlook on matters of health as a whole. An open question was used to elicit views on health. Almost all the subjects mentioned physical and psychological well-being. The major factor the observation of healthy living habits was adequate, properly internalized information. The most important motive for healthy living habits was their current well-being. The research provides information for the development of health education within the scope of the government service occupational health scheme.

  18. [Young men's contraceptive habits].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B; Hansen, K; Johansen, J B; Nielsen, M B

    1992-10-01

    A total of 379 men from the greater Copenhagen area were invited to fill out a questionnaire about sexual habits and use of contraception in connection with conscription for military duty. A total of 334 (88%) answered the questionnaire. In the autumn of 1988, a total of 27 men answered the test questionnaire, while in the spring of 1989, when the real study was conducted, 307 men answered it. The median age of 334 participants was 18 years (range of 17-29 years). 33% of the group stated that they had used condoms during first intercourse, while 47% had not. 1 person reported to be exclusively attracted sexually to men, 5 persons were attracted both to men and women, but 97% were exclusively attracted to women. 82% had had intercourse or other sexual experience with women. 1.8% had had intercourse or other sexual experience with men. 8% had no sexual experience, and 8% did not answer the question. Oral contraceptives were used by 60% and the condom by 56%. 10% had used coitus interruptus at one time or another; 15% had used no contraception; 5% used the IUD; and 5% used the diaphragm. Some gave several answers. 1% used spermicidal lotion. 60% thought that it was the responsibility of both men and women to be concerned about contraception, 12% opined that it was exclusively men's duty, and 2% that it was exclusively women's, while 26% did not answer. 68% wanted to use the condom in the future for protection, 24% did not know, but 8% did not want to use it more extensively. 64% did not think that the fear of AIDS would affect their sexual life, but 36% thought it would. Several of the subjects indicated that they would be more careful about choosing a partner, and every 10th suggested that they would use the condom with a new partner. One person (0.3%) was a drug addict, 89% had never injected drugs, but about 11% did not answer about drugs. 97% and 95%, respectively, indicated that the condom provided good protection against pregnancy and venereal diseases.

  19. [Osteoporosis in adult men].

    PubMed

    Coelho, P C; Reis, P; Leandro, M J; Romeu, J C; de Queiroz, M V

    1995-05-01

    Osteoporosis in men, despite being a less important public health problem than osteoporosis in women, should not be neglected as it has many deleterious effects as well as social and economic costs. Finding the cause of osteoporosis is more complex in men than in women, and prevention should be based on an early evaluation of the various possible risk factors and on taking up measures that tend to maximise the peak bone mass. Further studies need to be carried out in order to establish the differences and similarities that characterise this phenomenon when considering different sexes.

  20. Frequency of extrasystoles in healthy male employees.

    PubMed Central

    Orth-Gomér, K; Hogstedt, C; Bodin, L; Söderholm, B

    1986-01-01

    To determine reference values for ectopic activity 147 actively employed healthy men aged from 15 to 65 years were examined by 24 hour Holter monitoring during their ordinary daily activities. Age was the only risk factor significantly associated with supraventricular and ventricular extrasystoles. During a six year follow up only two men died. In both the frequency of ventricular extrasystoles had been high, but neither of them died from cardiovascular disease. Because the distribution of the frequency of extrasystoles in the study group was highly skewed a percentile distribution was used to determine normal values. This distribution showed that 95% of men aged 15-39 years had less than 2.9 ventricular extrasystoles per hour and the same proportion of men aged 40 years or older had less than 36 ventricular extrasystoles per hour. For field studies values above the 90th percentile (that is more than 10 ventricular extrasystoles per hour for men 40 years or older) may be a more appropriate cut off point. PMID:2420346

  1. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  2. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  3. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  4. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  5. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22352149

  6. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Affirmative Action for Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    If colleges are willing to consider "social engineering" and affirmative action to ensure the inclusion of White men, are they willing to do so for African Americans and other people of color? Will the Center for Individual Rights ride to the rescue of the White women who may be unfairly nudged out of positions for which they are "qualified" in…

  8. Men, Women, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Rhona; Rapoport, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of equity is proposed as having advantages over that of equality. By equity, we mean a fair allocation both of opportunity and of constraints. It is put forward as a concept which goes beyond that of equality; it acknowledges differences between men and women and the need to think in terms of variations of patterns. Paper presented at…

  9. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  10. College Men and Jealousy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; Breed, Rhonda; Zusman, Marty

    2007-01-01

    Cultural meanings (e.g. the green eyed monster) and research interests have traditionally focused on female jealousy. In contrast, this research focused on male jealousy. Two-hundred ninety-one undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential, anonymous forty-four-item questionnaire on jealousy. Men reacted differently…

  11. Men's Clothing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerum, B. Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An informal consumer interview study, using 187 men, was conducted to highlight directions that clothing and textiles education and research might take. Mentioned most often were problems of fabric durability and garment construction as well as size and fit. Suggestions for curbing economic waste in the male fashion industry and implications for…

  12. Psychological gender of men with systolic heart failure: a neglected strategy to cope with the disease?

    PubMed

    Makowska, Agata; Rydlewska, Agnieszka; Krakowiak, Bartosz; Kuczyłska, Alicja; Sorokowski, Piotr; Danel, Dariusz; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Banasiak, Waldemar; Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A

    2014-05-01

    Diminished exercise capacity is a fundamental symptom of heart failure (HF), which is particularly disadvantageous for men for whom exercise capacity contributes significantly to their gender identity, self-esteem, and quality of life. In this study, we aimed to examine whether psychological gender would be different in men with systolic HF as compared with their healthy peers. The authors examined 48 men with systolic HF (age = 64 ± 10 years; body mass index = 28.3 ± 3.4 kg/m(2); NYHA I/II/III [%] = 25/65/10; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] = 32.1 ± 7.8%) and 15 age-matched healthy men. Based on the results of the Polish version of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the examined men were divided into four types of psychological gender: "masculine" (M), "feminine" (F), "unspecified" (U), and "androgynous" (A). None of the men with HF presented M type of psychological gender, whereas this type was found in 27% of the healthy men (p = .0002). The prevalence of both A (38% vs. 47%) and F (10% vs. 20%, both p > .05) types of psychological gender was similar between men with HF versus without HF. More men with HF fulfilled the criteria of the U type of psychological gender as compared with healthy peers (51% vs. 7%, p = .002). Men with HF and the F type of psychological gender were treated with spironolactone more frequently than those classified with the U and A types (both p < .05). The lack of "psychologically masculine" and the overrepresentation of "psychologically unspecified" gender types in the HF group suggests that psychological gender may be affected among men with HF. PMID:24323768

  13. Older Men as Learners: Irish Men's Sheds as an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Lucia; Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    To date, little attention has been placed on older men (aged 50+ years) as learners, with much of the literature on adult learning concerned with younger age-groups and issues around gender equity directed mainly at women. This article examines the impact of community-based men's sheds on informal and nonformal learning by older men in Ireland. It…

  14. Men making sense of their chest pain--niggles, doubts and denials.

    PubMed

    White, A K; Johnson, M

    2000-07-01

    Participant observation was undertaken of the early admission period of 25 men admitted to hospital with acute chest pain, followed by in-depth interviews of 10 of the men after discharge. Grounded theory methods were used in the analysis to develop a model of how the men came to interpret their experiences. An emerging feature of the men's experiences was that, although they had suffered intense pain prior to admission, there had been a series of delays whilst they tried to rationalize their symptoms. We relate our discussion to literature on men and masculinity and the notion of Foucault (1975) of self-surveillance, to offer an insight into the men's self concept and social situation. Our conclusions suggest that men's self concept as 'healthy' may inhibit a speedy response to the signs and symptoms of acute coronary occlusion, increasing the risk of cardiac arrest without nearby life support.

  15. Birth order among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray; Siegelman, Marvin

    2003-02-01

    Nicolosi and Byrd in 2002 summarized empirical research on birth order and sexual orientation in men, which research has documented that homosexual men have a later birth order than heterosexual men. They did not, however, note a more refined analysis of an earlier null finding by Siegelman. This 1998 reanalysis by Blanchard, Zucker, Siegelman, Dickey, and Klassen also confirmed the later birth order of homosexual men.

  16. Characteristics of Vocal Fold Vibrations in Vocally Healthy Subjects: Analysis with Multi-Line Kymography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Tayama, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to analyze longitudinal data from high-speed digital images in normative subjects using multi-line kymography. Method: Vocally healthy subjects were divided into young (9 men and 17 women; M[subscript age] = 27 years) and older groups (8 men and 12 women; M[subscript age] = 73 years). From high-speed…

  17. Transgender men and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Obedin-Maliver, Juno

    2015-01-01

    Transgender people have experienced significant advances in societal acceptance despite experiencing continued stigma and discrimination. While it can still be difficult to access quality health care, and there is a great deal to be done to create affirming health care organizations, there is growing interest around the United States in advancing transgender health. The focus of this commentary is to provide guidance to clinicians caring for transgender men or other gender nonconforming people who are contemplating, carrying, or have completed a pregnancy. Terms transgender and gender nonconforming specifically refer to those whose gender identity (e.g., being a man) differs from their female sex assigned at birth. Many, if not most transgender men retain their female reproductive organs and retain the capacity to have children. Review of their experience demonstrates the need for preconception counseling that includes discussion of stopping testosterone while trying to conceive and during pregnancy, and anticipating increasing experiences of gender dysphoria during and after pregnancy. The clinical aspects of delivery itself fall within the realm of routine obstetrical care, although further research is needed into how mode and environment of delivery may affect gender dysphoria. Postpartum considerations include discussion of options for chest (breast) feeding, and how and when to reinitiate testosterone. A positive perinatal experience begins from the moment transgender men first present for care and depends on comprehensive affirmation of gender diversity. PMID:27030799

  18. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects.

  19. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  20. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... than ever after menopause. But for other women, physical changes, illness, disabilities, and some medicines make sex painful, ... in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal physical changes in men and women that come with age. ...

  1. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  2. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Croxson, T S; Chapman, W E; Miller, L K; Levit, C D; Senie, R; Zumoff, B

    1989-02-01

    Serum total testosterone, total 17 beta-estradiol, LH, FSH, and PRL concentrations were measured by RIA in 59 homosexual men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (32 clinically healthy antibody-positive men (HH+), 20 men with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 7 men with AIDS-related complex (ARC). The results were compared with those of 26 antibody-negative homosexual men (HH-) who served as controls. The mean serum total testosterone concentration was significantly lower in the men with AIDS [414 +/- 230 (+/- SD) ng/dL (14.5 +/- 8.0)] than in the HH- men [550 +/- 172 ng/dL (19.0 +/- 6.0 nmol/L); P less than 0.05]. The mean serum LH level was significantly higher in the men with AIDS (26 +/- 14 vs. 14 +/- 4 IU/L in HH- men; P less than 0.01) and slightly but significantly higher in the men with ARC (19 +/- 8 IU/L; 0.10 greater than P greater than 0.05). Serum FSH also was significantly higher in the men with AIDS (P less than 0.05). Serum PRL was significantly higher in the men with ARC (10 +/- 2 micrograms/L; P less than 0.05) and AIDS (16 +/- 10 micrograms/L; P less than 0.001) than in the HH- men (8 +/- 3 micrograms/L). Serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels were similar in HH- men and men with AIDS as were serum T responses to hCG administration for 2 days. These results suggest that alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis indicative of primary hypogonadism accompany human immunodeficiency virus infection in homosexual men.

  3. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  4. Staying Healthy After Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://womenshealth.gov/menopause/menopause-basics/index.html Staying healthy after menopause may mean making some changes in the way you live. Don't smoke. If you do use any type of tobacco, stop—it's never too late to benefit from quitting smoking. Eat a healthy ...

  5. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  6. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  7. Relationships among fecal daidzein metabolites, dietary habit and BMI in healthy volunteers: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Motoi; HORI, Sachiko; NAKAGAWA, Hiroyuki; KATADA, Kazuhiro; KAMADA, Kazuhiro; UCHIYAMA, Kazuhiko; HANDA, Osamu; TAKAGI, Tomohisa; NAITO, Yuji; YOSHIKAWA, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationships among fecal isoflavone metabolism, dietary habit and Body Mass Index (BMI), 15 healthy men and 15 healthy women were recruited and provided stool samples for analysis of ex vivo anaerobic incubation of fecal suspension with daidzein. A negative correlation was observed between BMI and the dihydrodaidzein (DHD) production in men, and between BMI and the equol production in women. There was a positive correlation between intake of soluble dietary fiber and the DHD production in men. The results suggest that dietary habits and BMI are related to the metabolic activity of isoflavonoids by fecal intestinal microbiota. PMID:26221577

  8. Spermatozoa protein alterations in infertile men with bilateral varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Cui, Zhihong; Ayaz, Ahmet; Gupta, Sajal; Willard, Belinda; Gopalan, Banu; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Among infertile men, a diagnosis of unilateral varicocele is made in 90% of varicocele cases and bilateral in the remaining varicocele cases. However, there are reports of under-diagnosis of bilateral varicocele among infertile men and that its prevalence is greater than 10%. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) extracted from spermatozoa cells of patients with bilateral varicocele and fertile donors. Subjects consisted of 17 men diagnosed with bilateral varicocele and 10 proven fertile men as healthy controls. Using the LTQ-orbitrap elite hybrid mass spectrometry system, proteomic analysis was done on pooled samples from 3 patients with bilateral varicocele and 5 fertile men. From these samples, 73 DEP were identified of which 58 proteins were differentially expressed, with 7 proteins unique to the bilateral varicocele group and 8 proteins to the fertile control group. Majority of the DEPs were observed to be associated with metabolic processes, stress responses, oxidoreductase activity, enzyme regulation, and immune system processes. Seven DEP were involved in sperm function such as capacitation, motility, and sperm-zona binding. Proteins TEKT3 and TCP11 were validated by Western blot analysis and may serve as potential biomarkers for bilateral varicocele. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of DEP and identified proteins with distinct reproductive functions which are altered in infertile men with bilateral varicocele. Functional proteomic profiling provides insight into the mechanistic implications of bilateral varicocele-associated male infertility. PMID:25999357

  9. Voice Loudness and Gender Effects on Jitter and Shimmer in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmann, Meike; Storck, Claudio; Carding, Paul N.; Drinnan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate voice loudness and gender effects on jitter and shimmer in healthy young adults because previous descriptions have been inconsistent. Method: Fifty-seven healthy adults (28 women, 29 men) aged 20-40 years were included in this cross-sectional single-cohort study. Three phonations of /a/ at soft,…

  10. Men at sport: gay men's experiences in the sport workplace.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Elizabeth S

    2011-01-01

    Research on sexual identity and sport has revealed a shifting narrative about the experiences of gay men. While some suggest the atmosphere is hostile, others posit that homophobia and sexual prejudice are playing less of a role in gay men's experiences. This research focuses on the experiences of 10 gay men working in professional, collegiate, and club sport, as part of a larger dataset of 37 male and female employees. Five of the men were overtly and publicly out at work, while five were closeted (to varying degrees). This article focuses on three themes for gay men working in sport: 1) the importance of coming out in the workplace; 2) the role of the locker room as a contested terrain, and 3) the disconnect between their experiences at work and their perceptions of the workplace environment as negative or positive. Men in this study were basing their impressions on their total experience in sport (as current and former players, as employees, and as fans). It also suggests that the public "story" of gay men working in sport represents one of two extremes-either the proverbial "horror story," or the extremely positive representation of gay men's experiences. This research suggests that gay men's experiences in sport are more complex and nuanced than the public narrative implies. PMID:21534074

  11. A Randomized Controlled Exercise Training Trial on Insulin Sensitivity in African American Men: The ARTIIS study

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Robert L.; Johnson, William D.; Hendrick, Chelsea; Harris, Melissa; Andrews, Emanuel; Johannsen, Neil; Rodarte, Ruben Q.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Church, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lack of regular physical activity at prescribed intensity levels is a modifiable risk factor for insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. African American men are at increased risk for developing diabetes and most African American men are not meeting the current recommended levels of physical activity. The primary objective of the Aerobic Plus Resistance Training and Insulin Resistance in African American Men (ARTIIS) study is to determine the effectiveness of an exercise training intervention aimed at reducing diabetes risk factors in African American men at risk for developing diabetes. Methods Insufficiently active 35–70 year old African American men with a family history of diabetes were eligible for the study. The 5-month randomized controlled trial assigns 116 men to an exercise training or healthy living control arm. The exercise training arm combines aerobic and resistance training according to the current national physical activity recommendations and is conducted in community (YMCA) facilities. The healthy living arm receives information promoting healthy lifestyle changes. Outcomes Insulin response to an oral glucose load is the primary outcome measure, and changes in physiological parameters, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, body composition, and psychological well-being comprise the secondary outcomes. Conclusions The ARTIIS study is one of the first adequately powered, rigorously designed studies to investigate the effects of an aerobic plus resistance exercise training program and to assess adherence to exercise training in community facilities, in African American men. PMID:25979318

  12. Sleep duration and cardiovascular responses to stress in undergraduate men.

    PubMed

    Mezick, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica H; Richard Jennings, J; Kamarck, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep has been related to incident cardiovascular disease, but physiological mechanisms accounting for this relationship are largely unknown. This study examines sleep duration and cardiovascular stress responses in 79 healthy, young men. Sleep duration was assessed by wrist actigraphy for seven nights. Participants then completed a series of laboratory stress tasks while heart rate and blood pressure were monitored. Shorter total sleep time was related to a greater reduction in high-frequency heart rate variability during stress tasks, and to prolonged elevations in heart rate and diastolic pressure following tasks. Associations were independent of age, race, body mass index, caffeine intake, and smoking status. In sum, healthy young men with shorter actigraphy-assessed sleep exhibit less cardiac vagal activity, and poorer heart rate and diastolic blood pressure recovery, upon encountering stressful stimuli, than those with longer sleep. PMID:24016263

  13. Dietary survey in 40-year-old Edinburgh men.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M; Logan, R L; Sharman, M; Lockerbie, L; Riemersma, R A; Oliver, M F

    1982-08-01

    One hundred and seven healthy 40-yr-old Edinburgh men were asked to participate in a dietary survey involving a 7-d weighed record. Ninety seven successfully completed the record. The results showed that the total energy was made up of 13 per cent protein, 38 per cent fat, 40 per cent carbohydrate and 9 per cent alcohol. A small proportion of the men had exceptionally high alcohol intakes. The mean intake of fat was high, 121 g, it is nevertheless lower than amounts consumed in other areas of Britain. Of the energy from fat, 16 per cent came from saturated-fatty acid, 15 per cent from monounsaturated-fatty acid and 4 per cent from polyunsaturated-fatty acid. Linoleic acid contributed 3 per cent of the mean energy intake. In some mens' diet this essential fatty acid provided under 2 per cent of their total energy consumption.

  14. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss. PMID:26758439

  15. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  16. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  17. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... with healthy foods will help fuel both your body and your mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  18. Healthy grocery shopping

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 minutes. BREADS AND GRAINS Choose healthy breads, cereals, and pasta, such as: Whole-grain breads and ... grain.) All bran, 100% bran, and Shredded Wheat cereals (Look for cereals with at least 4 grams ...

  19. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters Tobacco Education and Training Ask ...

  20. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  1. Residential Status as a Risk Factor for Drug Use and HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kipke, Michele D.; Weiss, George; Wong, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing behavioral and epidemiological evidence to suggest that young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at high risk for becoming HIV-infected. Unfortunately, relatively little research has been conducted to examine the range of individual, social, and community-level factors that put these young men at increased risk. To address existing gaps in the literature, the Healthy Young Men’s (HYM) Study was launched in Los Angeles to examine the range of factors associated with HIV risk and protective behaviors within an ethnically diverse sample of 526 YMSM recruited using a venue-based stratified probability sampling design. In this paper we present findings that demonstrate that YMSM who experience residential instability, who have been forced to leave their home because of their sexuality, and/or who are precariously housed are at significantly greater risk for drug use and involvement in HIV risk-related behaviors. PMID:17265143

  2. [Optimization of modern conservative therapy of micropenis in hypogonadal men].

    PubMed

    Petrovich, R Iu; Sokoll'shchik, M M; Tiuzikov, I A; Konstantinova, I V; Astakhova, M A

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to the optimization of conservative therapy of micropenis in hypogonadal men using combination of traction therapy and androgen replacment therapy (ART) with injections of prolonged testosterone undecanoate (Nebido) and to evaluatiom of the safety of ART in terms of the risk of prostate cancer against the background of combined treatment of micropenis by both methods within 12 months. The study included 16 men aged 22-62 years with micropenis and hypogonadism. 10 men were diagnosed with primary hypogonadism, 6 men were diagnosed with secondary hypogonadism without reserve gonadal function; therefore, all 16 patients were treated with testosterone undecanoate 1000 mg intramuscularly according to the scheme: the second injection 6 weeks after the first injection, then each injection once a 12 weeks, the course of 12 months. During the first 3 months of ART, hypogonadism in all men was eliminated, but only at 6 month of ART, the length of the penis in the flaccid state at maximum extension increased from 5.8±1.2 to 8.3±1.2 cm (p<0.05), and the length of the erect penis - from 6.8±1.1 to 11.8±0.9 (p<0,05). At the next stage, from the 6th to the 12th month of ART, traction therapy was simultaneously carried out. At the end of the treatment, the length of the penis in the flaccid state at maximum extension increased by 58% of the original length, and in a state of erection - by 114% (p<0.05). During the 12 months of treatment, prostate volume in all men increased from 3.4±1.2 to 16.3±1.2 (p<0.05), which corresponds to the size of the prostate in healthy men. Total blood PSA level increased from 0.72±0.03 to 1.4±0.05 ng/ml (p<0.05), but it was in the acceptable range of reference values for healthy men during whole period of ART in all patients. Start therapy with prolonged testosterone undecanoate for 6 months significantly increases the efficiency of traction therapy in men with hypogonadism and micropenis, but for maintenance of the effect

  3. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy food trends - salvia; Healthy snacks - Chia seeds; Weight loss - Chia seeds; Healthy diet - Chia seeds; Wellness - Chia ... fiber. Some think chia seeds may help with weight loss and other risk factors, but this has not ...

  4. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  5. Violent Men: Ordinary and Deviant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edin, Kerstin E.; Lalos, Ann; Hogberg, Ulf; Dahlgren, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with discourses of intimate partner violence and is based on interviews with professionals who meet violent men. The professionals emphasized the importance of men taking unreserved responsibility for their violent behavior. Intimate partner violence was viewed not only as "power and control" but as the result of complex…

  6. A study of filicidal men.

    PubMed

    Campion, J F; Cravens, J M; Covan, F

    1988-09-01

    Twelve filicidal men were examined on a forensic psychiatric service. The majority suffered from severe mental impairments due to psychosis, neurological disorders, substance abuse, or mental retardation. Most of the filicidal acts committed by these chronically impaired men resulted from isolated explosive behavior. PMID:3414858

  7. Mantalk: Fraternity Men and Masculinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Shane Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A majority of college men struggle to successfully navigate the college environment and their newfound independence and freedom upon leaving home for the first time. Although recent research makes it clear that there is a college male crisis within higher education (Kimmel, 2004) and men are more likely to struggle navigating their identity and…

  8. Engaging Men in Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Wheeler, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    Violence prevention groups on college campuses, in schools, and in communities are increasingly aware that violence against women cannot end unless men take an active role in stopping it, and the failure of many men to take the issue of violence against women seriously cannot be overlooked. At the University of South Carolina (USC), collaboration…

  9. Men's reproductive and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Forrest, K A

    2001-05-01

    A broad definition of men's reproductive and sexual health (MRSH) includes medical (pathophysiological) matters such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), developmental anomalies, malignancy, trauma, and infertility. It also includes psychosocial concerns: sexuality, contraception, disease prophylaxis, developmental and lifecycle issues, tobacco and drug use, sexual identity and orientation, and partnership issues. College men, of whom a large majority are sexually active, have a range of MRSH needs, including some that are particular to their age and social environment. To reach men effectively requires approaches that are somewhat different from those used with women. Clinicians in college health services are in an excellent position to help young men recognize the importance of reproductive health and sexual responsibility. College health services therefore should offer men screening; clinical diagnosis and treatment for MRSH conditions; and information, education, and counseling services, in a manner designed to meet their unique needs. PMID:11413943

  10. [Epidemiology of Osteoporosis in Men].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2016-07-01

    Estimated number of those with osteoporosis was about 12,800,000, and about 23%, 3,000,000 were male osteoporosis in Japan. Incidence of hip, vertebral, distal radius, and proximal humeral fracture in men was half of that in women. Lifetime risk of hip fracture was 5.6% in men. Risk factors for osteoporotic fracture in men were low bone mineral density(BMD), previous fracture, low body mass index, smoking, family history of fracture, glucocorticoid use and others. For osteoporotic fractures, the fracture risk in smokers was significantly higher in men than in women. There was no differences in fracture risks by BMD, previous fracture, glucocorticoid use, and family fracture history between men and women. PMID:27346311

  11. Tools for Healthy Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R.; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase’s essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitve Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes—a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  12. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both p<0.001), while the absolute decrease in testosterone across the day was a stable proxy of diurnal function (p<0.001). Removal of noncompliant subjects did not appreciably affect concentration estimates for either hormone at any time point, nor did it alter the repeatability of any summary parameter. The first of its kind, this report enables accurate estimations of anabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population. PMID:27083310

  13. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both p<0.001), while the absolute decrease in testosterone across the day was a stable proxy of diurnal function (p<0.001). Removal of noncompliant subjects did not appreciably affect concentration estimates for either hormone at any time point, nor did it alter the repeatability of any summary parameter. The first of its kind, this report enables accurate estimations of anabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population.

  14. Athletic footwear affects balance in men.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E; Gouw, G J; McClaran, J

    1994-01-01

    Stable equilibrium during locomotion is required for both superior performance of sports and prevention of injuries from falls. A recent report indicated that currently available athletic footwear impairs stability in older men. Since this discovery, if confirmed, seems important to both competitive athletes and the physically active general public, we performed an experiment using similar methods on a younger population. We tested the hypothesis that midsole thickness is negatively, and hardness positively related to dynamic equilibrium, in 17 healthy adult men (mean(s.d.) age 33(11.13) years) via a balance beam method. Subjects walked along a 9-m long beam at 0.5 m s-1 once barefoot and six times wearing identical pairs of experimental shoes which differed only in midsole hardness and thickness which spanned the respective ranges currently available in footwear. Falls from the beam (balance failures) were quantified. Balance failures varied significantly in relation to midsole hardness and thickness, and there was a strong trend toward interaction of these variables (P = 0.09). Midsole hardness was positively related to stability, and midsole thickness was negatively related, which confirms the previous report. Hence, shoes with thick-soft soles, similar to modern athletic footwear and 'walking shoes', destabilize men, and shoes with thin-hard soles provide superior stability. The pair with the poorest stability (A 15-thick; 12.34 balance failures per 100 m) produced 217% more balance failures than those associated with the best stability (A 50-thin; 3.89 balance failures per 100 m). Since most types of athletic footwear and many other shoes incorporate midsoles with hardness and thickness associated with poor stability, we conclude that both athletic performance and public safety could be enhanced through stability optimized footwear. PMID:7921911

  15. Coronary risk in West Sumatran men.

    PubMed

    Oenzil, F

    1993-06-01

    Lifestyle, food habits and blood lipid profiles were studied in two areas - one urban and one rural of West Sumatra, Indonesia, where coconut oil is commonly consumed. Subjects were 102 randomly selected healthy adult men aged 25 to 39 years. Variables considered were socioeconomic level, smoking habits, alcohol and coffee consumption, food intake, indices for obesity, and blood lipid profiles. Urban incomes were higher than in rural areas. The prevalence of cigarette-smoking was 75% in urban and 80% in rural areas. Alcohol consumption was higher in urban (31%) than rural areas (4%). Coffee was used by 52% of urban and 38% of rural men. However, quantities of alcohol and coffee consumed were small. Average energy intakes were 1915 kcal (456 kJ) in the urban and 1845 kcal (439kJ) in the rural areas. Protein intake was 55.8g (11.3% of total energy) in the urban and 46g (9.8%) in the rural areas. Fat intake was 45.0g (20.4%) in the urban and 33.5g (16%) in the rural areas. Dietary fat intake was significantly higher in the urban compared to the rural areas (P<0.005). The average BMI (kg/m2) was 21.2 in the urban and 20.4 in the rural areas. Mean total body fat from 4 skinfolds was 13.4 kg in the urban and 9.1 kg in the rural areas (Durnin's equation). The waist-hip ratio was 0.90 in the urban and 0.88 in the rural areas. Concentrations of total serum cholesterol and of LDL, the LDL-HDL cholesterol ratio and the atherogenic index were significantly higher in the urban compared to the rural areas (P<0.001). Serum HDL tended to increase in the urban areas. Overall, higher economic status married men generally had the higher prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors.

  16. Men, masculinity and food: interviews with Finnish carpenters and engineers.

    PubMed

    Roos, G; Prättälä, R; Koski, K

    2001-08-01

    This study explores how Finnish men from two occupational groups describe food in their everyday life. The concept of masculinity is used in interpreting men's food-related behaviours and beliefs. Data are drawn from semi-structured interviews in the 1990s with twenty carpenters and twenty engineers involved in the building trade. The paper presents analyses of the similarities and differences in how the men talked about meat; vegetables; beer and wine as parts of meals; food as energy, health and pleasure; and cooking. The results show variation both between and within occupational groups. The men did not stress the role of meat, but rather emphasised the role of vegetables. The carpenters tended to favour meat whereas the engineers had a more positive attitude to vegetables. Eating was described as an everyday routine needed to refuel the body and stay healthy. In addition, the engineers talked about the pleasures of eating. The men described cooking as optional or exceptional. The carpenters seemed to more actively embrace hegemonic masculinity and reject what is feminine than the engineers, who have reformulated their definition of masculinity to encompass concerns with health. This study suggests that both masculinity and occupational class play a role in male food-related practices and preferences. PMID:11562157

  17. Proteomic analysis of seminal fluid from men exhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Seminal plasma serves as a natural reservoir of antioxidants. It helps to remove excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently, reduce oxidative stress. Proteomic profiling of seminal plasma proteins is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in infertile men. Methods This prospective study consisted of 52 subjects: 32 infertile men and 20 healthy donors. Once semen and oxidative stress parameters were assessed (ROS, antioxidant concentration and DNA damage), the subjects were categorized into ROS positive (ROS+) or ROS negative (ROS-). Seminal plasma from each group was pooled and subjected to proteomics analysis. In-solution digestion and protein identification with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), followed by bioinformatics analyses was used to identify and characterize potential biomarker proteins. Results A total of 14 proteins were identified in this analysis with 7 of these common and unique proteins were identified in both the ROS+ and ROS- groups through MASCOT and SEQUEST analyses, respectively. Prolactin-induced protein was found to be more abundantly present in men with increased levels of ROS. Gene ontology annotations showed extracellular distribution of proteins with a major role in antioxidative activity and regulatory processes. Conclusions We have identified proteins that help protect against oxidative stress and are uniquely present in the seminal plasma of the ROS- men. Men exhibiting high levels of ROS in their seminal ejaculate are likely to exhibit proteins that are either downregulated or oxidatively modified, and these could potentially contribute to male infertility. PMID:24004880

  18. Healthy human gut phageome.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  19. Pulmonary function in young and older athletes and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, J M; Yerg, J E; Seals, D R

    1988-07-01

    This study compared the lung volumes and pulmonary functions of older endurance-trained athletes with those of healthy sedentary age-matched controls, young athletes, and young untrained men to determine whether training affects the age-associated changes in these variables. Despite large differences in maximal 02 consumption (VO2max), the older athletes and their sedentary peers had similar values for all pulmonary variables when expressed as absolute values. However, because the older athletes were shorter than the older sedentary men, their vital capacity, total lung capacity (TLC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were significantly larger than those of the older sedentary men when normalized for age and height; the average values for maximal voluntary ventilation and residual volume (RV) were also larger in the older athletes when normalized for age and height, but the differences were not significant. The young trained and untrained men did not differ in any of these measures. TLC was the only pulmonary variable that was the same in the young and older men; RV and the RV-to-TLC ratio were larger, whereas all other pulmonary function and volume measures were lower in the older men compared with the younger men. The older athletes were the only group whose lung volumes and pulmonary function measures were all, except for RV, substantially greater than expected based on their age and height. Thus prolonged strenuous endurance training in these older highly trained endurance athletes appears to have altered the decline in pulmonary function and volumes associated with aging.

  20. Men, masculine identities and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Alan; Coe, Christine

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, fathers' experiences during childbirth have attracted much research and policy interest. However, little of this work has been grounded in the first-hand accounts of men and there is a lack of theory-based research to help understand men's thoughts and practices around childbirth. This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken with first-time fathers and healthcare professionals. It draws on Connell's (1995) conceptualisation of hegemonic masculinity to explore how men construct masculine identities within the context of pregnancy and childbirth and also how healthcare professionals construct masculinity. The paper demonstrates the ways in which men can find themselves marginalised within the context of pregnancy and childbirth, but are still able to draw on identifiable markers of masculine practice which enable them to enact a masculine form congruent with dominant masculinity. It also illustrates how healthcare professionals' constructions of masculinity enable them to predict how men will behave and allow them to position men in ways that involve minimum disruption to their own practice. The paper also highlights how men's marginal status is embedded in the dynamics of the social structure, which produce and reproduce dominant masculine identities within the context of childbirth.

  1. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  2. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.

  3. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... statistics about breast cancer in men? What is breast cancer in men? A breast cancer is a malignant ... women but are very rare in men. General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words ...

  4. Metabolic Syndrome and Physical Performance In Elderly Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Paudel, Misti; Taylor, Brent C.; Dam, Tien; Cawthon, Peggy Mannen; LeBlanc, Erin; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Cauley, Jane A.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with objective measures of physical performance. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the cohort study, the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. Setting Six clinical sites in the US. Participants 5,457 ambulatory men (mean (±SD), age, 73.6 (5.9) years). Measurements Physical performance assessed by grip strength, narrow walk speed, walking speed, and time to complete five repeated chair stands. Individual scores were converted to quintiles (worst [1] to best [5]; unable to complete=0) and summed for an overall score (mean (±SD), 11.6 (4.3), range, 1–20). MetS was defined by World Health Organization criteria that include evidence of glucose dysregulation (insulin resistance, diabetes, or hyperinsulinemia), and at least two additional characteristics: high blood pressure, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, or obesity. Results 26.3% of participants met criteria for MetS. In separate linear regression models, four of five MetS components were related to performance (P<.001); only high blood pressure was unrelated. Men with MetS had a 1.11-point lower performance score (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) =10.81 (10.61, 11.00)) than men without MetS (mean (95% CI) =11.92 (11.81, 12.03)) (P<.001), adjusting for age, race, education and site. With further covariate adjustment this difference was reduced but remained significant (β=−0.78, P<.001). A graded association was observed between number of MetS components (0, 1, 2, or 3+) and performance (P for trend <.001). Findings were similar excluding men with diabetes or obese men. Conclusion Metabolic dysregulation is related to objectively-assessed poorer physical performance among relatively healthy older men. PMID:21806561

  5. Healthy Schools Network, 2011 Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the 2011 Yearbook of the Healthy Schools Network. This yearbook contains: (1) Tough Time To Be a Child: Parents and Taxpayers Should Be Enraged; (2) National Coalition For Healthier Schools: Healthy Schools 2015--Sustaining Momentum In Tough Times; (3) Healthy Schools Heroes Award Program; (4) National Healthy Schools Day…

  6. African-American men's perceptions of health: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ravenell, Joseph E; Johnson, Waldo E; Whitaker, Eric E

    2006-04-01

    African-American men are disproportionately affected by preventable medical conditions, yet they underutilize primary care health services. Because healthcare utilization is strongly dependent on health beliefs, the purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and explore African-American men's perceptions of health and health influences. We conducted eight focus group interviews with select subgroups of African-American men, including adolescents, trauma survivors, HIV-positive men, homeless men, men who have sex with men, substance abusers, church-affiliated men and a mixed sample (N=71). Definitions of health, beliefs about health maintenance and influences on health were elicited. Participants' definitions of health went beyond the traditional "absence of disease" definition and included physical, mental, emotional, economic and spiritual well-being. Being healthy also included fulfilling social roles, such as having a job and providing for one's family. Health maintenance strategies included spirituality and self-empowerment. Stress was cited as a dominant negative influence on health, attributed to lack of income, racism, "unhealthy" neighborhoods and conflict in relationships. Positive influences included a supportive social network and feeling valued by loved ones. This study provides insight into African-American men's general health perceptions and may have implications for future efforts to improve healthcare utilization in this population.

  7. African-American men's perceptions of health: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ravenell, Joseph E; Johnson, Waldo E; Whitaker, Eric E

    2006-04-01

    African-American men are disproportionately affected by preventable medical conditions, yet they underu